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Sample records for inflammatory syndrome tb-iris

  1. Paradoxical Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) in HIV Patients with Culture Confirmed Pulmonary Tuberculosis in India and the Potential Role of IL-6 in Prediction

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Brian O.; Chandrasekhar, Chockalingam; Venkatesan, Perumal; Menon, Pradeep A.; Subramanian, Sudha; Anbalagan, Selvaraj; Bhavani, Kannabiran P.; Sekar, Sathiyavelu; Padmapriyadarshini, Chandrasekaran; Kumar, Satagopan; Ravichandran, Narayanan; Raja, Krishnaraj; Bhanu, Kesavamurthy; Mahilmaran, Ayyamperumal; Sekar, Lakshmanan; Sher, Alan; Sereti, Irini; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2013-01-01

    Background The incidence, manifestations, outcome and clinical predictors of paradoxical TB-IRIS in patients with HIV and culture confirmed pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) in India have not been studied prospectively. Methods HIV+ patients with culture confirmed PTB started on anti-tuberculosis therapy (ATT) were followed prospectively after anti-retroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Established criteria for IRIS diagnosis were used including decline in plasma HIV RNA at IRIS event. Pre-ART plasma levels of interleukin (IL)-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between baseline variables and IRIS. Results Of 57 patients enrolled, 48 had complete follow up data. Median ATT-ART interval was 28 days (interquartile range, IQR 14–47). IRIS events occurred in 26 patients (54.2%) at a median of 11 days (IQR: 7–16) after ART initiation. Corticosteroids were required for treatment of most IRIS events that resolved within a median of 13 days (IQR: 9–23). Two patients died due to CNS TB-IRIS. Lower CD4+ T-cell counts, higher plasma HIV RNA levels, lower CD4/CD8 ratio, lower hemoglobin, shorter ATT to ART interval, extra-pulmonary or miliary TB and higher plasma IL-6 and CRP levels at baseline were associated with paradoxical TB-IRIS in the univariate analysis. Shorter ATT to ART interval, lower hemoglobin and higher IL-6 and CRP levels remained significant in the multivariate analysis. Conclusion Paradoxical TB–IRIS frequently complicates HIV-TB therapy in India. IL-6 and CRP may assist in predicting IRIS events and serve as potential targets for immune interventions. PMID:23691062

  2. HIV-1 tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Lai, Rachel P J; Meintjes, Graeme; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2016-03-01

    Patients co-infected with HIV-1 and tuberculosis (TB) are at risk of developing TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) following commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART). TB-IRIS is characterized by transient but severe localized or systemic inflammatory reactions against Mycobacterium tuberculosis antigens. Here, we review the risk factors and clinical management of TB-IRIS, as well as the roles played by different aspects of the immune response in contributing to TB-IRIS pathogenesis. PMID:26423994

  3. Matrix metalloproteinases and tissue damage in HIV-tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tadokera, Rebecca; Meintjes, Graeme A; Wilkinson, Katalin A; Skolimowska, Keira H; Walker, Naomi; Friedland, Jon S; Maartens, Gary; Elkington, Paul T G; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2014-01-01

    The HIV-TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) can complicate combined treatments for HIV-1 and TB. Little is known about tissue damage in TB-IRIS. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) degrade components of the extracellular matrix and consequently may play a role in such immunopathology. Here we investigated the involvement of MMPs in TB-IRIS. We determined MMP transcript abundance and secreted protein in Mycobacterium tuberculosis stimulated PBMCs from 22 TB-IRIS patients and 22 non-IRIS controls. We also measured MMP protein levels in corresponding serum and the effect of prednisone — which reduces the duration of symptoms in IRIS patients — or placebo treatment on MMP transcript and circulating MMP protein levels. PBMCs from TB-IRIS had increased MMP-1,-3,-7, and-10 transcript levels when compared with those of controls at either 6 or 24 h. Similarly, MMP-1,-3,-7, and-10 protein secretion in stimulated cultures was higher in TB-IRIS than in controls. Serum MMP-7 concentration was elevated in TB-IRIS and 2 weeks of corticosteroid therapy decreased this level, although not significantly. TB-IRIS is associated with a distinct pattern of MMP gene and protein activation. Modulation of dysregulated MMP activity may represent a novel therapeutic approach to alleviate TB-IRIS in HIV-TB patients undergoing treatment. PMID:24136296

  4. Aberrant Inflammasome Activation Characterizes Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hong Yien; Yong, Yean Kong; Shankar, Esaki M; Paukovics, Geza; Ellegård, Rada; Larsson, Marie; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; French, Martyn A; Crowe, Suzanne M

    2016-05-15

    Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) complicates combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) in up to 25% of patients with HIV/TB coinfection. Monocytes and IL-18, a signature cytokine of inflammasome activation, are implicated in TB-IRIS pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated inflammasome activation both pre- and post-cART in TB-IRIS patients. HIV/TB patients exhibited higher proportions of monocytes expressing activated caspase-1 (casp1) pre-cART, compared with HIV patients without TB, and patients who developed TB-IRIS exhibited the greatest increase in casp1 expression. CD64(+) monocytes were a marker of increased casp1 expression. Furthermore, IL-1β, another marker of inflammasome activation, was also elevated during TB-IRIS. TB-IRIS patients also exhibited greater upregulation of NLRP3 and AIM2 inflammasome mRNA, compared with controls. Analysis of plasma mitochondrial DNA levels showed that TB-IRIS patients experienced greater cell death, especially pre-cART. Plasma NO levels were lower both pre- and post-cART in TB-IRIS patients, providing evidence of inadequate inflammasome regulation. Plasma IL-18 levels pre-cART correlated inversely with NO levels but positively with monocyte casp1 expression and mitochondrial DNA levels, and expression of IL-18Rα on CD4(+) T cells and NK cells was higher in TB-IRIS patients, providing evidence that IL-18 is a marker of inflammasome activation. We propose that inflammasome activation in monocytes/macrophages of HIV/TB patients increases with ineffective T cell-dependent activation of monocytes/macrophages, priming them for an excessive inflammatory response after cART is commenced, which is greatest in patients with TB-IRIS. PMID:27076678

  5. Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in Children Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy for HIV Infection

    PubMed Central

    Link-Gelles, Ruth; Moultrie, Harry; Sawry, Shobna; Murdoch, David; Van Rie, Annelies

    2014-01-01

    Background People with HIV initiating combination antiretroviral therapy are at risk for tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS). While this syndrome has been well researched in adults, little is known about the incidence, case fatality, underlying immunopathology and treatment approaches in children. Methods Major databases were searched for articles related to TB-IRIS in children. Data were abstracted using standardized forms. Results Thirteen studies were identified: 6 retrospective and 2 prospective cohort studies, 1 cross-sectional study, 3 case reports and 1 case series. In total, 303 cases of TB-IRIS were described, of which 270 were unmasking TB-IRIS, 12 paradoxical TB-IRIS and 21 were not classifiable due to lack of key information. None of the cohort studies had investigation of TB-IRIS as its primary aim. Nine studies were from Africa, 3 from Asia and 1 from Latin America. Age at cART initiation (reported by 12 studies) ranged from 1 month to 16 years. Median time from start of cART to IRIS diagnosis (reported by 8 studies) ranged from 8 days to 16 weeks. Few deaths attributable to TB-IRIS were recorded. Treatment was only discussed in 2 case studies, both of which reported children receiving corticosteroids. No studies evaluated risk factors for, or immunopathogenesis of, pediatric TB-IRIS. Conclusions There is a paucity of information available on TB-IRIS in children. Future research assessing incidence, risk factors, case fatality and optimal treatment or prevention strategies of TB-IRIS is needed. PMID:24736441

  6. Cytotoxic Mediators in Paradoxical HIV–Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Naomi F.; Meintjes, Graeme; Deffur, Armin; Nicol, Mark P.; Skolimowska, Keira H.; Matthews, Kerryn; Tadokera, Rebecca; Seldon, Ronnett; Maartens, Gary; Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) frequently complicates combined antiretroviral therapy and antituberculosis therapy in HIV-1–coinfected tuberculosis patients. The immunopathological mechanisms underlying TB-IRIS are incompletely defined, and improved understanding is required to derive new treatments and to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. We performed longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses of human PBMCs from paradoxical TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls (HIV-TB–coinfected patients commencing antiretroviral therapy who did not develop TB-IRIS). Freshly isolated PBMC stimulated with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (hkH37Rv) were used for IFN-γ ELISPOT and RNA extraction. Stored RNA was used for microarray and RT-PCR, whereas corresponding stored culture supernatants were used for ELISA. Stored PBMC were used for perforin and granzyme B ELISPOT and flow cytometry. There were significantly increased IFN-γ responses to hkH37Rv in TB-IRIS, compared with non-IRIS PBMC (p = 0.035). Microarray analysis of hkH37Rv-stimulated PBMC indicated that perforin 1 was the most significantly upregulated gene, with granzyme B among the top five (log2 fold difference 3.587 and 2.828, respectively), in TB-IRIS. Downstream experiments using RT-PCR, ELISA, and ELISPOT confirmed the increased expression and secretion of perforin and granzyme B. Moreover, granzyme B secretion reduced in PBMC from TB-IRIS patients during corticosteroid treatment. Invariant NKT cell (CD3+Vα24+) proportions were higher in TB-IRIS patients (p = 0.004) and were a source of perforin. Our data implicate the granule exocytosis pathway in TB-IRIS pathophysiology. Further understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this condition will facilitate development of specific diagnostic and improved therapeutic options. PMID:25589068

  7. Cytotoxic mediators in paradoxical HIV-tuberculosis immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson, Katalin A; Walker, Naomi F; Meintjes, Graeme; Deffur, Armin; Nicol, Mark P; Skolimowska, Keira H; Matthews, Kerryn; Tadokera, Rebecca; Seldon, Ronnett; Maartens, Gary; Rangaka, Molebogeng X; Besra, Gurdyal S; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2015-02-15

    Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) frequently complicates combined antiretroviral therapy and antituberculosis therapy in HIV-1-coinfected tuberculosis patients. The immunopathological mechanisms underlying TB-IRIS are incompletely defined, and improved understanding is required to derive new treatments and to reduce associated morbidity and mortality. We performed longitudinal and cross-sectional analyses of human PBMCs from paradoxical TB-IRIS patients and non-IRIS controls (HIV-TB-coinfected patients commencing antiretroviral therapy who did not develop TB-IRIS). Freshly isolated PBMC stimulated with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv (hkH37Rv) were used for IFN-γ ELISPOT and RNA extraction. Stored RNA was used for microarray and RT-PCR, whereas corresponding stored culture supernatants were used for ELISA. Stored PBMC were used for perforin and granzyme B ELISPOT and flow cytometry. There were significantly increased IFN-γ responses to hkH37Rv in TB-IRIS, compared with non-IRIS PBMC (p = 0.035). Microarray analysis of hkH37Rv-stimulated PBMC indicated that perforin 1 was the most significantly upregulated gene, with granzyme B among the top five (log2 fold difference 3.587 and 2.828, respectively), in TB-IRIS. Downstream experiments using RT-PCR, ELISA, and ELISPOT confirmed the increased expression and secretion of perforin and granzyme B. Moreover, granzyme B secretion reduced in PBMC from TB-IRIS patients during corticosteroid treatment. Invariant NKT cell (CD3(+)Vα24(+)) proportions were higher in TB-IRIS patients (p = 0.004) and were a source of perforin. Our data implicate the granule exocytosis pathway in TB-IRIS pathophysiology. Further understanding of the immunopathogenesis of this condition will facilitate development of specific diagnostic and improved therapeutic options. PMID:25589068

  8. HIV–tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is characterized by Toll-like receptor and inflammasome signalling

    PubMed Central

    Lai, Rachel P. J.; Meintjes, Graeme; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Graham, Christine M.; Marais, Suzaan; Van der Plas, Helen; Deffur, Armin; Schutz, Charlotte; Bloom, Chloe; Munagala, Indira; Anguiano, Esperanza; Goliath, Rene; Maartens, Gary; Banchereau, Jacques; Chaussabel, Damien; O'Garra, Anne; Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2015-01-01

    Patients with HIV-associated tuberculosis (TB) initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) may develop immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS). No biomarkers for TB-IRIS have been identified and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Here we perform transcriptomic profiling of the blood samples of patients with HIV-associated TB. We identify differentially abundant transcripts as early as week 0.5 post ART initiation that predict downstream activation of proinflammatory cytokines in patients who progress to TB-IRIS. At the characteristic time of TB-IRIS onset (week 2), the signature is characterized by over-representation of innate immune mediators including TLR signalling and TREM-1 activation of the inflammasome. In keeping with the transcriptional data, concentrations of plasma cytokines and caspase-1/5 are elevated in TB-IRIS. Inhibition of MyD88 adaptor and group 1 caspases reduces secretion of cytokines including IL-1 in TB-IRIS patients. These data provide insight on the pathogenesis of TB-IRIS and may assist the development of specific therapies. PMID:26399326

  9. Corticosteroid-modulated Immune Activation in the Tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Skolimowska, Keira H.; Wilkinson, Katalin A.; Matthews, Kerryn; Tadokera, Rebecca; Conesa-Botella, Anali; Seldon, Ronnett; Rangaka, Molebogeng X.; Rebe, Kevin; Pepper, Dominique J.; Morroni, Chelsea; Colebunders, Robert; Maartens, Gary; Wilkinson, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale: HIV–tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an immunopathological reaction to mycobacterial antigens induced by antiretroviral therapy. Prednisone reduces morbidity in TB-IRIS, but the mechanisms are unclear. Objectives: To determine the effect of prednisone on the inflammatory response in TB-IRIS (antigen-specific effector T cells, cytokines, and chemokines). Methods: Blood was taken from participants in a randomized placebo-controlled trial of prednisone for TB-IRIS, at 0, 2, and 4 weeks. Participants received prednisone at a dosage of 1.5 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks followed by 0.75 mg/kg/day for 2 weeks, or placebo at identical dosages. Measurements and Main Results: Analyses included IFN-γ enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT), reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction on peripheral blood mononuclear cells after restimulation with heat-killed Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis of corresponding tissue culture supernatants, and Luminex multiplex cytokine analysis of serum. Fifty-eight participants with TB-IRIS (31 receiving prednisone, 27 receiving placebo) were included. In serum, significant decreases in IL-6, IL-10, IL-12 p40, tumor necrosis factor-α, IFN-γ, and IFN-γ–induced protein-10 concentrations during prednisone, but not placebo, treatment were observed. No differences in ELISPOT responses comparing prednisone and placebo groups were shown in response to ESAT-6 (early secreted antigen target-6), Acr1, Acr2, 38-kD antigen, or heat-killed H37Rv M. tuberculosis. Purified protein derivative ELISPOT responses increased over 4 weeks in the prednisone group and decreased in the placebo group (P = 0.007). Conclusions: The beneficial effects of prednisone in TB-IRIS appear to be mediated via suppression of predominantly proinflammatory cytokine responses of innate immune origin, not via a reduction of the numbers of antigen-specific T cells in peripheral blood. PMID:22700860

  10. Transient expansion of activated CD8+ T cells characterizes tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in patients with HIV: a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background CD4+ T cell activation indicators have been reported to be a common phenomenon underlying diverse manifestations of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). However, we have found that a high frequency of circulating CD8+ T cells is a specific risk factor for mycobacterial IRIS. Therefore, we investigated whether CD8+ T cells from patients who develop TB IRIS were specifically activated. Methods We obtained PBMCs from HIV+?patients prior to and 4, 8, 12, 24, 52 and 104weeks after initiating antiretroviral therapy. CD38 and HLADR expression on naive, central memory and effector memory CD8+ and CD4+ T cells were determined by flow cytometry. Absolute counts and frequencies of CD8+ T cell subsets were compared between patients who developed TB IRIS, who developed other IRIS forms and who remained IRIS-free. Results TB IRIS patients showed significantly higher counts of naive CD8+ T cells than the other groups at most time points, with a contraction of the effector memory subpopulation occurring later in the follow-up period. Activated (CD38+ HLADR+) CD8+ T cells from all groups decreased with treatment but transiently peaked in TB IRIS patients. This increase was due to an increase in activated naive CD8+ T cell counts during IRIS. Additionally, the CD8+ T cell subpopulations of TB IRIS patients expressed HLADR without CD38 more frequently and expressed CD38 without HLADR less frequently than cells from other groups. Conclusions CD8+ T cell activation is specifically relevant to TB IRIS. Different IRIS forms may involve different alterations in T cell subsets, suggesting different underlying inflammatory processes. PMID:23688318

  11. Thoracic manifestations of paradoxical immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome during or after antituberculous therapy in HIV-negative patients.

    PubMed

    Pornsuriyasak, Prapaporn; Suwatanapongched, Thitiporn

    2015-01-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a consequence of exaggerated and dysregulated host's inflammatory response to invading microorganism, leading to uncontrolled inflammatory reactions. IRIS associated with tuberculosis (TB) is well recognized among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy, but it is less common among HIV-negative patients. IRIS can manifest as a paradoxical worsening or recurring of preexisting tuberculous lesions or development of new lesions despite successful antituberculous treatment. Hence, the condition might be misdiagnosed as superimposed infections, treatment failure, or relapse of TB. This pictorial essay reviewed diagnostic criteria and various thoracic manifestations of the paradoxical form of TB-associated IRIS (TB-IRIS) that might aid in early recognition of this clinical entity among HIV-negative patients. The treatment and outcomes of TB-IRIS were also discussed. PMID:25698091

  12. Matrix Metalloproteinases in Tuberculosis-Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and Impaired Lung Function Among Advanced HIV/TB Co-infected Patients Initiating Antiretroviral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Ravimohan, Shruthi; Tamuhla, Neo; Kung, Shiang-Ju; Nfanyana, Kebatshabile; Steenhoff, Andrew P.; Gross, Robert; Weissman, Drew; Bisson, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-infected patients with pulmonary TB (pTB) can have worsening of respiratory symptoms as part of TB-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) following antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Thus, reconstitution of immune function on ART could drive incident lung damage in HIV/TB. Methods We hypothesized that increases in matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), which can degrade lung matrix, on ART are associated with TB-IRIS among a cohort of advanced, ART naïve, HIV-infected adults with pTB. Furthermore, we related early changes in immune measures and MMPs on ART to lung function in an exploratory subset of patients post-TB cure. This study was nested within a prospective cohort study. Rank sum and chi-square tests, Spearman's correlation coefficient, and logistic regression were used for analyses. Results Increases in MMP-8 following ART initiation were independently associated with TB-IRIS (p = 0.04; adjusted odds ratio 1.5 [95% confidence interval: 1.0–2.1]; n = 32). Increases in CD4 counts and MMP-8 on ART were also associated with reduced forced expiratory volume in one-second post-TB treatment completion (r = − 0.7, p = 0.006 and r = − 0.6, p = 0.02, respectively; n = 14). Conclusions ART-induced MMP increases are associated with TB-IRIS and may affect lung function post-TB cure. End-organ damage due to TB-IRIS and mechanisms whereby immune restoration impairs lung function in pTB deserve further investigation. PMID:27014741

  13. Central Nervous System Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Boulware, David R.; Marais, Suzaan; Scriven, James; Wilkinson, Robert J.; Meintjes, Graeme

    2013-01-01

    Central nervous system immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (CNS-IRIS) develops in 9 %–47 % of persons with HIV infection and a CNS opportunistic infection who start antiretroviral therapy and is associated with a mortality rate of 13 %–75 %. These rates vary according to the causative pathogen. Common CNS-IRIS events occur in relation to Cryptococcus, tuberculosis (TB), and JC virus, but several other mycobacteria, fungi, and viruses have been associated with IRIS. IRIS symptoms often mimic the original infection, and diagnosis necessitates consideration of treatment failure, microbial resistance, and an additional neurological infection. These diagnostic challenges often delay IRIS diagnosis and treatment. Corticosteroids have been used to treat CNS-IRIS, with variable responses; the best supportive evidence exists for the treatment of TB-IRIS. Pathogenic mechanisms vary: Cryptococcal IRIS is characterized by a paucity of cerebrospinal inflammation prior to antiretroviral therapy, whereas higher levels of inflammatory markers at baseline predispose to TB meningitis IRIS. This review focuses on advances in the understanding of CNS-IRIS over the past 2 years. PMID:24173584

  14. Tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV: from pathogenesis to prediction.

    PubMed

    Gopalan, Narendran; Andrade, Bruno Bezerril; Swaminathan, Soumya

    2014-05-01

    Tuberculosis-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) is an exaggerated, dysregulated immune response against dead or viable antigens of Mycobacterium tuberculosis that frequently occurs after initiation of antiretroviral therapy despite an effective suppression of HIV viremia. Scientific advances in IRIS pathogenesis have led researchers and clinicians to postulate risk factors that could possibly predict this syndrome, in an attempt to reduce the incidence and the severity of IRIS, with appropriate anti-inflammatory therapy. This review is a summary of the available literature on pathogenic mechanisms involved from the macro to the micro level, the clinical spectrum, available predictors and the scope of these biomarkers to function as specific therapeutic targets, that could effectively modulate or ameliorate this syndrome in future. PMID:24580108

  15. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Tappuni, A R

    2011-04-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a phenomenon observed in patients recovering from immunodeficiency. The clinical presentation of IRIS involves the unmasking of covert infections or the worsening of overt conditions. Several causes and pathways have been suggested, most recognizing an inflammatory flare component occurring in the context of rapid immune reconstitution. In HIV-infected patients, IRIS inadvertently occurs as the consequence of successful antiretroviral therapy, and it is affiliated with improvement of the immune function, complicating the course of the disease and presenting treatment challenges to clinicians. The pathogenesis of IRIS is poorly understood, but in recovering HIV patients, its initiation and progression seem to be primarily linked to an increase in CD4+ T-helper and CD8+ T-suppressor cell count and a reduction in T-regulatory cells, all endorsed by exaggerated cytokine release and activity. The clinical presentation of IRIS is usually atypical. The manifestations depend on the trigger antigen, which can be an infective agent (viable or nonviable), a host antigen, or a tumor antigen. Most IRIS cases are self-limiting, but a few cases can be overwhelming and life-threatening; hence, early recognition is important. In most cases, there is no need to discontinue the antiretroviral therapy, although in the more severe cases, other clinical intervention may be necessary. PMID:21441488

  16. [Ocular immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome].

    PubMed

    Ma, N; Ye, J J

    2016-02-11

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a collection of inflammatory disorders associated with paradoxical worsening of preexisting infectious processes or emerging diseases or even dead after the initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected individuals in a period of recovery of immune function. Ocular immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is mainly caused by cytomegalovirus which performing a series of ocular inflammation accompanied with the increase of CD4+ T lymphocytes, such as cytomegalovirus retinitis, after HAART. With HAART widely used, the patients of IRIS gradually increased. But the clinical presentations of IRIS were various because of different pathogens. This review summarized the clinical manifestations, risk factors, diagnosis and treatment of ocular IRIS.(Chin J Ophthalmol, 2016, 51: 150-153). PMID:26906710

  17. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS)

    PubMed Central

    Balk, Robert A

    2014-01-01

    The concept of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) to describe the complex pathophysiologic response to an insult such as infection, trauma, burns, pancreatitis, or a variety of other injuries came from a 1991 consensus conference charged with the task of developing an easy-to-apply set of clinical parameters to aid in the early identification of potential candidates to enter into clinical trials to evaluate new treatments for sepsis. There was recognition that a diverse group of injuries produced a common inflammatory response in the host and provided attractive targets for new anti-inflammatory molecules designed to prevent further propagation and/or provide specific treatment. Effective application of these new anti-inflammatory strategies necessitated identification of early clinical markers that could be assessed in real-time and were likely to define a population of patients that would have a beneficial response to the targeted intervention. It was felt that early clinical manifestations might be more readily available to clinicians than more sophisticated and specific assays for inflammatory substances that were systemically released by the network of injurious inflammatory events. Therefore, the early definition of a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) was built upon a foundation of basic clinical and laboratory abnormalities that were readily available in almost all clinical settings. With further refinement, it was hoped, that this definition would have a high degree of sensitivity, coupled with a reasonable degree of specificity. This manuscript reviews the derivation, application, utilization, potential benefits, and speculation regarding the future of the SIRS definition. PMID:24280933

  18. Unmasking Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS)

    PubMed Central

    Balkhair, Abdullah; Ahamed, Sudheer; Sankhla, Dilip

    2011-01-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (IRIS) in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) are characterised by atypical manifestations of opportunistic pathogens. These occur in patients experiencing improvement in CD4 cell counts following receipt of highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Although well established as a syndrome, IRIS still presents challenges in diagnosis and management. We report five cases of IRIS with diverse clinical presentations and due to different infectious aetiologies. A review of the published literature on this syndrome is also included. PMID:21509214

  19. HIV & immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K.; Soneja, Manish

    2011-01-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation in HIV-infected patients leads to recovery of CD4+T cell numbers and restoration of protective immune responses against a wide variety of pathogens, resulting in reduction in the frequency of opportunistic infections and prolonged survival. However, in a subset of patients, dysregulated immune response after initiation of ART leads to the phenomenon of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The hallmark of the syndrome is paradoxical worsening of an existing infection or disease process or appearance of a new infection/disease process soon after initiation of therapy. The overall incidence of IRIS is unknown, but is dependent on the population studied and the burden of underlying opportunistic infections. The immunopathogenesis of the syndrome is unclear and appears to be result of unbalanced reconstitution of effector and regulatory T-cells, leading to exuberant inflammatory response in patients receiving ART. Biomarkers, including interferon-γ (INF-γ), tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), C-reactive protein (CRP) and inter leukin (IL)-2, 6 and 7, are subject of intense investigation at present. The commonest forms of IRIS are associated with mycobacterial infections, fungi and herpes viruses. Majority of patients with IRIS have a self-limiting disease course. ART is usually continued and treatment for the associated condition optimized. The overall mortality associated with IRIS is low; however, patients with central nervous system involvement with raised intracranial pressures in cryptococcal and tubercular meningitis, and respiratory failure due to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) have poor prognosis and require aggressive management including corticosteroids. Paradigm shifts in management of HIV with earlier initiation of ART is expected to decrease the burden of IRIS in developed countries; however, with enhanced rollout of ART in recent years and the enormous burden of opportunistic infections in developing countries like India, IRIS is likely to remain an area of major concern. PMID:22310819

  20. Vitamin D, d-dimer, Interferon γ, and sCD14 Levels are Independently Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective, International Study.

    PubMed

    Musselwhite, Laura W; Andrade, Bruno B; Ellenberg, Susan S; Tierney, Ann; Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F; Rupert, Adam; Lederman, Michael M; Sanne, Ian; Sierra Madero, Juan G; Sereti, Irini

    2016-02-01

    To determine the immunological profile most important for IRIS prediction, we evaluated 20 baseline plasma biomarkers in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled ART initiation trial in South Africa and Mexico to test whether maraviroc could prevent IRIS. Participants were classified prospectively as having IRIS within 6 months of ART initiation. Twenty plasma biomarkers were measured at study enrollment for 267 participants. Biomarkers were tested for predicting IRIS with adjustment for covariates chosen through forward stepwise selection. Sixty-two participants developed IRIS and of these 19 were tuberculosis (TB)-IRIS. Baseline levels of vitamin D and higher d-dimer, interferon gamma (IFNγ), and sCD14 were independently associated with risk of IRIS in multivariate analyses. TB-IRIS cases exhibited a distinct biosignature from IRIS related to other pathogens, with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), sCD14, IFNγ, and lower levels of Hb that could be captured by a composite risk score. Elevated markers of Type 1 T helper (Th1) response, monocyte activation, coagulation and low vitamin D were independently associated with IRIS risk. Interventions that decrease immune activation and increase vitamin D levels warrant further study. PMID:26981576

  1. Vitamin D, d-dimer, Interferon γ, and sCD14 Levels are Independently Associated with Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Prospective, International Study☆

    PubMed Central

    Musselwhite, Laura W.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Ellenberg, Susan S.; Tierney, Ann; Belaunzaran-Zamudio, Pablo F.; Rupert, Adam; Lederman, Michael M.; Sanne, Ian; Sierra Madero, Juan G.; Sereti, Irini

    2016-01-01

    To determine the immunological profile most important for IRIS prediction, we evaluated 20 baseline plasma biomarkers in Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) patients initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART). Patients were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled ART initiation trial in South Africa and Mexico to test whether maraviroc could prevent IRIS. Participants were classified prospectively as having IRIS within 6 months of ART initiation. Twenty plasma biomarkers were measured at study enrollment for 267 participants. Biomarkers were tested for predicting IRIS with adjustment for covariates chosen through forward stepwise selection. Sixty-two participants developed IRIS and of these 19 were tuberculosis (TB)-IRIS. Baseline levels of vitamin D and higher d-dimer, interferon gamma (IFNγ), and sCD14 were independently associated with risk of IRIS in multivariate analyses. TB-IRIS cases exhibited a distinct biosignature from IRIS related to other pathogens, with increased levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), sCD14, IFNγ, and lower levels of Hb that could be captured by a composite risk score. Elevated markers of Type 1 T helper (Th1) response, monocyte activation, coagulation and low vitamin D were independently associated with IRIS risk. Interventions that decrease immune activation and increase vitamin D levels warrant further study. PMID:26981576

  2. Subclinical Inflammatory Status in Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cortelazzo, Alessio; De Felice, Claudio; Guerranti, Roberto; Landi, Claudia; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Ciccoli, Lucia; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation has been advocated as a possible common central mechanism for developmental cognitive impairment. Rett syndrome (RTT) is a devastating neurodevelopmental disorder, mainly caused by de novo loss-of-function mutations in the gene encoding MeCP2. Here, we investigated plasma acute phase response (APR) in stage II (i.e., “pseudo-autistic”) RTT patients by routine haematology/clinical chemistry and proteomic 2-DE/MALDI-TOF analyses as a function of four major MECP2 gene mutation types (R306C, T158M, R168X, and large deletions). Elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate values (median 33.0 mm/h versus 8.0 mm/h, P < 0.0001) were detectable in RTT, whereas C-reactive protein levels were unchanged (P = 0.63). The 2-DE analysis identified significant changes for a total of 17 proteins, the majority of which were categorized as APR proteins, either positive (n = 6 spots) or negative (n = 9 spots), and to a lesser extent as proteins involved in the immune system (n = 2 spots), with some proteins having overlapping functions on metabolism (n = 7 spots). The number of protein changes was proportional to the severity of the mutation. Our findings reveal for the first time the presence of a subclinical chronic inflammatory status related to the “pseudo-autistic” phase of RTT, which is related to the severity carried by the MECP2 gene mutation. PMID:24511209

  3. Inflammatory Lung Disease in Rett Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    De Felice, Claudio; Rossi, Marcello; Chisci, Glauco; Lonetti, Giuseppina; Vannuccini, Laura; Spina, Donatella; Iacona, Ingrid; Cortelazzo, Alessio; Ciccoli, Lucia; Pizzorusso, Tommaso; Hayek, Joussef

    2014-01-01

    Rett syndrome (RTT) is a pervasive neurodevelopmental disorder mainly linked to mutations in the gene encoding the methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2). Respiratory dysfunction, historically credited to brainstem immaturity, represents a major challenge in RTT. Our aim was to characterize the relationships between pulmonary gas exchange abnormality (GEA), upper airway obstruction, and redox status in patients with typical RTT (n = 228) and to examine lung histology in a Mecp2-null mouse model of the disease. GEA was detectable in ~80% (184/228) of patients versus ~18% of healthy controls, with “high” (39.8%) and “low” (34.8%) patterns dominating over “mixed” (19.6%) and “simple mismatch” (5.9%) types. Increased plasma levels of non-protein-bound iron (NPBI), F2-isoprostanes (F2-IsoPs), intraerythrocyte NPBI (IE-NPBI), and reduced and oxidized glutathione (i.e., GSH and GSSG) were evidenced in RTT with consequently decreased GSH/GSSG ratios. Apnea frequency/severity was positively correlated with IE-NPBI, F2-IsoPs, and GSSG and negatively with GSH/GSSG ratio. A diffuse inflammatory infiltrate of the terminal bronchioles and alveoli was evidenced in half of the examined Mecp2-mutant mice, well fitting with the radiological findings previously observed in RTT patients. Our findings indicate that GEA is a key feature of RTT and that terminal bronchioles are a likely major target of the disease. PMID:24757286

  4. Hansen's disease in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    George, Anju; Vidyadharan, Suja

    2016-01-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is characterized by a paradoxical worsening of an existing infection or disease process, soon after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The first case of leprosy presenting as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was published in 2003. Here we report a case of Hansen's disease borderline tuberculoid presenting with type 1 lepra reaction 5 months after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26955584

  5. Hansen's disease in association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    George, Anju; Vidyadharan, Suja

    2016-01-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is characterized by a paradoxical worsening of an existing infection or disease process, soon after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. The first case of leprosy presenting as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was published in 2003. Here we report a case of Hansen's disease borderline tuberculoid presenting with type 1 lepra reaction 5 months after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy. PMID:26955584

  6. Rasmussen Syndrome and Other Inflammatory Epilepsies.

    PubMed

    Varadkar, Sophia; Cross, J Helen

    2015-06-01

    An underlying immune basis is emerging in an increasing number of epileptic and encephalopathic syndromes. The immunopathological mechanisms may be categorized into antibody-mediated, T-cell cytotoxicity, and microglia-induced degeneration. The immune basis in Rasmussen syndrome is thought to be T-cell mediated. Antibodies to extracellular and intracellular epitopes are implicated in limbic and other encephalitides, characterized by seizures, movement disorder, sleep disorder, obtundation, psychosis, mutism, and other psychiatric symptoms. Extracellular antibodies are directed at cell-surface-expressed neuronal or glial proteins: glutamate receptors (N-methyl-D-aspartate and α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazol-propionic acid), voltage-gated potassium channel complex (contactin-associated-protein 2 [CASPR2], contactin-2 and leucin-rich, glioma-inactivated 1 [LGI1]), and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors (GABABR and GABAAR). Antibodies to intracellular antigens are less commonly seen (for example, glutamic acid decarboxylase). Diseases caused by antibodies to cell-surface-expressed antigens are better expected to respond to immune treatments than to those where the presumed mechanism is T-cell driven. Antibodies to the folate receptor FR1 are a cause of primary cerebral folate deficiency. Febrile infection-related epilepsy syndrome (FIRES) may also have an immune basis, although this is yet to be proven. For all these epilepsies, the best treatment and the long-term outcomes are not yet clear. PMID:26060905

  7. 'ASIA' - autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants.

    PubMed

    Shoenfeld, Yehuda; Agmon-Levin, Nancy

    2011-02-01

    The role of various environmental factors in the pathogenesis of immune mediated diseases is well established. Of which, factors entailing an immune adjuvant activity such as infectious agents, silicone, aluminium salts and others were associated with defined and non-defined immune mediated diseases both in animal models and in humans. In recent years, four conditions: siliconosis, the Gulf war syndrome (GWS), the macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome (MMF) and post-vaccination phenomena were linked with previous exposure to an adjuvant. Furthermore, these four diseases share a similar complex of signs and symptoms which further support a common denominator.Thus, we review herein the current data regarding the role of adjuvants in the pathogenesis of immune mediated diseases as well as the amassed data regarding each of these four conditions. Relating to the current knowledge we would like to suggest to include these comparable conditions under a common syndrome entitled ASIA, "Autoimmune (Auto-inflammatory) Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants". PMID:20708902

  8. Obesity-Driven Gut Microbiota Inflammatory Pathways to Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cavalcante-Silva, Luiz H. A.; Galvão, José G. F. M.; da Silva, Juliane Santos de França; de Sales-Neto, José M.; Rodrigues-Mascarenhas, Sandra

    2015-01-01

    The intimate interplay between immune system, metabolism, and gut microbiota plays an important role in controlling metabolic homeostasis and possible obesity development. Obesity involves impairment of immune response affecting both innate and adaptive immunity. The main factors involved in the relationship of obesity with inflammation have not been completely elucidated. On the other hand, gut microbiota, via innate immune receptors, has emerged as one of the key factors regulating events triggering acute inflammation associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Inflammatory disorders lead to several signaling transduction pathways activation, inflammatory cytokine, chemokine production and cell migration, which in turn cause metabolic dysfunction. Inflamed adipose tissue, with increased macrophages infiltration, is associated with impaired preadipocyte development and differentiation to mature adipose cells, leading to ectopic lipid accumulation and insulin resistance. This review focuses on the relationship between obesity and inflammation, which is essential to understand the pathological mechanisms governing metabolic syndrome. PMID:26635627

  9. Therapeutics targeting inflammation in the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shahani, Lokesh; Hamill, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is characterized by improvement in a previously incompetent human immune system manifesting as worsening of clinical symptoms secondary to the ability of the immune system to now mount a vigorous inflammatory response. IRIS was first recognized in the setting of human immunodeficiency virus, and this clinical setting continues to be where it is most frequently encountered. Hallmarks of the pathogenesis of IRIS, independent of the clinical presentation and the underlying pathogen, include excessive activation of the immune system, with increased circulating effector memory T cells, and elevated levels of serum cytokines and inflammatory markers. Patients with undiagnosed opportunistic infections remain at risk for unmasking IRIS at the time of active antiretroviral therapy (ART) initiation. Systematic screening for opportunistic infections before starting ART is a key element to prevent this phenomenon. Appropriate management of IRIS requires prompt recognition of the syndrome and exclusion of alternative diagnoses, particularly underlying infections and drug resistance. Controlled studies supporting the use of pharmacologic interventions in IRIS are scare, and recommendations are based on case series and expert opinions. The only controlled trial published to date, showed reduction in morbidity in patients with paradoxical tuberculosis-related IRIS with the use of oral corticosteroids. There are currently limited data to recommend other anti-inflammatory or immunomodulatory therapies that are discussed in this review, and further research is needed. Ongoing research regarding the immune pathogenesis of IRIS will likely direct future rational therapeutic approaches and clinical trials. PMID:26303886

  10. Electrophysiological features of POEMS syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Guo, Xiuming; Qin, Xinyue; Zhang, Yuping; Huang, Cheng; Yu, Gang

    2014-04-01

    Polyneuropathy is often an initial manifestation of polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes (POEMS) syndrome and therefore this disorder is frequently misdiagnosed as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). We reviewed electrophysiological data in 20 patients with POEMS syndrome and 36 matched patients with CIDP to compare the electrophysiological features of POEMS syndrome and CIDP. Compared with CIDP controls, POEMS patients demonstrated (1) less prolonged distal motor latency and less reduced motor nerve and sensory nerve conduction velocities, (2) greater reduction of amplitudes of compound motor action potentials (CMAP) in distal stimulation, and similar reduction of amplitudes of CMAP in proximal stimulation, (3) similar reduction of amplitudes of sensory nerve action potentials (SNAP) in median and ulnar nerves, and a greater reduction of amplitudes of SNAP in tibial and peroneal nerves, (4) less temporal dispersion, (5) less frequent conduction block, (6) more frequent neurogenic injury in the muscles of the upper and lower limbs, and more frequent neurogenic injury in the muscles of the lower than upper limbs, (7) similar F wave and H reflex abnormalities, and (8) less frequent skin sympathetic response abnormalities. We concluded that before development of typical clinical manifestations, POEMS neuropathy can be distinguished from CIDP by neural electrophysiological examination. These electrophysiological features can be used for early diagnosis and initiating correct treatment of POEMS syndrome. PMID:24268501

  11. [Environmental factors in the etiopathology of inflammatory bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Kamińska, Barbara; Landowski, Piotr; Korzon, Maria

    2004-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel syndrome (IBS) mainly includes ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). UC and CD are chronic and recurrent conditions, with a tendency to exacerbations and remissions. The incidence of diseases worldwide has increased over the last years. Although the etiology of inflammatory bowel syndrome has been studied intensively it still remains unclear. The development and persistence of inflammation is an effect of numerous factors: proinflammatory (aggressive), regulating bowel mucosa homeostasis and protective factors. Proinflammatory factors include intestinal bacteria, bile acids, digestive enzymes, lipopolysaccharides and peptidoglycans. Protective mechanisms are impermeability of mucosa barrier, presence of intestinal mucus, activity of secretive immunoglobulins, some prostaglandins and interleukins, glutamine, somatostatin, cortisol and short-chain fatty acids. Factors modifying intestinal mucosa homeostasis consist of genetically determined immunoregulators and activity of intestinal mucosa barrier and some environmental factors (diet, smoking, infections, stress, antibiotics and others). Environmental factors are jointly responsible for IBS occurrence in case of genetically determined dysregulation leading to proinflammatory cytokines overproduction or disturbances in synthesis of cytokines regulating intestinal mucosa homeostasis. PMID:15557701

  12. Paradoxical reactions and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Bell, Lucy C K; Breen, Ronan; Miller, Robert F; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Lipman, Marc

    2015-03-01

    The coalescence of the HIV-1 and tuberculosis (TB) epidemics in Sub-Saharan Africa has had a significant and negative impact on global health. The availability of effective antimicrobial treatment for both HIV-1 (in the form of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART)) and TB (with antimycobacterial agents) has the potential to mitigate the associated morbidity and mortality. However, the use of both HAART and antimycobacterial therapy is associated with the development of inflammatory paradoxical syndromes after commencement of therapy. These include paradoxical reactions (PR) and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndromes (IRIS), conditions that complicate mycobacterial disease in HIV seronegative and seropositive individuals. Here, we discuss case definitions for PR and IRIS, and explore how advances in identifying the risk factors and immunopathogenesis of these conditions informs our understanding of their shared underlying pathogenesis. We propose that both PR and IRIS are characterized by the triggering of exaggerated inflammation in a setting of immunocompromise and antigen loading, via the reversal of immunosuppression by HAART and/or antimycobacterials. Further understanding of the molecular basis of this pathogenesis may pave the way for effective immunotherapies for the treatment of PR and IRIS. PMID:25809754

  13. Irritable bowel syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease and the microbiome

    PubMed Central

    Major, Giles; Spiller, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The review aims to update the reader on current developments in our understanding of how the gut microbiota impact on inflammatory bowel disease and the irritable bowel syndrome. It will also consider current efforts to modulate the microbiota for therapeutic effect. Recent findings Gene polymorphisms associated with inflammatory bowel disease increasingly suggest that interaction with the microbiota drives pathogenesis. This may be through modulation of the immune response, mucosal permeability or the products of microbial metabolism. Similar findings in irritable bowel syndrome have reinforced the role of gut-specific factors in this ‘functional’ disorder. Metagenomic analysis has identified alterations in pathways and interactions with the ecosystem of the microbiome that may not be recognized by taxonomic description alone, particularly in carbohydrate metabolism. Treatments targeted at the microbial stimulus with antibiotics, probiotics or prebiotics have all progressed in the past year. Studies on the long-term effects of treatment on the microbiome suggest that dietary intervention may be needed for prolonged efficacy. Summary The microbiome represents ‘the other genome’, and to appreciate its role in health and disease will be as challenging as with our own genome. Intestinal diseases occur at the front line of our interaction with the microbiome and their future treatment will be shaped as we unravel our relationship with it. PMID:24296462

  14. [Unidentified Inflammatory Disease Induced by Azacitidine Therapy for Myelodysplastic Syndrome].

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Shunichiro; Tamai, Yotaro; Yoshizawa, Masaki; Sato, Shuku; Kanbe, Emiko; Tanaka, Eri

    2015-11-01

    We report a 73-year-old woman with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) of the refractory anemia with excess of blasts-1 subtype, which was diagnosed in April 2014 on the basis of cytopenia for two cell types. After completing 3cycles of azacitidine (AZA) therapy, the patient was admitted to our hospital based on an initial presentation of high fever. During hospitalization, the high fever and increasing inflammatory reaction persisted. We reevaluated the effect of MDS in this patient and concluded that the AZA administration was successful and the MDS was extremely stable. On medical examination and inspection, the patient had an unidentified inflammatory disease. First, we treated her with high-dose steroid pulse therapy. However, the effect of the treatment was transient. Furthermore, the effects of cyclosporin A and oral steroid therapy were poor; therefore, we initiated tocilizumab administration. Nevertheless, she died of multiorgan failure. An increasing serum IL- 6 level induced by the AZA therapy was later confirmed. Recent studies have reported the immunomodulatory effects stimulated by AZA therapy in MDS. This case is a valuable reminder that an unidentified inflammatory disease can be induced in the course of AZA therapy for MDS. PMID:26602409

  15. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-infected patients

    PubMed Central

    Walker, Naomi F; Scriven, James; Meintjes, Graeme; Wilkinson, Robert J

    2015-01-01

    Access to antiretroviral therapy (ART) is improving worldwide. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a common complication of ART initiation. In this review, we provide an overview of clinical and epidemiological features of HIV-associated IRIS, current understanding of pathophysiological mechanisms, available therapy, and preventive strategies. The spectrum of HIV-associated IRIS is described, with a particular focus on three important pathogen-associated forms: tuberculosis-associated IRIS, cryptococcal IRIS, and Kaposi’s sarcoma IRIS. While the clinical features and epidemiology are well described, there are major gaps in our understanding of pathophysiology and as a result therapeutic and preventative strategies are suboptimal. Timing of ART initiation is critical to reduce IRIS-associated morbidity. Improved understanding of the pathophysiology of IRIS will hopefully enable improved diagnostic modalities and better targeted treatments to be developed. PMID:25709503

  16. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome caused by chronic salicylate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Chalasani, N; Roman, J; Jurado, R L

    1996-05-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is characterized by body temperature abnormalities, tachypnea or hyperventilation, tachycardia, and leukocytosis or leukopenia. Although it is typically associated with a serious infection and referred to as sepsis, SIRS can stem from noninfectious causes, as well. We report the cases of four patients with toxic serum levels of salicylate (33.5 to 67.6 mg/dL) and SIRS, and we discuss mechanisms responsible for SIRS. Our patients showed temperature disturbances (35.5 degrees C to 39.8 degrees C), noncardiogenic pulmonary edema, and mixed acid base disturbances. Other abnormalities included coagulopathy (disseminated intravascular coagulation), encephalopathy, and hypotension. All four patients recovered from SIRS, probably due to early recognition and treatment; only one patient did not survive the hospitalization. Chronic salicylate toxicity should be considered as a cause of SIRS in the absence of a source of infection, since survival appears to be dependent on prompt diagnosis and management. PMID:8638172

  17. Irritable bowel syndrome - An inflammatory disease involving mast cells

    PubMed Central

    Philpott, Hamish; Gibson, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is traditionally defined as a functional disorder - that is the presence of symptoms in the absence of demonstrable pathological abnormalities. In recent times, low grade inflammatory infiltrates in both the small and large bowel of some patients with IBS - often rich in mast cells, along with serological markers of low grade inflammation have focussed attention on IBS as an inflammatory disease. The observation that mast cells often lie in close association to enteric neurons, and in-vitro and in-vivo animal studies demonstrating that mast cell mediators may influence enteric motility provides a biologically plausible causal mechanism in IBS. Pilot studies on patients with IBS using the mast cell stabiliser sodium cromoglycate ('proof of concept') have been encouraging. The essential question remains why mast cells infiltrate the bowel of IBS patients. A disturbance of the 'brain-gut axis' is the current favoured hypothesis, whereby childhood stress or psychiatric comorbidity act via neuro-immune mechanisms to modulate low grade inflammation. An alternative hypothesis is that food allergy may be responsible. Serum specific IgE, and skin prick tests are not elevated in IBS patients, suggesting type 1 IgE mediated food allergy is not the cause. However questionnaire based studies indicate IBS patients have higher rates of atopic disease, and increased bronchial reactivity to methacholine has been demonstrated. In this review, we highlight the potential role of mast cells in IBS, and current and future research directions into this intriguing condition. PMID:22053295

  18. Deregulation of innate immune and inflammatory signaling in myelodysplastic syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Gañán-Gómez, I; Wei, Y; Starczynowski, DT; Colla, S; Yang, H; Cabrero-Calvo, M; Bohannan, ZS; Verma, A; Steidl, U; Garcia-Manero, G

    2016-01-01

    Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDSs) are a group of heterogeneous clonal hematologic malignancies that are characterized by defective bone marrow (BM) hematopoiesis and by the occurrence of intramedullary apoptosis. During the past decade, the identification of key genetic and epigenetic alterations in patients has improved our understanding of the pathophysiology of this disease. However, the specific molecular mechanisms leading to the pathogenesis of MDS have largely remained obscure. Recently, essential evidence supporting the direct role of innate immune abnormalities in MDS has been obtained, including the identification of multiple key regulators that are overexpressed or constitutively activated in BM hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells. Mounting experimental results indicate that the dysregulation of these molecules leads to abnormal hematopoiesis, unbalanced cell death and proliferation in patients' BM, and has an important role in the pathogenesis of MDS. Furthermore, there is compelling evidence that the deregulation of innate immune and inflammatory signaling also affects other cells from the immune system and the BM microenvironment, which establish aberrant associations with hematopoietic precursors and contribute to the MDS phenotype. Therefore, the deregulation of innate immune and inflammatory signaling should be considered as one of the driving forces in the pathogenesis of MDS. In this article, we review and update the advances in this field, summarizing the results from the most recent studies and discussing their clinical implications. PMID:25761935

  19. The spectrum of post-vaccination inflammatory CNS demyelinating syndromes.

    PubMed

    Karussis, Dimitrios; Petrou, Panayiota

    2014-03-01

    A wide variety of inflammatory diseases temporally associated with the administration of various vaccines, has been reported in the literature. A PubMed search from 1979 to 2013 revealed seventy one (71) documented cases. The most commonly reported vaccinations that were associated with CNS demyelinating diseases included influenza (21 cases), human papilloma virus (HPV) (9 cases), hepatitis A or B (8 cases), rabies (5 cases), measles (5 cases), rubella (5 cases), yellow fever (3 cases), anthrax (2 cases),meningococcus (2 cases) and tetanus (2 cases). The vast majority of post-vaccination CNS demyelinating syndromes, are related to influenza vaccination and this could be attributed to the high percentage of the population that received the vaccine during the HI1N1 epidemia from 2009 to 2012. Usually the symptoms of the CNS demyelinating syndrome appear few days following the immunization (mean: 14.2 days) but there are cases where the clinical presentation was delayed (more than 3 weeks or even up to 5 months post-vaccination) (approximately a third of all the reported cases). In terms of the clinical presentation and the affected CNS areas, there is a great diversity among the reported cases of post-vaccination acute demyelinating syndromes. Optic neuritis was the prominent clinical presentation in 38 cases, multifocal disseminated demyelination in 30, myelitis in 24 and encephalitis in 17. Interestingly in a rather high proportion of the patients (and especially following influenza and human papiloma virus vaccination-HPV) the dominant localizations of demyelination were the optic nerves and the myelon, presenting as optic neuritis and myelitis (with or without additional manifestations of ADEM), reminiscent to neuromyelitic optica (or, more generally, the NMO-spectrum of diseases). Seven patients suffered an NMO-like disease following HPV and we had two similar cases in our Center. One patient with post-vaccination ADEM, subsequently developed NMO. Overall, the risk of a demyelinating CNS disease following vaccination, although non-negligible, is relatively low. The risk of onset or relapse of CNS demyelination following infections against which the vaccines are aimed to protect, is substantially higher and the benefits of vaccinations surpass the potential risks of CNS inflammation. This does not in any way exempt us from“learning” the lessons taught by the reported cases and searching new and safer ways to improve vaccination techniques and increase their safety profile. PMID:24514081

  20. Irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: interrelated diseases?

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2005-01-01

    In the past inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), celiac disease and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) were regarded as completely separate disorders. Now, with the description of inflammation, albeit low-grade, in IBS, and of symptom overlap between IBS and celiac disease, this contention has come under question. Is there true overlap between these disorders? Despite the limitations of available data one cannot but be struck by some areas of apparent convergence: IBD and celiac disease in remission, lymphocytic colitis and microscopic inflammation in IBS, in general, and, especially, in the post-infectious IBS category. The convergence between latent celiac disease and sub-clinical IBD, on the one hand, and IBS, on the other, appears, based on available evidence, to be somewhat spurious and may largely relate to misdiagnosis, a phenomenon which may also explain the apparent evolution of IBS into IBD in some studies. Similarities between IBS and lymphocytic colitis are more striking and less readily dismissed; as for IBS, well documented instances of progression of lymphocytic colitis to full-blown IBD are infrequent, suggesting a true separation between this disorder and classical IBD. Do IBS and lymphocytic colitis represent different responses to similar triggers? Will some of the 'inflamed' IBS subgroup be reclassified as part of the spectrum of lymphocytic colitis in the future? Will inflammation emerge as a common underlying factor in the pathogenesis of IBS? The answer to these and many questions must await further study of this fascinating area. PMID:16045602

  1. Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS).

    PubMed

    Bauer, Jan; Gold, Ralf; Adams, Ortwin; Lassmann, Hans

    2015-12-01

    Progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is a viral encephalitis induced by the John Cunningham (JC) virus, an ubiquitous neurotropic papovavirus of the genus polyomavirus that in healthy people in latency resides in kidney and bone marrow cells. Activation and entry into the CNS were first seen in patients with malignancies of the hematopoietic system and an impaired immune system. During the 1980 and the 1990s with the appearance of human immunodeficiency virus infection in humans, PML was found to be the most important opportunistic infection of the central nervous system. As a result of highly efficient immunosuppressive and immunomodulatory treatments, in recent years, the number of PML cases again increased. PML is prevented by an intact cellular immune response and accordingly immune reconstitution can terminate established disease in the CNS. However, forced immune reconstitution can lead to massive destruction of virus-infected cells. This may result in clinical exacerbation associated with high morbidity and mortality and referred to as PML with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (PML-IRIS). In the present review, we discuss virological properties and routes of infection in the CNS, but mostly focus on the pathology of PML and PML-IRIS and on the role of the immune system in these disorders. We show that PML and PML-IRIS result from predominant JC virus infection of oligodendrocytes and, to a lesser extent, of infected neurons. Inflammation in these encephalitides seems to be driven by a dominant cytotoxic T cell response which is massively exaggerated during IRIS. PMID:26323992

  2. Immunopathology of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in Whipple's disease.

    PubMed

    Moos, Verena; Feurle, Gerhard E; Schinnerling, Katina; Geelhaar, Anika; Friebel, Julian; Allers, Kristina; Moter, Annette; Kikhney, Judith; Loddenkemper, Christoph; Kühl, Anja A; Erben, Ulrike; Fenollar, Florence; Raoult, Didier; Schneider, Thomas

    2013-03-01

    During antimicrobial treatment of classic Whipple's disease (CWD), the chronic systemic infection with Tropheryma whipplei, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), is a serious complication. The aim of our study was to characterize the immunological processes underlying IRIS in CWD. Following the definition of IRIS, we describe histological features of IRIS and immunological parameters of 24 CWD IRIS patients, 189 CWD patients without IRIS, and 89 healthy individuals. T cell reconstitution, Th1 reactivity, and the phenotype of T cells were described in the peripheral blood, and infiltration of CD4(+) T cells and regulatory T cells in the duodenal mucosa was determined. During IRIS, tissues were heavily infiltrated by CD3(+), predominantly CD45RO(+)CD4(+) T cells. In the periphery, initial reduction of CD4(+) cell counts and their reconstitution on treatment was more pronounced in CWD patients with IRIS than in those without IRIS. The ratio of activated and regulatory CD4(+) T cells, nonspecific Th1 reactivity, and the proportion of naive among CD4(+) T cells was high, whereas serum IL-10 was low during IRIS. T. whipplei-specific Th1 reactivity remained suppressed before and after emergence of IRIS. The findings that IRIS in CWD mainly are mediated by nonspecific activation of CD4(+) T cells and that it is not sufficiently counterbalanced by regulatory T cells indicate that flare-up of pathogen-specific immunoreactivity is not instrumental in the pathogenesis of IRIS in CWD. PMID:23365082

  3. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: incidence and implications for mortality

    PubMed Central

    Novak, Richard M.; Richardson, James T.; Buchacz, Kate; Chmiel, Joan S.; Durham, Marcus D.; Palella, Frank J.; Wendrow, Andrea; Wood, Kathy; Young, Benjamin; Brooks, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To describe incidence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) and its association with mortality in a large multisite US HIV-infected cohort applying an objective, comprehensive definition. Design We studied 2 610 patients seen during 1996–2007 who initiated or resumed highly active combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) and, during the next 6 months, demonstrated a decline in plasma HIV-RNA viral load of at least 0.5 log10 copies/ml or an increase of at least 50% in CD4 cell count per microliter. We defined IRIS as the diagnosis of a type B or C condition [as per the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) 1993 AIDS case definition] or any new mucocutaneous disorder during this same 6-month period. Methods We assessed the incidence of IRIS and evaluated risk factors for IRIS using conditional logistic regression and for all-cause mortality using proportional hazards models. Results We identified 370 cases of IRIS (in 276 patients). Median and nadir CD4 cell counts at cART initiation were 90 and 43 cells/μl, respectively; median viral load was 2.7 log10 copies/ml. The most common IRIS-defining diagnoses were candidiasis (all forms), cytomegalovirus infection, disseminated Mycobacterium avium intracellulare, Pneumocystis pneumonia, varicella zoster, Kaposi’s sarcoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma. Only one case of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was observed. IRIS was independently associated with CD4 cell count less than 50 cells/μl vs. at least 200 cells/μl [odds ratio (OR) 5.0] and a viral load of at least 5.0 log10 copies vs. less than 4.0 log10 copies (OR 2.3). IRIS with a type B-defining or type C-defining diagnosis approximately doubled the risk for all-cause mortality. Conclusion In this large US-based HIV-infected cohort, IRIS occurred in 10.6% of patients who responded to effective ART and contributed to increased mortality. PMID:22233655

  4. Erythema elevatum diutinum in acquired immune deficiency syndrome: Can it be an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    PubMed Central

    Jose, Sheethal K; Marfatia, Yogesh S.

    2016-01-01

    A 47-year-old male with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) presented with multiple hyperpigmented papules and nodules on both ankles, dorsum of bilateral feet and soles. It was associated with mild itching and pain. The patient was diagnosed with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in 2007. First-line antiretroviral therapy (ART) was started in 2009 to which he responded initially. He was shifted to second-line ART 11 months ago in March 2015 due to treatment failure as suggested by CD4 count of 50 cells/mm3. The present skin lesions started 2 months after the initiation of second-line ART. Differential diagnoses considered were Kaposi's sarcoma and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) related infections, but biopsy was suggestive of erythema elevatum diutinum (EED). Patient was started on oral dapsone 100 mg/day and increased to 200 mg/day to which he is responding gradually. In the present case, appearance of the lesions after initiation of second-line ART coupled with increase in CD4 count and decrease of viral load below undetectable level suggest that EED could be an IRIS. PMID:27190420

  5. Sepsis: a pro- and anti-inflammatory disequilibrium syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, M R

    2001-01-01

    Severe sepsis and probably most prolonged critical illnesses reflect a paradox of combined increased activation and depression of the immune apparatus. The increased activation of the inflammatory response is evidenced from the increased levels of circulating proinflammatory cytokines in the blood, increased endothelial activation with increased expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase, and increased de novo CD11b expression on circulating immune effector cells, such as PMNs, monocytes and lymphocytes. However, coexisting with this proinflammatory process is a profound anti-inflammatory state characterized by increased circulating levels of anti-inflammatory species that both directly block the binding of proinflammatory stimuli to their cell surface receptors (IL-1ra, soluble TNF receptors) and also induce an anti-inflammatory state on their own (IL-10, TFG-beta). This humoral anti-inflammatory state is mirrored at the cellular levels by decreased monocyte ability to process antigen, characterized by a reduced HLA-DR expression and impaired PMN upregulation in response to clearly proinflammatory stimuli. Accordingly, severe sepsis reflects a combined pro- and anti-inflammatory state. Both the pro- and anti-inflammatory arms have protective and destructive aspects, making their modulation by treatment less predictable than if their actions were purely beneficial or detrimental. PMID:11395903

  6. Acute Cryptococcal Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Patient on Natalizumab

    PubMed Central

    Gundacker, Nathan D.; Jordan, Stephen J.; Jones, Benjamin A.; Drwiega, Joseph C.; Pappas, Peter G.

    2016-01-01

    Presented is the first case of acute immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS)-associated cryptococcal meningoencephalitis in a patient on natalizumab for multiple sclerosis. The patient developed acute cerebral edema after initiation of amphotericin B. We propose several mechanisms that explain the acuity of IRIS in this specific patient population and suggest possible therapies. PMID:27006962

  7. Pulmonary cryptosporidiosis and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: a case report and review.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, T; Reese, L; Huprikar, S; Lee, M

    2013-04-01

    Cryptosporidium rarely affects the lungs, and is not typically associated with the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). We describe the first published case of pulmonary IRIS following the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in a patient with AIDS and pulmonary cryptosporidiosis, and discuss its implications for HIV patient care. PMID:23970667

  8. [Fever as a sign of inflammatory syndrome in a female patient with hepatic haemangioma].

    PubMed

    van Gorcum, M; van Buuren, H R; Hussain, S M; Zondervan, P E; IJzermans, J N M; de Man, R A

    2005-05-28

    A 41-year-old patient presented with fever, night sweats, general malaise, abdominal pain, and substantial weight loss. Laboratory analysis suggested an inflammatory process. Diagnostic imaging revealed a hepatic haemangioma with a diameter of 20 cm. Because such giant haemangiomas of the liver can lead to inflammatory syndrome, the tumour was surgically removed. Pathological analysis confirmed the clinical diagnosis and evidence of extensive thrombosis and other vascular defects was found. Following treatment, the symptoms resolved without further complications. In patients with a giant haemangioma in the liver who present with an inflammatory syndrome, the haemangioma should be considered as the causal factor. For these patients, resection is the treatment of choice. PMID:15952499

  9. A review of the neuro- and systemic inflammatory responses in post concussion symptoms: Introduction of the "post-inflammatory brain syndrome" PIBS.

    PubMed

    Rathbone, Alasdair Timothy Llewelyn; Tharmaradinam, Surejini; Jiang, Shucui; Rathbone, Michel P; Kumbhare, Dinesh A

    2015-05-01

    Post-concussion syndrome is an aggregate of symptoms that commonly present together after head injury. These symptoms, depending on definition, include headaches, dizziness, neuropsychiatric symptoms, and cognitive impairment. However, these symptoms are common, occurring frequently in non-head injured controls, leading some to question the existence of post-concussion syndrome as a unique syndrome. Therefore, some have attempted to explain post-concussion symptoms as post-traumatic stress disorder, as they share many similar symptoms and post-traumatic stress disorder does not require head injury. This explanation falls short as patients with post-concussion syndrome do not necessarily experience many key symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder. Therefore, other explanations must be sought to explain the prevalence of post-concussion like symptoms in non-head injury patients. Many of the situations in which post-concussion syndrome like symptoms may be experienced such as infection and post-surgery are associated with systemic inflammatory responses, and even neuroinflammation. Post-concussion syndrome itself has a significant neuroinflammatory component. In this review we examine the evidence of neuroinflammation in post-concussion syndrome and the potential role systemic inflammation plays in post-concussion syndrome like symptoms. We conclude that given the overlap between these conditions and the role of inflammation in their etiologies, a new term, post-inflammatory brain syndromes (PIBS), is necessary to describe the common outcomes of many different inflammatory insults. The concept of post-concussion syndrome is in its evolution therefore, the new term post-inflammatory brain syndromes provides a better understanding of etiology of its wide-array of symptoms and the wide array of conditions they can be seen in. PMID:25736063

  10. POEMS Syndrome in a Juvenile Initially Diagnosed as Treatment Resistant Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy.

    PubMed

    Krish, Sonia N; Nguyen, Thy; Biliciler, Suur; Kumaravel, Manickam; Wahed, Amer; Risin, Semyon; Sheikh, Kazim A

    2015-12-01

    POEMS (polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, monoclonal protein, skin changes) is a disorder that mainly affects adults. We report a pediatric patient, initially considered to have Guillain-Barré syndrome, who continued to have progression of neuropathic disease leading to the diagnosis of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy. Diagnosis of POEMS was established by an abnormal bone marrow biopsy, prompted by laboratory and imaging findings, which became abnormal later in the course of the disease. POEMS syndrome is extremely rare in children, and neuropathic features in this age group have not been previously described. This case illustrates that "Guillain-Barré syndrome-like" initial presentation for POEMS, which has not been previously reported. It also emphasizes that in children with progressive acquired neuropathies that are treatment unresponsive, POEMS syndrome should be considered. PMID:26583497

  11. Clinical Characteristics of Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in North Indian Population of HIV/AIDS Patients Receiving HAART

    PubMed Central

    Karmakar, Suman; Sharma, Surendra K.; Vashishtha, Richa; Sharma, Abhishek; Ranjan, Sanjay; Gupta, Deepak; Sreenivas, Vishnubhatla; Sinha, Sanjeev; Biswas, Ashutosh; Gulati, Vinay

    2011-01-01

    Background & Objective. IRIS is an important complication that occurs during management of HIV-TB coinfection and it poses difficulty in diagnosis. Previous studies have reported variable incidence of IRIS. The present study was undertaken to describe the pattern of TB-associated IRIS using recently proposed consensus case-definitions for TB-IRIS for its use in resource-limited settings. Methods. A prospective analysis of ART-naïve adults started on HAART from November, 2008 to May, 2010 was done in a tertiary care hospital in north India. A total 224 patients divided into two groups, one with HIV-TB and the other with HIV alone, were followedup for a minimum period of 3 months. The diagnosis of TB was categorised as ‘‘definitive” and ‘‘probable”. Results. Out of a total of 224 patients, 203 completed followup. Paradoxical TB-IRIS occurred in 5 of 123 (4%) HIV-TB patients while 6 of 80 (7.5%) HIV patients developed ART-associated TB. A reduction in plasma viral load was significantly (P = .016) associated with paradoxical TB-IRIS. No identifiable risk factors were associated with the development of ART-associated TB. Conclusion. The consensus case-definitions are useful tools in the diagnosis of TB-associated IRIS. High index of clinical suspicion is required for an early diagnosis. PMID:21197457

  12. Quantitative Risk-Benefit Analysis of Probiotic Use for Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    Bennett, William E

    2016-04-01

    Probiotics have seen widespread use for a variety of gastrointestinal problems, especially in two common disorders: irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease. Since a wide variety of probiotic preparations has been used, and despite a large number of studies performed, a great deal of heterogeneity exists among them. Straightforward evidence-based recommendations for the use of probiotics in irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease have thus been difficult to formulate. In an effort to improve understanding of the risk-benefit balance of probiotics in these conditions, this study (1) queried the US FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) database for all reported adverse drug events related to probiotics in 2013, and (2) constructed risk-benefit planes for both irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease using a geometric approximation of the confidence region between risk and benefit. The results show that adverse events from probiotics vary widely by disease, and when they occur, they are mild and may be difficult to distinguish from the natural history of the underlying disorders they are used to treat. The risk-benefit plane for irritable bowel syndrome straddles the risk-benefit threshold, so patients can expect a balance between a low chance of risk and also a low chance of benefit. The risk-benefit plane for inflammatory bowel disease largely lies above the risk-benefit threshold, so patients may expect more benefit than risk in most cases. More standardized and high-quality research is needed to improve our understanding of risk and benefit for these complex biopharmaceuticals. PMID:26467550

  13. [Target Molecule for a Demyelinating Type of Guillain-Barré Syndrome, Acute Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy].

