Science.gov

Sample records for influence emotion knowledge

  1. How Neglect and Punitiveness Influence Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P.; Lewis, Michael

    2010-01-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of…

  2. How neglect and punitiveness influence emotion knowledge.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margaret Wolan; Carmody, Dennis P; Lewis, Michael

    2010-06-01

    To explore whether punitive parenting styles contribute to early-acquired emotion knowledge deficits observable in neglected children, we observed 42 preschool children's emotion knowledge, expression recognition time, and IQ. The children's mothers completed the Parent-Child Conflict Tactics Scales to assess the recent use of three types of discipline strategies (nonviolent, physically punitive, and psychological aggression), as well as neglectful parenting. Fifteen of the children were identified as neglected by Child Protective Services (CPS) reports; 27 children had no record of CPS involvement and served as the comparison group. There were no differences between the neglect and comparison groups in the demographic factors of gender, age, home language, minority status, or public assistance, nor on IQ. Hierarchical multiple regression modeling showed that neglect significantly predicted emotion knowledge. The addition of IQ contributed a significant amount of additional variance to the model and maintained the fit. Adding parental punitiveness in the final stage contributed little additional variance and did not significantly improve the fit. Thus, deficits in children's emotion knowledge may be due primarily to lower IQ or neglect. IQ was unrelated to speed of emotion recognition. Punitiveness did not directly contribute to emotion knowledge deficits but appeared in exploratory analysis to be related to speed of emotion recognition. PMID:20099078

  3. The Influence of Peer Relationships and Maternal Socialization on Kindergartners' Developing Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunsmore, Julie C.; Karn, Michelle A.

    2004-01-01

    We examined the influence of children's peer relationships and maternal emotional socialization on children's development of emotion knowledge. Children's emotion knowledge was assessed at the beginning (time 1) and end (time 2) of their first semester of kindergarten. Children's peer interactions were measured through observations and teacher…

  4. The Pluto debate: Influence of emotions on belief, attitude, and knowledge change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Broughton, Suzanne H.

    In line with the "warming trend" (Sinatra, 2005), this study examined the influence of emotions during controversial conceptual change. Issues in science may trigger highly emotional responses (e.g., evolutionary theory). However, it is unclear whether these emotions facilitate or inhibit change. I investigated the nature of emotions engendered when learning about a controversial science topic, Pluto's reclassification, including the valence (positive/negative) and activation (activating/deactivating) of emotions (Pekrun et al., 2002). I also investigated whether belief, attitude, and/or conceptual change could be facilitated through rereading a refutation text and/or rereading during small group discussions. Refutation texts directly state a common misconception, refute it, and provide the scientific explanation as a plausible alternative (Hynd, 2001). Participants were randomly assigned to a group (reread text; reread text plus small group discussions). Participants in both groups read the same refutational text regarding the recent change in the definition of planet and Pluto's reclassification. The findings show that students' experienced a range of emotions towards Pluto's reclassification. Students reported experiencing more negative than positive emotions. Both positive and negative emotions were shown to be predictive of student's attitudes and attitude change. Emotions were also predictive of students' knowledge of planets and conceptual change. This suggests that emotions may have promoted deep engagement and critical thinking. Negative emotions may also be linked with resistance to attitude and conceptual change. The refutation text was effective in promoting belief change, attitude change, and conceptual change across both conditions. Students in both conditions reported more constructivist nature of science beliefs after rereading the text. Students also reported a greater level of acceptance about Pluto's reclassification. Conceptual change was

  5. Young Children's Knowledge about the Influence of Thoughts on Emotions in Rule Situations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lagattuta, Kristin Hansen

    2008-01-01

    Four-year-olds, 5-year-olds, and adults (N = 48) listened to stories featuring characters that experienced one of four types of thoughts after deciding to transgress or comply with a rule: thoughts about desires, rules, future negative outcomes, or future punishment. Participants predicted and explained the characters' emotions. Results showed…

  6. Emotion knowledge in young neglected children.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Margaret W; Bennett, David S; Carpenter, Kim; Lewis, Michael

    2008-08-01

    Young neglected children may be at risk for emotion knowledge deficits. Children with histories of neglect or with no maltreatment were initially seen at age 4 and again 1 year later to assess their emotion knowledge. Higher IQ was associated with better emotion knowledge, but neglected children had consistently poorer emotion knowledge over time compared to non-neglected children after controlling for IQ. Because both neglected status and IQ may contribute to deficits in emotional knowledge, both should be assessed when evaluating these children to appropriately design and pace emotion knowledge interventions. PMID:18299632

  7. Emotional Ecology: The Intersection of Emotional Knowledge and Pedagogical Content Knowledge in Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to offer some theoretical as well as empirical examples that describe the interrelations between pedagogical content knowledge (PCK) and emotional knowledge in teaching and learning. The argument put forward is that there is a need to expand current conceptions of PCK and acknowledge the role of emotional knowledge. It…

  8. Successful Architectural Knowledge Sharing: Beware of Emotions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poort, Eltjo R.; Pramono, Agung; Perdeck, Michiel; Clerc, Viktor; van Vliet, Hans

    This chapter presents the analysis and key findings of a survey on architectural knowledge sharing. The responses of 97 architects working in the Dutch IT Industry were analyzed by correlating practices and challenges with project size and success. Impact mechanisms between project size, project success, and architectural knowledge sharing practices and challenges were deduced based on reasoning, experience and literature. We find that architects run into numerous and diverse challenges sharing architectural knowledge, but that the only challenges that have a significant impact are the emotional challenges related to interpersonal relationships. Thus, architects should be careful when dealing with emotions in knowledge sharing.

  9. Preschoolers' emotion knowledge and the differential effects of harsh punishment.

    PubMed

    Berzenski, Sara R; Yates, Tuppett M

    2013-06-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children's behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children's emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. We assessed 250 preschool-aged children (50% female; Mage = 49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% multiracial/other) using various instruments through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment, conduct problems, self-concept, and emotion knowledge. Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self-concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis-driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self-concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children's responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

  10. Preschoolers’ Emotion Knowledge and the Differential Effects of Harsh Punishment

    PubMed Central

    Berzenski, Sara R.; Yates, Tuppett M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the influence of caregiver-reported harsh physical and verbal punishment on children’s behavioral and self-system adjustment. Children’s emotion knowledge was evaluated as a heretofore unrecognized moderator of these relations. Two hundred fifty preschool age children (50% female; Mage=49.06 months) from diverse backgrounds (50% Hispanic, 18% African American, 10.4% Caucasian, 21.6% Multiracial/Other) were assessed through teacher, caregiver, self, and observer report in the domains of harsh punishment (Parent Child Conflict Tactics Scale), conduct problems (Teacher Report Form, California Child Q-Sort), self concept (Self Description Questionnaire for Preschoolers, California Child Q-Sort), and emotion knowledge (Kuschè Emotion Inventory). Emotion knowledge moderated the relation between harsh punishment and child adjustment. Harsh physical punishment was associated with conduct problems for children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for boys. Harsh verbal punishment was associated with self concept deficits among children with higher emotion knowledge, especially for girls. These relations were also specifically applicable to non-Hispanic children. These results highlight the importance of investigating hypothesis driven interactive effects and the specificity of experience to understand the psychosocial sequelae of parenting practices broadly, and to clarify the mixed evidence in the punishment literature specifically. Clinical implications point to the salience of emotion processes in parent-child disciplinary interventions for understanding the prevalence and pattern of child behavioral adjustment and self concept, as well as more broadly to the role of individual differences in children’s responses to adversity and subsequent therapeutic needs. PMID:23750528

  11. Incidental emotions in moral dilemmas: the influence of emotion regulation.

    PubMed

    Szekely, Raluca D; Miu, Andrei C

    2015-01-01

    Recent theories have argued that emotions play a central role in moral decision-making and suggested that emotion regulation may be crucial in reducing emotion-linked biases. The present studies focused on the influence of emotional experience and individual differences in emotion regulation on moral choice in dilemmas that pit harming another person against social welfare. During these "harm to save" moral dilemmas, participants experienced mostly fear and sadness but also other emotions such as compassion, guilt, anger, disgust, regret and contempt (Study 1). Fear and disgust were more frequently reported when participants made deontological choices, whereas regret was more frequently reported when participants made utilitarian choices. In addition, habitual reappraisal negatively predicted deontological choices, and this effect was significantly carried through emotional arousal (Study 2). Individual differences in the habitual use of other emotion regulation strategies (i.e., acceptance, rumination and catastrophising) did not influence moral choice. The results of the present studies indicate that negative emotions are commonly experienced during "harm to save" moral dilemmas, and they are associated with a deontological bias. By efficiently reducing emotional arousal, reappraisal can attenuate the emotion-linked deontological bias in moral choice. PMID:24611625

  12. Music Experience in Early Childhood: Potential for Emotion Knowledge?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vist, Torill

    2011-01-01

    Most cultures carry an idea of music being connected to emotion. New research suggests that we may also acquire emotion knowledge from our music experiences. This article investigates music experience as a mediating tool for emotion knowledge in early childhood, as revealed through qualitative interviews of adults. The interviewees describe music…

  13. Associations of Emotion-Related Regulation with Language Skills, Emotion Knowledge, and Academic Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Sadovsky, Adrienne; Spinrad, Tracy L.

    2005-01-01

    Research suggests that the development of emotional regulation in early childhood is interrelated with emotional understanding and language skills. Heuristic models are proposed on how these factors influence children's emerging academic motivation and skills. (Contains 2 figures.)

  14. Physiology and Functioning: Parents' Vagal Tone, Emotion Socialization, and Children's Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perlman, Susan B.; Camras, Linda A.; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2008-01-01

    This study examined relationships among parents' physiological regulation, their emotion socialization behaviors, and their children's emotion knowledge. Parents' resting cardiac vagal tone was measured, and parents provided information regarding their socialization behaviors and family emotional expressiveness. Their 4- or 5-year-old children (N…

  15. The Components of Young Children's Emotion Knowledge: Which Are Enhanced by Adult Emotion Talk?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salmon, Karen; Evans, Ian M.; Moskowitz, Sophie; Grouden, Melissa; Parkes, Fiona; Miller, Emily

    2013-01-01

    This research adopted observational and experimental paradigms to investigate the relationships between components of emotion knowledge in three- to four-year-old children. In Study 1, 88 children were assessed on the Emotion Matching Task (Morgan, Izard, & King), and two tasks requiring the generation of emotion labels and causes. Most tasks were…

  16. The influence of emotion on face processing.

    PubMed

    Xie, Weizhen; Zhang, Weiwei

    2016-01-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory, positive emotions broaden one's thought-action repertoire, which may manifest as a widened attentional scope in cognitive processing. The present study directly tests this hypothesis by examining the influences of induced emotions (positive, neutral and negative) on holistic processing of face (Experiment 1) and face discrimination (Experiment 2). In both experiments, emotions induced with images from the International Affective Picture System significantly interacted with face processing. That is, positive emotions engendered greater holistic face encoding in a composite-face task in Experiment 1 and more accurate face discrimination in Experiment 2, relative to the neutral condition. In contrast, negative emotions impaired holistic face encoding in the composite-face task and reduced face discrimination accuracy. Taken together, these results provide further support for the attentional broadening effect of positive affect by demonstrating that induced positive emotions facilitate holistic/configural processing. PMID:25621898

  17. Modeling of Internet Influence on Group Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    Long-range interactions are introduced to a two-dimensional model of agents with time-dependent internal variables ei = 0, ±1 corresponding to valencies of agent emotions. Effects of spontaneous emotion emergence and emotional relaxation processes are taken into account. The valence of agent i depends on valencies of its four nearest neighbors but it is also influenced by long-range interactions corresponding to social relations developed for example by Internet contacts to a randomly chosen community. Two types of such interactions are considered. In the first model the community emotional influence depends only on the sign of its temporary emotion. When the coupling parameter approaches a critical value a phase transition takes place and as result for larger coupling constants the mean group emotion of all agents is nonzero over long time periods. In the second model the community influence is proportional to magnitude of community average emotion. The ordered emotional phase was here observed for a narrow set of system parameters.

  18. Family Experiences and Early Emotion Knowledge.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Charisse L.; Watson, Anne C.

    This study examined individual differences in young children's understanding of emotion and potential correlates in the domain of family experiences. Participating in the study were 49 children, ages 40 to 75 months from a predominately white, middle to upper class sample. Self-report questionnaires concerning the expression of emotion, management…

  19. Emotional and Social Factors influence Poker Decision Making Accuracy.

    PubMed

    Laakasuo, Michael; Palomäki, Jussi; Salmela, Mikko

    2015-09-01

    Poker is a social game, where success depends on both game strategic knowledge and emotion regulation abilities. Thus, poker provides a productive environment for studying the effects of emotional and social factors on micro-economic decision making. Previous research indicates that experiencing negative emotions, such as moral anger, reduces mathematical accuracy in poker decision making. Furthermore, various social aspects of the game—such as losing against "bad players" due to "bad luck"—seem to fuel these emotional states. We designed an Internet-based experiment, where participants' (N = 459) mathematical accuracy in five different poker decision making tasks were assessed. In addition, we manipulated the emotional and social conditions under which the tasks were presented, in a 2 × 2 experimental setup: (1) Anger versus neutral emotional state—participants were primed either with an anger-inducing, or emotionally neutral story, and (2) Social cue versus non-social cue—during the tasks, either an image of a pair of human eyes was "following" the mouse cursor, or an image of a black moving box was presented. The results showed that anger reduced mathematical accuracy of decision making only when participants were "being watched" by a pair of moving eyes. Experienced poker players made mathematically more accurate decisions than inexperienced ones. The results contribute to current understanding on how emotional and social factors influence decision making accuracy in economic games. PMID:24633674

  20. Emotion regulation: influences of attachment relationships.

    PubMed

    Cassidy, J

    1994-01-01

    Emotion regulation and quality of attachment are closely linked. It has been proposed here that one influence on individual differences in emotion regulation may be a child's attachment history. Individuals characterized by the flexible ability to accept and integrate both positive and negative emotions are generally securely attached; on the other hand, individuals characterized by either limited or heightened negative affect are more likely to be insecurely attached. While acknowledging the role of infant temperament, I have focused on the role of social factors in examining the link between emotion regulation and attachment. The approach to emotion regulation taken here--that emotion regulation is adaptive in helping a child attain her goals--is esentially a functionalist approach (Bretherton et al., 1986; Campos et al., 1983), consistent with earlier views of emotions as important regulators of interpersonal relationships (Charlesworth, 1982; Izard, 1977). It has been proposed that patterns of emotion regulation serve an important function for the infant: the function of maintaining the relationship with the attachment figure. Emotion regulation has been described as serving this function in two ways. First, the function of maintaining the relationship is thought to be served when infant emotion regulation contributes to the infant's more generalized regulation of the attachment system in response to experiences with the caregiver. Infants who have experienced rejection (insecure/avoidant infants) are thought to minimize negative affect in order to avoid the risk of further rejection. Infants whose mothers have been relatively unavailable or inconsistently available (insecure/ambivalent infants) are thought to maximize negative affect in order to increase the likelihood of gaining the attention of a frequently unavailable caregiver. Both these patterns of emotion regulation help ensure that the child will remain close to the parent and thereby be protected

  1. Social appraisal influences recognition of emotions.

    PubMed

    Mumenthaler, Christian; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    The notion of social appraisal emphasizes the importance of a social dimension in appraisal theories of emotion by proposing that the way an individual appraises an event is influenced by the way other individuals appraise and feel about the same event. This study directly tested this proposal by asking participants to recognize dynamic facial expressions of emotion (fear, happiness, or anger in Experiment 1; fear, happiness, anger, or neutral in Experiment 2) in a target face presented at the center of a screen while a contextual face, which appeared simultaneously in the periphery of the screen, expressed an emotion (fear, happiness, anger) or not (neutral) and either looked at the target face or not. We manipulated gaze direction to be able to distinguish between a mere contextual effect (gaze away from both the target face and the participant) and a specific social appraisal effect (gaze toward the target face). Results of both experiments provided evidence for a social appraisal effect in emotion recognition, which differed from the mere effect of contextual information: Whereas facial expressions were identical in both conditions, the direction of the gaze of the contextual face influenced emotion recognition. Social appraisal facilitated the recognition of anger, happiness, and fear when the contextual face expressed the same emotion. This facilitation was stronger than the mere contextual effect. Social appraisal also allowed better recognition of fear when the contextual face expressed anger and better recognition of anger when the contextual face expressed fear. PMID:22288528

  2. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge.