    PubMed

    Mori, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    Guillain-Barré syndrome is classified into demyelinating type, acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and axonal form, acute axonal motor neuropathy (AMAN). It has been clearly established that the target molecule for the former is a ganglioside. In contrast, despite years of effort, the target molecule for the latter has not been identified. Recently, molecules around the nodes of Ranvier have entered the spotlight, and "moesin" was reported to be a target molecule for cytomegalovirus associated-AIDP. PMID:26560951

  14. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome Secondary to Mycobacterium kansasii Infection in a Kidney Transplant Recipient.

    PubMed

    Lemoine, M; Laurent, C; Hanoy, M; Leporrier, J; François, A; Guerrot, D; Godin, M; Bertrand, D

    2015-12-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infection is a challenging diagnosis for clinicians in solid organ transplantation. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is so far unreported in this context. We report here the case of a renal transplant recipient who developed Mycobacterium kansasii-associated lymphadenitis complicated by IRIS while undergoing reduction of his immunosuppressive therapy. For IRIS, the patient required low-dose steroids and an increase in global immunosuppression, in association with NTM antibiotherapy. PMID:26372924

  15. Point prevalence of general ward patients fulfilling criteria for systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Douglas, L; Casamento, A; Jones, D

    2016-02-01

    The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is defined by abnormal temperature, heart rate, minute ventilation or white cell count and can be due to infectious or non-infectious causes. In a single day, 23% of hospital ward patients fulfilled SIRS criteria. Patients with SIRS were more likely to be under medical than surgical units. One-third of the patients had evidence of infection. There was no association between SIRS criteria and increased mortality or hospital length of stay. PMID:26899889

  16. Pathology in euthermic bats with white nose syndrome suggests a natural manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Barber, Daniel; Mandl, Judith N.

    2012-01-01

    White nose syndrome, caused by Geomyces destructans, has killed more than 5 million cave hibernating bats in eastern North America. During hibernation, the lack of inflammatory cell recruitment at the site of fungal infection and erosion is consistent with a temperature-induced inhibition of immune cell trafficking. This immune suppression allows G. destructans to colonize and erode the skin of wings, ears and muzzle of bat hosts unchecked. Yet, paradoxically, within weeks of emergence from hibernation an intense neutrophilic inflammatory response to G. destructans is generated, causing severe pathology that can contribute to death. We hypothesize that the sudden reversal of immune suppression in bats upon the return to euthermia leads to a form of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). IRIS was first described in HIV-infected humans with low helper T lymphocyte counts and bacterial or fungal opportunistic infections. IRIS is a paradoxical and rapid worsening of symptoms in immune compromised humans upon restoration of immunity in the face of an ongoing infectious process. In humans with HIV, the restoration of adaptive immunity following suppression of HIV replication with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can trigger severe immune-mediated tissue damage that can result in death. We propose that the sudden restoration of immune responses in bats infected with G. destructans results in an IRIS-like dysregulated immune response that causes the post-emergent pathology. PMID:23154286

  17. Pathology in euthermic bats with white nose syndrome suggests a natural manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Meteyer, Carol U; Barber, Daniel; Mandl, Judith N

    2012-11-15

    White nose syndrome, caused by Geomyces destructans, has killed more than 5 million cave hibernating bats in eastern North America. During hibernation, the lack of inflammatory cell recruitment at the site of fungal infection and erosion is consistent with a temperature-induced inhibition of immune cell trafficking. This immune suppression allows G. destructans to colonize and erode the skin of wings, ears and muzzle of bat hosts unchecked. Yet, paradoxically, within weeks of emergence from hibernation an intense neutrophilic inflammatory response to G. destructans is generated, causing severe pathology that can contribute to death. We hypothesize that the sudden reversal of immune suppression in bats upon the return to euthermia leads to a form of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). IRIS was first described in HIV-infected humans with low helper T lymphocyte counts and bacterial or fungal opportunistic infections. IRIS is a paradoxical and rapid worsening of symptoms in immune compromised humans upon restoration of immunity in the face of an ongoing infectious process. In humans with HIV, the restoration of adaptive immunity following suppression of HIV replication with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can trigger severe immune-mediated tissue damage that can result in death. We propose that the sudden restoration of immune responses in bats infected with G. destructans results in an IRIS-like dysregulated immune response that causes the post-emergent pathology. PMID:23154286

  18. Pathology in euthermic bats with white nose syndrome suggests a natural manifestation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Meteyer, Carol U.; Barber, Daniel; Mandl, Judith N.

    2012-01-01

    White nose syndrome, caused by Geomyces destructans, has killed more than 5 million cave hibernating bats in eastern North America. During hibernation, the lack of inflammatory cell recruitment at the site of fungal infection and erosion is consistent with a temperature-induced inhibition of immune cell trafficking. This immune suppression allows G. destructans to colonize and erode the skin of wings, ears and muzzle of bat hosts unchecked. Yet, paradoxically, within weeks of emergence from hibernation an intense neutrophilic inflammatory response to G. destructans is generated, causing severe pathology that can contribute to death. We hypothesize that the sudden reversal of immune suppression in bats upon the return to euthermia leads to a form of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), which was first described in HIV-infected humans with low helper T lymphocyte counts and bacterial or fungal opportunistic infections. IRIS is a paradoxical and rapid worsening of symptoms in immune compromised humans upon restoration of immunity in the face of an ongoing infectious process. In humans with HIV, the restoration of adaptive immunity following suppression of HIV replication with anti-retroviral therapy (ART) can trigger severe immune-mediated tissue damage that can result in death. We propose that the sudden restoration of immune responses in bats infected with G. destructans results in an IRIS-like dysregulated immune response that causes the post-emergent pathology.

  19. Inflammatory Markers of the Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (Clarkson Disease)

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Zhihui; Chan, Eunice; Yin, Yuzhi; Ghosh, Chandra C.; Wisch, Laura; Nelson, Celeste; Young, Michael; Parikh, Samir M.; Druey, Kirk M.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The Systemic Capillary Leak Syndrome (SCLS) is a rare and potentially fatal disorder resembling systemic anaphylaxis that is characterized by transient episodes of hypotensive shock and peripheral edema. The pathogenesis of SCLS is unknown, and triggers for attacks are apparent only in a minority of patients. We introduce a clinical algorithm for the diagnosis of SCLS, and we investigated potential serum biomarkers of acute SCLS episodes. Methods We analyzed serum cytokines in a cohort of 35 patients with an established diagnosis of SCLS and characterized the effects of SCLS sera on endothelial cell function. We investigated the cellular source(s) of CXCL10, a chemokine that was significantly elevated in both basal and acute SCLS sera, by flow cytometry. Results Several cytokines were elevated in acute SCLS sera compared to baseline or sera from healthy controls, including CXCL10, CCL2, IL-1?, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12 and TNF?. The majority of acute sera failed to activate endothelial cells as assessed by surface adhesion marker expression. Monocytes appear to be the major source of serum CXCL10, and the percentage of CXLC10+ monocytes in response to IFN? stimulation was increased in SCLS subjects compared to controls. Conclusions The presence of proinflammatory cytokines in acute SCLS sera suggests that inflammation or infection may have a role in triggering episodes. The enhanced capacity of monocytes from SCLS patients to produce CXCL10 suggests a new therapeutic avenue for SCLS. PMID:25405070

  20. Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Christiana, Udenze Ifeoma; Casimir, Amadi E.; Nicholas, Awolola Awodele; Christian, Makwe C.; Obiefuna, Ajie I.

    2016-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study is to determine the plasma levels of interleukin 6 (IL-6), tumor necrotic factor alpha (TNF-α, and C-reactive protein (CRP) in adult Nigerians with the metabolic syndrome and to determine the relationship between components of the metabolic syndrome and CRP in adult Nigerians. Subjects and Methods: This was a case–control study of fifty adult men and women with the metabolic syndrome, and fifty age- and sex-matched males and females without the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Programme-Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Written informed consent was obtained from the participants. Blood pressure and anthropometry measurements were taken and venous blood was collected after an overnight fast. The Ethics Committee of the Lagos University Teaching Hospital, Lagos, Nigeria, approved the study protocol. Comparisons of continuous variables and categorical variables were done using the Student's t-test and Chi-square test, respectively. Regression analysis was used to determine the associations between variables. Statistical significance was set at P< 0.05. Results: The age- and sex-matched males and females with and without the metabolic syndrome did not differ in their sociodemographic characteristics. They however differed in some clinical and laboratory parameters such as diastolic blood pressure (P = 0.048), waist circumference (P = 0.002), body mass index (P = 0.012), waist/hip ratio (P = 0.023), high density lipoprotein (HDL) (P = 0.012), and insulin resistance (IR) (P = 0.042). There was a statistically significant increase in the inflammatory marker, CRP (P = 0.019), the cytokines, IL6 (P = 0.040), and TNF-α (P = 0.031) between the subjects with and without metabolic syndrome. There was also a significant association between CRP, waist circumference, IR, and HDL in the metabolic syndrome (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Plasma levels of inflammatory cytokines are raised in metabolic syndrome and this may provide novel strategies for the management of metabolic syndrome and related disorders. PMID:27185982

  1. Mimicker of necrotising fasciitis with systemic inflammatory response syndrome: recurrent necrotising Sweet's syndrome associated with chronic myelogenous leukaemia.

    PubMed

    Nakanishi, Kensuke; Kinjo, Mitsuyo

    2016-01-01

    A 73-year-old man presented with severe right upper quadrant abdominal pain, overlying erythema, hypotension and fever. CT scan revealed fasciitis and myositis of the right rectus abdominis muscle with subcutaneous inflammation involving the fasciae and muscle. Laboratory studies showed extreme leucocytosis. The combination of his symptoms, CT findings and laboratory results suggested necrotising fasciitis with systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Subsequent negative cultures on skin and muscle biopsy led to a diagnosis of necrotising neutrophilic panniculitis. Recurrent episodes of fever, and abdominal and buttocks pain at various sites, suggested an underlying haematological condition. Bone marrow biopsy and genetic analysis revealed chronic myelogenous leukaemia. The patient's symptoms of Sweet's syndrome resolved with glucocorticoid treatment and did not recur after starting treatment with a tyrosine kinase inhibitor. PMID:27033292

  2. Circulating complement proteins in patients with sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Stöve, S; Welte, T; Wagner, T O; Kola, A; Klos, A; Bautsch, W; Köhl, J

    1996-01-01

    The systemic inflammatory response of the body to invading microorganisms, termed sepsis, leads to profound activation of the complement system. Pathophysiological concepts suggest that complement activation occurs very early in this syndrome. Thus, we discuss whether the determination of concentrations of the complement components C3a, C5a, and C3 in plasma as well as of the C3a/C3 ratio might be helpful to diagnose sepsis early. For this purpose, 33 patients from an intensive care unit were monitored for 10 days. In comparison with healthy donors, C3a levels and the C3a/C3 ratio of intensive-care-unit patients were significantly elevated (P < 0.0001) on admission. In contrast, C3 levels were significantly reduced (P < 0.0001) but increased during the study. C5a levels in the plasma of healthy donors and patients were identical. Twenty-two of 33 patients fulfilled microbiological and clinical criteria of sepsis. Eleven patients had signs of systemic inflammatory response syndrome but no microbiological evidence of sepsis. The groups could be differentiated from each other by their C3a levels or their C3a/C3 ratios during the first 24 h after the clinical onset of sepsis (P < 0.05). Septic patients in shock had higher C3a levels than normotensive septic patients, although the differences were not significant. Nonsurvivors had significantly higher C3a levels on admission than survivors (P = 0.0185). No differences were found between septic patients who developed adult respiratory distress syndrome and those who did not. Thus, determination of C3a concentrations in plasma may prove useful (i) to diagnose sepsis early, (ii) to differentiate between patients with sepsis and those with systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and (iii) to assess prognosis. PMID:8991632

  3. Human adjuvant-related syndrome or autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. Where have we come from? Where are we going? A proposal for new diagnostic criteria.

    PubMed

    Alijotas-Reig, J

    2015-09-01

    In 1964, Miyoshi reported a series of patients with diverse symptoms after receiving treatment with silicone or paraffin fillers. Miyoshi named this condition 'human adjuvant disease'. Since then, the literature has been flooded with case reports and case series of granulomatous and systemic autoimmune disorders related to vaccines, infection or other adjuvants such as silicone and other biomaterials. A new term -autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants--has recently been coined for a process that includes several clinical features previously described by Miyoshi plus other clinical and laboratory parameters related to exposure to diverse external stimuli. Disorders such as siliconosis, Gulf War syndrome, macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome, sick building syndrome and post-vaccination syndrome have been included in autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants. Disorders such as Spanish toxic oil syndrome and Ardystil syndrome could also be included. Furthermore, biomaterials other than silicone should also be considered as triggering factors for these adjuvant-related syndromes. New diagnostic criteria in this field have been proposed. Nevertheless, many of these criteria are too subjective, leading to some patients being diagnosed with chronic fatigue syndrome or other 'central sensitization syndromes'. Diagnostic criteria based only on objective clinical and laboratory data to be further discussed and validated are proposed herein. PMID:25813870

  4. Inflammatory cause of metabolic syndrome via brain stress and NF-κB

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Dongsheng; Liu, Tiewen

    2012-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome, a network of medical disorders that greatly increase the risk for developing metabolic and cardiovascular diseases, has reached epidemic levels in many areas of today's world. Despite this alarming medicare situation, scientific understandings on the root mechanisms of metabolic syndrome are still limited, and such insufficient knowledge contributes to the relative lack of effective treatments or preventions for related diseases. Recent interdisciplinary studies from neuroendocrinology and neuroimmunology fields have revealed that overnutrition can trigger intracellular stresses to cause inflammatory changes mediated by molecules that control innate immunity. This type of nutrition-related molecular inflammation in the central nervous system, particularly in the hypothalamus, can form a common pathogenic basis for the induction of various metabolic syndrome components such as obesity, insulin resistance, and hypertension. Proinflammatory NF-κB pathway has been revealed as a key molecular system for pathologic induction of brain inflammation, which translates overnutrition and resulting intracellular stresses into central neuroendocrine and neural dysregulations of energy, glucose, and cardiovascular homeostasis, collectively leading to metabolic syndrome. This article reviews recent research advances in the neural mechanisms of metabolic syndrome and related diseases from the perspective of pathogenic induction by intracellular stresses and NF-κB pathway of the brain. PMID:22328600

  5. Autoimmune/inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) 2013: Unveiling the pathogenic, clinical and diagnostic aspects.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Carlo; Colafrancesco, Serena; Mazor, Roei D; Soriano, Alessandra; Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2013-12-01

    In 2011 a new syndrome termed 'ASIA Autoimmune/Inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants' was defined pointing to summarize for the first time the spectrum of immune-mediated diseases triggered by an adjuvant stimulus such as chronic exposure to silicone, tetramethylpentadecane, pristane, aluminum and other adjuvants, as well as infectious components, that also may have an adjuvant effect. All these environmental factors have been found to induce autoimmunity by themselves both in animal models and in humans: for instance, silicone was associated with siliconosis, aluminum hydroxide with post-vaccination phenomena and macrophagic myofasciitis syndrome. Several mechanisms have been hypothesized to be involved in the onset of adjuvant-induced autoimmunity; a genetic favorable background plays a key role in the appearance on such vaccine-related diseases and also justifies the rarity of these phenomena. This paper will focus on protean facets which are part of ASIA, focusing on the roles and mechanisms of action of different adjuvants which lead to the autoimmune/inflammatory response. The data herein illustrate the critical role of environmental factors in the induction of autoimmunity. Indeed, it is the interplay of genetic susceptibility and environment that is the major player for the initiation of breach of tolerance. PMID:24238833

  6. Porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus infection triggers HMGB1 release to promote inflammatory cytokine production

    SciTech Connect

    Duan, Erzhen; Wang, Dang; Luo, Rui; Luo, Jingyi; Gao, Li; Chen, Huanchun; Fang, Liurong Xiao, Shaobo

    2014-11-15

    The high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein is an endogenous damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMP) molecule involved in the pathogenesis of various infectious agents. Based on meta-analysis of all publicly available microarray datasets, HMGB1 has recently been proposed as the most significant immune modulator during the porcine response to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) infection. However, the function of HMGB1 in PRRSV pathogenesis is unclear. In this study, we found that PRRSV infection triggers the translocation of HMGB1 from the nucleus to the extracellular milieu in MARC-145 cells and porcine alveolar macrophages. Although HMGB1 has no effect on PRRSV replication, HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and subsequent expression of inflammatory cytokines through receptors RAGE, TLR2 and TLR4. Our findings show that HMGB1 release, triggered by PRRSV infection, enhances the efficiency of virus-induced inflammatory responses, thereby providing new insights into the pathogenesis of PRRSV infection. - Highlights: • PRRSV infection triggers HMGB1 release from MARC-145 cells and PAMs. • HMGB1 does not significantly affect PRRSV proliferation. • HMGB1 is involved in PRRSV-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory responses. • HMGB1 promotes PRRSV-induced inflammatory responses through TLR2/4 and RAGE.

  7. Role of PPARs in inflammatory processes associated with metabolic syndrome (Review).

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Guzmán-Jofre, Luis; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Palomo, Iván

    2013-12-01

    Metabolic syndrome (MS) includes the presence of arterial hypertension, insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and abdominal obesity, which is associated with a chronic inflammatory response, characterized by abnormal adipokine production, and the activation of certain pro-inflammatory signaling pathways. Furthermore, the changes presented by the adipose tissue in MS favors the secretion of several molecular mediators capable of activating or suppressing a number of transcription factors, such as the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), whose main functions include storage regulation and fatty acid catabolization. When they are activated by their ligands (synthetic or endogenous), they control several genes involved in intermediate metabolism, which make them, together with the PPAR gamma coactivator-1-α (PGC-1) and the silent information regulator T1 (SIRT1), good targets for treating metabolic diseases and their cardiovascular complications. PMID:24100795

  8. Guillain Barre syndrome in an HIV-1-infected patient after the beginning of combined antiretroviral therapy: an immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    PubMed

    Fantauzzi, Alessandra; Digiulio, Maria Anna; Cavallari, Eugenio Nelson; d'Ettorre, Gabriella; Vullo, Vincenzo; Mezzaroma, Ivano

    2014-01-01

    HIV-1-associated Guillan-Barre syndrome (hGBS) is an ascendant progressive polyradiculoneuropathy described throughout the course of the viral disease, mainly associated with the acute retroviral syndrome. HGBS is occasionally described in severely immunocompromised subjects in the context of the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. The case described occurred soon after the start of a combined antiretroviral treatment in an HIV-1 infected patient with ulcerative colitis in the absence of severe immunosuppression. This manifestation may be interpreted as an uncommon appearance of an immune reconstitution syndrome in the presence of a predisposing autoimmune pathology. PMID:24531178

  9. Susac’s syndrome as HIV-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Susac’s Syndrome (SS) is an autoimmune endotheliopathy of cerebral, retinal and cochlear arterioles. We report of an HIV-infected woman who developed a first SS episode following a spontaneous reduction of plasma viral load and several relapses six years later, following initiation of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). Corticosteroids and intravenous immunoglobulins alone did not control the disease, which improved after combined treatment with acyclovir and ganciclovir. SS onset in HIV infection and relapses during cART-induced immune reconstitution are consistent with the dysimmune nature of the disease. The response to anti-herpes drugs suggests a viral contribute in this case of SS. PMID:24004690

  10. Development of post-pericardiotomy syndrome is preceded by an increase in pro-inflammatory and a decrease in anti-inflammatory serological markers.

    PubMed

    Snefjellå, Nora; Lappegård, Knut Tore

    2012-01-01

    The post-pericardiotomy syndrome (PPS) is a common complication after cardiac surgery, occuring in 10-40% of patients. PPS may prolong hospitalization, and even serious complications like tamponade and constrictive pericarditis may occur. Early diagnosis and treatment may reduce morbidity. In 50 patients transferred to our hospital after cardiac surgery we found an increase in pro-inflammatory and a decrease in anti-inflammatory cytokines at admission in the patients later developing PPS compared to the patients who did not develop PPS. If confirmed in larger studies, these findings may prove useful in early identification of and targeted treatment in patients developing PPS. PMID:22824227

  11. Anti-Inflammatory Dietary Combo in Overweight and Obese Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salama, Amany Alsayed; Amine, Ezzat Khamis; Salem, Hesham Abd Elfattah; Abd El Fattah, Nesrin Kamal

    2015-01-01

    Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is of clinical and public health importance, affecting up to one in five women of reproductive age. It has significant and diverse clinical implications including reproductive, metabolic, and psychological features. Aim: The study was to investigate the effect of anti-inflammatory dietary combo on metabolic, endocrine, inflammatory, and reproductive profiles in overweight and obese women with PCOS. Materials and Methods: A total of 100 nonpregnant, overweight, and obese adult females with PCOS according to the Rotterdam criteria, were screened during the year 2012, and 75 completed the trial. At baseline and study end, fasting blood samples were drawn to measure biological markers, body fat percent (BFP), and visceral fat area (VFA) were assessed by the InBody720 device and anthropometric measurements were done for all participants who were subjected to an anti-inflammatory hypocaloric diet and physical activity for 12 weeks. Results: At study completion, we achieved moderate weight loss of (± 7%) and significant improvements in body composition, hormones and menstrual cyclicity, blood pressure, glucose homeostasis, dyslipidemia, C-reactive protein (CRP), and serum amyloid A (SAA) (surrogate measures of cardiovascular risk (CVR)). This was a clinically relevant weight loss that is associated with a reduced prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) and metabolic syndrome (MS) in the general population and improved fertility outcomes in PCOS. We achieved 63% regain of menstrual cyclicity and 12% spontaneous pregnancy rate within 12 week. Conclusions: We have explored an additional dietary treatment option with good prognostic metabolic and reproductive responses to weight loss that occur in overweight and obese PCOS. PMID:26258078

  12. Elevated Circulating Levels of Inflammatory Markers in Patients with Acute Coronary Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Al Shahi, Hamad; Shimada, Kazunori; Miyauchi, Katsumi; Yoshihara, Takuma; Sai, Eiryu; Shiozawa, Tomoyuki; Naito, Ryo; Aikawa, Tatsuro; Ouchi, Shohei; Kadoguchi, Tomoyasu; Miyazaki, Tetsuro; Daida, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    Objective. We evaluated inflammatory cytokines and chemokine in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in patients with either acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or stable coronary artery disease (CAD). Methods. We enrolled 20 ACS patients and 50 stable CAD patients without previous history of ACS who underwent cardiac catheterization. Patients with an estimated glomerular filtration rate of ≤30 mL/min/1.73 m2 and C-reactive protein of ≥1.0 mg/dL were excluded. Blood samples were collected from the patients just before catheterization, and PBMCs were isolated from the whole blood. The levels of inflammatory cytokines and chemokine were measured by using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoassays. Results. The expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin- (IL-) 6, IL-10, IL-23A, IL-27, and IL-37 was significantly higher in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P < 0.05). In contrast, the expression of IL-33 was significantly lower in the ACS group than in the CAD group (P < 0.05). The ACS patients had higher plasma levels of TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 in the ACS group than in the CAD group. Conclusion. Circulating levels of pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-23A, IL-27, IL-33, and IL-37, may be associated with the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in ACS patients. PMID:26504600

  13. Hemiconvulsion-Hemiplegia-Epilepsy syndrome associated with inflammatory-degenerative hystopathological findings in child with congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Serino, Domenico; Camassei, Francesca Diomedi; Delalande, Olivier; Marras, Carlo E; Specchio, Nicola; Vigevano, Federico; Fusco, Lucia

    2014-05-01

    Hemiconvulsion-Hemiplegia (HH) syndrome represents an uncommon consequence of prolonged unilateral clonic or hemiconvulsive status epilepticus in childhood, usually occurring during a febrile illness, followed by ipsilateral hemiplegia. The subsequent appearance of focal seizures configures the so called Hemiconvulsion-Hemiplegia-Epilepsy (HHE) syndrome. The pathogenesis of HH/HHE syndrome is still unclear. We describe the case of a 4 year-old girl with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) whom developed HH/HHE syndrome with drug resistant seizures at the age of 21 months and underwent left cerebral hemispherotomy at the age of 3 years and 6 months. Histopathological findings showed the presence of an underlying inflammatory-degenerative process. Disregulation of the inflammatory cascade has been proposed as one of the possible pathogenetic mechanisms underlying HH/HHE syndrome. To our knowledge however, this is the first report of an association with a histologically documented inflammatory process. The clinical and histopathological findings of our reported case lend support to the possible role of inflammation in the pathogenesis of HH/HHE syndrome. PMID:24355077

  14. Is circulating endotoxin the trigger for the systemic inflammatory response syndrome seen after injury?

    PubMed Central

    Kelly, J L; O'Sullivan, C; O'Riordain, M; O'Riordain, D; Lyons, A; Doherty, J; Mannick, J A; Rodrick, M L

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Patients with severe traumatic or burn injury and a mouse model of burn injury were studied early after injury to determine the relation of plasma endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide [LPS]) to the production of proinflammatory cytokines and subsequent resistance to infection. SUMMARY BACKGROUND DATA: Elevated levels of plasma LPS have been reported in patients after serious injury. It has been suggested that circulating LPS may be a trigger for increased proinflammatory cytokine production and may play a role in the septic syndromes seen in a substantial portion of such patients. Yet, despite multiple reports of leakage of LPS from the gut and bacterial translocation after injury in animal models, there is little direct evidence linking circulating LPS with production of inflammatory mediators. METHODS: The authors studied serial samples of peripheral blood from 10 patients with 25% to 50% surface area burns and 8 trauma patients (injury Severity Score, 25-57). Patients were compared with 18 healthy volunteers. The study was focused on the first 10 days after injury before the onset of sepsis or the systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Plasma samples were assayed for LPS, and adherent cells from the blood were studied for basal and LPS-stimulated production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1 beta), and interleukin-6 (IL-6). The correlation of increased plasma LPS with TNF-alpha production was studied as was the association of increased plasma LPS and increased TNF-alpha production with subsequent septic complications. We also studied a mouse model of 25% burn injury. Burn mice were compared with sham burn control subjects. Plasma samples were assayed at serial intervals for LPS, and adherent cells from the spleens were studied for basal- and LPS-stimulated production of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. Expression of the messenger RNAs for IL-1 beta and TNF-alpha also was measured. The relation of increased TNF-alpha production with mortality from a septic challenge, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), was determined. Finally, the effect of administration of LPS to normal mice on subsequent mortality after CLP and on TNF-alpha production was studied. RESULTS: Elevated plasma LPS (> 1 pg/mL) was seen in 11 of the 18 patients within 10 days of injury and in no normal control subjects. In this period, patients as compared with control subjects showed increased stimulated production of TNF-alpha, IL-1 beta, and IL-6. Increased TNF-alpha production was not correlated with elevated plasma LPS in the same patients. Neither increased plasma LPS nor increased TNF-alpha production early after injury was correlated with subsequent development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome or sepsis in the patients. Burn mice, as compared with sham burn control subjects, showed elevated plasma LPS levels chiefly in the first 3 days after injury. Increased stimulated production of proinflammatory cytokines by adherent splenocytes from the burn mice also was seen at multiple intervals after injury and did not correlate with mortality from CLP. Increased production of TNF-alpha and IL-1 beta was associated with increased expression of messenger RNAs for these cytokines. Finally, two doses of 1 ng LPS administered 24 hours apart to normal mice had no effect on mortality from CLP performed 7 days later nor on the production of TNF-alpha at the time of CLP. CONCLUSIONS: These findings call into question the idea that circulating LPS is the trigger for increased proinflammatory cytokine production, systemic inflammatory response syndrome, and septic complications in injured patients. Images Figure 6. Figure 7. PMID:9193181

  15. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: the trouble with immunity when you had none

    PubMed Central

    Barber, Daniel L.; Andrade, Bruno B.; Sereti, Irini; Sher, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Some individuals who are infected with HIV rapidly deteriorate shortly after starting antiretroviral therapy, despite effective viral suppression. This reaction, referred to as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), is characterized by tissue-destructive inflammation and arises as CD4+ T cells re-emerge. It has been proposed that IRIS is caused by a dysregulation of the expanding population of CD4+ T cells specific for a co-infecting opportunistic pathogen. Here, we argue that IRIS instead results from hyper-responsiveness of the innate immune system to T cell help, a mechanism that may be shared by the many manifestations of IRIS that occur following the reversal of other types of immunosuppression in pathogen-infected hosts. PMID:22230950

  16. Persistent inflammatory, immunosuppressed, catabolic syndrome (PICS): A new phenotype of multiple organ failure

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Martin D.; Moore, Frederick A.

    2015-01-01

    A new phenotype of multiple organ failure has appeared: Persistent Inflammatory, Immunosuppressed, Catabolic Syndrome (PICS). Comorbidities and age >65 years have been established as the leading risk factors for PICS. As the percentage of elderly people continues to increase the prevalence of PICS in our ICUs will surely grow. Malnutrition (despite appropriate supplementation), recurrent nosocomial infections, frailty, ventilator dependence, and an indolent death depicts the central theme that plagues PICS patients. Aligned with the recently awarded P50 grant by NIGMS entitled, “PICS: A New Horizon for Surgical Critical Care”, and the University Of Florida’s Sepsis and Critical Illness Research Center will investigate the genetic make-up of PICS patients, better understand frailty and the implication in trauma patients, and hopefully elucidate new therapies. Currently, there are no therapies to combat PICS aside from nutritional inference elaborated after reviewing the literature on Burns, Cachexia, and Sarcopenia. PMID:26086042

  17. Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by carbon tetrachloride in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gergely, J.; Sipka, S.; Csípő, J.; Udvardy, M.; Szegedi, Gy.; Kulcsár, A.

    1997-01-01

    We have observed the symptoms of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in male rats intoxicated by carbon tetrachloride (CCl4). Severe hypothermia, tachypnoea and increase in the heart beat min were diagnosed. These symptoms developed in the first hour of intoxication. The hepatic dysfunction was characterized by elevated bilirubin levels. In the sera we have measured increases in the activity of secretable (group II) phospholipase A2 sPLA2 (2,8x) and 6-ketoprostaglandin F1α (KPGF) (1,44x). Supposedly the free radicals derived from CCl4—mainly trichloromethyl—could induce the prompt reaction of SIRS and the release of sPLA2 as well as the formation of KPGF. Our findings show that in the early phase of CCl4 intoxication the symptoms of SIRS can be related to elevation of sPLA2 and the products of cyclooxygenase II. PMID:18472838

  18. Integrated systemic inflammatory response syndrome epidemic model in scale-free networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Shao-Hong; Zhang, Da-Min; Gong, Guang-Wu; Guo, Chang-Rui

    2011-09-01

    Based on the scale-free network, an integrated systemic inflammatory response syndrome model with artificial immunity, a feedback mechanism, crowd density and the moving activities of an individual can be built. The effects of these factors on the spreading process are investigated through the model. The research results show that the artificial immunity can reduce the stable infection ratio and enhance the spreading threshold of the system. The feedback mechanism can only reduce the stable infection ratio of system, but cannot affect the spreading threshold of the system. The bigger the crowd density is, the higher the infection ratio of the system is and the smaller the spreading threshold is. In addition, the simulations show that the individual movement can enhance the stable infection ratio of the system only under the condition that the spreading rate is high, however, individual movement will reduce the stable infection ratio of the system.

  19. Testicular trauma resulting in shock and systemic inflammatory response syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Okonkwo, Kingsley C; Wong, Kristin G; Cho, Cheng T; Gilmer, Lisa

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Acute painful scrotum in children may be associated with torsion of the testis, hematocele, epididymitis and direct testicular injury with hematoma formation. More frequently, however, acute scrotum occurs without a precipitating factor. While most traumatic testicular injuries resolve with conservative management, many require surgical exploration and some are life-threatening. Case presentation A 13-year-old boy with a history of testicular trauma presented with severe scrotal swelling and shock. This case study examines the presentation and possible role of cytokines in the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome in a child with acute traumatic epididymitis. Conclusion Post-traumatic epididymitis presenting as shock in boys is rarely reported. We advocate early recognition of the chain of events leading to clinical presentation of shock and prompt treatment to preserve testicular viability. PMID:18577243

  20. The Mediterranean diet adoption improves metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory abnormalities in Algerian metabolic syndrome patients.

    PubMed

    Bekkouche, L; Bouchenak, M; Malaisse, W J; Yahia, D Ait

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effects of Mediterranean diet (MD) adoption on insulin resistance, oxidative, and inflammatory status in metabolic syndrome (MS) patients. Eighty four patients with MS were randomly recruited in the medical centers of Oran, Algeria. Eighteen healthy participants were selected as a control group. Among these 84 patients, only 36 patients completed the nutritional advices for 3 months. Patients were instructed to follow a Mediterranean-style diet and received some other selected nutritional and physical activity instructions. Anthropometric measurements were performed and a questionnaire was used to assess dietary intake. Blood samples were drawn at baseline and after 3 months of nutritional intervention from all subjects. At baseline, the MS patients were obese and had altered anthropometric parameters, higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma lipids, glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, urea, creatinine, uric acid, and lower albumin compared to healthy subjects. A decrease in plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet antioxidant enzymes, and a rise in lipid and protein oxidation, plasma CRP, and fibrinogen were noted in the MS patients. Moreover, they had an unbalanced dietary pattern when compared to Mediterranean recommendations. Patients following the Mediterranean-style diet had significantly reduced weight, BMI, waist circumference, waist/hip circumference ratio, decreased systolic and diastolic blood pressure, plasma glucose, insulin, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, cholesterol, triacylglycerols, CRP, urea, creatinine, creatinine clearance, lipid and protein oxidation, and higher plasma, erythrocyte, and platelet antioxidant enzymes. In conclusion, a lifestyle intervention based mainly on nutritional advices improves metabolic, oxidative, and inflammatory abnormalities of metabolic syndrome. PMID:24446153

  1. Periplaneta americana extract used in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hong-wei; Wei, Li-you; Zhao, Gang; Yang, Ya-jing; Liu, Shu-zheng; Zhang, Zhen-yu; Jing, Zhang; Hu, Yan-ling

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Periplaneta americana extract is recognized to have a positive effect on gastrointestinal mucosa. This study aimed to investigate the effects of periplaneta americana extract on immune function, nutrition status and gastrointestinal complications of early enteral nutrition patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). METHODS: Patients with SIRS were randomly divided into two groups: treatment and control groups. All patients in the two groups received conventional therapy including enteral nutrition, but periplaneta americana extract, an additional Chinese medicine, was given to the patients in the treatment group. At the beginning of treatment (0 day) and 1, 3, and 7 days after treatment, the levels of immunoglobulin (IgA), total lymphocyte count (TLC), total protein (TP) and prealbumin (PA) were respectively tested in patients’ venous blood. The incidences of bloating, diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia and high blood sugar at 7 days after treatment were recorded. The mortality of the patients in 28 days was recorded. RESULTS: At 3 and 7 days after treatment, the levels of IgA and TLC in the treatment group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). At 7 days after treatment, the levels of TP and PA in the treatment group were higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The incidences of bloating and diarrhea in the treatment group were lower than those in the control group, the differences were significant (P<0.05). The mortality of treatment group was lower than that of the control group (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Periplaneta americana extract could reduce gastrointestinal complications and improve immune function and nutritional status in patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

  2. [Irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: Is there a connection?].

    PubMed

    Mearin, Fermín; Perelló, Antonia; Balboa, Agustín

    2009-05-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is one of the most common functional gastrointestinal disorders and is that with the greatest socioeconomic impact worldwide. Diagnosis of IBS is based on clinical criteria that have been modified over time, the Rome II criteria being those that are currently followed. Some of the symptoms of IBS are similar to those in patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which can hamper or delay diagnosis. The use of inflammatory markers in stools (such as calprotectin) may help to distinguish between these two entities. A possible connection between IBS and IBD could be based on five points: (i) both disorders have similar symptoms; (ii) symptoms often overlap in the same patients; (iii) IBS and IBD have a common familial aggregation; (iv) some predisposing factors, such as a history of acute gastroenteritis, play a role in both disorders, and (v) importantly, signs of microinflammation are found in the bowels of patients with IBS. With regard to this latter point, an increase in inflammatory cells has been found in the intestinal mucosa of patients with IBS and, more specifically, mastocytes have been found to be increased in the jejunum and colon while CD3 and CD25 intraepithelial lymphocytes have be observed to be increased in the colon. Moreover, activated mastocytes are increased near to nerve endings in patients with IBS and this finding has been correlated with the intensity of both intestinal symptoms (abdominal pain) and psychological symptoms (depression and fatigue). A good model of microinflammation is post-infectious IBS, since the timing of the onset of the infectious process is known. In patients with post-infectious IBS, an increase in intraepithelial lymphocytes and enterochromaffin cells is initially found, which is reduced over time; consequently, although the symptoms of IBS persist, after 3 years no differences are detected in the number of inflammatory cells between IBS patients and controls. Among the various factors that can favor the development of IBS in these patients, two host-dependent mechanisms are most closely implicated in the physiopathology of IBS: polymorphism of the genes codifying pro- or anti-inflammatory cytokines and psychological factors such as anxiety, depression, somatization and neuroticism at the time of the acute infection. In view of all of the above, the similarities between IBS and IBD are probably more than mere coincidence and may reflect distinct manifestations of a broad spectrum of inflammation in the colon. PMID:19442413

  3. Surgical management of malignant cerebral edema secondary to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome from natalizumab-associated progressive multifocal encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lee A; Lopes, Demetrius K

    2015-10-01

    We report a rare multiple sclerosis (MS) patient who developed malignant cerebral edema related to progressive multifocal encephalopathy (PML) immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) after natalizumab discontinuation. The patient subsequently required a decompressive hemicraniectomy to reduce intracranial pressure and to avoid uncal herniation. PML is a demyelinating disease of the central nervous system (CNS) which affects oligodendrocytes and is caused by reactivation of latent John Cunningham virus. Natalizumab is a known risk factor (1 in 1000) for MS patients treated with this drug. Discontinuation of natalizumab treatment decreases the risk of PML progression, but a massive inflammatory response can occur after cell-mediated immune surveillance is reestablished in the CNS, causing immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Treatment of IRIS usually consists of steroids and plasma exchange to lessen the immune response, however, mortality has been reported at up to 29.4%, despite aggressive medical treatment. We discuss our management strategy with a review of the pertinent literature. PMID:26115897

  4. Metabolism of Albumin after Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration in Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Qin, Xiaodong; Li, Guanwei; Zhou, Bo; Gu, Guosheng; Hong, Zhiwu; Aa, JiYe; Li, Jieshou

    2015-01-01

    Background. The systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is characterized by a hypercatabolic state induced by inflammatory mediators. Continuous venovenous hemofiltration (CVVH) stabilizes the internal environment but also aggravates loss of amino acids. The effect of CVVH on protein dynamics is largely unknown. We adopted the stable isotopic tracer technology to investigate how CVVH changed serum albumin metabolism. Methods. Twenty SIRS patients were randomized into low- (2000?mL/h) and high- (4000?mL/h) volume CVVH groups according to the rate of replacement fluid. Eight patients with abdominal infection matched for age, sex, and laboratory index served as controls. Consecutive arterial blood samples were drawn during a primed-constant infusion of two stable isotopes to determine the albumin fractional synthesis rate (FSR) and fractional breakdown rate (FBR). Results. Before treatment, there was no significant difference of FSR and FBR among 3 groups. After CVVH, the albumin FSR in high- and low-volume groups was 7.75??1.08% and 7.30??0.89%, respectively, both higher than in the control (5.83??0.94%). There was no significant difference in albumin FBR after treatment. Conclusions. Protein dynamic indicators could reflect protein synthesis and breakdown state directly and effectively. CVVH increased albumin synthesis, while the breakdown rate remained at a high level independently of the CVVH rate. PMID:25650044

  5. Symptomatology of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease during the menstrual cycle

    PubMed Central

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Barber, Matthew D.; Graff, Lesley A.; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Gender-related physiological variations in gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology have been observed in women of reproductive age. Many women experience cyclical changes in GI symptomatology during their menstrual cycle, particularly alteration in their bowel habits. Physiological studies of healthy women during the menstrual cycle showed a prolonged GI transit time during the luteal phase, either in the oro-cecum route or in the colon. Worsened GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating or diarrhea are observed in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) during menses. This may be due to elevated prostaglandin levels during menses, with an enhanced perception of viscera-somatic stimuli resulting in nausea, abdominal distension and pain. Also patients with IBS or IBD demonstrate a cyclical pattern more closely related to their bowel habits than healthy controls. Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also have exacerbated symptoms during menses; however, it is unclear whether this relates to physiological variation or disease exacerbation in IBS or IBD. Studies examining the association of the menstrual cycle and GI symptomatology in patients with IBS or IBD, have not yet clarified the underlying mechanisms. Moreover medications—such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral contraceptive pills used for dysmenorrhea and menstrual migraine in those patients have not well been controlled for in the previous studies, which can contribute to further bias. Understanding changes in GI symptomatology during the menstrual cycle may help to determine the true extent of disease exacerbation and proper management strategy. PMID:25788484

  6. Symptomatology of irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease during the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Bharadwaj, Shishira; Barber, Matthew D; Graff, Lesley A; Shen, Bo

    2015-08-01

    Gender-related physiological variations in gastrointestinal (GI) symptomatology have been observed in women of reproductive age. Many women experience cyclical changes in GI symptomatology during their menstrual cycle, particularly alteration in their bowel habits. Physiological studies of healthy women during the menstrual cycle showed a prolonged GI transit time during the luteal phase, either in the oro-cecum route or in the colon. Worsened GI symptoms, such as abdominal pain, bloating or diarrhea are observed in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) during menses. This may be due to elevated prostaglandin levels during menses, with an enhanced perception of viscera-somatic stimuli resulting in nausea, abdominal distension and pain. Also patients with IBS or IBD demonstrate a cyclical pattern more closely related to their bowel habits than healthy controls. Women with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) also have exacerbated symptoms during menses; however, it is unclear whether this relates to physiological variation or disease exacerbation in IBS or IBD. Studies examining the association of the menstrual cycle and GI symptomatology in patients with IBS or IBD, have not yet clarified the underlying mechanisms. Moreover medications-such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and oral contraceptive pills used for dysmenorrhea and menstrual migraine in those patients have not well been controlled for in the previous studies, which can contribute to further bias. Understanding changes in GI symptomatology during the menstrual cycle may help to determine the true extent of disease exacerbation and proper management strategy. PMID:25788484

  7. [Phenotypes of Charcot-Marie-Tooth Syndrome and Differential Diagnosis Focused in Inflammatory Neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Iijima, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), the most frequent form of inherited neuropathy, is a genetically heterogeneous syndrome of the peripheral nervous system with a rather homologous clinical phenotype (slowly progressive distal weakness and muscle atrophy, skeletal deformities, and areflexia in each limb). CMT1 is the autosomal-dominant demyelinating form, and CMT1A (mostly PMP22 duplication) is the most frequent subtype, followed by CMTX1, HNPP (hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies), CMT1B, or CMT2. As CMT is characterized by slowly progressive motor and sensory disturbances in each limb, it could be misdiagnosed as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) occasionally. Some points can distinguish demyelinating CMT from CIDP. CMT1 patients do not show the conduction block that is frequent in CIDP. In addition, ultrasonographic findings are useful because CMT1 suggests diffuse enlargement of peripheral nerves, whereas CIDP is characterized by asymmetrical or focal enlargement of peripheral nerves. Some CMT1 cases show favorable responses to immunomodulating therapeutics such as corticosteroids, IVIg, and plasma exchange. Such CIDP-like CMT1 (especially CMT1B or CMT2A) shows moderate to high levels of cerebrospinal fluid protein and infiltrated inflammatory macrophages. PMID:26764297

  8. Cinnamaldehyde modulates LPS-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Mendes, Saulo J F; Sousa, Fernanda I A B; Pereira, Domingos M S; Ferro, Thiago A F; Pereira, Ione C P; Silva, Bruna L R; Pinheiro, Aruanã J M C R; Mouchrek, Adriana Q S; Monteiro-Neto, Valério; Costa, Soraia K P; Nascimento, José L M; Grisotto, Marcos A G; da Costa, Robson; Fernandes, Elizabeth S

    2016-05-01

    Cinnamaldehyde is a natural essential oil suggested to possess anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory properties; and to activate transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1) channels expressed on neuronal and non-neuronal cells. Here, we investigated the immunomodulatory effects of cinnamaldehyde in an in vivo model of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) induced by lipopolysaccharide. Swiss mice received a single oral treatment with cinnamaldehyde 1h before LPS injection. To investigate whether cinnamaldehyde effects are dependent on TRPA1 activation, animals were treated subcutaneously with the selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031 5min prior to cinnamaldehyde administration. Vehicle-treated mice were used as controls. Cinnamaldehyde ameliorated SIRS severity in LPS-injected animals. Diminished numbers of circulating mononuclear cells and increased numbers of peritoneal mononuclear and polymorphonuclear cell numbers were also observed. Cinnamaldehyde augmented the number of peritoneal Ly6C(high) and Ly6C(low) monocyte/macrophage cells in LPS-injected mice. Reduced levels of nitric oxide, plasma TNFα and plasma and peritoneal IL-10 were also detected. Additionally, IL-1β levels were increased in the same animals. TRPA1 antagonism by HC-030031 reversed the changes in the number of circulating and peritoneal leukocytes in cinnamaldehyde-treated animals, whilst increasing the levels of peritoneal IL-10 and reducing peritoneal IL-1β. Overall, cinnamaldehyde modulates SIRS through TRPA1-dependent and independent mechanisms. PMID:26922677

  9. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5: In Vitro Cytotoxicity Effects on Renal Tubular Cells and Inflammatory Profile

    PubMed Central

    Brocca, Alessandra; Virzì, Grazia Maria; Pasqualin, Chiara; Pastori, Silvia; Marcante, Stefano; de Cal, Massimo; Ronco, Claudio

    2015-01-01

    Background. Cardiorenal Syndrome Type 5 (CRS Type 5) reflects concomitant cardiac and renal dysfunctions in the setting of a wide spectrum of systemic disorders. Our aim was to study in vitro effects of CRS Type 5 plasma on renal tubular cells (RTCs), in terms of cellular death and the characterization of inflammatory plasma profile in these patients. Material and Methods. We enrolled 11 CRS Type 5 patients from ICU and 16 healthy controls. Plasma from patients and controls was incubated with renal tubular cells (RTCs) and cell death was evaluated. Plasma cytokines were detected. Results. RTCs incubated with CRS Type 5 plasma showed significantly higher apoptosis and necrosis with respect to controls. Plasma cytokine profile of CRS Type 5 patients was significantly different from controls: we observed the production of pro- and anti-inflammatory mediators in these patients. Caspase-3, caspase-8, and caspase-9 were activated in cells treated with CRS Type 5 plasma compared to controls. Conclusions. Our results underline the cytotoxic effect of CRS Type 5 mediators on RTC viability, probably due to the activation of both intrinsic and extrinsic pathways of apoptosis and to the deregulation of cytokine release. The consequence may be the damage of distant organs which lead to the worsening of condition of patients. PMID:26266085

  10. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs attenuate the vascular responses in aging metabolic syndrome rats

    PubMed Central

    Rubio-Ruiz, María Esther; Pérez-Torres, Israel; Diaz-Diaz, Eulises; Pavón, Natalia; Guarner-Lans, Verónica

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Metabolic syndrome (MS) and aging are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions, and inflammation is a key component of endothelial dysfunction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) upon the vascular reactivity in aging MS rats. Methods: MS was induced in young male rats by adding 30% sucrose in drinking water over 6, 12, and 18 months. When the treatment was finished, the blood samples were collected, and aortas were dissected out. The expression of COX isoenzymes and PLA2 in the aortas was analyzed using Western blot analysis. The contractile responses of aortic rings to norepinephrine (1 μmol/L) were measured in the presence or absence of different NSAIDs (10 μmol/L for each). Results: Serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-6, TNF-α, and IL-1β) in control rats were remained stable during the aging process, whereas serum IL-6 in MS rats were significantly increased at 12 and 18 months. The levels of COX isoenzyme and PLA2 in aortas from control rats increased with the aging, whereas those in aortas from MS rats were irregularly increased with the highest levels at 6 months. Pretreatment with acetylsalicylic acid (a COX-1 preferential inhibitor), indomethacin (a non-selective COX inhibitor) or meloxicam (a COX-2 preferential inhibitor) decreased NE-induced contractions of aortic rings from MS rats at all the ages, with meloxicam being the most potent. Acetylsalicylic acid also significantly reduced the maximum responses of ACh-induced vasorelaxation of aortic rings from MS rats, but indomethacin and meloxicam had no effect. Conclusion: NSAIDs can directly affect vascular responses in aging MS rats. Understanding the effects of NSAIDs on blood vessels may improve the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and MS in the elders. PMID:25263337

  11. Nicolau Syndrome after intramuscular injection of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID)

    PubMed Central

    Dadaci, Mehmet; Altuntas, Zeynep; Ince, Bilsev; Bilgen, Fatma; Tufekci, Osman; Poyraz, Necdet

    2015-01-01

    Nicolau syndrome is a rare complication of intramuscular injection that leads to local ischemic necrosis of the skin and adipose tissue. In this paper, we discuss etiologies, risk factors, and treatment options for gluteal Nicolau syndrome referring to patients treated in our hospital. Our study includes 17 women who visited our clinic with symptoms of gluteal necrosis secondary to intramuscular injection. The following variables were taken into account: injection site, drug administered, frequency of injections, the person who administered the injections, needle size, and needle tip color. Magnetic resonance images obtained in the aftermath of intramuscular injection application were carefully analyzed for presence of necrosis, cyst formation and the thickness of the gluteal fat tissue layer. Drugs that had been received in intramuscular injection were exclusively non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. Mean patient BMI was 41.8 (all patients were considered as obese), and mean gluteal fat thickness was 54 mm. Standard length of needles (3.8 cm) had been used in procedures. The wounds were treated with primary closure in 11 patients and with local flap therapy in 6 patients. The observed necrosis was a consequence of misplaced gluteal injection, where drugs were injected into the adipose tissue instead of the muscle due to the extreme thickness of the fat layer, on one hand, and the inappropriate length of standard needles, on the other hand. Intramuscular injection should be avoided in obese patients whenever possible if it is necessary, proper injection technique should be used. PMID:25725145

  12. New Insights into immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome of the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Tory P.; Nath, Avindra

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review To highlight the importance of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) affecting the brain in HIV-infected individuals in the absence of opportunistic infections. To describe the varied clinical manifestations, unifying pathophysiological features and discuss the principles of management of this syndrome. Recent Findings IRIS within the brain is commonly seen in patients with HIV infection upon initiation of antiretroviral drugs. The fulminant forms occur in the face of opportunistic infections or uncontrolled viral replication within the brain. In this case the enhanced immune response is targeted against the microbial agent, and the brain suffers bystander damage. Treatment requires the combination of the antimicrobial agent, continued antiretrovirals and in some cases corticosteroids. It is increasingly being recognized that despite adequate control of viral replication in the brain some patients develop a chronic form of T cell encephalitis which appears to be driven by continued production of HIV-Tat protein. In others the immune response may be targeted against the host antigens in the brain. Summary In patients with CNS-IRIS the use of corticosteroids and strategies that prevent T cell migration into the brain may be needed. Extreme caution is necessary if viral eradication strategies are to employed that involve activation of viral reservoirs, since these patients may be at risk for developing CNS-IRIS. PMID:25275706

  13. Salvage treatment with ganciclovir in a splenectomized, polytransfused patient affected by systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Torres, D; Parrinello, G; Bellanca, M; Marrone, R; Cuttitta, F; Virzi', G; Pizzo, G; Petrantoni, R; Licata, G

    2014-01-01

    A 23-year-old man was admitted to hospital with a 12-day history of daily fever. A clinical history revealed that 10 months previously, the patient had been splenectomized and polytransfused for a severe blunt trauma. On admission, laboratory data revealed significant leukocytosis (33,230/ul). The patient's general clinical conditions rapidly worsened into a severe systemic inflammatory response syndrome in four days. After 10 days of broad-spectrum antibiotic treatment, the temperature curve was unmodified and severe leukocytosis persisted (44,300 ul) with absolute lymphocytosis. Laboratory tests ruled out hematological diseases, pneumonia, abscesses and endocarditis. In the light of IgM positivity for CMV (unconfirmed by PCR) and with the support of a PubMed search, we commenced a salvage treatment with intravenous ganciclovir, suspecting a viral infection or reactivation. After two days of therapy, an immediate defervescence was observed with a remarkable clinical improvement. After 10 days, the clinical syndrome had been completely resolved and the patient was discharged in good, general clinical health. PMID:25004839

  14. Hypothalamus-Pituitary-Adrenal cell-mediated immunity regulation in the Immune Restoration Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khakshooy, Allen; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    Over one third of the patients sero-positive for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) with signs of the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS), and under treatment with anti-retroviral therapy (ART), develop the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). It is not clear what variables are that determine whether a patient with HIV/AIDS will develop ART-related IRIS, but the best evidence base thus far indicates that HIV/AIDS patients with low CD4 cell count, and HIV/AIDS patients whose CD4 count recovery shows a sharp slope, suggesting a particularly fast "immune reconstitution", are at greater risk of developing IRIS. Here, we propose the hypothesis that one important variable that can contribute to low CD4 cell count number and function in ART-treated HIV/AIDS patients is altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) cell-mediated immune (CMI) regulation. We discuss HPA-CMI deregulation in IRIS as the new frontier in comparative effectiveness research (CRE) for obtaining and utilizing the best evidence base for treatment of patients with HIV/AIDS in specific clinical settings. We propose that our hypothesis about altered HPA-CMI may extend to the pathologies observed in related viral infection, including Zika

  15. Diabetic foot syndrome: Immune-inflammatory features as possible cardiovascular markers in diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tuttolomondo, Antonino; Maida, Carlo; Pinto, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic foot ulcerations have been extensively reported as vascular complications of diabetes mellitus associated with a high degree of morbidity and mortality. Diabetic foot syndrome (DFS), as defined by the World Health Organization, is an “ulceration of the foot (distally from the ankle and including the ankle) associated with neuropathy and different grades of ischemia and infection”. Pathogenic events able to cause diabetic foot ulcers are multifactorial. Among the commonest causes of this pathogenic pathway it’s possible to consider peripheral neuropathy, foot deformity, abnormal foot pressures, abnormal joint mobility, trauma, peripheral artery disease. Several studies reported how diabetic patients show a higher mortality rate compared to patients without diabetes and in particular these studies under filled how cardiovascular mortality and morbidity is 2-4 times higher among patients affected by type 2 diabetes mellitus. This higher degree of cardiovascular morbidity has been explained as due to the observed higher prevalence of major cardiovascular risk factor, of asymptomatic findings of cardiovascular diseases, and of prevalence and incidence of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events in diabetic patients with foot complications. In diabetes a fundamental pathogenic pathway of most of vascular complications has been reported as linked to a complex interplay of inflammatory, metabolic and procoagulant variables. These pathogenetic aspects have a direct interplay with an insulin resistance, subsequent obesity, diabetes, hypertension, prothrombotic state and blood lipid disorder. Involvement of inflammatory markers such as IL-6 plasma levels and resistin in diabetic subjects as reported by Tuttolomondo et al confirmed the pathogenetic issue of the a “adipo-vascular” axis that may contribute to cardiovascular risk in patients with type 2 diabetes. This “adipo-vascular axis” in patients with type 2 diabetes has been reported as characterized by lower plasma levels of adiponectin and higher plasma levels of interleukin-6 thus linking foot ulcers pathogenesis to microvascular and inflammatory events. The purpose of this review is to highlight the immune inflammatory features of DFS and its possible role as a marker of cardiovascular risk in diabetes patients and to focus the management of major complications related to diabetes such as infections and peripheral arteriopathy. PMID:25621212

  16. CD11d integrin blockade reduces the systemic inflammatory response syndrome after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Bao, Feng; Brown, Arthur; Dekaban, Gregory A.; Omana, Vanessa; Weaver, Lynne C.

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic injury to the spinal cord triggers a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), in which inflammatory cells from the circulation invade organs such as the liver, lung and kidney, leading to damage of these organs. Our previous study (Gris, et al, Exp. Neurol, 2008) demonstrated that spinal cord injury (SCI) activates circulating neutrophils that then invade the lung and kidney from 2 to 24 h after injury, increasing myeloperoxidase activity, cyclooxygenase-2 and matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression and lipid peroxidation in these organs. The present study was designed to ascertain whether a treatment that limits the influx of leukocytes into the injured spinal cord would also be effective in reducing the SIRS after SCI. This treatment is intravenous delivery of a monoclonal antibody (mAb) against the CD11d subunit of the CD11d/CD18 integrin expressed by neutrophils and monocytes. We delivered the anti-CD11d mAb at 2 h post moderate clip compression SCI at the 4th or 12th thoracic segments and assessed inflammation, oxidative activity and cellular damage within the lung, kidney and liver at 12 h post-injury. In some analyses we compared high and low thoracic injuries to evaluate the importance of injury level on the intensity of the SIRS. After T4 injury, treatment with the anti-integrin mAb reduced the presence of neutrophils and macrophages in the lung, with associated decreases in expression of NF-κB and oxidative enzymes and in the concentration of free radicals in this organ. The treatment also reduced lipid peroxidation, protein nitration and cell death in the lung. The anti-CD11d treatment also reduced the inflammatory cells within the kidney after T4 injury, as well as the free radical concentration and amount of lipid peroxidation. In the liver, the mAb treatment reduced the influx of neutrophils but most of the other measures examined were unaffected by SCI. The inflammatory responses within the lung and kidney were often greater after T4 than T12 injury. Clinical studies show that SIRS, with its associated organ failure, contributes significantly to the morbidity and mortality of SCI patients. This anti-integrin treatment may block the onset of SIRS after SCI. PMID:21784069

  17. Effect of lornoxicam in lung inflammatory response syndrome after operations for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Vretzkakis, Giorgos; Mikroulis, Dimitris; Mpakas, Andreas; Kesisis, Georgios; Arikas, Stamatis; Kolettas, Alexandros; Moschos, Giorgios; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Machairiotis, Nikolaos; Tsiouda, Theodora; Siminelakis, Stavros; Beleveslis, Thomas; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background The establishment of Extracorporeal Circulation (EC) significantly contributed to improvement of cardiac surgery, but this is accompanied by harmful side-effects. The most important of them is systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Many efforts have been undertaken to minimize this problem but unfortunately without satisfied solution to date. Materials and methods Lornoxicam is a non steroid anti-inflammatory drug which temporally inhibits the cycloxygenase. In this clinical trial we study the effect of lornoxicam in lung inflammatory response after operations for cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. In our study we conclude 14 volunteers patients with ischemic coronary disease undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting with EC. In seven of them 16 mg lornoxicam was administered iv before the anesthesia induction and before the connection in heart-lung machine. In control group (7 patients) we administered the same amount of normal saline. Results Both groups are equal regarding pro-operative and intra-operative parameters. The inflammatory markers were calculated by Elisa method. We measured the levels of cytokines (IL-6, IL-8, TNF-a), adhesion molecules (ICAM-1, e-Selectin, p-Selectin) and matrix metaloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) just after anesthesia induction, before and after cardiopulmonary bypass, just after the patients administration in ICU and after 8 and 24 hrs. In all patients we estimated the lung’s inflammatory reaction with lung biopsy taken at the begging and at the end of the operation. We calculated hemodynamics parameters: Cardiac Index (CI), Systemic Vascular Resistance Index (SVRI), Pulmonary Vascular Resistance Index (PVRI), Left Ventricular Stroke Work Index (LVSWI), Right Ventricular Stroke Work Index (RVSWI), and the Pulmonary arterial pressure, and respiratory parameters too: alveolo-arterial oxygen difference D (A-a), intrapulmonary shunt (Qs/Qt) and pulmonary Compliance. IL-6 levels of lornoxicam group were statistical significant lower at 1st postoperative day compared to them of control group (113±49 and 177±20 respectively, P=0.008). ICAM-1 levels were statistical significant lower at the patient admission in ICU, compared to them of control group (177±29 and 217±22 respectively, P=0.014), and the 1st postoperative day compared to them in control group (281±134 and 489±206 respectively, P=0.045). P-selectin levels were statistical significant lower, compared to them in control group in four measurements (97±23 and 119±7 respectively, P=0.030, 77±19 and 101±20 respectively, P=0.044, 86±4 and 105±13 respectively, P=0.06, 116±13 and 158±17 respectively, P=0.000). Conclusions Hemodynamics and respiratory parameters were improved compared to control group, but these differences was not statistical significant. Eosinofil adhesion and sequestration in intermediate tissue of lung parenchyma were significantly lower compared to control group. Also, alveolar edema was not noted in lornoxicam’s group. Lornoxicam reduce the inflammatory response in patients undergone coronary artery bypass grafting with extracorporeal circulation. This calculated from levels reduction of IL-6, ICAM-1 και p-Selectin, and from lung pathologoanatomic examination (absence of alveolar edema, reduce in eosinofil adhesion and sequestration in intermediate tissues). Despite the favorable effect of lornoxicam on the hemodinamics and respiratory parameters these improvement did not seem to be statistical significant. PMID:24672701

  18. CIRCULATING INFLAMMATORY MARKERS IN POLYCYSTIC OVARY SYNDROME: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW AND META-ANALYSIS

    PubMed Central

    Escobar-Morreale, Héctor F.; Luque-Ramírez, Manuel; González, Frank

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review and meta-analyse the studies evaluating the status of serum inflammatory markers in women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS). Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of articles published in English before January 2010 and identified using the Entrez-PubMed engine. Setting Academic hospital Interventions Measurement of serum concentrations of inflammatory markers by high-sensitivity techniques. Main Outcome Measures Meta-analyses of the mean difference in serum C-reactive protein (CRP), interlekin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) concentrations among patients with PCOS and appropriate controls, applying random-effects models to limit interstudy variability, and using appropriate estimates of evidence dissemination bias. Results Meta-analysis of the 31 articles meeting inclusion criteria showed that circulating CRP was 96% higher in women with PCOS compared to controls (95% confidence interval 71% – 122%, z = 7.32, p < 0.0001) without evidence dissemination bias (Egger’s regression intercept 0.45, 95% confidence interval −2.30 – 3.21, P = 0.739). These findings persisted after excluding five studies with mismatches in body mass and/or frequency of obesity between women with PCOS and controls. Meta-analyses involving 10 studies of IL-6, and 9 studies of TNF-α revealed no statistically significant differences between PCOS and controls. Conclusion Women with PCOS exhibit elevation in circulating CRP that is independent of obesity. This finding corroborates existing molecular evidence of the chronic low-grade inflammation that may underpin the pathogenesis of this disorder. PMID:21168133

  19. The impact of inflammatory rheumatic diseases on the presentation, severity, and outcome of acute coronary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ben-Zvi, Ilan; Goldenberg, Ilan; Matetzky, Shlomi; Grossman, Chagai; Elis, Avishay; Gavrielov-Yusim, Natalie; Livneh, Avi

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory rheumatic diseases (IRD) have a high burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), leading to increased mortality and morbidity. However, it is not clear whether increased CVD mortality in IRD is due to a higher incidence or worse outcome of cardiovascular events (higher case fatality). In this observational case-control study, we assessed the outcome of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in patients with IRDs compared to matched controls without IRD, using data from the Acute Coronary Syndrome Israeli Survey (ACSIS), a large, national, real-life registry detailing the extent, severity, and outcome of ACS. Of 2,193 subjects enrolled to the ACSIS, 20 (nine men) were identified with IRD, including 11 patients with rheumatoid arthritis, five patients with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), three patients with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), and one patient with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The study patients were compared to 120 matched control patients (adjusted for age and risk factors for CVD) without IRD. Compared to controls, IRD patients had similar clinical presentation and similar type of ACS and received identical initial treatment at the ER. The two groups had comparable rates of complications including major adverse cardiovascular events (death, recurrent myocardial infarction, stroke, major bleeding, and definite stent thrombosis) (10 vs. 11.7 % in the study and control group, respectively, p > 0.05), re-hospitalization (20 vs. 21.1 %, respectively, p > 0.05), and severe congestive heart failure (7.7 vs. 6.9 %, respectively, p > 0.05) within 30 days. The outcome and prognosis of ACS in patients with IRD is not worse than that of control, supporting the higher prevalence of CVD in this population as the cause for their excess mortality. PMID:24928341

  20. Docosahexaenoic Acid, Inflammation, and Bacterial Dysbiosis in Relation to Periodontal Disease, Inflammatory Bowel Disease, and the Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tabbaa, Maria; Golubic, Mladen; Roizen, Michael F.; Bernstein, Adam M.