    PubMed

    Suess, Franziska; Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-04-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. PMID:24948155

  3. Perceiving emotions in neutral faces: expression processing is biased by affective person knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Rabovsky, Milena; Abdel Rahman, Rasha

    2015-01-01

    According to a widely held view, basic emotions such as happiness or anger are reflected in facial expressions that are invariant and uniquely defined by specific facial muscle movements. Accordingly, expression perception should not be vulnerable to influences outside the face. Here, we test this assumption by manipulating the emotional valence of biographical knowledge associated with individual persons. Faces of well-known and initially unfamiliar persons displaying neutral expressions were associated with socially relevant negative, positive or comparatively neutral biographical information. The expressions of faces associated with negative information were classified as more negative than faces associated with neutral information. Event-related brain potential modulations in the early posterior negativity, a component taken to reflect early sensory processing of affective stimuli such as emotional facial expressions, suggest that negative affective knowledge can bias the perception of faces with neutral expressions toward subjectively displaying negative emotions. PMID:24948155

  4. Embodied emotion: the influence of manipulated facial and bodily states on emotive responses.

    PubMed

    Price, Tom F; Harmon-Jones, Eddie

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of evidence suggests that certain facial expressions and postures are associated with emotional and motivational responses. This review discusses behavioral, neuroscientific, and cognitive research connecting these bodily movements with emotive responses. General bodily feedback theories of emotion have suggested that manipulated facial expressions and postures influence emotive reactions to stimuli as well as physiological responses such as heart rate, skin conductance, and the temperature of blood entering the brain. More recent evidence suggests that manipulated bodily states influence prefrontal cortical activation and amygdala activation. Even further evidence has suggested that manipulated bodily states influence cognitive processes, such as the speed at which individuals read emotional content, the speed at which they classify information as emotional, and the extent to which they determine emotional information as threatening. Bodily feedback theories may also suggest clinical applications. Bodily feedback theories of emotion therefore have generated research showing that bodily expressions play a pivotal role in our emotive experiences. PMID:26401657

  5. "I Know How You Feel": Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge Contributes to Early School Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denham, Susanne A.; Bassett, Hideko H.; Brown, Chavaughn; Way, Erin; Steed, Jessica

    2015-01-01

    Differences in emotion knowledge by children's age, gender, and socioeconomic risk status, as well as associations of emotion knowledge with executive control, social competence, and early classroom adjustment, were investigated. On emotion knowledge, 4- and 5-year-olds scored higher than 3-year-olds, with girls showing this effect more strongly.…

  6. Emotion Knowledge, Social Competence, and Behavior Problems in Childhood and Adolescence: A Meta-Analytic Review

    PubMed Central

    Trentacosta, Christopher J.; Fine, Sarah E.

    2010-01-01

    The present meta-analytic review examined the magnitude of the relation between discrete emotion knowledge and three of its most commonly studied correlates in childhood and adolescence: social competence, internalizing problems, and externalizing problems. Emotion knowledge demonstrated small to medium-sized relations with each correlate. Moderators of effect size were also examined and included multiple sample and methodological characteristics. Using random effects models, significant moderators of effect size for relations between emotion knowledge and externalizing problems included sample recruitment, sample age, and the source of externalizing problems ratings. Moderators of effect size were not found for emotion knowledge and social competence, and the effect sizes across samples for emotion knowledge and internalizing problems were homogeneous. Results highlight the relatively consistent yet modest relations between emotion knowledge and its correlates. Implications for applied research and new directions for research on emotion knowledge using innovative methods are discussed. PMID:21072259

  7. Questioning as a Component of Scaffolding in Predicting Emotion Knowledge in Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Craig S.; Denham, Susanne A.; Curby, Timothy W.

    2013-01-01

    The following study expands Denham and Auerbach's (1995, "Mother-child dialogue about emotions and preschoolers' emotional competence." "Genetic, Social, and General Psychology Monographs," 121, 313-337) findings, demonstrating a link between mothers' talk about emotions and preschoolers' knowledge of emotions. We investigate the maternal language…

  8. Anxious and egocentric: how specific emotions influence perspective taking.

    PubMed

    Todd, Andrew R; Forstmann, Matthias; Burgmer, Pascal; Brooks, Alison Wood; Galinsky, Adam D

    2015-04-01

    People frequently feel anxious. Although prior research has extensively studied how feeling anxious shapes intrapsychic aspects of cognition, much less is known about how anxiety affects interpersonal aspects of cognition. Here, we examine the influence of incidental experiences of anxiety on perceptual and conceptual forms of perspective taking. Compared with participants experiencing other negative, high-arousal emotions (i.e., anger or disgust) or neutral feelings, anxious participants displayed greater egocentrism in their mental-state reasoning: They were more likely to describe an object using their own spatial perspective, had more difficulty resisting egocentric interference when identifying an object from others' spatial perspectives, and relied more heavily on privileged knowledge when inferring others' beliefs. Using both experimental-causal-chain and measurement-of-mediation approaches, we found that these effects were explained, in part, by uncertainty appraisal tendencies. Further supporting the role of uncertainty, a positive emotion associated with uncertainty (i.e., surprise) produced increases in egocentrism that were similar to anxiety. Collectively, the results suggest that incidentally experiencing emotions associated with uncertainty increase reliance on one's own egocentric perspective when reasoning about the mental states of others. PMID:25602753

  9. Experiential Influences on Multimodal Perception of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shackman, Jessica E.; Pollak, Seth D.

    2005-01-01

    The impact of 2 types of learning experiences on children's perception of multimodal emotion cues was examined. Children (aged 7-12 years) were presented with conflicting facial and vocal emotions. The effects of familiarity were tested by varying whether emotions were presented by familiar or unfamiliar adults. The salience of particular…

  10. Do Suicides' Characteristics Influence Survivors' Emotions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schneider, Barbara; Grebner, Kristin; Schnabel, Axel; Georgi, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    The suicide of a related person can often induce severe negative emotional reactions. The objective of this study was to explore the relationships between sociodemographic and diagnostic data of suicides and survivors' emotions and to close this substantial gap. The main outcome of this study was that survivors' severity of emotional disturbance…

  11. Collective Emotions Online and Their Influence on Community Life

    PubMed Central

    Chmiel, Anna; Sienkiewicz, Julian; Thelwall, Mike; Paltoglou, Georgios; Buckley, Kevan; Kappas, Arvid; Hołyst, Janusz A.

    2011-01-01

    Background E-communities, social groups interacting online, have recently become an object of interdisciplinary research. As with face-to-face meetings, Internet exchanges may not only include factual information but also emotional information – how participants feel about the subject discussed or other group members. Emotions in turn are known to be important in affecting interaction partners in offline communication in many ways. Could emotions in Internet exchanges affect others and systematically influence quantitative and qualitative aspects of the trajectory of e-communities? The development of automatic sentiment analysis has made large scale emotion detection and analysis possible using text messages collected from the web. However, it is not clear if emotions in e-communities primarily derive from individual group members' personalities or if they result from intra-group interactions, and whether they influence group activities. Methodology/Principal Findings Here, for the first time, we show the collective character of affective phenomena on a large scale as observed in four million posts downloaded from Blogs, Digg and BBC forums. To test whether the emotions of a community member may influence the emotions of others, posts were grouped into clusters of messages with similar emotional valences. The frequency of long clusters was much higher than it would be if emotions occurred at random. Distributions for cluster lengths can be explained by preferential processes because conditional probabilities for consecutive messages grow as a power law with cluster length. For BBC forum threads, average discussion lengths were higher for larger values of absolute average emotional valence in the first ten comments and the average amount of emotion in messages fell during discussions. Conclusions/Significance Overall, our results prove that collective emotional states can be created and modulated via Internet communication and that emotional expressiveness is the

  12. The Effects of Mother Training in Emotion-Rich, Elaborative Reminiscing on Children's Shared Recall and Emotion Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Bergen, Penny; Salmon, Karen; Dadds, Mark R.; Allen, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of training mothers in high-elaborative, emotional reminiscing on children's autobiographical memory and emotion knowledge. Eighty mothers were randomly allocated to one of two training conditions: in the "reminiscing" condition, mothers were encouraged to reminisce by asking their children (aged 3.5 to 5…

  13. Emotion Situation Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory in Chinese, Immigrant Chinese, and European American 3-Year-Olds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi; Hutt, Rachel; Kulkofsky, Sarah; McDermott, Melissa; Wei, Ruohong

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the influence of children's emotion situation knowledge (EK) on their autobiographical memory ability at both group and individual levels. Native Chinese, Chinese immigrant, and European American 3-year-old children participated (N = 189). During a home visit, children recounted 2 personal memories of recent, 1-time events with…

  14. Word Knowledge Influences on Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Mary E.; And Others

    Two studies examined the relationship between word knowledge and reading comprehension. Subjects were college undergraduates with high and low verbal abilities as indicated by a standardized verbal aptitude test. The first study involved a multiple choice vocabulary test from which words that both groups defined correctly were selected. The…

  15. Theory of Mind Predicts Emotion Knowledge Development in Head Start Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seidenfeld, Adina M.; Johnson, Stacy R.; Cavadel, Elizabeth Woodburn; Izard, Carroll E.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: Emotion knowledge (EK) enables children to identify emotions in themselves and others, and its development facilitates emotion recognition in complex social situations. Sociocognitive processes, such as theory of mind (ToM), may contribute to developing EK by helping children realize the inherent variability associated with…

  16. The Structure of Preschoolers' Emotion Knowledge: Model Equivalence and Validity Using a Structural Equation Modeling Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bassett, Hideko Hamada; Denham, Susanne; Mincic, Melissa; Graling, Kelly

    2012-01-01

    Research Findings: A theory-based 2-factor structure of preschoolers' emotion knowledge (i.e., recognition of emotional expression and understanding of emotion-eliciting situations) was tested using confirmatory factor analysis. Compared to 1- and 3-factor models, the 2-factor model showed a better fit to the data. The model was found to be…

  17. Emotion Talk: Helping Caregivers Facilitate Emotion Understanding and Emotion Regulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brinton, Bonnie; Fujiki, Martin

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on two aspects of emotional intelligence, emotion understanding and emotion regulation. These abilities are important because of their impact on social communication and the way in which they influence a child's access to knowledge. Caregivers who engage their children in emotion talk may strengthen the ability of their…

  18. Preschool Interpersonal Relationships Predict Kindergarten Achievement: Mediated by Gains in Emotion Knowledge

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Marcela M.; Domitrovich, Celene E.; Bierman, Karen L.

    2016-01-01

    Using longitudinal data, this study tested a model in which preschool interpersonal relationships promoted kindergarten achievement in a pathway mediated by growth in emotion knowledge. The sample included 164 children attending Head Start (14% Hispanic-American, 30% African-American, 56% Caucasian; 56% girls). Preschool interpersonal relationships were indexed by student-teacher relationship closeness and positive peer interactions. Two measures of emotion knowledge (identifying emotions in photographs, recognizing emotions in stories) were assessed at the start and end of the preschool year. Structural equation models revealed that positive interpersonal relationships (with teachers and peers) predicted gains in emotion knowledge (identification, recognition) during the preschool year. Positive interpersonal relationships in preschool also predicted kindergarten achievement (controlling for initial preschool achievement); however, this association was mediated by gains in emotion knowledge during the preschool year. Implications are discussed for school readiness programs serving economically-disadvantaged children.

  19. Emotion knowledge in children and adolescents with Down syndrome: a new methodological approach.

    PubMed

    Channell, Marie Moore; Conners, Frances A; Barth, Joan M

    2014-09-01

    Emotion knowledge was examined in 19 youth with Down syndrome (DS) and compared to typically developing (TD) children of similar developmental levels. This project expanded upon prior research on emotion knowledge in DS by utilizing a measure that minimized the need for linguistic skills, presented emotion expressions dynamically, and included social context cues. In Study 1, participants with DS were as accurate as TD participants when judging emotions from static or dynamic expression stimuli and from facial or contextual cues. In Study 2, participants with DS and TD participants showed similar cross-sectional developmental trajectories of emotion knowledge across mental age. This project highlights the importance of measure selection when examining emotion knowledge in samples with intellectual and developmental disabilities. PMID:25148055

  20. Emotion in Online College Classrooms: Examining the Influence of Perceived Teacher Communication Behaviour on Students' Emotional Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Catherine F.; Young, Stacy L.

    2015-01-01

    This research focused on teacher communication behaviour as an influential factor in students' educational experiences. This study examined students' perceptions of emotion (involving teachers' emotional support, students' emotional work and students' positive emotional valence toward class and teacher) as influenced by a variety of predicting…

  1. Self-Regulation, Language Skills, and Emotion Knowledge in Young Children from Northern Germany

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Salisch, Maria; Haenel, Martha; Denham, Susanne Ayers

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: In order to examine the explanatory power of behavioral self-regulation in the domain of emotion knowledge, especially in a non-U.S. culture, 365 German 4- and 5-year-olds were individually tested on these constructs. Path analyses revealed that children's behavioral self-regulation explained their emotion knowledge in the…

  2. Transforming Environmental Knowledge into Behavior: The Mediating Role of Environmental Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carmi, Nurit; Arnon, Sara; Orion, Nir

    2015-01-01

    The present study was based on the premise that environmental knowledge can drive environmental behavior only if it arouses environmental emotions. Using a structural equations modeling approach, we tested the direct, as well as the indirect (mediated) effects of knowledge on behavior and assessed the mediating role of environmental emotions. We…

  3. Processing Mode Causally Influences Emotional Reactivity

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Ed; Moberly, Nicholas J.; Moulds, Michelle L.

    2008-01-01

    Three studies are reported showing that emotional responses to stress can be modified by systematic prior practice in adopting particular processing modes. Participants were induced to think about positive and negative scenarios in a mode either characteristic of or inconsistent with the abstract-evaluative mind-set observed in depressive rumination, via explicit instructions (Experiments 1 and 2) and via implicit induction of interpretative biases (Experiment 3), before being exposed to a failure experience. In all three studies, participants trained into the mode antithetical to depressive rumination demonstrated less emotional reactivity following failure than participants trained into the mode consistent with depressive rumination. These findings provide evidence consistent with the hypothesis that processing mode modifies emotional reactivity and support the processing-mode theory of rumination. PMID:18540752

  4. Emotions in context: pictorial influences on affective attributions.

    PubMed

    Marian, Diane E; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2012-04-01

    The visual illusion Terror Subterra, by Roger Shepard (1990), depicts a seemingly large creature chasing another in a tunnel, yet both creatures are physically identical. In addition to this visual illusion, the two creatures also appear to exhibit different emotions, as the background creature (the pursuer) appears angry whereas the foreground creature (the pursued) appears fearful. We explored this context effect by first establishing the magnitude of the emotional bias effect. We then modified the original drawing in various ways, such as equating for perceived size, removing one creature from the scene, and removing the pictorial context altogether. Findings suggest that the emotional bias is due to the pictorial setting and to the perceived social-emotional relationship between the two creatures. These results highlight the importance of both perceptual and social-emotional influences in driving affective attributions. PMID:22201243

  5. Instrumental music influences recognition of emotional body language.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; Peretz, Isabelle; Grèzes, Julie; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2009-05-01

    In everyday life, emotional events are perceived by multiple sensory systems. Research has shown that recognition of emotions in one modality is biased towards the emotion expressed in a simultaneously presented but task irrelevant modality. In the present study, we combine visual and auditory stimuli that convey similar affective meaning but have a low probability of co-occurrence in everyday life. Dynamic face-blurred whole body expressions of a person grasping an object while expressing happiness or sadness are presented in combination with fragments of happy or sad instrumental classical music. Participants were instructed to categorize the emotion expressed by the visual stimulus. The results show that recognition of body language is influenced by the auditory stimuli. These findings indicate that crossmodal influences as previously observed for audiovisual speech can also be obtained from the ignored auditory to the attended visual modality in audiovisual stimuli that consist of whole bodies and music. PMID:19588251

  6. Emotional Voice and Emotional Body Postures Influence Each Other Independently of Visual Awareness

    PubMed Central

    Stienen, Bernard M. C.; Tanaka, Akihiro; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Multisensory integration may occur independently of visual attention as previously shown with compound face-voice stimuli. We investigated in two experiments whether the perception of whole body expressions and the perception of voices influence each other when observers are not aware of seeing the bodily expression. In the first experiment participants categorized masked happy and angry bodily expressions while ignoring congruent or incongruent emotional voices. The onset between target and mask varied from −50 to +133 ms. Results show that the congruency between the emotion in the voice and the bodily expressions influences audiovisual perception independently of the visibility of the stimuli. In the second experiment participants categorized the emotional voices combined with masked bodily expressions as fearful or happy. This experiment showed that bodily expressions presented outside visual awareness still influence prosody perception. Our experiments show that audiovisual integration between bodily expressions and affective prosody can take place outside and independent of visual awareness. PMID:22003396

  7. Emotional voice and emotional body postures influence each other independently of visual awareness.

    PubMed

    Stienen, Bernard M C; Tanaka, Akihiro; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2011-01-01

    Multisensory integration may occur independently of visual attention as previously shown with compound face-voice stimuli. We investigated in two experiments whether the perception of whole body expressions and the perception of voices influence each other when observers are not aware of seeing the bodily expression. In the first experiment participants categorized masked happy and angry bodily expressions while ignoring congruent or incongruent emotional voices. The onset between target and mask varied from -50 to +133 ms. Results show that the congruency between the emotion in the voice and the bodily expressions influences audiovisual perception independently of the visibility of the stimuli. In the second experiment participants categorized the emotional voices combined with masked bodily expressions as fearful or happy. This experiment showed that bodily expressions presented outside visual awareness still influence prosody perception. Our experiments show that audiovisual integration between bodily expressions and affective prosody can take place outside and independent of visual awareness. PMID:22003396

  8. Improving Social Competence through Emotion Knowledge in 2-Year-Old Children: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giménez-Dasí, Marta; Fernández-Sánchez, Marta; Quintanilla, Laura

    2015-01-01

    Research Findings: The goal of this study was to determine the efficacy of an educational intervention program to improve emotion knowledge, emotion regulation, and social competence in 2-year-old Spanish children. This study makes two original contributions because there are no validated education programs for such young children and because it…

  9. Emotional Intelligence and Empathy: Their Relation to Multicultural Counseling Knowledge and Awareness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantine, Madonna G.; Gainor, Kathy A.