    2013-01-01

    Docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), a long-chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid, has been used to treat a range of different conditions, including periodontal disease (PD) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). That DHA helps with these oral and gastrointestinal diseases in which inflammation and bacterial dysbiosis play key roles, raises the question of whether DHA may assist in the prevention or treatment of other inflammatory conditions, such as the metabolic syndrome, which have also been linked with inflammation and alterations in normal host microbial populations. Here we review established and investigated associations between DHA, PD, and IBD. We conclude that by beneficially altering cytokine production and macrophage recruitment, the composition of intestinal microbiota and intestinal integrity, lipopolysaccharide- and adipose-induced inflammation, and insulin signaling, DHA may be a key tool in the prevention of metabolic syndrome. PMID:23966110

  1. Correlation Between Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease.

    PubMed

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Hung, Peir-Haur; Chung, Chi-Jung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-11-01

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been investigated in Western countries and identified to be associated with chronic pelvic pain and inflammation. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a complex syndrome that is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. Chronic pelvic pain is a main symptom of BPS/IC, and chronic inflammation is a major etiology of BPS/IC. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between BPS/IC and PID using a population-based dataset.We constructed a case-control study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance program. The case cohort comprised 449 patients with BPS/IC, and 1796 randomly selected subjects (about 1:4 matching) were used as controls. A Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to estimate the association between BPS/IC and PID.Of the 2245 sampled subjects, a significant difference was observed in the prevalence of PID between BPS/IC cases and controls (41.7% vs 15.4%, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for PID among cases was 3.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.89-4.71). Furthermore, the ORs for PID among BPS/IC cases were 4.52 (95% CI: 2.55-8.01), 4.31 (95% CI: 2.91-6.38), 3.00 (95% CI: 1.82-4.94), and 5.35 (95% CI: 1.88-15.20) in the <35, 35-49, 50-64, and >65 years age groups, respectively, after adjusting for geographic region, irritable bowel syndrome, and hypertension. Joint effect was also noted, specifically when patients had both PID and irritable bowel disease with OR of 10.5 (95% CI: 4.88-22.50).This study demonstrated a correlation between PID and BPS/IC. Clinicians treating women with PID should be alert to BPS/IC-related symptoms in the population. PMID:26579800

  2. Correlation Between Bladder Pain Syndrome/Interstitial Cystitis and Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Shiu-Dong; Chang, Chao-Hsiang; Hung, Peir-Haur; Chung, Chi-Jung; Muo, Chih-Hsin; Huang, Chao-Yuan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) has been investigated in Western countries and identified to be associated with chronic pelvic pain and inflammation. Bladder pain syndrome/interstitial cystitis (BPS/IC) is a complex syndrome that is significantly more prevalent in women than in men. Chronic pelvic pain is a main symptom of BPS/IC, and chronic inflammation is a major etiology of BPS/IC. This study aimed to investigate the correlation between BPS/IC and PID using a population-based dataset. We constructed a case–control study from the Taiwan National Health Insurance program. The case cohort comprised 449 patients with BPS/IC, and 1796 randomly selected subjects (about 1:4 matching) were used as controls. A Multivariate logistic regression model was constructed to estimate the association between BPS/IC and PID. Of the 2245 sampled subjects, a significant difference was observed in the prevalence of PID between BPS/IC cases and controls (41.7% vs 15.4%, P < 0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that the odds ratio (OR) for PID among cases was 3.69 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.89–4.71). Furthermore, the ORs for PID among BPS/IC cases were 4.52 (95% CI: 2.55–8.01), 4.31 (95% CI: 2.91–6.38), 3.00 (95% CI: 1.82–4.94), and 5.35 (95% CI: 1.88–15.20) in the <35, 35–49, 50–64, and >65 years age groups, respectively, after adjusting for geographic region, irritable bowel syndrome, and hypertension. Joint effect was also noted, specifically when patients had both PID and irritable bowel disease with OR of 10.5 (95% CI: 4.88–22.50). This study demonstrated a correlation between PID and BPS/IC. Clinicians treating women with PID should be alert to BPS/IC-related symptoms in the population. PMID:26579800

  3. Managing Sjögren’s Syndrome and non-Sjögren Syndrome dry eye with anti-inflammatory therapy

    PubMed Central

    Coursey, Terry G; de Paiva, Cintia S

    2014-01-01

    Dry eye from Sjögren’s syndrome is a multifactorial disease that results in dysfunction of the lacrimal functional unit. Studies have shown changes in tear composition, including inflammatory cytokines, chemokines, and metalloproteinase. T-lymphocytes have been shown to increase in the conjunctiva and lacrimal glands in patient and animal models. This inflammation is in part responsible for the pathogenesis of the disease, which results in symptoms of eye irritation, ocular surface epithelial disease, and loss of corneal barrier function. There are a number of anti-inflammatory approaches for treating this disease. The current study reviews details of immune response and anti–inflammatory therapies used to control this disease. PMID:25120351

  4. Inflammatory Biomarkers, Death, and Recurrent Nonfatal Coronary Events After an Acute Coronary Syndrome in the MIRACL Study

    PubMed Central

    Zamani, Payman; Schwartz, Gregory G.; Olsson, Anders G.; Rifai, Nader; Bao, Weihang; Libby, Peter; Ganz, Peter; Kinlay, Scott

    2013-01-01

    Background In acute coronary syndromes, C‐reactive protein (CRP) strongly relates to subsequent death, but surprisingly not to recurrent myocardial infarction. Other biomarkers may reflect different processes related to these outcomes. We assessed 8 inflammatory and vascular biomarkers and the risk of death and recurrent nonfatal cardiovascular events in the 16 weeks after an acute coronary syndrome. Methods and Results We measured blood concentrations of CRP, serum amyloid A (SAA), interleukin‐6 (IL‐6), soluble intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM), soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM), E‐selectin, P‐selectin, and tissue plasminogen activator antigen (tPA) 24 to 96 hours after presentation with acute coronary syndrome in 2925 subjects participating in a multicenter study. Biomarkers were related to the risk of death, and recurrent nonfatal acute coronary syndromes (myocardial infarction or unstable angina) over 16 weeks using Cox proportional hazard models. On univariate analyses, baseline CRP (P=0.006), SAA (P=0.012), and IL‐6 (P<0.001) were related to death, but not to recurrent nonfatal acute coronary syndromes. VCAM and tPA related to the risk of death (P<0.001, P=0.021, respectively) and to nonfatal acute coronary syndromes (P=0.021, P=0.049, respectively). Adjusting for significant covariates reduced the strength of the associations; however, CRP and SAA continued to relate to death. Conclusions In acute coronary syndromes, the CRP inflammatory axis relates to the risk of death and may reflect myocardial injury. VCAM and tPA may have greater specificity for processes reflecting inflammation and thrombosis in the epicardial arteries, which determine recurrent coronary events. PMID:23525424

  5. Clinical Evaluation of Multiple Inflammation Biomarkers for Diagnosis and Prognosis for Patients with Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Reichsoellner, M.; Wagner, J.; Krause, R.

    2014-01-01

    A multiplexed biomarker bundle consisting of nine different inflammation markers was evaluated regarding their diagnostic and prognostic performances in 159 adult systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patients enrolled at the emergency department. Fibronectin, interleukin-8 (IL-8), biotin, and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) were the most robust markers but were not superior to the already established markers IL-6, C-reactive protein (CRP), procalcitonin (PCT), and soluble urokinase plasminogen activator receptor (suPAR). PMID:25187630

  6. Hyperperfusion in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy is associated with disease progression and absence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Khoury, Michael N.; Gheuens, Sarah; Ngo, Long; Wang, Xiaoen; Alsop, David C.

    2013-01-01

    We sought to characterize perfusion patterns of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy lesions by arterial spin labelling perfusion magnetic resonance imaging and to analyse their association with immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, and survival. A total of 22 patients with progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy underwent a clinical evaluation and magnetic resonance imaging of the brain within 190 days of symptom onset. The presence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome was determined based on clinical and laboratory criteria. Perfusion within progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy lesions was determined by arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging. We observed intense hyperperfusion within and at the edge of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy lesions in a subset of subjects. This hyperperfusion was quantified by measuring the fraction of lesion volume showing perfusion in excess of twice normal appearing grey matter. Hyperperfused lesion fraction was significantly greater in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy progressors than in survivors (12.8% versus 3.4% P = 0.02) corresponding to a relative risk of progression for individuals with a hyperperfused lesion fraction ≥ 4.0% of 9.1 (95% confidence interval of 1.4–59.5). The presence of hyperperfusion was inversely related to the occurrence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome at the time of scan (P = 0.03). Indeed, within 3 months after symptom onset, hyperperfusion had a positive predictive value of 88% for absence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome. Arterial spin labelling magnetic resonance imaging recognized regions of elevated perfusion within lesions of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy. These regions might represent virologically active areas operating in the absence of an effective adaptive immune response and correspond with a worse prognosis. PMID:24088807

  7. Risk factors for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome under combination antiretroviral therapy can be aetiology-specific.

    PubMed

    Espinosa, E; Ormsby, C E; Vega-Barrientos, R S; Ruiz-Cruz, M; Moreno-Coutio, G; Pea-Jimnez, A; Peralta-Prado, A B; Cantoral-Daz, M; Romero-Rodrguez, D P; Reyes-Tern, G

    2010-08-01

    In order to discriminate general from aetiology-specific risk factors for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), we followed up, during six months, 99 patients with advanced HIV infection commencing antiretroviral therapy (ART) without active opportunistic infections or evident inflammation. IRIS predictors were determined by univariate analysis using clinical data from 76 ART-responding patients either completing follow-up or developing IRIS, and by multivariate analysis of inflammation, disease progression and nutrition status variables. We identified 23 primary IRIS events (30.3%). Univariate predictors for all IRIS events were higher platelet counts and lower CD4/CD8 ratio, whereas subclinical inflammation was the multivariate predictor. Platelets, alkaline phosphatase levels and %CD8 T-cells in univariate analysis also predicted mycobacteria-associated IRIS independently, remaining elevated during follow-up. Herpesvirus IRIS was predicted by platelets and inflammation. Indicators of advanced HIV disease and subclinical inflammation jointly predict IRIS, and some are specific of the underlying microbial aetiology, possibly explaining previous reports. PMID:20975091

  8. Fecal lactoferrin in discriminating inflammatory bowel disease from Irritable bowel syndrome: a diagnostic meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background To perform a meta-analysis evaluating the diagnostic ability of fecal lactoferrin (FL) to distinguish inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Methods The Medline, EMBASE, Web of Science, Cochrane library and CNKI databases were systematically searched for studies that used FL concentrations to distinguish between IBD and IBS. The sensitivity, specificity, and other diagnostic indexes of FL were pooled using a random-effects model. Results Seven studies, involving 1012 patients, were eligible for inclusion. In distinguishing IBD from IBS, FL had a pooled sensitivity of 0.78 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.75, 0.82), a specificity of 0.94 (95% CI: 0.91, 0.96), a positive likelihood ratio of 12.31 (95% CI: 5.93, 29.15), and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.23 (95% CI: 0.18, 0.29). The area under the summary receiver-operating characteristic curve was 0.94 (95% CI: 0.90, 0.98) and the diagnostic odds ratio was 52.65 (95% CI: 25.69, 107.91). Conclusions FL, as a noninvasive and simple marker, is useful in differentiating between IBD and IBS. PMID:25002150

  9. Tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome: case definitions for use in resource-limited settings

    PubMed Central

    Meintjes, Graeme; Lawn, Stephen D; Scano, Fabio; Maartens, Gary; French, Martyn A; Worodria, William; Elliott, Julian H; Murdoch, David; Wilkinson, Robert J; Seyler, Catherine; John, Laurence; van der Loeff, Maarten Schim; Reiss, Peter; Lynen, Lut; Janoff, Edward N; Gilks, Charles; Colebunders, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) has emerged as an important early complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in resource-limited settings, especially in patients with tuberculosis. However, there are no consensus case definitions for IRIS or tuberculosis-associated IRIS. Moreover, previously proposed case definitions are not readily applicable in settings where laboratory resources are limited. As a result, existing studies on tuberculosis-associated IRIS have used a variety of non-standardised general case definitions. To rectify this problem, around 100 researchers, including microbiologists, immunologists, clinicians, epidemiologists, clinical trialists, and public-health specialists from 16 countries met in Kampala, Uganda, in November, 2006. At this meeting, consensus case definitions for paradoxical tuberculosis-associated IRIS, ART-associated tuberculosis, and unmasking tuberculosis-associated IRIS were derived, which can be used in high-income and resource-limited settings. It is envisaged that these definitions could be used by clinicians and researchers in a variety of settings to promote standardisation and comparability of data. PMID:18652998

  10. Late onset of cryptococcal cervical lymphadenitis following immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a patient with AIDS.

    PubMed

    Sethupathi, Meenakshi; Yoganathan, Kathir

    2015-01-01

    A 32-year-old woman was diagnosed HIV positive with disseminated cryptococcal infection in May 2006. Her initial CD4 was 7 cells/µL and she had a right supraclavicular nodal mass, which was biopsied and shown to be consistent with cryptococcal lymphadenitis. She was treated for disseminated cryptococcal infection and was started on antiretroviral medications subsequently. Two years later, she developed a left supraclavicular mass. Her CD4 count was 320 cells/µL and HIV RNA level was undetectable. Investigations and biopsy results were consistent with a late presentation of cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). She was treated with oral corticosteroids and her symptoms resolved completely. IRIS is a recognised complication of HIV treatment and occurs in a significant percentage of patients within the first 3 months of starting antiretroviral therapy. This case report illustrates the importance of recognising late presentations of IRIS. It is vital to differentiate true cryptococcal lymphadenitis from IRIS-induced cryptococcal lymphadenitis. PMID:25564633

  11. Predictors of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with Kaposi's sarcoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Cattelan, Anna Maria; Mattiolo, Adriana; Grassi, Angela; Piano, Maria Assunta; Sasset, Lolita; Trevenzoli, Marco; Zanovello, Paola; Calabrò, Maria Luisa

    2016-01-01

    We present here a case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome associated with Kaposi's sarcoma (KS-IRIS) developed in an AIDS patient two months after initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). Baseline characteristics of this IRIS-KS case, within a cohort of 12 naïve AIDS-KS patients, were analyzed. No statistically significant differences in CD4 cell counts, plasma HIV RNA load, KS clinical staging, human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) antibody titers and HHV8 load in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and saliva were evidenced. HHV8 load in plasma was found to be significantly higher in the KS-IRIS patient (> 6 log10 genome equivalents/ml, p = 0.01, t-test) compared to the 11 patients with KS regression. This case highlights that measurement of HHV8 load in plasma may be useful to identify patients at risk for KS-IRIS, and that this parameter should be included in the design of larger studies to define KS-IRIS risk predictors. PMID:26848307

  12. The caspase-cleaved form of LYN mediates a psoriasis-like inflammatory syndrome in mice

    PubMed Central

    Marchetti, Sandrine; Gamas, Parvati; Belhacène, Nathalie; Grosso, Sebastien; Pradelli, Ludivine A; Colosetti, Pascal; Johansen, Claus; Iversen, Lars; Deckert, Marcel; Luciano, Fréderic; Hofman, Paul; Ortonne, Nicolas; Khemis, Abdallah; Mari, Bernard; Ortonne, Jean-Paul; Ricci, Jean-Ehrland; Auberger, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    We showed previously that Lyn is a substrate for caspases, a family of cysteine proteases, involved in the regulation of apoptosis and inflammation. Here, we report that expression of the caspase-cleaved form of Lyn (LynΔN), in mice, mediates a chronic inflammatory syndrome resembling human psoriasis. Genetic ablation of TNF receptor 1 in a LynΔN background rescues a normal phenotype, indicating that LynΔN mice phenotype is TNF-α-dependent. The predominant role of T cells in the disease occurring in LynΔN mice was highlighted by the distinct improvement of LynΔN mice phenotype in a Rag1-deficient background. Using pan-genomic profiling, we also established that LynΔN mice show an increased expression of STAT-3 and inhibitory members of the NFκB pathway. Accordingly, LynΔN alters NFκB activity underlying a link between inhibition of NFκB and LynΔN mice phenotype. Finally, analysis of Lyn expression in human skin biopsies of psoriatic patients led to the detection of Lyn cleavage product whose expression correlates with the activation of caspase 1. Our data identify a new role for Lyn as a regulator of psoriasis through its cleavage by caspases. PMID:19590497

  13. Red wine extract decreases pro-inflammatory markers, nuclear factor-κB and inducible NOS, in experimental metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Janega, Pavol; Klimentová, Jana; Barta, Andrej; Kovácsová, Mária; Vranková, Stanislava; Cebová, Martina; Čierna, Zuzana; Matúsková, Zuzana; Jakovljevic, Vladimir; Pechánová, Olga

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to analyse the effects of alcohol-free Alibernet red wine extract (AWE) on nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activity and pro-inflammatory markers such as nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) and inducible NOS (iNOS) protein expression in experimental metabolic syndrome. Young 6 week-old male Wistar Kyoto (WKY) and obese, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/N-cp) were divided into control groups and groups treated with AWE (24.2 mg per kg per day) for 3 weeks (n = 6 in each group). Total NOS activity and endothelial NOS (eNOS), iNOS and NFκB (p65) protein expressions were determined in the heart left ventricle and aorta by Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. All parameters investigated significantly increased in the aorta of SHR/N-cp rats. Pro-inflammatory markers such as NFκB and iNOS were increased in the left ventricle as well. AWE treatment did not affect total NOS activity and eNOS expression in the aorta; however, it was able to decrease NFκB and iNOS protein expression in both the left ventricle and aorta. In conclusion, in the cardiovascular system, Alibernet red wine extract decreased NFκB and iNOS protein expressions elevated as a consequence of developed metabolic syndrome. This effect may represent one of the protective, anti-inflammatory properties of Alibernet red wine polyphenols on cardiovascular risk factors related to metabolic syndrome. PMID:25051230

  14. Acute paretic syndrome in juvenile White Leghorn chickens resembles late stages of acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies in humans

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Sudden limb paresis is a common problem in White Leghorn flocks, affecting about 1% of the chicken population before achievement of sexual maturity. Previously, a similar clinical syndrome has been reported as being caused by inflammatory demyelination of peripheral nerve fibres. Here, we investigated in detail the immunopathology of this paretic syndrome and its possible resemblance to human neuropathies. Methods Neurologically affected chickens and control animals from one single flock underwent clinical and neuropathological examination. Peripheral nervous system (PNS) alterations were characterised using standard morphological techniques, including nerve fibre teasing and transmission electron microscopy. Infiltrating cells were phenotyped immunohistologically and quantified by flow cytometry. The cytokine expression pattern was assessed by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). These investigations were accomplished by MHC genotyping and a PCR screen for Marek's disease virus (MDV). Results Spontaneous paresis of White Leghorns is caused by cell-mediated, inflammatory demyelination affecting multiple cranial and spinal nerves and nerve roots with a proximodistal tapering. Clinical manifestation coincides with the employment of humoral immune mechanisms, enrolling plasma cell recruitment, deposition of myelin-bound IgG and antibody-dependent macrophageal myelin-stripping. Disease development was significantly linked to a 539 bp microsatellite in MHC locus LEI0258. An aetiological role for MDV was excluded. Conclusions The paretic phase of avian inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuritis immunobiologically resembles the late-acute disease stages of human acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, and is characterised by a Th1-to-Th2 shift. PMID:20109187

  15. Soluble ST2 in the Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome: In-vivo Evidence of Activation of the Anti-inflammatory Limb of the Immune Response

    PubMed Central

    Stampalija, Tamara; Romero, Roberto; Korzeniewski, Steven J; Chaemsaithong, Piya; Miranda, Jezid; Yeo, Lami; Dong, Zhong; Hassan, Sonia S.; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2014-01-01

    Objective Inflammation is a mechanism of host response to infection which can be harmful when inappropriately modulated. Soluble ST2 (sST2) is a decoy receptor of interleukin (IL)-33, and this complex modulates the balance in the Th1/Th2 immune response. Moreover, sST2 inhibits the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in cooperation with an anti-inflammatory cytokine, IL-10. The objectives of this study were to: 1) determine whether umbilical cord plasma sST2 concentration differ between comparing preterm neonates with and without funisitis and between those with and without the fetal inflammatory response syndrome (FIRS); and 2) evaluate the relationship between sST2 and IL-10 among neonates with funisitis and/or FIRS. Methods Umbilical cord plasma was collected from neonates delivered prematurely due to preterm labor or preterm prelabor rupture of membranes with (n=36), and without funisitis (n=30). FIRS (umbilical cord IL-6 concentration ≥17.5 pg/mL) was identified in 29 neonates. Plasma sST2 and IL-10 concentrations were determined by ELISA. Results The median umbilical cord plasma sST2 concentration was 6.7-fold higher in neonates with FIRS than in those without FIRS (median 44.6 ng/mL, interquartile range [IQR] 13.8–80.3 ng/mL vs. median 6.7 ng/mL, IQR 5.6–20.1 ng/mL; p<0.0001). Similarly, the median umbilical cord plasma sST2 concentration was 2.6-fold higher in neonates with funisitis than in those without funisitis (median 19.1 ng/mL; IQR 7.1–75.0 ng/mL vs. median 7.2 ng/mL; IQR 5.9–23.1 ng/mL; p=0.008). There was a strong positive correlation between sST2 and IL-10 in neonates with funisitis and/or FIRS (Spearman’s Rho=0.7, p<0.0001). Conclusions FIRS and funisitis are associated with an elevation of umbilical cord plasma concentrations of soluble ST2. This protein represents an important mediator of the immune response in neonates diagnosed with fetal inflammatory response syndrome by promoting an anti-inflammatory effect in association with IL-10. PMID:23488731

  16. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome after Transcatheter or Surgical Aortic Valve Replacement

    PubMed Central

    Lindman, Brian R.; Goldstein, Jacob S.; Nassif, Michael E.; Zajarias, Alan; Novak, Eric; Tibrewala, Anjan; Wittenberg, Anna M.; Lawler, Cassandra; Damiano, Ralph J.; Moon, Marc R.; Lawton, Jennifer S.; Lasala, John M.; Maniar, Hersh S.

    2015-01-01

    Objective An inflammatory response after cardiac surgery is associated with worse clinical outcomes, but recent trials to attenuate it have been neutral. We evaluated the association between systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and mortality after transcatheter (TAVR) and surgical aortic valve replacement (SAVR) for aortic stenosis (AS) and evaluated whether diabetes influenced this relationship. Methods Patients (n=747) with severe AS treated with TAVR (n=264) or SAVR (n=483) between 1/2008 and 12/2013 were included and 37% had diabetes mellitus. SIRS was defined by 4 criteria 12 to 48 hours after AVR: 1) white blood cell count <4 or >12; 2) heart rate >90; 3) temperature <36 or >38°C; or 4) respiratory rate >20. Severe SIRS was defined as meeting all 4 criteria. The primary endpoint was 6-month all-cause mortality (60 deaths occurred by 6 months). Inverse propensity weighting (IPW) was performed on 44 baseline and procedural variables to minimize confounding. Results Severe SIRS developed in 6% of TAVR patients and 11% of SAVR patients (p=0.02). Six-month mortality tended to be higher in those with severe SIRS (15.5%) versus those without (7.4%) (p=0.07). After adjustment, severe SIRS was associated with higher 6-month mortality (IPW adjusted HR 2.77, 95% CI 2.04–3.76, p<0.001). Moreover, severe SIRS was more strongly associated with increased mortality in diabetic (IPW adjusted HR 4.12, 95% CI 2.69–6.31, p<0.001) than non-diabetic patients (IPW adjusted HR 1.74, 95% CI 1.10–2.73, p=0.02) (interaction p=0.007). The adverse effect of severe SIRS on mortality was similar after TAVR and SAVR. Conclusion Severe SIRS was associated with a higher mortality after SAVR or TAVR. It occurred more commonly after SAVR and had a greater effect on mortality in diabetic patients. These findings may have implications for treatment decisions in patients with AS, may help explain differences in outcomes between different AVR approaches, and identify diabetic patients as a high risk sub-group to target in clinical trials with therapies to attenuate SIRS. PMID:25605654

  17. Overlapping irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: less to this than meets the eye?

    PubMed

    Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2016-03-01

    Though distinct in terms of pathology, natural history and therapeutic approach, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have some features in common. These include shared symptomatology and largely similar demographics. However, in most instances, clinical presentation, together with laboratory, imaging and endoscopic findings will readily permit the differentiation of active IBD from IBS. More problematic is the situation where a subject with IBD, in apparent remission, continues to complain of symptoms which, in aggregate, satisfy commonly employed criteria for the diagnosis of IBS. Access to methodologies, such the assay for levels of calprotectin in feces, now allows identification of ongoing inflammation in some such individuals and prompts appropriate therapy. More challenging is the IBD patient with persisting symptoms and no detectable evidence of inflammation; is this coincident IBS, IBS triggered by IBD or an even more subtle level of IBD activity unrecognized by available laboratory or imaging methods? Arguments can be advanced for each of these proposals; lacking definitive data, this issue remains unresolved. The occurrence of IBS-type symptoms in the IBD patient, together with some data suggesting a very subtle level of 'inflammation' or 'immune activation' in IBS, raises other questions: is IBS a prodromal form of IBD; and are IBS and IBD part of the spectrum of the same disease? All of the available evidence indicates that the answer to both these questions should be a resounding 'no'. Indeed, the whole issue of overlap between IBS and IBD should be declared moot given their differing pathophysiologies, contrasting natural histories and divergent treatment paths. The limited symptom repertoire of the gastrointestinal tract may well be fundamental to the apparent confusion that has, of late, bedeviled this area. PMID:26929782

  18. Overlapping irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease: less to this than meets the eye?

    PubMed Central

    Quigley, Eamonn M. M.

    2016-01-01

    Though distinct in terms of pathology, natural history and therapeutic approach, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have some features in common. These include shared symptomatology and largely similar demographics. However, in most instances, clinical presentation, together with laboratory, imaging and endoscopic findings will readily permit the differentiation of active IBD from IBS. More problematic is the situation where a subject with IBD, in apparent remission, continues to complain of symptoms which, in aggregate, satisfy commonly employed criteria for the diagnosis of IBS. Access to methodologies, such the assay for levels of calprotectin in feces, now allows identification of ongoing inflammation in some such individuals and prompts appropriate therapy. More challenging is the IBD patient with persisting symptoms and no detectable evidence of inflammation; is this coincident IBS, IBS triggered by IBD or an even more subtle level of IBD activity unrecognized by available laboratory or imaging methods? Arguments can be advanced for each of these proposals; lacking definitive data, this issue remains unresolved. The occurrence of IBS-type symptoms in the IBD patient, together with some data suggesting a very subtle level of ‘inflammation‘ or ‘immune activation‘ in IBS, raises other questions: is IBS a prodromal form of IBD; and are IBS and IBD part of the spectrum of the same disease? All of the available evidence indicates that the answer to both these questions should be a resounding ‘no’. Indeed, the whole issue of overlap between IBS and IBD should be declared moot given their differing pathophysiologies, contrasting natural histories and divergent treatment paths. The limited symptom repertoire of the gastrointestinal tract may well be fundamental to the apparent confusion that has, of late, bedeviled this area. PMID:26929782

  19. Rosuvastatin improves hepatopulmonary syndrome through inhibition of inflammatory angiogenesis of lung.

    PubMed

    Chang, Ching-Chih; Wang, Sun-Sang; Hsieh, Hsian-Guey; Lee, Wen-Shin; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Lee, Shou-Dong; Huang, Hui-Chun

    2015-09-01

    The hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) is characterized by hypoxia and increased intrapulmonary shunts in cirrhotic patients. Emerging evidence showed promising results of treating HPS by abolishment of intrapulmonary inflammation and angiogenesis. Rosuvastatin is a kind of 3-hydroxy-methyl-3-glutamyl coenzyme A reductase inhibitor. In addition to lipid-lowering effects, it has anti-inflammation and anti-angiogenesis properties. We postulated that rosuvastatin treatment can ameliorate HPS. Common bile duct ligation (CBDL) was applied in an experimental HPS animal model. CBDL rats received 2-week rosuvastatin (20 mg/kg/day) treatments from the fifteenth day after operation. The haemodynamic data, blood gas analysis, liver biochemistries, tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) were examined after rosuvastatin treatment. The liver and lung tissues were dissected for histopathological studies and protein analyses. In the parallel groups, intrapulmonary shunts were determined. The haemodynamic and liver biochemistries were not changed after rosuvastatin treatment in CBDL rats, but the alveolar-arterial oxygen pressure gradient was significantly decreased, implying that HPS-induced hypoxia was reversed after rosuvastatin treatment. In addition, rosuvastatin treatment reduced intrapulmonary shunts and plasma levels of VEGF and TNF-α. Besides, the intrapulmonary protein expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-1,2 and Rho-associated A kinase were significantly down-regulated and the intrapulmonary angiogenesis was ameliorated. We concluded that rosuvastatin alleviates experimental HPS through blockade of pulmonary inflammatory angiogenesis via TNF-α/NF-κB and VEGF/Rho-associated A kinase pathways down-regulation. PMID:25940601

  20. Human immunodeficiency virus infection, the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, and inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, E M; Chan, N H; Herrick, R A; Amar, J N; Sestak, P M; Willoughby, B C; Whittaker, J S

    1996-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). A retrospective survey of the medical records of St. Paul's Hospital and its AIDS-care physicians/gastroenterologists searching for patients with both HIV/AIDS and IBD was conducted. Of 1,839 hospitalized patients (4,459 hospital admissions) from 1989 to 1993, two patients with AIDS/HIV and IBD were found. The physician survey revealed four patients for a total of six patients. Four patients developed de novo IBD--two ulcerative colitis (UC), one Crohn's disease (CrD), and one indeterminate colitis (IC)--after HIV infection. Two patients had UC predating HIV seroconversion. The absolute CD4 count of patients with de novo IBD was 210-700 cells/ml at the time of IBD. The patient with IC maintained quiescent IBD from a CD4 count of 190-30 cells/ml. The other had many relapses before HIV seropositivity. With CD4 count depletion, disease activity improved. IBD medications were discontinued at a CD4 count of 130 cells/ml. Diarrhea returned at a CD4 count of 20 cells/ml; however, sigmoidoscopy was unremarkable, and mucosal biopsy revealed cryptosporidiosis without active UC. No patient had an AIDS-related illness during active IBD. Two patients followed to CD4 counts of < 30 cells/ml suffered AIDS-related infections with quiescent IBD. With a progressive decline in CD4 count, IBD disease activity may improve and remit. The CD4 count at which remission occurs may reflect severe immunodeficiency such that risk for AIDS-related infection is high. Active IBD may occur with lesser degrees of immunodeficiency. PMID:8835895

  1. Association between inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity in obese patients with heart failure and metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    MOTIE, MARJAN; EVANGELISTA, LORRAINE S.; HORWICH, TAMARA; LOMBARDO, DAWN; ZALDIVAR, FRANK; HAMILTON, MICHELE; FONAROW, GREGG C.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are common in patients with heart failure (HF). Studies investigating the association between known biomarkers and adiposity in patient populations are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin with adiposity in a sub-group of overweight/obese patients with HF, DM and/or MS. A total of 36 patients (mean age, 56.729.78 years; ranging between 27 and 76 years of age; 80.6% male; 52.8% Caucasian) were enrolled and their height, weight, waist circumference and body composition (e.g. percentage body fat and lean mass), as well as the levels of CRP and leptin, were assessed. The results demonstrated that there was a significant association between CRP and leptin, CRP and body mass index (BMI) and gender and percentage body fat (P<0.05, for all associations). Analysis of leptin and CRP levels revealed that patients in the highest BMI quartile (BMI, 40.361.2) had higher CRP levels (4.83 ?g/ml vs. 3.03 ?g/ml; P=0.033) and higher leptin levels (44.97 ng/ml vs. 24.64 ng/ml; P=0.042) compared with patients in the lower BMI quartile (BMI, 28.632.4). In conclusion, among obese patients with HF, DM and/or MS, an association between CRP and leptin was identified, providing further evidence that metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms are involved in these diseases. Future investigation to assess the potential impact of inflammation and adiposity, and the role of dietary interventions and weight loss on clinical outcomes in this population of chronically ill patients is warranted. PMID:24944619

  2. Association between inflammatory biomarkers and adiposity in obese patients with heart failure and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Motie, Marjan; Evangelista, Lorraine S; Horwich, Tamara; Lombardo, Dawn; Zaldivar, Frank; Hamilton, Michele; Fonarow, Gregg C

    2014-07-01

    Obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and metabolic syndrome (MS) are common in patients with heart failure (HF). Studies investigating the association between known biomarkers and adiposity in patient populations are limited. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and leptin with adiposity in a sub-group of overweight/obese patients with HF, DM and/or MS. A total of 36 patients (mean age, 56.729.78 years; ranging between 27 and 76 years of age; 80.6% male; 52.8% Caucasian) were enrolled and their height, weight, waist circumference and body composition (e.g. percentage body fat and lean mass), as well as the levels of CRP and leptin, were assessed. The results demonstrated that there was a significant association between CRP and leptin, CRP and body mass index (BMI) and gender and percentage body fat (P<0.05, for all associations). Analysis of leptin and CRP levels revealed that patients in the highest BMI quartile (BMI, 40.3-61.2) had higher CRP levels (4.83 ?g/ml vs. 3.03 ?g/ml; P=0.033) and higher leptin levels (44.97 ng/ml vs. 24.64 ng/ml; P=0.042) compared with patients in the lower BMI quartile (BMI, 28.6-32.4). In conclusion, among obese patients with HF, DM and/or MS, an association between CRP and leptin was identified, providing further evidence that metabolic and inflammatory mechanisms are involved in these diseases. Future investigation to assess the potential impact of inflammation and adiposity, and the role of dietary interventions and weight loss on clinical outcomes in this population of chronically ill patients is warranted. PMID:24944619

  3. Neither classical nor alternative macrophage activation is required for Pneumocystis clearance during immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhuo-Qian; Wang, Jing; Hoy, Zachary; Keegan, Achsah; Bhagwat, Samir; Gigliotti, Francis; Wright, Terry W

    2015-12-01

    Pneumocystis is a respiratory fungal pathogen that causes pneumonia (Pneumocystis pneumonia [PcP]) in immunocompromised patients. Alveolar macrophages are critical effectors for CD4(+) T cell-dependent clearance of Pneumocystis, and previous studies found that alternative macrophage activation accelerates fungal clearance during PcP-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). However, the requirement for either classically or alternatively activated macrophages for Pneumocystis clearance has not been determined. Therefore, RAG2(-/-) mice lacking either the interferon gamma (IFN-γ) receptor (IFN-γR) or interleukin 4 receptor alpha (IL-4Rα) were infected with Pneumocystis. These mice were then immune reconstituted with wild-type lymphocytes to preserve the normal T helper response while preventing downstream effects of Th1 or Th2 effector cytokines on macrophage polarization. As expected, RAG2(-/-) mice developed severe disease but effectively cleared Pneumocystis and resolved IRIS. Neither RAG/IFN-γR(-/-) nor RAG/IL-4Rα(-/-) mice displayed impaired Pneumocystis clearance. However, RAG/IFN-γR(-/-) mice developed a dysregulated immune response, with exacerbated IRIS and greater pulmonary function deficits than those in RAG2 and RAG/IL-4Rα(-/-) mice. RAG/IFN-γR(-/-) mice had elevated numbers of lung CD4(+) T cells, neutrophils, eosinophils, and NK cells but severely depressed numbers of lung CD8(+) T suppressor cells. Impaired lung CD8(+) T cell responses in RAG/IFN-γR(-/-) mice were associated with elevated lung IFN-γ levels, and neutralization of IFN-γ restored the CD8 response. These data demonstrate that restricting the ability of macrophages to polarize in response to Th1 or Th2 cytokines does not impair Pneumocystis clearance. However, a cell type-specific IFN-γ/IFN-γR-dependent mechanism regulates CD8(+) T suppressor cell recruitment, limits immunopathogenesis, preserves lung function, and enhances the resolution of PcP-related IRIS. PMID:26371121

  4. Are Probiotics or Prebiotics Useful in Pediatric Irritable Bowel Syndrome or Inflammatory Bowel Disease?

    PubMed Central

    Guandalini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Treatment options for irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are notoriously either inadequate (IBS) or loaded with potentially serious side effects and risks (IBD). In recent years, a growing interest in effective and safer alternatives has focused on the potential role of probiotics and their metabolic substrates, prebiotics. It is in fact conceivable that the microbiome might be targeted by providing the metabolic fuel needed for the growth and expansion of beneficial microorganisms (prebiotics) or by administering to the host such microorganisms (probiotics). This review presents a concise update on currently available data, with a special emphasis on children. Data for prebiotics in IBS are scarce. Low doses have shown a beneficial effect, while high doses are counterproductive. On the contrary, several controlled trials of probiotics have yielded encouraging results. A meta-analysis including nine randomized clinical trials in children showed an improvement in abdominal pain for Lactobacillus GG, Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938, and the probiotic mixture VSL#3. The patients most benefiting from probiotics were those with predominant diarrhea or with a post-infectious IBS. In IBD, the use of prebiotics has been tested only rarely and in small scale clinical trials, with mixed results. As for probiotics, data in humans from about three dozens clinical trials offer mixed outcomes. So far, none of the tested probiotics has proven successful in Crohn’s disease, while in ulcerative colitis a recent meta-analysis on 12 clinical trials (1 of them in children) showed efficacy for the probiotic mixture VSL#3 in contributing to induce and to maintain remission. It is evident that this is a rapidly evolving and promising field; more data are very likely to yield a better understanding on what strains should be used in different specific clinical settings and in what doses. PMID:25593899

  5. Incidence of Paradoxical Tuberculosis-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and Impact on Patient Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Bonnet, Maryline; Baudin, Elisabeth; Jani, Ilesh V.; Nunes, Elizabete; Verhoustraten, François; Calmy, Alexandra; Bastos, Rui; Bhatt, Nilesh B.; Michon, Christophe

    2013-01-01

    Objectives and Design We used data from a randomized trial of HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients in Mozambique to determine the incidence and predictors of paradoxical tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) occurring within 12 weeks of starting antiretroviral therapy, and to evaluate its association with patient outcome at 48 weeks. Methods HIV-tuberculosis co-infected and antiretroviral therapy-naïve adults with less than 250 CD4/mm3 were randomized to a nevirapine or efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy initiated 4 to 6 weeks after starting tuberculosis treatment, and were then followed for 48 weeks. Tuberculosis cases were diagnosed using WHO guidelines, and tuberculosis-IRIS by case definitions of the International Network for the Study of HIV-associated IRIS. Results The 573 HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients who initiated antiretroviral therapy had a median CD4 count of 92 cells/mm3 and HIV-1 RNA of 5.6 log10 copies/mL. Mortality at week 48 was 6.1% (35/573). Fifty-three (9.2%) patients presented a tuberculosis-IRIS within 12 weeks of starting antiretroviral therapy. Being female and having a low CD4 count, high HIV-1 RNA load, low body mass index and smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis were independently associated with tuberculosis-IRIS. After adjustment for baseline body mass index, CD4 count and hemoglobin, occurrence of tuberculosis-IRIS was independently associated with 48-week mortality (aOR 2.72 95%CI 1.14-6.54). Immunological and HIV-1 virological responses and tuberculosis treatment outcomes were not different between patients with and without tuberculosis-IRIS. Conclusion In this large prospective cohort, tuberculosis-IRIS occurrence within 12 weeks of starting antiretroviral therapy was independently associated with the mortality of HIV-tuberculosis co-infected patients at 48 weeks post antiretroviral therapy initiation. PMID:24367678

  6. Decreased plasma concentrations of apolipoprotein M in sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndromes

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Introduction Apolipoprotein M (apoM) is present in 5% of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) particles in plasma. It is a carrier of sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which is important for vascular barrier protection. The aim was to determine the plasma concentrations of apoM during sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and correlate them to levels of apolipoprotein A-I (apoA1), apolipoprotein B (apoB), HDL-, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol. Methods Plasma samples from patients with (1), severe sepsis with shock (n = 26); (2), severe sepsis without shock (n = 44); (3), sepsis (n = 100); (4), infections without SIRS (n = 43); and (5) SIRS without infection (n = 20) were analyzed. The concentrations of apoM, apoA1, and apoB were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs). Total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol concentrations were measured with a commercial HDL/LDL cholesterol test. Results ApoM concentrations correlated negatively to acute-phase markers. Thus, apoM behaved as a negative acute-phase protein. Decreased values were observed in all patient groups (P < 0.0001), with the most drastic decreases observed in the severely sick patients. ApoM levels correlated strongly to those of apoA1, apoB, HDL, and LDL cholesterol. The HDL and LDL cholesterol levels were low in all patient groups, as compared with controls (P < 0.0001), in particular, HDL cholesterol. ApoA1 and apoB concentrations were low only in the more severely affected patients. Conclusions During sepsis and SIRS, the plasma concentrations of apoM decrease dramatically, the degree of decrease reflecting the severity of the disease. As a carrier for barrier-protective S1P in HDL, the decrease in apoM could contribute to the increased vascular leakage observed in sepsis and SIRS. PMID:22512779

  7. Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Immune-Inflammatory Pathways in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS).

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Maes, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has been classified as a disease of the central nervous system by the WHO since 1969. Many patients carrying this diagnosis do demonstrate an almost bewildering array of biological abnormalities particularly the presence of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and a chronically activated innate immune system. The proposal made herein is that once generated chronically activated O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways conspire to generate a multitude of self-sustaining and self-amplifying pathological processes which are associated with the onset of ME/CFS. Sources of continuous activation of O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways in ME/CFS are chronic, intermittent and opportunistic infections, bacterial translocation, autoimmune responses, mitochondrial dysfunctions, activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Radical Cycle, and decreased antioxidant levels. Consequences of chronically activated O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways in ME/CFS are brain disorders, including neuroinflammation and brain hypometabolism / hypoperfusion, toxic effects of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, secondary autoimmune responses directed against disrupted lipid membrane components and proteins, mitochondrial dysfunctions with a disruption of energy metabolism (e.g. compromised ATP production) and dysfunctional intracellular signaling pathways. The interplay between all of these factors leads to self-amplifying feed forward loops causing a chronic state of activated O&NS, immune-inflammatory and autoimmune pathways which may sustain the disease. PMID:24669210

  8. Oxidative and Nitrosative Stress and Immune-Inflammatory Pathways in Patients with Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME)/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS)

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Gerwyn; Maes, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) / Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (CFS) has been classified as a disease of the central nervous system by the WHO since 1969. Many patients carrying this diagnosis do demonstrate an almost bewildering array of biological abnormalities particularly the presence of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) and a chronically activated innate immune system. The proposal made herein is that once generated chronically activated O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways conspire to generate a multitude of self-sustaining and self-amplifying pathological processes which are associated with the onset of ME/CFS. Sources of continuous activation of O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways in ME/CFS are chronic, intermittent and opportunistic infections, bacterial translocation, autoimmune responses, mitochondrial dysfunctions, activation of the Toll-Like Receptor Radical Cycle, and decreased antioxidant levels. Consequences of chronically activated O&NS and immune-inflammatory pathways in ME/CFS are brain disorders, including neuroinflammation and brain hypometabolism / hypoperfusion, toxic effects of nitric oxide and peroxynitrite, lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to DNA, secondary autoimmune responses directed against disrupted lipid membrane components and proteins, mitochondrial dysfunctions with a disruption of energy metabolism (e.g. compromised ATP production) and dysfunctional intracellular signaling pathways. The interplay between all of these factors leads to self-amplifying feed forward loops causing a chronic state of activated O&NS, immune-inflammatory and autoimmune pathways which may sustain the disease. PMID:24669210

  9. Inflammatory cytokines regulate secretion of VEGF and chemokines by human conjunctival fibroblasts: Role in dysfunctional tear syndrome.

    PubMed

    Nagineni, Chandrasekharam N; William, Abitha; Cherukuri, Aswini; Samuel, William; Hooks, John J; Detrick, Barbara

    2016-02-01

    Ocular surface inflammation is one of the primary mechanisms associated with dysfunctional tear syndrome (DTS), also known as dry eye disease. DTS, more prevalent in older populations, causes ocular discomfort and visual disturbance due to dryness on the surface layer in the eye. We used human conjunctival fibroblast cultures (HCJVF) to investigate the effects of inflammatory cytokines IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-1β (ITI) on the secretions of VEGF and chemokines. Our results demonstrate the elevated secretion of angiogenic VEGF molecules by ITI without affecting anti-angiogenic molecules, PEDF, endostatin, thrombospondin and sVEGF-R1. The secretion of interferon-γ inducible chemokines, CXCL9, -10, -11 by HCJVF were significantly enhanced by ITI. Our in vitro study supports previously reported observations of elevated VEGF and chemokines in tear fluids of DTS patients, reiterating the role of inflammatory reactions in DTS. PMID:26615568

  10. Idiopathic Pyoderma Gangrenosum as a Novel Manifestation of the HIV Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome: A Report of Three Cases.

    PubMed

    Nambudiri, Vinod E; Kersellius, Romona; Harp, Joanna; Maniar, J K; Maurer, Toby A

    2015-07-01

    The initiation of antiretroviral treatment for individuals with HIV may be accompanied by a paradoxical flare of underlying inflammatory diseases, the recurrence of dormant infections, or worsening of prior treated opportunistic infections, termed the immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). Cutaneous manifestations of IRIS are common. Pyoderma gangrenosum is a neutrophilic dermatosis postulated to reflect disrupted innate immune regulation causing altered neutrophil chemotaxis. It is uncommonly reported in association with HIV. In this case series, we present three cases of IRIS manifesting with pyoderma gangrenosum in individuals with HIV from India and the United States to raise awareness of this previously undescribed presentation and discuss the treatment challenges in the management of these patients. PMID:26731836

  11. Serum Osteocalcin Is Associated with Inflammatory Factors in Metabolic Syndrome: A Population-Based Study in Chinese Males

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Ming; Huang, Lirong; Mao, Yan; Jiang, Yonghua; Yao, Ziting; Lin, Xinggu; Lu, Zheng; Wu, Chunlei; Qin, Xue; Zhang, Haiying; Mo, Zengnan

    2015-01-01

    Osteocalcin (OCN) was potentially associated with inflammatory factors, so we explored the metabolic role in this association in general population. Our findings suggest that OCN was positively associated with IgG while inversely associated with C3, both of which were probably mediated by obesity. Moreover, serum OCN was inversely associated with hsCRP in men with impaired fasting glucose, hyperglycemia, or metabolic syndrome, while its association with IgE was significantly observed in men with a normal metabolic profile. PMID:26578821

  12. Brain tuberculosis-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an HIV-positive patient: a biopsy-proven case.

    PubMed

    Giancola, Maria Letizia; Baldini, Francesco; Carapella, Carmine Maria; Busi Rizzi, Elisa; Maddaluno, Rita; Alba, Lucia; Antinori, Andrea

    2015-05-01

    The case of an HIV-infected man from Eritrea previously diagnosed with tuberculosis, who presented neurological impairment and cerebral lesion after having voluntarily stopped anti-tubercular and antiretroviral therapies, is here reported. Treatments associated with steroids and mannitol were administered. The patient's condition improved, but neuroimaging showed a continuous worsening of the lesion, while a great immunological reconstitution was observed. Brain microsurgery was performed. A tuberculosis diagnosis was supported by pathological and microbiological examinations. Tuberculosis arising during immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome is a complication of antiretroviral treatment and is considered to be an emerging disorder, especially in countries highly endemic for tuberculosis. PMID:25989176

  13. Elevated plasma inflammatory mediators in post-polio syndrome: No association with long-term functional decline.

    PubMed

    Bickerstaffe, A; Beelen, A; Lutter, R; Nollet, F

    2015-12-15

    A key feature of post-polio syndrome (PPS) is progressive loss of muscle strength. In other chronic diseases systemic inflammation has been linked to muscle wasting. In this study plasma TNF-α, IL-6, IL-8, and leptin levels were significantly increased in PPS-patients compared to healthy controls. There was however no association between these raised systemic levels of inflammatory mediators and long-term decline in quadriceps strength or other clinical parameters. In conclusion, there is evidence for systemic inflammation in PPS, yet the relationship with clinical deterioration remains tenuous. PMID:26616886

  14. Prolonged REM sleep restriction induces metabolic syndrome-related changes: Mediation by pro-inflammatory cytokines.

    PubMed

    Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Suchecki, Deborah

    2015-07-01

    Chronic sleep restriction in human beings results in metabolic abnormalities, including changes in the control of glucose homeostasis, increased body mass and risk of cardiovascular disease. In rats, 96h of REM sleep deprivation increases caloric intake, but retards body weight gain. Moreover, this procedure increases the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), which may be involved with the molecular mechanism proposed to mediate insulin resistance. The goal of the present study was to assess the effects of a chronic protocol of sleep restriction on parameters of energy balance (food intake and body weight), leptin plasma levels and its hypothalamic receptors and mediators of the immune system in the retroperitoneal adipose tissue (RPAT). Thirty-four Wistar rats were distributed in control (CTL) and sleep restriction groups; the latter was kept onto individual narrow platforms immersed in water for 18h/day (from 16:00h to 10:00h), for 21days (SR21). Food intake was assessed daily, after each sleep restriction period and body weight was measured daily, after the animals were taken from the sleep deprivation chambers. At the end of the 21day of sleep restriction, rats were decapitated and RPAT was obtained for morphological and immune functional assays and expression of insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1) was assessed in skeletal muscle. Another subset of animals was used to evaluate blood glucose clearance. The results replicated previous findings on energy balance, e.g., increased food intake and reduced body weight gain. There was a significant reduction of RPAT mass (p<0.001), of leptin plasma levels and hypothalamic leptin receptors. Conversely, increased levels of TNF-α and IL-6 and expression of phosphorylated NFκ-β in the RPAT of SR21 compared to CTL rats (p<0.01, for all parameters). SR21 rats also displayed reduced glucose clearance and IRS-1 expression than CTL rats (p<0.01). The present results indicated that 21days of sleep restriction by the platform method induced metabolic syndrome-related alterations that may be mediated by inflammation of the RPAT. PMID:25532784

  15. Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy: immune mechanisms and update on current therapies.

    PubMed

    van der Meché, F G; van Doorn, P A

    1995-05-01

    The relation between Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy is discussed. Most likely they represent parts of a continuum, arbitrarily separated by their time course. Within the concept of chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy the presence of a monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance is discussed. The pathogenesis of inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathies has not been elucidated yet, but involvement of the immune system has been firmly established. Preceding infections, especially with Campylobacter jejuni, and the analysis of antiganglioside antibodies lend new support to the hypothesis of molecular mimicry between epitopes on infectious agents and peripheral nerve constituents as one of the mechanisms in Guillain-Barré syndrome. In the future, a further classification of individual patients based on clinical, epidemiological, electrophysiological, pathological, microbiological, and immunological criteria may give a basis for more individualized treatment strategies. In Guillain-Barré syndrome the efficacy of high-dose intravenous immune globulin treatment was established after earlier positive findings with plasma exchange; immune globulins are easier to administer and may be superior. Even with these treatments it should be anticipated that one fourth of patients after immune globulin treatment and one third of patients after plasma exchange will show further deterioration in the first 2 weeks after onset of treatment. Despite this, just one treatment course usually is indicated in the individual patient, and no valid arguments were found to switch to the other treatment modality. In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, prednisone, plasma exchange, and immune globulins are effective in a proportion of patients. The last two are equally effective. Patients may respond to one of these if a previous treatment failed, and here switching therapy may be effective due to the chronic course of the disease. Complexity and costs make plasma exchange the last choice. Whether prednisone or immune globulin is the first choice depends on the speed of recovery and the estimation of long-term loss of quality of life due to side effects of prednisone versus the costs of immune globulins. The mechanism of immune globulins in inflammatory polyneuropathies is discussed. There is evidence that idiotypic-antiidiotypic interaction may play a role, but several other mechanisms also may be involved. PMID:8968214

  16. Polyphenols rich fraction from Geoffroea decorticans fruits flour affects key enzymes involved in metabolic syndrome, oxidative stress and inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Costamagna, M S; Zampini, I C; Alberto, M R; Cuello, S; Torres, S; Pérez, J; Quispe, C; Schmeda-Hirschmann, G; Isla, M I

    2016-01-01

    Geoffroea decorticans (chañar), is widely distributed throughout Northwestern Argentina. Its fruit is consumed as flour, arrope or hydroalcoholic beverage. The chañar fruits flour was obtained and 39 phenolic compounds were tentatively identified by HPLC-MS/MS(n). The compounds comprised caffeic acid glycosides, simple phenolics (protocatechuic acid and vanillic acid), a glycoside of vanillic acid, p-coumaric acid and its phenethyl ester as well as free and glycosylated flavonoids. The polyphenols enriched extract with and without gastroduodenal digestion inhibited enzymes associated with metabolic syndrome, including α-amylase, α-glucosidase, lipase and hydroxyl methyl glutaryl CoA reductase. The polyphenolic extract exhibited antioxidant activity by different mechanisms and inhibited the pro-inflammatory enzymes (ciclooxygenase, lipoxygenase and phospholipase A2). The polyphenolic extract did not showed mutagenic effect by Ames test against Salmonella typhimurium TA98 and TA100 strains. These findings add evidence that chañar fruit flour may be considered a functional food with preventive properties against diseases associated with oxidative stress, inflammatory mediators and metabolic syndrome. PMID:26212988

  17. Chylous Ascites in a Patient with HIV/AIDS: A Late Complication of Mycobacterium avium Complex-Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shaik, Imam H.; Khan, Rumana; Shah, Saira; Syed, Amer K.; Lintz, David

    2014-01-01

    Chylous ascites is very rare in HIV/AIDS and its association with Mycobacterium avium complex-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (MAC-IRIS) has been rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a young African-American male who developed chylous ascites as a late sequela to immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome while on treatment for MAC. Antiretroviral drug-naive patients who start HAART in close proximity to the diagnosis of an opportunistic infection and have a rapid decline in HIV RNA level should be monitored for development of IRIS. Although the long term prognosis is poor, early diagnosis and treatment help to improve quality of life. PMID:25478257

  18. Ulcerating type 1 lepra reaction mimicking lazarine leprosy: an unusual presentation of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in an HIV-infected patient.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Ramesh; Pinto, Malcolm; Dandakeri, Sukumar; Kambil, Srinath

    2013-12-01

    Leprosy maybe "unmasked" in the context of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and treating dermatologists, particularly in highly endemic areas for Hansen's disease, need to be cognizant to this possibility. It may also reflect emergence of a previously clinically silent infection in the course of immunologic restoration. PMID:24216029

  19. Contribution of Blastocystishominis subtypes and associated inflammatory factors in development of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Azizian, Marzieh; Basati, Gholam; Abangah, Ghobad; Mahmoudi, Mohammad Reza; Mirzaei, Asad

    2016-05-01

    Blastocystis hominis with worldwide distribution is a human intestinal protozoa found in all countries. There have been differences in the severity of the pathogenesis of various Blastocystis spp. and a concomitant variation in the plasma concentration of the cytokines in patients with irritable bowel syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to demonstrate the contribution of B. hominis subtypes in the development of irritable bowel syndrome. Stool samples were collected from patients with gastrointestinal disorders. All samples were evaluated through native-lugol method. Total DNA was extracted. A PCR protocol was developed to amplify a specific region of the SSU ribosomal DNA (rDNA) gene. Serum levels of IL-6 and TNF-α were determined by immunoassay methods. The ClustalW algorithm was applied to align and blast the nucleotide sequences of the amplified region of the SSU rDNA gene. To evaluate the phylogenetic and molecular evolutionary of the nucleotide sequences, we used the MEGA software. In this study, we found 26 haplotypes of B. hominis in the studied samples which were collectively belong to five subtypes (ST1, ST2 in patients without irritable bowel syndrome vs. ST3 and two unknown subtypes in patients with irritable bowel syndrome). Result of ELISA showed a high level of IL-6 and TNF-α in the serum of patients with irritable bowel syndrome. The genetic heterogeneity of B. hominis and the existence of different subtypes of the protozoan in patients with IBS may shed light to the fact that some subtypes of parasites may involve in the pathogenesis of IBS. PMID:26841770

  20. G protein-coupled receptor kinase-3-deficient mice exhibit WHIM syndrome features and attenuated inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Tarrant, Teresa K.; Billard, Matthew J.; Timoshchenko, Roman G.; McGinnis, Marcus W.; Serafin, D. Stephen; Foreman, Oded; Esserman, Denise A.; Chao, Nelson J.; Lento, William E.; Lee, David M.; Patel, Dhavalkumar; Siderovski, David P.

    2013-01-01

    Chemokine receptor interactions coordinate leukocyte migration in inflammation. Chemokine receptors are GPCRs that when activated, are phosphorylated by GRKs to turn off G protein-mediated signaling yet recruit additional signaling machinery. Recently, GRK3 was identified as a negative regulator of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling that is defective in human WHIM syndrome. Here, we report that GRK3−/− mice exhibit numerous features of human WHIM, such as impaired CXCL12-mediated desensitization, enhanced CXCR4 signaling to ERK activation, altered granulocyte migration, and a mild myelokathexis. Moreover, GRK3−/− protects mice from two acute models of inflammatory arthritis (K/BxN serum transfer and CAIA). In these granulocyte-dependent disease models, protection of GRK3−/− mice is mediated by retention of cells in the marrow, fewer circulating granulocytes in the peripheral blood, and reduced granulocytes in the joints during active inflammation. In contrast to WHIM, GRK3−/− mice have minimal hypogammaglobulinemia and a peripheral leukocytosis with increased lymphocytes and absent neutropenia. Thus, we conclude that the loss of GRK3-mediated regulation of CXCL12/CXCR4 signaling contributes to some, but not all, of the complete WHIM phenotype and that GRK3 inhibition may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:23935208

  1. A novel experimental model of Cryptococcus neoformans-related immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) provides insights into pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Eschke, Maria; Piehler, Daniel; Schulze, Bianca; Richter, Tina; Grahnert, Andreas; Protschka, Martina; Müller, Uwe; Köhler, Gabriele; Höfling, Corinna; Rossner, Steffen; Alber, Gottfried

    2015-12-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has yielded major advances in fighting the HIV pandemic by restoring protective immunity. However, a significant proportion of HIV patients co-infected with the opportunistic fungal pathogen Cryptococcus neoformans paradoxically develops a life-threatening immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) during antiretroviral therapy. Despite several clinical studies, the underlying pathomecha-nisms are poorly understood. Here, we present the first mouse model of cryptococcal IRIS that allows for a detailed analysis of disease development. Lymphocyte-deficient RAG-1(-/-) mice are infected with C. neoformans and 4 weeks later adoptively transferred with purified CD4(+) T cells. Reconstitution of CD4(+) T cells is sufficient to induce a severe inflammatory disease similar to clinical IRIS in C. neoformans-infected RAG-1(-/-) mice of different genetic backgrounds and immunological phenotypes (i.e. C57BL/6 and BALB/c). Multiorgan inflammation is accompanied by a systemic release of distinct proinflammatory cytokines, i.e. IFN-γ, IL-6, and TNF-α. IRIS development is characterized by infection-dependent activation of donor CD4(+) T cells, which are the source of IFN-γ. Interestingly, IFN-γ-mediated effects are not required for disease induction. Taken together, this novel mouse model of cryptococcal IRIS provides a useful tool to verify potential mechanisms of pathogenesis, revealing targets for diagnosis and therapeutic interventions. PMID:26381487

  2. Beclomethasone dipropionate enemas for treating inflammatory bowel disease without producing Cushing's syndrome or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal suppression.

    PubMed

    Kumana, C R; Seaton, T; Meghji, M; Castelli, M; Benson, R; Sivakumaran, T

    1982-03-13

    Since beclomethasone dipropionate (BDP) is a very potent glucocorticoid and since small oral doses (1 mg) seem to be metabolised (possibly in the gut wall or liver) before they reach the systemic circulation, a study was conducted to find out whether patients with inflammatory bowel disease could be treated with enemas containing small doses of BDP without their acquiring Cushing's syndrome or hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) suppression. The BDP in the 100 ml enemas used was stable and present in a concentration likely to be therapeutic (0.5 mg/dl). Single overnight BDP enemas, unlike conventional betamethasone (5 mg) enemas, did not interfere with the HPA axis in 6 healthy volunteers. In the double-blind randomised part of the study 2-week courses of BDP or betamethasone enemas were assessed in 9 patients having exacerbations of distal inflammatory bowel disease. The clinical and sigmoidoscopic responses as well as adrenocortical function (judged by the 'Cosyntropin' test) were evaluated on the morning after the last day of a course of enemas. Both types of enemas had similar beneficial effects, but only BDP enemas did not interfere with HPA function. Over a prolonged period, a patient with distal ulcerative colitis had been completely dependent on regular treatment with betamethasone enemas to control his symptoms. Substitution with BDP enemas successfully controlled his bowel symptoms, whilst his cushingoid features and HPA suppression regressed. PMID:6121181

  3. Immunohistochemical expression of MPO, CD163 and VEGF in inflammatory cells in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Maretta, Milan; Toth, Stefan; Jonecova, Zuzana; Kruzliak, Peter; Kubatka, Peter; Pingorova, Stanislava; Vesela, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious medical condition occurring in patients with polytrauma, pulmonary or non-pulmonary sepsis, pneumonia and many other circumstances. It causes inflammation of the lung parenchyma leading to impaired gas exchange with a systemic release of inflammatory mediators, causing consequential lung tissue injury, hypoxemia and frequently multiple organ failure. The aim of current study was to describe expression of inflammatory markers (myeloperoxidase, CD163 and vascular endothelial growth factor) by the cells in acute phase of ARDS. The lung samples of a 20-year-old man who had suffered a serious motorbike accident were obtained for histological examination. He died on the seventh day as a consequence of respiratory failure. Our results imply that expression of CD163 was restricted to activated alveolar macrophages and monocytes. Immunopositivityof MPO was observed in neutrophil granulocytes within lung alveoli and lung blood vessels. Myeloperoxidase positivity was observed in alveolar macrophages, too. Vascular endothelial growth factor was expressed in cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes, monocytes, small-sized alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes localized mostly inside lung alveoli. On the contrary, no positivity was observed in lung endothelial cells of blood vessels. PMID:25120850

  4. Immunohistochemical expression of MPO, CD163 and VEGF in inflammatory cells in acute respiratory distress syndrome: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Maretta, Milan; Toth, Stefan; Jonecova, Zuzana; Kruzliak, Peter; Kubatka, Peter; Pingorova, Stanislava; Vesela, Jarmila

    2014-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a serious medical condition occurring in patients with polytrauma, pulmonary or non-pulmonary sepsis, pneumonia and many other circumstances. It causes inflammation of the lung parenchyma leading to impaired gas exchange with a systemic release of inflammatory mediators, causing consequential lung tissue injury, hypoxemia and frequently multiple organ failure. The aim of current study was to describe expression of inflammatory markers (myeloperoxidase, CD163 and vascular endothelial growth factor) by the cells in acute phase of ARDS. The lung samples of a 20-year-old man who had suffered a serious motorbike accident were obtained for histological examination. He died on the seventh day as a consequence of respiratory failure. Our results imply that expression of CD163 was restricted to activated alveolar macrophages and monocytes. Immunopositivityof MPO was observed in neutrophil granulocytes within lung alveoli and lung blood vessels. Myeloperoxidase positivity was observed in alveolar macrophages, too. Vascular endothelial growth factor was expressed in cytoplasm of neutrophil granulocytes, monocytes, small-sized alveolar macrophages and type II pneumocytes localized mostly inside lung alveoli. On the contrary, no positivity was observed in lung endothelial cells of blood vessels. PMID:25120850

  5. Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome and the Influence of T Regulatory Cells: A Cohort Study in the Gambia

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Irfan; Peterson, Kevin; Jeffries, David; Whittle, Hilton; de Silva, Thushan; Rowland-Jones, Sarah; Jaye, Assan; de Jong, Bouke C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The factors associated with the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV patients commencing antiretroviral therapy have not been fully elucidated. Using a longitudinal study design, this study addressed whether alteration in the levels of T regulatory cells contributed to the development of IRIS in a West African cohort of HIV-1 and HIV-2 patients. Seventy-one HIV infected patients were prospectively recruited to the study and followed up for six months. The patients were categorized as IRIS or non-IRIS cases following published clinical guidelines. The levels of T regulatory cells were measured using flow cytometry at baseline and all follow-up visits. Baseline cytokine levels of IL-2, IL-6, IFN-γ, TNF-α, MIP-1β, IL-1, IL-12, IL-13, and IL-10 were measured in all patients. Results Twenty eight percent of patients (20/71) developed IRIS and were predominantly infected with HIV-1. Patients developing IRIS had lower nadir CD4 T cells at baseline (p = 0.03) and greater CD4 T cell reconstitution (p = 0.01) at six months post-ART. However, the development of IRIS was not influenced by the levels of T regulatory cells. Similarly, baseline cytokine levels did not predict the onset of IRIS. Conclusion The development of IRIS was not associated with differences in levels of T regulatory cells or baseline pro-inflammatory cytokines. PMID:22745716

  6. Latest Study on the Relationship between Pathological Process of Inflammatory Injury and the Syndrome of Spleen Deficiency and Fluid Retention in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Beibei; Zhou, Chunxiang; Zhang, Jiangyuan; Ling, Yun; Hu, Qianfeng; Wang, Yi; Bai, Kangkang

    2014-01-01

    Inflammation exists throughout the incidence and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) differentiates the pathogenesis of AD as kidney essence deficiency and qi and blood deficiency as well as blood stasis in syndromes, whose action mechanisms are all associated with the intervention in its inflammatory process. Our preliminary studies both in clinic and in vitro have demonstrated that the syndrome of spleen deficiency and fluid retention has also been an important pathogenesis for the incidence and development of AD. Hence, the paper aims to further illustrate the correlation between inflammatory process in AD and the syndrome of spleen deficiency and fluid retention, laying solid foundation for the application of invigorating the spleen and eliminating the dampness in clinic, and enriching the theoretical connotation for AD prevention and treatment in TCM. PMID:24799943

  7. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients.

    PubMed

    Mohtashami, Alireaz; Mahaki, Behzad; Azadbakht, Leila; Entezari, Mohammad Hasan

    2016-04-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  8. Mitochondrial dysfunctions in myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome explained by activated immuno-inflammatory, oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways.