    2001-01-01

    Study examines the relationship among school counselors' emotional intelligence, empathy, and self-reported multicultural counseling knowledge and awareness. Findings revealed that school counselors' previous multicultural education, emotional intelligence scores, and personal distress empathy scores accounted for significant variance in their…

  10. Emotional Intelligence, Pain Knowledge, and Attitudes of Nursing Students in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Chan, Joanne C Y; Hamamura, Takeshi

    2016-04-01

    Research on nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes is limited. Although emotions play a role in pain assessment, no study has examined the associations between emotional intelligence and pain knowledge and the attitudes of nursing students. This cross-sectional quantitative study aimed to address this research gap by assessing the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students in Hong Kong and examining associations between emotional intelligence and the pain knowledge and attitudes of nursing students. A total of 104 postgraduate nursing students (45 Year 1 students and 59 Year 3 students) completed a questionnaire that included demographic information, the Schutte Emotional Intelligence Scale (SEIS) and the Knowledge and Attitudes Survey Regarding Pain (KASRP). Data analyses included descriptive statistics, correlational analyses, chi-square test and t-tests. The pain knowledge and attitudes of both Year 1 students (M = 20.40, SD = 3.78) and Year 3 students (M = 21.36, SD = 3.15) were suboptimal, t(102) = -1.41, p = .16. Year 1 students had higher emotional intelligence (M = 122.44, SD = 8.90) than Year 3 students (M = 117.71, SD = 14.34), t(98.35) = 2.07, p = .04. For Year 1 students, emotional intelligence was negatively correlated with pain knowledge and attitudes, but the correlation was not significant (r = -.15, p = .33). For Year 3 students, emotional intelligence, pain knowledge and attitudes were negatively correlated, but the correlation was significant (r = -.31, p = .02). These results suggest that nursing students' pain knowledge and attitudes could be improved. Implications for nurse educators to enhance emotional intelligence and pain education for nursing students are discussed. PMID:27108083

  11. Student Teachers' Knowledge about Children with ADHD and Depression and Its Relations to Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Timoštšuk, Inge

    2016-01-01

    Student teachers' knowledge about children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and depression and its relations to reporting experiencing emotions during teaching practice were studied. The participants were 186 teacher education students in Estonia. Student teachers' general knowledge and confidence in knowledge varied a lot.…

  12. The Influence of Emotion on Students' Performance in Dissection Exercises

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holstermann, Nina; Grube, Dietmar; Bogeholz, Susanne

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the issue of how emotions such as disgust influence students' self-efficacy belief in terms of mastering a dissection task and also how these affect their interest in the biology of the heart. Following models of intrinsic motivation and the development of motivation, we expected disgust to negatively impact on students'…

  13. Socialization of Emotion: Who Influences Whom and How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn

    2010-01-01

    Emotion socialization begins within the family setting and extends outward as children transition into expanded social worlds. Children contribute to their socialization from the first years of life, so the dynamics between parents and children are reciprocal in nature. Because socialization influences are best inferred from patterns that unfold…

  14. Emotion-based preventive intervention: Effectively promoting emotion knowledge and adaptive behavior among at-risk preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Finlon, Kristy J; Izard, Carroll E; Seidenfeld, Adina; Johnson, Stacy R; Cavadel, Elizabeth Woodburn; Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Morgan, Judith K

    2015-11-01

    Effectiveness studies of preschool social-emotional programs are needed in low-income, diverse populations to help promote the well-being of at-risk children. Following an initial program efficacy study 2 years prior, 248 culturally diverse Head Start preschool children participated in the current effectiveness trial and received either the Emotion-Based Prevention Program (EBP) or the I Can Problem Solve (ICPS) intervention. Pre- and postdata collection included direct child assessment, teacher report, parent interview, and independent observations. Teachers implementing the EBP intervention demonstrated good and consistent fidelity to the program. Overall, children in EBP classrooms gained more emotion knowledge and displayed greater decreases in negative emotion expressions and internalizing behaviors across the implementation period as compared to children in ICPS classrooms. In addition, cumulative risk, parental depressive symptoms, and classroom climate significantly moderated treatment effects. For children experiencing more stress or less support, EBP produced more successful outcomes than did ICPS. These results provide evidence of EBP sustainability and program effectiveness, as did previous findings that demonstrated EBP improvements in emotion knowledge, regulation skills, and behavior problems replicated under unsupervised program conditions. PMID:26439080

  15. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence

    PubMed Central

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R. J. M.; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12–17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a “proself” orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than “prosocial” participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction. PMID:24282399

  16. Emotional reactions of peers influence decisions about fairness in adolescence.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Peters, Sabine; Vermeiren, Robert R J M; Lelieveld, Gert-Jan

    2013-01-01

    During adolescence, peers take on increasing importance, while social skills are still developing. However, how emotions of peers influence social decisions during that age period is insufficiently known. We therefore examined the effects of three different emotional responses (anger, disappointment, happiness) on decisions about fairness in a sample of 156 adolescents aged 12-17 years. Participants received written emotional responses from peers in a version of the Dictator Game to a previous unfair offer. Adolescents reacted with more generous offers after disappointed reactions compared to angry and happy reactions. Furthermore, we found preliminary evidence for developmental differences over adolescence, since older adolescents differentiated more between the three emotions than younger adolescents. In addition, individual differences in social value orientation played a role in decisions after happy reactions of peers to a previous unfair offer, such that participants with a "proself" orientation made more unfair offers to happy peers than "prosocial" participants. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that adolescents take emotions of peers into account when making social decisions, while individual differences in social value orientation affect these decisions, and age seems to influence the nature of the reaction. PMID:24282399

  17. Social and Emotional Learning in the Classroom: Evaluation of "Strong Kids" and "Strong Teens" on Students' Social-Emotional Knowledge and Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merrell, Kenneth W.; Juskelis, Michael P.; Tran, Oanh K.; Buchanan, Rohanna

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the results of three pilot studies that were conducted to evaluate the recently developed "Strong Kids" and "Strong Teens" social-emotional learning programs in increasing students' knowledge of healthy social-emotional behavior and decreasing their symptoms of negative affect and emotional distress. The first study included…

  18. Mutual influences of pain and emotional face processing

    PubMed Central

    Wieser, Matthias J.; Gerdes, Antje B. M.; Reicherts, Philipp; Pauli, Paul

    2014-01-01

    The perception of unpleasant stimuli enhances whereas the perception of pleasant stimuli decreases pain perception. In contrast, the effects of pain on the processing of emotional stimuli are much less known. Especially given the recent interest in facial expressions of pain as a special category of emotional stimuli, a main topic in this research line is the mutual influence of pain and facial expression processing. Therefore, in this mini-review we selectively summarize research on the effects of emotional stimuli on pain, but more extensively turn to the opposite direction namely how pain influences concurrent processing of affective stimuli such as facial expressions. Based on the motivational priming theory one may hypothesize that the perception of pain enhances the processing of unpleasant stimuli and decreases the processing of pleasant stimuli. This review reveals that the literature is only partly consistent with this assumption: pain reduces the processing of pleasant pictures and happy facial expressions, but does not – or only partly – affect processing of unpleasant pictures. However, it was demonstrated that pain selectively enhances the processing of facial expressions if these are pain-related (i.e., facial expressions of pain). Extending a mere affective modulation theory, the latter results suggest pain-specific effects which may be explained by the perception-action model of empathy. Together, these results underscore the important mutual influence of pain and emotional face processing. PMID:25352817

  19. Emotional influences on food choice: sensory, physiological and psychological pathways.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Edward Leigh

    2006-08-30

    Sensory, physiological and psychological mechanisms are reviewed that underlie emotional influences on food choice. Both moods and emotions are considered. Eating a meal will reliably alter mood and emotional predisposition, typically reducing arousal and irritability, and increasing calmness and positive affect. However, this depends on the meal size and composition being close to the eater's habit, expectations and needs. Unusual meals--e.g. too small, unhealthy--may negatively affect mood. Sweetness, and sensory cues to high energy density, such as fatty texture, can improve mood and mitigate effects of stress via brain opioidergic and dopaminergic neurotransmission. However, adaptation in these pathways, perhaps enhanced by inherited sensitivity, with chronic exposure to such sensory qualities, could lead to overeating of energy-dense foods and consequent obesity. Sweet, fatty foods low in protein may also provide alleviation from stress in vulnerable people via enhanced function of the serotonergic system. Moreover, in rats, such foods seem to act as part of a feedback loop, via release of glucocorticoid hormones and insulin, to restrain activity of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis during stress. However, this effect is also associated with abdominal obesity. In humans, a number of psychological characteristics predict the tendency to choose such foods when stressed, such as restrained or emotional eating, neuroticism, depression and premenstrual dysphoria, all of which could indicate neurophysiological sensitivity to reinforcing effects of such foods. Greater understanding of such predictive traits and the underlying mechanisms could lead to tailoring of diet to meet personal emotional needs. PMID:16545403

  20. Emotion Knowledge and Attentional Differences in Preschoolers Showing Context-Inappropriate Anger.

    PubMed

    Locke, Robin L; Lang, Nichole J

    2016-08-01

    Some children show anger inappropriate for the situation based on the predominant incentives, which is called context-inappropriate anger. Children need to attend to and interpret situational incentives for appropriate emotional responses. We examined associations of context-inappropriate anger with emotion recognition and attention problems in 43 preschoolers (42% male; M age = 55.1 months, SD = 4.1). Parents rated context-inappropriate anger across situations. Teachers rated attention problems using the Child Behavior Checklist-Teacher Report Form. Emotion recognition was ability to recognize emotional faces using the Emotion Matching Test. Anger perception bias was indicated by anger to non-anger situations using an adapted Affect Knowledge Test. 28% of children showed context-inappropriate anger, which correlated with lower emotion recognition (β = -.28) and higher attention problems (β = .36). Higher attention problems correlated with more anger perception bias (β = .32). This cross-sectional, correlational study provides preliminary findings that children with context-inappropriate anger showed more attention problems, which suggests that both "problems" tend to covary and associate with deficits or biases in emotion knowledge. PMID:27417387

  1. Effects of Emotional and Sensorimotor Knowledge in Semantic Processing of Concrete and Abstract Nouns

    PubMed Central

    Newcombe, P. Ian; Campbell, Cale; Siakaluk, Paul D.; Pexman, Penny M.

    2012-01-01

    There is much empirical evidence that words’ relative imageability and body-object interaction (BOI) facilitate lexical processing for concrete nouns (e.g., Bennett et al., 2011). These findings are consistent with a grounded cognition framework (e.g., Barsalou, 2008), in which sensorimotor knowledge is integral to lexical processing. In the present study, we examined whether lexical processing is also sensitive to the dimension of emotional experience (i.e., the ease with which words evoke emotional experience), which is also derived from a grounded cognition framework. We examined the effects of emotional experience, imageability, and BOI in semantic categorization for concrete and abstract nouns. Our results indicate that for concrete nouns, emotional experience was associated with less accurate categorization, whereas imageability and BOI were associated with faster and more accurate categorization. For abstract nouns, emotional experience was associated with faster and more accurate categorization, whereas BOI was associated with slower and less accurate categorization. This pattern of results was observed even with many other lexical and semantic dimensions statistically controlled. These findings are consistent with Vigliocco et al.’s (2009) theory of semantic representation, which states that emotional knowledge underlies meanings for abstract concepts, whereas sensorimotor knowledge underlies meanings for concrete concepts. PMID:23060778

  2. Emotion Knowledge, Loneliness, Negative Social Experiences, and Internalizing Symptoms Among Low-Income Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Heinze, Justin E.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Locke, Robin

    2014-01-01

    Children with poor emotion knowledge (EK) skills are at risk for externalizing problems; less is known about early internalizing behavior. We examined multiple facets of EK and social-emotional experiences relevant for internalizing difficulties, including loneliness, victimization, and peer rejection, in Head Start preschoolers (N = 134; M = 60 months). Results based on multiple informants suggest that facets of EK are differentially related to negative social-emotional experiences and internalizing behavior and that sex plays a moderating role. Behavioral EK was associated with self-reported loneliness, victimization/rejection, and parent-reported internalizing symptoms. Emotion recognition and expressive emotion knowledge were related to self-reported loneliness, and emotion situation knowledge was related to parent-reported internalizing symptoms and negative peer nominations. Sex moderated many of these associations, suggesting that EK may operate differently for girls versus boys in the preschool social context. Results are discussed with regard to the role of EK for social development and intervention implications. PMID:25859097

  3. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely "Tension" (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), "Expressiveness" (Expressionless to Expressive), "Amusement" (Boring to Amusing) and "Attractiveness" (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are "Happiness," "Surprise," and "Sadness." This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions. PMID:27536232

  4. Influence of Tempo and Rhythmic Unit in Musical Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Sotos, Alicia; Fernández-Caballero, Antonio; Latorre, José M.

    2016-01-01

    This article is based on the assumption of musical power to change the listener's mood. The paper studies the outcome of two experiments on the regulation of emotional states in a series of participants who listen to different auditions. The present research focuses on note value, an important musical cue related to rhythm. The influence of two concepts linked to note value is analyzed separately and discussed together. The two musical cues under investigation are tempo and rhythmic unit. The participants are asked to label music fragments by using opposite meaningful words belonging to four semantic scales, namely “Tension” (ranging from Relaxing to Stressing), “Expressiveness” (Expressionless to Expressive), “Amusement” (Boring to Amusing) and “Attractiveness” (Pleasant to Unpleasant). The participants also have to indicate how much they feel certain basic emotions while listening to each music excerpt. The rated emotions are “Happiness,” “Surprise,” and “Sadness.” This study makes it possible to draw some interesting conclusions about the associations between note value and emotions. PMID:27536232

  5. Islamic Headdress Influences How Emotion is Recognized from the Eyes.

    PubMed

    Kret, Mariska Esther; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative bias in the perception of whole facial expressions from out-group members. Whether or not emotion recognition from the eyes is already sensitive to contextual information is presently a matter of debate. In three experiments we tested whether emotions can be recognized when just the eyes are visible and whether this recognition is affected by context cues, such as various Islamic headdresses vs. a cap or a scarf. Our results indicate that fear is still well recognized from a briefly flashed (100 ms) image of a women wearing a burqa with less than 20% transparency of the eye region. Moreover, the type of headdress influences how emotions are recognized. In a group of participants from non-Islamic background, fear was recognized better from women wearing a niqāb than from women wearing a cap and a shawl, whereas the opposite was observed for happy and sad expressions. The response patterns showed that fearful and anger labels were more often attributed to women with a niqāb vs. a cap and a shawl and again, an opposite pattern was observed for the happy response. However, there was no general response bias: both correct and incorrect responses were influenced by the facial expression as well. Anxiety levels and/or explicit negative associations with the Islam as measured via questionnaires did not mediate the effects. Consistent with the face literature, we conclude that the recognition of emotions from the eyes is also influenced by context. PMID:22557983

  6. Islamic Headdress Influences How Emotion is Recognized from the Eyes

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska Esther; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has shown a negative bias in the perception of whole facial expressions from out-group members. Whether or not emotion recognition from the eyes is already sensitive to contextual information is presently a matter of debate. In three experiments we tested whether emotions can be recognized when just the eyes are visible and whether this recognition is affected by context cues, such as various Islamic headdresses vs. a cap or a scarf. Our results indicate that fear is still well recognized from a briefly flashed (100 ms) image of a women wearing a burqa with less than 20% transparency of the eye region. Moreover, the type of headdress influences how emotions are recognized. In a group of participants from non-Islamic background, fear was recognized better from women wearing a niqāb than from women wearing a cap and a shawl, whereas the opposite was observed for happy and sad expressions. The response patterns showed that fearful and anger labels were more often attributed to women with a niqāb vs. a cap and a shawl and again, an opposite pattern was observed for the happy response. However, there was no general response bias: both correct and incorrect responses were influenced by the facial expression as well. Anxiety levels and/or explicit negative associations with the Islam as measured via questionnaires did not mediate the effects. Consistent with the face literature, we conclude that the recognition of emotions from the eyes is also influenced by context. PMID:22557983

  7. Emotion Knowledge Skills in Low-Income Elementary School Children: Associations with Social Status and Peer Experiences

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Alison L.; Gouley, Kathleen Kiely; Seifer, Ronald; Zakriski, Audrey; Eguia, Maria; Vergnani, Michael

    2005-01-01

    This short-term longitudinal study examined relations between emotion knowledge and social functioning in a sample of low-income kindergarten and 1st graders. Individual differences in spontaneous emotion naming and emotion recognition skills were used to predict children's social functioning at school, including peer-nominated sociometric status,…

  8. Factors Influencing Knowledge Sharing among Undergraduate Students: A Malaysian Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Hway-Boon; Yeap, Peik-Foong; Tan, Siow-Hooi; Chong, Lee-Lee

    2011-01-01

    Knowledge sharing can enhance learning and help to build the knowledge workforce. This paper reports on a study of knowledge sharing behaviour among undergraduate students in Malaysia. Knowledge sharing was found to be influenced by the mechanisms used, various barriers to communication and the motivations behind knowledge sharing. The mechanisms…

  9. Gender influence on emotional responses to primary tastes.

    PubMed

    Robin, O; Rousmans, S; Dittmar, A; Vernet-Maury, E

    2003-03-01

    Several studies have examined the gender differences in the area of emotion, but few data are available in the field of gustation. Yet, such differences are observed in clinical manifestations of nutritional disorders, such as a greater incidence of carbohydrate cravings in women. The aim of this study was consequently to examine the influence of gender on emotional responses to taste, by comparing autonomic responses and basic emotions associated with primary tastes between men and women. Thirty-four subjects (17 males, 17 females, mean age=28) participated in the experiment. Taste stimuli were solutions of 0.3 M sucrose (sweet), 0.15 M NaCl (salty), 0.02 M citric acid (sour) and 0.00015 M quinine sulfate (bitter). Evian mineral water served as the diluent and control (neutral taste). Five autonomic parameters [skin potential (SP) and resistance (SR), skin blood flow (SBF) and temperature (ST), instantaneous heart rate (IHR)] were simultaneously and continuously recorded when subjects tasted the five solutions. The patterns of autonomic responses, obtained for each primary taste and each subject, were transcribed into one of the six basic emotions defined by Ekman (happiness, surprise, sadness, fear, anger and disgust), according to a previously described method for odorants. Results evidenced that the mean variations of each autonomic parameter did not significantly differ between men and women, even if skin resistance and cardiac responses were stronger in men than in women. Concerning the basic emotions associated with each primary taste, a similar distribution for men and women was obtained for sweet, bitter and control solutions, whereas more differences were observed for salt (P=.02) and sour solutions. PMID:12676273

  10. Context-Inappropriate Anger, Emotion Knowledge Deficits, and Negative Social Experiences in Preschool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Locke, Robin L.; Miller, Alison L.; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined contextually inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n = 134). Approximately 23% showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI…

  11. Preservice Teachers' Self Efficacy and Knowledge of Emotional and Behavioural Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shillingford, Shani; Karlin, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    This research examined preservice teachers' knowledge of emotional and behavioural disorders (EBD) and their sense of efficacy. The participants included a convenience sample of 230 undergraduate general education and special education preservice teachers enrolled in teacher education classes. The age of the participants ranged from 19 to 51…

  12. Parenting Predictors of Cognitive Skills and Emotion Knowledge in Socioeconomically Disadvantaged Preschoolers

    PubMed Central

    Merz, Emily C.; Zucker, Tricia A.; Landry, Susan H.; Williams, Jeffrey M.; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B.; Lonigan, Christopher J.; Phillips, Beth M.; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A.; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age = 3.21 years; N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. One year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge one year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967

  13. Critical Pedagogy and Emotion: Working through "Troubled Knowledge" in Posttraumatic Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zembylas, Michalinos

    2013-01-01

    This article critiques some of the existing literature in critical pedagogy and the way it tends to overlook or downplay the strong emotional investments of troubled knowledge in posttraumatic situations. Examining existing literature in critical pedagogy reiterates the argument that the discourse of critical pedagogy constructs and sustains its…

  14. Social and Emotional Learning in Classrooms: A Survey of Teachers' Knowledge, Perceptions, and Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Rohanna; Gueldner, Barbara A.; Tran, Oanh K.; Merrell, Kenneth W.

    2009-01-01

    A survey study was conducted to examine teachers' knowledge, perceptions, and practices regarding social and emotional learning (SEL) in the classroom. Teachers from two states (N = 263) provided a range of responses regarding how to promote SEL in their classrooms, increase the effectiveness of SEL, and reduce barriers to implementation. Results…

  15. Parenting predictors of cognitive skills and emotion knowledge in socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers.

    PubMed

    Merz, Emily C; Zucker, Tricia A; Landry, Susan H; Williams, Jeffrey M; Assel, Michael; Taylor, Heather B; Lonigan, Christopher J; Phillips, Beth M; Clancy-Menchetti, Jeanine; Barnes, Marcia A; Eisenberg, Nancy; de Villiers, Jill

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal associations of parental responsiveness and inferential language input with cognitive skills and emotion knowledge among socioeconomically disadvantaged preschoolers. Parents and 2- to 4-year-old children (mean age=3.21 years, N=284) participated in a parent-child free play session, and children completed cognitive (language, early literacy, early mathematics) and emotion knowledge assessments. Approximately 1 year later, children completed the same assessment battery. Parental responsiveness was coded from the videotaped parent-child free play sessions, and parental inferential language input was coded from transcripts of a subset of 127 of these sessions. All analyses controlled for child age, gender, and parental education, and longitudinal analyses controlled for initial skill level. Parental responsiveness significantly predicted all concurrent cognitive skills as well as literacy, math, and emotion knowledge 1 year later. Parental inferential language input was significantly positively associated with children's concurrent emotion knowledge. In longitudinal analyses, an interaction was found such that for children with stronger initial language skills, higher levels of parental inferential language input facilitated greater vocabulary development, whereas for children with weaker initial language skills, there was no association between parental inferential language input and change in children's vocabulary skills. These findings further our understanding of the roles of parental responsiveness and inferential language input in promoting children's school readiness skills. PMID:25576967

  16. Emotion Knowledge and Autobiographical Memory across the Preschool Years: A Cross-Cultural Longitudinal Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Qi

    2008-01-01

    Knowledge of emotion situations facilitates the interpretation, processing, and organization of significant personal event information and thus may be an important contributor to the development of autobiographical memory. This longitudinal study tested the hypothesis in a cross-cultural context. The participants were native Chinese children,…

  17. Put on a happy face! Inhibitory control and socioemotional knowledge predict emotion regulation in 5- to 7-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Hudson, Amanda; Jacques, Sophie

    2014-07-01

    Children's developing capacity to regulate emotions may depend on individual characteristics and other abilities, including age, sex, inhibitory control, theory of mind, and emotion and display rule knowledge. In the current study, we examined the relations between these variables and children's (N=107) regulation of emotion in a disappointing gift paradigm as well as their relations with the amount of effort to control emotion children exhibited after receiving the disappointing gift. Regression analyses were also conducted to identify unique predictors. Children's understanding of others' emotions and emotion display rules, as well as their inhibitory control skills, emerged as significant correlates of emotion regulation and predicted children's responses to the disappointing gift even after controlling for other relevant variables. Age and inhibitory control significantly predicted the amount of overt effort that went into regulating emotions, as did emotion knowledge (albeit only marginally). Together, findings suggest that effectively regulating emotions requires (a) knowledge of context-appropriate emotions along with (b) inhibitory skills to implement that knowledge. PMID:24691036

  18. The Associations of Emotion Knowledge and Teacher-Child Relationships to Preschool Children's School-Related Developmental Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the relative contributions of emotion knowledge and teacher-child relational variables to school competence. Seventy-four economically and ethnically diverse preschoolers (40 boys, 34 girls) completed an emotion knowledge task and a standardized school competence measure. Classroom teachers and their assistants rated the…

  19. Influences of Parent and Child Negative Emotionality on Young Children’s Everyday Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Trentacosta, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    Negative emotionality is linked to unfavorable life outcomes, but studies have yet to examine negative emotionality of parents and children as predictors of children’s problem behaviors and negative emotion word use in everyday life. This study used a novel naturalistic recording device called the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR) to investigate the separate and interactive influences of parent and child negative emotionality on daily child behaviors in a sample of 35 preschool-aged children over two time points separated by one year. Fathers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s whining at Time 1; mothers’ negative emotionality predicted children’s negative emotion word use at Time 1 and increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2. Parents’ ratings of child negative emotionality also were associated with increases in children’s arguing/fighting from Time 1 to Time 2, and child negative emotionality moderated the association between mothers’ negative emotionality and children’s arguing/fighting. Further, children with mothers high in negative emotionality displayed higher levels of problem behaviors when their mothers self-reported low levels of positive emotional expressiveness and/or high levels of negative emotional expressiveness. These findings offer preliminary evidence linking parent and child negative emotionality to everyday child behaviors, and suggest that emotional expressiveness may play a key role in moderating the links between maternal negative emotionality and child behavioral problems. PMID:22390707

  20. Anticipation of a psychosocial stressor differentially influences ghrelin, cortisol and food intake among emotional and non-emotional eaters.

    PubMed

    Raspopow, Kate; Abizaid, Alfonso; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-03-01

    Negative emotions trigger eating in some individuals (emotional eaters) possibly by influencing stress hormones that contribute to eating regulation (e.g., cortisol), or eating-related peptides (e.g., ghrelin) signaling food initiation. The present study assessed whether stressor-elicited cortisol and ghrelin changes would differ between emotional and non-emotional eaters, and whether eating would influence these neuroendocrine responses. Undergraduate women (N=103) who completed measures of emotional eating, were assigned to anticipate either a stressful (public speaking) or non-stressful event. During this period, participants were or were not offered food. Blood samples were taken continuously over a 40-min period to assess changes of cortisol and ghrelin levels, and mood was assessed after the anticipation period. Baseline ghrelin levels were lower in emotional than non-emotional eaters, and this relation was mediated by percent body fat. Ghrelin levels were elevated among women anticipating a stressor, compared to those in the control condition. Additionally, the normal decline of ghrelin following food consumption was not apparent among emotional eaters. Although food intake was not tied to hormone responses, reported hunger was associated with greater food intake for women in the stressor condition. It was suggested that emotional eating coupled with subjective feelings of hunger, might contribute to eating in response to an acute stressor. Additionally, feedback mechanisms controlling the normalization of ghrelin levels might be disturbed in emotional eaters. The similarity of the ghrelin profile of emotional eaters to that of binge eaters and obese individuals, raises the possibility that disturbed ghrelin response might be a risk factor for such conditions. PMID:24295926

  1. How Emotional Pictures Influence Visuospatial Binding in Short-Term Memory in Ageing and Alzheimer's Disease?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borg, Celine; Leroy, Nicolas; Favre, Emilie; Laurent, Bernard; Thomas-Anterion, Catherine

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines the prediction that emotion can facilitate short-term memory. Nevertheless, emotion also recruits attention to process information, thereby disrupting short-term memory when tasks involve high attentional resources. In this way, we aimed to determine whether there is a differential influence of emotional information on…

  2. The Influence of Emotional Stimuli on Attention Orienting and Inhibitory Control in Pediatric Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Sven C.; Hardin, Michael G.; Mogg, Karin; Benson, Valerie; Bradley, Brendan P.; Reinholdt-Dunne, Marie Louise; Liversedge, Simon P.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique

    2012-01-01

    Background: Anxiety disorders are highly prevalent in children and adolescents, and are associated with aberrant emotion-related attention orienting and inhibitory control. While recent studies conducted with high-trait anxious adults have employed novel emotion-modified antisaccade tasks to examine the influence of emotional information on…

  3. Knowledge as an emotional and intellectual realization of the unconscious. Gnosiology, Psychedelic Drugs and Prenatal Experiences*

    PubMed

    Kafkalides, Zephyros

    2000-01-01

    The use of psychedelic drugs in minute doses as an adjuvant psychotherapeutic means, within the context of Athanassios Kafkalides' autopsychognosia, caused the emotional revival of prenatal and perinatal experiences. This mnemonic process gives rise to a wide range of gnosiological questions such as, inter alia, those regarding the use of psychedelic drugs to stimulate memories and the difference between emotional and intellectual realization in the quest for knowledge. The new findings in this field necessitated profound changes of concepts like truth, reality, subjectivity, objectivity, unconscious, consciousness, cause and effect, emotions, intellect, quality, quantity, etc. The study presented here will deal with these issues in the context of gnosiotheoretical stands supported by thinkers from Plato to Feyerabend. PMID:11455368

  4. How School Climate Influences Teachers' Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu

    2015-10-01

    Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers' emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p-12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers' perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers' perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers' use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China. PMID:26457713

  5. How School Climate Influences Teachers’ Emotional Exhaustion: The Mediating Role of Emotional Labor

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Xiuping; Yao, Meilin; Zong, Xiaoli; Li, Yulan; Li, Xiying; Guo, Fangfang; Cui, Guanyu

    2015-01-01

    Currently, in China, improving the quality of teachers’ emotional labor has become an urgent need for most pre-kindergarten through 12th grade (p–12) schools because the new curriculum reform highlights the role of emotion in teaching. A total of 703 primary and high school teachers in Mainland China were investigated regarding their perceptions of school climate, emotional labor strategy and emotional exhaustion via questionnaires. The findings revealed that the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate negatively affected surface acting but positively affected deep acting. Surface acting positively predicted emotional exhaustion, and deep acting had no significant effect on emotional exhaustion. Moreover, emotional labor mediated the relationship between the teachers’ perceptions of the school climate and emotional exhaustion. Programs aimed at improving the school climate and the teachers’ use of appropriate emotional labor strategies should be implemented in schools in Mainland China. PMID:26457713

  6. Theory of Mind Predicts Emotion Knowledge Development in Head Start Children

    PubMed Central

    Seidenfeld, Adina M.; Johnson, Stacy R.; Cavadel, Elizabeth Woodburn; Izard, Carroll E.

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings Emotion knowledge (EK) enables children to identify emotions in themselves and others and its development facilitates emotion recognition in complex social situations. Social-cognitive processes, such as theory of mind (ToM), may contribute to developing EK by helping children realize the inherent variability associated with emotion expression across individuals and situations. The present study explored how ToM, particularly false belief understanding, in preschool predicts children’s developing EK in kindergarten. Participants were 60 3- to 5-year-old Head Start children. ToM and EK measures were obtained from standardized child tasks. ToM scores were positively related to performance on an EK task in kindergarten after controlling for preschool levels of EK and verbal ability. Exploratory analyses provided preliminary evidence that ToM serves as an indirect effect between verbal ability and EK. Practice or Policy Early intervention programs may benefit from including lessons on ToM to help promote socio-emotional learning, specifically EK. This consideration may be the most fruitful when the targeted population is at-risk. PMID:25364212

  7. Context-inappropriate anger, emotion knowledge deficits, and negative social experiences in preschool.

    PubMed

    Locke, Robin L; Miller, Alison L; Seifer, Ronald; Heinze, Justin E

    2015-10-01

    This study examined contextually inappropriate (CI) anger in relation to emotion recognition and situation knowledge, negative social experiences, and externalizing behavior among low-income 4-year-olds attending Head Start (n = 134). Approximately 23% showed anger when presented with positive/neutral slides and videos (valence-incongruent CI anger), whereas 40% of children showed anger when presented with negative slides and videos (valence-congruent CI anger). Valence-incongruent CI anger was associated with lower emotion situation knowledge (for boys only), more self-reported peer rejection and loneliness, and greater negative nominations by teachers and peers. Both valence-incongruent and (for boys only) valence-congruent CI anger were positively associated with externalizing behavior. Overall, valence-incongruent CI anger was more strongly associated with negative child outcomes than valence-congruent CI anger. PMID:26376288

  8. Informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues: The influence of morality and content knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadler, Troy Dow

    This study focused on informal reasoning regarding socioscientific issues. It explored how morality and content knowledge influenced the negotiation and resolution of contentious and complex scenarios based on genetic engineering. Two hundred and sixty-nine undergraduate students completed a quantitative test of genetics concepts. A sub-set of the students (n = 30) who completed this instrument and represented divergent levels of content knowledge participated in two individual interviews, during which they discussed their ideas, reactions, and solutions to three gene therapy scenarios and three cloning scenarios. A mixed-methods approach was used to examine patterns of informal reasoning and the influence of morality, the effects of content knowledge on the use of informal reasoning patterns, and the effects of content knowledge on the quality of informal reasoning. Students demonstrated evidence of rationalistic, emotive, and intuitive forms of informal reasoning. Rationalistic informal reasoning described reason-based considerations; emotive informal reasoning described care-based considerations; and intuitive reasoning described considerations based on immediate reactions to the context of a scenario. Participants frequently relied on combinations of these reasoning patterns as they worked to resolve individual socioscientific scenarios. Most of the participants appreciated at least some of the moral implications of their decisions, and these considerations were typically interwoven within an overall pattern of informal reasoning. Although differences in content knowledge were not found to be related to modes of informal reasoning (rationalistic, emotive, and informal), data did indicate that differences in content knowledge were related to variations in informal reasoning quality. Participants, with more advanced understandings of genetics, demonstrated fewer instances of reasoning flaws, as defined by a priori criteria (intra-scenario coherence, inter

  9. Early visual ERPs are influenced by individual emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Meaux, Emilie; Roux, Sylvie; Batty, Magali

    2014-08-01

    Processing information from faces is crucial to understanding others and to adapting to social life. Many studies have investigated responses to facial emotions to provide a better understanding of the processes and the neural networks involved. Moreover, several studies have revealed abnormalities of emotional face processing and their neural correlates in affective disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate whether early visual event-related potentials (ERPs) are affected by the emotional skills of healthy adults. Unfamiliar faces expressing the six basic emotions were presented to 28 young adults while recording visual ERPs. No specific task was required during the recording. Participants also completed the Social Skills Inventory (SSI) which measures social and emotional skills. The results confirmed that early visual ERPs (P1, N170) are affected by the emotions expressed by a face and also demonstrated that N170 and P2 are correlated to the emotional skills of healthy subjects. While N170 is sensitive to the subject's emotional sensitivity and expressivity, P2 is modulated by the ability of the subjects to control their emotions. We therefore suggest that N170 and P2 could be used as individual markers to assess strengths and weaknesses in emotional areas and could provide information for further investigations of affective disorders. PMID:23720573

  10. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions.