    PubMed

    Morris, Gerwyn; Maes, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/cfs) is classified by the World Health Organization as a disorder of the central nervous system. ME/cfs is an neuro-immune disorder accompanied by chronic low-grade inflammation, increased levels of oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS), O&NS-mediated damage to fatty acids, DNA and proteins, autoimmune reactions directed against neoantigens and brain disorders. Mitochondrial dysfunctions have been found in ME/cfs, e.g. lowered ATP production, impaired oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial damage. This paper reviews the pathways that may explain mitochondrial dysfunctions in ME/cfs. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukin-1 and tumor necrosis factor-α, and elastase, and increased O&NS may inhibit mitochondrial respiration, decrease the activities of the electron transport chain and mitochondrial membrane potential, increase mitochondrial membrane permeability, interfere with ATP production and cause mitochondrial shutdown. The activated O&NS pathways may additionally lead to damage of mitochondrial DNA and membranes thus decreasing membrane fluidity. Lowered levels of antioxidants, zinc and coenzyme Q10, and ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in ME/cfs may further aggravate the activated immuno-inflammatory and O&NS pathways. Therefore, it may be concluded that immuno-inflammatory and O&NS pathways may play a role in the mitochondrial dysfunctions and consequently the bioenergetic abnormalities seen in patients with ME/cfs. Defects in ATP production and the electron transport complex, in turn, are associated with an elevated production of superoxide and hydrogen peroxide in mitochondria creating adaptive and synergistic damage. It is argued that mitochondrial dysfunctions, e.g. lowered ATP production, may play a role in the onset of ME/cfs symptoms, e.g. fatigue and post exertional malaise, and may explain in part the central metabolic abnormalities observed in ME/cfs, e.g. glucose hypometabolism and cerebral hypoperfusion. PMID:24557875

  9. Effects of Bread with Nigella Sativa on Lipid Profiles, Apolipoproteins and Inflammatory Factor in Metabolic Syndrome Patients

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Nigella sativa (N.sativa) has been used in traditional medicine and many studies have been performed in different communities in order to reveal the effects of it on medical disorders and chronic diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bread with N. Sativa on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins, and inflammatory factors in metabolic syndrome (MetS) patients. A randomized, double-blind, cross-over and clinical trial was conducted in 51 MetS patients of both sexes with age group of 20-65 years old in Chaloos, north of Iran. Patients were randomly divided in two groups. In phase 1, intervention group (A, n = 27) received daily a bread with N. sativa and wheat bran and control group (B, n = 24) received the same bread without N. sativa for 2 months. After 2 weeks of wash out period, phase 2 was started with switch the intervention between two groups. Measuring of lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor was performed for all patients before and after two phases. In this study, treatment, sequence and time effects of intervention were evaluated and revealed that consumption of bread with N. sativa has no significant treatment and time effects on triglyceride (TG), cholesterol (CHOL), low density lipoprotein (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), apolipoprotein (APO)-A, APO-B and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (p > 0.05). Sequence effect was significant on CHOL, LDL, APO-A, and APO-B (p < 0.05) but was not significant on other parameters (p > 0.05). Consumption of bread with N. sativa has no a significant effect on lipid profiles, apolipoproteins and inflammatory factor in MetS patients. PMID:27152298

  10. Inflammatory myofibroblastic bladder tumor in a patient with wolf-hirschhorn syndrome.

    PubMed

    Marte, Antonio; Indolfi, Paolo; Ficociello, Carmine; Russo, Daniela; Oreste, Matilde; Bottigliero, Gaetano; Gualdiero, Giovanna; Barone, Ciro; Vigliar, Elena; Indolfi, Cristiana; Casale, Fiorina

    2013-01-01

    Inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor (IMT) is a rare neoplasm described in several tissues and organs including genitourinary system, lung, head, and neck. The etiology of IMT is contentious, and whether it is a postinflammatory process or a true neoplasm remains controversial. To our knowledge, we report the first reported case of IMT of urinary bladder in a pediatric patient with Wolf-Hirschhorn (WHS). We also review the literature about patients with associated neoplasia. PMID:24024066

  11. Trauma, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, Dietary Supplements, Illicit Steroid Use and a Questionable Malignant Hyperthermia Reaction

    PubMed Central

    Capacchione, John F.; Radimer, Matthew C.; Sagel, Jeffrey S.; Kraus, Gregory P.; Sambuughin, Nyamkhishig; Muldoon, Sheila M.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Malignant hyperthermia (MH) is a pharmacogenetic disorder of skeletal muscle calcium regulation associated primarily, but not exclusively, with mutations in the skeletal muscle ryanodine receptor. Associated environmental factors, however, may also be important for expression of the syndrome. METHODS AND RESULTS A 24-yr-old trauma patient developed a fulminant MH crisis after a 3 minute exposure to sevoflurane. A thorough evaluation of underlying co-morbidities revealed a number of environmental factors that could have altered skeletal muscle calcium regulation, and may have potentially influenced the effects of volatile inhaled anesthetics. Since MH is a syndrome characterized by abnormal skeletal muscle calcium regulation, other factors that alter calcium homeostasis may exacerbate the impact of inhaled MH-triggering drugs. CONCLUSIONS While a thorough history of MH episodes in a proband and family is emphasized as part of a complete preanesthetic evaluation, obtaining a history of other environmental entities that may alter calcium regulation may be equally important to knowing the family history. PMID:19224800

  12. Chronic fatigue syndrome and fibromyalgia following immunization with the hepatitis B vaccine: another angle of the 'autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndrome induced by adjuvants' (ASIA).

    PubMed

    Agmon-Levin, Nancy; Zafrir, Yaron; Kivity, Shaye; Balofsky, Ari; Amital, Howard; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2014-12-01

    The objectives of this study were to gather information regarding demographic and clinical characteristics of patients diagnosed with either fibromyalgia (FM) or chronic fatigue (CFS) following hepatitis B vaccination (HBVv) and furthermore to apply the recently suggested criteria of autoimmune (auto-inflammatory) syndromes induced by adjuvants (ASIA), in the aim of identifying common characteristics that may suggest an association between fibromyalgia, chronic fatigue and HBV vaccination. Medical records of 19 patients with CFS and/or fibromyalgia following HBVv immunization were analyzed. All of which were immunized during 1990-2008 in different centers in the USA. All medical records were evaluated for demographics, medical history, the number of vaccine doses, as well as immediate and long term post-immunization adverse events and clinical manifestations. In addition, available blood tests, imaging results, treatments and outcomes were analyzed. ASIA criteria were applied to all patients. The mean age of patients was 28.6 ± 11 years, of which 68.4 % were females. 21.05 % had either personal or familial background of autoimmune disease. The mean latency period from the last dose of HBVv to onset of symptoms was 38.6 ± 79.4 days, ranging from days to a year. Eight (42.1 %) patients continued with the immunization program despite experiencing adverse events. Manifestations that were commonly reported included neurological manifestations (84.2 %), musculoskeletal (78.9 %), psychiatric (63.1 %), fatigue (63.1 %), gastrointestinal complains (58 %) and mucocutaneous manifestations (36.8 %). Autoantibodies were detected in 71 % of patients tested. All patients fulfilled the ASIA criteria. This study suggests that in some cases CFS and FM can be temporally related to immunization, as part of ASIA syndrome. The appearance of adverse event during immunization, the presence of autoimmune susceptibility and higher titers of autoantibodies all can be suggested as risk factors. ASIA criteria were fulfilled in all patients eluding the plausible link between ASIA and CFS/FM. PMID:25427994

  13. Lung inflammatory response syndrome after cardiac-operations and treatment of lornoxicam

    PubMed Central

    Tsakiridis, Kosmas; Mpakas, Andreas; Kesisis, George; Arikas, Stamatis; Argyriou, Michael; Siminelakis, Stavros; Katsikogiannis, Nikolaos; Kougioumtzi, Ioanna; Tsiouda, Theodora; Sarika, Eirini; Katamoutou, Ioanna; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    The majority of patients survive after extracorporeal circulation without any clinically apparent deleterious effects. However, disturbances exist in various degrees sometimes, which indicate the harmful effects of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) in the body. Several factors during extracorporeal circulation either mechanical dependent (exposure of blood to non-biological area) or mechanical independent (surgical wounds, ischemia and reperfusion, alteration in body temperature, release of endotoxins) have been shown to trigger the inflammatory reaction of the body. The complement activation, the release of cytokines, the leukocyte activation and accumulation as well as the production of several “mediators” such as oxygen free radicals, metabolites of arachidonic acid, platelet activating factors (PAF), nitric acid, and endothelin. The investigation continues today on the three metabolites of lornoxicam (the hydroxylated metabolite and two other metabolites of unknown chemical composition) to search for potential new pharmacological properties and activities. PMID:24672703

  14. [Multifocal inflammatory syndrome after invasive infection due to an M1 strain of Streptococcus pyogenes].

    PubMed

    Filleron, A; Marchandin, H; Rodière, M; Jeziorski, E

    2010-09-01

    We report on a case of Streptococcus pyogenes invasive disease with toxic shock syndrome due to an M1 strain producing SpeA and SmeZ superantigenic toxins. Post-streptococcal sequelae included several episodes of reactive arthritis and orchitis whose outcome was favorable with corticosteroid therapy. Invasive streptococcal infections are increasingly reported and may associate septic, toxinic, and immunological diseases. High-grade systemic inflammation may induce nonsuppurative complications and autoimmune diseases by molecular mimicry. Among them, reactive arthritis has been recognized as a separate entity from acute rheumatic fever and post-streptococcal orchitis has not been described before. Treatment should be quickly started and should be effective on the etiologic agent but also on its toxins due to the severity of the invasive infections associated with the spread of highly virulent bacterial clones and the potential development of multifocal nonsuppurative sequelae. PMID:20709506

  15. A rare case of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome presenting as secondary syphilis.

    PubMed

    Khatri, Asma; Skalweit, Marion J

    2015-09-01

    Immune reconstitution syndrome has rarely been reported in the context of syphilis infection. We report a patient with AIDS (CD4 42 cells/mm(3), viral load 344,000 cp/ml), treated previously for secondary syphilis and started on an integrase inhibitor-based single-tablet antiretroviral treatment regimen. After four weeks of antiretroviral treatment, he presented with non-tender, non-blanching erythematous nodules on his chest, an elevated rapid plasma reagin (1:1024) and immune reconstitution (CD4 154 cells/mm(3), HIV-RNA 130 cp/ml). A detailed workup to exclude opportunistic infections including secondary and neurosyphilis was performed. The patient was continued on antiretroviral treatment and treated empirically for neurosyphilis given cerebrospinal lymphocytosis and dermatopathology suggesting treponemal antigen-driven B-cell hyperplasia. We favour a diagnosis of immune reconstitution in association with prior syphilis infection attributable to rapid and potent immune restoration afforded by integrase inhibitors. PMID:25311145

  16. Resistance circuit training reduced inflammatory cytokines in a cohort of male adults with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Rosety-Rodriguez, Manuel; Camacho, Alejandra; Rosety, Ignacio; Fornieles, Gabriel; Rosety, Miguel A.; Diaz, Antonio J.; Rosety, Manuel; Ordonez, Francisco J.

    2013-01-01

    Background It is widely accepted that muscle strength plays a key role on functional tasks of daily living and employability in individuals with Down syndrome (DS). Recent studies have also reported resistance training may improve chronic inflammation in other clinical situations. This is the first study conducted to determine the effect of resistance circuit training on low-grade systemic inflammation in adults with DS. Material/Methods A total of 40 young male adults with DS were recruited for the trial through different community support groups for people with intellectual disabilities and their families. They had medical approval for physical activity participation. Twenty-four were randomly assigned to perform resistance circuit training with 6 stations, 3 days per week for 12 weeks. Exercise intensity was based on function of the 8RM assessments. The control group included 16 age-, sex-, and BMI-matched adults with Down syndrome. Plasma levels of leptin, adiponectin, and TNF-α were assessed by commercial ELISA kits. C-reactive protein (CRP) was assessed by nephelometry. Body composition was also determined, measuring fat-free mass percentage and waist circumference (WC). This protocol was approved by our Institutional Ethics Committee. Results Plasma levels of leptin, TNF-α, and IL-6 were significantly decreased after the completion of the training program, as were fat-free mass and WC. No sports-related injuries or withdrawals from the program were reported during the entire study period. No changes were observed in the control group. Conclusions Resistance circuit training improved low-grade systemic inflammation in male sedentary adults with DS. PMID:24196521

  17. CD11d integrin blockade reduces the systemic inflammatory response syndrome after traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Weaver, Lynne C.; Bao, Feng; Dekaban, Gregory A.; Hryciw, Todd; Shultz, Sandy R.; Cain, Donald P.; Brown, Arthur

    2015-01-01

    Traumatic CNS injury triggers a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), in which circulating inflammatory cells invade body organs causing local inflammation and tissue damage. We have shown that the SIRS caused by spinal cord injury is greatly reduced by acute intravenous treatment with an antibody against the CD11d subunit of the CD11d/CD18 integrin expressed by neutrophils and monocyte/macrophages, a treatment that reduces their efflux from the circulation. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a frequently occurring injury after motor vehicle accidents, sporting and military injuries, and falls. Our studies have shown that the anti-CD11d treatment diminishes brain inflammation and oxidative injury after moderate or mild TBI, improving neurological outcomes. Accordingly, we examined the impact of this treatment on the SIRS triggered by TBI. The anti-CD11d treatment was given at 2 h after a single moderate (2.5–3.0 atm) or 2 and 24 h after each of three consecutive mild (1.0–1.5 atm) fluid percussion TBIs. Sham-injured, saline-treated rats served as controls. At 24 h, 72 h, and 4 or 8 weeks after the single TBI and after the third of three TBIs, lungs of rats were examined histochemically, immunocytochemically and biochemically for downstream effects of SIRS including inflammation, tissue damage and expression of oxidative enzymes. Lung sections revealed that both the single moderate and repeated mild TBI caused alveolar disruption, thickening of inter-alveolar tissue, hemorrhage into the parenchyma and increased density of intra-and peri-alveolar macrophages. The anti-CD11d treatment decreased the intrapulmonary influx of neutrophils and the density of activated macrophages and the activity of myeloperoxidase after these TBIs. Moreover, Western blotting studies showed that the treatment decreased lung protein levels of oxidative enzymes gp91phox, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2, as well as the apoptotic pathway enzyme caspase-3 and levels of 4-hydroxynonenal-bound proteins (an indicator of lipid peroxidation). Decreased expression of the cytoprotective transcription factor Nrf2 reflected decreased lung oxidative stress. Anti-CD11d treatment also diminished the lung concentration of free radicals and tissue aldehydes. In conclusion, the substantial lung component of the SIRS after single or repeated TBIs is significantly decreased by a simple, minimally invasive and short-lasting anti-inflammatory treatment. PMID:26169930

  18. Opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-1-infected adults in the combined antiretroviral therapy era: a comprehensive review.

    PubMed

    Manzardo, Christian; Guardo, Alberto C; Letang, Emilio; Plana, Montserrat; Gatell, Jose M; Miro, Jose M

    2015-06-01

    Despite the availability of effective combined antiretroviral treatment, many patients still present with advanced HIV infection, often accompanied by an AIDS-defining disease. A subgroup of patients starting antiretroviral treatment under these clinical conditions may experience paradoxical worsening of their disease as a result of an exaggerated immune response towards an active (but also subclinical) infectious agent, despite an appropriate virological and immunological response to the treatment. This clinical condition, known as immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome, may cause significant morbidity and even mortality if it is not promptly recognized and treated. This review updates current knowledge about the incidence, diagnostic criteria, risk factors, clinical manifestations, and management of opportunistic infections and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in the combined antiretroviral treatment era. PMID:25860288

  19. Inherited STING-activating mutation underlies a familial inflammatory syndrome with lupus-like manifestations.

    PubMed

    Jeremiah, Nadia; Neven, Bénédicte; Gentili, Matteo; Callebaut, Isabelle; Maschalidi, Sophia; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Goudin, Nicolas; Frémond, Marie-Louis; Nitschke, Patrick; Molina, Thierry J; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Rice, Gillian I; Crow, Yanick J; Manel, Nicolas; Fischer, Alain; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Rieux-Laucat, Frédéric

    2014-12-01

    Innate immunity to viral infection involves induction of the type I IFN response; however, dysfunctional regulation of this pathway leads to inappropriate inflammation. Here, we evaluated a nonconsanguineous family of mixed European descent, with 4 members affected by systemic inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, including lupus, with variable clinical expression. We identified a germline dominant gain-of-function mutation in TMEM173, which encodes stimulator of type I IFN gene (STING), in the affected individuals. STING is a key signaling molecule in cytosolic DNA-sensing pathways, and STING activation normally requires dimerization, which is induced by 2'3' cyclic GMP-AMP (cGAMP) produced by the cGAMP synthase in response to cytosolic DNA. Structural modeling supported constitutive activation of the mutant STING protein based on stabilized dimerization. In agreement with the model predictions, we found that the STING mutant spontaneously localizes in the Golgi of patient fibroblasts and is constitutively active in the absence of exogenous 2'3'-cGAMP in vitro. Accordingly, we observed elevated serum IFN activity and a type I IFN signature in peripheral blood from affected family members. These findings highlight the key role of STING in activating both the innate and adaptive immune responses and implicate aberrant STING activation in features of human lupus. PMID:25401470

  20. Stress caused by minimally invasive cardiac surgery versus conventional cardiac surgery: incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hamano, K; Kawamura, T; Gohra, H; Katoh, T; Fujimura, Y; Zempo, N; Miyamoto, M; Tsuboi, H; Tanimoto, Y; Esato, K

    2001-02-01

    The present study was conducted to evaluate the degree of stress in patients induced by minimally invasive cardiac surgery (MICS) in comparison with that caused by conventional cardiac surgery. We did this by assessing the incidence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). A total of 48 adult patients who underwent surgery for single valve disease were included in this study, 27 of whom underwent conventional surgery and 21 MICS. We evaluated the stress inflicted on the patients in these two groups by analyzing the duration and degree of SIRS and the level of C-reactive protein (CRP). SIRS was assessed by measuring body temperature, heart rate, respiratory rate, and white blood cell counts. There were no significant differences in the operating times, perfusion times, or aorta clamp times between the two groups; and the mean volume of blood transfusion did not differ significantly either. There was no significant difference in the incidence of SIRS or the mean duration of SIRS between the two groups. The CRP levels did not differ significantly between the two groups. Thus although MICS is superior to conventional cardiac surgery in that only a small skin incision is required, the stress experienced by the patient may be the same as that experienced by the patient undergoing conventional cardiac surgery. PMID:11338008

  1. Integrated Haematological Profiles of Redox Status, Lipid, and Inflammatory Protein Biomarkers in Benign Obesity and Unhealthy Obesity with Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lubrano, Carla; Valacchi, Giuseppe; Specchia, Palma; Gnessi, Lucio; Rubanenko, Elizaveta P.; Shuginina, Elena A.; Trukhanov, Arseny I.; Korkina, Liudmila G.; De Luca, Chiara

    2015-01-01

    The pathogenesis of obesity (OB) and metabolic syndrome (MetS) implies free radical-, oxidized lipid- (LOOH-), and inflammatory cytokine-mediated altered pathways in target organs. Key elements of the transition from benign OB to unhealthy OB+MetS remain unclear. Here, we measured a panel of redox, antioxidant, and inflammation markers in the groups of OB patients (67 with, 45 without MetS) and 90 controls. Both OB groups displayed elevated levels of adipokines and heavy oxidative stress (OS) evidenced by reduced levels of glutathione, downregulated glutathione-S-transferase, increased 4-hydroxynonenal-protein adducts, reactive oxygen species, and membrane-bound monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Exclusively in OB+MetS, higher-than-normal glutathione peroxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and other proinflammatory cytokines/chemokines/growth factors were observed; a combination of high adipokine plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 and MUFA was consistent with increased cardiovascular risk. The uncomplicated OB group showed features of adaptation to OS such as decreased levels of vitamin E, activated superoxide dismutase, and inhibited catalase, suggesting H2O2 hyperproduction. Proinflammatory cytokine pattern was normal, except few markers like RANTES, a suitable candidate for therapeutic approaches to prevent a setting of MetS by inhibition of LOOH-primed leukocyte chemotaxis/recruitment to target tissues. PMID:26090072

  2. Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome is an Avid and Persistent Sodium-Retaining State

    PubMed Central

    Vitorio, Daniel; Maciel, Alexandre Toledo

    2014-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a frequent complication of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS), which is triggered by many conditions in the intensive care unit, including different types of circulatory shock. One under-recognized characteristic of the SIRS-induced AKI is its avidity for sodium retention, with progressive decreases in urinary sodium concentration (NaU) and its fractional excretion (FENa). This phenomenon occurs in parallel with increases in serum creatinine, being only transitorily mitigated by diuretic use. In the present case, we report a situation of two consecutive shocks: the first shock is hemorrhagic in origin and then the second shock is a septic one in the same patient. The SIRS and AKI triggered by the first shock were not completely solved when the second shock occurred. This could be viewed as a persistent avid sodium-retaining state, which may be appreciated even during renal replacement therapy (in the absence of complete anuria) and that usually solves only after complete AKI and SIRS resolution. We suggest that decreases in NaU and FENa are major characteristics of SIRS-induced AKI, irrespective of the primary cause, and may serve as additional monitoring tools in its development and resolution. PMID:25309760

  3. Interleukin-6 as inflammatory marker referring to multiple organ dysfunction syndrome in severely injured children

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite the suggestion that the inflammatory response in traumatized children is functionally unique, prognostic markers predicting pediatric multiple organ failure are lacking. We intended to verify whether Interleukin-6 (IL-6) displays a pivotal role in pediatric trauma similar to adults. Methods Traumatized children less than 18 years of age with an Injury Severity Score >9 points and consecutive admission to the hospital’s pediatric intensive care unit were included. Organ function was evaluated according to the score by Marshall et al. while IL-6 levels were measured repetitively every morning. Results 59 traumatized children were included (8.4 ± 4.4 years; 57.6% male gender). Incidence of MODS was 11.9%. No differences were found referring to age, gender, injury distribution or overall injury severity between children with and without MODS. Increased IL-6 levels during hospital admission were associated with injury severity (Spearman correlation: r = 0.522, p < 0.001), while an inconsistent association towards the development of MODS was proven at that time point (Spearman correlation: r = 0.180, p = 0.231; Pearson's correlation: r = 0.297, p = 0.045). However, increased IL-6 levels during the first two days were no longer associated with the injury severity but a significant correlation to MODS was measured. Conclusions The presented prospective study is the first providing evidence for a correlation of IL-6 levels with injury severity and the incidence of MODS in traumatized children. PMID:24589345

  4. The framingham risk score, diet, and inflammatory markers in Korean men with metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Juyong; Bae, Wookyung

    2012-01-01

    The Framingham risk score (FRS) has been used to assess the risk of a cardiovascular event and to identify patients for risk factor modifications. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationship of the FRS with dietary intake and inflammatory biomarkers. We conducted a cross-sectional study of 180 men (49.2 ± 10.2 years) with MS. Serum levels of high sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and adiponectin were examined. Participants were asked to complete the food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) using the previous 1 year as a reference point. The absolute cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk percentage over 10 years was calculated to estimate the FRS, which was classified as low risk (< 10%), intermediate risk (10-20%), and high risk (> 20%). Mean intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids was lower in subjects who had > 20% FRS than in subjects who had < 10% FRS (3.7 ± 1.9 g/day vs. 4.7 ± 1.9 g/day; P < 0.05). Significant differences in the Index of Nutritional Quality of protein, phosphorus, iron, vitamin A, vitamin B1, niacin, vitamin B6, and vitamin C were observed between the > 20% FRS group and the < 10% FRS group (P < 0.05). IL-6 concentrations were significantly lower in subjects with a < 10% FRS than in subjects who were 10-20% FRS or > 20% FRS (0.91 ± 0.26 vs. 1.48 ± 033 vs. 2.72 ± 0.57 pg/mL, respectively; P < 0.05). IL-6 and dietary intake of polyunsaturated fatty acids together explained 6.6% of the variation in FRS levels in a stepwise multiple regression model. Our results provide some evidence that dietary intake in the higher CVD risk group was inferior to that in the lower risk group and that dietary fat intake and IL-6 were associated with FRS and MS in Korean men. PMID:22808350

  5. Cerebrospinal fluid cytokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in HIV-associated cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Jarvis, Joseph N; Meintjes, Graeme; Bicanic, Tihana; Buffa, Viviana; Hogan, Louise; Mo, Stephanie; Tomlinson, Gillian; Kropf, Pascale; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Harrison, Thomas S

    2015-04-01

    Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-γ, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α). High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART. These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS. PMID:25853653

  6. Predictors of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in Ischemic Stroke Undergoing Systemic Thrombolysis with Intravenous Tissue Plasminogen Activator

    PubMed Central

    Boehme, Amelia K.; Kapoor, Niren; Albright, Karen C.; Lyerly, Michael J.; Rawal, Pawan V.; Shahripour, Reza Bavarsad; Alvi, Muhammad; Houston, J. Thomas; Sisson, April; Beasley, T. Mark; Alexandrov, Anne W.; Alexandrov, Andrei V.; Miller, David W.

    2016-01-01

    Background Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is an inflammatory process associated with poor outcomes in acute ischemic stroke (AIS) patients. However, no study to date has investigated predictors of SIRS in AIS patients treated with intravenous (IV) tissue plasminogen activator (tPA). Methods Consecutive patients were retrospectively reviewed for evidence of SIRS during their acute hospitalization. SIRS was defined as the presence of 2 or more of the following: (1) body temperature less than 36C or greater than 38C, (2) heart rate greater than 90, (3) respiratory rate greater than 20, or (4) white blood cell count less than 4000/mm or greater than 12,000/mm or more than 10% bands for more than 24 hours. Those diagnosed with an infection were excluded. A scoring system was created to predict SIRS based on patient characteristics available at the time of admission. Logistic regression was used to evaluate potential predictors of SIRS using a sensitivity cutoff of ?65% or area under the curve of .6 or more. Results Of 212 patients, 44 had evidence of SIRS (21%). Patients with SIRS were more likely to be black (61% versus 54%; P = .011), have lower median total cholesterol at baseline (143 versus 167 mg/dL; P = .0207), and have history of previous stroke (51% versus 35%; P = .0810). Ranging from 0 to 6, the SIRS prediction score consists of African American (2 points), history of hypertension (1 point), history of previous stroke (1 point), and admission total cholesterol less than 200 (2 points). Patients with an SIRS score of 4 or more were 3 times as likely to develop SIRS when compared with patients with a score of ?3 (odds ratio = 2.815, 95% confidence interval 1.435.56, P = .0029). Conclusions In our sample of IV tPA-treated AIS patients, clinical and laboratory characteristics available on presentation were able to identify patients likely to develop SIRS during their acute hospitalization. Validation is required in other populations. If validated, this score could assist providers in predicting who will develop SIRS after treatment with IV tPA. PMID:24424334

  7. Cerebrospinal Fluid Cytokine Profiles Predict Risk of Early Mortality and Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-Associated Cryptococcal Meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Jarvis, Joseph N.; Meintjes, Graeme; Bicanic, Tihana; Buffa, Viviana; Hogan, Louise; Mo, Stephanie; Tomlinson, Gillian; Kropf, Pascale; Noursadeghi, Mahdad; Harrison, Thomas S.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the host immune response during cryptococcal meningitis (CM) is of critical importance for the development of immunomodulatory therapies. We profiled the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune-response in ninety patients with HIV-associated CM, and examined associations between immune phenotype and clinical outcome. CSF cytokine, chemokine, and macrophage activation marker concentrations were assayed at disease presentation, and associations between these parameters and microbiological and clinical outcomes were examined using principal component analysis (PCA). PCA demonstrated a co-correlated CSF cytokine and chemokine response consisting primarily of Th1, Th2, and Th17-type cytokines. The presence of this CSF cytokine response was associated with evidence of increased macrophage activation, more rapid clearance of Cryptococci from CSF, and survival at 2 weeks. The key components of this protective immune-response were interleukin (IL)-6 and interferon-?, IL-4, IL-10 and IL-17 levels also made a modest positive contribution to the PC1 score. A second component of co-correlated chemokines was identified by PCA, consisting primarily of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1? (MIP-1?). High CSF chemokine concentrations were associated with low peripheral CD4 cell counts and CSF lymphocyte counts and were predictive of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). In conclusion CSF cytokine and chemokine profiles predict risk of early mortality and IRIS in HIV-associated CM. We speculate that the presence of even minimal Cryptococcus-specific Th1-type CD4+ T-cell responses lead to increased recruitment of circulating lymphocytes and monocytes into the central nervous system (CNS), more effective activation of CNS macrophages and microglial cells, and faster organism clearance; while high CNS chemokine levels may predispose to over recruitment or inappropriate recruitment of immune cells to the CNS and IRIS following peripheral immune reconstitution with ART. These results provide a rational basis for future studies of immune modulation in CM, and demonstrate the potential of baseline immune profiling to identify CM patients most at risk of mortality and subsequent IRIS. PMID:25853653

  8. Relationship between heart rate recovery and inflammatory markers in patients with polycystic ovary syndrome: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Giallauria, Francesco; Orio, Francesco; Lombardi, Gaetano; Colao, Annamaria; Vigorito, Carlo; Tafuri, Maria Giovanna; Palomba, Stefano

    2009-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is an endocrine disease closely related to several risk factors for cardiovascular disease. An abnormal heart rate recovery (HRR), an easily-obtained measure derived from exercise stress test and closely related to an increased risk for cardiovascular mortality, has been recently described in PCOS women. A subclinical increase of the inflammation markers has been also observed in the PCOS. This study was designed to study the relationships between HRR and inflammatory markers in PCOS women. Methods Two-hundred forty-three young PCOS patients without known risk factors for cardiovascular risk were enrolled. All patients underwent hormonal and metabolic profile, white blood cells (WBCs) count and C-reactive protein (CRP). HRR was calculated as the difference between heart rate at peak exercise and heart rate at first minute of the cool-down period. Abnormal HRR was defined as ≤18 beats/min for standard exercise testing. Results Eighty-nine out of 243 patients presented abnormal HRR. Serum CRP (1.8 ± 0.7 vs. 1.1 ± 0.4 mg/dl, p < 0.001) and WBCs (7.3 ± 1.8 vs. 6.6 ± 1.5 109 cells/l, p < 0.001) concentrations were significantly higher in PCOS patients with abnormal versus normal HRR. HRR was significantly associated with both CRP (r = -0.33, p < 0.001) and WBCs (r = -0.29, p < 0.001), although in a stepwise multiple regression HRR resulted independently associated with CRP (beta = -0.151, p = 0.001) alone. In a logistic multivariate model, the group within the highest quartile of CRP (odds ratio 1.59, 95% CI 1.07–2.33) was more likely to have abnormal HRR than those within the lowest quartile. Conclusion Abnormal HRR and inflammatory markers are closely associated in PCOS women acting probably in concert to increase the cardiovascular risk profile of these patients. PMID:19187547

  9. Presence of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Predicts a Poor Clinical Outcome in Dogs with a Primary Hepatitis

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Scott; Dreistadt, Margaret; Frowde, Polly; Powell, Roger; Milne, Elspeth; Smith, Sionagh; Morrison, Linda; Gow, Adam G.; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J.

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatopathies are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The underlying aetiology of most cases of canine hepatitis is unknown. Consequently, treatments are typically palliative and it is difficult to provide accurate prognostic information to owners. In human hepatology there is accumulating data which indicates that the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common and debilitating event in patients with liver diseases. For example, the presence of SIRS has been linked to the development of complications such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and is associated with a poor clinical outcome in humans with liver diseases. In contrast, the relationship between SIRS and clinical outcome in dogs with a primary hepatitis is unknown. Seventy dogs with histologically confirmed primary hepatitis were enrolled into the study. Additional clinical and clinicopathological information including respiratory rate, heart rate, temperature, white blood cell count, sodium, potassium, sex, presence of ascites, HE score, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and red blood cell concentration were available in all cases. The median survival of dogs with a SIRS score of 0 or 1 (SIRS low) was 231 days compared to a median survival of 7 days for dogs with a SIRS score of 2, 3 or 4 (SIRS high) (p<0.001). A Cox proportional hazard model, which included all other co-variables, revealed that a SIRS high score was an independent predictor of a poor clinical outcome. The effect of modulating inflammation on treatment outcomes in dogs with a primary hepatitis is deserving of further study. PMID:26808672

  10. Presence of Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome Predicts a Poor Clinical Outcome in Dogs with a Primary Hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Kilpatrick, Scott; Dreistadt, Margaret; Frowde, Polly; Powell, Roger; Milne, Elspeth; Smith, Sionagh; Morrison, Linda; Gow, Adam G; Handel, Ian; Mellanby, Richard J

    2016-01-01

    Primary hepatopathies are a common cause of morbidity and mortality in dogs. The underlying aetiology of most cases of canine hepatitis is unknown. Consequently, treatments are typically palliative and it is difficult to provide accurate prognostic information to owners. In human hepatology there is accumulating data which indicates that the presence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a common and debilitating event in patients with liver diseases. For example, the presence of SIRS has been linked to the development of complications such as hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and is associated with a poor clinical outcome in humans with liver diseases. In contrast, the relationship between SIRS and clinical outcome in dogs with a primary hepatitis is unknown. Seventy dogs with histologically confirmed primary hepatitis were enrolled into the study. Additional clinical and clinicopathological information including respiratory rate, heart rate, temperature, white blood cell count, sodium, potassium, sex, presence of ascites, HE score, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), bilirubin and red blood cell concentration were available in all cases. The median survival of dogs with a SIRS score of 0 or 1 (SIRS low) was 231 days compared to a median survival of 7 days for dogs with a SIRS score of 2, 3 or 4 (SIRS high) (p<0.001). A Cox proportional hazard model, which included all other co-variables, revealed that a SIRS high score was an independent predictor of a poor clinical outcome. The effect of modulating inflammation on treatment outcomes in dogs with a primary hepatitis is deserving of further study. PMID:26808672

  11. Neuropeptide deficient mice have attenuated nociceptive, vascular, and inflammatory changes in a tibia fracture model of complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Distal limb fracture in man can induce a complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) with pain, warmth, edema, and cutaneous inflammation. In the present study substance P (SP, Tac1−/−) and CGRP receptor (RAMP1−/−) deficient mice were used to investigate the contribution of neuropeptide signaling to CRPS-like changes in a tibia fracture mouse model. Wildtype, Tac1−/−, and RAMP1−/− mice underwent tibia fracture and casting for 3 weeks, then the cast was removed and hindpaw mechanical allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema were tested over time. Hindpaw skin was collected at 3 weeks post-fracture for immunoassay and femurs were collected for micro-CT analysis. Results Wildtype mice developed hindpaw allodynia, unweighting, warmth, and edema at 3 weeks post-fracture, but in the Tac1−/− fracture mice allodynia and unweighting were attenuated and there was no warmth and edema. RAMP1−/− fracture mice had a similar presentation, except there was no reduction in hindpaw edema. Hindpaw skin TNFα, IL-1β, IL-6 and NGF levels were up-regulated in wildtype fracture mice at 3 weeks post-fracture, but in the Tac1−/− and RAMP1−/− fracture mice only IL-6 was increased. The epidermal keratinocytes were the cellular source for these inflammatory mediators. An IL-6 receptor antagonist partially reversed post-fracture pain behaviors in wildtype mice. Conclusions In conclusion, both SP and CGRP are critical neuropeptide mediators for the pain behaviors, vascular abnormalities, and up-regulated innate immune responses observed in the fracture hindlimb. We postulate that the residual pain behaviors observed in the Tac1−/− and RAMP1−/− fracture mice are attributable to the increased IL-6 levels observed in the hindpaw skin after fracture. PMID:23191958

  12. Elevated serum complement factors 3 and 4 are strong inflammatory markers of the metabolic syndrome development: a longitudinal cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhenfang; Tang, Qin; Wen, Jing; Tang, Yan; Huang, DaMin; Huang, Yuzhen; Xie, Jinling; Luo, Yawen; Liang, Min; Wu, Chunlei; Lu, Zheng; Tan, Aihua; Gao, Yong; Wang, Qiuyan; Jiang, Yonghua; Yao, Ziting; Lin, Xinggu; Zhang, Haiying; Mo, Zengnan; Yang, Xiaobo

    2016-01-01

    An epidemiological design, consisting of cross-sectional (n = 2376) and cohort (n = 976) studies, was adopted to investigate the association between complement factors 3 (C3) and 4, and the metabolic syndrome (MetS) development. In the cross-sectional study, the C3 and C4 concentrations in the MetS group were higher than those in the non-MetS group (all P < 0.001), and the levels of immune globulin M (IgM), IgA, IgE, and IgG exhibited no significant differences between MetS and non-MetS (all P > 0.050). After multi-factor adjustment, the odds ratios (ORs) in the highest quartile of C3 and C4 concentrations were 7.047 (4.664, 10.648) and 1.961 (1.349, 2.849), respectively, both Ptrend < 0.050. After a 4 years follow-up, total 166 subjects were diagnosed with MetS, and the complement baseline levels from 2009 were used to predict the MetS risk in 2013. In the adjusted model, the relative risks (RRs) in the highest quartile of C3 and C4 levels were 4.779 (2.854, 8.003) and 2.590 (1.567, 4.280), respectively, both Ptrend < 0.001. Activation of complement factors may be an important part of inflammatory processes, and our results indicated that the elevated C3 and C4 levels were independent risk factors for MetS development. PMID:26726922

  13. How Patients View Probiotics: Findings from a Multicenter Study of Patients with Inflammatory Bowel Disease and Irritable Bowel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, MaryBeth; Brinich, Margaret A.; Geller, Gail; Harrison, Krista; Highland, Janelle; James, Katherine; Marshall, Patricia; McCormick, Jennifer B.; Tilburt, Jon; Achkar, Jean-Paul; Farrell, Ruth M.; Sharp, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have access to a growing number of probiotic products marketed to improve digestive health. It is unclear how patients make decisions about probiotics and what role they expect their gastroenterologists to play as they consider using probiotics. Understanding patients’ knowledge, attitudes and expectations of probiotics may help gastroenterologists engage patients in collaborative discussions about probiotics. Study Focus groups were conducted with patients with IBD and IBS at the Cleveland Clinic, Mayo Clinic and Johns Hopkins University. Inductive analytic methods were utilized to identify common themes and draw interpretations from focus group narratives. Results One hundred thirty-six patients participated in 22 focus groups between March and August 2009. Patients viewed probiotics as an appealing alternative to pharmaceutical drugs and understood probiotics as a more “natural,” low-risk therapeutic option. Many patients were hesitant to use them without consulting their gastroenterologists. Patients would weigh the risks and benefits of probiotics, their disease severity and satisfaction with current treatments when considering probiotic use. Conclusions Patients are interested in probiotics but have many unanswered questions about their use. Our findings suggest that patients with IBD and IBS will look to gastroenterologists and other clinicians as trustworthy advisors regarding the utility of probiotics as an alternative or supplement to pharmaceutical drugs. Gastroenterologists and other clinicians who care for patients with these diseases should be prepared to discuss the potential benefits and risks of probiotics and assist patients in making informed decisions about their use. PMID:21716123

  14. The inflammatory response is an integral part of the stress response: Implications for atherosclerosis, insulin resistance, type II diabetes and metabolic syndrome X.

    PubMed

    Black, Paul H

    2003-10-01

    In previous publications, we presented the hypothesis that repeated episodes of acute or chronic psychological stress could induce an acute phase response (APR) and subsequently a chronic inflammatory process such as atherosclerosis. In this paper, that hypothesis, namely that such stress can induce an APR and inflammation, has been extended to include a chronic inflammatory process(s), characterized by the presence of certain cytokines and acute phase reactants (APR), which is associated with certain metabolic diseases. The loci of origin of these cytokines, particularly interleukin 6 (IL-6), and their induction, has been considered. Evidence is presented that the liver, the endothelium, and fat cell depots are the primary sources of cytokines, particularly IL-6, and that IL-6 and the acute phase protein (APP), C-reactive protein (CRP), are strongly associated with, and likely play a dominant role in, the development of this inflammatory process which leads to insulin resistance, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus type II, and Metabolic syndrome X. The possible role of psychological stress and the major stress-related hormones as etiologic factors in the pathogenesis of these metabolic diseases, as well as atherosclerosis, is discussed. The fact that stress can activate an APR, which is part of the innate immune inflammatory response, is evidence that the inflammatory response is contained within the stress response or that stress can induce an inflammatory response. The evidence that the stress, inflammatory, and immune systems all evolved from a single cell, the phagocyte, is further evidence for their intimate relationship which almost certainly was maintained throughout evolution. PMID:12946657

  15. Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP) and macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP) as possible biomarkers for the chronic pelvic pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Desireddi, Naresh V.; Campbell, Phillip L.; Stern, Jeffrey A.; Sobkoviak, Rudina; Chuai, Shannon; Shahrara, Shiva; Thumbikat, Praveen; Pope, Richard M.; Landis, J. Richard; Koch, Alisa E.; Schaeffer, Anthony J.

    2009-01-01

    PURPOSE The chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS) is characterized by pelvic pain, voiding symptoms and varying degrees of inflammation within expressed prostatic secretions (EPS). We evaluated the chemokines MCP-1 (CCL2) and MIP-1α (CCL3) in EPS to identify marker elevations associated with both inflammatory (IIIA) and non-inflammatory (IIIB) CPPS. In addition, chemokine levels were correlated with clinical pain as determined by the NIH chronic prostatitis symptom index (CPSI). MATERIALS AND METHODS EPS were collected by digital rectal examination and evaluated by ELISA for MCP-1 and MIP-1α in 154 patients; controls (n = 13), BPH (n = 54), CPPS IIIA (n = 37), CPPS IIIB (n = 50). MCP-1 and MIP-1α levels were compared between IIIA, IIIB, and the control subgroups and correlated against the CPSI and pain sub-score using a Spearman test. RESULTS Mean levels of MCP-1 in the control, inflammatory BPH, non-inflammatory BPH, inflammatory CPPS, and non-inflammatory CPPS were 599.4, 886.0, 1636.5, 3261.2, and 2272.7 pg/ml, respectively. Mean levels of MIP-1α in the control, inflammatory BPH, non-inflammatory BPH, IIIA CPPS, and IIIB CPPS were 140.1, 299.4, 238.7, 1057.8, and 978.4 pg/ml, respectively. For each cytokine, both CPPS subtypes had statistically higher levels than the control group and BPH patients (p=0.0002). Receiver operating curves utilizing MCP-1 levels greater than 704 pg/ml and MIP-1α greater than 146 pg/ml identified patients with CPPS with an accuracy of 90% from control patients. MIP-1α levels (p=0.0007) correlated with the pain sub-score of the CPSI while MCP-1 (p=0.71) did not. CONCLUSIONS MCP-1 and MIP-1α within the prostatic fluid in both CPPS subtypes provide candidate future biomarkers for CPPS. In addition, MIP-1α elevation in EPS provides a new marker for clinical pain in CPPS patients. Given these findings, prostatic dysfunction likely plays a role in the pathophysiology of some patients with this syndrome. These chemokines may serve as effective diagnostic markers and modulators against the chemokines could provide an attractive treatment strategy in individuals with CPPS. PMID:18353390

  16. Acute and chronic neuropathies: new aspects of Guillain-Barré syndrome and chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, an overview and an update.

    PubMed

    Trojaborg, W

    1998-11-01

    During the last 15 years new information about clinical, electrophysiological, immunological and histopathological features of acute and chronic inflammatory neuropathies have emerged. Thus, the Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is no longer considered a simple entity. Subtypes of the disorder besides the typical predominant motor manifestation, are recognized, i.e. a cranial nerve variant with ophthalmoplegia, ataxia and areflexia, an immune-mediated primary motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN), and a motor-sensory syndrome (AMSAN). Also, the clinical pattern of GBS is related to preceding viral or bacterial infections. Two types of acute motor paralysis have been described, one with slow and incomplete recovery, another with recovery times identical with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP). Histologically, the first is characterized by Wallerian degeneration of motor roots and peripheral motor nerve fibres. In the latter anti-GM antibodies bind to the nodes of Ranvier producing a failure of impulse transmission. Motor-point biopsies have shown denervated neuromuscular junctions and a reduced number of intramuscular nerve fibres. Molecular mimicry has been postulated as a possible mechanism triggering GBS. Thus, in the cranial variant antibodies to ganglioside GQ1b recognizes similar epitopes on Campylobacter jejuni strains and similar observations apply to anti-GM1 antibodies. Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) also has several different clinical presentations such as a pure motor syndrome, a sensory ataxic variant, a mononeuritis multiplex pattern, relapsing GBS, and a paraparetic subtype. Each of the acute and the subtypes have different, more or less distinct, electrophysiologic and pathological findings. Instructive patient stories are presented together with there electrophysiologic and biopsy findings. PMID:9872432

  17. Autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination in Colombians: a call for personalised medicine.

    PubMed

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel; Reyes, Benjamin; Perdomo-Arciniegas, Ana M; Camacho-Rodríguez, Bernardo; Rojas-Villarraga, Adriana

    2015-01-01

    This was a case study in which 3 patients with autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA) after quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination (HPV) were evaluated and described. All the patients were women. Diagnosis consisted of HLA-B27 enthesitis related arthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and systemic lupus erythematous, respectively. Our results highlight the risk of developing ASIA after HPV vaccination and may serve to increase the awareness of such a complication. Factors that are predictive of developing autoimmune diseases should be examined at the population level in order to establish preventive measures in at-risk individuals for whom healthcare should be personalized and participatory. PMID:25962455

  18. Incidence, Clinical Spectrum, Risk Factors and Impact of HIV-Associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Haddow, Lewis John; Moosa, Mahomed-Yunus Suleman; Mosam, Anisa; Moodley, Pravi; Parboosing, Raveen; Easterbrook, Philippa Jane

    2012-01-01

    Background Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is a widely recognised complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART), but there are still limited data from resource-limited settings. Our objective was to characterize the incidence, clinical spectrum, risk factors and contribution to mortality of IRIS in two urban ART clinics in South Africa. Methods and Findings 498 adults initiating ART in Durban, South Africa were followed prospectively for 24 weeks. IRIS diagnosis was based on consensus expert opinion, and classified by mode of presentation (paradoxical worsening of known opportunistic infection [OI] or unmasking of subclinical disease). 114 patients (22.9%) developed IRIS (36% paradoxical, 64% unmasking). Mucocutaneous conditions accounted for 68% of IRIS events, mainly folliculitis, warts, genital ulcers and herpes zoster. Tuberculosis (TB) accounted for 25% of IRIS events. 18/135 (13.3%) patients with major pre-ART OIs (e.g. TB, cryptococcosis) developed paradoxical IRIS related to the same OI. Risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline viral load >5.5 vs. <4.5 log10 (adjusted hazard ratio 7.23; 95% confidence interval 1.35–38.76) and ≤30 vs. >30 days of OI treatment prior to ART (2.66; 1.16–6.09). Unmasking IRIS related to major OIs occurred in 25/498 patients (5.0%), and risk factors for this type of IRIS were baseline C-reactive protein ≥25 vs. <25 mg/L (2.77; 1.31–5.85), haemoglobin <10 vs. >12 g/dL (3.36; 1.32–8.52), ≥10% vs. <10% weight loss prior to ART (2.31; 1.05–5.11) and mediastinal lymphadenopathy on pre-ART chest x-ray (9.15; 4.10–20.42). IRIS accounted for 6/25 (24%) deaths, 13/65 (20%) hospitalizations and 10/35 (29%) ART interruptions or discontinuations. Conclusion IRIS occurred in almost one quarter of patients initiating ART, and accounted for one quarter of deaths in the first 6 months. Priority strategies to reduce IRIS-associated morbidity and mortality in ART programmes include earlier ART initiation before onset of advanced immunodeficiency, improved pre-ART screening for TB and cryptococcal infection, optimization of OI therapy prior to ART initiation, more intensive clinical monitoring in initial weeks of ART, and education of health care workers and patients about IRIS. PMID:23152745

  19. Steroids are a risk factor for Kaposi's sarcoma-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and mortality in HIV infection

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sánchez, Mónica; Iglesias, María C.; Ablanedo-Terrazas, Yuria; Ormsby, Christopher E.; Alvarado-de la Barrera, Claudia; Reyes-Terán, Gustavo

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the association between Kaposi's sarcoma-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (KS-IRIS) and mortality, with the use of glucocorticoids in HIV-infected individuals. Design: Case–control study. Methods: We reviewed the medical records of 145 individuals with HIV-associated Kaposi's sarcoma receiving antiretroviral therapy. The association of different variables with KS-IRIS and Kaposi's sarcoma-related mortality was explored by univariate and multivariate analyses. The main exposure of interest was the use of glucocorticoids. We also compared the time to KS-IRIS and the time to death of individuals treated with glucocorticoids vs. those nontreated with glucocorticoids, and the time to death of individuals with KS-IRIS vs. those without KS-IRIS by hazards regression. Results: Sixty of 145 individuals received glucocorticoids (41.4%) for the management or suspicion of Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. Fifty individuals had KS-IRIS (37%). The use of glucocorticoids was more frequent in individuals with KS-IRIS than in those without KS-IRIS (54.9 vs. 36.47%, P = 0.047). Kaposi's sarcoma-related mortality occurred in 17 cases (11.7%), and glucocorticoid use was more frequent in this group (76.47 vs. 36.7%, P = 0.003). Glucocorticoid use was a risk factor for mortality (adjusted odds ratio = 4.719, 95% confidence interval = 1.383–16.103, P = 0.0132), and was associated with shorter periods to KS-IRIS (P = 0.03) and death (P = 0.0073). KS-IRIS was a risk factor for mortality (P = 0.049). Conclusion: In HIV-infected individuals, the use of glucocorticoids is a risk factor for KS-IRIS and Kaposi's sarcoma-associated mortality. In addition, KS-IRIS is a risk factor for mortality. Therefore, glucocorticoid administration in this population requires careful consideration based on individualized risk–benefit analysis. PMID:26636923

  20. Development of cryptococcal immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome 41 months after the initiation of antiretroviral therapy in an AIDS patient.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Hideki; Hatakeyama, Shuji; Yotsuyanagi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Cryptococcal meningitis is one of the most lethal fungal infections in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). The incidence of and mortality from cryptococcal meningitis have markedly decreased since the introduction of combination antiretroviral therapy (cART). However, despite its benefits, the initiation of cART results in immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) in some patients. Although IRIS is occasionally difficult to distinguish from relapse or treatment failure, the distinction is important because IRIS requires a different treatment. Here, we present the case of a patient with AIDS who developed symptoms of cryptococcal IRIS 41 months after starting cART. To the best of our knowledge, the time between cART initiation and the onset of cryptococcal IRIS in this patient is the longest that has been reported in the literature. PMID:26425133

  1. Obesity and ADHD may represent different manifestations of a common environmental oversampling syndrome: a model for revealing mechanistic overlap among cognitive, metabolic, and inflammatory disorders.

    PubMed

    Bazar, Kimberly A; Yun, Anthony J; Lee, Patrick Y; Daniel, Stephanie M; Doux, John D

    2006-01-01

    Obesity and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are both increasing in prevalence. Childhood exposure to television has shown linkage to both ADHD and obesity with the former ascribed to dysfunctional cognitive hyperstimulation and the latter to altered patterns of diet and exercise. Empirical evidence has contradicted prior presumptions that the hyperactivity of ADHD would decrease the risk of obesity. Instead, obesity and ADHD demonstrate significant comorbidity. We propose that obesity and ADHD represent different manifestations of the same underlying dysfunction, a phenomenon we term environmental oversampling syndrome. Oversupply of information in the form of nutritional content and sensory content may independently predispose to both obesity and ADHD. Moreover, the pathogenic mechanisms of these conditions may overlap such that nutritional excess contributes to ADHD and cognitive hyperstimulation contributes to obesity. The overlapping effects of medications provide further evidence towards the existence of shared etiologic pathways. Metabolism and cognition may represent parallel systems of intelligence, and oversampling of content may constitute the source of parallel dysfunctions. The emerging association between psychiatric and metabolic disorders suggests a fundamental biologic link between these two systems. In addition, the immune system may represent yet another form of intelligence. The designation of syndrome X subsumes seemingly unrelated metabolic and inflammatory entities. Environmental oversampling syndrome may represent an even more inclusive concept that encompasses various metabolic, inflammatory, and behavioral conditions. Apparently disparate conditions such as insulin resistance, diabetes, hypertension, syndrome X, obesity, ADHD, depression, psychosis, sleep apnea, inflammation, autism, and schizophrenia may operate through common pathways, and treatments used exclusively for one of these conditions may prove beneficial for the others. PMID:15905045

  2. BLOOD pH AND GASES IN FETUSES IN PRETERM LABOR WITH AND WITHOUT SYSTEMIC INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE SYNDROME

    PubMed Central

    Romero, Roberto; Soto, Eleazar; Berry, Stanley M.; Hassan, Sonia S.; Kusanovic, Juan Pedro; Yoon, Bo Hyun; Edwin, Samuel; Mazor, Moshe; Chaiworapongsa, Tinnakorn

    2012-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Fetal hypoxemia has been proposed to be one of the mechanisms of preterm labor (PTL) and delivery. This may have clinical implications since it may alter: 1) the method/frequency of fetal surveillance; and 2) the indications and duration of tocolysis to an already compromised fetus. The aim of this study was to examine whether there is a difference in the fetal blood gas analysis [pH, PaO2 and base excess (BE)] and in the prevalence of fetal acidemia and hypoxia between: 1) patients in PTL who delivered within 72 hours vs. those who delivered more than 72 hours after cordocentesis; and 2) patients with Fetal Inflammatory Response Syndrome (FIRS) vs. those without this condition. STUDY DESIGN Patients admitted with PTL underwent amniocentesis and cordocentesis. Ninety women with singleton pregnancies and PTL were classified according to 1) those who delivered within 72 hours (n = 30) and after 72 hours of the cordocentesis (n = 60); and 2) with and without FIRS. FIRS was defined as a fetal plasma concentration of IL-6 >11 pg/mL. Fetal blood gases were determined. Acidemia and hypoxemia were defined as fetal pH and PaO2 below the 5th percentile for gestational age, respectively. For comparisons between the two study groups, ΔpH and ΔPaO2 were calculated by adjusting for gestational age (Δ = observed value-mean for gestational age). Non-parametric statistics were employed. RESULTS No differences in the median Δ pH (−0.026 vs. −0.016), ΔPaO2 (0.25 mmHg vs. 5.9 mmHg) or BE (−2.4 mEq/L vs. −2.6 mEq/L) were found between patients with PTL who delivered within 72 hours and those who delivered 72 hours after the cordocentesis (p>0.05 for all comparisons). Fetal plasma IL-6 concentration was determined in 63% (57/90) of fetuses and the prevalence of FIRS was 28% (16/57). There was no difference in fetal pH, PaO2 and BE between fetuses with and without FIRS (p>0.05 for all comparisons). Moreover, there was no difference in the rate of fetal acidemia between fetuses with and without FIRS (6.3% vs. 9.8%; p>0.05) and fetal hypoxia between fetuses with or without FIRS (12.5% vs. 19.5%; p>0.05). CONCLUSIONS Our data do not support a role for acute fetal hypoxemia and metabolic acidemia in the etiology of preterm labor and delivery. PMID:21988103

  3. Postural Orthostatic Tachycardia With Chronic Fatigue After HPV Vaccination as Part of the "Autoimmune/Auto-inflammatory Syndrome Induced by Adjuvants": Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tomljenovic, Lucija; Colafrancesco, Serena; Perricone, Carlo; Shoenfeld, Yehuda

    2014-01-01

    We report the case of a 14-year-old girl who developed postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS) with chronic fatigue 2 months following Gardasil vaccination. The patient suffered from persistent headaches, dizziness, recurrent syncope, poor motor coordination, weakness, fatigue, myalgias, numbness, tachycardia, dyspnea, visual disturbances, phonophobia, cognitive impairment, insomnia, gastrointestinal disturbances, and a weight loss of 20 pounds. The psychiatric evaluation ruled out the possibility that her symptoms were psychogenic or related to anxiety disorders. Furthermore, the patient tested positive for ANA (1:1280), lupus anticoagulant, and antiphospholipid. On clinical examination she presented livedo reticularis and was diagnosed with Raynaud's syndrome. This case fulfills the criteria for the autoimmune/auto-inflammatory syndrome induced by adjuvants (ASIA). Because human papillomavirus vaccination is universally recommended to teenagers and because POTS frequently results in long-term disabilities (as was the case in our patient), a thorough follow-up of patients who present with relevant complaints after vaccination is strongly recommended. PMID:26425598

  4. IL-33/ST2 Correlates with Severity of Haemorrhagic Fever with Renal Syndrome and Regulates the Inflammatory Response in Hantaan Virus-Infected Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yusi; Zhang, Chunmei; Zhuang, Ran; Ma, Ying; Zhang, Yun; Yi, Jing; Yang, Angang; Jin, Boquan

    2015-01-01

    Background Hantaan virus (HTNV) causes a severe lethal haemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome (HFRS) in humans. Despite a limited understanding of the pathogenesis of HFRS, the importance of the abundant production of pro-inflammatory cytokines has been widely recognized. Interleukin 33 (IL-33) has been demonstrated to play an important role in physiological and pathological immune responses. After binding to its receptor ST2L, IL-33 stimulates the Th2-type immune response and promotes cytokine production. Depending on the disease model, IL-33 either protects against infection or exacerbates inflammatory disease, but it is unknown how the IL-33/ST2 axis regulates the immune response during HTNV infection. Methodology/Principal Findings Blood samples were collected from 23 hospitalized patients and 28 healthy controls. The levels of IL-33 and soluble ST2 (sST2) in plasma were quantified by ELISA, and the relationship between IL-33, sST2 and the disease severity was analyzed. The role of IL-33/sST2 axis in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines was studied on HTNV-infected endothelial cells. The results showed that the plasma IL-33 and sST2 were significantly higher in patients than in healthy controls. Spearman analysis showed that elevated IL-33 and sST2 levels were positively correlated with white blood cell count and viral load, while negatively correlated with platelet count. Furthermore, we found that IL-33 enhanced the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in HTNV-infected endothelial cells through NF-κB pathway and that this process was inhibited by the recombinant sST2. Conclusion/Significance Our results indicate that the IL-33 acts as an initiator of the “cytokine storm” during HTNV infection, while sST2 can inhibit this process. Our findings could provide a promising immunotherapeutic target for the disease control. PMID:25658420

  5. The use of a gas chromatograph coupled to a metal oxide sensor for rapid assessment of stool samples from irritable bowel syndrome and inflammatory bowel disease patients.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, S F; McGuire, N D; de Lacy Costello, B P J; Ewen, R J; Jayasena, D H; Vaughan, K; Ahmed, I; Probert, C S; Ratcliffe, N M

    2014-06-01

    There is much clinical interest in the development of a low-cost and reliable test for diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), two very distinct diseases that can present with similar symptoms. The assessment of stool samples for the diagnosis of gastro-intestinal diseases is in principle an ideal non-invasive testing method. This paper presents an approach to stool analysis using headspace gas chromatography and a single metal oxide sensor coupled to artificial neural network software. Currently, the system is able to distinguish samples from patients with IBS from patients with IBD with a sensitivity and specificity of 76% and 88% respectively, with an overall mean predictive accuracy of 76%. PMID:24674940

  6. Treatment of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome with intravenous immunoglobulin in a patient with multiple sclerosis treated with fingolimod after discontinuation of natalizumab.

    PubMed

    Calic, Z; Cappelen-Smith, C; Hodgkinson, S J; McDougall, A; Cuganesan, R; Brew, B J

    2015-03-01

    We report a case of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy-immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome in a multiple sclerosis (MS) patient 3.5 months after fingolimod commencement and 4.5 months after natalizumab (NTZ) cessation. Three cerebrospinal fluid analyses were required before a definitive diagnosis of progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy was reached. Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) was subsequently given as the sole MS treatment along with mirtazapine and mefloquine. There has been improvement and subsequent clinical stabilization. The notable features are the difficult timing of fingolimod commencement in the context of previous NTZ therapy, the role of repeated cerebrospinal fluid John Cunningham virus analyses in progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy diagnosis, and the role of IVIG. PMID:25523125

  7. PROCLAIM: pilot study to examine the effects of clopidogrel on inflammatory markers in patients with metabolic syndrome receiving low-dose aspirin.

    PubMed

    Willerson, James T; Cable, Greg; Yeh, Edward T H

    2009-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with intravascular inflammation, as determined by increased levels of inflammatory biomarkers and an increased risk of ischemic atherothrombotic events. Evidence suggests that atherothrombosis and intravascular inflammation share predictive biomarkers, including high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, CD40 ligand, P-selectin, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. Patients who had metabolic syndrome were randomized to receive clopidogrel 75 mg/day plus aspirin 81 mg/day (n = 89) or placebo plus aspirin 81 mg/day (n = 92) for 9 weeks to assess the efficacy of each treatment in suppression of inflammatory markers. Change from baseline in the levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, CD40 ligand, P-selectin, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide at 6 weeks was assessed to evaluate each treatment. There was a significant difference at Week 6 in model-adjusted CD40-ligand levels in favor of clopidogrel plus aspirin compared with placebo plus aspirin in both the intent-to-treat population (difference between least-squares means = -186.5; 95% confidence interval, -342.3 to -30.8; P = 0.02) and the per-protocol population (P = 0.05). No significant differences were observed between the treatment arms for high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, P-selectin, and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide. There were no deaths or serious adverse events in either treatment arm. Data from this study suggest that clopidogrel can decrease the expression of the CD40-ligand biomarker. PMID:20069077

  8. Metabolic Syndrome Augments the Risk of Early Neurological Deterioration in Acute Ischemic Stroke Patients Independent of Inflammatory Mediators: A Hospital-Based Prospective Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaohao; Sun, Zhiguang; Ding, Caixia; Tang, Yinyan; Jiang, Xuemei; Xie, Yi; Li, Chuanyou; Zhang, Lankun; Hu, Dan; Li, Tingting; Xu, Gelin; Sheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been associated with occurrence and prognosis of ischemic stroke. This study aimed to evaluate whether an association exists between MetS and early neurological deterioration (END) following acute ischemic stroke and the possible role inflammatory biomarkers play. Methods and Results. We conducted a prospective cohort investigation that involved 208 stroke patients within 48 hours from symptom onset. MetS was determined by the modified National Cholesterol Education Program/Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. END was defined as an increase of ⩾1 point in motor power or ⩾2 points in the total National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) score within 7 days. Univariate logistic regression analysis showed that patients with MetS had a 125% increased risk of END (OR 2.25; 95% CI 1.71–4.86, P = 0.005). After adjustment for fibrinogen and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, MetS remained significantly correlated to END (OR 2.20; 95% CI 1.10–4.04, P = 0.026) with a 77% elevated risk per additional MetS trait (OR 1.77; 95% CI 1.23–2.58, P = 0.002). Conclusions. This study demonstrated that MetS may be a potential predictor for END after ischemic stroke, which was independent of raised inflammatory mediators. PMID:27119010

  9. A Case of Cauda Equina Syndrome in Early-Onset Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy Clinically Similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth Disease Type 1

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Eun; Ha, Sam Yeol; Nam, Taek Kyun

    2014-01-01

    To present a case of cauda equina syndrome (CES) caused by chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) which seemed clinically similar to Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease type1 (CMT1). CIDP is an immune-mediated polyneuropathy, either progressive or relapsing-remitting. It is a non-hereditary disorder characterized by symmetrical motor and sensory deficits. Rarely, spinal nerve roots can be involved, leading to CES by hypertrophic cauda equina. A 34-year-old man presented with low back pain, radicular pain, bilateral lower-extremity weakness, urinary incontinence, and constipation. He had had musculoskeletal deformities, such as hammertoes and pes cavus, since age 10. Lumbar spine magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse thickening of the cauda equina. Electrophysiological testing showed increased distal latency, conduction blocks, temporal dispersion, and severe nerve conduction velocity slowing (3 m/s). We were not able to find genetic mutations at the PMP 22, MPZ, PRX, and EGR2 genes. The pathologic findings of the sural nerve biopsy revealed thinly myelinated nerve fibers with Schwann cells proliferation. We performed a decompressive laminectomy, intravenous IgG (IV-IgG) and oral steroid. At 1 week after surgery, most of his symptoms showed marked improvements except foot deformities. There was no relapse or aggravation of disease for 3 years. We diagnosed the case as an early-onset CIDP with cauda equine syndrome, whose initial clinical findings were similar to those of CMT1, and successfully managed with decompressive laminectomy, IV-IgG and oral steroid. PMID:25237436

  10. Administration of Ricin Induces a Severe Inflammatory Response via Nonredundant Stimulation of ERK, JNK, and P38 MAPK and Provides a Mouse Model of Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Korcheva, Veselina; Wong, John; Corless, Christopher; Iordanov, Mihail; Magun, Bruce

    2005-01-01

    Recent interest in the health consequences of ricin as a weapon of terrorism has led us to investigate the effects of ricin on cells in vitro and in mice. Our previous studies showed that depurination of the 28S rRNA by ricin results in the inhibition of translation and the coordinate activation of the stress-activated protein kinases JNK and p38 MAPK. In RAW 264.7 macrophages, ricin induced the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK, the accumulation of mRNA encoding tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-1, the transcription factors c-Fos, c-Jun, and EGR1, and the appearance of TNF-α protein in the culture medium. Using specific inhibitors of MAPKs, we demonstrated the nonredundant roles of the individual MAPKs in mediating proinflammatory gene activation in response to ricin. Similarly, the intravenous administration of ricin to mice led to the activation of ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK in the kidneys, and increases in plasma-borne TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6. Ricin-injected mice developed the hallmarks of hemolytic uremic syndrome, including thrombotic microangiopathy, hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. Microarray analyses demonstrated a massive proinflammatory transcriptional response in the kidneys, coincidental with the symptoms of hemolytic uremic syndrome. Therapeutic management of the inflammatory response may affect the outcome of intoxication by ricin. PMID:15632024

  11. Identification and Treatment of New Inflammatory Triggers for Complex Regional Pain Syndrome: Small Intestinal Bacterial Overgrowth and Obstructive Sleep Apnea.