    PubMed

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research. PMID:27540366

  11. Aesthetic Chills: Knowledge-Acquisition, Meaning-Making, and Aesthetic Emotions

    PubMed Central

    Schoeller, Felix; Perlovsky, Leonid

    2016-01-01

    This article addresses the relation between aesthetic emotions, knowledge-acquisition, and meaning-making. We briefly review theoretical foundations and present experimental data related to aesthetic chills. These results suggest that aesthetic chills are inhibited by exposing the subject to an incoherent prime prior to the chill-eliciting stimulation and that a meaningful prime makes the aesthetic experience more pleasurable than a neutral or an incoherent one. Aesthetic chills induced by narrative structures seem to be related to the pinnacle of the story, to have a significant calming effect and subjects describe a strong empathy for the characters. We discuss the relation between meaning-making and aesthetic emotions at the psychological, physiological, narratological, and mathematical levels and propose a series of hypotheses to be tested in future research. PMID:27540366

  12. Follow the heart or the head? The interactive influence model of emotion and cognition

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jiayi; Yu, Rongjun

    2015-01-01

    The experience of emotion has a powerful influence on daily-life decision making. Following Plato’s description of emotion and reason as two horses pulling us in opposite directions, modern dual-system models of decision making endorse the antagonism between reason and emotion. Decision making is perceived as the competition between an emotion system that is automatic but prone to error and a reason system that is slow but rational. The reason system (in “the head”) reins in our impulses (from “the heart”) and overrides our snap judgments. However, from Darwin’s evolutionary perspective, emotion is adaptive, guiding us to make sound decisions in uncertainty. Here, drawing findings from behavioral economics and neuroeconomics, we provide a new model, labeled “The interactive influence model of emotion and cognition,” to elaborate the relationship of emotion and reason in decision making. Specifically, in our model, we identify factors that determine when emotions override reason and delineate the type of contexts in which emotions help or hurt decision making. We then illustrate how cognition modulates emotion and how they cooperate to affect decision making. PMID:25999889

  13. Emotion effects during reading: Influence of an emotion target word on eye movements and processing.

    PubMed

    Knickerbocker, Hugh; Johnson, Rebecca L; Altarriba, Jeanette

    2015-01-01

    Recently, Scott, O'Donnell and Sereno reported that words of high valence and arousal are processed with greater ease than neutral words during sentence reading. However, this study unsystematically intermixed emotion (label a state of mind, e.g., terrified or happy) and emotion-laden words (refer to a concept that is associated with an emotional state, e.g., debt or marriage). We compared the eye-movement record while participants read sentences that contained a neutral target word (e.g., chair) or an emotion word (no emotion-laden words were included). Readers were able to process both positive (e.g., happy) and negative emotion words (e.g., distressed) faster than neutral words. This was true across a wide range of early (e.g., first fixation durations) and late (e.g., total times on the post-target region) measures. Additional analyses revealed that State Trait Anxiety Inventory scores interacted with the emotion effect and that the emotion effect was not due to arousal alone. PMID:25034443

  14. Influencing and adjusting in daily emotional situations: a comparison of European and Asian American action styles.

    PubMed

    Boiger, Michael; Mesquita, Batja; Tsai, Annie Y; Markus, Hazel

    2012-01-01

    Emotions are for action, but action styles in emotional episodes may vary across cultural contexts. Based on culturally different models of agency, we expected that those who engage in European-American contexts will use more influence in emotional situations, while those who engage in East-Asian contexts will use more adjustment. European-American (N=60) and Asian-American (N=44) college students reported their action style during emotional episodes four times a day during a week. Asian Americans adjusted more than European Americans, whereas both used influence to a similar extent. These cultural differences in action style varied across types of emotion experienced. Moreover, influencing was associated with life satisfaction for European Americans, but not for Asian Americans. PMID:21707271

  15. The Influence of Emotional Words on Sentence Processing: Electrophysiological and Behavioral Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin-Loeches, Manuel; Fernandez, Anabel; Schacht, Annekathrin; Sommer, Werner; Casado, Pilar; Jimenez-Ortega, Laura; Fondevila, Sabela

    2012-01-01

    Whereas most previous studies on emotion in language have focussed on single words, we investigated the influence of the emotional valence of a word on the syntactic and semantic processes unfolding during sentence comprehension, by means of event-related brain potentials (ERP). Experiment 1 assessed how positive, negative, and neutral adjectives…

  16. The Influence of School Socioeconomic Status on First-Year Teachers' Emotions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darby, Alexa; Mihans, Richard; Gonzalez, Kirsten; Lyons, Mary; Goldstein, Julie; Anderson, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    This study examined first-year teachers' (FYTs) experiences at high poverty and non-high poverty schools, exploring their emotional responses to critical incidents. Twenty-eight FYTs were interviewed. The results highlighted the influence of FYT's interactions with students, coworkers, administrators, and parents on their emotions. FYTs at high…

  17. Influence of Emotional Intelligence and Need for Achievement on Interpersonal Relations and Academic Achievement of Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Afolabi, Olukayode Ayooluwa; Ogunmwonyi, Edosa; Okediji, Abayomi

    2009-01-01

    This study examined influence of emotional intelligence and need for achievement on interpersonal relations and academic achievement of undergraduates. Questionnaires were administered to one hundred and ten (110) subjects. The independent variables are emotional intelligence and need for achievement, while the dependent variables are…

  18. Hierarchy and Happiness: The Influence of Emotion on Administrative Job Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downey, John A.

    2008-01-01

    Administrative job satisfaction in higher education is influenced by intrinsic and interpersonal factors (Volkwein & Zhou, 2002, 2003). Pioneers of the "affect as information" hypothesis of emotion postulate that emotions provide value-laden information regarding whether goals, standards, and attitudes are impacted positively or negatively by…

  19. Impact of Extended Education/Training in Positive Behaviour Support on Staff Knowledge, Causal Attributions and Emotional Responses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGill, Peter; Bradshaw, Jill; Hughes, Andrea

    2007-01-01

    Background: This study sought to gather information about the impact of extended training in positive behaviour support on staff knowledge, causal attributions and emotional responses. Methods: Students completed questionnaires at the beginning, middle and end of a University Diploma course to measure changes in their knowledge of challenging…

  20. Factors influencing physicians' knowledge sharing on web medical forums.

    PubMed

    Lin, Tung Cheng; Lai, Ming Cheng; Yang, Shu Wen

    2016-09-01

    Web medical forums are relatively unique as knowledge-sharing platforms because physicians participate exclusively as knowledge contributors and not as knowledge recipients. Using the perspective of social exchange theory and considering both extrinsic and intrinsic motivations, this study aims to elicit the factors that significantly influence the willingness of physicians to share professional knowledge on web medical forums and develops a research model to explore the motivations that underlie physicians' knowledge-sharing attitudes. This model hypothesizes that constructs, including shared vision, reputation, altruism, and self-efficacy, positively influence these attitudes and, by extension, positively impact knowledge-sharing intention. A conventional sampling method and the direct recruitment of physicians at their outpatient clinic gathered valid data from a total of 164 physicians for analysis in the model. The empirical results support the validity of the proposed model and identified shared vision as the most significant factor of influence on knowledge-sharing attitudes, followed in descending order by knowledge-sharing self-efficacy, reputation, and altruism. PMID:25888432

  1. The influence of negative urgency, attentional bias, and emotional dimensions on palatable food consumption.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kendra Davis; Fischer, Sarah; Smith, Gregory T; Miller, Joshua D

    2016-05-01

    We tested a theoretical model concerning the role of attentional bias and negative affect in food consumption that offers important advances. We hypothesized that the effects of negative affect manipulations on food consumption vary as a function of trait levels of negative urgency (NU; tendency to act impulsively when distressed), and attentional bias and that the roles of emotional arousal and negative emotional valence differ and should be studied separately. 190 undergraduate women were randomly assigned to either an anger or neutral mood condition. Women in both conditions completed the Food Stroop, in which the presentation of food and neutral words were counterbalanced. After the task, participants were given the opportunity to eat mandarin oranges and/or chocolate candy while the experimenter was out of the room. The type and quantity of food consumed was counted after the participant departed. As hypothesized, the roles of emotional arousal and valence differed and the effect of the induced emotion was moderated by NU. Women high in NU who experienced emotional arousal were more likely to eat candy and consumed more candy than other women. Emotional valence had no effect on candy consumption. Neither increases in emotional arousal or emotional valence influenced attentional bias to food cues. Attentional bias was also unrelated to food consumption. The impact of negative mood inductions on palatable food consumption appears to operate through emotional arousal and not negative emotional valence, and it may operate primarily for women high in NU. PMID:26877214

  2. Intensive meditation training influences emotional responses to suffering.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Erika L; Zanesco, Anthony P; King, Brandon G; Aichele, Stephen R; Jacobs, Tonya L; Bridwell, David A; MacLean, Katherine A; Shaver, Phillip R; Ferrer, Emilio; Sahdra, Baljinder K; Lavy, Shiri; Wallace, B Alan; Saron, Clifford D

    2015-12-01

    Meditation practices purportedly help people develop focused and sustained attention, cultivate feelings of compassionate concern for self and others, and strengthen motivation to help others who are in need. We examined the impact of 3 months of intensive meditative training on emotional responses to scenes of human suffering. Sixty participants were assigned randomly to either a 3-month intensive meditation retreat or a wait-list control group. Training consisted of daily practice in techniques designed to improve attention and enhance compassionate regard for others. Participants viewed film scenes depicting human suffering at pre- and posttraining laboratory assessments, during which both facial and subjective measures of emotion were collected. At post-assessment, training group participants were more likely than controls to show facial displays of sadness. Trainees also showed fewer facial displays of rejection emotions (anger, contempt, disgust). The groups did not differ on the likelihood or frequency of showing these emotions prior to training. Self-reported sympathy--but not sadness or distress--predicted sad behavior and inversely predicted displays of rejection emotions in trainees only. These results suggest that intensive meditation training encourages emotional responses to suffering characterized by enhanced sympathetic concern for, and reduced aversion to, the suffering of others. PMID:25938614

  3. Sex and menstrual cycle phase at encoding influence emotional memory for gist and detail.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Shawn E; Ahmed, Imran; Cahill, Larry

    2013-11-01

    Sex influences on emotional memory have received increasing interest over the past decade. However, only a subset of this previous work explored the influence of sex on memory for central information (gist) and peripheral detail in emotional versus neutral contexts. Here we examined the influence of sex and menstrual cycle phase at encoding on memory for either an emotional or neutral story, specifically with respect to the retention of gist and peripheral detail. Healthy naturally cycling women and men viewed a brief, narrated, three-phase story containing neutral or emotionally arousing elements. One week later, participants received a surprise free recall test for story elements. The results indicate that naturally cycling women in the luteal (high hormone) phase of the menstrual cycle at encoding show enhanced memory for peripheral details, but not gist, when in the emotional compared with neutral stories (p<.05). In contrast, naturally cycling women in the follicular (low hormone) phase of the menstrual cycle at encoding did not show enhanced memory for gist or peripheral details in the emotional compared with neutral stories. Men show enhanced memory for gist, but not peripheral details, in the emotional versus neutral stories (p<.05). In addition, these sex influences on memory cannot be attributed to differences in attention or arousal; luteal women, follicular women, and men performed similarly on measures of attention (fixation time percentage) and arousal (pupil diameter changes) during the most arousing phase of the emotional story. These findings suggest that sex and menstrual cycle phase at encoding influence long term memory for different types of emotional information. PMID:23891713

  4. An investigation of the influence of emotional factors on learning in physics instruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laukenmann, Matthius

    2003-04-01

    In a study of learning processes in 24 eighth grade physics classrooms in Germany, data were collected in respect to cognitive variables (prior knowledge, learning outcomes, use of learning strategies), cognitive-emotional variables (self-concept, interest), as well as emotional variables (anxiety, boredom, sense of well-being). Both quantitative and qualitative methods were used. Interest and emotional factors are further differentiated into situation-related and habitual (most likely biographically determined) components. In constructing the teaching unit (basic electricity) a learning oriented knowledge acquisition phase was followed by a more achievement oriented practice phase. Analysis shows that positive emotions are more important in the acquisition phase than in the practice phase. Anxieties play an ambiguous role in the practice phase. Additionally, the results provide indications that joy about learning in particular, and also interest are frequently linked to successful learning processes, and not merely to the nature of the subject matter.

  5. The Influence of Social Interaction on the Perception of Emotional Expression: A Case Study with a Robot Head

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, John C.; Cañamero, Lola; Bard, Kim A.; Ross, Marina Davila; Thorsteinsson, Kate

    In this paper we focus primarily on the influence that socio-emotional interaction has on the perception of emotional expression by a robot. We also investigate and discuss the importance of emotion expression in socially interactive situations involving human robot interaction (HRI), and show the importance of utilising emotion expression when dealing with interactive robots, that are to learn and develop in socially situated environments. We discuss early expressional development and the function of emotion in communication in humans and how this can improve HRI communications. Finally we provide experimental results showing how emotion-rich interaction via emotion expression can affect the HRI process by providing additional information.

  6. Emotion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Sukwoo

    It was widely accepted that emotion such as fear, anger and pleasure could not be studied using a modern scientific tools. During the very early periods of emotion researches, psychologists, but not biologist, dominated in studying emotion and its disorders. Intuitively, one may think that emotion arises from brain first and then bodily responses follow. For example, we are sad first, and then cry. However, groups of psychologists suggested a proposal that our feeling follows bodily responses; that is, we feel sad because we cry! This proposal seems counterintuitive but became a popular hypothesis for emotion. Another example for this hypothesis is as follows. When you accidentally confront a large bear in a mountain, what would be your responses?; you may feel terrified first, and then run, or you may run first, and then feel terrified later on. In fact, the latter explanation is correct! You feel fear after you run (even because you run?). Or, you can imagine that you date with your girl friend who you love so much. Your heart must be beating fast and your body temperature must be elevated! In this situation, if you take a very cold bath, what would you expect? Your hot feeling is usually calmed down after this cold bath; that is, you feel hot because your heart and bodily temperature change. While some evidence supported this hypothesis, others do not. In the case of patients whose cervical vertebrae were severed with an accident, they still retained significant amount of emotion (feelings!) in some cases (but other patients lost most of emotional experience). In addition, one can imagine that there would be a specific set of physical responses for specific emotion if the original hypothesis is correct (e.g. fasten heart beating and redden face for anger etc.). However, some psychologists failed to find any specific set of physical responses for specific emotion, though others insisted that there existed such specific responses. Based on these controversial

  7. Parental Knowledge is an Environmental Influence on Adolescent Externalizing

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Narusyte, Jurgita; Lichtenstein, Paul; Ganiban, Jody M.; Spotts, Erica L.; Reiss, David; Neiderhiser, Jenae M.

    2014-01-01

    Background There is evidence both that parental monitoring is an environmental influence serving to diminish adolescent externalizing problems and that this association may be driven by adolescents’ characteristics via genetic and/or environmental mechanisms, such that adolescents with fewer problems tell their parents more, and therefore appear to be better monitored. Without information on how parents’ and children’s genes and environments influence correlated parent and child behaviors, it is impossible to clarify the mechanisms underlying this association. Method The present study used the Extended Children of Twins model to distinguish types of gene-environment correlation and direct environmental effects underlying associations between parental knowledge and adolescent (age 11-22 years) externalizing behavior with a Swedish sample of 909 twin parents and their adolescent offspring and a US-based sample of 405 White adolescent siblings and their parents. Results Results suggest that more parental knowledge is associated with less adolescent externalizing via a direct environmental influence independent of any genetic influences. There was no evidence of a child-driven explanation of the association between parental knowledge and adolescent externalizing problems. Conclusions In this sample of adolescents, parental knowledge exerted an environmental influence on adolescent externalizing after accounting for genetic influences of parents and adolescents. Because the association between parenting and child development originates in the parent, treatment for adolescent externalizing must not only include parents but should focus on altering their parental style. Thus, findings suggest that teaching parents better knowledge-related monitoring strategies is likely to help reduce externalizing problems in adolescents. PMID:24975929

  8. The Influence of Secure Emotional Expression on Team Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Emily; Dewitt, Matt

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined the relationship between group effectiveness and secure emotional expression over the course of a 10 week period. The participants consisted of 12 college students who were enrolled in a senior seminar on teamwork. Participants worked in two groups of six and participated in a group meeting each week that consisted of a…

  9. Emotional Competence and Its Influences on Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an interdisciplinary review of theory and research linking aspects of emotional competence to learning and school-related outcomes across childhood. Drawing upon work in developmental psychology, educational psychology, and teacher education, this review also discusses the role of teachers in socializing students' emotions…

  10. Eye contact influences neural processing of emotional expressions in 4-month-old infants

    PubMed Central

    Striano, Tricia; Kopp, Franziska; Grossmann, Tobias; Reid, Vincent M.

    2006-01-01

    Eye gaze is a fundamental component of human communication. During the first post-natal year, infants rapidly learn that the gaze of others provides socially significant information. In addition, infants are sensitive to several emotional expressions. However, little is known regarding how eye contact influences the way the infant brain processes emotional expressions. We measured 4-month-old infants’ brain electric activity to assess neural processing of faces displaying neutral, happy and angry emotional expressions when accompanied by direct and averted eye gaze. The results show that processing of angry facial expressions was influenced by eye gaze. In particular, infants showed enhanced neural processing of angry expressions when these expressions were accompanied by direct eye gaze. These results show that by 4 months of age, the infant detects angry emotional expressions, and the infant brain processes their relevance to the self. PMID:18985122

  11. Genetic influences in emotional dysfunction and alcoholism-related brain damage

    PubMed Central

    Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Bowirrat, Abdalla

    2005-01-01

    Alcoholism is a complex, multifactorial disorder involving problematic ethanol ingestion; it results from the interplay between genetic and environmental factors. Personality, likewise, is formed from a combination of inherited and acquired influences. Because selected dimensions of emotional temperament are associated with distinct neurochemical substrates contributing to specific personality phenotypes, certain aspects of abnormal emotional traits in alcoholics may be inherited. Emotions involve complex subjective experiences engaging multiple brain regions, most notably the cortex, limbic system, and cerebellum. Results of in vivo magnetic resonance imaging and post-mortem neuropathological studies of alcoholics indicate that the greatest cortical loss occurs in the frontal lobes, with concurrent thinning of the corpus callosum. Additional damage has been documented for the amygdala and hippocampus, as well as in the white matter of the cerebellum. All of the critical areas of alcoholism-related brain damage are important for normal emotional functioning. When changes occur in these brain regions, either as a consequence of chronic ethanol abuse or from a genetic anomaly affecting temperament and/or a vulnerability to alcoholism, corresponding changes in emotional functions are to be expected. In alcoholics, such changes have been observed in their perception and evaluation of emotional facial expressions, interpretation of emotional intonations in vocal utterances, and appreciation of the meaning of emotional materials. PMID:18568071

  12. Influence of attention on bimodal integration during emotional change decoding: ERP evidence.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xuhai; Han, Lingzi; Pan, Zhihui; Luo, Yangmei; Wang, Ping

    2016-08-01

    Recent findings on audiovisual emotional interactions suggest that selective attention affects cross-sensory interaction from an early processing stage. However, the influence of attention manipulation on facial-vocal integration during emotional change perception is still elusive at this point. To address this issue, we asked participants to detect emotional changes conveyed by prosodies (vocal task) or facial expressions (facial task) while facial, vocal, and facial-vocal expressions were presented. At the same time, behavioral responses and electroencephalogram (EEG) were recorded. Behavioral results showed that bimodal emotional changes were detected with shorter response latencies compared to each unimodal condition, suggesting that bimodal emotional cues facilitated emotional change detection. Moreover, while the P3 amplitudes were larger for the bimodal change condition than for the sum of the two unimodal conditions regardless of attention direction, the N1 amplitudes were larger for the bimodal emotional change condition than for the sum of the two unimodal conditions under the attend-voice condition, but not under the attend-face condition. These findings suggest that selective attention modulates facial-vocal integration during emotional change perception in early sensory processing, but not in late cognitive processing stages. PMID:27238075

  13. Factors Influencing Knowledge Creation and Innovation in an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merx-Chermin, Mireille; Nijhof, Wim, J.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to gain a better understanding of the factors that influence the innovative power of organisations. The concept of innovation and innovative power was examined by analysing the relationship between the construct of the learning organisation, knowledge organisation and innovative organisation, and has resulted…

  14. Preschool-Aged Children's Understanding of Gratitude: Relations with Emotion and Mental State Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Jackie A.; de Lucca Freitas, Lia Beatriz; O'Brien, Marion; Calkins, Susan D.; Leerkes, Esther M.; Marcovitch, Stuart

    2013-01-01

    Developmental precursors to children's early understanding of gratitude were examined. A diverse group of 263 children was tested for emotion and mental state knowledge at ages 3 and 4, and their understanding of gratitude was measured at age 5. Children varied widely in their understanding of gratitude, but most understood some aspects of…

  15. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers' discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children's emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the…

  16. Emotion Knowledge and Self-Regulation as Predictors of Preschoolers' Cognitive Ability, Classroom Behavior, and Social Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garner, Pamela W.; Waajid, Badiyyah

    2012-01-01

    The development of children's cognitive and social skills is a topic of considerable importance and interest in education and educational psychology. The current study examines whether emotion knowledge and self-regulation predict cognitive competence, social competence, and classroom behavior problems among a sample of 74 preschoolers (40 boys).…

  17. Trait emotional intelligence influences on academic achievement and school behaviour.

    PubMed

    Mavroveli, Stella; Sánchez-Ruiz, María José

    2011-03-01

    BACKGROUND. Trait emotional intelligence (trait EI or trait emotional self-efficacy) refers to individuals' emotion-related self-perceptions (Petrides, Furnham, & Mavroveli, 2007). The children's trait EI sampling domain provides comprehensive coverage of their affective personality. Preliminary evidence shows that the construct has important implications for children's psychological and behavioural adjustment. AIMS. This study investigates the associations between trait EI and school outcomes, such as performance in reading, writing, and maths, peer-rated behaviour and social competence, and self-reported bullying behaviours in a sample of primary school children. It also examines whether trait EI scores differentiate between children with and without special educational needs (SEN). SAMPLE. The sample comprised 565 children (274 boys and 286 girls) between the ages of 7 and 12 (M((age)) = 9.12 years, SD= 1.27 years) attending three English state primary schools. METHOD. Pupils completed the Trait Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire-Child Form (TEIQue-CF), the Guess Who peer assessment, the Peer-Victimization Scale, and the Bullying Behaviour Scale. Additional data on achievement and SEN were collected from the school archives. RESULTS. As predicted by trait EI theory, associations between trait EI and academic achievement were modest and limited to Year 3 children. Higher trait EI scores were related to more nominations from peers for prosocial behaviours and fewer nominations for antisocial behaviour as well as lower scores on self-reported bulling behaviours. Furthermore, SEN students scored lower on trait EI compared to students without SEN. CONCLUSIONS. Trait EI holds important and multifaceted implications for the socialization of primary schoolchildren. PMID:21199490

  18. The influence of oxytocin on volitional and emotional ambivalence.

    PubMed

    Preckel, Katrin; Scheele, Dirk; Eckstein, Monika; Maier, Wolfgang; Hurlemann, René

    2015-07-01

    Moral decisions and social relationships are often characterized by strong feelings of ambivalence which can be a catalyst for emotional distress and several health-related problems. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been identified as a key brain region in monitoring conflicting information, but the neurobiological substrates of ambivalence processing are still widely unknown. We have conducted two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, functional magnetic resonance imaging experiments involving 70 healthy male volunteers to investigate the effects of the neuropeptide oxytocin (OXT) on neural and behavioral correlates of ambivalence. We chose moral decision-making and the imagery of partner infidelity as examples to probe volitional and emotional ambivalence. In both experiments, intranasal OXT diminished neural responses in the ACC to ambivalence. Under OXT, moral dilemma vignettes also elicited a reduced activation in the orbitofrontal cortex, and the imagery of partner infidelity was rated as less arousing. Interestingly, the OXT-induced differential activation in the ACC predicted the magnitude of arousal reduction. Taken together, our findings reveal an unprecedented role of OXT in causing a domain-general decrease of neural responses to ambivalence. By alleviating emotional distress, OXT may qualify as a treatment option for psychiatric disorders with heightened ambivalence sensitivity such as schizophrenia or obsessive-compulsive disorder. PMID:25398434

  19. How does epistemological knowledge on modelling influence students' engagement in the issue of climate change?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tasquier, Giulia

    2016-05-01

    Involvement in climate change has been proven to be hindered by emotional and social barriers, as well as by conceptual difficulties that students may encounter in dealing with scientific content related to particular issues such as the greenhouse effect. In this study, we start from the conjecture that behind many conceptual difficulties and emotional barriers lie particular epistemological obstacles related to a naive and stereotypical view of science. These include, in particular, the belief that science still has the role and power to provide a unique, unquestionable, and certain explanation of events and processes. Such a naive idea clashes strongly with the intrinsic complexity of climate science. This paper sets out to investigate if and how the improvement of epistemological knowledge can influence behavioural habits and foster students' engagement in climate change. In order to explore such an issue, we focus on five interviews collected at the end of a teaching experience on climate change, carried out with secondary school students (grade 11; 16-year olds). This study is a follow-up of other two analytical studies aimed at investigating, respectively, the impact of the experience on students' epistemological knowledge and on their behavioural habits.

  20. Influences of Preparedness Knowledge and Beliefs on Household Disaster Preparedness.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Tracy N; Leander-Griffith, Michelle; Harp, Victoria; Cioffi, Joan P

    2015-01-01

    In response to concern about strengthening the nation's ability to protect its population and way of life (i.e., security) and ability to adapt and recover from emergencies (i.e., resilience), the President of the United States issued Presidential Policy Directive 8: National Preparedness (PPD-8) (1). Signed on March 30, 2011, PPD-8 is a directive for the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to coordinate a comprehensive campaign across government, private and nonprofit sectors, and individuals to build and sustain national preparedness. Despite efforts by the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and other organizations to educate U.S. residents on becoming prepared, growth in specific preparedness behaviors, including actions taken in advance of a disaster to be better prepared to respond to and recover, has been limited (2). In 2012, only 52% of U.S. residents surveyed by FEMA reported having supplies for a disaster (2), a decline from 57% who reported having such supplies in 2009 (3). It is believed that knowledge influences behavior, and that attitudes and beliefs, which are correlated with knowledge, might also influence behavior (4). To determine the association between knowledge and beliefs and household preparedness, CDC analyzed baseline data from Ready CDC, a personal disaster preparedness intervention piloted among Atlanta- and Morgantown-based CDC staff members during 2013–2015. Compared with persons with basic preparedness knowledge, persons with advanced knowledge were more likely to have assembled an emergency kit (44% versus 17%), developed a written household disaster plan (9% versus 4%), and received county emergency alert notifications (63% versus 41%). Similarly, differences in household preparedness behaviors were correlated with beliefs about preparedness. Persons identified as having strong beliefs in the effectiveness of disaster preparedness engaged in preparedness behaviors at levels 7%–30% higher than those with weaker

  1. Face identity matching is influenced by emotions conveyed by face and body.

    PubMed

    Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Faces provide information about multiple characteristics like personal identity and emotion. Classical models of face perception postulate separate sub-systems for identity and expression recognition but recent studies have documented emotional contextual influences on recognition of faces. The present study reports three experiments where participants were presented realistic face-body compounds in a 2 category (face and body) × 2 emotion (neutral and fearful) factorial design. The task always consisted of two-alternative forced choice facial identity matching. The results show that during simultaneous face identity matching, the task irrelevant bodily expressions influence processing of facial identity, under conditions of unlimited viewing (Experiment 1) as well as during brief (750 ms) presentation (Experiment 2). In addition, delayed (5000 ms) face identity matching of rapidly (150 ms) presented face-body compounds, was also influenced by the body expression (Experiment 3). The results indicate that face identity perception mechanisms interact with processing of bodily and facial expressions. PMID:24574994

  2. The effect of others' influence, effort, and ability attributions on emotions in achievement and affiliative situations.

    PubMed

    Nurmi, J E

    1991-10-01

    In this examination of how attributions and types of situation influence emotions, 46 American undergraduates completed a questionnaire consisting of 12 vignettes that varied according to content, outcome, and attribution. After reading each vignette, they indicated how they would feel in the situation described. In a second experiment, 27 Finnish undergraduates participated in an identical procedure. In both experiments, subjects felt more pride and happiness after they attributed a successful achievement to effort or ability rather than to others' influence. Attributions of affiliative success did not influence emotions. Subjects felt the most shame and guilt after they attributed achievement failure to lack of effort, and they felt the least negative emotions after they attributed affiliative failure to lack of effort. PMID:1798297

  3. How emotional abilities modulate the influence of early life stress on hippocampal functioning.

    PubMed

    Aust, Sabine; Alkan Härtwig, Elif; Koelsch, Stefan; Heekeren, Hauke R; Heuser, Isabella; Bajbouj, Malek

    2014-07-01

    Early life stress (ELS) is known to have considerable influence on brain development, mental health and affective functioning. Previous investigations have shown that alexithymia, a prevalent personality trait associated with difficulties experiencing and verbalizing emotions, is particularly related to ELS. The aim of the present study was to investigate how neural correlates of emotional experiences in alexithymia are altered in the presence and absence of ELS. Therefore, 50 healthy individuals with different levels of alexithymia were matched regarding ELS and investigated with respect to neural correlates of audio-visually induced emotional experiences via functional magnetic resonance imaging. The main finding was that ELS modulated hippocampal responses to pleasant (>neutral) stimuli in high-alexithymic individuals, whereas there was no such modulation in low-alexithymic individuals matched for ELS. Behavioral and psychophysiological results followed a similar pattern. When considered independent of ELS, alexithymia was associated with decreased responses in insula (pleasant > neutral) and temporal pole (unpleasant > neutral). Our results show that the influence of ELS on emotional brain responses seems to be modulated by an individual's degree of alexithymia. Potentially, protective and adverse effects of emotional abilities on brain responses to emotional experiences are discussed. PMID:23685776

  4. Music, emotion, and time perception: the influence of subjective emotional valence and arousal?

    PubMed Central

    Droit-Volet, Sylvie; Ramos, Danilo; Bueno, José L. O.; Bigand, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    The present study used a temporal bisection task with short (<2 s) and long (>2 s) stimulus durations to investigate the effect on time estimation of several musical parameters associated with emotional changes in affective valence and arousal. In order to manipulate the positive and negative valence of music, Experiments 1 and 2 contrasted the effect of musical structure with pieces played normally and backwards, which were judged to be pleasant and unpleasant, respectively. This effect of valence was combined with a subjective arousal effect by changing the tempo of the musical pieces (fast vs. slow) (Experiment 1) or their instrumentation (orchestral vs. piano pieces). The musical pieces were indeed judged more arousing with a fast than with a slow tempo and with an orchestral than with a piano timbre. In Experiment 3, affective valence was also tested by contrasting the effect of tonal (pleasant) vs. atonal (unpleasant) versions of the same musical pieces. The results showed that the effect of tempo in music, associated with a subjective arousal effect, was the major factor that produced time distortions with time being judged longer for fast than for slow tempi. When the tempo was held constant, no significant effect of timbre on the time judgment was found although the orchestral music was judged to be more arousing than the piano music. Nevertheless, emotional valence did modulate the tempo effect on time perception, the pleasant music being judged shorter than the unpleasant music. PMID:23882233