    PubMed

    Weinstock, Leonard B; Myers, Trisha L; Walters, Arthur S; Schwartz, Oscar A; Younger, Jarred W; Chopra, Pradeep J; Guarino, Anthony H

    2016-05-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is evoked by conditions that may be associated with local and/or systemic inflammation. We present a case of long-standing CRPS in a patient with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome in which prolonged remission was attained by directing therapy toward concomitant small intestinal bacterial overgrowth, obstructive sleep apnea, and potential increased microglia activity. We theorize that cytokine production produced by small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and obstructive sleep apnea may act as stimuli for ongoing CRPS symptoms. CRPS may also benefit from the properties of low-dose naltrexone that blocks microglia Toll-like receptors and induces production of endorphins that regulate and reduce inflammation. PMID:26867023

  12. Associations of erythrocyte palmitoleic acid with adipokines, inflammatory markers, and the metabolic syndrome in middle-aged and older Chinese123

    PubMed Central

    Zong, Geng; Ye, Xingwang; Sun, Liang; Li, Huaixing; Yu, Zhijie; Hu, Frank B

    2012-01-01

    Background: Palmitoleic acid has been shown to regulate adipokine expression and systemic metabolic homeostasis in animal studies. However, its association with human metabolic diseases remains controversial. Objective: We aimed to investigate associations of erythrocyte palmitoleic acid with adipokines, inflammatory markers, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese population. Design: Erythrocyte fatty acids were measured in a population-based sample of 3107 men and women aged 5070 y, for whom plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, adiponectin, retinol binding protein 4 (RBP-4), plasminogen activator inhibitor type 1, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) were measured. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Results: The mean (SD) erythrocyte palmitoleic acid value was 0.41 0.20% of total fatty acids. Palmitoleic acid was positively correlated with RBP-4 (r = 0.14, P < 0.001) and inversely correlated with adiponectin (r = ?0.15, P < 0.001). After multivariable adjustment, palmitoleic acid was strongly associated with MetS and its components. ORs (95% CIs) for comparisons of extreme quartiles of palmitoleic acid were 3.50 (2.66, 4.59) for MetS, 7.88 (5.90, 10.52) for hypertriglyceridemia, 2.13 (1.66, 2.72) for reduced HDL cholesterol, 1.99 (1.60, 2.48) for central obesity, and 1.86 (1.41, 2.44) for elevated blood pressure (all P < 0.001). Further control for adipokines and hsCRP abolished the association of palmitoleic acid with central obesity but not with other MetS components. Conclusion: Erythrocyte palmitoleic acid is associated with an adverse profile of adipokines and inflammatory markers and an increased risk of MetS in this Chinese population. PMID:23015321

  13. Hypoxia inducible factor-1α inhibition produced anti-allodynia effect and suppressed inflammatory cytokine production in early stage of mouse complex regional pain syndrome model.

    PubMed

    Hsiao, Hung-Tsung; Lin, Ya-Chi; Wang, Jeffrey Chi-Fei; Tsai, Yu-Chuan; Liu, Yen-Chin

    2016-03-01

    Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is related to microcirculation impairment associated with tissue hypoxia and peripheral cytokine overproduction in the affected limb. Previous studies suggest that the pathogenesis involves hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) and exaggerated regional inflammatory response. 1-methylpropyl 2-imidazolyl disulfide (PX-12) acts as the thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) inhibitor and decreases the level of HIF-1α, and can rapidly be metabolized for Trx-1 redox inactivation. This study hypothesized that PX-12 can decrease the cytokine production for nociceptive sensitization in the hypoxia-induced pain model. CD1 mice weighing around 30 g were used. The animal CRPS model was developed via the chronic post-ischaemic pain (CPIP) model. The model was induced by using O-rings on the ankles of the mice hind limbs to produce 3-h ischaemia-reperfusion injury on the paw. PX-12 (25 mg/kg, 5 mg/kg) was given through tail vein injection immediately after ischaemia. Animal behaviour was tested using the von Frey method for 7 days. Local paw skin tissue was harvest from three groups (control, 5 mg/kg, 25 mg/kg) 2 h after injection of PX-12. The protein expression of interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and HIF-1α was analysed with the Western blotting method. Mice significantly present an anti-allodynia effect in a dose-related manner after the PX-12 administration. Furthermore, PX-12 not only decreased the expression of HIF-1α but also decreased the expression of IL-1β over the injured palm. This study, therefore, shows the first evidence of the anti-allodynia effect of PX-12 in a CPIP animal model for pain behaviour. The study concluded that inhibition of HIF-1α may produce an analgesic effect and the associated suppression of inflammatory cytokine IL-1β in a CPIP model. PMID:26711019

  14. Activation of the lectin pathway of complement by cardiopulmonary bypass contributes to the development of systemic inflammatory response syndrome after paediatric cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Pągowska-Klimek, I; Świerzko, A S; Michalski, M; Głowacka, E; Szala-Poździej, A; Sokołowska, A; Moll, M; Krajewski, W R; Romak, J; Cedzyński, M

    2016-05-01

    The systemic inflammatory response is a challenge in the management of paediatric patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Although multi-factorial, a contribution by the lectin pathway of complement activation has been postulated. We therefore investigated the changes in serum levels of mannose binding lectin (MBL) and activities of MBL-MBL-associated serine protease (MASP)-1 and MBL-MASP-2 complexes immediately before and during surgery, throughout the first postoperative day and at discharge from the hospital. These changes were analysed in relation to postoperative complications. Blood samples were obtained from 185 children with congenital heart disease undergoing surgical correction with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass: preoperatively (MBL-1), 15 min after initiation of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (MBL-E), 30 min (MBL-2), 4 h (MBL-3), 12 h (MBL-4) and 24 h (MBL-5) post-CPB and at discharge from hospital (MBL-K). Alterations in serum MBL levels were calculated as a ratio of its serum level at subsequent time-points (MBL-2, -3, -4, -5) to the preoperative (MBL-1) value. Decreases in MBL and MBL-MASP complexes were observed in all samples, correlating with a decrease in C4 and increase in C4a, confirming activation of the lectin pathway. Changes in MBL levels between children with an uncomplicated postoperative course and those suffering from infection or low cardiac output syndrome did not differ significantly, but significant differences were observed between the SIRS and non-SIRS groups. Paediatric cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass activates the complement system via the lectin pathway and the latter contributes to the development of the post-bypass systemic inflammatory response. PMID:26703090

  15. Anti-inflammatory effects of combined treatment with acetyl salicylic acid and atorvastatin in haemodialysis patients affected by Normal Weight Obese syndrome.

    PubMed

    Di Renzo, Laura; Noce, Annalisa; De Angelis, Sandro; Miani, Natascia; Di Daniele, Nicola; Tozzo, Carmela; De Lorenzo, Antonino

    2008-02-01

    Low-grade inflammation is a common feature of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and persistent systemic inflammation is thought to be a strong predictor of cardiovascular events. Inflammation plays a role in determining the serum albumin levels in haemodialysis patients (HD) independently of the nutritional status. Increased cardiovascular mortality in CKD has been associated with the increased incidence of obesity in uremic patients. Ingenbleek suggested a prognostic inflammation and nutritional index (PINI), based on serum albumin, pre-albumin, C-reactive protein, and alpha1 acid glycoprotein, to identify and to follow up acutely ill patients at risk of major complications. The aims of the present study were: to verify the incidence of Normal Weight Obese (NWO) syndrome; to evaluate by PINI the effect of 8 weeks acetyl salicylic (100 mg/die) and atorvastatin (10 mg/die) combined treatment on chronic inflammation in 52 selected HD patients. Laboratory evaluation, anthropometric and body composition measurements were detected. At baseline the 56.25% of non-obese, the 84.21% of pre-obese-obese, and the 41.17% of NWO women showed PINI values >1 (normal status PINI<1). After the pharmacological treatment, high significant (P<0.001) reduction in lipid profile, an elevated increase of HDL levels, and a significant reduction of inflammatory markers were obtained. Firstly, our results showed that ASA and atorvastatin combined treatment was effective in reducing inflammatory status in HD patients independently of body composition: at the end of the study only 7.49% of the patients exhibited PINI>1. Further studies will be necessary to understand the causes of inflammation in non-responder patients. PMID:18262432

  16. Mesenchymal Stem/Progenitors and Other Endometrial Cell Types From Women With Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Display Inflammatory and Oncogenic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Piltonen, T. T.; Chen, J.; Erikson, D. W.; Spitzer, T. L. B.; Barragan, F.; Rabban, J. T.; Huddleston, H.; Irwin, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Endometrium in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) presents altered gene expression indicating progesterone resistance and predisposing to reduced endometrial receptivity and endometrial cancer. Objective: We hypothesized that an altered endocrine/metabolic environment in PCOS may result in an endometrial “disease phenotype” affecting the gene expression of different endometrial cell populations, including stem cells and their differentiated progeny. Design and Setting: This was a prospective study conducted at an academic medical center. Patients and Main Outcome Measures: Proliferative-phase endometrium was obtained from 6 overweight/obese PCOS (National Institutes of Health criteria) and 6 overweight/obese controls. Microarray analysis was performed on fluorescence-activated cell sorting-isolated endometrial epithelial cells (eEPs), endothelial cells, stromal fibroblasts (eSFs), and mesenchymal stem cells (eMSCs). Gene expression data were validated using microfluidic quantitative RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Results: The comparison between eEPPCOS and eEPCtrl showed dysregulation of inflammatory genes and genes with oncogenic potential (CCL2, IL-6, ORM1, TNAIFP6, SFRP4, SPARC). eSFPCOS and eSFCtrl showed up-regulation of inflammatory genes (C4A/B, CCL2, ICAM1, TNFAIP3). Similarly, in eMSCPCOS vs eMSCCtrl, the most up-regulated genes were related to inflammation and cancer (IL-8, ICAM1, SPRR3, LCN2). Immunohistochemistry scoring showed increased expression of CCL2 in eEPPCOS and eSFPCOS compared with eEPCtrl and eSFCtrl and IL-6 in eEPPCOS compared with eEPCtrl. Conclusions: Isolated endometrial cell populations in women with PCOS showed altered gene expression revealing inflammation and prooncogenic changes, independent of body mass index, especially in eEPPCOS and eMSCPCOS, compared with controls. The study reveals an endometrial disease phenotype in women with PCOS with potential negative effects on endometrial function and long-term health. PMID:23824412

  17. Genomic and Clinical Effects Associated with a Relaxation Response Mind-Body Intervention in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Jacquart, Jolene; Scult, Matthew A.; Slipp, Lauren; Riklin, Eric Isaac Kagan; Lepoutre, Veronique; Comosa, Nicole; Norton, Beth-Ann; Dassatti, Allison; Rosenblum, Jessica; Thurler, Andrea H.; Surjanhata, Brian C.; Hasheminejad, Nicole N.; Kagan, Leslee; Slawsby, Ellen; Rao, Sowmya R.; Macklin, Eric A.; Fricchione, Gregory L.; Benson, Herbert; Libermann, Towia A.; Korzenik, Joshua; Denninger, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Irritable Bowel Syndrome (IBS) and Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) can profoundly affect quality of life and are influenced by stress and resiliency. The impact of mind-body interventions (MBIs) on IBS and IBD patients has not previously been examined. Methods Nineteen IBS and 29 IBD patients were enrolled in a 9-week relaxation response based mind-body group intervention (RR-MBI), focusing on elicitation of the RR and cognitive skill building. Symptom questionnaires and inflammatory markers were assessed pre- and post-intervention, and at short-term follow-up. Peripheral blood transcriptome analysis was performed to identify genomic correlates of the RR-MBI. Results Pain Catastrophizing Scale scores improved significantly post-intervention for IBD and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD. Trait Anxiety scores, IBS Quality of Life, IBS Symptom Severity Index, and IBD Questionnaire scores improved significantly post-intervention and at short-term follow-up for IBS and IBD, respectively. RR-MBI altered expression of more genes in IBD (1059 genes) than in IBS (119 genes). In IBD, reduced expression of RR-MBI response genes was most significantly linked to inflammatory response, cell growth, proliferation, and oxidative stress-related pathways. In IBS, cell cycle regulation and DNA damage related gene sets were significantly upregulated after RR-MBI. Interactive network analysis of RR-affected pathways identified TNF, AKT and NF-κB as top focus molecules in IBS, while in IBD kinases (e.g. MAPK, P38 MAPK), inflammation (e.g. VEGF-C, NF-κB) and cell cycle and proliferation (e.g. UBC, APP) related genes emerged as top focus molecules. Conclusions In this uncontrolled pilot study, participation in an RR-MBI was associated with improvements in disease-specific measures, trait anxiety, and pain catastrophizing in IBS and IBD patients. Moreover, observed gene expression changes suggest that NF-κB is a target focus molecule in both IBS and IBD—and that its regulation may contribute to counteracting the harmful effects of stress in both diseases. Larger, controlled studies are needed to confirm this preliminary finding. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.Gov NCT02136745 PMID:25927528

  18. [Ultrasonographic diagnosis of inflammatory neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Takamichi; Ochi, Kazuhide; Hosomi, Naohisa; Matsumoto, Masayasu

    2014-03-01

    Ultrasonographic nerve enlargement has primarily been reported in patients with inflammatory neuropathies such as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), multifocal motor neuropathy, Guillain-Barre syndrome, vasculitic neuropathy and leprosy. Nerve ultrasonography is a promising diagnostic supportive tool for inflammatory neuropathies. The ultrasonographic findings that are currently useful are 1) nerve enlargement primarily suggests the existence of inflammatory or demyelinating neuropathies and 2) for patients with CIDP or demyelinating Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease, the pattern of nerve enlargement is noted, and this pattern is useful for discriminating between these diseases. More precise evidence of ultrasonographic findings for inflammatory neuropathies should be established in the future. PMID:24607946

  19. Isoniazid-resistant Mycobacterium kansasii in an HIV-positive patient, and possible development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome after initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy: case report.

    PubMed

    Despotovic, A; Savic, B; Salemovic, D; Ranin, J; Jevtovic, Dj

    2016-01-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria are rare but important causes of infection in HIV-positive individuals. A 28-year-old HIV-positive male presented with a high fever, non-productive cough, right subcostal pain, splenomegaly, a very low CD4 count, elevated C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, and a normal white blood cell count. The suspicion of tuberculosis (TB) was very high, and sputum samples were positive for acid-fast bacilli. Standard quadruple anti-TB therapy was initiated, but once culture of the sample revealed Mycobacterium kansasii, pyrazinamide was withdrawn. Highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) was initiated soon after, consisting of abacavir/lamivudine and efavirenz. The patient's general condition deteriorated 2 weeks after HAART initiation, which could have been due to the development of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). The patient recovered and was discharged in good condition. However, the results of resistance testing of the isolated organism arrived after discharge, and showed isoniazid and streptomycin resistance. This is the first case report of M. kansasii infection from Serbia and shows the difficulties encountered during the course of treatment. PMID:26603644

  20. Branched DNA-based Alu quantitative assay for cell-free plasma DNA levels in patients with sepsis or systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hou, Yan-Qiang; Liang, Dong-Yu; Lou, Xiao-Li; Zhang, Mei; Zhang, Zhen-huan; Zhang, Lu-rong

    2016-02-01

    Cell-free circulating DNA (cf-DNA) can be detected by various of laboratory techniques. We described a branched DNA-based Alu assay for measuring cf-DNA in septic patients. Compared to healthy controls and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) patients, serum cf-DNA levels were significantly higher in septic patients (1426.54 ± 863.79 vs 692.02 ± 703.06 and 69.66 ± 24.66 ng/mL). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve of cf-DNA for normal vs sepsis and SIRS vs sepsis were 0.955 (0.884-1.025), and 0.856 (0.749-0.929), respectively. There was a positive correlation between cf-DNA and interleukin 6 or procalcitonin or Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II. The cf-DNA concentration was higher in intensive care unit nonsurviving patients compared to surviving patients (2183.33 ± 615.26 vs 972.46 ± 648.36 ng/mL; P < .05). Branched DNA-based Alu assays are feasible and useful to quantify serum cf-DNA levels. Increased cf-DNA levels in septic patients might complement C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in a multiple marker format. Cell-free circulating DNA might be a new marker in discrimination of sepsis and SIRS. PMID:26589770

  1. Angiogenic and inflammatory markers in acute respiratory distress syndrome and renal injury associated to A/H1N1 virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bautista, Edgar; Arcos, Magali; Jimenez-Alvarez, Lus; Garca-Sancho, Ma Cecilia; Vzquez, Mara E; Pea, Erika; Higuera, Anjarath; Ramrez, Gustavo; Fernndez-Plata, Rosario; Cruz-Lagunas, Alfredo; Garca-Moreno, Sara A; Urrea, Francisco; Ramrez, Remedios; Correa-Rotter, Ricardo; Prez-Padilla, Jos Rogelio; Ziga, Joaqun

    2013-06-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is often associated to acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) due to influenza A/H1N1 virus infection. The profile of angiogenic and inflammatory factors in ARDS patients may be relevant for AKI. We analyzed the serum levels of several angiogenic factors, cytokines, and chemokines in 32 patients with A/H1N1 virus infection (17 with ARDS/AKI and 15 ARDS patients who did not developed AKI) and in 18 healthy controls. Significantly higher levels of VEGF, MCP-1, IL-6, IL-8 and IP-10 in ARDS/AKI patients were detected. Adjusting by confusing variables, levels of MCP-1 ?150 pg/mL (OR=12.0, p=0.04) and VEGF ?225 pg/mL (OR=6.4, p=0.03) were associated with the development of AKI in ARDS patients. Higher levels of MCP-1 and IP-10 were significantly associated with a higher risk of death in patients with ARDS (hazard ratio (HR)=10.0, p=0.02; HR=25.5, p=0.03, respectively) even taking into account AKI. Patients with influenza A/H1N1 infection and ARDS/AKI have an over-production of MCP-1, VEGF and IP-10 possibly contributing to kidney injury and are associated to a higher risk of death. PMID:23542734

  2. The sequential organ failure assessment score as a useful predictor for estimating the prognosis of systemic inflammatory response syndrome patients being treated with extracorporeal blood purification.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Hiroshi; Maruyama, Hiroki; Omori, Saori; Kazama, Junichiro J; Gejyo, Fumitake

    2003-08-01

    Systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in critically ill patients. Extracorporeal blood purification procedures are becoming important for treating these patients. However, the cost of these procedures is high. Therefore, a prognostic marker would be helpful. To establish the reliability of the Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score as a prognostic indicator, we evaluated daily changes in the SOFA score of 40 SIRS patients who needed blood purification procedures such as continuous renal replacement therapy (CRRT), endotoxin adsorption, bilirubin adsorption, and/or plasma exchange. Twenty patients survived and 20 died. Although the baseline scores of the two groups (survivors and non-survivors) did not differ, both the maximum value of the SOFA score and the DeltaSOFA score (the difference between the maximum SOFA and baseline SOFA scores) were significantly higher in the non-survivor group. The mortality rate among patients with a maximum SOFA score greater than or equal to 18 or a DeltaSOFA score greater than or equal to 3 was higher than for the rest of the patients. The changes in the SOFA score correlated well with the outcomes of the SIRS patients. The maximum SOFA score and the DeltaSOFA score are therefore likely to be useful prognostic markers. PMID:12887731

  3. A pro-inflammatory signalome is constitutively activated by C33Y mutant TNF receptor 1 in TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS).

    PubMed

    Negm, Ola H; Mannsperger, Heiko A; McDermott, Elizabeth M; Drewe, Elizabeth; Powell, Richard J; Todd, Ian; Fairclough, Lucy C; Tighe, Patrick J

    2014-07-01

    Mutations in TNFRSF1A encoding TNF receptor 1 (TNFR1) cause the autosomal dominant TNF receptor-associated periodic syndrome (TRAPS): a systemic autoinflammatory disorder. Misfolding, intracellular aggregation, and ligand-independent signaling by mutant TNFR1 are central to disease pathophysiology. Our aim was to understand the extent of signaling pathway perturbation in TRAPS. A prototypic mutant TNFR1 (C33Y), and wild-type TNFR1 (WT), were expressed at near physiological levels in an SK-Hep-1 cell model. TNFR1-associated signaling pathway intermediates were examined in this model, and in PBMCs from C33Y TRAPS patients and healthy controls. In C33Y-TNFR1-expressing SK-Hep-1 cells and TRAPS patients' PBMCs, a subtle, constitutive upregulation of a wide spectrum of signaling intermediates and their phosphorylated forms was observed; these were associated with a proinflammatory/antiapoptotic phenotype. In TRAPS patients' PBMCs, this upregulation of proinflammatory signaling pathways was observed irrespective of concurrent treatment with glucocorticoids, anakinra or etanercept, and the absence of overt clinical symptoms at the time that the blood samples were taken. This study reveals the pleiotropic effect of a TRAPS-associated mutant form of TNFR1 on inflammatory signaling pathways (a proinflammatory signalome), which is consistent with the variable and limited efficacy of cytokine-blocking therapies in TRAPS. It highlights new potential target pathways for therapeutic intervention. PMID:24668260

  4. Clinical markers of immunodeficiency and mechanism of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome and highly active antiretroviral therapy on HIV: workshop 3A.

    PubMed

    Ramirez-Amador, V; Nittayananta, W; Magalhães, M; Flint, S R; Peters, B S; Tappuni, A R

    2011-04-01

    Antiretroviral therapy (ART) has improved survival and changed the disease pattern of HIV infection. However, ART may cause serious side effects, such as metabolic and cardiovascular complications. In addition, immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS) is being increasingly reported in relation to ART. The article presents the consensus of a workshop around 4 key issues: (1) the differences in the response of adults and children to highly active antiretroviral therapy, (2) the mechanism of the new HIV entry inhibitors and its effect on oral markers, (3) the pathogenesis of IRIS and the contradictory findings of the possible oral lesions related with IRIS, (4) and the benefits and barriers associated with using ART in the developing and developed world. The consensus of the workshop was that there is a need for future studies on the oral manifestations of HIV in individuals treated with new ARTs-especially, children. IRIS was considered a promising field for future research; as such, workshop attendees recommended formulating an IRIS-oral lesions case definition and following strict criteria for its diagnosis. PMID:21441499

  5. Sequence Analysis of Kaposi Sarcoma–Associated Herpesvirus (KSHV) MicroRNAs in Patients with Multicentric Castleman Disease and KSHV-Associated Inflammatory Cytokine Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Ray, Alex; Marshall, Vickie; Uldrick, Thomas; Leighty, Robert; Labo, Nazzarena; Wyvill, Kathy; Aleman, Karen; Polizzotto, Mark N.; Little, Richard F.; Yarchoan, Robert; Whitby, Denise

    2012-01-01

    Background Kaposi sarcoma–associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes 12 pre-microRNAs that yield 25 mature microRNAs. We previously reported phylogenetic analysis of the microRNA-coding region of KSHV from Kaposi sarcoma (KS), primary effusion lymphoma (PEL), and multicentric Castleman disease (MCD) patients. We observed a high level of conservation for most sequences but also a divergent cluster of 5 KSHV sequences, including 2 from MCD patients. Methods KSHV microRNA sequences from 23 MCD patients and 7 patients with a newly described KSHV-associated inflammatory cytokine syndrome (KICS) were examined by amplification, cloning, and sequencing of a 646-bp fragment of K12/T0.7 encoding microRNA-K12-10 and microRNA-K12-12 and a 2.8-kbp fragment containing the remaining 10 pre-microRNAs. Results Phylogenetic analysis showed a distinct variant cluster consisting exclusively of MCD and KICS patients in all trees. Pearson χ2 analysis revealed that 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at various loci were significantly associated with MCD and KICS risk. Cluster analysis of these SNPs generated several combinations of 3 SNPs as putative indicators of MCD and KICS risk. Conclusions These findings show that MCD and KICS patients frequently have unusual KSHV microRNA sequences and suggest an association between the observed sequence variation and risk of MCD and KICS. PMID:22448005

  6. Plasma nitrate/nitrite concentrations in dogs with naturally developing sepsis and non-infectious forms of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome.

    PubMed

    Osterbur, K; Whitehead, Z; Sharp, C R; DeClue, A E

    2011-11-19

    The aim of this prospective observational study was to evaluate the differences in plasma nitrate/nitrite concentrations between dogs with sepsis and those with non-infectious forms of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Eighteen dogs with sepsis, 20 dogs with SIRS and 29 healthy control dogs were enrolled. Blood samples were obtained from the dogs within 12 hours of admission to the University of Missouri Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital (MU VMTH) Intensive Care Unit (ICU) in lithium heparin blood tubes. Plasma nitrate/nitrite concentrations were measured using the Greiss reaction. Plasma nitrate/nitrite concentrations at presentation, clinical parameters, organ dysfunction and in-hospital mortality were compared between groups. Plasma total nitrate/nitrite was significantly greater in the sepsis group compared with the control group (P=0.005) and SIRS group (P=0.037). There was no statistical difference in plasma nitrate/nitrite concentration between the SIRS and control groups (P=0.489). The sensitivity was 66.7 per cent (95 per cent CI, 41 to 87 per cent) and the specificity was 75.5 per cent (95 per cent CI, 61 to 87 per cent) for differentiating dogs with sepsis from dogs without sepsis. PMID:21908551

  7. Positive effect of combined exercise training in a model of metabolic syndrome and menopause: autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress evaluations.

    PubMed

    Conti, Filipe Fernandes; Brito, Janaina de Oliveira; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Malfitano, Christiane; Morris, Mariana; Llesuy, Susana Francisca; Irigoyen, Maria-Cláudia; De Angelis, Kátia

    2015-12-15

    It is now well established that after menopause cardiometabolic disorders become more common. Recently, resistance exercise has been recommended as a complement to aerobic (combined training, CT) for the treatment of cardiometabolic diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of CT in hypertensive ovariectomized rats undergoing fructose overload in blood pressure variability (BPV), inflammation, and oxidative stress parameters. Female rats were divided into the following groups (n = 8/group): sedentary normotensive Wistar rats (C), and sedentary (FHO) or trained (FHOT) ovariectomized spontaneously hypertensive rats undergoing and fructose overload. CT was performed on a treadmill and ladder adapted to rats in alternate days (8 wk; 40-60% maximal capacity). Arterial pressure (AP) was directly measured. Oxidative stress and inflammation were measured on cardiac and renal tissues. The association of risk factors (hypertension + ovariectomy + fructose) promoted increase in insulin resistance, mean AP (FHO: 174 ± 4 vs. C: 108 ± 1 mmHg), heart rate (FHO: 403 ± 12 vs. C: 352 ± 11 beats/min), BPV, cardiac inflammation (tumor necrosis factor-α-FHO: 65.8 ± 9.9 vs. C: 23.3 ± 4.3 pg/mg protein), and oxidative stress cardiac and renal tissues. However, CT was able to reduce mean AP (FHOT: 158 ± 4 mmHg), heart rate (FHOT: 303 ± 5 beats/min), insulin resistance, and sympathetic modulation. Moreover, the trained rats presented increased nitric oxide bioavailability, reduced tumor necrosis factor-α (FHOT: 33.1 ± 4.9 pg/mg protein), increased IL-10 in cardiac tissue and reduced lipoperoxidation, and increased antioxidant defenses in cardiac and renal tissues. In conclusion, the association of risk factors promoted an additional impairment in metabolic, cardiovascular, autonomic, inflammatory, and oxidative stress parameters and combined exercise training was able to attenuate these dysfunctions. PMID:26423710

  8. Sickle erythrocytes and platelets augment lung leukotriene synthesis with downregulation of anti-inflammatory proteins: relevance in the pathology of the acute chest syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Opene, Michael; Kurantsin-Mills, Joseph; Husain, Sumair

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Initiation, progression, and resolution of vaso-occlusive pain episodes in sickle cell disease (SCD) have been recognized as reperfusion injury, which provokes an inflammatory response in the pulmonary circulation. Some 5-lipoxygenase (5-lox) metabolites are potent vasoconstrictors in the pulmonary circulation. We studied stimulation of production of the inflammatory eicosanoids leukotrienes (LTs) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) by isolated rat lungs perfused with sickle (HbSS) erythrocytes. Our hypothesis is that HbSS erythrocytes produce more LTs than normal (HbAA) erythrocytes, which can induce vaso-occlusive episodes in SCD patients. Lung perfusates were collected at specific time points and purified by high-pressure liquid chromatography, and LTC4 and PGE2 contents were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Rat lung explants were also cultured with purified HbAA and HbSS peptides, and 5-lox, cyclooxygenase 1/2, and platelet-activating factor receptor (PAFR) proteins were measured by Western blotting, while prostacyclin and LTs produced by cultured lung explants were measured by ELISA. Lung weight gain and blood gas data were not different among the groups. HbSS-perfused lungs produced more LTC4 and PGE2 than HbAA-perfused lungs: 10.40 ± 0.62 versus 0.92 ± 0.2 ng/g dry lung weight (mean ± SEM; P = 0.0001) for LTC4. Inclusion of autologous platelets (platelet-rich plasma) elevated LTC4 production to 12.6 ± 0.96 and 7 ± 0.60 ng/g dry lung weight in HbSS and HbAA perfusates, respectively. HbSS lungs also expressed more 5-lox and PAFR. The data suggest that HbSS erythrocytes and activated platelets in patient’s pulmonary microcirculation will enhance the synthesis and release of the proinflammatory mediators LTC4 and PGE2, both of which may contribute to onset of the acute chest syndrome in SCD. PMID:25621162

  9. Neuropeptides CRH, SP, HK-1, and Inflammatory Cytokines IL-6 and TNF Are Increased in Serum of Patients with Fibromyalgia Syndrome, Implicating Mast Cells.

    PubMed

    Tsilioni, Irene; Russell, Irwin J; Stewart, Julia M; Gleason, Rae M; Theoharides, Theoharis C

    2016-03-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) is a chronic, idiopathic condition of widespread musculoskeletal pain affecting more women than men. Even though clinical studies have provided evidence of altered central pain pathways, the lack of definitive pathogenesis or reliable objective markers has hampered development of effective treatments. Here we report that the neuropeptides corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH), substance P (SP), and SP-structurally-related hemokinin-1 (HK-1) were significantly (P = 0.026, P < 0.0001, and P = 0.002, respectively) elevated (0.82 ± 0.57 ng/ml, 0.39 ± 0.18 ng/ml, and 7.98 ± 3.12 ng/ml, respectively) in the serum of patients with FMS compared with healthy controls (0.49 ± 0.26 ng/ml, 0.12 ± 0.1 ng/ml, and 5.71 ± 1.08 ng/ml, respectively). Moreover, SP and HK-1 levels were positively correlated (Pearson r = 0.45, P = 0.002) in FMS. The serum concentrations of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) were also significantly (P = 0.029 and P = 0.006, respectively) higher (2.97 ± 2.35 pg/ml and 0.92 ± 0.31 pg/ml, respectively) in the FMS group compared with healthy subjects (1.79 ± 0.62 pg/ml and 0.69 ± 0.16 pg/ml, respectively). In contrast, serum IL-31 and IL-33 levels were significantly lower (P = 0.0001 and P = 0.044, respectively) in the FMS patients (849.5 ± 1005 pg/ml and 923.2 ± 1284 pg/ml, respectively) in comparison with healthy controls (1281 ± 806.4 pg/ml and 3149 ± 4073 pg/ml, respectively). FMS serum levels of neurotensin were not different from controls. We had previously shown that CRH and SP stimulate IL-6 and TNF release from mast cells (MCs). Our current results indicate that neuropeptides could stimulate MCs to secrete inflammatory cytokines that contribute importantly to the symptoms of FMS. Treatment directed at preventing the secretion or antagonizing these elevated neuroimmune markers, both centrally and peripherally, may prove to be useful in the management of FMS. PMID:26763911

  10. Associations of retinol-binding protein 4 with oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and metabolic syndrome in a middle-aged and elderly Chinese population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Retinol-binding protein 4 (RBP4), a novel adipokine secreted by adipocytes and the liver, has elevated levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). However, its association with human metabolic diseases remains controversial. The present study was designed to investigate the associations of plasma RBP4 levels with oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and metabolic syndrome (MetS) in a Chinese population. Method We evaluated plasma RBP4 levels in a cross-sectional sample of 1748 Chinese men and women aged 50 to 70 years in Guangzhou using an in-house developed and validated sandwich ELISA. Plasma glucose, insulin, lipid profile, serum adiponectin, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein (A-FABP), 8-iso-prostaglandin F2α (8-iso PGF2α), 13-(S)-hydroxyoctadecadienoic acid (13-HODE), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin 6 (IL6), monocyte chemotactic protein 1 (MCP1) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) were all measured. MetS was defined according to the updated National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria for Asian Americans. Results Circulating RBP4 levels were positively correlated with A-FABP (r = 0.104, P < 0.001), 8-iso PGF2α (0.236, P < 0.001), and 13-HODE (0.204, P < 0.001) and were inversely correlated with HDL cholesterol (r = −0.072, P = 0.004). After multivariable adjustment, the RBP4 levels were strongly associated with MetS and its components. The ORs (95% CIs) for the comparisons of the extreme quartiles of RBP4 were 3.46 (2.87, 4.42) for MetS, 5.92 (4.47, 8.02) for hypertriglyceridemia, 1.42 (1.11, 1.68) for reduced HDL cholesterol, 1.87 (1.48, 2.36) for central obesity and 2.74 (2.15, 3.36) for hyperglycemia (all P < 0.001). When we further controlled for adipokines, markers of oxidative stress and proinflammatory response, the association of RBP4 with central obesity was abolished but not the association with other MetS components. Conclusions Plasma RBP4 levels are associated with an adverse profile of oxidative stress and inflammatory markers and an increased risk of MetS in this Chinese population. These associations are independent of conventional risk factors. PMID:24559154

  11. Clinicopathological correlates in HIV seropositive tuberculosis cases presenting with jaundice after initiating antiretroviral therapy with a structured review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The development of jaundice after initiation of HAART in HIV-TB co-infected patients is a challenging presentation in resource constrained settings, and is often attributed to drug induced liver injury (DILI).Some investigators have described hepatic tuberculosis Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a cause of liver disease in patients initiating HAART, which could also cause jaundice. Case presentations We report the clinical and histopathological features of five HIV-TB co-infected patients presenting with a syndrome of jaundice, tender hepatomegaly, bile canalicular enzyme rise and return of constitutional symptoms within 8 weeks of initiation of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) for advanced HIV infection at a rural clinic in KwaZulu Natal, South Africa. All five patients had been diagnosed with tuberculosis infection prior to HAART initiation and were on antituberculous medication at time of developing jaundice. There was evidence of multiple aetiologies of liver injury in all patients. However, based on clinical course and pathological findings, predominant hepatic injury was thought to be drug induced in one case and hepatic tuberculosis associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) in the other four. In these later 4 patients, liver biopsy findings included necrotising and non-necrotising granulomatous inflammation in the lobules and portal tracts. The granulomas demonstrated – in addition to epithelioid histiocytes and Langhans giant cells – neutrophils, plasma cells and large numbers of lymphocytes, which are not features of a conventional untreated tuberculous response. Conclusion In this high TB prevalent, low resource setting, TB-IRIS may be an important cause of jaundice post-HAART initiation. Clinicopathological correlation is essential for optimal diagnosis. Further multi-organ based histopathological studies in the context of immune reconstitution would be useful to clinicians in low resource settings dealing with this challenging presentation. PMID:23061403

  12. Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in End-Stage Heart Failure Patients Following Continuous-Flow Left Ventricular Assist Device Implantation: Differences in Plasma Redox Status and Leukocyte Activation.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Nandan K; Sorensen, Erik N; Pham, Si M; Koenig, Steven C; Griffith, Bartley P; Slaughter, Mark S; Wu, Zhongjun J

    2016-05-01

    The role of oxidative stress and leukocyte activation has not been elucidated in developing systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in heart failure (HF) patients after continuous-flow left ventricular assist device (CF-LVAD) implantation. The objective of this study was to investigate the change of plasma redox status and leukocyte activation in CF-LVAD implanted HF patients with or without SIRS. We recruited 31 CF-LVAD implanted HF patients (16 SIRS and 15 non-SIRS) and 11 healthy volunteers as the control. Pre- and postimplant blood samples were collected from the HF patients. Plasma levels of oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL), malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), superoxide dismutase (SOD) in erythrocyte, myeloperoxidase (MPO), and polymorphonuclear elastase (PMN-elastase) were measured. The HF patients had a preexisting condition of oxidative stress than healthy controls as evident from the higher oxLDL and MDA levels as well as depleted SOD and TAC. Leukocyte activation in terms of higher plasma MPO and PMN-elastase was also prominent in HF patients than controls. Persistent oxidative stress and reduced antioxidant status were found to be more belligerent in HF patients with SIRS after the implantation of CF-LVAD when compared with non-SIRS patients. Similar to oxidative stress, the activation of blood leukocyte was significantly highlighted in SIRS patients after implantation compared with non-SIRS. We identified that the plasma redox status and leukocyte activation became more prominent in CF-LVAD implanted HF patients who developed SIRS. Our findings suggest that plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress and leukocyte activation may be associated with the development of SIRS after CF-LVAD implant surgery. PMID:26416627

  13. Chronic fatigue syndrome: Harvey and Wessely's (bio)psychosocial model versus a bio(psychosocial) model based on inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress pathways

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background In a recently published paper, Harvey and Wessely put forward a 'biopsychosocial' explanatory model for myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS), which is proposed to be applicable to (chronic) fatigue even when apparent medical causes are present. Methods Here, we review the model proposed by Harvey and Wessely, which is the rationale for behaviourally oriented interventions, such as cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT) and graded exercise therapy (GET), and compare this model with a biological model, in which inflammatory, immune, oxidative and nitrosative (IO&NS) pathways are key elements. Discussion Although human and animal studies have established that the pathophysiology of ME/CFS includes IO&NS pathways, these abnormalities are not included in the model proposed by Harvey and Wessely. Activation of IO&NS pathways is known to induce fatigue and somatic (F&S) symptoms and can be induced or maintained by viral and bacterial infections, physical and psychosocial stressors, or organic disorders such as (auto)immune disorders. Studies have shown that ME/CFS and major depression are both clinical manifestations of shared IO&NS pathways, and that both disorders can be discriminated by specific symptoms and unshared or differentiating pathways. Interventions with CBT/GET are potentially harmful for many patients with ME/CFS, since the underlying pathophysiological abnormalities may be intensified by physical stressors. Conclusions In contrast to Harvey and Wessely's (bio)psychosocial model for ME/CFS a bio(psychosocial) model based upon IO&NS abnormalities is likely more appropriate to this complex disorder. In clinical practice, we suggest physicians should also explore the IO&NS pathophysiology by applying laboratory tests that examine the pathways involved. PMID:20550693

  14. Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome mimicking progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy in a multiple sclerosis patient treated with natalizumab: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Evangelopoulos, Maria-Eleptheria; Koutoulidis, Vasilios; Kilidireas, Kostas; Evangelopoulos, Dimitrios-Stergios; Nakas, Georgios; Andreadou, Elisabeth; Moulopoulos, Lia-Angela

    2015-01-01

    Natalizumab (NTM) represents an effective drug for the treatment of relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). Progressive multifocal leucoencephalopathy (PML) is a potential life-threatening complication of NTM treatment. A close follow-up and MRI monitoring of patients under NTM are required to avoid such devastating complications. The case of a 47-year-old woman with RRMS (EDSS 1.5) treated with NTM for 44 months is reported. The patient had a relapse with mild cerebellar symptomatology and visual complaints. MRI revealed a new area of abnormal signal intensity in the subcortical white matter of the right parietal lobe with mild peripheral enhancement. Visual fields showed scotomata mostly of the left eye. NTM was discontinued. JC virus (JCV) polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in cerebrospinal fluid was negative. The patient received IV corticosteroids for 5 days and then monthly for 2 months with subsequent clinical and MRI improvement. On month 4, she presented with a new relapse with severe ataxia, mild behavioral change, increase of cerebellar symptoms and internuclear opthalmoplegia (EDSS 3.5). MRI showed reappearance of the right parietal lobe lesion, with decreased size and less pronounced contrast enhancement. A new 2-cm lesion was noted in the left cerebellar hemisphere with a speckled pattern of contrast enhancement. JCV PCR was negative and the patient was treated with IV corticosteroids. On month 12, she demonstrated clinical and MRI improvement. Although initially PML was highly suspected in this patient, the clinical and MRI findings were supportive of the presence of immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS). PMID:25368707

  15. Serum Concentrations of Interleukin-6, Procalcitonin, and C-Reactive Protein: Discrimination of Septical Complications and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome after Pediatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Neunhoeffer, Felix; Plinke, Swantje; Renk, Hanna; Hofbeck, Michael; Fuchs, Jörg; Kumpf, Matthias; Zundel, Sabine; Seitz, Guido

    2016-04-01

    Background Early differentiation between sepsis and systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) is useful for therapeutic management in neonates and infants after surgery. Objective To compare the early (first 2 days) diagnostic value of interleukin-6 (IL-6), procalcitonin (PCT), and C-reactive protein (CRP) after surgery in the differentiation of subsequent SIRS and septic complications. Methods IL-6, PCT, and CRP were measured 0, 24, and 48 hours after surgery in neonates and infants with clinical suspicion of postoperative sepsis. Sensitivity, specificity, and predictive values for SIRS/septic complications were calculated. Results A total of 31 out of 205 neonates and infants showed clinical signs for postoperative sepsis and underwent sepsis work-up. Nine patients developed septic complications, sixteen patients met criteria for SIRS, and six patients showed an uneventful postoperative course during the first five postoperative days. IL-6, PCT, and CRP levels increased in all subgroups after surgery and were significantly higher in the sepsis group (p < 0.05). IL-6 peaked immediately, CRP at 24 to 48 hours, and PCT at 24 hours after surgery. Sensitivity and specificity (area under the curve) for IL-6 (cutoff 673 ng/dL) were 94.4 and 75% (86.2%), for CRP (cutoff 1.48 mg/dL) 76.2 and 75.0% (88.1%), and for PCT (cutoff 16.1 mg/L) 66.7 and 57.1% (65.6%). Conclusion IL-6 appears to be an early marker for severe bacterial infections with high sensitivity. IL-6 and CRP were the most reliable markers for the discrimination between SIRS and sepsis within the postoperative period. PMID:25643248

  16. The frequencies of Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their HLA ligands in chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy are similar to those in Guillian Barre syndrome but differ from those of controls, suggesting a role for NK cells in pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Blum, Stefan; Csurhes, Peter; McCombe, Pamela

    2015-08-15

    Chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP) is an acquired inflammatory neuropathy, which has similar clinical and pathological features to Guillain-Barré Syndrome (GBS), but differs in time course. We investigated the frequency of genes encoding Killer immunoglobulin-like receptors and their HLA ligands in subjects with CIDP, in subjects with GBS and in healthy controls. There were no differences in KIR gene frequency among the 3 groups. The gene frequencies for HLA-B Bw4-I were significantly greater in CIDP than HC, but did not differ from GBS. The frequency of the combination of 3DL1/HLA-B Bw4I was greater in CIDP than HC, but did not differ from that of GBS. These data raise the possibility of NK cell function being an important factor in the pathogenesis of CIDP. PMID:26198918

  17. Inflammatory Myopathies

    MedlinePlus

    ... or persistent, inflammatory myopathy are polymyositis, dermatomyositis, and inclusion body myositis (IBM). These rare disorders may affect ... Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS). NINDS Inclusion Body Myositis Information Page Inclusion Body Myositis (Inflammatory ...

  18. Enhancing of Women Functional Status with Metabolic Syndrome by Cardioprotective and Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Combined Aerobic and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Alsamir Tibana, Ramires; da Cunha Nascimento, Dahan; Frade de Sousa, Nuno Manuel; de Souza, Vinicius Carolino; Durigan, João; Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; de Toledo Nóbrega, Otávio; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Navalta, James Wilfred; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Prestes, Jonato

    2014-01-01

    These data describe the effects of combined aerobic plus resistance training (CT) with regards to risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), quality of life, functional capacity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in women with MetS. In this context, thirteen women (35.4±6.2 yr) completed 10 weeks of CT consisting of three weekly sessions of ∼60 min aerobic training (treadmill at 65–70% of reserve heart rate, 30 min) and resistance training (3 sets of 8–12 repetitions maximum for main muscle groups). Dependent variables were maximum chest press strength; isometric hand-grip strength; 30 s chair stand test; six minute walk test; body mass; body mass index; body adiposity index; waist circumference; systolic (SBP), diastolic and mean blood pressure (MBP); blood glucose; HDL-C; triglycerides; interleukins (IL) 6, 10 and 12, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and serum nitric oxide metabolite (NOx); quality of life (SF-36) and Z-Score of MetS. There was an improvement in muscle strength on chest press (p = 0.009), isometric hand-grip strength (p = 0.03) and 30 s chair stand (p = 0.007). There was a decrease in SBP (p = 0.049), MBP (p = 0.041), Z-Score of MetS (p = 0.046), OPG (0.42±0.26 to 0.38±0.19 ng/mL, p<0.05) and NOx (13.3±2.3 µmol/L to 9.1±2.3 µmol/L; p<0.0005). IL-10 displayed an increase (13.6±7.5 to 17.2±12.3 pg/mL, p<0.05) after 10 weeks of training. Combined training also increased the perception of physical capacity (p = 0.011). This study endorses CT as an efficient tool to improve blood pressure, functional capacity, quality of life and reduce blood markers of inflammation, which has a clinical relevance in the prevention and treatment of MetS. Trial Registration Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry (ReBec) - RBR-6gdyvz - http://www.ensaiosclinicos.gov.br/rg/?q=RBR-6gdyvz PMID:25379699

  19. A Prospective Follow-Up of Adipocytokines in Cohort Patients With Gout: Association With Metabolic Syndrome But Not With Clinical Inflammatory Findings: Strobe-Compliant Article.

    PubMed

    García-Méndez, Sergio; Rivera-Bahena, Carolina Bustos; Montiel-Hernández, José Luis; Xibillé-Friedmann, Daniel; Álvarez-Hernández, Everardo; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the levels of leptin (Lep) and adiponectin (AdipoQ) in patients with gout and its relationship with joint inflammatory data and/or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) variables, during 1 year follow-up.Forty-one patients (40 males) with gout diagnosis, attending for the first time to a rheumatology department, were included. Evaluations were performed baseline, at 6 and 12 months. Variables included the following: demographic, clinical and laboratory data related to gout and associated diseases. Lep and AdipoQ determinations by the ELISA method were performed in frozen serum from each visit. The pharmacological and no-pharmacological treatment for gout and associated diseases was individualized for each patient according to published guidelines. Statistical analysis included Mann-Whitney U test, Fisher test, x, ANOVA, Cochran Q, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests, as well as linear regression.In the baseline evaluation, 29.2% had MetS (hypertriglyceridemia 66%, hypertension 44% and obesity 37%); patients with MetS had higher C reactive protein (CRP) levels [34.1 ± 28.6 vs. 12.2 ± 11.2 mg/dL, P = 0.033]. Although not significant, also had higher Lep and lower AdipoQ levels (3.2 ± 3.0 vs. 1.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL, P = 0.142 and 40.5 ± 26.8 vs. 38.0 ± 24.9 ng/mL, P = 0.877, respectively). During follow-up, our patients had significant improvement in serum uric acid (sUA) levels and variables evaluating pain and joint swelling (P ≤ 0.05). Metabolic abnormalities tended to persist or even worsen during the monitoring period: significant increase in total cholesterol (P = 0.004), tendency to higher triglycerides (P = 0.883) and slight improvement in glycaemia (P = 0.052). Lep values increased significantly during follow-up (P = 0.001) while AdipoQ levels diminished slightly (P = 0.317). Neither Lep nor AdipoQ values showed important correlation (r > 0.5) with metabolic variables or joint swelling.This study suggests that in patients with gout, concentrations of Lep and AdipoQ are more in line with the metabolic state than with clinical disease activity. PMID:26131838

  20. A Prospective Follow-Up of Adipocytokines in Cohort Patients With Gout: Association With Metabolic Syndrome But Not With Clinical Inflammatory Findings

    PubMed Central

    García-Méndez, Sergio; Rivera-Bahena, Carolina Bustos; Montiel-Hernández, José Luis; Xibillé-Friedmann, Daniel; Álvarez-Hernández, Everardo; Peláez-Ballestas, Ingris; Burgos-Vargas, Rubén; Vázquez-Mellado, Janitzia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to determine the levels of leptin (Lep) and adiponectin (AdipoQ) in patients with gout and its relationship with joint inflammatory data and/or with metabolic syndrome (MetS) variables, during 1 year follow-up. Forty-one patients (40 males) with gout diagnosis, attending for the first time to a rheumatology department, were included. Evaluations were performed baseline, at 6 and 12 months. Variables included the following: demographic, clinical and laboratory data related to gout and associated diseases. Lep and AdipoQ determinations by the ELISA method were performed in frozen serum from each visit. The pharmacological and no-pharmacological treatment for gout and associated diseases was individualized for each patient according to published guidelines. Statistical analysis included Mann–Whitney U test, Fisher test, x2, ANOVA, Cochran Q, Pearson and Spearman correlation tests, as well as linear regression. In the baseline evaluation, 29.2% had MetS (hypertriglyceridemia 66%, hypertension 44% and obesity 37%); patients with MetS had higher C reactive protein (CRP) levels [34.1 ± 28.6 vs. 12.2 ± 11.2 mg/dL, P = 0.033]. Although not significant, also had higher Lep and lower AdipoQ levels (3.2 ± 3.0 vs. 1.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL, P = 0.142 and 40.5 ± 26.8 vs. 38.0 ± 24.9 ng/mL, P = 0.877, respectively). During follow-up, our patients had significant improvement in serum uric acid (sUA) levels and variables evaluating pain and joint swelling (P ≤ 0.05). Metabolic abnormalities tended to persist or even worsen during the monitoring period: significant increase in total cholesterol (P = 0.004), tendency to higher triglycerides (P = 0.883) and slight improvement in glycaemia (P = 0.052). Lep values increased significantly during follow-up (P = 0.001) while AdipoQ levels diminished slightly (P = 0.317). Neither Lep nor AdipoQ values showed important correlation (r > 0.5) with metabolic variables or joint swelling. This study suggests that in patients with gout, concentrations of Lep and AdipoQ are more in line with the metabolic state than with clinical disease activity. PMID:26131838

  1. Utility of Sepsis Biomarkers and the Infection Probability Score to Discriminate Sepsis and Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome in Standard Care Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ratzinger, Franz; Schuardt, Michael; Eichbichler, Katherina; Tsirkinidou, Irene; Bauer, Marlene; Haslacher, Helmuth; Mitteregger, Dieter; Binder, Michael; Burgmann, Heinz

    2013-01-01

    Physicians are regularly faced with severely ill patients at risk of developing infections. In literature, standard care wards are often neglected, although their patients frequently suffer from a systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) of unknown origin. Fast identification of patients with infections is vital, as they immediately require appropriate therapy. Further, tools with a high negative predictive value (NPV) to exclude infection or bacteremia are important to increase the cost effectiveness of microbiological examinations and to avoid inappropriate antibiotic treatment. In this prospective cohort study, 2,384 patients with suspected infections were screened for suffering from two or more SIRS criteria on standard care wards. The infection probability score (IPS) and sepsis biomarkers with discriminatory power were assessed regarding their capacity to identify infection or bacteremia. In this cohort finally consisting of 298 SIRS-patients, the infection prevalence was 72%. Bacteremia was found in 25% of cases. For the prediction of infection, the IPS yielded 0.51 ROC-AUC (30.1% sensitivity, 64.6% specificity). Among sepsis biomarkers, lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP) was the best parameter with 0.63 ROC-AUC (57.5% sensitivity, 67.1% specificity). For the prediction of bacteremia, the IPS performed slightly better with a ROC-AUC of 0.58 (21.3% sensitivity, 65% specificity). Procalcitonin was the best discriminator with 0.78 ROC-AUC, 86.3% sensitivity, 59.6% specificity and 92.9% NPV. Furthermore, bilirubin and LBP (ROC-AUC: 0.65, 0.62) might also be considered as useful parameters. In summary, the IPS and widely used infection parameters, including CRP or WBC, yielded a poor diagnostic performance for the detection of infection or bacteremia. Additional sepsis biomarkers do not aid in discriminating inflammation from infection. For the prediction of bacteremia procalcitonin, and bilirubin were the most promising parameters, which might be used as a rule for when to take blood cultures or using nucleic acid amplification tests for microbiological diagnostics. PMID:24349403

  2. Enhancing of women functional status with metabolic syndrome by cardioprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of combined aerobic and resistance training.

    PubMed

    Tibana, Ramires Alsamir; Nascimento, Dahan da Cunha; de Sousa, Nuno Manuel Frade; de Souza, Vinicius Carolino; Durigan, João; Vieira, Amilton; Bottaro, Martim; Nóbrega, Otávio de Toledo; de Almeida, Jeeser Alves; Navalta, James Wilfred; Franco, Octavio Luiz; Prestes, Jonato

    2014-01-01

    These data describe the effects of combined aerobic plus resistance training (CT) with regards to risk factors of metabolic syndrome (MetS), quality of life, functional capacity, and pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines in women with MetS. In this context, thirteen women (35.4 ± 6.2 yr) completed 10 weeks of CT consisting of three weekly sessions of ~60 min aerobic training (treadmill at 65-70% of reserve heart rate, 30 min) and resistance training (3 sets of 8-12 repetitions maximum for main muscle groups). Dependent variables were maximum chest press strength; isometric hand-grip strength; 30 s chair stand test; six minute walk test; body mass; body mass index; body adiposity index; waist circumference; systolic (SBP), diastolic and mean blood pressure (MBP); blood glucose; HDL-C; triglycerides; interleukins (IL) 6, 10 and 12, osteoprotegerin (OPG) and serum nitric oxide metabolite (NOx); quality of life (SF-36) and Z-Score of MetS. There was an improvement in muscle strength on chest press (p = 0.009), isometric hand-grip strength (p = 0.03) and 30 s chair stand (p = 0.007). There was a decrease in SBP (p = 0.049), MBP (p = 0.041), Z-Score of MetS (p = 0.046), OPG (0.42 ± 0.26 to 0.38 ± 0.19 ng/mL, p<0.05) and NOx (13.3 ± 2.3 µmol/L to 9.1 ± 2.3 µmol/L; p<0.0005). IL-10 displayed an increase (13.6 ± 7.5 to 17.2 ± 12.3 pg/mL, p < 0.05) after 10 weeks of training. Combined training also increased the perception of physical capacity (p = 0.011). This study endorses CT as an efficient tool to improve blood pressure, functional capacity, quality of life and reduce blood markers of inflammation, which has a clinical relevance in the prevention and treatment of MetS. PMID:25379699

  3. Geraniol, Alone and in Combination with Pioglitazone, Ameliorates Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome in Rats via the Modulation of Both Inflammatory and Oxidative Stress Status

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Sherehan M.; El- Denshary, Ezzedin S.; Abdallah, Dalaal M.

    2015-01-01

    Geraniol (GO) potent antitumor and chemopreventive effects are attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. In the current study, the potential efficacy of GO (250 mg/kg) in ameliorating metabolic syndrome (MetS) induced by fructose in drinking water was elucidated. Moreover, the effect of pioglitazone (5 and 10 mg/kg; PIO) and the possible interaction of the co-treatment of GO with PIO5 were studied in the MetS model. After 4 weeks of treatment, GO and/or PIO reduced the fasting blood glucose and the glycemic excursion in the intraperitoneal glucose tolerance test. GO and PIO5/10 restrained visceral adiposity and partly the body weight gain. The decreased level of peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)-? transcriptional activity in the visceral adipose tissue of MetS rats was increased by single treatment regimens. Though GO did not affect MetS-induced hyperinsulinemia, PIO5/10 lowered it. Additionally, GO and PIO5/10 suppressed glycated hemoglobin and the receptor for advanced glycated end products (RAGE). These single regimens also ameliorated hyperuricemia, the disrupted lipid profile, and the elevated systolic blood pressure evoked by MetS. The rise in serum transaminases, interleukin-1?, and tumor necrosis factor-?, as well as hepatic lipid peroxides and nitric oxide (NO) was lowered by the single treatments to different extents. Moreover, hepatic non-protein thiols, as well as serum NO and adiponectin were enhanced by single regimens. Similar effects were reached by the combination of GO with PIO5; however, a potentiative interaction was noted on fasting serum insulin level, while synergistic effects were reflected as improved insulin sensitivity, as well as reduced RAGE and triglycerides. Therefore, GO via the transcriptional activation of PPAR-? reduces inflammation and free radical injury produced by MetS. Thereby, these effects provide novel mechanistic insights on GO management of MetS associated critical risk factors. Moreover, the co-administration of GO to PIO5 exalted the antidiabetic drug anti-MetS efficacy. PMID:25679220

  4. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Kelly, D G

    1999-08-01

    The nutritional impact of inflammatory bowel disease is notable, both in Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis. The causes of malnutrition include decreased intake, maldigestion, malabsorption, accelerated nutrient losses, increased requirements, and drug-nutrient interactions. Inflammatory bowel disease causes alterations in body composition and, because of these changes, affects energy expenditure. Various approaches have been most effective in correcting malnutrition, supporting growth, and managing short-bowel syndrome, but the success of primary therapy has been limited. PMID:10980968

  5. DRESS syndrome as a complication of treatment of hepatitis C virus-associated post-inflammatory liver cirrhosis with peginterferon α2a and ribavirin

    PubMed Central

    Pazgan-Simon, Monika; Simon, Krzysztof

    2014-01-01

    Various skin and systemic symptoms may develop as a complication of treatment with different medications and medicinal substances. One of them is a relatively rare drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms, referred to as DRESS syndrome. The morphology of skin lesions and the patient's general health can differ; the management involves withdrawal of drugs suspected of triggering DRESS syndrome, and administration of local and systemic glucocorticosteroids. In this paper we present a case of a patient with HCV associated chronic hepatitis, treated with peginterferon α2a (PEG-IFN-α2a) and ribavirin, who developed skin lesions and systemic symptoms typical of DRESS syndrome. PMID:25610356

  6. Mannan oligosaccharide increases serum concentrations of antibodies and inflammatory mediators in weanling pigs experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus.

    PubMed

    Che, T M; Song, M; Liu, Y; Johnson, R W; Kelley, K W; Van Alstine, W G; Dawson, K A; Pettigrew, J E

    2012-08-01

    Mannan-containing products are capable of modulating immune responses in animals. However, different products may have diverse immunomodulation. The experiment was conducted to examine effects of mannan oligosaccharide (Actigen; ACT) on growth performance and serum concentrations of antibodies and inflammatory mediators in weanling pigs (Sus scrofa) experimentally infected with porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). A total of 32 PRRSV-negative pigs (3 wk old) were randomly assigned from within blocks to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 by 2 factorial arrangement [2 types of diet: control (0%) and ACT addition (0.04%); and with and without PRRSV] in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were blocked by initial BW within sex. Ancestry was equalized across treatments. Pigs (8/treatment) were kept individually in each pen. After 2 wk of an 8-wk period of feeding the treatments, pigs received an intranasal inoculation of PRRSV or sham medium at 5 wk of age. Infection by PRRSV decreased ADG, ADFI, and G:F throughout the experiment (P < 0.01). Actigen did not affect ADG (P = 0.450), but decreased (P = 0.047) ADFI from 28 to 42 days postinoculation (DPI). During that time, ACT improved G:F in infected pigs but not in sham controls (interaction, P = 0.009). Dietary ACT did not affect viremia in infected pigs (P > 0.05), but increased PRRSV-specific antibody titer at 35 DPI (P = 0.042). Infection with PRRSV induced the febrile responses of pigs from 3 to 10 DPI (P < 0.001) with return to normal at 14 DPI. During the experimental period, the rectal temperature of pigs was found slightly elevated by ACT (P = 0.045). Infected pigs had greater serum concentrations of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-12, interferon (IFN)-γ, IL-10, and haptoglobin (Hp) than sham controls (P < 0.001). These results indicate that PRRSV stimulated secretion of cytokines involved in innate, T-helper 1, and T-regulatory immune responses. Actigen tended to decrease the serum TNF-α concentration regardless of PRRSV (P = 0.058). The ACT × PRRSV interaction was significant for IL-1β (P = 0.016), IL-12 (P = 0.026), and Hp (P = 0.047), suggesting that infected pigs fed ACT had greater serum concentrations of these mediators than those fed the control. The increases in IL-1β and IL-12 may favorably promote innate and T-cell immune functions in infected pigs fed ACT. Feeding ACT may be useful as ACT is related to increased PRRSV antibody titers and G:F in infected pigs at certain times during infection. PMID:22367071

  7. HIV protease inhibitors alter innate immune response signaling to double-stranded RNA in oral epithelial cells: implications for immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome?

    PubMed

    Danaher, Robert J; Kaetzel, Charlotte S; Greenberg, Richard N; Wang, Chunmei; Bruno, Maria E C; Miller, Craig S

    2010-10-23

    In this investigation, several HIV protease inhibitors altered the virally associated, double-stranded RNA (dsRNA)-stimulated, innate immune response. Lopinavir, the most potent inducer of interleukin (IL)-8 expression, also inhibited dsRNA-induced monocyte chemotactic protein 1 expression. Further analyses demonstrated that nuclear factor-κB is required for lopinavir's induction of IL-8. These findings demonstrate that protease inhibitors, such as lopinavir, differentially dysregulate innate immune signaling in a manner that could affect immune (reconstitution) inflammatory responses in oral epithelium. PMID:20841991

  8. Acute inflammatory myelopathies.

    PubMed

    Cree, Bruce A C

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory injury to the spinal cord causes a well-recognized clinical syndrome. Patients typically develop bilateral weakness, usually involving the legs, although the arms may also become affected, in association with a pattern of sensory changes that suggests a spinal cord dermatomal level. Bowel and bladder impairment is also common in many patients. Recognition of the clinical pattern of spinal cord injury should lead clinicians to perform imaging studies to evaluate for compressive etiologies. MRI of the spine is particularly useful in helping visualize intraparenchymal lesions and when these lesions enhance following contrast administration a diagnosis of myelitis is made. Cerebrospinal fluid analysis can also confirm a diagnosis of myelitis when a leukocytosis is present. There are many causes of non-compressive spinal cord injury including infectious, parainfectious, toxic, nutritional, vascular, systemic as well as idiopathic inflammatory etiologies. This review focuses on inflammatory spinal cord injury and its relationships with multiple sclerosis, neuromyelitis optica, acute disseminated encephalomyelitis and systemic collagen vascular and paraneoplastic diseases. PMID:24507538

  9. Persistent high mortality in advanced HIV/TB despite appropriate antiretroviral and antitubercular therapy: an emerging challenge.

    PubMed

    Bisson, Gregory P; Zetola, Nicola; Collman, Ronald G

    2015-03-01

    Approximately 1.1 million, or 13 %, of all TB cases in 2013 were coinfected with HIV, and in some African countries, such as Botswana and Swaziland, 60-80 % of TB cases are coinfected with HIV. Effective therapies for both HIV and TB exist, yet patients presenting with TB and advanced HIV still experience high rates of morbidity and mortality despite initiation of both antitubercular and antiretroviral therapy (ART). Previous reviews and research have focused largely on TB-associated immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (TB-IRIS) as a type of complicated outcome on ART in advanced HIV/TB, but recent data indicate that immunologic failure despite suppressive ART is associated with early mortality. In this review, we examine recent findings regarding early mortality in HIV/TB and emerging concepts in the pathophysiology of TB-IRIS, in order to provide an integrated view of factors determining outcomes in coinfected people as well as highlight key needs for future research and therapeutic development. PMID:25772785

  10. The Interferon-Signature of Sjögren’s Syndrome: How Unique Biomarkers Can Identify Underlying Inflammatory and Immunopathological Mechanisms of Specific Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Cuong Quoc; Peck, Ammon Broughton

    2013-01-01

    Innate immune responses direct the nature and specificity of downstream adaptive responses in autoimmune diseases. One of the strongest markers of innate immunity is the up-regulated expression of interferon (IFN) and IFN-responsive/stimulated genes (IRGs/ISGs). While multiple IRGs are induced during the innate phase of host responses, transcriptome data suggest unique IRG-signatures for different diseases. Sjögren’s syndrome (SjS) is characterized by chronic immune attacks against exocrine glands leading to exocrine dysfunction, plus strong up-regulated expressions of IFN IRG transcripts. Genome-wide transcriptome analyses indicate that differentially expressed IRGs are restricted during disease development and therefore define underlying etiopathological mechanisms. Here we review the innate immune-associated IFN-signature of SjS and show how differential gene expressions of IRG/ISG sets interact molecularly and biologically to identify critical details of SjS etiopathogenesis. PMID:23847613

  11. Syndromic Scoliosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Neurofibromatosis (NF) Noonan Syndrome VATER/VACTERL Syndrome Angelman Syndrome Rett Prader Willi Osteogenesis Imperfecta Trisomy 21 (Down's Syndrome) Symptoms Highly variable based on underlying syndrome and ...

  12. Inflammatory glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Bodh, Sonam A.; Kumar, Vasu; Raina, Usha K.; Ghosh, B.; Thakar, Meenakshi

    2011-01-01

    Glaucoma is seen in about 20% of the patients with uveitis. Anterior uveitis may be acute, subacute, or chronic. The mechanisms by which iridocyclitis leads to obstruction of aqueous outflow include acute, usually reversible forms (e.g., accumulation of inflammatory elements in the intertrabecular spaces, edema of the trabecular lamellae, or angle closure due to ciliary body swelling) and chronic forms (e.g., scar formation or membrane overgrowth in the anterior chamber angle). Careful history and follow-up helps distinguish steroid-induced glaucoma from uveitic glaucoma. Treatment of combined iridocyclitis and glaucoma involves steroidal and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agents and antiglaucoma drugs. However, glaucoma drugs can often have an unpredictable effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) in the setting of uveitis. Surgical intervention is required in case of medical failure. Method of Literature Search: Literature on the Medline database was searched using the PubMed interface. PMID:21713239

  13. Anti-inflammatory actions of acupuncture.

    PubMed Central

    Zijlstra, Freek J; van den Berg-de Lange, Ineke; Huygen, Frank J P M; Klein, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Acupuncture has a beneficial effect when treating many diseases and painful conditions, and therefore is thought to be useful as a complementary therapy or to replace generally accepted pharmacological intervention. The attributive effect of acupuncture has been investigated in inflammatory diseases, including asthma, rhinitis, inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, epicondylitis, complex regional pain syndrome type 1 and vasculitis. Large randomised trials demonstrating the immediate and sustained effect of acupuncture are missing. Mechanisms underlying the ascribed immunosuppressive actions of acupuncture are reviewed in this communication. The acupuncture-controlled release of neuropeptides from nerve endings and subsequent vasodilative and anti-inflammatory effects through calcitonine gene-related peptide is hypothesised. The complex interactions with substance P, the analgesic contribution of beta-endorphin and the balance between cell-specific pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-10 are discussed. PMID:12775355

  14. A non-synonymous polymorphism in IL-23R Gene (rs1884444) is associated with reduced risk to schistosomiasis-associated Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in a Kenyan population

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Schistosomiasis co-infection is common among residents at the shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya. About 36% of this population initiating antiretroviral therapy (ART) experience Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) that complicates recovery. Several IL-23R alleles have been associated with susceptibility to both autoimmune and inflammatory diseases through T-helper type 17 (TH17) cells. However, whether or not variants within the IL-23R increase susceptibility to IRIS in western Kenya is unknown. The objective of the current study was to determine the association between IL-23R gene polymorphisms, CD4+ cell counts and HIV RNA levels and IRIS in HIV and Schistosoma mansoni co-infected patients undergoing highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART). Methods A three-month case–control study was conducted on antiretroviral naïve schistosomiasis/HIV co-infected fishermen starting HAART in Uyoma Rarieda, Siaya County, Kenya. Seventy one patients were sampled at baseline and followed up for three months, to establish if they developed Schistosoma-related IRIS. In addition, the CD4+ cell counts and HIV RNA levels were determined in pre- and post-administration of HAART. Variations at five polymorphic sites of IL-23R (rs1884444, rs11465754, rs6682925, rs7530511 and rs7539625) based on >10% minor allele frequency in Yoruban reference population was determined using Allelic Discrimination Assay. The association between the five variants and susceptibility to IRIS was determined using logistic regression while controlling for potential confounders. In addition, the functional differences between the baseline CD4 + Cell counts and viral loads were determined using medians while across IL-23R genotypes were determined using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Overall, 26 (36.6%) patients developed schistosomiasis-associated IRIS at a median age of 35.5 years. Carriage of the TT genotype at the non-synonymous rs1884444 T > G relative to GG, was associated with a decreased risk of schistosomiasis-associated IRIS (OR, 0.25, 95% CI, 0.07-0.96, P = 0.043) while both baseline CD4+ cell counts and viral loads had no association with IRIS. Conclusion These findings indicate that the non-synonymous variant rs1884444 T > G of IL-23R is associated with a decreased risk to schistosomiasis-associated IRIS. However, additional studies in a larger cohort and with an all inclusive polymorphic variants in the synonymous and non-synonymous regions need to be evaluated. PMID:24912586

  15. A Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of a Chemokine Receptor 5 (CCR5) Antagonist to Decrease the Occurrence of Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome in HIV-Infection: The CADIRIS Study

    PubMed Central

    Sierra-Madero, Juan G.; Ellenberg, Susan; Rassool, Mohammed S.; Tierney, Ann; Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Pablo F.; López-Martínez, Alondra; Piñeirúa-Menéndez, Alicia; Montaner, Luis J.; Azzoni, Livio; Benítez, César Rivera; Sereti, Irini; Andrade-Villanueva, Jaime; Mosqueda-Gómez, Juan L.; Rodriguez, Benigno; Sanne, Ian; Lederman, Michael M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Immune Reconstitution Inflammatory Syndrome (IRIS) is a common complication of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in HIV-infected patients. IRIS is associated with an increased risk of hospitalization and death. We ascertained whether CCR5 blockade using maraviroc reduces the risk of IRIS. Methods The CADIRIS study was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, clinical trial that accrued subjects from five clinical sites in Mexico and one in South Africa between November 2009 and January 2012, and followed them for one year. The primary outcome was occurrence of IRIS by 24 weeks. HIV-infected adults, naïve to ART, with CD4 cells <100/μL, and HIVRNA >1,000 copies/mL were eligible. We screened 362 subjects; 279 met inclusion criteria, 3 refused participation, and 276 were randomized. Participants received maraviroc 600 mg twice daily or placebo added to an ART regimen that included tenofovir, emtricitabine, and efavirenz for 48 weeks. Findings There were 276 patients randomized (140 received maraviroc and 136 placebo). There was no difference in the time to IRIS events between treatment arms (HR 1·08, 95% CI (0·66, 1·77), log-rank test p=0·743). In total, 64 (23%) patients had IRIS events, 33 (24%) in the maraviroc arm and 31 (23%) in the placebo arm (p=0·88). Interpretation Maraviroc had no significant effect on frequency, time or severity of IRIS events after ART initiation. Including a CCR5 inhibitor in an initial treatment regimen does not confer a meaningful protection from the occurrence of IRIS in persons with advanced HIV infection. Funding The trial was funded as investigator initiated research by Pfizer Inc, New York, NY, USA. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov. ID: NCT00988780 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00988780) PMID:26366430

  16. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Print friendly version Usher syndrome Table of Contents Overview Symptoms Cause Inheritance ... pigmentosa syndrome Dystrophia retinae pigmentosa-dysostosis syndrome Graefe-Usher syndrome Hallgren syndrome Usher's syndrome Related Diseases Usher ...

  17. Metabolic syndrome update.

    PubMed

    Grundy, Scott M

    2016-05-01

    The metabolic syndrome is a multiplex risk factor for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. It is composed of atherogenic dyslipidemia, elevated blood pressure, insulin resistance and elevated glucose, a pro-thrombotic state, and a pro-inflammatory state. Excess energy intake and concomitant obesity are the major drivers of the syndrome. Lifestyle intervention can reverse metabolic risk factors, but at times, drug therapies or bariatric surgery may be required to control more overt risk factors. PMID:26654259

  18. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Overview What is pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)? Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection of the female reproductive organs (the uterus, ...

  19. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Mihai, C?t?lina; Prelipcean, Cristina Cijevschi; Pintilie, Iulia; Nedelciuc, Otilia; Jigaranu, Anca-Olivia; Dranga, Mihaela; Mihai, B

    2013-01-01

    The relationship between nutrition and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a complex one, the evaluation and correction of nutritional deficits being integral part of therapy in these patients. The diet that consists in excessive consumption of meat, sugar, fats (with a higher 0 6 /o) 3 polyunsaturated fatty acids ratio) are factors involved in the epidemiology and pathogenesis of IBD. Malnutrition is present among most IBD patients, being the result of multiple mechanisms from digestive symptoms to inflammatory process, intestinal resection and administration of medications. Oral diet is high-calorie, high protein at correcting the vitamin and mineral deficiencies. Enteral diet has both an adjuvant role and that of inducing and maintaining remission as single treatment, particularly in children. Parenteral nutrition is reserved for patients with obstruction, fistula, toxic megacolon, short bowel syndrome, severe malabsorption, and other conditions that make enteral nutrition impossible or inefficient. PMID:24502032

  20. Scheie syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... as MPS I S. See also: MPS I H (Hurler syndrome) MPS II (Hunter syndrome) MPS IV (Morquio syndrome) ... individuals with Scheie syndrome, and also Hurler and Hurler-Scheie syndromes. Early detection and treatment of spinal cord compression ...

  1. Coexistence of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Klinefelter's Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, ?enol; Yalin, Murat; Karadeniz, Muamer; Oncel, Guray

    2013-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammatory lower back pain and morning stiffness and accompanied by spine and sacroiliac joint involvement. Klinefelter's syndrome is a genetic condition that only affects males. Affected males have an extra X chromosome. This paper reports a 30-years-old male on followup with the diagnosis of Klinefelters syndrome. The patient admitted with complaints of inflammatory lower back, and neck pain and morning stiffness and was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and salazopyrine treatment resulted in significant regression in his complaints. PMID:23762731

  2. Coexistence of Ankylosing Spondylitis and Klinefelter's Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kobak, Senol; Yalin, Murat; Karadeniz, Muamer; Oncel, Guray

    2013-01-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by inflammatory lower back pain and morning stiffness and accompanied by spine and sacroiliac joint involvement. Klinefelter's syndrome is a genetic condition that only affects males. Affected males have an extra X chromosome. This paper reports a 30-years-old male on followup with the diagnosis of Klinefelters syndrome. The patient admitted with complaints of inflammatory lower back, and neck pain and morning stiffness and was diagnosed with ankylosing spondylitis. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug and salazopyrine treatment resulted in significant regression in his complaints. PMID:23762731

  3. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ...

  4. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Treatment in Sexually Experienced Reproductive-Aged Women in the United States, 1995 and 2006– ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease Treatment in Sexually Experienced Reproductive-Aged Women in the United States, 1995 and 2006– ...

  5. How I Manage Heel Spur Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seder, Joseph I.

    1987-01-01

    This article discusses plantar fascitis and heel spurs, the two contributing causes of heel spur syndrome. Treatment methods, which include rest, anti-inflammatory medication, shoe padding, and, as a last resort, surgery are described. (Author/MT)

  6. Auriculotemporal Syndrome (Frey Syndrome).

    PubMed

    Motz, Kevin M; Kim, Young J

    2016-04-01

    Frey syndrome is a common sequela of parotidectomy, and although it is not frequently manifested clinically, it can cause significant morbidity for those affected. Frey syndrome results from synkinetic autonomic reinnervation by transected postganglionic parasympathetic nerve fiber within the parotid gland to the overlying sweat glands of the skin. Many surgical techniques have been proposed to prevent the development of Frey syndrome. For those who develop clinical symptoms of Frey syndrome, objective testing can be performed with a Minor starch-iodine test. Some of the current methods to prevent and treat symptomatic Frey syndrome are reviewed. PMID:26902982

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Iridoids of Botanical Origin

    PubMed Central

    Viljoen, A; Mncwangi, N; Vermaak, I

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a manifestation of a wide range of disorders which include; arthritis, atherosclerosis, Alzheimer’s disease, inflammatory bowel syndrome, physical injury and infection amongst many others. Common treatment modalities are usually non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) such as aspirin, paracetamol, indomethacin and ibuprofen as well as corticosteroids such as prednisone. These however, may be associated with a host of side effects due to non-selectivity for cyclooxygenase (COX) enzymes involved in inflammation and those with selectivity may be highly priced. Thus, there is a continuing search for safe and effective anti-inflammatory molecules from natural sources. Research has confirmed that iridoids exhibit promising anti-inflammatory activity which may be beneficial in the treatment of inflammation. Iridoids are secondary metabolites present in various plants, especially in species belonging to the Apocynaceae, Lamiaceae, Loganiaceae, Rubiaceae, Scrophulariaceae and Verbenaceae families. Many of these ethnobotanicals have an illustrious history of traditional use alluding to their use to treat inflammation. Although iridoids exhibit a wide range of pharmacological activities such as cardiovascular, hepatoprotection, hypoglycaemic, antimutagenic, antispasmodic, anti-tumour, antiviral, immunomodulation and purgative effects this review will acutely focus on their anti-inflammatory properties. The paper aims to present a summary for the most prominent iridoid-containing plants for which anti-inflammatory activity has been demonstrated in vitro and / or in vivo. PMID:22414102

  8. Sanfilippo syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... as MPS III. See also: MPS I H (Hurler syndrome) MPS II (Hunter syndrome) MPS IV (Morquio syndrome) ... unlike the cloudy corneas seen in persons with Hurler syndrome (MPS I H). Neurological testing will reveal signs ...

  9. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Rett Syndrome Information Page Condensed from Rett Syndrome Fact Sheet ... Clinical Trials Organizations Publicaciones en Español What is Rett Syndrome? Rett syndrome is a childhood neurodevelopmental disorder that ...

  10. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sledding, Skiing, Snowboarding, Skating Crushes What's a Booger? Tourette Syndrome KidsHealth > For Kids > Tourette Syndrome Print A A ... Act Around Someone Who Has It? What Is Tourette Syndrome? Tourette syndrome is a condition that affects a ...

  11. Antiphospholipid Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Antiphospholipid Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Hughes Syndrome Table of Contents ( ... research is being done? Clinical Trials What is Antiphospholipid Syndrome? Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is an autoimmune disorder caused ...

  12. Metabolic Syndrome, Androgens, and Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Moulana, Mohadetheh; Lima, Roberta; Reckelhoff, Jane F.

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is one of the constellation of factors that make up the definition of the metabolic syndrome. Metabolic syndrome is also associated with insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The presence of obesity and metabolic syndrome in men and women is also associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease and hypertension. In men, obesity and metabolic syndrome are associated with reductions in testosterone levels. In women, obesity and metabolic syndrome is associated with increases in androgen levels. In men reductions in androgen levels is associated with inflammation. Androgen supplements reduce inflammation in men. In women, increases in androgens are associated with increases in inflammatory cytokines, and reducing androgens reduces inflammation. In this review the possibility that androgens may have different effects on metabolic syndrome and its sequelae in males and females will be discussed. PMID:21274756

  13. Observational Study of the Genetic Architecture of Neutrophil-Mediated Inflammatory Skin Diseases

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2014-06-11

    Other Specified Inflammatory Disorders of Skin or Subcutaneous Tissue; Pyoderma Gangrenosum; Erosive Pustular Dermatosis of the Scalp; Sweet's Syndrome; Behcet's Disease; Bowel-associated Dermatosis-arthritis Syndrome; Pustular Psoriasis; Acute Generalized Exanthematous Pustulosis; Keratoderma Blenorrhagicum; Sneddon-Wilkinson Disease; IgA Pemphigus; Amicrobial Pustulosis of the Folds; Infantile Acropustulosis; Transient Neonatal Pustulosis; Neutrophilic Eccrine Hidradenitis; Rheumatoid Neutrophilic Dermatitis; Neutrophilic Urticaria; Still's Disease; Erythema Marginatum; Unclassified Periodic Fever Syndromes / Autoinflammatory Syndromes; Dermatitis Herpetiformis; Linear IgA Bullous Dermatosis; Bullous Systemic Lupus Erythematosus; Inflammatory Epidermolysis Bullosa Aquisita; Neutrophilic Dermatosis of the Dorsal Hands (Pustular Vasculitis); Small Vessel Vasculitis Including Urticarial Vasculitis; Erythema Elevatum Diutinum; Medium Vessel Vasculitis

  14. Curcumin in inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Shehzad, Adeeb; Rehman, Gauhar; Lee, Young Sup

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin (diferuloylmethane), a yellow coloring agent extracted from turmeric is also used as a remedy for the treatment and prevention of inflammatory diseases. Acute and chronic inflammation is a major factor in the progression of obesity, type II diabetes, arthritis, pancreatitis, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and metabolic diseases, as well as certain types of cancer. Turmeric has a long history of use in Ayurvedic medicine for the treatment of inflammatory disorders. Recent studies on the efficacy and therapeutic applicability of turmeric have suggested that the active ingredient of tumeric is curcumin. Further, compelling evidence has shown that curcumin has the ability to inhibit inflammatory cell proliferation, invasion, and angiogenesis through multiple molecular targets and mechanisms of action. Curcumin is safe, non-toxic, and mediates its anti-inflammatory effects through the down-regulation of inflammatory transcription factors, cytokines, redox status, protein kinases, and enzymes that all promote inflammation. In addition, curcumin induces apoptosis through mitochondrial and receptor-mediated pathways, as well as activation of caspase cascades. In the current study, the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin were evaluated relative to various chronic inflammatory diseases. Based on the available pharmacological data obtained from in vitro and in vivo research, as well as clinical trials, an opportunity exists to translate curcumin into clinics for the prevention of inflammatory diseases in the near future. PMID:23281076

  15. Laxative abuse syndrome.

    PubMed

    Oster, J R; Materson, B J; Rogers, A I

    1980-11-01

    Laxative abuse syndrome (LAS) is a type of Münchausen syndrome characterized by surreptitious abuse of purgatives. Clinical findings are often perplexing and may mimic inflammatory bowel disease or malabsorption syndromes. Patients frequently complain of diarrhea alternating with constipation and may have nausea, vomiting and weight loss. Psychiatric disturbances are common and may include anorexia nervosa. Melanosis coli and cathartic colon, acid-base disturbances (usually metabolic alkalosis), sodium, potassium and water depletion, hyperuricemia, hyperaldosteronism and other electrolyte changes are possible complications. Diagnosis may be extremely difficult and may require special chemical analysis of urine and feces and search of the patient's possessions. Treatment is frustrating because the patient is rarely willing to admit to laxative abuse let alone cooperate in attempting to stop it. Physicians must be aware of the LAS in order to avoid harming the patient with extensive, expensive and often invasive (including laparotomy) procedures. PMID:7234824

  16. Pediatric inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Diefenbach, Karen A; Breuer, Christopher K

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is an important cause of gastrointestinal pathology in children and adolescents. The incidence of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease is increasing; therefore, it is important for the clinician to be aware of the presentation of this disease in the pediatric population. Laboratory tests, radiology studies, and endoscopic procedures are helpful in diagnosing inflammatory bowel disease and differentiating between Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis. Once diagnosed, the goal of medical management is to induce remission of disease while minimizing the side effects of the medication. Specific attention needs to be paid to achieving normal growth in this susceptible population. Surgical management is usually indicated for failure of medical management, complication, or malignancy. Algorithms for diagnostic evaluation and treatment of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease are presented. The specific psychosocial issues facing these patients are also discussed in this review as are the future goals of research in the complex problem of pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:16718840

  17. Paraneoplastic Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... fine motor coordination, slurred speech, memory loss, vision problems, sleep disturbances, dementia, seizures, sensory loss in the limbs, and vertigo or dizziness. Paraneoplastic syndromes include Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome, stiff-person syndrome, encephalomyelitis, myasthenia ...

  18. Malabsorption Syndromes

    MedlinePlus

    ... If you have a malabsorption syndrome, your small intestine cannot absorb nutrients from foods. Causes of malabsorption syndromes include Celiac disease Lactose intolerance Short bowel syndrome. This happens after surgery to remove ...

  19. Brown Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Does Brown syndrome cause eye problems besides abnormal eye movements? Some children with Brown syndrome have poor binocular ... In the congenital form of Brown syndrome, the eye movement problem is usually constant and unlikely to resolve ...

  20. Short communication: Camel milk ameliorates inflammatory responses and oxidative stress and downregulates mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways in lipopolysaccharide-induced acute respiratory distress syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei-Wei; Kong, Gui-Qing; Ma, Ming-Ming; Li, Yan; Huang, Xiao; Wang, Li-Peng; Peng, Zhen-Yi; Zhang, Xiao-Hua; Liu, Xiang-Yong; Wang, Xiao-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a complex syndrome disorder with high mortality rate. Camel milk (CM) contains antiinflammatory and antioxidant properties and protects against numerous diseases. This study aimed to demonstrate the function of CM in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced ARDS in rats. Camel milk reduced the lung wet:dry weight ratio and significantly reduced LPS-induced increases in neutrophil infiltration, interstitial and intra-alveolar edema, thickness of the alveolar wall, and lung injury scores of lung tissues. It also had antiinflammatory and antioxidant effects on LPS-induced ARDS. After LPS stimulation, the levels of proinflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-10, and IL-1β) in serum and oxidative stress markers (malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and total antioxidant capacity) in lung tissue were notably attenuated by CM. Camel milk also downregulated mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathways. Given these results, CM is a potential complementary food for ARDS treatment. PMID:26601576

  1. Phosphorylation site analysis of the anti-inflammatory and mRNA-destabilizing protein tristetraprolin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tristetraprolin (TTP/TIS11/ZFP36) is a member of the CCCH zinc finger proteins, and is an anti-inflammatory protein. Mice deficient in TTP develop a profound inflammatory syndrome with erosive arthritis, autoimmunity, and myeloid hyperplasia. TTP binds to AU-rich elements with high affinity for UUAU...

  2. Skin gangrene as an extraintestinal manifestation of inflammatory bowel disease*

    PubMed Central

    Komatsu, Yumi Cristina; Capareli, Gabriela Cunha; Boin, Maria Fernanda Feitosa de Camargo; Lellis, Rute; de Freitas, Thaís Helena Proença; Simone, Karine

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases can commonly present many cutaneous lesions which can contribute to the diagnosis of the disease or its activity. The most frequent cutaneous or mucocutaneous manifestations suggesting ulcerative rectocolitis activity are erythema nodosum (3-10%), pyoderma gangrenosum (5-12%) and aphthous stomatitis (4%). Other reactive skin manifestations related to immunological mechanisms associated with the inflammatory bowel disease are: Sweet's syndrome, arthritis-dermatitis syndrome associated with inflammatory bowel disease and leukocytoclastic vasculitis. We describe the case of a young man with diagnosis of ulcerative rectocolitis, which presented an extensive cutaneous gangrene secondary to microvascular thrombosis. The case represents a dermatologic rarity and should be recognized as a cutaneous manifestation related to the hypercoagulability state observed in the disease's activity. PMID:25387503

  3. [2013: what's new in inflammatory neuropathies].

    PubMed

    Kuntzer, T

    2014-12-01

    Several high-quality publications were published in 2013 and some major trials studies were started. In Guillain-Barré syndrome, events included the launch of IGOS and a better understanding of diagnostic limits, the effect of influenza vaccination, and better care, but uncertainty remains about analgesics. A new mouse model was also described. In chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyradiculoneuropathy (CIDP), diagnostic pitfalls can be recalled. Our knowledge of underlying pathophysiological processes has improved, and the value of monitoring with function and deficit scores has been demonstrated. IVIG can sometimes be effective longer than expected, but CIDP remains sensitive to corticosteroids, particularly with the long-term beneficial effects of megadose dexamethasone. The impact of fingolimod remains to be demonstrated in an ongoing trial. Advances concerning multifocal motor neuropathy, inflammatory plexopathy, and neuropathy with anti -MAG activity are discussed but treatments already recognized as effective should not be changed. Imaging of peripheral nerve progresses. PMID:25459118

  4. Inflammatory Breast Cancer

    MedlinePlus

    ... 22:9-23. [PubMed Abstract] Bertucci F, Ueno NT, Finetti P, et al. Gene expression profiles of ... Abstract] Fouad TM, Kogawa T, Reuben JM, Ueno NT. The role of inflammation in inflammatory breast cancer. ...

  5. Breast Cancer -- Inflammatory

    MedlinePlus

    ... medical, surgical, radiation, gynecologic, and pediatric oncologists, oncology nurses, physician assistants, social workers, and patient advocates. Cancer.Net Guide Breast Cancer - Inflammatory ... with Side Effects Follow-up Care and Monitoring ...

  6. Inflammatory Myopathies (Myositis)

    MedlinePlus

    ... of DM, polymyositis (PM) and inclusion-body myositis (IBM). You’ll learn that, although these inflammatory muscle ... the overwhelming majority of thy, inclusion-body myositis (IBM), also cases, there’s no clear cause for the ...

  7. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease

    MedlinePlus

    Pelvic inflammatory disease (PID) is an infection and inflammation of the uterus, ovaries, and other female reproductive organs. It causes scarring ... United States. Gonorrhea and chlamydia, two sexually transmitted diseases, are the most common causes of PID. Other ...

  8. Inflammatory bowel disease: is it a primary immunodeficiency?

    PubMed

    Glocker, Erik; Grimbacher, Bodo

    2012-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are chronic and relapsing conditions, characterized by abdominal pain, diarrhea, bleeding and malabsorption. IBD has been considered a hyperinflammatory state due to disturbed interactions between the immune system and the commensal bacterial flora of the gut. However, there is evidence that Crohn's disease might be the consequence of a reduced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and an impaired acute inflammatory response, thereby suggesting that IBD might be an immunodeficiency rather than an excessive inflammatory reaction. This theory has been supported by observations in patients with primary immunodeficiencies such as the Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome and IPEX (immunodysregulation, polyendocrinopathy, enteropathy, X-linked syndrome). In contrary, defects in the anti-inflammatory down-regulation of the immune response as they are seen in patients with Mendelian defects in the IL10 signaling pathway support the hyper-inflammatory theory. In this review, we describe and discuss primary immunodeficiencies associated with IBD and show that the bowel is a highly sensitive indicator of dysregulations, making IBD a model disease to study and identify key regulators required to balance the human mucosal immune system. PMID:21997382

  9. Nephrotoxicity of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.

    PubMed

    Baisac, J; Henrich, W L

    1994-01-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are important therapeutic agents in the management of rheumatologic disorders and other pain syndromes. Over the counter availability of the drugs has expanded the usage of the drugs. This article reviews the nephrotoxicity of these drugs, with some emphasis on NSAID-related proteinuria. Although reversibility of renal involvement upon drug discontinuance is the rule, progression to end-stage renal disease has occurred. A proposed guideline for monitoring renal impairment in low- and high-risk patients is also presented. PMID:7845321

  10. [Proteus syndrome].

    PubMed

    Benichou, J J; Labrune, B; Formanek, A; Denoix, C; Oger, P

    1990-01-01

    Two new cases of Proteus syndrome are reported. This congenital syndrome, first described in 1983, comprises gigantism of extremities, body hemihypertrophy, pigmented nevi and multiple tumors (subcutaneous, lipomas, hamartomas). This syndrome belongs to the same group as Recklinghausen disease, Maffucci or Klippel-Trenaunay syndromes. The prognosis is not well known but mostly depends on functional and psychologic consequences of important deformations. PMID:2206106

  11. Heart and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Videos Webinar Series Health Care Associated Conditions ADHD & Down Syndrome Alzheimer's Disease & Down Syndrome Anesthesia & Down Syndrome Atlantoaxial Instability & Down Syndrome Blood Diseases & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dual Diagnosis of Down Syndrome & Autism Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & ...

  12. Dental Issues & Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Videos Webinar Series Health Care Associated Conditions ADHD & Down Syndrome Alzheimer's Disease & Down Syndrome Anesthesia & Down Syndrome Atlantoaxial Instability & Down Syndrome Blood Diseases & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dual Diagnosis of Down Syndrome & Autism Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & ...

  13. Fecal calprotectin in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Walsham, Natalie E; Sherwood, Roy A

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and irritable bowel syndrome share many symptoms. While irritable bowel syndrome is a functional bowel disorder for which no specific treatment is available, the range of effective therapies for IBD is evolving rapidly. Accurate diagnosis of IBD is therefore essential. Clinical assessment, together with various imaging modalities and endoscopy, has been the mainstay of diagnosis for many years. Fecal biomarkers of gastrointestinal inflammation have appeared in the past decade, of which calprotectin, a neutrophil cytosolic protein, has been studied the most. Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic remitting and relapsing diseases, and objective assessment of disease activity and response to treatment are important. This review focuses on the use of fecal calprotectin measurements in the diagnosis and monitoring of patients with IBD. PMID:26869808

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID)

    MedlinePlus

    ... order other tests or procedures. They can include ultrasonography , endometrial biopsy , and in some cases laparoscopy . How ... HIV, the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome [AIDS]). Ultrasonography: A test in which sound waves are used ...

  15. Clinical Inquiry: Do corticosteroid injections improve carpal tunnel syndrome symptoms?

    PubMed

    Lyon, Corey; Syfert, Jonathan; Nashelsky, Joan

    2016-02-01

    Yes. Injected corticosteroids reduce symptoms of carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) more effectively than placebo or systemic steroids, but no better than anti-inflammatory medication and splinting, from one to 12 weeks after therapy. PMID:26977464

  16. Evolution of inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed

    Okin, Daniel; Medzhitov, Ruslan

    2012-09-11

    The association of inflammation with modern human diseases (e.g. obesity, cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes mellitus, cancer) remains an unsolved mystery of current biology and medicine. Inflammation is a protective response to noxious stimuli that unavoidably occurs at a cost to normal tissue function. This fundamental trade-off between the cost and benefit of the inflammatory response has been optimized over evolutionary time for specific environmental conditions. Rapid change of the human environment due to niche construction outpaces genetic adaptation through natural selection, leading increasingly to a mismatch between the modern environment and selected traits. Consequently, multiple trade-offs that affect human physiology are not optimized to the modern environment, leading to increased disease susceptibility. Here we examine the inflammatory response from an evolutionary perspective. We discuss unique aspects of the inflammatory response and its evolutionary history that can help explain the association between inflammation and modern human diseases. PMID:22975004

  17. Inflammatory Bowel Disease.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation response plays an important role in host survival, and it also leads to acute and chronic inflammatory diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, bowel diseases, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis and various neurodegenerative diseases. During the course of inflammation, the ROS level increases. In addition to ROS, several inflammatory mediators produced at the site lead to numerous cell-mediated damages. Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), including ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, is a chronic intestinal disorder resulting from a dysfunctional epithelial, innate and adaptive immune response to intestinal microorganisms. The methods involving indomethacin-induced enterocolitis in rats with macroscopic changes of IBD, myeloperoxidase assay, microscopic (histologic) characters and biochemical parameters are discussed. PMID:26939275

  18. Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis.

    PubMed

    Reichman, Orna; Sobel, Jack

    2014-10-01

    Desquamative inflammatory vaginitis (DIV) is an uncommon form of chronic purulent vaginitis. It occurs mainly in Caucasians with a peak occurrence in the perimenopause. Symptoms and signs are nonspecific; DIV is a diagnosis of exclusion, and other causes of purulent vaginitis should be excluded. The main symptoms include purulent discharge, vestibulo-vaginal irritation, and dyspareunia. Examination of vaginal walls shows signs of inflammation with increased erythema and petechiae. Through microscopy (wet mount) of the vaginal secretions, DIV is defined by an increase in inflammatory cells and parabasal epithelial cells (immature squamous cells). Vaginal flora is abnormal and pH is always elevated above 4.5. Although etiology and pathogenesis remain unknown, the favorable response to anti-inflammatory agents suggests that the etiology is immune mediated. Either local vaginal clindamycin or vaginal corticosteroids are adequate treatment. As a chronic condition, maintenance treatment should be considered as relapse is common. PMID:25132275

  19. Inflammatory Monocyte Effector Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Lauvau, Gregoire; Chorro, Laurent; Spaulding, Emily; Soudja, Saidi M'Homa

    2014-01-01

    Monocytes are blood-derived mononuclear phagocytic cells that traffic throughout the body and can provide rapid innate immune effector responses in response to microbial pathogen infections. Amongst blood monocytes, the most abundant subset in mice is represented by inflammatory Ly6C+ CCR2+ monocytes and is the functional equivalent of the CD14+ monocytes in humans. Herein we focus on published evidence describing the exquisite functional plasticity of these cells, and we extend this overview to their multiples roles in vivo during host immune defenses against microbial pathogen infections, as antigen-presenting cells, inflammatory cells or Trojan horse cells. PMID:25205002

  20. Theodore Roosevelt's inflammatory rheumatism.

    PubMed

    Pinals, Robert S

    2008-02-01

    Theodore Roosevelt's death at age 60 was probably caused by a pulmonary embolus, but it was preceded by a 2 1/2-month illness described as inflammatory rheumatism. He had intermittent fever and acute arthritis in several joints leading to hospitalization and enforced bed rest for 6 weeks. The details of his illness and its possible etiology are reviewed. Inflammatory rheumatism was a descriptive term within which several modern diagnoses might be included. Although it is not possible to identify Roosevelt's illness with any certainty, it was most compatible with polyarticular gout, although reactive arthritis, rheumatic fever, and several other diagnoses cannot be ruled out. PMID:18431099

  1. Inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Beattie, R M; Croft, N M; Fell, J M; Afzal, N A; Heuschkel, R B

    2006-01-01

    Twenty five per cent of inflammatory bowel disease presents in childhood. Growth and nutrition are key issues in the management with the aim of treatment being to induce and then maintain disease remission with minimal side effects. Only 25% of Crohn's disease presents with the classic triad of abdominal pain, weight loss, and diarrhoea. Most children with ulcerative colitis have blood in the stool at presentation. Inflammatory markers are usually although not invariably raised at presentation (particularly in Crohn's disease). Full investigation includes upper gastrointestinal endoscopy and ileocolonoscopy. Treatment requires multidisciplinary input as part of a clinical network led by a paediatrician with special expertise in the management of the condition. PMID:16632672

  2. Histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome in a patient with myelodsyplastic syndrome: report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Shalaby, Michael M; Riahi, Ryan R; Rosen, Les B; Soine, Erik J

    2016-01-01

    The neutrophilic dermatoses are a group of disorders characterized by skin lesions for which histological examination reveals intense epidermal and/or dermal inflammatory infiltrates composed primarily of neutrophils without evidence of infection. The myelodysplastic syndromes consist of a heterogeneous group of malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplastic and inadequate blood cell production with a variable risk of transformation to acute leukemia. Rarely, histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome occurring in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome has been described. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome who developed histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome. We also review the literature and characterize patients with myelodysplastic syndrome who have developed histiocytoid Sweet's syndrome. PMID:26937301

  3. Greater Trochanteric Pain Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Redmond, John M; Chen, Austin W; Domb, Benjamin G

    2016-04-01

    Patients who have lateral hip pain historically have been diagnosed with trochanteric bursitis and treated with nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory medications, corticosteroid injections, and physical therapy. Although this strategy is effective for most patients, a substantial number of patients continue to have pain and functional limitations. Over the past decade, our understanding of disorders occurring in the peritrochanteric space has increased dramatically. Greater trochanteric pain syndrome encompasses trochanteric bursitis, external coxa saltans (ie, snapping hip), and abductor tendinopathy. A thorough understanding of the anatomy, examination findings, and imaging characteristics aids the clinician in treating these patients. Open and endoscopic treatment options are available for use when nonsurgical treatment is unsuccessful. PMID:26990713

  4. Arthritis-associated syndromes.

    PubMed

    Osial, T A; Cash, J M; Eisenbeis, C H

    1993-12-01

    There are a number of diseases characterized by inflammatory arthropathy that, although not as commonly seen as rheumatoid arthritis, often present to the family physician as difficult diagnostic problems. The diagnosis is frequently most difficult during the early course of these diseases. During recent years, new and altered concepts have arisen regarding both diagnostic and therapeutic management of this challenging group of arthropathies. This article presents a review of the more common arthritis-associated syndromes with emphasis on the differential diagnosis and medicinal therapeutics. PMID:8310085

  5. Inverse relationship of interleukin-6 and mast cells in children with inflammatory and non-inflammatory abdominal pain phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Wendy A; Shankar, Ravi; Taylor, Tara J; Del Valle-Pinero, Arseima Y; Kleiner, David E; Kim, Kevin H; Youssef, Nader N

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate interleukin-6 (IL-6), mast cells, enterochromaffin cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and substance P in the gastrointestinal mucosa of children with abdominal pain. METHODS: Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded gastrointestinal biopsy blocks from patients (n = 48) with non-inflammatory bowel disease (irritable bowel syndrome and functional abdominal pain) and inflammatory bowel disease were sectioned and stained for IL-6, mast cells, enterochromaffin cells, 5-hydroxytryptamine, and substance P. All children had chronic abdominal pain as part of their presenting symptoms. Biopsy phenotype was confirmed by a pathologist, blinded to patient information. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, and independent sample t tests were used to compare differences between the inflammatory and non-inflammatory groups. RESULTS: The cohort (n = 48), mean age 11.9 years (SD = 2.9), 54.2% females, 90% Caucasian, was comprised of a non-inflammatory (n = 26) and an inflammatory (n = 22) phenotype. There was a significant negative correlation between substance P expression and mast cell count (P = 0.05, r = -0.373). Substance P was found to be expressed more often in female patient biopsies and more intensely in the upper gastrointestinal mucosa as compared to the lower mucosa. There were significantly increased gastrointestinal mucosal immunoreactivity to IL-6 (P = 0.004) in the inflammatory phenotype compared to non-inflammatory. Additionally, we found significantly increased mast cells (P = 0.049) in the mucosa of the non-inflammatory phenotype compared to the inflammatory group. This difference was particularly noted in the lower colon biopsies. CONCLUSION: The findings of this study yield preliminary evidence in identifying biomarkers of undiagnosed abdominal pain in children and may suggest candidate genes for future evaluation. PMID:23516176

  6. Prostacyclin: An Inflammatory Paradox

    PubMed Central

    Stitham, Jeremiah; Midgett, Charles; Martin, Kathleen A.; Hwa, John

    2011-01-01

    Prostacyclin (PGI2) is a member of the prostaglandin family of bioactive lipids. Its best-characterized role is in the cardiovascular system, where it is released by vascular endothelial cells, serving as a potent vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet aggregation. In recent years, prostacyclin (PGI2) has also been shown to promote differentiation and inhibit proliferation in vascular smooth muscle cells. In addition to these well-described homeostatic roles within the cardiovascular system, prostacyclin (PGI2) also plays an important role as an inflammatory mediator. In this review, we focus on the contribution of prostacyclin (PGI2) as both a pathophysiological mediator and therapeutic agent in three major inflammatory-mediated disease processes, namely rheumatoid arthritis, where it promotes disease progression (“pro-inflammatory”), along with pulmonary vascular disease and atherosclerosis, where it inhibits disease progression (“anti-inflammatory”). The emerging role of prostacyclin (PGI2) in this context provides new opportunities for understanding the complex molecular basis for inflammatory-related diseases, and insights into the development of current and future anti-inflammatory treatments. PMID:21687516

  7. Pseudoaminopterin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kraoua, Lilia; Capri, Yline; Perrin, Laurence; Benmansour, Abdelmajjid; Verloes, Alain

    2012-09-01

    Pseudoaminopterin syndrome or aminopterin syndrome-like sine aminopterin (ASSA syndrome--OMIM 600325] is a rare autosomal recessive syndrome defined by characteristic dysmorphic features, skeletal defects, limb anomalies, cryptorchidism, and growth retardation. The syndrome owes its name to the fact that patients resemble the children exposed to aminopterin or to methotrexate, two dihydrofolate reductase inhibitors used for chemotherapy, or as an abortificient in early pregnancy. Ten patients have been described with pseudoaminopterin syndrome. Their phenotype is variable, and differs from the phenotype resulting from folic acid deprivation, leading to the notion that the pathogenesis may be more complex than simple vitamin deficiency. We report on an Algerian patient with pseudoaminopterin syndrome, review the previously reported cases and confirm that pseudoaminopterin syndrome does not result from a detectable contiguous gene imbalance as high resolution CGH array was normal in this child. PMID:22811276

  8. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Usher syndrome is an inherited disease that causes serious hearing loss and retinitis pigmentosa, an eye disorder ... hearing and vision. There are three types of Usher syndrome: People with type I are deaf from ...

  9. [Gardner's syndrome].

    PubMed

    Femiano, F; Cozzolino, S; Malzone, A

    1990-01-01

    The Gardner syndrome is characterized by polyposis coli and multiple hard and soft tissue tumors. This work show crucial dentist's role in the early diagnosis important for the highly malignant potential of this syndrome. PMID:2097961

  10. Hurler syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hurler syndrome is a rare disease of metabolism in which a person cannot break down long chains of sugar molecules called glycosaminoglycans (formerly called mucopolysaccharides). Hurler syndrome belongs to a group of diseases called mucopolysaccharidosis, ...

  11. Asperger syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Asperger syndrome is often considered a high functioning form of autism. It can lead to difficulty interacting socially, repeat behaviors, and clumsiness. Asperger syndrome is a part of the larger developmental disorder ...

  12. Proteus Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Definition Common Signs Diagnostic Criteria (I have ... NIH to go with this criteria) Glossary Videos Proteus Syndrome is a condition which involves atypical growth ...

  13. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Rett Syndrome: Overview Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Rett syndrome is a neurological and developmental genetic disorder that ...

  14. Rett syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Rett syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system that leads to developmental problems in children, especially in ... Rett syndrome occurs almost always in girls. It may be diagnosed as autism or cerebral palsy. Most Rett ...

  15. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Rett syndrome is a rare genetic disease that causes developmental and nervous system problems, mostly in girls. It's related to autism spectrum disorder. Babies with Rett syndrome seem to grow and develop normally at first. ...

  16. Serotonin syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... medicines that caused the syndrome In life-threatening cases, medicines that keep your muscles still (paralyze them) and ... Syndrome. Am J Psychiatry . 1991: 148:705. US Food and Drug Administration. FDA Public Health Advisory: Combined Use of ...

  17. LEOPARD syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    LEOPARD syndrome is a very rare inherited disorder in which there are problems with the skin, face, ... LEOPARD syndrome is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait. This means the person only needs the abnormal ...

  18. Turner Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Turner syndrome is a genetic disorder that affects a girl's development. The cause is a missing or incomplete ... t work properly. Other physical features typical of Turner syndrome are Short, "webbed" neck with folds of skin ...

  19. Branchiootorenal Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rare Disease Day More Search for News on Rare Diseases Search Go Advanced News Search About GARD About ... GARD Home Diseases Branchiootorenal syndrome Diseases Genetic and Rare Diseases Information Center (GARD) Print friendly version Branchiootorenal syndrome ...

  20. Zellweger Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cure disorders such as Zellweger syndrome. NIH Patient Recruitment for Zellweger Syndrome Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 National Institute of Child Health and ...

  1. Progress in inflammatory neuropathy -the legacy of Dr Jack Griffin.

    PubMed

    Feldman, Eva L; Hughes, Richard A C; Willison, Hugh J

    2015-11-01

    The past quarter of a century has brought incredible advances in our understanding of inflammatory neuropathies, and the insights into Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) began in the 1990s with the seminal work of Dr Jack Griffin and his colleagues. In this essay, we provide a tribute to Jack, and review the recent progress in a field that he termed his personal favourite. In particular, we discuss the new developments in our understanding and diagnosis of inflammatory neuropathies, the recent emergence of the node of Ranvier and the paranode as sites of intensive investigation, and the mechanistic evidence that is providing a platform for therapeutic development studies. PMID:26458287

  2. Sweet's syndrome with idiopathic thrombocythemia

    PubMed Central

    Kaszewski, Sebastian; Protas-Drozd, Franciszka; Placek, Waldemar; Jakubowski, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of paraneoplastic skin syndromes associating neoplastic processes is assumed as the crucial aspect of dermatological practice. Knowledge of clinical findings of dermatoses suggesting coincidence of malignant proliferative processes facilitates diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. We would like to present a case of Sweet's syndrome, qualified for comparative paraneoplastic skin syndromes. Sweet's syndrome, acute, febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, was first described by Robert Douglas Sweet in 1964 as a disorder characterized by fever, skin lesions of erythematous-infiltrative character, leukocytosis with neutrophilia and dense infiltrations of dermis by mature neutrophils. Sweet's syndrome aetiology is not fully understood, although cytokine abnormalities suggest that Th1 lymphocytes play an important role in pathogenesis of the dermatosis. Factors inducing Sweet's syndrome include: haematopoietic hyperplasia; neoplasms: genitourinary, breast, gastrointestinal; infections of the respiratory and alimentary system; inflammatory bowel diseases; drugs; pregnancy and vaccinations. Systemic corticosteroids are the gold standard of Sweet's syndrome treatment; potassium iodide or colchicine may also be used. Indomethacin, clofazimine, cyclosporine A and sulfones are the second-line drugs. PMID:24683399

  3. Learning about Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... genetic terms used on this page Learning About Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? What are the symptoms ... syndrome Additional Resources for Down Syndrome What is Down syndrome? Down syndrome is a chromosomal condition related to ...

  4. Craniofacial Syndrome Descriptions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dysplasia Goldenhar/Hemifacial Moebius syndrome Pfeiffer syndrome Pierre Robin Sequence Treacher Collins syndrome Other syndromes Wonder News & ... absence of the radial limb. Pfeiffer syndrome Pierre Robin Sequence Saethre-Chotzen Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is a ...

  5. Can Probiotics Cure Inflammatory Bowel Diseases?

    PubMed

    Korada, Siva Kumar; Yarla, Nagendra Sastry; Bishayee, Anupam; Aliev, Gjumrakch; Aruna Lakshmi, K; Arunasree, M K; Dananajaya, B L; Mishra, Vijendra

    2016-01-01

    Gastrointestinal (GI) disorders, especially microbial dysbiosis play role in several GI ailments such as irritable bowel syndrome, colorectal cancer, inflammatory bowel diseases, and antibiotic-associated diarrhoea. Role of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is multifactorial as it involves loss of maintaining intestinal epithelial barrier integrity, increased release of pro-inflammatory molecules, and microbial dysbiosis in gut microflora. Some specific pathogens also play a key role in the IBD development. The origin and causation are still in unfathomable condition and the exact root cause is unknown. Recently probiotic studies have been gaining importance because of their positive responses in their IBD experimental results. According to joint Food and Agricultural Organisation/World Health Organisation working group, probiotics are defined as live microorganisms which when administered in adequate amount confer health benefit on the host. These live beneficial microorganisms are considered helpful in improving gut colonization and perseverance thereby improves prophylactic effect. In the direction of IBD research, a number of studies are needed to standardize its methodology and its applicability on human usage. The particular review presents an overview of gut microflora and its impact on host health, types of IBD and existing therapies to treat this disorder, mechanism of several probiotic actions, role of probiotics in IBD prevention with their supporting evidences. PMID:26648465

  6. Early Guillain-Barr syndrome without inflammation.

    PubMed

    Ropper, A H; Adelman, L

    1992-09-01

    A patient with typical acute Guillain-Barr syndrome died 72 hours after his first symptoms occurred, and an autopsy was performed 8 hours after his death. Extensive sampling of cranial and peripheral nerves, sensory ganglia, and autonomic nerves showed only minimal inflammatory lymphocytic and macrophage infiltrates. This case, one of the earliest studied extensively, represents an extreme example of a noninflammatory mechanism that has been proposed in some cases of Gullain-Barr syndrome. PMID:1325767

  7. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the…

  8. Cushing Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... links Share this: Page Content What is Cushing’s syndrome? Cushing’s syndrome is a condition that occurs when the body’s ... medication or as a result of a tumor, Cushing’s syndrome can develop. Many factors influence whether this happens, ...

  9. Velocardiofacial Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gothelf, Doron; Frisch, Amos; Michaelovsky, Elena; Weizman, Abraham; Shprintzen, Robert J.

    2009-01-01

    Velocardiofacial syndrome (VCFS), also known as DiGeorge, conotruncal anomaly face, and Cayler syndromes, is caused by a microdeletion in the long arm of Chromosome 22. We review the history of the syndrome from the first clinical reports almost half a century ago to the current intriguing molecular findings associating genes from the

  10. Rowell syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Ramesh Y; Varma, Chaitanya; Bhatt, Sonia; Balachandran, C

    2014-01-01

    Rowell syndrome is a rare disease consisting of erythema multiforme-like lesions associated with lupus erythematosus. The syndrome occurs mostly in middle-aged women. The authors describe the syndrome in a 15-year-old boy who responded well to systemic steroids and hydroxychloroquine. PMID:25506561

  11. Carpal tunnel syndrome as a herald of autoimmune rheumatic disorders.

    PubMed Central

    Pal, B

    1997-01-01

    In six patients aged 59-71 years carpal tunnel syndrome, seemingly idiopathic, was followed by connective tissue disorders, in most cases autoimmune in nature. Patients with idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome may therefore require long-term follow-up, if inflammatory rheumatic conditions are not to be missed. PMID:9155757

  12. Postperfusion lung syndrome: physiopathology and therapeutic options

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Shi-Min

    2014-01-01

    Postperfusion lung syndrome is rare but can be lethal. The underlying mechanism remains uncertain but triggering inflammatory cascades have become an accepted etiology. A better understanding of the pathophysiology and the roles of inflammatory mediators in the development of the syndrome is imperative in the determination of therapeutic options and promotion of patients' prognosis and survival. Postperfusion lung syndrome is similar to adult respiratory distress syndrome in clinical features, diagnostic approaches and management strategies. However, the etiologies and predisposing risk factors may differ between each other. The prognosis of the postperfusion lung syndrome can be poorer in comparison to acute respiratory distress syndrome due to the secondary multiple organ failure and triple acid-base imbalance. Current management strategies are focusing on attenuating inflammatory responses and preventing from pulmonary ischemia-reperfusion injury. Choices of cardiopulmonary bypass circuit and apparatus, innovative cardiopulmonary bypass techniques, modified surgical maneuvers and several pharmaceutical agents can be potential preventive strategies for acute lung injury during cardiopulmonary bypass. PMID:25372917

  13. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Statistics

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ...

  14. Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ... Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID) STDs & Infertility STDs & Pregnancy Syphilis Trichomoniasis Other STDs See Also Pregnancy Reproductive Health ...

  15. Follow-up in healthy schoolchildren and in adolescents with DOWN syndrome: psycho-environmental and genetic determinants of physical activity and its impact on fitness, cardiovascular diseases, inflammatory biomarkers and mental health; the UP&DOWN Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An objective diagnosis of sedentary behaviour as well as of the physical activity and fitness levels in youth and to better understand how lifestyle is associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors and other phenotypes is of clinical and public health interest, and might be informative for developing intervention studies focused on the promotion of physical activity in these population. The aim of this methodological paper is to describe the design and assessment in the UP&DOWN study. Methods/Design The UP&DOWN study is a multi-center follow-up design where 2225 Spanish primary and secondary schoolchildren from Cadiz and Madrid, respectively, as well as 110 Spanish adolescents with Down syndrome from Madrid and Toledo were recruited to be assessed. Nine main measurement categories are assessed: i) socio-demographic and early determinants; ii) environmental determinants; iii) physical activity and sedentary behaviour; iv) health-related fitness; v) blood pressure and resting heart rate; vi) mental health; vii) dietary patterns; viii) blood samples; and ix) genetic analysis. During the 3-yr follow-up study, socio-demographic and early determinants, and genetic analysis are only assessed in the first year. Blood sampling is assessed in the first year and the third year (2nd follow-up), and all the other measurements are assessed every year. Discussion The findings of the UP&DOWN study may help the Health Information Systems and policy makers to identify the target population for primary prevention and health promotion policies, and to develop and test preventive strategies. Moreover, these data will allow following the trends at population level, as well as to modify/adapt/create new evidence-based physical activity guidelines at national level. The findings will also serve as a scientific platform for interventional studies. PMID:24761982

  16. Inflammatory pseudotumor of spleen

    PubMed Central

    Rajabi, Parvin; Noorollahi, Hasan; Hani, Mohsen; Bagheri, Marzie

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) is an uncommon tumor and its occurrence in spleen is rare. This tumor is composed of proliferation of spindle cells of unknown origin and etiology that mimic other tumors at clinical and histological evaluation. The most surmising etiology is Epstein Barr virus (EBV) and the most suspected origin is myofibroblasts, hence its synonym is “inflammatory myofibroblastic tumor.” The clinical appearance of tumor is related to its location but the most ones are abdominal pain, fever and weight loss. Surgical removal for this lesion is treatment of choice and there is few reported case with recurrence and metastasis. Herein we report a 63-year-old female patient with and abdominal discomfort that primary paraclinical investigations had been showed splenic mass and therefore surgical treatment was performed for her. Microscopic examination suggest some different diagnosis such as IPT, thus immunohistochemical staining was perform to confirm the diagnosis and rule out the others. PMID:24592376

  17. Inflammatory mechanisms of endometritis.

    PubMed

    Woodward, E M; Troedsson, M H T

    2015-07-01

    Transient post breeding endometritis is a normal physiological reaction in the mare, as it is believed that an inflammatory response is necessary for the effective removal of contaminating bacteria and excess spermatozoa introduced into the uterus. While most mares can clear endometritis within a reasonable amount of time, persistent endometritis caused by either bacteria or spermatozoa can threaten the success of a pregnancy. A subpopulation of mares is susceptible to persistent endometritis, and these mares are a concern in equine reproductive medicine. Research has identified several factors that contribute to susceptibility; however, the exact mechanisms of the progression of the disease are still being elucidated. Current research focuses on endometrial gene expression during endometritis in an attempt to understand the timing of specific inflammatory processes involved with the development of susceptibility to persistent endometritis. With an increased understanding of the mechanisms involved with the disease, current treatments can be improved upon, and new treatments can be developed to target affected pathways. PMID:25537084

  18. Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating Polyneuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Dimachkie, Mazen M.; Barohn, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Opinion statement Chronic Inflammatory polyneuropathies are an important group of neuromuscular disorders that present chronically and progress over more than 8 weeks, being referred to as chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP). Despite tremendous progress in elucidating disease pathogenesis, the exact triggering event remains unknown. Our knowledge regarding diagnosis and management of CIDP and its variants continues to expand, resulting in improved opportunities for identification and treatment. Most clinical neurologists will be involved in the management of patients with these disorders, and should be familiar with available therapies for CIDP. We review the distinctive clinical, laboratory, and electro-diagnostic features that aid in diagnosis. We emphasize the importance of clinical patterns that define treatment responsiveness and the most appropriate therapies in order to improve prognosis. PMID:23564314

  19. Inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Bowling, T E

    1995-06-01

    Since the early 1970s there has been considerable debate over the role of nutritional support in the treatment of patients with acute inflammatory bowel disease. The role of enteral feeding as a primary therapeutic option in patients with acute Crohn's disease remains controversial. This article reviews the role of nutritional support both as an adjunct to standard medical therapy and as a primary therapeutic option. PMID:7552633

  20. Sweet's syndrome as the presenting manifestation of gall bladder adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Jindal, Rashmi; Jain, Anshu; Mittal, Ankur; Shirazi, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome is a neutrophilic inflammatory dermatosis presenting with sudden onset tender red to purple papules and nodules, fever and neutrophilia. Gastrointestinal and urinary tract infections, pregnancy, inflammatory bowel disease, drugs and malignancy are some of the known aetiological factors. Paraneoplastic Sweet's syndrome accounts for 1520% cases and thus forms an important subset. At times its onset helps in suspecting an underlying malignancy, thus making timely intervention possible. In the present case report Sweet's syndrome was the presenting feature of gall bladder adenocarcinoma; an association that has been rarely reported before. PMID:23076693

  1. Medicinal agents and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Rubio-Ruiz, M E; El Hafidi, M; Pérez-Torres, I; Baños, G; Guarner, V

    2013-01-01

    The definition of the Metabolic Syndrome (MS) has encountered difficulty in reaching a universal consensus although there exists an agreement of its main pathologies which are hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, inflammation and renal damage. The prevalent opinion is that three of those alterations may define the syndrome. The incidence of the MS has increased globally, particularly in the last few years, to the point of being regarded as an epidemic. The treatment of the MS can be approached from different angles, since it may be a multifaceted health problem. A healthy lifestyle, which means the practice of regular exercise is suggested to MS patients. Increasing physical activity has anti-inflammatory effects since there is an inverse association of physical activity and inflammatory biomarker concentrations. An adequate diet is recommended, such as the Mediterranean, which contains fish, tomatoes, garlic, red peppers, olive oil and includes red wine, that is, antioxidants and non-saturated oils. There are also the traditional herbal preparations, used in the alternative medicine. Several therapeutic tools can be used; the most common are the pharmaceutical products to deal with obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemias, diabetes and inflammation. In addition several pharmacological therapies such as non steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are recommended. Recently new mechanisms of action of statins, fibrates, metformin and thiazolidinediones have demonstrated their anti-inflammatory effect and potential use to treat MS. PMID:23590715

  2. Vitamin D and inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Kai; Agrawal, Devendra K

    2014-01-01

    Beyond its critical function in calcium homeostasis, vitamin D has recently been found to play an important role in the modulation of the immune/inflammation system via regulating the production of inflammatory cytokines and inhibiting the proliferation of proinflammatory cells, both of which are crucial for the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases. Several studies have associated lower vitamin D status with increased risk and unfavorable outcome of acute infections. Vitamin D supplementation bolsters clinical responses to acute infection. Moreover, chronic inflammatory diseases, such as atherosclerosis-related cardiovascular disease, asthma, inflammatory bowel disease, chronic kidney disease, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, and others, tend to have lower vitamin D status, which may play a pleiotropic role in the pathogenesis of the diseases. In this article, we review recent epidemiological and interventional studies of vitamin D in various inflammatory diseases. The potential mechanisms of vitamin D in regulating immune/inflammatory responses in inflammatory diseases are also discussed. PMID:24971027

  3. Monogenic Autoinflammatory Syndromes: State of the Art on Genetic, Clinical, and Therapeutic Issues

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Luisa; Atteno, Mariangela; Compagnone, Adele; Caso, Paolo; Frediani, Bruno; Galeazzi, Mauro; Punzi, Leonardo

    2013-01-01

    Monogenic autoinflammatory syndromes (MAISs) are caused by innate immune system dysregulation leading to aberrant inflammasome activation and episodes of fever and involvement of skin, serous membranes, eyes, joints, gastrointestinal tract, and nervous system, predominantly with a childhood onset. To date, there are twelve known MAISs: familial Mediterranean fever, tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated periodic syndrome, familial cold urticaria syndrome, Muckle-Wells syndrome, CINCA syndrome, mevalonate kinase deficiency, NLRP12-associated autoinflammatory disorder, Blau syndrome, early-onset sarcoidosis, PAPA syndrome, Majeed syndrome, and deficiency of the interleukin-1 receptor antagonist. Each of these conditions may manifest itself with more or less severe inflammatory symptoms of variable duration and frequency, associated with findings of increased inflammatory parameters in laboratory investigation. The purpose of this paper is to describe the main genetic, clinical, and therapeutic aspects of MAISs and their most recent classification with the ultimate goal of increasing awareness of autoinflammation among various internal medicine specialists. PMID:24282415

  4. Gorlin syndrome.

    PubMed

    Devi, Basanti; Behera, Binodini; Patro, Sibasish; Pattnaik, Subhransu S; Puhan, Manas R

    2013-05-01

    Gorlin Syndrome, a rare genodermatosis, otherwise known as Nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS) is a multisystem disease affecting skin, nervous system, eyes, endocrine glands, and bones. It is characterized by multiple basal cell carcinomas, palmoplantar pits, jaw cysts, and bony deformities like kyphoscoliosis and frontal bossing. We would like to report a case of Gorlin syndrome with classical features, as this is a rare genodermatosis. PMID:23723494

  5. Differential distribution of HLA-DQ beta/DR beta epitopes in the two forms of Guillain-Barré syndrome, acute motor axonal neuropathy and acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP): identification of DQ beta epitopes associated with susceptibility to and protection from AIDP.

    PubMed

    Magira, Eleni E; Papaioakim, Miltiadis; Nachamkin, Irving; Asbury, Arthur K; Li, Chun Y; Ho, Tony W; Griffin, John W; McKhann, Guy M; Monos, Dimitri S

    2003-03-15

    Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS), an acute, immune-mediated paralytic disorder affecting the peripheral nervous system, is the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis in the post-polio era. GBS is classified into several subtypes based on clinical and pathologic criteria, with acute inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (AIDP) and acute motor axonal neuropathy (AMAN) being the most common forms observed. To better understand the pathogenesis of GBS and host susceptibility to developing the disease, the distribution of HLA class II Ags along with the seroreactivity to Campylobacter jejuni were investigated in a population of GBS patients from northern China. Using DNA-based typing methods, 47 patients with AMAN, 25 patients with AIDP, and 97 healthy controls were studied for the distribution of class II alleles. We found that the DQ beta RLD(55-57)/ED(70-71) and DR beta E(9)V(11)H(13) epitopes were associated with susceptibility to AIDP (p = 0.009 and p = 0.004, respectively), and the DQ beta RPD(55-57) epitope was associated with protection (p = 0.05) from AIDP. These DQ beta/DR beta positional residues are a part of pockets 4 (DQ beta 70, 71, DR beta 13), 6 (DR beta 11), and 9 (DQ beta 56, 57, DR beta 9); have been demonstrated to be important in peptide binding and T cell recognition; and are associated with other diseases that have a pathoimmunological basis. Class II HLA associations were not identified with AMAN, suggesting a different immunological mechanism of disease induction in the two forms of GBS. These findings provide immunogenetic evidence for differentiating the two disease entities (AMAN and AIDP) and focuses our attention on particular DR beta/DQ beta residues that may be instrumental in understanding the pathophysiology of AIDP. PMID:12626563

  6. Chronic inflammatory systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Straub, Rainer H.; Schradin, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    It has been recognized that during chronic inflammatory systemic diseases (CIDs) maladaptations of the immune, nervous, endocrine and reproductive system occur. Maladaptation leads to disease sequelae in CIDs. The ultimate reason of disease sequelae in CIDs remained unclear because clinicians do not consider bodily energy trade-offs and evolutionary medicine. We review the evolution of physiological supersystems, fitness consequences of genes involved in CIDs during different life-history stages, environmental factors of CIDs, energy trade-offs during inflammatory episodes and the non-specificity of CIDs. Incorporating bodily energy regulation into evolutionary medicine builds a framework to better understand pathophysiology of CIDs by considering that genes and networks used are positively selected if they serve acute, highly energy-consuming inflammation. It is predicted that genes that protect energy stores are positively selected (as immune memory). This could explain why energy-demanding inflammatory episodes like infectious diseases must be terminated within 3–8 weeks to be adaptive, and otherwise become maladaptive. Considering energy regulation as an evolved adaptive trait explains why many known sequelae of different CIDs must be uniform. These are, e.g. sickness behavior/fatigue/depressive symptoms, sleep disturbance, anorexia, malnutrition, muscle wasting—cachexia, cachectic obesity, insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia, dyslipidemia, alterations of steroid hormone axes, disturbances of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis, hypertension, bone loss and hypercoagulability. Considering evolved energy trade-offs helps us to understand how an energy imbalance can lead to the disease sequelae of CIDs. In the future, clinicians must translate this knowledge into early diagnosis and symptomatic treatment in CIDs. PMID:26817483

  7. Anti-inflammatory Activity.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    Inflammation is the body's first response to infection or injury and is critical for both innate and adaptive immunity. It can be considered as part of the complex biological response of vascular tissues to harmful stimuli such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants. The search for natural compounds and phytoconstituents that are able to interfere with these mechanisms by preventing a prolonged inflammation could be useful for human health. Here, the anti-inflammatory properties of plant-based drugs are put together with both in vitro and acute (carrageenan, egg albumin and croton oil) and chronic (cotton pellet) in vivo models. PMID:26939273

  8. Klinefelter Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... have varying degrees of cognitive, social, behavioral, and learning difficulties. Adults with Klinefelter syndrome may also experience primary hypogonadism (decreased testosterone production), small testes, enlarged ...

  9. Proteus Syndrome Foundation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Gift Stock Gift Sunshine Society Contact Privacy Policy Proteus Syndrome Foundation The Proteus Syndrome Foundation , a 501c3 ... 1 Trial with ARQ 092 in Proteus Syndrome Proteus Syndrome Patient Registry The Proteus Syndrome Foundation Contact ...

  10. Neutrophilic dermatoses: pyoderma gangrenosum and Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed Central

    Lear, J. T.; Atherton, M. T.; Byrne, J. P.

    1997-01-01

    Pyoderma gangrenosum and Sweet's syndrome are classified as neutrophilic dermatoses as they exhibit intense dermal inflammatory infiltrates composed of neutrophils with little evidence of a primary vasculitis. They share several characteristics and respond to immunosuppressives. Aetiology is felt to represent a manifestation of altered immunologic reactivity. Patients with both conditions concurrently have been described. Diagnosis is based on clinical and histopathological findings. However, clinically the typical forms of the two conditions are quite distinct: pyoderma showing cutaneous ulceration with a purple undermined border and Sweet's syndrome having tender, erythematous, nonulcerated plaques and nodules. Approximately 50% of cases of pyoderma are associated with a specific systemic disorder. These include inflammatory bowel disease, rheumatoid arthritis, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and myeloproliferative disorders. Many associations with Sweet's syndrome have been described, including acute myeloid leukaemia, myeloma and adenocarcinomas, and haematological malignancy. There is overlap between the two conditions with lesions categorised as Sweet's syndrome being clinically more characteristic of atypical pyoderma and vice versa. We believe that pyoderma and Sweet's syndrome represent a continuum of spectrum of disease. The reason for the clinical differences between the conditions is unclear and merits further investigation but may be explained by varying levels of intensity and extent of the inflammatory process. This review will describe the pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, associations and treatment of the two conditions. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:9122099

  11. Inflammatory bowel disease in children and adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kelts, D G; Grand, R J

    1980-03-01

    Ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease are significant childhood illnesses. With their many extraintestinal manifestations, they may masquerade as fever of unknown etiology, arthritis, anorexia nervosa, growth hormone deficiency, collagen-vascular disease, idiopathic growth retardation and even irritable bowel syndrome of childhood. In any child who presents with growth failure and/or chronic abdominal pain with fever or weight loss, the diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease must be considered. As in any other chronic disease of childhood, long-term management will often challenge the physician emotionally and intellectually. As the etiology is yet unknown and a definitive cure is lacking, proper treatment depends on optimal medical and surgical management and supportive care. PMID:7379573

  12. [Cardiac complications in a metamizole-induced type I Kounis syndrome].