  5. Age, sex, and pubertal phase influence mentalizing about emotions and actions in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Keulers, Esther H H; Evers, Elisabeth A T; Stiers, Peter; Jolles, Jelle

    2010-01-01

    This study examined (1) emotional versus cognitive developmental trajectories and (2) the influence of age-extrinsic factors (i.e., sex and puberty). Using a cross-sectional design, adolescents (N = 252) divided into four age-groups (ages 13, 15, 17, 19) performed two versions of a mentalizing task, about emotions and actions, as well as the Tower task. First, performance on all tasks improved linearly into late adolescence (age 19). Thus no differential trajectories were found for emotional versus cognitive development. Second, girls outperformed boys in mentalizing speed regarding both emotions and actions. In boys, a later pubertal phase was associated with increased mentalizing speed after controlling for age-group. PMID:20721775

  6. Semantic Knowledge Influences Prewired Hedonic Responses to Odors

    PubMed Central

    Poncelet, Johan; Rinck, Fanny; Ziessel, Anne; Joussain, Pauline; Thévenet, Marc; Rouby, Catherine; Bensafi, Moustafa

    2010-01-01

    Background Odor hedonic perception relies on decoding the physicochemical properties of odorant molecules and can be influenced in humans by semantic knowledge. The effect of semantic knowledge on such prewired hedonic processing over the life span has remained unclear. Methodology/Principal Findings The present study measured hedonic response to odors in different age groups (children, teenagers, young adults, and seniors) and found that children and seniors, two age groups characterized by either low level of (children) or weak access to (seniors) odor semantic knowledge, processed odor hedonics more on the basis of their physicochemical properties. In contrast, in teenagers and young adults, who show better levels of semantic odor representation, the role of physicochemical properties was less marked. Conclusions/Significance These findings demonstrate for the first time that the biological determinants that make an odor pleasant or unpleasant are more powerful at either end of the life span. PMID:21079734

  7. Do film soundtracks contain nonlinear analogues to influence emotion?

    PubMed

    Blumstein, Daniel T; Davitian, Richard; Kaye, Peter D

    2010-12-23

    A variety of vertebrates produce nonlinear vocalizations when they are under duress. By their very nature, vocalizations containing nonlinearities may sound harsh and are somewhat unpredictable; observations that are consistent with them being particularly evocative to those hearing them. We tested the hypothesis that humans capitalize on this seemingly widespread vertebrate response by creating nonlinear analogues in film soundtracks to evoke particular emotions. We used lists of highly regarded films to generate a set of highly ranked action/adventure, dramatic, horror and war films. We then scored the presence of a variety of nonlinear analogues in these film soundtracks. Dramatic films suppressed noise of all types, contained more abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, and fewer noisy screams than expected. Horror films suppressed abrupt frequency transitions and musical sidebands, but had more non-musical sidebands, and noisy screams than expected. Adventure films had more male screams than expected. Together, our results suggest that film-makers manipulate sounds to create nonlinear analogues in order to manipulate our emotional responses. PMID:20504815

  8. How Does Fiction Reading Influence Empathy? An Experimental Investigation on the Role of Emotional Transportation

    PubMed Central

    Bal, P. Matthijs; Veltkamp, Martijn

    2013-01-01

    The current study investigated whether fiction experiences change empathy of the reader. Based on transportation theory, it was predicted that when people read fiction, and they are emotionally transported into the story, they become more empathic. Two experiments showed that empathy was influenced over a period of one week for people who read a fictional story, but only when they were emotionally transported into the story. No transportation led to lower empathy in both studies, while study 1 showed that high transportation led to higher empathy among fiction readers. These effects were not found for people in the control condition where people read non-fiction. The study showed that fiction influences empathy of the reader, but only under the condition of low or high emotional transportation into the story. PMID:23383160

  9. Associations between Emotional Intelligence, Socio-Emotional Adjustment, and Academic Achievement in Childhood: The Influence of Age

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brouzos, Andreas; Misailidi, Plousia; Hadjimattheou, Anastasia

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between trait emotional intelligence (EI) with children's socio-emotional adjustment at school and academic achievement. Children aged 8 to 10 (n = 106) and 11 to 13 years (n = 99) completed the youth version of the Emotional Quotient Inventory (EQ-i: YV). Their socio-emotional adjustment was measured with…

  10. Influence of negative emotion on the framing effect: evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Ma, Qingguo; Pei, Guanxiong; Wang, Kai

    2015-04-15

    The framing effect is the phenomenon in which different descriptions of an identical problem can result in different choices. The influence of negative emotions on the framing effect and its neurocognitive basis are important issues, especially in the domain of saving lives, which is essential and highly risky. In each trial of our experiment, the emotion stimulus is presented to the participants, followed by the decision-making stimulus, which comprises certain and risky options with the same expected value. Each pair of options is positively or negatively framed. The behavioral results indicate a significant interactive effect between negative emotion and frame; thus, the risk preference under the positive frame can be enhanced by negative emotions, whereas this finding is not true under the negative frame. The event-related potential analysis indicates that choosing certain options under the positive frame with negative emotion priming generates smaller P2 and P3 amplitudes and a larger N2 amplitude than with neutral emotion priming. The event-related potential findings indicate that individuals can detect risk faster and experience more conflict and increased decision difficulty if they choose certain options under the positive frame with negative priming compared with neutral priming. PMID:25714423

  11. Shared Genetic Influences on Negative Emotionality and Major Depression/Conduct Disorder Comorbidity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tackett, Jennifer L.; Waldman, Irwin D.; Van Hulle, Carol A.; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate whether genetic contributions to major depressive disorder and conduct disorder comorbidity are shared with genetic influences on negative emotionality. Method: Primary caregivers of 2,022 same- and opposite-sex twin pairs 6 to 18 years of age comprised a population-based sample. Participants were randomly selected across…

  12. The Influence of Anxiety on the Initial Selection of Emotional Faces Presented in Binocular Rivalry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gray, Katie L. H.; Adams, Wendy J.; Garner, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    Neurocognitive theories of anxiety predict that threat-related information can be evaluated before attentional selection, and can influence behaviour differentially in high anxious compared to low anxious individuals. We investigate this further by presenting emotional and neutral faces in an adapted binocular rivalry paradigm. We show that the…

  13. Relationship between Young Children's Habitual Computer Use and Influencing Variables on Socio-Emotional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seo, Hyun Ah; Chun, Hui Young; Jwa, Seung Hwa; Choi, Mi Hyun

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between young children's habitual computer use and influencing variables on socio-emotional development. The participants were 179 five-year-old children. The Internet Addiction Scale for Young Children (IASYC) was used to identify children with high and low levels of habituation to computer use. The data…

  14. Positive Affect Versus Reward: Emotional and Motivational Influences on Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Chiew, Kimberly S.; Braver, Todd S.

    2011-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly appreciated that affective influences can contribute strongly to goal-oriented cognition and behavior. However, much work is still needed to properly characterize these influences and the mechanisms by which they contribute to cognitive processing. An important question concerns the nature of emotional manipulations (i.e., direct induction of affectively valenced subjective experience) versus motivational manipulations (e.g., delivery of performance-contingent rewards and punishments) and their impact on cognitive control. Empirical evidence suggests that both kinds of manipulations can influence cognitive control in a systematic fashion, but investigations of both have largely been conducted independently of one another. Likewise, some theoretical accounts suggest that emotion and motivation may modulate cognitive control via common neural mechanisms, while others suggest the possibility of dissociable influences. Here, we provide an analysis and synthesis of these various accounts, suggesting potentially fruitful new research directions to test competing hypotheses. PMID:22022318

  15. Adolescents and HIV: knowledge, behaviors, influences, and risk perceptions.

    PubMed

    Facente, A C

    2001-08-01

    Although the rate of progression from HIV to AIDS has slowed, the incidence of HIV infection has continued to rise. Many teenagers are knowledgeable about the risks and consequences of HIV, yet a large percentage do not perceive that they are personally at risk. Gaining insight into the perceptions and factors influencing the behavior of teens is critical in HIV and AIDS prevention. A structured 39-item questionnaire was designed to elicit answers that explored 4 areas: knowledge of HIV and AIDS, reported sexual behavior, perceived susceptibility to HIV, and factors influencing behavior. The mean age of the 78 respondents was 15.9 years. One important finding was that 74% of respondents perceived their knowledge of HIV transmission to be "good," yet only 33% were able to answer all of the 8 test questions in this area correctly. In addition, 80% of those who reported engaging in risky behavior such as multiple sexual partners or having sex without condoms also felt they were not personally at risk for HIV. PMID:11885323

  16. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children's ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6-16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children's ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6-16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  17. Age, gender, and puberty influence the development of facial emotion recognition

    PubMed Central

    Lawrence, Kate; Campbell, Ruth; Skuse, David

    2015-01-01

    Our ability to differentiate between simple facial expressions of emotion develops between infancy and early adulthood, yet few studies have explored the developmental trajectory of emotion recognition using a single methodology across a wide age-range. We investigated the development of emotion recognition abilities through childhood and adolescence, testing the hypothesis that children’s ability to recognize simple emotions is modulated by chronological age, pubertal stage and gender. In order to establish norms, we assessed 478 children aged 6–16 years, using the Ekman-Friesen Pictures of Facial Affect. We then modeled these cross-sectional data in terms of competence in accurate recognition of the six emotions studied, when the positive correlation between emotion recognition and IQ was controlled. Significant linear trends were seen in children’s ability to recognize facial expressions of happiness, surprise, fear, and disgust; there was improvement with increasing age. In contrast, for sad and angry expressions there is little or no change in accuracy over the age range 6–16 years; near-adult levels of competence are established by middle-childhood. In a sampled subset, pubertal status influenced the ability to recognize facial expressions of disgust and anger; there was an increase in competence from mid to late puberty, which occurred independently of age. A small female advantage was found in the recognition of some facial expressions. The normative data provided in this study will aid clinicians and researchers in assessing the emotion recognition abilities of children and will facilitate the identification of abnormalities in a skill that is often impaired in neurodevelopmental disorders. If emotion recognition abilities are a good model with which to understand adolescent development, then these results could have implications for the education, mental health provision and legal treatment of teenagers. PMID:26136697

  18. Exploring the Relationship between Emotions and the Acquisition of Computer Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kay, Robin H.

    2008-01-01

    Most computer users have to deal with major software upgrades every 6-18 months. Given the pressure of having to adjust so quickly and so often, it is reasonable to assume that users will express emotional reactions such as anger, desperation, anxiety, or relief during the learning process. To date, the primary emotion studied with respect to…

  19. Early Childhood Preservice Teachers' Knowledge and Application of Social Emotional Assessment and Intervention Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pribble, Lois Marie

    2013-01-01

    Social emotional competence is an essential developmental skill recognized as the most critical for school and later success. Rising rates in behavioral referrals and preschool expulsion have brought increased attention to the importance of helping children develop social-emotional skills in the early years. In early childhood education a central…

  20. Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations. PMID:25469221

  1. Factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being among Medicare-Medicaid enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Kathy D.; Pepper, Ginette A.; Caserta, Michael; Wong, Bob; Brunker, Cherie P.; Morris, Diana L.; Burant, Christopher J.; Hazelett, Susan; Kropp, Denise; Allen, Kyle R.

    2015-01-01

    Dually enrolled Medicare-Medicaid older adults are a vulnerable population. We tested House's Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees by examining the extent to which disparities indicators, which included race, age, gender, neighborhood poverty, education, income, exercise (e.g., walking), and physical activity (e.g., housework) influence physical function and emotional well-being. This secondary analysis included 337 Black (31%) and White (69%) older Medicare-Medicaid enrollees. Using path analysis, we determined that race, neighborhood poverty, education, and income did not influence physical function or emotional well-being. However, physical activity (e.g., housework) was associated with an increased self-report of physical function and emotional well-being of β = .23, p< .001; β = .17, p< .01, respectively. Future studies of factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being in this population should take into account health status indicators such as allostatic load, comorbidity, and perceived racism/discrimination. PMID:25784082

  2. Factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being among Medicare-Medicaid enrollees.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kathy D; Pepper, Ginette A; Caserta, Michael; Wong, Bob; Brunker, Cherie P; Morris, Diana L; Burant, Christopher J; Hazelett, Susan; Kropp, Denise; Allen, Kyle R

    2015-01-01

    Dually enrolled Medicare-Medicaid older adults are a vulnerable population. We tested House's Conceptual Framework for Understanding Social Inequalities in Health and Aging in Medicare-Medicaid enrollees by examining the extent to which disparities indicators, which included race, age, gender, neighborhood poverty, education, income, exercise (e.g., walking), and physical activity (e.g., housework) influence physical function and emotional well-being. This secondary analysis included 337 Black (31%) and White (69%) older Medicare-Medicaid enrollees. Using path analysis, we determined that race, neighborhood poverty, education, and income did not influence physical function or emotional well-being. However, physical activity (e.g., housework) was associated with an increased self-report of physical function and emotional well-being of β = .23, p < .001; β = .17, p < .01, respectively. Future studies of factors that influence physical function and emotional well-being in this population should take into account health status indicators such as allostatic load, comorbidity, and perceived racism/discrimination. PMID:25784082

  3. Negative Emotionality and Disconstraint Influence PTSD Symptom Course via Exposure to New Major Adverse Life Events

    PubMed Central

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W.; Wolf, Erika J.; Harkness, Kate L.

    2015-01-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23 – 68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  4. Negative emotionality and disconstraint influence PTSD symptom course via exposure to new major adverse life events.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Naomi; Miller, Mark W; Wolf, Erika J; Harkness, Kate L

    2015-04-01

    Identifying the factors that influence stability and change in chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is important for improving clinical outcomes. Using a cross-lagged design, we analyzed the reciprocal effects of personality and PTSD symptoms over time and their effects on stress exposure in a sample of 222 trauma-exposed veterans (ages 23-68; 90.5% male). Personality functioning and PTSD were measured approximately 4 years apart, and self-reported exposure to major adverse life events during the interim was also assessed. Negative emotionality positively predicted future PTSD symptoms, and this effect was partially mediated by exposure to new events. Constraint (negatively) indirectly affected PTSD via its association with exposure to new events. There were no significant effects of positive emotionality nor did PTSD symptom severity exert influences on personality over time. Results indicate that high negative affect and disconstraint influence the course of PTSD symptoms by increasing exposure to stressful life events. PMID:25659969

  5. Implicit Racial Attitudes Influence Perceived Emotional Intensity on Other-Race Faces

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Zhaoquan; Hu, Chao S.; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue

    2014-01-01

    An ability to accurately perceive and evaluate out-group members' emotions plays a critical role in intergroup interactions. Here we showed that Chinese participants' implicit attitudes toward White people bias their perception and judgment of emotional intensity of White people's facial expressions such as anger, fear and sadness. We found that Chinese participants held pro-Chinese/anti-White implicit biases that were assessed in an evaluative implicit association test (IAT). Moreover, their implicit biases positively predicted the perceived intensity of White people's angry, fearful and sad facial expressions but not for happy expressions. This study demonstrates that implicit racial attitudes can influence perception and judgment of a range of emotional expressions. Implications for intergroup interactions were discussed. PMID:25153836

  6. The influence of emotional facial expressions on gaze-following in grouped and solitary pedestrians

    PubMed Central

    Gallup, Andrew C.; Chong, Andrew; Kacelnik, Alex; Krebs, John R.; Couzin, Iain D.