    PubMed

    Juste, Jose F Martínez; Garces, Tomas Ruiz; Enguita, Rafael Gonzalez; Blasco, Pedro Cia; Trallero, Jara Altemir

    2016-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is defined as the coincidental occurrence of allergic reaction and acute coronary syndrome secondary to vasospasm. Anti-inflammatory drugs are included as one of the multiple causes. Current data available about this syndrome come from case reports. We present the case of a patient who suffered Kounis syndrome with cardiogenic shock and asystole after intravenous infusion of Metamizole, and in which no lesions were observed in coronariography. PMID:25746341

  13. Cardiac complications in a metamizole-induced type I Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Juste, Jose F Martínez; Garces, Tomas Ruiz; Enguita, Rafael Gonzalez; Blasco, Pedro Cia; Trallero, Jara Altemir

    2016-01-01

    Kounis syndrome is defined as the coincidental occurrence of allergic reaction and acute coronary syndrome secondary to vasospasm. Anti-inflammatory drugs are included as one of the multiple causes. Current data available about this syndrome come from case reports. We present the case of a patient who suffered Kounis syndrome with cardiogenic shock and asystole after intravenous infusion of Metamizole, and in which no lesions were observed in coronariography. PMID:26952229

  14. Idiopathic Inflammatory Myopathies

    PubMed Central

    Barohn, Richard J.; Amato, Anthony

    2014-01-01

    The idiopathic inflammatory myopathies (IIM) consist of rare heterogenous autoimmune disorders that present with marked proximal and symmetric muscle weakness, except for distal and asymmetric weakness in inclusion body myositis (IBM). Besides frequent creatine kinase (CK) elevation, the electromyogram confirms the presence of an irritative myopathy. Extramuscular involvement affects a significant number of cases with interstitial lung disease (ILD), cutaneous in dermatomyositis (DM), systemic or joint manifestations and increased risk of malignancy especially in DM. Myositis specific autoantibodies influence phenotype of the IIM. Jo-1 antibodies are frequently associated with ILD and the newly described HMG-CoA reductase antibodies are characteristic of autoimmune necrotizing myopathy (NM). Muscle pathology ranges from inflammatory exudates of variable distribution, to intact muscle fiber invasion, necrosis, phagocytosis and in the case of IBM rimmed vacuoles and protein deposits. Despite many similarities, the IIM are a quite heterogeneous from the histopathological and pathogenetic standpoints in addition to some clinical and treatment-response difference. The field has witnessed significant advances in our understanding of pathophysiology and treatment of these rare disorders. In this review, we focus on DM, polymyositis (PM) and NM and examine current and promising therapies. The reader interested in more details on IBM is referred to the corresponding chapter in this issue. PMID:25037081

  15. The sterile inflammatory response

    PubMed Central

    Rock, Kenneth L.; Latz, Eicke; Ontiveros, Fernando; Kono, Hajime

    2015-01-01

    The acute inflammatory response is a double-edged sword. On the one hand it plays a key role in initial host defense particularly against many infections. On the other hand its aim is imprecise and as a consequence, when it is drawn into battle, it can cause collateral damage in tissues. In situations where the inciting stimulus is sterile, the cost-benefit ratio may be high; because of this, sterile inflammation underlies the pathogenesis of a number of diseases. While there have been major advances in our understanding of how microbes trigger inflammation, much less has been learned about this process in sterile situations. This review focuses on a subset of the many sterile stimuli that can induce inflammation – specifically dead cells and a variety of irritant particles, including crystals, minerals, and protein aggregates. Although this subset of stimuli is structurally very diverse and might appear to be unrelated, there is accumulating evidence that the innate immune system may recognize them in similar ways and stimulate the sterile inflammatory response via common pathways. Here we review established and emerging data about these responses. PMID:20307211

  16. Alagille Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... person's discomfort. Scientists have not yet found a way to prevent Alagille syndrome. Caregivers and parents of children with Alagille syndrome should try to maximize their children's potential for growth through good eating, diet, and nutrition. [ Top ] Clinical Trials The National ...

  17. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    If you have Tourette syndrome, you make unusual movements or sounds, called tics. You have little or no control over them. Common tics are ... words, spin, or, rarely, blurt out swear words. Tourette syndrome is a disorder of the nervous system. It ...

  18. Tourette Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Look, Kathy

    Tourette Syndrome has a history of being misdiagnosed or undiagnosed due to its unusual and complex symptoms. This paper describes: the symptoms of Tourette Syndrome; its etiology; age of onset; therapeutic methods, such as drug therapy, psychotherapy, diet control, and hypnosis; educational implications; and employment prospects. Several…

  19. Prostatitis Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Nickel, J. Curtis

    1991-01-01

    The many prostatitis syndromes remain a frustrating enigma to family physicians as well as specialists. An understanding of the etiology and pathophysiology of these syndromes and a rigorous diagnostic plan to properly classify the patients at first presentation are essential to a successful treatment outcome. ImagesFigure 1 PMID:21229071

  20. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... thin, and loose jointed. Most people with Marfan syndrome have heart and blood vessel problems, such as a weakness in the aorta or heart valves that leak. They may also have problems with ... diagnose Marfan syndrome. Your doctor may use your medical history, family ...

  1. Marfan Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Connective tissue helps support all parts of your body. It also helps control how your body grows and develops. Marfan syndrome most often affects ... A mutation, or change, in the gene that controls how the body makes fibrillin causes Marfan syndrome. Fibrillin is a ...

  2. Postthrombotic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the prevention and management of postthrombotic syndrome. Ann Pharmacother . 2009;43:1824–1835. Reproduced from Vazquez ... in the prevention and management of postthrombotic syndrome. Ann Pharmacother . 2009 ; 43 : 1824 –1835. OpenURL CrossRef Medline ↵ ...

  3. Subcutaneous immunoglobulin in treating inflammatory neuromuscular disorders

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Min-Suk; Gold, Ralf

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Intravenous immunoglobulin administration has long been used in the treatment of autoimmune neuromuscular disorders. Immunoglobulins may be administered by intramuscular, intravenous or subcutaneous routes. Methods: This is a report on the long-term clinical follow up of six patients with inflammatory neuromuscular disorders, that is, three chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), one multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), one inclusion body myositis (IBM) and one myasthenia gravis (MG), treated with subcutaneous immunoglobulins for a mean of 3.25 years. Results: One MMN and two CIDP patients received a weekly dose of subcutaneous immunoglobulins equivalent to intravenous immunoglobulin. One CIDP patient received a 50% dose reduction, the IBM patient received a 30% reduction and the MG patient a 20% reduction. The lower dose chosen in the majority of patients was based not only on clinical effects, but also on studies of primary immunodeficiency syndromes. One patient with CIDP showed clinical fluctuation, which was successfully treated with an adaptation of the dose of subcutaneous immunoglobulins, while the remaining patients with neuromuscular disorders had a stable clinical course for 2 years. No serious side effects were observed. Conclusions: Our results suggest that subcutaneous immunoglobulins can be an attractive alternative therapy in autoimmune neuromuscular disorders. PMID:26136842

  4. Inflammatory pathways in children with insufficient or disordered sleep.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jinkwan; Hakim, Fahed; Kheirandish-Gozal, Leila; Gozal, David

    2011-09-30

    Sleep is not only an essential physiological function, but also serves important roles in promoting growth, maturation, and overall health of children and adolescents. There is increasing interest regarding the impact of sleep and its disorders on the regulation of inflammatory processes and end-organ morbidities, particularly in the context of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and their complications. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) is an increasingly common health problem in children, and in the last decade, the emergence of increasing obesity rates has further led to remarkable increases in the prevalence of OSAS, along with more prominent neurocognitive, behavioral, cardiovascular and metabolic morbidities. Although the underlying mechanisms leading to OSAS-induced morbidities are likely multi-factorial, and remain to be fully elucidated, activation of inflammatory pathways by OSAS has emerged as an important pathophysiological component of the end-organ injury associated with this disorder. To this effect, it would appear that OSAS could be viewed as a chronic, low-grade inflammatory disorder. Furthermore, the concurrent presence of obesity and OSAS poses a theoretically increased risk of OSAS-related complications. In this review, we will critically review the current state of research regarding the impact of insufficient and disrupted sleep and OSAS on the immune processes and inflammatory pathways that underlie childhood OSAS as a distinctive systemic inflammatory condition in children, and will explore potential interactions between OSAS and obesity. PMID:21569868

  5. Stevens-Johnson syndrome associated with Mycoplasma pneumoniae infections.

    PubMed

    Sontheimer, R D; Garibaldi, R A; Krueger, G G

    1978-02-01

    The Stevens-Johnson syndrome is a multisystem inflammatory disorder associated with a widespread erythematous eruption that can result in death. Although usually considered a pediatric disease, this syndrome frequently affects adults. There are many etiologic associations including drugs and infections; however, the pathophysiology of the syndrome remains obscure. Treatment at present is symptomatic and supportive. Although frequently used, the beneficial role of corticosteroids in this syndrome remains to be proved. The case report describes a young woman who after treatment with several drugs developed the Stevens-Johnson syndrome in association with a Mycoplasma pneumoniae infection. We include a brief review of the literature with emphasis on the Stevens-Johnsons syndrome's association with M pneumoniae infections. Those caring for patients with skin disease should be aware of the association between such treatable infections and this syndrome. PMID:629550

  6. Current Proposed Mechanisms of Action of Intravenous Immunoglobulins in Inflammatory Neuropathies

    PubMed Central

    Jacob, Saiju; Rajabally, Yusuf A

    2009-01-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) have been shown in a number of trials, to be an effective treatment for the three main types of inflammatory neuropathies: Guillain-Barr Syndrome (GBS), chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP), and multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN). IVIg is thought to exert its immunomodulatory effects by affecting several components of the immune system including B-cells, T-cells, macrophages, complement, cytokines and cellular adhesion molecules. This article reviews the published evidence and the principal postulated mechanisms of action of intravenous immunoglobulins with special emphasis on inflammatory neuropathies. PMID:20514213

  7. Inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Van Rosendaal, G M

    1989-01-01

    An increasing number of options are available for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease; the selection depends on the extent and severity of the disease. Experience with sulfasalazine and corticosteroids has led to a proliferation of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) compounds and experimentation with alternative corticosteroid preparations. Given rectally 5-ASA is particularly effective in the treatment of distal ulcerative colitis, and experience is accumulating with several oral formulations. Metronidazole is useful in some cases, and immunosuppressive agents have a role in some patients with chronic refractory disease. A variety of measures, such as nutritional therapy, surgery and psychosocial support, are important elements of therapy. Further therapeutic innovations are expected as the etiology and pathogenesis are clarified. PMID:2568163

  8. Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Kaser, Arthur; Zeissig, Sebastian; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Insights into inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are advancing rapidly owing to immunologic investigations of a plethora of animal models of intestinal inflammation, ground-breaking advances in the interrogation of diseases that are inherited as complex genetic traits, and the development of culture-independent methods to define the composition of the intestinal microbiota. These advances are bringing a deeper understanding to the genetically determined interplay between the commensal microbiota, intestinal epithelial cells, and the immune system and the manner in which this interplay might be modified by relevant environmental factors in the pathogenesis of IBD. This review examines these interactions and, where possible, potential lessons from IBD-directed, biologic therapies that may allow for elucidation of pathways that are central to disease pathogenesis in humans. PMID:20192811

  9. Chronic inflammatory stress.

    PubMed

    Harbuz, M S

    1999-12-01

    A major mechanism involved in maintaining homeostasis in response to chronic inflammation is the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, resulting in the release of anti-inflammatory glucocorticoids from the adrenal cortex. An inadequate HPA axis response may result in the development of a pathology or an increase in susceptibility and/or severity of disease. Other neuroendocrine systems are also implicated. Increasingly considered important are circadian rhythms, not only of hormones, but also of components of the immune system. Recent evidence concerning changes in hypothalamic control of the HPA axis following development of disease, the implication of these for the response to stress and the use of the HPA axis as a predictor of susceptibility to disease will also be considered. Finally, the influence of stress on autoimmune disease will be discussed. This chapter will concentrate principally on rheumatoid arthritis, although other autoimmune diseases and animal models will be discussed. PMID:10903814

  10. Inflammatory pathways in spondyloarthritis.

    PubMed

    Hreggvidsdottir, Hulda S; Noordenbos, Troy; Baeten, Dominique L

    2014-01-01

    Spondyloarthritis is the second most common form of chronic inflammatory arthritis and a unique hallmark of the disease is pathologic new bone formation. Several cytokine pathways have been genetically associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS), the prototypic subtype of SpA, and additional evidence from human and animal studies support a role of these pathways in the disease. TNF has a key role in SpA as blockade significantly reduces inflammation and destruction, however the treatment does not halt new bone formation. New insights into the TNF pathway were recently obtained from an animal model specifically overexpressing the transmembrane form of TNF. This model leads to axial and peripheral new bone formation which is not seen in soluble TNF overexpression models, indicating different pathogenic roles of soluble and transmembrane TNF in arthritis development. Besides TNF, the IL-23/IL-17 axis is emerging as an important inflammatory pathway in SpA, as a SNP in the IL-23R locus has been associated with developing AS, mice overexpressing IL-23 develop SpA-like features and IL-17 blockade has been shown to be efficacious for AS patients in a phase II trial. In this review, we focus on the cytokine pathways that have recently been genetically associated with SpA, i.e. TNF, IL-1, IL-6 and IL-23/IL-17. We review the current genetic, experimental and human in vivo data available and discuss how these different pathways are involved in the pathophysiology of SpA. Additionally, we discuss how these pathways relate to the pathogenic new bone formation in SpA. PMID:23969080

  11. Autoantibodies in inflammatory arthritis.

    PubMed

    Conigliaro, P; Chimenti, M S; Triggianese, P; Sunzini, F; Novelli, L; Perricone, C; Perricone, R

    2016-07-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic chronic inflammatory disease characterized by extensive synovitis resulting in erosions of articular cartilage and marginal bone with joint destruction. The lack of immunological tolerance in RA represents the first step toward the development of autoimmunity. Susceptible individuals, under the influence of environmental factors, such as tobacco smoke, and silica exposure, develop autoimmune phenomena that result in the presence of autoantibodies. HLA and non-HLA haplotypes play a major role in determining the development of specific autoantibodies differentiating anti-citrullinated antibodies (ACPA)-positive and negative RA patients. Rheumatoid factor (RF) and ACPA are the serological markers for RA, and during the preclinical immunological phase, autoantibody titers increase with a progressive spread of ACPA antigens repertoire. The presence of ACPA represents an independent risk factor for developing RA in patients with undifferentiated arthritis or arthralgia. Moreover, anti-CarP antibodies have been identified in patients with RA as well as in individuals before the onset of clinical symptoms of RA. Several autoantibodies mainly targeting post-translational modified proteins have been investigated as possible biomarkers to improve the early diagnosis, prognosis and response to therapy in RA patients. Psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is distinguished from RA by infrequent positivity for RF and ACPA, together with other distinctive clinical features. Actually, specific autoantibodies have not been described. Recently, anti-CarP antibodies have been reported in sera from PsA patients with active disease. Further investigations on autoantibodies showing high specificity and sensibility as well as relevant correlation with disease severity, progression, and response to therapy are awaited in inflammatory arthritides. PMID:26970491

  12. Histiocytoid Sweet’s syndrome in a patient with myelodsyplastic syndrome: report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Shalaby, Michael M.; Riahi, Ryan R.; Rosen, Les B.; Soine, Erik J.

    2016-01-01

    The neutrophilic dermatoses are a group of disorders characterized by skin lesions for which histological examination reveals intense epidermal and/or dermal inflammatory infiltrates composed primarily of neutrophils without evidence of infection. The myelodysplastic syndromes consist of a heterogeneous group of malignant hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplastic and inadequate blood cell production with a variable risk of transformation to acute leukemia. Rarely, histiocytoid Sweet’s syndrome occurring in patients with myelodysplastic syndrome has been described. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with a history of myelodysplastic syndrome who developed histiocytoid Sweet’s syndrome. We also review the literature and characterize patients with myelodysplastic syndrome who have developed histiocytoid Sweet’s syndrome. PMID:26937301

  13. Alzheimer's Disease and Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Series Videos Webinar Series Health Care Associated Conditions ADHD & Down Syndrome Alzheimer's Disease & Down Syndrome Anesthesia & Down Syndrome Atlantoaxial Instability & Down Syndrome Blood Diseases & Down Syndrome Dental Issues & Down Syndrome Dual Diagnosis of Down Syndrome & Autism Ear, Nose & Throat Issues & ...

  14. Kounis syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ntuli, P M; Makambwa, E

    2015-10-01

    Kounis syndrome is characterised by a group of symptoms that manifest as unstable vasospastic or non-vasospastic angina secondary to a hypersensitivity reaction. It was first described by Kounis and Zavras in 1991 as the concurrence of an allergic response with an anaphylactoid or anaphylactic reaction and coronary artery spasm or even myocardial infarction. Since then, this condition has evolved to include a number of mast cell activation disorders associated with acute coronary syndrome. There are many triggering factors, including reactions to multiple medications, exposure to radiological contrast media, poison ivy, bee stings, shellfish and coronary stents. In addition to coronary arterial involvement, Kounis syndrome comprises other arterial systems with similar physiologies, such as mesenteric and cerebral circulation resulting in ischaemia/infarction of the vital organs. The incidence of this condition is difficult to establish owing to the number of potential instigating factors and its relatively infrequent documentation in the literature.We report the case of an HIV-negative 39-year-old man with no coronary risk factors or family history of premature coronary artery disease, who developed Kounis syndrome after the administration of fluoroquinolone for dysuria. However, to the best of our knowledge,no data on the incidence and prevalence of Kounis syndrome in South Africa have ever been reported in the literature. The recent understanding of Kounis syndrome has led to the condition being classified into three syndrome variants. PMID:26636160

  15. Hormonal control of inflammatory responses

    PubMed Central

    Farsky, Sandra P.

    1993-01-01

    Almost any stage of inflammatory and immunological responses is affected by hormone actions. This provides the basis for the suggestion that hormones act as modulators of the host reaction against trauma and infection. Specific hormone receptors are detected in the reactive structures in inflamed areas and binding of hormone molecules to such receptors results in the generation of signals that influence cell functions relevant for the development of inflammatory responses. Diversity of hormonal functions accounts for recognized pro- and anti-inflammatory effects exerted by these substances. Most hormone systems are capable of influencing inflammatory events. Insulin and glucocorticoids, however, exert direct regulatory effects at concentrations usually found in plasma. Insulin is endowed with facilitatory actions on vascular reactivity to inflammatory mediators and inflammatory cell functions. Increased concentrations of circulating glucocorticoids at the early stages of inflammation results in downregulation of inflammatory responses. Oestrogens markedly reduce the response to injury in a variety of experimental models. Glucagon and thyroid hormones exert indirect anti-inflammatory effects mediated by the activity of the adrenal cortex. Accordingly, inflammation is not only merely a local response, but a hormone-controlled process. PMID:18475521

  16. Vitamin D in inflammatory diseases

    PubMed Central

    Wöbke, Thea K.; Sorg, Bernd L.; Steinhilber, Dieter

    2014-01-01

    Changes in vitamin D serum levels have been associated with inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis (MS), atherosclerosis, or asthma. Genome- and transcriptome-wide studies indicate that vitamin D signaling modulates many inflammatory responses on several levels. This includes (i) the regulation of the expression of genes which generate pro-inflammatory mediators, such as cyclooxygenases or 5-lipoxygenase, (ii) the interference with transcription factors, such as NF-κB, which regulate the expression of inflammatory genes and (iii) the activation of signaling cascades, such as MAP kinases which mediate inflammatory responses. Vitamin D targets various tissues and cell types, a number of which belong to the immune system, such as monocytes/macrophages, dendritic cells (DCs) as well as B- and T cells, leading to individual responses of each cell type. One hallmark of these specific vitamin D effects is the cell-type specific regulation of genes involved in the regulation of inflammatory processes and the interplay between vitamin D signaling and other signaling cascades involved in inflammation. An important task in the near future will be the elucidation of the regulatory mechanisms that are involved in the regulation of inflammatory responses by vitamin D on the molecular level by the use of techniques such as chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), ChIP-seq, and FAIRE-seq. PMID:25071589

  17. Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Takashima, S

    1997-04-01

    Down syndrome, trisomy of chromosome 21, is well investigated because it is a genetic disease with characteristic mental retardation and precocious dementia of Alzheimer type. Maternal serum markers of human chorionic gonadotrophin unconjugated estriol and amyloid precursor protein, nuchal skinfold on ultrasound and new genetic probes are developed to allow better detection of Down syndrome. The overproduction of A beta 42 because of excessive genes is thought to be a leading factor for early onset of dementia in Down syndrome adults. Animal models and transgenic mice may be helpful in determining the specific gene and pathogenesis for mental retardation and precocious dementia. PMID:9146996

  18. LEOPARD Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Sudip Kumar; Majumdar, Biswajit; Rudra, Olympia; Chakraborty, Sougat

    2015-10-01

    LEOPARD syndrome (LS) is an autosomal dominantly inherited or sporadic disorder of variable penetrance and expressivity. The acronym LEOPARD stands for its cardinal clinical features including Lentigines, Electrocardiographic conduction abnormalities, Ocular hypertelorism, Pulmonary stenosis, Abnormalities of genitalia, Retardation of growth, and Deafness. We present herein a patient with LEOPARD syndrome and distinctive features. It was noteworthy that our patient presented with the concern of generalized lentiginosis and subsequent evaluation revealed that the patient had LEOPARD syndrome. In this report we would like to highlight the importance of detailed clinical examination and appropriate imaging in patients with multiple lentigines. PMID:26632807

  19. Hubris syndrome.

    PubMed

    Owen, David

    2008-08-01

    Hubris syndrome is associated with power, more likely to manifest itself the longer the person exercises power and the greater the power they exercise. A syndrome not to be applied to anyone with existing mental illness or brain damage. Usually symptoms abate when the person no longer exercises power. It is less likely to develop in people who retain a personal modesty, remain open to criticism, have a degree of cynicism or well developed sense of humour. Four heads of government in the last 100 years are singled out as having developed hubris syndrome: David Lloyd George, Margaret Thatcher, George W Bush and Tony Blair. PMID:18724614

  20. Myelodysplastic syndromes.

    PubMed Central

    Doll, D C; List, A F

    1989-01-01

    The myelodysplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of hematopoietic stem cell disorders characterized by dysplastic and ineffective hematopoiesis and a varying risk of transformation to acute leukemia. Although the natural history of these syndromes is variable, several factors appear to be of prognostic importance, including the French-American-British classification, the karyotype, in vitro colony formation, and others. The pathogenesis of the myelodysplastic syndrome is not known, but recent evidence suggests that alterations of cellular oncogenes may be a causative factor. There is no standard therapy for myelodysplasia, and thus novel approaches to patient management are warranted. PMID:2672599

  1. Lipid Bodies in Inflammatory Cells

    PubMed Central

    Melo, Rossana C. N.; D’Avila, Heloisa; Wan, Hsiao-Ching; Bozza, Patrícia T.; Dvorak, Ann M.; Weller, Peter F.

    2011-01-01

    Lipid bodies (LBs), also known as lipid droplets, have increasingly been recognized as functionally active organelles linked to diverse biological functions and human diseases. These organelles are actively formed in vivo within cells from the immune system, such as macrophages, neutrophils, and eosinophils, in response to different inflammatory conditions and are sites for synthesis and storage of inflammatory mediators. In this review, the authors discuss structural and functional aspects of LBs and current imaging techniques to visualize these organelles in cells engaged in inflammatory processes, including infectious diseases. The dynamic morphological aspects of LBs in leukocytes as inducible, newly formable organelles, elicitable in response to stimuli that lead to cellular activation, contribute to the evolving understanding of LBs as organelles that are critical regulators of different inflammatory diseases, key markers of leukocyte activation, and attractive targets for novel anti-inflammatory therapies. PMID:21430261

  2. [Anti-synthetase syndrome].

    PubMed

    Novak, Srdan

    2012-01-01

    Antysynthetase syndrome is considered as a group ofidiopathic inflammatory myositis with charcteristic serologic hallmark--antibodies which recognise the aminoacyl-tRNA synthetasses (ARS). Clinical picture of those patients contains myositis and/or intersticial lung disease (ILD) and/or arthritis and/or fever and/or Raynaud phenomenon and sometimes characteristic look of mechanic's hands. Myositis can be overt, sometimes even absent, while IBP is major cause of morbidity and determines the outcome of the disease. Untill now eight different any-synthetase autoantibodies are recognised, and most frequent are findings of anti-histidyl-tRNa synthetase antibodies. Patients with other ARS autoantibodies usually have severe ILD. Drug of choice are steroids in dosage of 1 mg/kg with immunosupresive agent (azatioprin or methotrexate) while in severe IBP cyclophosphamide is needed. Recently succsesful treatment with rituximab in combination with cyclophosphamide is reported. PMID:23745457

  3. Numb Chin Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan M; Hassan, Anhar; Robertson, Carrie E

    2015-09-01

    "Numb chin syndrome" (NCS) refers to new-onset numbness of the lower lip and chin within the distribution of the mental or inferior alveolar nerves. While this focal numbness may be downplayed or even overlooked by patients and clinicians, in the right clinical scenario this may be the presenting symptom of an underlying malignancy. In the absence of any obvious, temporally related dental cause, there are certain conditions that clinicians should consider including orofacial and systemic malignancies as well as several inflammatory disorders. Thorough diagnostic evaluation should always be performed when no clear cause is evident. This paper will discuss the differential, recommended evaluations, and the prognosis, for a patient presenting with NCS. PMID:26210355

  4. Attenuated Age-Impact on Systemic Inflammatory Markers in the Presence of a Metabolic Burden

    PubMed Central

    Anuurad, Erdembileg; Mirsoian, Annie; Enkhmaa, Byambaa; Zhang, Wei; Beckett, Laurel A.; Murphy, William J.; Berglund, Lars F.

    2015-01-01

    Background The overall burden of chronic disease, inflammation and cardiovascular risk increases with age. Whether the relationship between age and inflammation is impacted by presence of an adverse metabolic burden is not known. Methods We determined inflammatory markers in humans (336 Caucasians and 224 African Americans) and in mice, representing a spectrum of age, weight and metabolic burden. Results In humans, levels of inflammatory markers increased significantly with age in subjects without the metabolic syndrome, (P=0.009 and P=0.037 for C-reactive protein, P<0.001 and P=0.001 for fibrinogen, P<0.001 and P=0.005 for serum amyloid-A, for Caucasians and African Americans, respectively). In contrast, trend patterns of inflammatory markers did not change significantly with age in subjects with metabolic syndrome in either ethnic group, except for fibrinogen in Caucasians. A composite z-score for systemic inflammation increased significantly with age in subjects without metabolic syndrome (P=0.004 and P<0.006 for Caucasians and African Americans, respectively) but not in subjects with metabolic syndrome (P=0.009 for difference in age trend between metabolic syndrome and non-metabolic syndrome). In contrast, no similar age trend was found in vascular inflammation. The findings in humans were paralleled by results in mice as serum amyloid-A levels increased across age (range 2-15 months, P<0.01) and were higher in ob/ob mice compared to control mice (P<0.001). Conclusions Presence of a metabolic challenge in mice and humans influences levels of inflammatory markers over a wide age range. Our results underscore that already at a young age, presence of a metabolic burden enhances inflammation to a level that appears to be similar to that of decades older people without metabolic syndrome. PMID:25815855

  5. Maladaptive immune and inflammatory pathways lead to cardiovascular insulin resistance

    PubMed Central

    Aroor, Annayya R.; McKarns, Susan; DeMarco, Vincent G.; Guanghong, Jia; Sowers, James R.

    2013-01-01

    Insulin resistance is a hallmark of obesity, the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The progression of insulin resistance increases the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The significance of insulin resistance is underscored by the alarming rise in the prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities in the Unites States and worldwide over the last 40-50 years. The incidence of obesity is also on the rise in adolescents. Furthermore, premenopausal women have lower CVD risk compared to men, but this protection is lost in the setting of obesity and insulin resistance. Although systemic and cardiovascular insulin resistance are associated with impaired insulin metabolic signaling and cardiovascular dysfunction, the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance and cardiovascular dysfunction remain poorly understood. Recent studies show that insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes is linked to a metabolic inflammatory response, a state of systemic and tissue specific chronic low grade inflammation. Evidence is also emerging that there is polarization of macrophages and lymphocytes towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype that contribute to progression of insulin resistance in obesity, cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In this review, we provide new insights into factors, such as, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic activation and incretin modulators (e.g., DPP-4) and immune responses that mediate this inflammatory state in obesity and other conditions characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:23932846

  6. Maladaptive immune and inflammatory pathways lead to cardiovascular insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Aroor, Annayya R; McKarns, Susan; Demarco, Vincent G; Jia, Guanghong; Sowers, James R

    2013-11-01

    Insulin resistance is a hallmark of obesity, the cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). The progression of insulin resistance increases the risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). The significance of insulin resistance is underscored by the alarming rise in the prevalence of obesity and its associated comorbidities in the Unites States and worldwide over the last 40-50 years. The incidence of obesity is also on the rise in adolescents. Furthermore, premenopausal women have lower CVD risk compared to men, but this protection is lost in the setting of obesity and insulin resistance. Although systemic and cardiovascular insulin resistance is associated with impaired insulin metabolic signaling and cardiovascular dysfunction, the mechanisms underlying insulin resistance and cardiovascular dysfunction remain poorly understood. Recent studies show that insulin resistance in obesity and diabetes is linked to a metabolic inflammatory response, a state of systemic and tissue specific chronic low grade inflammation. Evidence is also emerging that there is polarization of macrophages and lymphocytes towards a pro-inflammatory phenotype that contributes to progression of insulin resistance in obesity, cardiorenal metabolic syndrome and diabetes. In this review, we provide new insights into factors, such as, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, sympathetic activation and incretin modulators (e.g., DPP-4) and immune responses that mediate this inflammatory state in obesity and other conditions characterized by insulin resistance. PMID:23932846

  7. Isaac's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... is typically caused by antibodies that bind to potassium channels on the motor nerve. Issacs' syndrome is only ... several neurological conditions that can be caused by potassium channel antibodies. Is there any treatment? Anticonvulsants, including phenytoin ...

  8. Cushing's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Common symptoms of Cushing's syndrome include upper body obesity, severe fatigue and muscle weakness, high blood pressure, backache, elevated blood sugar, easy bruising, and bluish-red stretch marks on ...

  9. Menkes syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menkes syndrome, cells in the body can absorb copper, but they are unable to release it. It ... makes it hard for the body to distribute copper in food from the intestines into the bloodstream ...

  10. [Heptopulmonary syndrome].

    PubMed

    Cuadrado, Antonio; Díaz, Ainhoa; Iruzubieta, Paula; Salcines, José Ramón; Crespo, Javier

    2015-01-01

    Hepatopulmonary syndrome is characterized by the presence of liver disease, pulmonary vascular dilatations, and arterial hypoxemia. It is usually associated with cirrhosis of any origin, but has been described in other liver diseases, both acute and chronic, and not always associated with portal hypertension. The gold standard method to detect pulmonary vascular dilations is contrast enhancement echocardiography with saline and is essential for the diagnosis of hepatopulmonary syndrome. These dilatations reflect changes in the pulmonary microvasculature (vasodilatation, intravascular monocyte accumulation, and angiogenesis) and induce a ventilation/perfusion mismatch, or even true intrapulmonary shunts, which eventually trigger hypoxemia. This syndrome worsens patients' prognosis and impairs their quality of life and may lead to the need for liver transplantation, which is the only effective and definitive treatment. In this article, we review the etiological, pathophysiological, clinical and therapeutic features of this syndrome. PMID:25840463

  11. Ohtahara Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... The course of Ohtahara syndrome is severely progressive. Seizures become more frequent, accompanied by delays in physical and cognitive development. Some children will die in infancy; others will survive but ...

  12. Morquio syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the disease. This is called an autosomal recessive trait. There are 2 forms of Morquio syndrome: Type A and Type B. People with Type A do not have a substance ( enzyme ) called galactosamine-6-sulfatase. People with Type ...

  13. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... occupational therapy (to help with issues such as language skills, hand-eye coordination and social skills) may be helpful for your child. As with any child, children who have Down syndrome need regular medical care. Because children with Down ...

  14. Levator Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Abscess Anorectal Fistula Foreign Objects in the Rectum Hemorrhoids Levator Syndrome Pilonidal Disease Proctitis Rectal Prolapse Levator ... out other painful rectal conditions (such as thrombosed hemorrhoids, fissures, or abscesses). The physical examination is often ...

  15. Compartment syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Gulgonen A, Ozer K. Compartment syndrome. In: Wolfe SE, Hotchkiss RN, Pederson WC, Kozin SH, eds. Green's Operative Hand Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Churchill Livingston; 2012:chap 57. Jobe ...

  16. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause of metabolic syndrome. The cause might be insulin resistance. Insulin is a hormone your body produces to help ... into energy for your body. If you are insulin resistant, too much sugar builds up in your ...

  17. Aase syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Aase-Smith syndrome; Hypoplastic anemia - triphalangeal thumbs, Aase-Smith type ... Jones KL, Jones MC, Del Campo M, eds. Smith's Recognizable Patterns of Human Malformation . 7th ed. Philadelphia, ...

  18. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... shouts unexpectedly or blinks his eyes hard. These tics are symptoms of Luke's Tourette syndrome. But to ... looks like he's in pain or needs help. Tics are sudden, repetitive movements or sounds that some ...

  19. Troyer Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Troyer syndrome is one of more than 40 genetically-distinct neurological disorders known collectively as the hereditary ... the NINDS or the NIH is appreciated. Last Modified January 3, 2012 National Institute of Neurological Disorders ...

  20. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... lifestyle is a lifelong commitment. Successfully controlling metabolic syndrome requires long-term effort and teamwork with your health care providers. Rate This ... US National Institutes of Health Department of Health and ...

  1. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... others, too. Checking for metabolic syndrome mostly involves stuff your doctor would be doing anyway, like taking ... lungs. It can be hard to take this stuff seriously when your thirties and forties seem like ...

  2. Rett Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... and enables the use of recently developed animal models such as transgenic mice which are deficient in ... about the September 2011 workshop on optimizing animal models in Rett syndrome preclinical research, visit http://www. ...

  3. Usher Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... expand treatment options. Scientists also are developing mouse models that have the same characteristics as the human types of Usher syndrome. Mouse models will make it easier to determine the function ...

  4. Beals Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... have many of the skeletal (bone) and aortic enlargement problems as people with Marfan syndrome, and treatments ... appearance to the top of the ear Aortic enlargement and/or mitral valve regurgitation (occasionally) People with ...

  5. Sotos Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Sotos Syndrome Information ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  6. Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Funding Information Research Programs Training & Career Awards Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS Tourette Syndrome Fact Sheet ... News From NINDS | Find People | Training | Research | Enhancing Diversity Careers@NINDS | FOIA | Accessibility Policy | Contact Us | Privacy ...

  7. HELLP syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... out of 1,000 pregnancies. In women with preeclampsia or eclampsia , the condition develops in 10 to ... have high blood pressure and are diagnosed with preeclampsia before they develop HELLP syndrome. In some cases, ...

  8. Hunter syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hunter syndrome is a disease in which long chains of sugar molecules (glycosaminoglycans, formerly called mucopolysaccharides ) are ... of the enzyme iduronate sulfatase. Without this enzyme, chains of sugar molecules build up in various body ...

  9. Paraneoplastic Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Stolinsky, David C.

    1980-01-01

    Neoplasms can produce a variety of remote effects on the host; these are referred to as paraneoplastic syndromes. The syndromes may affect any of the systems of the body, may precede or follow the diagnosis of the underlying neoplasm, and may or may not parallel the course of the neoplasm in severity. The diagnosis of and therapy for these syndromes can be challenging to a physician, but successful therapy may bring about worthwhile relief for the patient. In addition, the syndromes and the substances that cause them are sometimes useful in diagnosing and in following the course of certain neoplasms. Perhaps of greater importance, study of these remote effects of neoplasia may shed light on the nature of the neoplastic process itself. PMID:6990627

  10. Duane Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the eye muscles. In Duane syndrome, the sixth cranial nerve that controls the lateral rectus muscle (the muscle ... abnormal innervation of a branch from the third cranial nerve, which normally controls the medial rectus muscle (the ...

  11. Behcet's Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Behcet's syndrome is a disease that involves vasculitis, which is inflammation of the blood vessels. It causes problems in many parts of the body. The ... National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases

  12. Dravet Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... the development of effective drug therapies. NIH Patient Recruitment for Dravet Syndrome Clinical Trials At NIH Clinical Center Throughout the U.S. and Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Epilepsy Foundation 8301 Professional Place East, ...

  13. Renal systems biology of patients with systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Tsalik, Ephraim L.; Willig, Laurel K.; Rice, Brandon J.; van Velkinburgh, Jennifer C.; Mohney, Robert P.; McDunn, Jonathan; Dinwiddie, Darrell L.; Miller, Neil A.; Mayer, Eric; Glickman, Seth W.; Jaehne, Anja K.; Glew, Robert H.; Sopori, Mohan L.; Otero, Ronny M.; Harrod, Kevin S.; Cairns, Charles B.; Fowler, Vance G.; Rivers, Emanuel P.; Woods, Christopher W.; Kingsmore, Stephen F.; Langley, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    A systems biology approach was used to comprehensively examine the impact of renal disease and hemodialysis (HD) on patient response during critical illness. To achieve this we examined the metabolome, proteome, and transcriptome of 150 patients with critical illness, stratified by renal function. Quantification of plasma metabolites indicated greater change as renal function declined, with the greatest derangements in patients receiving chronic HD. Specifically, 6 uremic retention molecules, 17 other protein catabolites, 7 modified nucleosides, and 7 pentose phosphate sugars increased as renal function declined, consistent with decreased excretion or increased catabolism of amino acids and ribonucleotides. Similarly, the proteome showed increased levels of low-molecular weight proteins and acute phase reactants. The transcriptome revealed a broad-based decrease in mRNA levels among patients on HD. Systems integration revealed an unrecognized association between plasma RNASE1 and several RNA catabolites and modified nucleosides. Further, allantoin, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide, and n-acetylaspartate were inversely correlated with the majority of significantly down-regulated genes. Thus, renal function broadly affected the plasma metabolome, proteome, and peripheral blood transcriptome during critical illness; changes not effectively mitigated by hemodialysis. These studies allude to several novel mechanisms whereby renal dysfunction contributes to critical illness. PMID:25993322

  14. The anit-inflammatory protein tristetraprolin is phosphorylated at multiple sites by multiple protein kinases

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic mice without tristetraprolin (TTP) protein develop a profound inflammatory syndrome with erosive arthritis, autoimmunity, and myeloid hyperplasia. TTP is a hyperphosphorylated zinc finger protein that binds to AU-rich elements within certain mRNAs such as tumor necrosis factor mRNA and ca...

  15. Celiac disease and Turner's syndrome: patient report.

    PubMed

    Arslan, D; Kuyucu, T; Kendirci, M; Kurtoglu, S

    2000-01-01

    Turner's syndrome is a chromosomal disease frequently associated with autoimmune disorders including thyroid disease, inflammatory bowel disease, diabetes mellitus and juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. Recent reports have described an association of celiac disease with Turner's syndrome. We present an additional patient with Turner's syndrome associated with celiac disease. A girl aged 15- 7/12 yr was seen for the complaints of delayed growth and puberty, abdominal pain and chronic diarrhea. She was diagnosed as having celiac disease and a gluten-free diet was initiated. Despite one year of strict diet no signs of puberty were observed. She was then evaluated again for absence of puberty, and 45,XO karyotype Turner's syndrome was diagnosed. PMID:11154159

  16. [Fisher Syndrome and Bickerstaff Brainstem Encephalitis].

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Satoshi

    2015-11-01

    Fisher syndrome has been regarded as a peculiar inflammatory neuropathy with ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and areflexia, whereas Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis has been considered a pure central nervous system disease characterized by ophthalmoplegia, ataxia, and consciousness disturbance. Both disorders share common features including preceding infection, albumin-cytological dissociation, and association with Guillain-Barré syndrome. The discovery of anti-GQ1b IgG antibodies further supports the view that the two disorders represent a single disease spectrum. The lesions in Fisher syndrome and Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis are presumably determined by the expression of ganglioside GQ1b in the human peripheral and central nervous systems. Bickerstaff brainstem encephalitis is likely to represent a variant of Fisher syndrome with central nervous system involvement. PMID:26560952

  17. Inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Vatn, Morten H; Sandvik, Arne K

    2015-06-01

    Scandinavian researchers have contributed to the present understanding of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Important epidemiological data and family risk factors have been reported from all the Nordic countries, original twin studies mainly from Denmark and Sweden, and relationships to cancer and surgery mostly from Sweden. In collaboration with the industry, development of medical compounds was for a long time in the front line of international research, and the Scandinavian countries participated in the clinical breakthrough of biologic treatment. At present, many Nordic centers are working in the forefront of IBD research. An increasing number of young investigators have entered the scene along with the extended distribution of University clinics and research laboratories in these countries. This presentation of IBD gives a brief overview in the fields of clinical epidemiology and molecular biology. Many areas are covered by International collaborations with partners from Nordic centers. IBD was a topic focused by the founders of Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology. After 50 years one may state that the journal's history reflects important pieces of scientific knowledge within these diseases. The early scope of Johannes Myren for IBD was shown through his work in the original World Association of Gastroenterology (OMG), and after 50 years we can clearly support the view that global perspectives in IBD are increasingly important. PMID:25855003

  18. [Diogenes syndrome].

    PubMed

    Klosterkötter, J; Peters, U H

    1985-11-01

    Endogenous or physically conditioned psychoses are usually considered to be the underlying cause of signs of extreme self-neglect and social retreat if these occur suddenly in persons who had been socially successful up to that time. However, in recent years several independent researchers have found extreme sociocultural refusal attitudes even in patients not displaying any psychotic disturbances. This unexpected result led to a new syndrome concept which has since been accepted internationally under the designation "Diogenes syndrome". Hence, the Diogenes syndrome comprises shameless neglect of body and personal environment, associated with collectionism, social retreat and rejection of any well-meant help. It has been reported that this constellation of signs allegedly occurs with enhanced frequency in women over 60 years of age with self-isolation tendencies in their previous life history. The following article reviews the literature published so far on the Diogenes syndrome and presents two cases treated by the authors, as a suitable means to re-examine and to define the new syndrome concept more precisely. The following conclusions can be drawn from the cases already reported in the literature and the two cases newly presented here: The socioculturally complete rejection associated with the Diogenes syndrome is the final result of a personality-based abnormal emotional reaction development. Marked seclusion tendencies in the previous life history, as well as organic brain diseases, are relevant. Medical treatment can be successful mainly by means of behaviour therapy techniques. PMID:4077006

  19. Eicosanoids in Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Hardwick, James P.; Eckman, Katie; Lee, Yoon Kwang; Abdelmegeed, Mohamed A.; Esterle, Andrew; Chilian, William M.; Chiang, John Y.; Song, Byoung-Joon

    2013-01-01

    Chronic persistent inflammation plays a significant role in disease pathology of cancer, cardiovascular disease, and metabolic syndrome (MetS). MetS is a constellation of diseases that include obesity, diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, hypertriglyceridemia, and hypercholesterolemia. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is associated with many of the MetS diseases. These metabolic derangements trigger a persistent inflammatory cascade, which includes production of lipid autacoids (eicosanoids) that recruit immune cells to the site of injury and subsequent expression of cytokines and chemokines that amplify the inflammatory response. In acute inflammation, the transcellular synthesis of antiinflammatory eicosanoids resolve inflammation, while persistent activation of the autacoid-cytokine-chemokine cascade in metabolic disease leads to chronic inflammation and accompanying tissue pathology. Many drugs targeting the eicosanoid pathways have been shown to be effective in the treatment of MetS, suggesting a common linkage between inflammation, MetS and drug metabolism.The cross-talk between inflammation and MetS seems apparent because of the growing evidence linking immune cell activation and metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, dyslipidemia, and hypertriglyceridemia. Thus modulation of lipid metabolism through either dietary adjustment or selective drugs may become a new paradigm in the treatment of metabolic disorders. This review focuses on the mechanisms linking eicosanoid metabolism to persistent inflammation and altered lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in MetS. PMID:23433458

  20. Neonatal sepsis and inflammatory mediators.

    PubMed

    Machado, Juliana Reis; Soave, Danilo Figueiredo; da Silva, Marcos Vinícius; de Menezes, Liliana Borges; Etchebehere, Renata Margarida; Monteiro, Maria Luiza Gonçalves dos Reis; dos Reis, Marlene Antônia; Corrêa, Rosana Rosa Miranda; Celes, Mara Rúbia Nunes

    2014-01-01

    Neonatal sepsis is a major cause of morbidity and mortality and its signs and symptoms are nonspecific, which makes the diagnosis difficult. The routinely used laboratory tests are not effective methods of analysis, as they are extremely nonspecific and often cause inappropriate use of antibiotics. Sepsis is the result of an infection associated with a systemic inflammatory response with production and release of a wide range of inflammatory mediators. Cytokines are potent inflammatory mediators and their serum levels are increased during infections, so changes from other inflammatory effector molecules may occur. Although proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines have been identified as probable markers of neonatal infection, in order to characterize the inflammatory response during sepsis, it is necessary to analyze a panel of cytokines and not only the measurement of individual cytokines. Measurements of inflammatory mediators bring new options for diagnosing and following up neonatal sepsis, thus enabling early treatment and, as a result, increased neonatal survival. By taking into account the magnitude of neonatal sepsis, the aim of this review is to address the role of cytokines in the pathogenesis of neonatal sepsis and its value as a diagnostic criterion. PMID:25614712

  1. Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Klein, Amir; Eliakim, Rami

    2010-01-01

    Inflammatory Bowel Diseases (IBD) are an immune mediated chronic or relapsing disorders of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract. IBD is characterized by a chronic intestinal inflammatory process with various components contributing to the pathogenesis of the disease including environmental factors such as smoking or use of Non Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDS). NSAIDS are among the most commonly used medications for the treatment of various inflammatory conditions. The main factor limiting NSAIDS use is the concern for the development of gastrointestinal toxicity including mucosal injury. A possible association between the use of NSAIDS and the onset or relapse of IBD has been repeatedly suggested. This article will review the current concepts and evidence of the relationship between IBD and NSAIDS.

  2. Complex Regional Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Complex Regional Pain Syndrome Information Page Synonym(s): Reflex Sympathetic Dystrophy Syndrome, ... Additional resources from MedlinePlus What is Complex Regional Pain Syndrome? Complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is a ...

  3. What Is Usher Syndrome?

    MedlinePlus

    ... are here Home › Retinal Diseases Listen What is Usher Syndrome? What is Usher syndrome? How is Usher ... available? Are there any related diseases? What is Usher Syndrome? Usher syndrome is an inherited condition characterized ...

  4. Tics and Tourette Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Tics and Tourette Syndrome Overview What is Tourette syndrome? Tourette syndrome is a type of tic disorder. Children who have Tourette syndrome will repeat both movements and ...

  5. Learning about WAGR Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... children who have WAGR syndrome may have normal intelligence. Other symptoms of WAGR syndrome may also include: ... mild. Some individuals with WAGR syndrome have normal intelligence. Children with WAGR syndrome should be referred for ...

  6. Androgen insensitivity syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... at the tip Reifenstein syndrome (also known as Gilbert-Dreyfus syndrome or Lubs syndrome) Infertile male syndrome ... F, Leveno KJ, Bloom SL, et al., eds. Williams Obstetrics . 23rd ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, ...

  7. Somatostatin in inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J. H. P.

    1997-01-01

    Intestinal inflammation is controlled by various immunomodulating cells, interacting by molecular mediators. Neuropeptides, released by enteric nerve cells and neuroendocrine mucosa cells, are able to affect several aspects of the general and intestinal immune system, with both pro- as well as anti-inflammatory activities. In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) there is both morphological as well as experimental evidence for involvement of neuropeptides in the pathogenesis. Somatostatin is the main inhibitory peptide in inflammatory processes, and its possible role in IBD is discussed. PMID:18472863

  8. Microalbuminuria in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed Central

    Mahmud, N; Stinson, J; O'Connell, M A; Mantle, T J; Keeling, P W; Feely, J; Weir, D G; Kelleher, D

    1994-01-01

    Microalbuminuria independently predicts the development of nephropathy and increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality in diabetic patients, but it may be an indicator of the acute phase response. This study examined microalbuminuria as a marker of the acute phase response in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and correlated it with the disease activity in 95 patients with inflammatory bowel disease (ulcerative colitis (n = 52), Crohn's disease (n = 43)) determined by the simple index of Harvey and Bradshaw. Fifty patients were in complete clinical remission and 45 patients had active disease. Microalbuminuria was detected in all patients with inflammatory bowel disease (147 (17) v 18 (2) microgram/min, inflammatory bowel disease v controls mean (SEM), p < 0.007). Patients with active inflammatory bowel disease had higher concentrations of microalbuminuria compared with patients in remission (206 (19) v 65 (8) microgram/min, mean (SEM), p < 0.0001). Eight patients with active inflammatory bowel disease who were sequentially followed up with measurements of microalbuminuria had significantly lower values, when the disease was inactive (active inflammatory bowel disease 192 (44) v inactive inflammatory bowel disease 64 (14) microgram/min, p < 0.03). There was a significant correlation with the simple index of Harvey and Bradshaw (r = 0.818, p < 0.0001). Microalbuminuria values were significantly lower in inflammatory bowel disease patients in remission, maintained with olsalazine compared with those patients maintained with mesalazine and salazopyrine, but no significant difference was seen in values of microalbuminuria in active inflammatory bowel disease patients receiving different salicylates. This study also measured serum amyloid-A as an indicator of the acute phase response in the same patients. Serum amyloid-A was significantly increased in active disease compared with inactive disease (151 (43) v 33 (7) or controls 11 (2) micrograms/ml, p < 0.05). In conclusion microalbuminuria is present in abnormal amounts in all patients with active inflammatory bowel disease, and values fall when the disease is quiescent. Microalbuminuria is probably a consequence of an acute phase response and provides a simple, rapid, and inexpensive test, which has the potential to monitor inflammatory bowel disease activity and response to treatment. PMID:7828980

  9. Medial tibial stress syndrome.

    PubMed

    Reshef, Noam; Guelich, David R

    2012-04-01

    MTSS is a benign, though painful, condition, and a common problem in the running athlete. It is prevalent among military personnel, runners, and dancers, showing an incidence of 4% to 35%. Common names for this problem include shin splints, soleus syndrome, tibial stress syndrome, and periostitis. The exact cause of this condition is unknown. Previous theories included an inflammatory response of the periosteum or periosteal traction reaction. More recent evidence suggests a painful stress reaction of bone. The most proven risk factors are hyperpronation of the foot, female sex, and history of previous MTSS. Patient evaluation is based on meticulous history taking and physical examination. Even though the diagnosis remains clinical, imaging studies, such as plain radiographs and bone scans are usually sufficient, although MRI is useful in borderline cases to rule out more significant pathology. Conservative treatment is almost always successful and includes several options; though none has proven more superior to rest. Prevention programs do not seem to influence the rate of MTSS, though shock-absorbing insoles have reduced MTSS rates in military personnel, and ESWT has shortened the duration of symptoms. Surgery is rarely indicated but has shown some promising results in patients who have not responded to all conservative options. PMID:22341017

  10. Carpal tunnel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Carpal tunnel syndrome is a neuropathy caused by compression of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel. However, the severity of symptoms and signs does not often correlate well with the extent of nerve damage. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of drug treatments, non-drug treatments, surgical treatments, and postoperative treatments for carpal tunnel syndrome? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 53 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: acupuncture, carpal tunnel release surgery (open and endoscopic), diuretics, internal neurolysis, local and systemic corticosteroids, massage therapy, nerve and tendon gliding exercises, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), pyridoxine, therapeutic ultrasound, and wrist splints. PMID:21718565

  11. Behçet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hatemi, Gulen; Yazici, Yusuf; Yazici, Hasan

    2013-05-01

    Behçet's syndrome (BS) shows a peculiar distribution, with a much higher prevalence in countries along the ancient Silk Road compared with rest of the world. BS also seems to follow a more severe course in ethnic groups with higher prevalence. Diagnosis depends on clinical findings. Criteria sets may not help in patients with less frequent types of involvement. Management strategies should be modified according to the age and sex of the patient and the organs involved. Being a serious health problem in endemic areas, BS also attracts global attention as a model to study inflammatory diseases of unknown cause. PMID:23597962

  12. National Down Syndrome Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... ndss.org Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & Truths Preferred Language Guide Q&A for Kids Resources New & Expectant ... Follow us Down Syndrome What Is Down Syndrome? Down Syndrome Facts Myths & Truths Preferred Language Guide Q&A for Kids Resources New & Expectant ...

  13. Alport Syndrome Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Meet Jessi Patient to Patient - John Connect on Twitter Tweets by @AlportSyndFndn Alport Syndrome Diagnosis Early and ... Alport Syndrome YouTube Alport Syndrome LinkedIn Alport Syndrome Twitter Alport Syndrome Flickr Alport Syndrome Instagram Follow @twitterapi ...

  14. [Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in a patient with TAFRO syndrome].

    PubMed

    Edahiro, Yoko; Ichikawa, Kunimoto; Sunami, Yoshitaka; Koike, Michiaki; Komatsu, Norio

    2015-11-01

    TAFRO syndrome is a systemic inflammatory disorder characterized by low platelet counts, anasarca, fever, reticulin fibrosis, renal dysfunction, and organomegaly. Patients with TAFRO syndrome occasionally have courses complicated by immunological diseases. Herein, we describe a case of TAFRO syndrome associated with autoimmune hemolytic anemia (AIHA). The patient was admitted because of menorrhagia. She had thrombocytopenia, pleural effusion and ascites, hepatomegaly, and multiple lymphadenopathies. Her symptoms worsened, especially fever, pleural effusion and ascites, and she developed AIHA. Steroid pulse therapy followed by 45 mg of prednisolone (PSL) improved not only the symptoms of TAFRO syndrome but also those of AIHA. There have been no reports, to our knowledge, of AIHA associated with TAFRO syndrome, and detailed studies on this syndrome are needed. PMID:26666723

  15. Dengue infection associated hemophagocytic syndrome: Therapeutic interventions and outcome.

    PubMed

    Wan Jamaludin, Wan Fariza; Periyasamy, Petrick; Wan Mat, Wan Rahiza; Abdul Wahid, S Fadilah

    2015-08-01

    Infection associated hemophagocytic syndrome is increasingly recognized as a potentially fatal complication of dengue fever. It should be suspected with prolonged fever beyond seven days associated with hepatosplenomegaly, hyperferritinemia, worsening cytopenias and development of multiorgan dysfunction. Surge of similar pro-inflammatory cytokines observed in dengue associated hemophagocytic syndrome and multiorgan dysfunction may indicate they are part of related inflammatory spectrum. A proportion of patients recovered with supportive therapy, however most required interventions with corticosteroids, intravenous immunoglobulin or chemotherapy. We report three cases of dengue associated IAHS with good outcome following early recognition and treatment with dexamethasone and intravenous immunoglobulin. PMID:26209387

  16. Metabolism of vitamin A in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Janczewska, I; Bartnik, W; Butruk, E; Tomecki, R; Kazik, E; Ostrowski, J

    1991-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine serum retinol levels in patients with inflammatory bowel disease and to attempt to elucidate the mechanism of changes in vitamin A metabolism in these disorders. It was found that in 15 patients with active ulcerative colitis, 14 patients with active Crohn's disease and in 3 operated patients with recurrent Crohn's disease serum retinol levels and retinol-binding protein were significantly lower than in controls. Concentrations of vitamin A did not depend on the localization of inflammatory bowel disease, previous ileal resections, duration of the disease or age and sex of the patients. During successful treatment of active ulcerative colitis normalization of serum retinol levels without substitution of vitamin A was observed. Repeated determinations in patients with Crohn's disease who had low serum retinol levels in an active phase of disease revealed normal vitamin A levels in an inactive phase. The absorption of vitamins A and E in patients with inflammatory bowel disease was normal. The normal serum retinol concentrations in patients with diarrhea due to irritable bowel syndrome, and in those with anorexia nervosa exclude the influence of diarrhea and body weight itself on vitamin A levels. The results of this study indicate that serum retinol levels in patients with active inflammatory bowel disease are secondary to the decreased serum retinol-binding protein concentrations, and probably depend on the increased protein catabolism in these disorders. PMID:1765354

  17. Inflammatory bowel diseases: a dysfunction of brain-gut interactions?

    PubMed

    Bonaz, B

    2013-09-01

    The gut has the capacity to function as an autonomous organ. However, in normal conditions, the gut and the central nervous system talk to each other through the autonomic nervous system (ANS), represented by the sympathetic (i.e. the splanchnic nerves) and the parasympathetic nervous system (i.e. the vagus nerve and the sacral parasympathetic pelvic nerves). The brain is able to integrate inputs coming from the digestive tract inside a central autonomic network organized around the hypothalamus, limbic system and cerebral cortex and in return to modify the ANS and the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA axis). An abnormal functioning of these brain-gut interactions has been described in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) classically considered as a biopsychosocial model where stress plays a promoting role. Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) result from an inappropriate inflammatory response to intestinal microbes in a genetically susceptible host. In this article we review the current knowledge on the possible involvement of a dysfunction of brain-gut interactions in the pathogeny of IBD as represented by a dysfunction of the ANS, an abnormal HPA axis and cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway, a deleterious effect of stress and depression as well as an abnormal coupling of the prefrontal cortex-amygdala complex and an abnormal relation between the microbiota and the brain as pro-inflammatory factors. Therapeutic approaches with the aim to restore an equilibrium of these brain-gut interactions are of interest. PMID:23867945

  18. Develop Anti-Inflammatory Nanotherapies to Treat Cardiovascular Disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jun

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of disease-related death in the world, accounting for 30 % global mortality. The majority of CVD is caused by atherosclerosis, a chronic inflammatory disease of major arteries featured by the deposition of lipids and cholesterol. Inflammation of atherosclerosis is mainly promoted by the pathological macrophages and monocytes, and modulating their functions has been proposed as a promising therapeutic target. This dissertation first presents the development of a novel simvastatin-loaded high-density lipoprotein (HDL) based nanoparticle ([S]-rHDL), which was able to deliver anti-inflammatory simvastatin preferentially to inflammatory monocytes in the blood and to macrophages in advanced atherosclerotic plaques, leading to the reduced inflammation in the tissue. Second, extensive in vivo characterization of [S]-rHDL in a mouse atherosclerosis model revealed that the anti-inflammatory capability of [S]-rHDL derived from its effects on blood monocytes, endothelial layer, monocyte recruitment, and plaque macrophage function. Third, a translational study that integrated the use of [S]-rHDL into oral statin treatment demonstrated a great potential for this nanomedicine as an attractive addition to the current high-dose oral statin standard-of-care for acute coronary syndrome. Finally, preliminary results suggested potential applications of the rHDL platform to other macrophage-implicated diseases.

  19. Intrinsic self-DNA triggers inflammatory disease dependent on STING.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Jeonghyun; Ruiz, Phillip; Barber, Glen N

    2014-11-01

    Inflammatory diseases such as Aicardi-Goutières syndrome and severe systemic lupus erythematosus are generally lethal disorders that have been traced to defects in the exonuclease TREX1 (DNase III). Mice lacking TREX1 similarly die at an early age through comparable symptoms, including inflammatory myocarditis, through chronic activation of the stimulator of IFN genes (STING) pathway. In this study, we demonstrate that phagocytes rather than myocytes are predominantly responsible for causing inflammation, an outcome that could be alleviated following adoptive transfer of normal bone marrow into TREX1(-/-) mice. TREX1(-/-) macrophages did not exhibit significant augmented ability to produce proinflammatory cytokines compared with normal macrophages following exposure to STING-dependent activators, but rather appeared chronically stimulated by genomic DNA. These results shed molecular insight into inflammation and provide concepts for the design of new therapies. PMID:25261479

  20. Macrophage Polarization in Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yan-Cun; Zou, Xian-Biao; Chai, Yan-Fen; Yao, Yong-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Diversity and plasticity are two hallmarks of macrophages. M1 macrophages (classically activated macrophages) are pro-inflammatory and have a central role in host defense against infection, while M2 macrophages (alternatively activated macrophages) are associated with responses to anti-inflammatory reactions and tissue remodeling, and they represent two terminals of the full spectrum of macrophage activation. Transformation of different phenotypes of macrophages regulates the initiation, development, and cessation of inflammatory diseases. Here we reviewed the characters and functions of macrophage polarization in infection, atherosclerosis, obesity, tumor, asthma, and sepsis, and proposed that targeting macrophage polarization and skewing their phenotype to adapt to the microenvironment might hold great promise for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. PMID:24910531

  1. [Anticonvulsant Hypersensitivity Syndrome: A Case Report].

    PubMed

    Valderrama Escudero, Felipe; Montoya González, Laura Elisa

    2014-01-01

    DRESS syndrome (skin reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms) is an idiosyncratic drug reaction characterized by rash, fever, lymphadenopathy, and internal organ dysfunction. This case report is on a patient with bipolar affective disorder who presented with a systemic inflammatory response associated with the use of valproic acid, and an important activation of symptoms when used with other drugs with a different pharmacological action mechanism. The diagnosis of DRESS syndrome is primarily by exclusion, and its detection may be difficult, which could potentially become fatal for the patient. PMID:26574080

  2. Preexcitation Syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bhatia, Atul; Sra, Jasbir; Akhtar, Masood

    2016-03-01

    The classic electrocardiogram in Wolff-Parkinson-White (WPW) syndrome is characterized by a short PR interval and prolonged QRS duration in the presence of sinus rhythm with initial slurring. The clinical syndrome associated with above electrocardiogram finding and the history of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia is referred to as Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. Various eponyms describing accessory or anomalous conduction pathways in addition to the normal pathway are collectively referred to as preexcitation syndromes. The latter form and associated eponyms are frequently used in literature despite controversy and disagreements over their actual anatomical existence and electrophysiological significance. This communication highlights inherent deficiencies in the knowledge that has existed since the use of such eponyms began. With the advent of curative ablation, initially surgical, and then catheter based, the knowledge gaps have been mostly filled with better delineation of the anatomic and electrophysiological properties of anomalous atrioventricular pathways. It seems reasonable, therefore, to revisit the clinical and electrophysiologic role of preexcitation syndromes in current practice. PMID:26897561

  3. Allopurinol-induced Sweet's syndrome.

    PubMed

    Polimeni, G; Cardillo, R; Garaffo, E; Giardina, C; Macrì, R; Sirna, V; Guarneri, C; Arcoraci, V

    2016-06-01

    Sweet's syndrome, or acute febrile neutrophilic dermatosis, is an uncommon severe cutaneous condition, not previously associated with allopurinol therapy. We describe the case of an 87-year-old woman with hyperuricemia who developed classic Sweet's syndrome manifestations 8 days after being treated with allopurinol. Patient's symptoms included fever, painful edema in the hands and lower limbs with non-pruritic erythematous plaques topped by pus-filled skin blisters, right eye conjunctivitis, splenomegaly and joint pain. At the emergency department, blood tests showed neutrophilic leukocytosis, inflammatory state and altered liver function. During hospitalization, she received unsuccessful treatments with two different antibiotics (namely ceftriaxone and levofloxacin), while treatment with intravenous methylprednisolone produced a rapid clinical remission of symptoms, cutaneous lesion pain improvement, normalization of her body temperature and her blood values returned to normal. Use of the Naranjo adverse drug reaction probability scale indicated a probable relationship between the patient's development of Sweet's syndrome and allopurinol therapy. Because the signs and symptoms of Sweet's syndrome resemble an infectious process, the correct diagnosis may be delayed and inappropriate treatment regimen with antibiotics may often precede glucocorticoid therapy. PMID:26684631

  4. Relationship between lung function and metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei-Liang; Wang, Chung-Ching; Wu, Li-Wei; Kao, Tung-Wei; Chan, James Yi-Hsin; Chen, Ying-Jen; Yang, Ya-Hui; Chang, Yaw-Wen; Peng, Tao-Chun

    2014-01-01

    Although the link between impaired lung function and cardiovascular events and type 2 diabetes mellitus has been recognized, the association between impaired lung function and metabolic syndrome has not been comprehensively assessed in the United States (U.S.) population. The aim of our study was to explore the association between impaired lung function and metabolic syndrome in a nationally representative sample of men and women. This cross-sectional population-based study included 8602 participants aged 20-65 years in the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III). We examined the relationship between the different features of metabolic syndrome and lung function, including forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1). After adjusting for potential confounders such as age, body mass index, inflammatory factors, medical condition, and smoking status, participants with more components of metabolic syndrome had lower predicted values of FVC and FEV1 (p for trend <0.001 for both). Impaired pulmonary function was also associated with individual components of metabolic syndrome, such as abdominal obesity, high blood pressure, high triglycerides, and low high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol (p<0.05 for all parameters). These results from a nationally representative sample of US adults suggest that a greater number of features of metabolic syndrome is strongly associated with poorer FVC and FEV1. In clinical practice, more comprehensive management strategies to address subjects with metabolic syndrome and impaired lung function need to be developed and investigated. PMID:25299452

  5. Nutrition in inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Gassull, M A; Cabré, E

    2001-11-01

    Nutritional derangements are frequent in inflammatory bowel disease. In the past year significant work has been published examining the mechanisms of impaired food intake in animal models of inflammatory bowel disease, which allow a better understanding of these processes. Data from the same laboratory have shed further light on the relative role of underfeeding and inflammation on the growth retardation associated with intestinal inflammation. Other studies have provided further data on the risk factors and predictive biomarkers of bone loss in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. The potential role of enteral nutrition as primary therapy for Crohn's disease is particularly addressed in this review. Recent contributions to the field emphasized the special importance of this modality of therapy in paediatric patients. The possible mechanisms for such a therapeutic action are not well understood. Other nutrients may have a therapeutic potential in inflammatory bowel disease. In particular, recent data on the in-vivo anti-inflammatory actions of butyrate merit special mention. Finally, novel nutritional therapeutic strategies for inflammatory bowel disease, such as transforming growth factor-beta2-enriched enteral feeding, or hydrothermally processed cereals have recently been explored. PMID:11706295

  6. Do inflammatory pathways drive melanomagenesis?

    PubMed

    Schneider, Samantha L; Ross, Andrew L; Grichnik, James M

    2015-02-01

    Inflammatory pathways serve to protect the host and promote tissue healing/repair; however, over-activation or dysregulation can be pathological with unintended consequences including malignant progression. A correlation between inflammation and cancer has been well established, and anti-inflammatory medications have been shown to be chemopreventive in certain malignancies. Data are now becoming available that outline an inflammatory pathway that may have a critical role in melanomagenesis. ATP-regulated membrane channels/receptors P2X7 and PANX1 have been directly implicated in melanoma tumor growth. Among other potential effects, opening of the P2X7/PANX1 channel results in activation of the NALP3 inflammasome, which in turn leads to caspase-1 activation and increased levels of activated IL-1β. Elevated levels of caspase-1 and IL-1β have been correlated with melanoma progression, and inhibitors of the inflammasome, caspase and IL-1β activity have all been shown to inhibit melanoma growth. Among many other potential actions, IL-1β increases cyclooxygenase-2 expression leading to local increases in inflammatory mediators such as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Anti-inflammatory medications targeting the end of this pathway have had positive results for certain cancers but overall remain mixed for melanoma. A better understanding of the pathways and appropriate intervention points may help direct future therapies. In this viewpoint, we will review data and attempt to model an inflammatory pathway that may be critical for melanomagenesis and propose future directions for exploration. PMID:25041143

  7. Chronic Sepsis Mortality Characterized by an Individualized Inflammatory Response1

    PubMed Central

    Osuchowski, Marcin F.; Welch, Kathy; Yang, Huan; Siddiqui, Javed; Remick, Daniel G.

    2015-01-01

    Late mortality in septic patients often exceeds the lethality occurring in acute sepsis, yet the immunoinflammatory alterations preceding chronic sepsis mortality are not well defined. We studied plasma cytokine concentrations preceding late septic deaths (days 6–28) in a murine model of sepsis induced by polymicrobial peritonitis. The late prelethal inflammatory response varied from a virtually nonexistent response in three of 14 to a mixed response in eight of 14 mice to the concurrent presence of nearly all measured cytokines, both proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory in three of 14 mice. In responding mice a consistent prelethal surge of plasma MIP-2 (1.6 vs 0.12 ng/ml in survivors; mean values), MCP-1 (2.0 vs 1.3 ng/ml), soluble TNF receptor type I (2.5 vs 0.66 ng/ml), and the IL-1 receptor antagonist (74.5 vs 3.3 ng/ml) was present, although there were infrequent increases in IL-6 (1.9 vs 0.03 ng/ml) and IL-10 (0.12 vs 0.04 ng/ml). For high mobility group box 1, late mortality was signaled by its decrease in plasma levels (591 vs 864 ng/ml). These results demonstrate that impeding mortality in the chronic phase of sepsis may be accurately predicted by plasma biomarkers, providing a mechanistic basis for individualized therapy. The pattern of late prelethal responses suggest that the systemic inflammatory response syndrome to compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome transition paradigm fails to follow a simple linear pattern. PMID:17579084

  8. Emerging Evidence for Platelets as Immune and Inflammatory Effector Cells

    PubMed Central

    Rondina, Matthew T.; Garraud, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    While traditionally recognized for their roles in hemostatic pathways, emerging evidence demonstrates that platelets have previously unrecognized, dynamic roles that span the immune continuum. These newly recognized platelet functions, including the secretion of immune mediators, interactions with endothelial cells, monocytes, and neutrophils, toll-like receptor (TLR) mediated responses, and induction of neutrophil extracellular trap formation, bridge thrombotic and inflammatory pathways and contribute to host defense mechanisms against invading pathogens. In this focused review, we highlight several of these emerging aspects of platelet biology and their implications in clinical infectious syndromes. PMID:25566264

  9. Inflammatory and immunomodulatory mechanisms in the carotid body.

    PubMed

    Porzionato, Andrea; Macchi, Veronica; De Caro, Raffaele; Di Giulio, Camillo

    2013-06-01

    Evidence is available about the role of inflammatory/immunological factors in the physiology and plasticity of the carotid body, with potential clinical implications in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome and sudden infant death syndrome. In humans, lymphomonocytic aggregations (chronic carotid glomitis) have been reported in aging and opiate addiction. Glomus cells produce prostaglandin E2 and the cytokines interleukin 1β, interleukin 6 and TNF-α, with corresponding receptors. These factors modulate glomus cell excitability, catecholamine release and/or chemoreceptor discharge. The above cytokines are up-regulated in chronic sustained or intermittent hypoxia, and prevention of these changes, with ibuprofen or dexamethasone, may modulate hypoxia-induced changes in carotid body chemosensitivity. The main transcription factors considered to be involved are NF-kB and HIFs. Circulating immunogens (lipopolysaccharide) and cytokines may also affect peripheral arterial chemoreception, with the carotid body exerting an immunosensing function. PMID:23485800

  10. Acute respiratory distress syndrome: epidemiology and management approaches

    PubMed Central

    Walkey, Allan J; Summer, Ross; Ho, Vu; Alkana, Philip

    2012-01-01

    Acute lung injury and the more severe acute respiratory distress syndrome represent a spectrum of lung disease characterized by the sudden onset of inflammatory pulmonary edema secondary to myriad local or systemic insults. The present article provides a review of current evidence in the epidemiology and treatment of acute lung injury and acute respiratory distress syndrome, with a focus on significant knowledge gaps that may be addressed through epidemiologic methods. PMID:22866017

  11. Compartment syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mubarak, S. J.; Pedowitz, R. A.; Hargens, A. R.

    1989-01-01

    The compartment syndrome is defined as a condition in which high pressure within a closed fascial space (muscle compartment) reduces capillary blood perfusion below the level necessary for tissue viability'. This condition occurs in acute and chronic (exertional) forms, and may be secondary to a variety of causes. The end-result of an extended period of elevated intramuscular pressure may be the development of irreversible tissue injury and Volkmann's contracture. The goal of treatment of the compartment syndrome is the reduction of intracompartmental pressure thus facilitating reperfusion of ischaemic tissue and this goal may be achieved by decompressive fasciotomy. Controversy exists regarding the critical pressure-time thresholds for surgical decompression and the optimal diagnostic methods of measuring intracompartmental pressures. This paper will update and review some current knowledge regarding the pathophysiology, aetiology, diagnosis, and treatment of the acute compartment syndrome.

  12. [Kallmann syndrome].

    PubMed

    Mokosch, A; Bernecker, C; Willenberg, H S; Neumann, N J

    2011-10-01

    The Kallmann syndrome is a very rare congenital association of gonadotropin-releasing hormone deficiency and hyposmia or anosmia. Clinically it is characterized by low serum concentrations of testosterone and inadequate low levels of luteinizing hormone and follicle-stimulating hormone as well as incomplete sexual maturation, lack of secondary sexual features (facial and body hair growth, deepening of the voice), micropenis and sometimes even cryptorchidism. The reduced or absent sense of smell is typical for the Kallmann syndrome and distinguishes this syndrome from other causes of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. Additional findings may include synkinesia, hearing loss, unilateral renal aplasia, brachy- or syndactyly, agenesis of corpus callosum, cleft palate and dental agenesis. A 19-year-old man presented to our male infertility clinic with delayed sexual maturation, eunuchoid habitus, micropenis, cryptorchidism, erectile dysfunction and absence of ejaculation, anemia and osteoporosis as well as low serum concentrations of luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone and testosterone in combination with hyposmia. PMID:21918848

  13. Flammer syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The new term Flammer syndrome describes a phenotype characterized by the presence of primary vascular dysregulation together with a cluster of symptoms and signs that may occur in healthy people as well as people with disease. Typically, the blood vessels of the subjects with Flammer syndrome react differently to a number of stimuli, such as cold and physical or emotional stress. Nearly all organs, particularly the eye, can be involved. Although the syndrome has some advantages, such as protection against the development of atherosclerosis, Flammer syndrome also contributes to certain diseases, such as normal tension glaucoma. The syndrome occurs more often in women than in men, in slender people than in obese subjects, in people with indoor rather than outdoor jobs, and in academics than in blue collar workers. Affected subjects tend to have cold extremities, low blood pressure, prolonged sleep onset time, shifted circadian rhythm, reduced feeling of thirst, altered drug sensitivity, and increased general sensitivity, including pain sensitivity. The plasma level of endothelin-1 is slightly increased, and the gene expression in lymphocytes is changed. In the eye, the retinal vessels are stiffer and their spatial variability larger; the autoregulation of ocular blood flow is decreased. Glaucoma patients with Flammer syndrome have an increased frequency of the following: optic disc hemorrhages, activated retinal astrocytes, elevated retinal venous pressure, optic nerve compartmentalization, fluctuating diffuse visual field defects, and elevated oxidative stress. Further research should lead to a more concise definition, a precise diagnosis, and tools for recognizing people at risk. This may ultimately lead to more efficient and more personalized treatment. PMID:25075228

  14. Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Nivean, M; Utkarsha, P

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Pseudoexfoliation (PXF) syndrome is a well-recognized clinical entity of considerable clinical significance. It is associated with poor mydriasis, cataracts with weak zonular support, secondary glaucoma and possibly with biochemical abnormalities, such as elevated homocysteine and systemic diseases involving the cardiovascular and central nervous system. There have also been some recent studies identifying mutations in genes which are associated with PXF. How to cite this article: Ariga M, Nivean M, Utkarsha P. Pseudoexfoliation Syndrome. J Current Glau Prac 2013;7(3): 118-120.

  15. Eagle syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Pedro Costa; Mendanha, Mário; Frada, Tiago; Carvalho, Jorge; Silva, Alvaro; Amarante, José

    2014-01-01

    Eagle syndrome, also known as elongated styloid process, is a condition first described by Watt Eagle in 1937. It occurs when an elongated styloid process or calcified stylohyoid ligament causes recurrent throat pain or foreign body sensation, dysphagia, or facial pain. Additional symptoms may include neck or throat pain with radiation to the ipsilateral ear. It is usually hard to diagnose because the symptoms related to this condition can be confused with those attributed to a wide variety of facial neuralgias. In this article, a case of Eagle syndrome exhibiting unilateral symptoms with bilateral elongation of styloid process is reported. PMID:24406612

  16. Occipital Condyle Syndrome in a Young Male: A Rare Presentation of Cranio-Vertebral Tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Yogesh, Patidar; Vinod, Puri; A, Khwaja Geeta

    2014-01-01

    Occipital condyle syndrome (OCS) is a rare syndrome characterized by severe, unilateral, occipital headache and ipsilateral 12th nerve palsy. Tumors are a common cause of OCS. Inflammatory lesions causing OCS is however rare. We describe a young male with OCS as the only manifestation of cranio-vertebral tuberculosis. PMID:25664279

  17. A Rare Case of Azathioprine-Induced Sweet's Syndrome in a Patient with Crohn's Disease.

    PubMed

    Ben Salem, Chaker; Salem, Chaker B; Larif, Sofiene; Fathallah, Neila; Slim, Raoudha; Aounallah, Amina; Sakhri, Jaballah; Hmouda, Houssem

    2015-01-01

    Sweet's syndrome has been reported in association with inflammatory diseases such as Crohn's disease. It has also been reported in association with several drugs. Here, we report a rare case of Sweet's syndrome induced by azathioprine in a patient with Crohn's disease. PMID:26219289

  18. Antisynthetase Syndrome: A Rare Cause for ILD

    PubMed Central

    Pasha, MD Majeed; Padmaja, Mantha Sathya; Halappa, Sujith

    2016-01-01

    Anti-Synthetase Syndrome (ASS) is a rare autoimmune disorder characterized by Interstitial Lung Disease (ILD), inflammatory myositis, fever, Raynaud’s phenomenon, mechanic’s hand, and inflammatory polyarthritis in the setting of antibodies against amino acyl-transfer RNA synthetases, with anti-Jo-1 antibody being the most common. It can sometimes present as interstitial lung disease without any other expression of the syndrome. Clinical and radiological features can be similar to atypical pneumonia and could be a challenge to diagnose at an early stage. Prognosis is generally poor, especially when there is associated ILD and delay in diagnosis can lead to increase in morbidity due to progression of pulmonary involvement. We report a patient of ASS presenting with ILD, diagnosed early and treated successfully with immunosupression. PMID:27134916

  19. Hemophagocytic syndrome: a dilemma chasing the intensivists

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Adriana Façanha; Fernandes, Iracema de Cassia Oliveira Ferreira; Goes, Patricia de Freitas; Bousso, Albert; Ferreira, Cristiane Rubia

    2015-01-01

    Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis or hemophagocytic syndrome is represented by an uncontrolled inflammatory response characterized by marked histiocyte activation and a cytokine storm. The entity may present a primary or genetic type, and the secondary type is usually triggered by infectious diseases of any kind, autoimmune disease, or neoplasia. This entity, although well described and with definite diagnostic criteria, still remains misdiagnosed because of the overlap presentation with other inflammatory processes. The authors present the case of a 13-year-old girl who was submitted to an appendicectomy complicated with a pericolic abscess, which required a second operation in order to be drained surgically. During the postoperative period of this second surgical procedure, the patient remained febrile, developing cytopenias, and multiple organ failure. Unfortunately, she died despite the efforts of the intensive care staff. The autopsy findings were characteristic of hemophagocytic syndrome. The authors report the case to call attention to this diagnosis whenever unexpected outcomes of infections are experienced. PMID:26484319

  20. Glucocorticoid pharmacogenetics in pediatric idiopathic nephrotic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Cuzzoni, Eva; De Iudicibus, Sara; Franca, Raffaella; Stocco, Gabriele; Lucafò, Marianna; Pelin, Marco; Favretto, Diego; Pasini, Andrea; Montini, Giovanni; Decorti, Giuliana

    2015-01-01

    Idiopathic nephrotic syndrome represents the most common type of primary glomerular disease in children: glucocorticoids (GCs) are the first-line therapy, even if considerable interindividual differences in their efficacy and side effects have been reported. Immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory effects of these drugs are mainly due to the GC-mediated transcription regulation of pro- and anti-inflammatory genes. This mechanism of action is the result of a complex multistep pathway that involves the glucocorticoid receptor and several other proteins, encoded by polymorphic genes. Aim of this review is to highlight the current knowledge on genetic variants that could affect GC response, particularly focusing on children with idiopathic nephrotic syndrome. PMID:26419298

  1. [Effects of thymalin on blood coagulation and contents of proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines in patients with burns].

    PubMed

    Kuznik, B I; Vitkovskiĭ, Iu A; Budazhabon, G B; Sizonenko, V A

    2000-01-01

    The authors share their experiences with treatment of 32 patients with burns of the III-IV degrees using an immunomodulator Thymalin which promoted liquidation of the syndrome of disseminated intravascular coagulation, normalization of fibrinolysis, influenced the content of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokins. It allowed to shorten the terms of the first autodermoplasty at an average by 5 days and to make staying of burned patients at the hospital 11 days shorter. PMID:11188814

  2. Familial hepatopulmonary syndrome in common variable immunodeficiency.

    PubMed

    Holmes, S N; Condliffe, A; Griffiths, W; Baxendale, H; Kumararatne, D S

    2015-04-01

    Common Variable Immunodeficiency (CVID) comprises a heterogeneous group of primary antibody deficiencies which lead to a range of complications, including infectious, neoplastic and inflammatory disorders. This report describes monozygotic twin brothers with CVID who developed cryptogenic liver disease and subsequently hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). This is the second report of the association of HPS and CVID. Its occurrence in two identical twins implicates a genetic basis. PMID:25708586

  3. Theories of schizophrenia: a genetic-inflammatory-vascular synthesis

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Daniel R; Gottesman, Irving I

    2005-01-01

    Background Schizophrenia, a relatively common psychiatric syndrome, affects virtually all brain functions yet has eluded explanation for more than 100 years. Whether by developmental and/or degenerative processes, abnormalities of neurons and their synaptic connections have been the recent focus of attention. However, our inability to fathom the pathophysiology of schizophrenia forces us to challenge our theoretical models and beliefs. A search for a more satisfying model to explain aspects of schizophrenia uncovers clues pointing to genetically mediated CNS microvascular inflammatory disease. Discussion A vascular component to a theory of schizophrenia posits that the physiologic abnormalities leading to illness involve disruption of the exquisitely precise regulation of the delivery of energy and oxygen required for normal brain function. The theory further proposes that abnormalities of CNS metabolism arise because genetically modulated inflammatory reactions damage the microvascular system of the brain in reaction to environmental agents, including infections, hypoxia, and physical trauma. Damage may accumulate with repeated exposure to triggering agents resulting in exacerbation and deterioration, or healing with their removal. There are clear examples of genetic polymorphisms in inflammatory regulators leading to exaggerated inflammatory responses. There is also ample evidence that inflammatory vascular disease of the brain can lead to psychosis, often waxing and waning, and exhibiting a fluctuating course, as seen in schizophrenia. Disturbances of CNS blood flow have repeatedly been observed in people with schizophrenia using old and new technologies. To account for the myriad of behavioral and other curious findings in schizophrenia such as minor physical anomalies, or reported decreased rates of rheumatoid arthritis and highly visible nail fold capillaries, we would have to evoke a process that is systemic such as the vascular and immune/inflammatory systems. Summary A vascular-inflammatory theory of schizophrenia brings together environmental and genetic factors in a way that can explain the diversity of symptoms and outcomes observed. If these ideas are confirmed, they would lead in new directions for treatments or preventions by avoiding inducers of inflammation or by way of inflammatory modulating agents, thus preventing exaggerated inflammation and consequent triggering of a psychotic episode in genetically predisposed persons. PMID:15707482

  4. Aicardi Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Aicardi Syndrome Foundation P.O. Box 3202 St. Charles, IL 60174 web@aicardisyndrome.org http://www.aicardisyndrome.org Tel: 800-374-8518 The Arc of the United States 1825 K Street, NW ...

  5. Joubert Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Worldwide NINDS Clinical Trials Organizations Column1 Column2 Joubert Syndrome Foundation & Related Cerebellar Disorders 1415 West Avenue Cincinnati, OH 45215 info@jsfrcd.org http://www.jsfrcd.org Tel: 614-864-1362 The Arc of the United States 1825 K Street, NW ...

  6. Angelman Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... 800-432-6435 Fax: 630-978-7408 The Arc of the United States 1825 K Street, NW Suite 1200 Washington, DC 20006 Info@thearc.org http://www.thearc.org Tel: 202-534-3700; 800-433-5255 Fax: 202-534-3731 Prader-Willi Syndrome Association 8588 Potter Park Drive Suite 500 Sarasota, ...

  7. Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.

  8. Alport Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... older the risk of kidney failure increases. All boys and girls with the autosomal recessive type of Alport Syndrome ... with this disease have the X-linked type. Boys with this type are severely ... in their lives. Girls with this type usually have milder symptoms than ...

  9. Rett Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culbert, Linda A.

    This pamphlet reviews the historical process involved in initially recognizing Rett Syndrome as a specific disorder in girls. Its etiology is unknown, but studies have considered factors as hyperammonemia, a two-step mutation, a fragile X chromosome, metabolic disorder, environmental causation, dopamine deficiency, and an inactive X chromosome.…

  10. Down Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... be cured. Early treatment programs can help improve skills. They may include speech, physical, occupational, and/or educational therapy. With support and treatment, many people with Down syndrome live happy, productive lives. NIH: National Institute of Child Health and Human Development

  11. Metabolic Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Web version Metabolic Syndrome Overview What is insulin resistance? Your body changes most of the food you eat into glucose (a form of sugar). Insulin is a hormone produced by the pancreas that allows ... as insulin resistance. If you have insulin resistance, your body will ...

  12. Cronkhite- Canada syndrome; a case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Mohammad Taghi; Shahrokh, Shabnam; Ebadi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Cronkhite- Canada syndrome (CCS) considered as a rare and non-hereditary disorder. Gastrointestinal polyposis and diarrhea along with some extra signs and symptoms such as hypoproteinemia, and epidermal manifestations are recognized in this syndrome. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not completely understood and it seems that inflammatory processes may be involved. We present a 50 year-old man with hamartomatous polyps throughout the colon and long-lasting diarrhea not responding to typical therapies during three years. PMID:26744616

  13. Inflammatory myopathies: evaluation and management.

    PubMed

    Greenberg, Steven A

    2008-04-01

    The inflammatory myopathies, including dermatomyositis, inclusion body myositis, and polymyositis, are poorly understood autoimmune diseases affecting skeletal muscle. Dermatomyositis is a disease mainly of skin and muscle, but may affect lung and other tissues. Proximal or generalized weakness or skin rash are the typical presenting features. Inclusion body myositis has a specific clinical pattern of weakness that generally distinguishes it from other inflammatory myopathies, with prominent involvement of wrist and finger flexors, and quadriceps. Polymyositis generally presents with proximal or generalized weakness. Typical dermatomyositis muscle pathology is quite distinct, with perivascular inflammatory cells that include plasmacytoid dendritic cells, and abnormal capillaries and perimysial perifascicular myofibers. Both inclusion body myositis and polymyositis usually have infiltration into muscle of large numbers of inflammatory cells, typically surrounding and displacing, and sometimes invading, myofibers. Inclusion body myositis is refractory to corticosteroids and to several immunomodulating therapies that have been used. Dermatomyositis and polymyositis are treated with corticosteroids and a variety of agents. Osteoporosis and opportunistic infections pose a significant risk during treatment of patients. This review discusses the clinical manifestations, pathology, and treatment approaches for the inflammatory myopathies. PMID:18351525

  14. Systemic Inflammatory Response during Laparotomy

    PubMed Central

    Mahamid, Ahmad; Jabarin, Basel; Almogy, Gidon

    2014-01-01

    Background. The aim of this study was to analyze the influence of laparotomy on the systemic inflammatory response in human patients suffering from secondary peritonitis. Study Design. A prospective study investigating the levels of white blood cells, C-reactive protein, platelets, interleukin-six, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha during laparotomy in five patients who suffered from secondary peritonitis. Six venous blood samples were collected perioperatively from each patient. The data were summarized by descriptive statistics and presented in a box plot. The hypothesis was that laparotomy increases the systemic inflammatory response, as has been described in animal models in previous studies. Results. The median age of the patients in this study was 84 years, the male to female ratio was 2 : 3, and the mortality rate was 80%. The most common cause of generalized peritonitis was ischemia of the colon. Analysis of the data showed no significant changes in the level of plasma inflammatory mediators during the surgical procedure, except for the platelet count which showed a significant decrease (P = 0.001). Conclusions. In contrast to experience with animal models, laparotomy in human patients with secondary peritonitis did not significantly increase the systemic inflammatory response. Furthermore, it contributed in significantly decreasing some of the systemic inflammatory mediators. PMID:25161799

  15. [POEMS syndrome].

    PubMed

    Masson, C; Krespi, Y

    1994-04-01

    POEMS syndrome has been defined as an association of plasma cell dyscrasia with polyneuropathy, organomegaly, endocrinopathy, M protein and skin changes. Although certain authors do not distinguish this syndrome from osteosclerosing myeloma, syndromes comparable to POEMS have been observed without bone lesions. Others have described the clinical features involved under the terms of Crow-Fukase's syndrome, PEP syndrome (pigmentation, oedema, plasma cell dyscrasia, or Takatsuki's syndrome. Seen in men twice as often as in women, usually between the ages of 40-50 years, all five clinical features are not always present or may be accompanied by other signs. The first sign of the peripheral polyneuropathy is usually sensorial impairment followed by distal then proximal motor deficit. The deficit is usually severe and 50% of the patients become unable to walk. Cranial nerves are rarely involved. Liver, spleen and lymph node enlargement are observed. The most frequent signs of an endocrinopathy are gynaecomastia, atrophy of the testicules, impotence and amenorrhoea. Testosterone levels are low and oestrogen levels are increased in men together with luteinizing hormone, follicle stimulating hormone and prolactin. Hypothyroidism is frequent and diabetes mellitus is observed in 50% of the patients. Protein M is a monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgG or IgA), almost always with a light lambda chain. Skin changes include hyperpigmentation, hypertrichosis, hyperhidrosis, thickening of the skin suggestive of sclerodermia and papillary angiomas. Other signs, especially peripheral oedema often occur early in the disease course and may precede the peripheral neuropathy. POEMS syndrome is often associated with a myeloma (up to 50% of the cases in certain series). Although immunoglobulin deposit on myelin sheaths, anti-endocrine antibodies and receptors of lambda chains have been proposed as playing a role, no mechanism of pathogenesis has been determined. The natural history of the disease leads to a severe polyneuropathy. The patients become totally bedridden and death results from complications of decubitus rather from the direct effect of the underlying dyscrasia. When bone lesions are minor, radiotherapy or surgery can improve the neuropathy and resection of a solitary plasmocytoma can lead to total remission. Chemotherapy or corticosteroids may improve the polyneuropathy in certain cases. Plasma exchange has not been successful. PMID:8072960

  16. Sotos syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Baujat, Geneviève; Cormier-Daire, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Sotos syndrome is an overgrowth condition characterized by cardinal features including excessive growth during childhood, macrocephaly, distinctive facial gestalt and various degrees of learning difficulty, and associated with variable minor features. The exact prevalence remains unknown but hundreds of cases have been reported. The diagnosis is usually suspected after birth because of excessive height and occipitofrontal circumference (OFC), advanced bone age, neonatal complications including hypotonia and feeding difficulties, and facial gestalt. Other inconstant clinical abnormalities include scoliosis, cardiac and genitourinary anomalies, seizures and brisk deep tendon reflexes. Variable delays in cognitive and motor development are also observed. The syndrome may also be associated with an increased risk of tumors. Mutations and deletions of the NSD1 gene (located at chromosome 5q35 and coding for a histone methyltransferase implicated in transcriptional regulation) are responsible for more than 75% of cases. FISH analysis, MLPA or multiplex quantitative PCR allow the detection of total/partial NSD1 deletions, and direct sequencing allows detection of NSD1 mutations. The large majority of NSD1 abnormalities occur de novo and there are very few familial cases. Although most cases are sporadic, several reports of autosomal dominant inheritance have been described. Germline mosaicism has never been reported and the recurrence risk for normal parents is very low (<1%). The main differential diagnoses are Weaver syndrome, Beckwith-Wiedeman syndrome, Fragile X syndrome, Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome and 22qter deletion syndrome. Management is multidisciplinary. During the neonatal period, therapies are mostly symptomatic, including phototherapy in case of jaundice, treatment of the feeding difficulties and gastroesophageal reflux, and detection and treatment of hypoglycemia. General pediatric follow-up is important during the first years of life to allow detection and management of clinical complications such as scoliosis and febrile seizures. An adequate psychological and educational program with speech therapy and motor stimulation plays an important role in the global development of the patients. Final body height is difficult to predict but growth tends to normalize after puberty. PMID:17825104

  17. Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the Obese Patient

    PubMed Central

    Boutros, Marylise; Maron, David

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is becoming increasingly more common among patients with inflammatory bowel disease. In this review, we will explore the epidemiological trends of inflammatory bowel disease, the complex interplay between the proinflammatory state of obesity and inflammatory bowel disease, outcomes of surgery for inflammatory bowel disease in obese as compared with non-obese patients, and technical concerns pertaining to restorative proctocolectomy and ileoanal pouch reservoir, stoma creation and laparoscopic surgery for inflammatory bowel disease in obese patients. PMID:23204939

  18. Bifidobacterium infantis 35624 modulates host inflammatory processes beyond the gut.

    PubMed

    Groeger, David; O'Mahony, Liam; Murphy, Eileen F; Bourke, John F; Dinan, Timothy G; Kiely, Barry; Shanahan, Fergus; Quigley, Eamonn M M

    2013-01-01

    Certain therapeutic microbes, including Bifidobacteria infantis (B. infantis) 35624 exert beneficial immunoregulatory effects by mimicking commensal-immune interactions; however, the value of these effects in patients with non-gastrointestinal inflammatory conditions remains unclear. In this study, we assessed the impact of oral administration of B. infantis 35624, for 6‒8 weeks on inflammatory biomarker and plasma cytokine levels in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) (n = 22), chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) (n = 48) and psoriasis (n = 26) in three separate randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled interventions. Additionally, the effect of B. infantis 35624 on immunological biomarkers in healthy subjects (n = 22) was assessed. At baseline, both gastrointestinal (UC) and non-gastrointestinal (CFS and psoriasis) patients had significantly increased plasma levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) and the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) compared with healthy volunteers. B. infantis 35624 feeding resulted in reduced plasma CRP levels in all three inflammatory disorders compared with placebo. Interestingly, plasma TNF-α was reduced in CFS and psoriasis while IL-6 was reduced in UC and CFS. Furthermore, in healthy subjects, LPS-stimulated TNF-α and IL-6 secretion by peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was significantly reduced in the B. infantis 35624-treated groups compared with placebo following eight weeks of feeding. These results demonstrate the ability of this microbe to reduce systemic pro-inflammatory biomarkers in both gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal conditions. In conclusion, these data show that the immunomodulatory effects of the microbiota in humans are not limited to the mucosal immune system but extend to the systemic immune system. PMID:23842110

  19. Marine Bioactives: Pharmacological Properties and Potential Applications against Inflammatory Diseases

    PubMed Central

    D’Orazio, Nicolantonio; Gammone, Maria Alessandra; Gemello, Eugenio; De Girolamo, Massimo; Cusenza, Salvatore; Riccioni, Graziano

    2012-01-01

    Inflammation is a hot topic in medical research, because it plays a key role in inflammatory diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and other forms of arthritis, diabetes, heart diseases, irritable bowel syndrome, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, allergies, asthma, even cancer and many others. Over the past few decades, it was realized that the process of inflammation is virtually the same in different disorders, and a better understanding of inflammation may lead to better treatments for numerous diseases. Inflammation is the activation of the immune system in response to infection, irritation, or injury, with an influx of white blood cells, redness, heat, swelling, pain, and dysfunction of the organs involved. Although the pathophysiological basis of these conditions is not yet fully understood, reactive oxygen species (ROS) have often been implicated in their pathogenesis. In fact, in inflammatory diseases the antioxidant defense system is compromised, as evidenced by increased markers of oxidative stress, and decreased levels of protective antioxidant enzymes in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). An enriched diet containing antioxidants, such as vitamin E, vitamin C, β-carotene and phenolic substances, has been suggested to improve symptoms by reducing disease-related oxidative stress. In this respect, the marine world represents a largely untapped reserve of bioactive ingredients, and considerable potential exists for exploitation of these bioactives as functional food ingredients. Substances such as n-3 oils, carotenoids, vitamins, minerals and peptides provide a myriad of health benefits, including reduction of cardiovascular diseases, anticarcinogenic and anti-inflammatory activities. New marine bioactives are recently gaining attention, since they could be helpful in combating chronic inflammatory degenerative conditions. The aim of this review is to examine the published studies concerning the potential pharmacological properties and application of many marine bioactives against inflammatory diseases. PMID:22690145

  20. Biomarkers in management of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Moniuszko, Andrzej; Wiśniewska, Anna

    2013-01-01

    In recent years the use of faecal and serologic biomarkers has been evaluated in the diagnosis and management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Faecal calprotectin (FC) has been proposed as a surrogate marker for intestinal inflammation; elevated concentrations in IBD patients have been confirmed in numerous studies. Already available rapid calprotectin tests help to differentiate between IBD and irritable bowel syndrome. Faecal calprotectin greatly correlates with endoscopic activity scales and reflects the mucosal healing; thus in patients in clinical remission high levels of it correlate with increased risk of disease relapse in the following 12 months. Adapting the calprotectin assay as a screening test before colonoscopy enables a significant reduction in endoscopic procedures. ANCA/ASCA antibodies have been used in IBD diagnosis and to distinguish CD from ulcerative colitis (UC). Lactoferrin and S100A12 protein were also used to assess the disease activity. This review aims to present the actual potential of biomarker assays for faster diagnosis of IBD and their ability to monitor the disease course, predict exacerbations and improve the way IBD is managed. PMID:24868269

  1. Inflammatory Cytokines in Diabetic Nephropathy

    PubMed Central

    Donate-Correa, Javier; Martín-Núñez, Ernesto; Muros-de-Fuentes, Mercedes; Mora-Fernández, Carmen; Navarro-González, Juan F.

    2015-01-01

    Probably, the most paradigmatic example of diabetic complication is diabetic nephropathy, which is the largest single cause of end-stage renal disease and a medical catastrophe of worldwide dimensions. Metabolic and hemodynamic alterations have been considered as the classical factors involved in the development of renal injury in patients with diabetes mellitus. However, the exact pathogenic mechanisms and the molecular events of diabetic nephropathy remain incompletely understood. Nowadays, there are convincing data that relate the diabetes inflammatory component with the development of renal disease. This review is focused on the inflammatory processes that develop diabetic nephropathy and on the new therapeutic approaches with anti-inflammatory effects for the treatment of chronic kidney disease in the setting of diabetic nephropathy. PMID:25785280

  2. Neural Circuitry Engaged by Prostaglandins during the Sickness Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Saper, Clifford B.; Romanovsky, Andrej A.; Scammell, Thomas E.

    2013-01-01

    During illnesses caused by infectious disease or other sources of inflammation, a suite of brain-mediated responses called the sickness syndrome occurs, including fever, anorexia, sleepiness, hyperalgesia, and elevated corticosteroid secretion. Much of the sickness syndrome is mediated by prostaglandins acting on the brain, and can be prevented by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as aspirin or ibuprofen, that block prostaglandin synthesis. By examining which prostaglandins are produced at which sites and how they interact with the nervous system, researchers have identified specific neural circuits that underlie the sickness syndrome. PMID:22837039

  3. [Early therapy of an apallic syndrome in childhood].

    PubMed

    Dietze, R A; Schoeppner, H

    1977-01-01

    The various phenomenal forms of apallic syndromes are described from an etiological point of view, and it is shown that remission may be expected only in cases of apallic syndromes occurring as a result of acute traumatic, inflammatory, and metabolic and toxic processes. It is only in such cases that the use of all available means of reanimation treatment is fully justifiable. The most important aspects of maintaining vital functions especially in the initial stage as well as in the transitional phase of the apallic syndrome are described by the authors who also emphasize the necessity for continuous integrative cooperation between anesthetists and specialists in pediatric neuropsychiatry. PMID:122467

  4. Dobrin syndrome: A case report and review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    Al Qumaizi, K. I.; Halim, K.; Brekeit, K. A.

    2016-01-01

    Dobrin syndrome or tubulointerstitial nephritis and uveitis syndrome is a rare disease with excellent prognosis. We report a 60-year-old male of Indian origin who presented with acute interstitial nephritis (AIN) and unilateral anterior immune-mediated uveitis. The syndrome has been reported sporadically. This is only the third case from a patient of Indian origin. We highlight this case and evaluate the long-term use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-induced AIN and uveitis as a potential causative factor. PMID:26937077

  5. Systemic Inflammation in Older Adults With Asthma-COPD Overlap Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Juan-juan; McDonald, Vanessa M.; Gibson, Peter G.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The role of systemic inflammation on asthma-COPD overlap syndrome is unknown. This study aimed to examine systemic inflammation in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome, and to identify associations between clinical characteristics and inflammatory mediators in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome. Methods In 108 adults older than 55 years comprising healthy controls (n=29), asthma (n=16), COPD (n=21) and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome (n=42), serum high sensitivity C-reactive protein and Interleukin 6 (IL-6) were assayed. Spirometry, induced sputum, quality of life, comorbidities and medications were assessed, and their associations with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome were analyzed using logistic regression. Associations between systemic inflammatory mediators and clinical characteristics were tested in multivariate linear regression models. Results Patients with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome had significantly elevated IL-6 levels compared with healthy controls and asthmatics. Age, comorbidity index and IL-6 level were independently associated with asthma-COPD overlap syndrome. FEV1% predicted was inversely associated with IL-6 level, and cardiovascular disease was associated with an increased IL-6 level. Systemic markers were not associated with airway inflammation. Conclusions Systemic inflammation is commonly present in asthma-COPD overlap syndrome, and asthma-COPD overlap syndrome resembled COPD in terms of systemic inflammation. IL-6 is a pivotal inflammatory mediator that may be involved in airflow obstruction and cardiovascular disease and may be an independent treatment target. PMID:24991455

  6. Sphingolipid metabolites in inflammatory disease

    PubMed Central

    Maceyka, Michael; Spiegel, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Sphingolipids are ubiquitous building blocks of eukaryotic cell membranes. Progress in our understanding of sphingolipid metabolism, state-of-the-art sphingolipidomic approaches and animal models have generated a large body of evidence demonstrating that sphingolipid metabolites, particularly ceramide and sphingosine-1-phosphate, are signalling molecules that regulate a diverse range of cellular processes that are important in immunity, inflammation and inflammatory disorders. Recent insights into the molecular mechanisms of action of sphingolipid metabolites and new perspectives on their roles in regulating chronic inflammation have been reported. The knowledge gained in this emerging field will aid in the development of new therapeutic options for inflammatory disorders. PMID:24899305

  7. Biomarkers of Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Fengming, Yi; Jianbing, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic disease mostly involved with intestine with unknown etiology. Diagnosis, evaluation of severity, and prognosis are still present as challenges for physicians. An ideal biomarker with the characters such as simple, easy to perform, noninvasive or microinvasive, cheap, rapid, and reproducible is helpful for patients and clinicians. Currently biomarkers applied in clinic include CRP, ESR, pANCA, ASCA, and fecal calprotectin. However, they are far from ideal. Lots of studies are focused on seeking for ideal biomarker for IBD. Herein, the paper reviewed recent researches on biomarkers of IBD to get advances of biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:24963213

  8. Inflammatory pseudotumor of the diaphragm.

    PubMed

    Höer, J; Steinau, G; Füzesi, L; Gunawan, B; Schumpelick, V

    1999-07-01

    A 5-year-old-boy presented with a right pleural effusion and fever. A tumorous mass was located between the right lung and the liver. The boy underwent a right thoracotomy with excision of the tumor and the adherent parts of the right hemidiaphragm. Histology and immunohistochemistry showed an inflammatory pseudotumor of the diaphragm. This is the first reported case of an inflammatory pseudotumor in this location. A brief review of the heterogeneous theories about the pathogenesis and the different therapeutic regimens for this rare neoplastic entity are discussed. PMID:10415294

  9. The Source for Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal…

  10. The Source for Syndromes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Gail J.; Hoge, Debra Reichert

    Designed for practicing speech-language pathologists, this book discusses different syndrome disabilities, pertinent speech-language characteristics, and goals and strategies to begin intervention efforts at a preschool level. Chapters address: (1) Angelman syndrome; (2) Asperger syndrome; (3) Down syndrome; (4) fetal alcohol syndrome; (5) fetal

  11. Local inflammatory response induced by scorpionfish Scorpaena plumieri venom in mice.

    PubMed

    Menezes, Thiago N; Carnielli, Juliana B T; Gomes, Helena L; Pereira, Fausto E L; Lemos, Elenice M; Bissoli, Nazar S; Lopes-Ferreira, Mnica; Andrich, Filipe; Figueiredo, Suely G

    2012-07-01

    The Scorpaena plumieri fish venom induces a severe pain and edema, observed both clinically and experimentally. In order to understand more about the envenomation syndrome, the present study characterized experimentally the local acute inflammatory response induced by S. plumieri venom (SpV) in a mouse model of tissue injury. Our results demonstrated that the local inflammatory response provoked after 2h of SpV injection in footpad of mice is characterized by release of pivotal pro-inflammatory mediators (TNF, IL-6 and MCP-1). These mediators could be associated with histopathological changes observed into paw tissue, characterized by cellular infiltration, mainly neutrophils. Additionally, an investigation of edema formation pathways involved in inflammatory response was performed. SpV-induced edema was reduced significantly by previous administration of aprotinin or icatibant (HOE-140). However, the pre-treatment with diclofenac sodium and promethazine had less effect on this response. These results demonstrate that the kallikrein-kinin system (KKS) plays a major role in the edema formation. Despite the whole venom hydrolyzed the kallikrein synthetic substrate S-2302 (Pro-Phe-Arg-pNA), its main pro-inflammatory fraction was devoid of kininogenase activity. Our results demonstrate that SpV evokes a complex inflammatory reaction stimulating a secretion of TNF, IL-6, MCP-1 and leukocytes recruitment at the site of venom injection. In addition provide clear evidence of the involvement of the KKS in inflammatory response induced by S. plumieri venom. PMID:22453065

  12. Resveratrol attenuates neuropathic pain through balancing pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines release in mice.

    PubMed

    Tao, Lei; Ding, Qian; Gao, Changjun; Sun, Xude

    2016-05-01

    Anti-inflammatory activity of resveratrol has been widely studied, while its beneficial effect on the management of neuropathic pain, a refractory chronic syndrome with pro-inflammation implicated in, is very little investigated. In the present study, the effects of different doses and various time window of administration of resveratrol were explored in a neuropathic mouse model of chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. It was demonstrated that pretreatment of resveratrol (5, 10, 20 and 40mg/kg) for 7 consecutive days before CCI did not alleviate neuropathic pain, while it clearly relieved the pain when administrated after CCI and such pain relief effect was more pronounced when administrated right after the peak of pain symptom at day 7 after CCI, as evidenced by the alleviation of thermal hyperalgesia and mechanical allodynia. Such a beneficial effect of resveratrol was in a dose-dependent manner. Mechanistic study showed that resveratrol repressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, and promoted the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 at the same time, which was further confirmed in a cell model of microglia. It was also shown that neuropathic pain inversely correlated with pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6, but not with anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 in all experimental mice from Spearman correlation coefficient. Our study reveals that resveratrol displays a significant neuropathic pain relief effect and paved a way for novel treatment of chronic pain. PMID:26953646

  13. Pro-/Anti-inflammatory Dysregulation in Patients With First Episode of Psychosis: Toward an Integrative Inflammatory Hypothesis of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    García-Bueno, Borja; Bioque, Miquel; Mac-Dowell, Karina S.; Barcones, M. Fe; Leza, Juan C.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a chronic syndrome of unknown etiology, predominantly defined by signs of psychosis. The onset of the disorder occurs typically in late adolescence or early adulthood. Efforts to study pathophysiological mechanisms in early stages of the disease are crucial in order to prompt intervention. Methods: Case-control study of first-episode psychotic (FEP) patients and matched controls. We recruited 117 patients during the first year after their FEP according to the DSM-IV criteria and recruited 106 gender-, race-, and age-matched controls between September 2010 and June 2011. Results: Biochemical studies carried out in peripheral mononuclear blood cells (PMBC) and plasma evidence a significant increase in intracellular components of a main proinflammatory pathway, along with a significant decrease in the anti-inflammatory ones. Multivariate logistic regression analyses identified the expression of inducible isoforms of nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase in PMBC and homocysteine plasma levels as the most reliable potential risk factors and the inhibitor of the inflammatory transcription factor NFκB, IκBα, and the anti-inflammatory prostaglandin 15d-PGJ2 as potential protection factors. Discussion: Taken as a whole, the results of this study indicate robust phenotypical differences at the cellular machinery level in PMBC of patients with FEP. Although more scientific evidence is needed, the determination of multiple components of pro- and anti-inflammatory cellular pathways including the activity of nuclear receptors has interesting potential as biological markers and potential risk/protective factors for FEP. Due to its soluble nature, a notable finding in this study is that the anti-inflammatory mediator 15d-PGJ2 might be used as plasmatic biomarker for first episodes of psychosis. PMID:23486748

  14. Olmsted syndrome: exploration of the immunological phenotype

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Olmsted syndrome is a rare congenital skin disorder presenting with periorifical hyperkeratotic lesions and mutilating palmoplantar keratoderma, which is often associated with infections of the keratotic area. A recent study identified de novo mutations causing constitutive activation of TRPV3 as a cause of the keratotic manifestations of Olmsted syndrome. Methods Genetic, clinical and immunological profiling was performed on a case study patient with the clinical diagnosis of Olmsted syndrome. Results The patient was found to harbour a previously undescribed 1718G-C transversion in TRPV3, causing a G573A point mutation. In depth clinical and immunological analysis found multiple indicators of immune dysregulation, including frequent dermal infections, inflammatory infiltrate in the affected skin, hyper IgE production and elevated follicular T cells and eosinophils in the peripheral blood. Conclusions These results provide the first comprehensive assessment of the immunological features of Olmsted syndrome. The systemic phenotype of hyper IgE and persistent eosinophilia suggest a primary or secondary role of immunological processes in the pathogenesis of Olmsted syndrome, and have important clinical consequences with regard to the treatment of Olmsted syndrome patients. PMID:23692804

  15. Exacerbation of chronic inflammatory diseases by infectious agents: Fact or fiction?

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Cheng-Ming; Kaltenboeck, Bernhard

    2010-01-01

    Chronic inflammatory diseases caused by obesity represent critical public health concerns worldwide. In these diseases such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes and atherosclerosis, adipose tissue acts as an endocrine organ that releases large quantities of inflammatory mediators into circulation. Besides classically recognized effectors on the development of obesity and resultant conditions, infection has attracted attention as an enhancer of chronic inflammatory diseases. Infectious diseases have long been associated with obesity, metabolic syndrome, diabetes and atherosclerosis. However, the infectious hypothesis for chronic inflammatory diseases has been challenged by inconclusive clinical trials. Nevertheless, the large body of evidence accumulated over decades on the association of infectious diseases with obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease should not be disregarded. Instead, re-formulation of hypotheses of the mechanisms by which microbes affect obesity-associated diseases may be required with an emphasis on the early events in the progression of such diseases and the multifactorial nature of pathogen-host interactions. This review focuses on pathogens that directly promote obesity and on pathogens that cause chronic infections and thereby enhance metabolic diseases in obese patients. A new perspective on the interaction between infections and obesity-related diseases may improve management of chronic inflammatory diseases that rank high among global threats to human health. PMID:21537425

  16. Azathioprine hypersensitivity syndrome: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fenaux, S; Tintillier, M; Cuvelier, Ch; Migali, G; Pochet, J M

    2013-01-01

    We report here the case of a 51-year-old man presenting to the Emergency Department with a febrile cutaneous eruption with diffuse arthralgia 10 days after the onset of azathioprine therapy. The clinical examination did not reveal any inflammatory syndrome and the results of all bacteriological tests were negative. A skin biopsy was performed, which revealed a granulocytary pustula with superficial dermal oedema and a neutrophil infiltration without sign of vasculitis. A side effect of azathioprine was suspected, and treatment was discontinued. Fortunately, the patient recovered within a few days. Azathioprine hypersensitivity syndrome is a rare side effect of azathioprine. Hypersensitivity syndrome is an idiosyncratic, non-IgE-mediated reaction that appears to be unrelated to thiopurine methyltransferase levels. Diagnosis is mainly clinical and requires an exclusion of other processes. The only treatment option available is to stop azathioprine intake. PMID:24156226

  17. Obesity, adipokines and metabolic syndrome in polycystic ovary syndrome.

    PubMed

    Carmina, Enrico

    2013-01-01

    The complex mechanisms linking fat excess to metabolic syndrome are not well understood, but several experimental studies have shown that altered production of adipokines plays a main role in development and progression of this disorder. In particular, reduced secretion of adiponectin has a crucial role in inducing insulin resistance but also in determining the clustering of elevated triglycerides and small, dense LDL particles. Increased leptin secretion may be responsible for sympathetic nervous system overactivity and hypertension, while reduced omentin may have an important permissive role in the development of atherogenic processes. Finally, cytokines and other adipokines (resistin, visfatin) determine and modulate the inflammatory process that is an essential component of this condition of cardiovascular risk. Because obesity is prevalent in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), it is not surprising that patients with PCOS present altered adipokine levels and increased prevalence of metabolic syndrome. However, because of the presence of other CV risk factors (androgen excess), in PCOS adipokine dysfunction is particularly severe. Understanding and treating adipokine dysfunction in young women with PCOS is an essential component of any politics of prevention of CV diseases in the general population. PMID:24002404

  18. Kartagener syndrome.

    PubMed

    Skeik, Nedaa; Jabr, Fadi I

    2011-01-01

    Kartagener syndrome is a rare, ciliopathic, autosomal recessive genetic disorder that causes a defect in the action of the cilia lining the respiratory tract and fallopian tube. Patients usually present with chronic recurrent rhinosinusitis, otitis media, pneumonia, and bronchiectasis caused by pseudomonal infection. Situs inversus can be seen in about 50% of cases. Diagnosis can be made by tests to prove impaired cilia function, biopsy, and genetic studies. Treatment is supportive. In severe cases, the prognosis can be fatal if bilateral lung transplantation is delayed. We present a case of a 66-year-old woman with chronic recurrent upper respiratory infections, pseudomonal pneumonia, and chronic bronchiectasis who presented with acute respiratory failure. She was diagnosed with Kartagener syndrome based on her clinical presentation and genetic studies. She expired on ventilator with refractory respiratory and multiorgan failure. PMID:21403791

  19. Overtraining Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kreher, Jeffrey B.; Schwartz, Jennifer B.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Fatigue and underperformance are common in athletes. Understanding overtraining syndrome (OTS) is helpful in the evaluation, management, and education of athletes. Evidence Acquisition: Relevant articles in English were searched with OVID (1948-2011) and PubMed using the following keywords: overtraining syndrome, overtraining, overreaching, unexplained underperformance, staleness, pathophysiology, management, treatment, evaluation. Bibliographies were reviewed for additional resources. Results: OTS appears to be a maladapted response to excessive exercise without adequate rest, resulting in perturbations of multiple body systems (neurologic, endocrinologic, immunologic) coupled with mood changes. Many hypotheses of OTS pathogenesis are reviewed, and a clinical approach to athletes with possible OTS (including history, testing, and prevention) is presented. Conclusions: OTS remains a clinical diagnosis with arbitrary definitions per the European College of Sports Science’s position statement. History and, in most situations, limited serologies are helpful. However, much remains to be learned given that most past research has been on athletes with overreaching rather than OTS. PMID:23016079

  20. Paraneoplastic syndromes

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.

    1994-03-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes (PNS) comprise a diverse group of disorders that are associated with cancer but unrelated to the size, location, metastases, or physiologic activities of the mature tissue of origin. They are remote effects of tumors that may appear as signs, symptoms, or syndromes which can mimic other disease conditions encountered in veterinary medicine. Recognition of PNS is valuable for several reasons: the observed abnormalities may represent tumor cell markers and facilitate early diagnosis of the tumor; they may allow assessment of premalignant states; they may aid in the search metastases; they may help quantify and monitor response to therapy; and, they may provide insight into the study of malignant transformation and oncogene expression. This review will concentrate on the pathophysiology, diagnosis, and treatment of some of the common PNS encountered in veterinary medicine.

  1. Dravet syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Incorpora, Gemma

    2009-01-01

    "Dravet syndrome" (DS) previously named severe myoclonic epilepsy of infancy (SMEI), or epilepsy with polymorphic seizures, is a rare disorder characterized by an early, severe, generalized, epileptic encephalopathy. DS is characterized by febrile and afebrile seizures beginning in the 1st year of life followed by different types of seizures (either focal or generalized), which are typically resistant to antiepileptic drugs. A developmental delay from the 2nd to 3rd year of life becomes evident, together with motor disturbances and personality disorders. Beside the classic syndrome, there are milder cases which have been called severe myoclonic epilepsy borderline (SMEB). DS is caused by a mutation in the neuronal sodium channel gene, SCN1A , that is also mutated in generalized epilepsy with FS+ (GEFS+). PMID:19737414

  2. [Kabuki syndrome].

    PubMed

    Petersen, Rikke Børthy; Lindholm, Pernille; Bonde, Christian T

    2010-05-01

    A clinical case of the rare Kabuki syndrome is described in a 2-year-old boy. At the time of birth he was diagnosed with cleft palate and from the age of six months he presented with unusual facial features and slow psychomotoric development. At the age of two he has no language and only minimal speech perception and is showing signs of growth retardation. PMID:20444412

  3. Brachycephalic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Dupré, Gilles; Heidenreich, Dorothee

    2016-07-01

    Animals presenting with brachycephalic syndrome suffer from multilevel obstruction of the airways as well as secondary structural collapse. Stenotic nares, aberrant turbinates, nasopharyngeal collapse, soft palate elongation and hyperplasia, laryngeal collapse, and left bronchus collapse are being described as the most common associated anomalies. Rhinoplasty and palatoplasty as well as newer surgical techniques and postoperative care strategies have resulted in significant improvement of the prognosis even in middle-aged dogs. PMID:27012936

  4. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of…

  5. Fluency Disorders in Genetic Syndromes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Borsel, John; Tetnowski, John A.

    2007-01-01

    The characteristics of various genetic syndromes have included "stuttering" as a primary symptom associated with that syndrome. Specifically, Down syndrome, fragile X syndrome, Prader-Willi syndrome, Tourette syndrome, Neurofibromatosis type I, and Turner syndrome all list "stuttering" as a characteristic of that syndrome. An extensive review of

  6. Noonan syndrome.

    PubMed

    Bhambhani, Vikas; Muenke, Maximilian

    2014-01-01

    Noonan syndrome is a common genetic disorder that causes multiple congenital abnormalities and a large number of potential health conditions. Most affected individuals have characteristic facial features that evolve with age; a broad, webbed neck; increased bleeding tendency; and a high incidence of congenital heart disease, failure to thrive, short stature, feeding difficulties, sternal deformity, renal malformation, pubertal delay, cryptorchidism, developmental or behavioral problems, vision problems, hearing loss, and lymphedema. Familial recurrence is consistent with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance, but most cases are due to de novo mutations. Diagnosis can be made on the basis of clinical features, but may be missed in mildly affected patients. Molecular genetic testing can confirm diagnosis in 70% of cases and has important implications for genetic counseling and management. Most patients with Noonan syndrome are intellectually normal as adults, but some may require multidisciplinary evaluation and regular follow-up care. Age-based Noonan syndrome-specific growth charts and treatment guidelines are available. PMID:24444506

  7. Hypereosinophilic Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Casey; Ogbogu, Princess

    2016-04-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome consists of a group of disorders characterized by abnormal accumulation of eosinophils in the blood or peripheral tissues, independent of known secondary causes of eosinophilia such as parasitic infection. Clinical manifestations of the condition are highly variable, ranging from asymptomatic eosinophilia to severe tissue damage and end-organ failure. This entity has been recognized for decades, with early studies identifying distinct groups of patients with differing symptoms, exam findings, laboratory abnormalities, and prognosis. In the past, these patients were treated with non-targeted immunosuppressive agents, often with limited efficacy. More recently, advances in the knowledge of eosinophil biology and molecular diagnostics have allowed for more specific delineation of the many disease subgroups that characterize hypereosinophilic syndrome. Identification of these groups has led to a personalized management approach to the condition, with improved diagnostic techniques as well as stratification of patients into more effective treatment groups. This review will discuss the evolution of the definition of hypereosinophilic syndrome, outline current disease classifications, provide a guide for evaluation and monitoring, and discuss current and future therapeutic modalities. PMID:26475367

  8. Heterotaxy Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Heterotaxy is defined as an abnormality where the internal thoraco-abdominal organs demonstrate abnormal arrangement across the left-right axis of the body. This broad term includes patients with a wide variety of very complex cardiac lesions. Patients with heterotaxy can be stratified into the subsets of asplenia syndrome and polysplenia syndrome, or the subsets of heterotaxy with isomerism of the right atrial appendages and heterotaxy with isomerism of the left atrial appendages. Treatment of patients with isomerism is determined by the nature and severity of the associated cardiac and extracardiac lesions. Most cardiac operations for patients with isomerism are palliative in nature, since normal anatomy is rarely achieved and mortality rates remain high for patients with heterotaxy syndrome. Patients with left isomerism in general have less severe cardiac malformations than those with right isomerism and, hence, more chance of biventricular repair. For almost all patients with right isomerism, and for many with left isomerism, biventricular repair will not be feasible, and all palliative protocols are then staging procedures prior to a Fontan-type repair. Recent advances in medical management, and improvements in surgical techniques have resulted in improved survival for these patients, and the surgical outcomes are comparable to those with Fontan circulation irrespective of the presence or absence of heterotaxy. PMID:21731561

  9. Hepatorenal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Lata, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) is defined as a functional renal failure in patients with liver disease with portal hypertension and it constitutes the climax of systemic circulatory changes associated with portal hypertension. This term refers to a precisely specified syndrome featuring in particular morphologically intact kidneys, where regulatory mechanisms have minimised glomerular filtration and maximised tubular resorption and urine concentration, which ultimately results in uraemia. The syndrome occurs almost exclusively in patients with ascites. Type 1 HRS develops as a consequence of a severe reduction of effective circulating volume due to both an extreme splanchnic arterial vasodilatation and a reduction of cardiac output. Type 2 HRS is characterised by a stable or slowly progressive renal failure so that its main clinical consequence is not acute renal failure, but refractory ascites, and its impact on prognosis is less negative. Liver transplantation is the most appropriate therapeutic method, nevertheless, only a few patients can receive it. The most suitable “bridge treatments” or treatment for patients ineligible for a liver transplant include terlipressin plus albumin. Terlipressin is at an initial dose of 0.5-1 mg every 4 h by intravenous bolus to 3 mg every 4 h in cases when there is no response. Renal function recovery can be achieved in less than 50% of patients and a considerable decrease in renal function may reoccur even in patients who have been responding to therapy over the short term. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt plays only a marginal role in the treatment of HRS. PMID:23049205

  10. Acrodysostosis syndromes.

    PubMed

    Silve, C; Le-Stunff, C; Motte, E; Gunes, Y; Linglart, A; Clauser, E

    2012-01-01

    Acrodysostosis (ADO) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare skeletal dysplasia that share characteristic features including severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis and nasal hypoplasia. The literature describing acrodysostosis cases has been confusing because some reported patients may have had other phenotypically related diseases presenting with Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) such as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). A question has been whether patients display or not abnormal mineral metabolism associated with resistance to PTH and/or resistance to other hormones that bind G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) linked to Gsα, as observed in PHP1a. The recent identification in patients affected with acrodysostosis of defects in two genes, PRKAR1A and PDE4D, both important players in the GPCR-Gsα-cAMP-PKA signaling, has helped clarify some issues regarding the heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, in particular the presence of hormonal resistance. Two different genetic and phenotypic syndromes are now identified, both with a similar bone dysplasia: ADOHR, due to PRKAR1A defects, and ADOP4 (our denomination), due to PDE4D defects. The existence of GPCR-hormone resistance is typical of the ADOHR syndrome. We review here the PRKAR1A and PDE4D gene defects and phenotypes identified in acrodysostosis syndromes, and discuss them in view of phenotypically related diseases caused by defects in the same signaling pathway. PMID:24363928

  11. Acrodysostosis syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Silve, C; Le-Stunff, C; Motte, E; Gunes, Y; Linglart, A; Clauser, E

    2012-01-01

    Acrodysostosis (ADO) refers to a heterogeneous group of rare skeletal dysplasia that share characteristic features including severe brachydactyly, facial dysostosis and nasal hypoplasia. The literature describing acrodysostosis cases has been confusing because some reported patients may have had other phenotypically related diseases presenting with Albright Hereditary Osteodystrophy (AHO) such as pseudohypoparathyroidism type 1a (PHP1a) or pseudopseudohypoparathyroidism (PPHP). A question has been whether patients display or not abnormal mineral metabolism associated with resistance to PTH and/or resistance to other hormones that bind G-protein coupled receptors (GPCR) linked to Gsα, as observed in PHP1a. The recent identification in patients affected with acrodysostosis of defects in two genes, PRKAR1A and PDE4D, both important players in the GPCR–Gsα–cAMP–PKA signaling, has helped clarify some issues regarding the heterogeneity of acrodysostosis, in particular the presence of hormonal resistance. Two different genetic and phenotypic syndromes are now identified, both with a similar bone dysplasia: ADOHR, due to PRKAR1A defects, and ADOP4 (our denomination), due to PDE4D defects. The existence of GPCR-hormone resistance is typical of the ADOHR syndrome. We review here the PRKAR1A and PDE4D gene defects and phenotypes identified in acrodysostosis syndromes, and discuss them in view of phenotypically related diseases caused by defects in the same signaling pathway. PMID:24363928

  12. Preclinical Assessment of Inflammatory Pain.

    PubMed

    Muley, Milind M; Krustev, Eugene; McDougall, Jason J

    2016-02-01

    While acute inflammation is a natural physiological response to tissue injury or infection, chronic inflammation is maladaptive and engenders a considerable amount of adverse pain. The chemical mediators responsible for tissue inflammation act on nociceptive nerve endings to lower neuronal excitation threshold and sensitize afferent firing rate leading to the development of allodynia and hyperalgesia, respectively. Animal models have aided in our understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for the generation of chronic inflammatory pain and allowed us to identify and validate numerous analgesic drug candidates. Here we review some of the commonly used models of skin, joint, and gut inflammatory pain along with their relative benefits and limitations. In addition, we describe and discuss several behavioral and electrophysiological approaches used to assess the inflammatory pain in these preclinical models. Despite significant advances having been made in this area, a gap still exists between fundamental research and the implementation of these findings into a clinical setting. As such we need to characterize inherent pathophysiological pathways and develop new endpoints in these animal models to improve their predictive value of human inflammatory diseases in order to design safer and more effective analgesics. PMID:26663896

  13. Cathelicidin impact on inflammatory cells.

    PubMed

    Agier, Justyna; Efenberger, Magdalena; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins, like other antimicrobial peptides, exhibit direct antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of microbes, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, enveloped viruses, and fungi. These host-derived peptides kill the invaded pathogens by perturbing their cell membranes and can neutralize biological activities of endotoxin. Nowadays, more and more data indicate that these peptides, in addition to their antimicrobial properties, possess various immunomodulatory activities. Cathelicidins have the potential to influence and modulate, both directly and indirectly, the activity of various cell populations involved in inflammatory processes and in host defense against invading pathogens. They induce migration of neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, eosinophils, and mast cells and prolong the lifespan of neutrophils. These peptides directly activate inflammatory cells to production and release of different pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory mediators, cytokines, and chemokines, however cathelicidins might mediate the generation of anti-inflammatory cytokines as well. Cathelicidins also modulate epithelial cell/keratinocyte responses to infecting pathogens. What is more, they affect activity of monocytes, dendritic cells, keratinocytes, or epithelial cells acting in synergy with cytokines or β-defensins. In addition, these peptides indirectly balance TLR-mediated responses of monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and keratinocytes. This review discusses the role and significance of cathelicidins in inflammation and innate immunity against pathogens. PMID:26557038

  14. Cathelicidin impact on inflammatory cells

    PubMed Central

    Efenberger, Magdalena; Brzezińska-Błaszczyk, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    Cathelicidins, like other antimicrobial peptides, exhibit direct antimicrobial activities against a broad spectrum of microbes, including both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, enveloped viruses, and fungi. These host-derived peptides kill the invaded pathogens by perturbing their cell membranes and can neutralize biological activities of endotoxin. Nowadays, more and more data indicate that these peptides, in addition to their antimicrobial properties, possess various immunomodulatory activities. Cathelicidins have the potential to influence and modulate, both directly and indirectly, the activity of various cell populations involved in inflammatory processes and in host defense against invading pathogens. They induce migration of neutrophils, monocytes/macrophages, eosinophils, and mast cells and prolong the lifespan of neutrophils. These peptides directly activate inflammatory cells to production and release of different pro-inflammatory and immunoregulatory mediators, cytokines, and chemokines, however cathelicidins might mediate the generation of anti-inflammatory cytokines as well. Cathelicidins also modulate epithelial cell/keratinocyte responses to infecting pathogens. What is more, they affect activity of monocytes, dendritic cells, keratinocytes, or epithelial cells acting in synergy with cytokines or β-defensins. In addition, these peptides indirectly balance TLR-mediated responses of monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, epithelial cells, and keratinocytes. This review discusses the role and significance of cathelicidins in inflammation and innate immunity against pathogens. PMID:26557038

  15. Surgery for inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, John M; Varma, Madhulika G

    2008-01-01

    Despite the new and ever expanding array of medications for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), there are still clear indications for operative management of IBD and its complications. We present an overview of indications, procedures, considerations, and controversies in the surgical therapy of IBD. PMID:18461653

  16. Inflammatory response in islet transplantation.

    PubMed

    Kanak, Mazhar A; Takita, Morihito; Kunnathodi, Faisal; Lawrence, Michael C; Levy, Marlon F; Naziruddin, Bashoo

    2014-01-01

    Islet cell transplantation is a promising beta cell replacement therapy for patients with brittle type 1 diabetes as well as refractory chronic pancreatitis. Despite the vast advancements made in this field, challenges still remain in achieving high frequency and long-term successful transplant outcomes. Here we review recent advances in understanding the role of inflammation in islet transplantation and development of strategies to prevent damage to islets from inflammation. The inflammatory response associated with islets has been recognized as the primary cause of early damage to islets and graft loss after transplantation. Details on cell signaling pathways in islets triggered by cytokines and harmful inflammatory events during pancreas procurement, pancreas preservation, islet isolation, and islet infusion are presented. Robust control of pre- and peritransplant islet inflammation could improve posttransplant islet survival and in turn enhance the benefits of islet cell transplantation for patients who are insulin dependent. We discuss several potent anti-inflammatory strategies that show promise for improving islet engraftment. Further understanding of molecular mechanisms involved in the inflammatory response will provide the basis for developing potent therapeutic strategies for enhancing the quality and success of islet transplantation. PMID:24883060

  17. Inflammatory process in Alzheimer's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Meraz-Ríos, Marco A.; Toral-Rios, Danira; Franco-Bocanegra, Diana; Villeda-Hernández, Juana; Campos-Peña, Victoria

    2013-01-01

    Alzheimer Disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common form of dementia. Histopathologically is characterized by the presence of two major hallmarks, the intracellular neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) and extracellular neuritic plaques (NPs) surrounded by activated astrocytes and microglia. NFTs consist of paired helical filaments of truncated tau protein that is abnormally hyperphosphorylated. The main component in the NP is the amyloid-β peptide (Aβ), a small fragment of 40–42 amino acids with a molecular weight of 4 kD. It has been proposed that the amyloid aggregates and microglia activation are able to favor the neurodegenerative process observed in AD patients. However, the role of inflammation in AD is controversial, because in early stages the inflammation could have a beneficial role in the pathology, since it has been thought that the microglia and astrocytes activated could be involved in Aβ clearance. Nevertheless the chronic activation of the microglia has been related with an increase of Aβ and possibly with tau phosphorylation. Studies in AD brains have shown an upregulation of complement molecules, pro-inflammatory cytokines, acute phase reactants and other inflammatory mediators that could contribute with the neurodegenerative process. Clinical trials and animal models with non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) indicate that these drugs may decrease the risk of developing AD and apparently reduce Aβ deposition. Finally, further studies are needed to determine whether treatment with anti-inflammatory strategies, may decrease the neurodegenerative process that affects these patients. PMID:23964211

  18. [Evaluation of anti-inflammatory activity of extracts from Siberian plants].

    PubMed

    Nesterova, Iu V; Povet'eva, T N; Aksinenko, S G; Suslov, N I; Ga?damovich, N N; Nagorniak, Iu G; Popova, E V; Kravtsova, S S; Andreeva, T I

    2009-01-01

    Experimental investigations have shown that water-alcohol extracts from plants containing alkaloids (Aconitum baikalense, Aconitum septentrionale, Delphinium elatum L., Conium maculatum) and salicylic acid (Filipendula ulmaria, Salix viminalis, Fragaria vesca, Rubus idaeus) inhibited the development of main symptoms of inflammation, viz. exudation, pain, fever, to the same extent as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory agents. The substances studied in this work may be used to develop new efficient pharmacological preparations for the treatment of different inflammatory conditions associated with severe pain syndrome. PMID:20017405

  19. Central Pain Syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Enhancing Diversity Find People About NINDS NINDS Central Pain Syndrome Information Page Table of Contents (click to ... being done? Clinical Trials Organizations What is Central Pain Syndrome? Central pain syndrome is a neurological condition ...

  20. Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome is a rare, inherited disease. It causes problems with the skin, sinuses, lungs, bones, and teeth. ... Hyperimmunoglobulin E syndrome is also called Job syndrome. It is named after the biblical character Job whose faithfulness was ...