    2014-01-01

    The mechanisms contributing to collective attention in humans remain unclear. Research indicates that pedestrians utilise the gaze direction of others nearby to acquire environmentally relevant information, but it is not known which, if any, additional social cues influence this transmission. Extending upon previous field studies, we investigated whether gaze cues paired with emotional facial expressions (neutral, happy, suspicious and fearsome) of an oncoming walking confederate modulate gaze-following by pedestrians moving in a natural corridor. We found that pedestrians walking alone were not sensitive to this manipulation, while individuals traveling together in groups did reliably alter their response in relation to emotional cues. In particular, members of a collective were more likely to follow gaze cues indicative of a potential threat (i.e., suspicious or fearful facial expression). This modulation of visual attention dependent on whether pedestrians are in social aggregates may be important to drive adaptive exploitation of social information, and particularly emotional stimuli within natural contexts. PMID:25052060

  7. Influence of emotional valence and arousal on the spread of activation in memory.

    PubMed

    Jhean-Larose, Sandra; Leveau, Nicolas; Denhière, Guy

    2014-11-01

    Controversy still persists on whether emotional valence and arousal influence cognitive activities. Our study sought to compare how these two factors foster the spread of activation within the semantic network. In a lexical decision task, prime words were varied depending on the valence (pleasant or unpleasant) or on the level of emotional arousal (high or low). Target words were carefully selected to avoid semantic priming effects, as well as to avoid arousing specific emotions (neutral). Three SOA durations (220, 420 and 720 ms) were applied across three independent groups. Results indicate that at 220 ms, the effect of arousal is significantly higher than the effect of valence in facilitating spreading activation while at 420 ms, the effect of valence is significantly higher than the effect of arousal in facilitating spreading activation. These findings suggest that affect is a sequential process involving the successive intervention of arousal and valence. PMID:24715543

  8. Implicit racial attitudes influence perceived emotional intensity on other-race faces.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiandong; Chen, Guowei; Wang, Zhaoquan; Hu, Chao S; Hu, Xiaoqing; Fu, Genyue

    2014-01-01

    An ability to accurately perceive and evaluate out-group members' emotions plays a critical role in intergroup interactions. Here we showed that Chinese participants' implicit attitudes toward White people bias their perception and judgment of emotional intensity of White people's facial expressions such as anger, fear and sadness. We found that Chinese participants held pro-Chinese/anti-White implicit biases that were assessed in an evaluative implicit association test (IAT). Moreover, their implicit biases positively predicted the perceived intensity of White people's angry, fearful and sad facial expressions but not for happy expressions. This study demonstrates that implicit racial attitudes can influence perception and judgment of a range of emotional expressions. Implications for intergroup interactions were discussed. PMID:25153836

  9. Physical Education Student Teachers' Perceptions of Applying Knowledge and Skills about Emotional Understanding Studied in PETE in a One-Year Teaching Practicum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klemola, Ulla; Heikinaro-Johansson, Pilvikki; O'Sullivan, Mary

    2013-01-01

    Background: Recently, there has been growing interest in the emotional aspects of teaching and learning in general education and in physical education (PE). Scholars have argued that high-quality teaching and learning depend on a teacher's knowledge of students' emotions (Hargreaves 1998, 2000, 2002; McCaughtry 2004; McCaughtry and Rovegno 2003;…

  10. Prestimulus default mode activity influences depth of processing and recognition in an emotional memory task.

    PubMed

    Soravia, Leila M; Witmer, Joëlle S; Schwab, Simon; Nakataki, Masahito; Dierks, Thomas; Wiest, Roland; Henke, Katharina; Federspiel, Andrea; Jann, Kay

    2016-03-01

    Low self-referential thoughts are associated with better concentration, which leads to deeper encoding and increases learning and subsequent retrieval. There is evidence that being engaged in externally rather than internally focused tasks is related to low neural activity in the default mode network (DMN) promoting open mind and the deep elaboration of new information. Thus, reduced DMN activity should lead to enhanced concentration, comprehensive stimulus evaluation including emotional categorization, deeper stimulus processing, and better long-term retention over one whole week. In this fMRI study, we investigated brain activation preceding and during incidental encoding of emotional pictures and on subsequent recognition performance. During fMRI, 24 subjects were exposed to 80 pictures of different emotional valence and subsequently asked to complete an online recognition task one week later. Results indicate that neural activity within the medial temporal lobes during encoding predicts subsequent memory performance. Moreover, a low activity of the default mode network preceding incidental encoding leads to slightly better recognition performance independent of the emotional perception of a picture. The findings indicate that the suppression of internally-oriented thoughts leads to a more comprehensive and thorough evaluation of a stimulus and its emotional valence. Reduced activation of the DMN prior to stimulus onset is associated with deeper encoding and enhanced consolidation and retrieval performance even one week later. Even small prestimulus lapses of attention influence consolidation and subsequent recognition performance. PMID:26663662

  11. The Influence of Emotion on Cognitive Control: Relevance for Development and Adolescent Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Mueller, Sven C.

    2011-01-01

    The last decade has witnessed an explosion of research into the neural mechanisms underlying emotion processing on the one hand, and cognitive control and executive function on the other hand. More recently, studies have begun to directly examine how concurrent emotion processing influences cognitive control performance but many questions remain currently unresolved. Interestingly, parallel to investigations in healthy adults, research in developmental cognitive neuroscience and developmental affective disorders has provided some intriguing findings that complement the adult literature. This review provides an overview of current research on cognitive control and emotion interactions. It integrates parallel lines of research in adulthood and development and will draw on several lines of evidence ranging from behavioral, neurophysiological, and neuroimaging work in healthy adults and extend these to work in pediatric development and patients with affective disorders. Particular emphasis is given to studies that provide information on the neurobiological underpinnings of emotional and cognitive control processes using functional magnetic resonance imaging. The findings are then summarized and discussed in relation to neurochemical processes and the dopamine hypothesis of prefrontal cortical function. Finally, open areas of research for future study are identified and discussed within the context of cognitive control emotion interactions. PMID:22275904

  12. Influence of emotional balance during a learning and recall test in horses (Equus caballus).

    PubMed

    Mengoli, Manuel; Pageat, Patrick; Lafont-Lecuelle, Céline; Monneret, Philippe; Giacalone, Aline; Sighieri, Claudio; Cozzi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    Modern day horse-human relationships entail different types of sport and riding activities, which all require learning. In evaluating the interaction between learning and emotions, studying normal coping strategies or adaptive responses to the surroundings is critical. 34 horses were involved in a cognitive test, in the absence of physical effort, to analyze performance, as well as physiological and behavioral responses related to learning, memorization and recall, associated to the capacity to reverse a learned model. Synthetic Equine Appeasing Pheromone (EAP) was used in 17 horses in order to modulate their emotional state and evaluate differences in cognitive-emotional response during cognitive effort in comparison to the control group (placebo group). Both groups showed statistically significant changes in heart rate during the test, indicating emotional and physio-cognitive activation. The EAP group produced fewer errors and made more correct choices, showing behaviors related to increased attention, with less influence from environmental stimuli. The capacity to learn to learn, as shown in the bibliography, allows animals to establish conceptual learning, when a normal or positive emotional state (in this case modulated by semiochemicals) is used to control limbic system activation and, consequently, decrease stressful/fearful reactions, resulting in better learning capacities during the cognitive test. PMID:24875282

  13. Affective engagement for facial expressions and emotional scenes: The influence of social anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Wangelin, Bethany C.; Bradley, Margaret M.; Kastner, Anna; Lang, Peter J.

    2012-01-01

    Pictures of emotional facial expressions or natural scenes are often used as cues in emotion research. We examined the extent to which these different stimuli engage emotion and attention, and whether the presence of social anxiety symptoms influences responding to facial cues. Sixty participants reporting high or low social anxiety viewed pictures of angry, neutral, and happy faces, as well as violent, neutral, and erotic scenes, while skin conductance and event-related potentials were recorded. Acoustic startle probes were presented throughout picture viewing, and blink magnitude, probe P3 and reaction time to the startle probe also were measured. Results indicated that viewing emotional scenes prompted strong reactions in autonomic, central, and reflex measures, whereas pictures of faces were generally weak elicitors of measurable emotional response. However, higher social anxiety was associated with modest electrodermal changes when viewing angry faces and mild startle potentiation when viewing either angry or smiling faces, compared to neutral. Taken together, pictures of facial expressions do not strongly engage fundamental affective reactions, but these cues appeared to be effective in distinguishing between high and low social anxiety participants, supporting their use in anxiety research. PMID:22643041

  14. Influence of emotional states on inhibitory gating: Animals models to clinical neurophysiology

    PubMed Central

    Cromwell, Howard C.; Atchley, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Integrating research efforts using a cross-domain approach could redefine traditional constructs used in behavioral and clinical neuroscience by demonstrating that behavior and mental processes arise not from functional isolation but from integration. Our research group has been examining the interface between cognitive and emotional processes by studying inhibitory gating. Inhibitory gating can be measured via changes in behavior or neural signal processing. Sensorimotor gating of the startle response is a well-used measure. To study how emotion and cognition interact during startle modulation in the animal model, we examined ultrasonic vocalization (USV) emissions during acoustic startle and prepulse inhibition. We found high rates of USV emission during the sensorimotor gating paradigm and revealed links between prepulse inhibition (PPI) and USV emission that could reflect emotional and cognitive influences. Measuring inhibitory gating as P50 event-related potential suppression has also revealed possible connections between emotional states and cognitive processes. We have examined the single unit responses during the traditional gating paradigm and found that acute and chronic stress can alter gating of neural signals in regions such as amygdala, striatum and medial prefrontal cortex. Our findings point to the need for more cross-domain research on how shifting states of emotion can impact basic mechanisms of information processing. Results could inform clinical work with the development of tools that depend upon cross-domain communication, and enable a better understanding and evaluation of psychological impairment. PMID:24861710

  15. The Influence of Personality Traits on Emotion Expression in Bulimic Spectrum Disorders: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Steward, Trevor; Wolz, Ines; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana; Granero, Roser; Tárrega, Salomé; Fernández-Formoso, José Antonio; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Menchón, José M; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando

    2016-07-01

    Facial expressions are critical in forming social bonds and in signalling one's emotional state to others. In eating disorder patients, impairments in facial emotion recognition have been associated with eating psychopathology severity. Little research however has been carried out on how bulimic spectrum disorder (BSD) patients spontaneously express emotions. Our aim was to investigate emotion expression in BSD patients and to explore the influence of personality traits. Our study comprised 28 BSD women and 15 healthy controls. Facial expressions were recorded while participants played a serious video game. Expressions of anger and joy were used as outcome measures. Overall, BSD participants displayed less facial expressiveness than controls. Among BSD women, expressions of joy were positively associated with reward dependence, novelty seeking and self-directedness, whereas expressions of anger were associated with lower self-directedness. Our findings suggest that specific personality traits are associated with altered emotion facial expression in patients with BSD. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. PMID:27028106

  16. The Influence of Emotion on Keyboard Typing: An Experimental Study Using Auditory Stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Po-Ming; Tsui, Wei-Hsuan; Hsiao, Tzu-Chien

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, a novel approach for emotion recognition has been reported, which is by keystroke dynamics. The advantages of using this approach are that the data used is rather non-intrusive and easy to obtain. However, there were only limited investigations about the phenomenon itself in previous studies. Hence, this study aimed to examine the source of variance in keyboard typing patterns caused by emotions. A controlled experiment to collect subjects’ keystroke data in different emotional states induced by International Affective Digitized Sounds (IADS) was conducted. Two-way Valence (3) x Arousal (3) ANOVAs was used to examine the collected dataset. The results of the experiment indicate that the effect of arousal is significant in keystroke duration (p < .05), keystroke latency (p < .01), but not in the accuracy rate of keyboard typing. The size of the emotional effect is small, compared to the individual variability. Our findings support the conclusion that the keystroke duration and latency are influenced by arousal. The finding about the size of the effect suggests that the accuracy rate of emotion recognition technology could be further improved if personalized models are utilized. Notably, the experiment was conducted using standard instruments and hence is expected to be highly reproducible. PMID:26065902

  17. How does emotion influence different creative performances? The mediating role of cognitive flexibility.

    PubMed

    Lin, Wei-Lun; Tsai, Ping-Hsun; Lin, Hung-Yu; Chen, Hsueh-Chih

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive flexibility is proposed to be one of the factors underlying how positive emotions can improve creativity. However, previous works have seldom set up or empirically measured an independent index to demonstrate its mediating effect, nor have they investigated its mediating role on different types of creative performances, which involve distinct processes. In this study, 120 participants were randomly assigned to positive, neutral or negative affect conditions. Their levels of cognitive flexibility were then measured by a switch task. Finally, their creative performances were calibrated by either an open-ended divergent thinking test or a closed-ended insight problem-solving task. The results showed that positive emotional states could reduce switch costs and enhance both types of creative performances. However, cognitive flexibility exhibited a full mediating effect only on the relationship between positive emotion and insight problem solving, but not between positive emotion and divergent thinking. Divergent thinking was instead more associated with arousal level. These results suggest that emotions might influence different creative performances through distinct mechanisms. PMID:24237485

  18. The Influence of Emotional Labour and Emotional Work on the Occupational Health and Wellbeing of South Australian Hospital Nurses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisaniello, Sandra L.; Winefield, Helen R.; Delfabbro, Paul H.

    2012-01-01

    Nursing is an emotionally complex occupation, requiring performance of both emotional labour (for the benefit of the organisation and professional role) and emotional work (for the benefit of the nurse-patient relationship). According to the Conservation of Resources Theory, such processes can have a significant effect on psychological wellbeing…

  19. The influence of psychological debriefing on emotional adaptation in women following early miscarriage: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Lee, C; Slade, P; Lygo, V

    1996-03-01

    About a fifth of pregnancies end in miscarriage, leading to emotional consequences, such as anxiety and depression, which may last for a number of months. Despite this, women are not routinely provided with follow-up care. Anecdotal evidence suggests that follow-up focusing on emotional experiences may have beneficial effects. This study tests the hypothesis that the psychological debriefing process has a positive influence on emotional adaptation. Women were assessed, using the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale and Impact of Events Scale, at one week and four months post-miscarriage. Half the women also received psychological debriefing at two weeks. Intrusion and avoidance scores were initially as high as those of post-trauma victims, but had significantly decreased by four months. Depression was not detected at any time point, but anxiety was significantly higher than community sample estimates at one week and four months. Psychological debriefing was perceived to be helpful, but did not influence emotional adaptation. A number of hypotheses are provided to explain these results. Outcome scores at one week significantly predicted outcome at four months, suggesting that early assessment would be important in determining which women should be offered intervention. PMID:8829399

  20. The dynamic influence of emotional words on sentence comprehension: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Ding, Jinfeng; Wang, Lin; Yang, Yufang

    2016-06-01

    In the present study, we explored the influence of emotional words on the semantic integration of their following neutral nouns during sentence comprehension. We manipulated the emotionality of verbs and the semantic congruity of their following (neutral) object nouns in sentences. Event-related potentials were recorded to the verbs, which were either negative or neutral, and to the object nouns, which were either semantically congruent or incongruent relative to the preceding contexts. We found an N400 and a P600 effect in response to the semantic congruity of the nouns when they followed the neutral verbs. However, the P600 (but not the N400) semantic congruity effect may have been attenuated when the nouns followed the negative verbs. Meanwhile, the negative verbs elicited a larger P2 and N400 than did the neutral verbs. The results indicate that the attention captured by emotional words impaired reanalysis of the following incongruent information, demonstrating a dynamic influence of emotional words on the semantic processing of following information during sentence comprehension. PMID:26833049

  1. Replay of conditioned stimuli during late REM and stage N2 sleep influences affective tone rather than emotional memory strength.

    PubMed

    Rihm, Julia S; Rasch, Björn

    2015-07-01

    Emotional memories are reprocessed during sleep, and it is widely assumed that this reprocessing occurs mainly during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. In support for this notion, vivid emotional dreams occur mainly during REM sleep, and several studies have reported emotional memory enhancement to be associated with REM sleep or REM sleep-related parameters. However, it is still unknown whether reactivation of emotional memories during REM sleep strengthens emotional memories. Here, we tested whether re-presentation of emotionally learned stimuli during REM sleep enhances emotional memory. In a split-night design, participants underwent Pavlovian conditioning after the first half of the night. Neutral sounds served as conditioned stimuli (CS) and were either paired with a negative odor (CS+) or an odorless vehicle (CS-). During sound replay in subsequent late REM or N2 sleep, half of the CS+ and half of the CS- were presented again. In contrast to our hypothesis, replay during sleep did not affect emotional memory as measured by the differentiation between CS+ and CS- in expectancy, arousal and valence ratings. However, replay unspecifically decreased subjective arousal ratings of both emotional and neutral sounds and increased positive valence ratings also for both CS+ and CS- sounds, respectively. These effects were slightly more pronounced for replay during REM sleep. Our results suggest that re-exposure to previously conditioned stimuli during late sleep does not affect emotional memory strength, but rather influences the affective tone of both emotional and neutral memories. PMID:25933506

  2. Processing Emotional Facial Expressions Influences Performance on a Go/NoGo Task in Pediatric Anxiety and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ladouceur, Cecile D.; Dahl, Ronald E.; Williamson, Douglas E.; Birmaher, Boris; Axelson, David A.; Ryan, Neal D.; Casey, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    Background: This study investigated whether processing emotionally salient information such as emotional facial expressions influences the performance on a cognitive control task in pediatric anxiety and depression. Methods: The sample included 68 participants between 8 and 16 years of age selected into three diagnostic groups: Anxiety Disorder…

  3. Family Context Influences Psychological Outcomes of Depressive Symptoms and Emotional Quality of Life in Patients with Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Stamp, Kelly D.; Dunbar, Sandra B.; Clark, Patricia C.; Reilly, Carolyn M.; Gary, Rebecca A.; Higgins, Melinda; Kaslow, Nadine

    2014-01-01

    Background Although family influences in heart failure (HF) care are considered important, little evidence is available regarding relationships between the family context and specific outcomes for patients with HF. Objective To examine the relationships of patient perceptions of family functioning, autonomy support, and perceived criticism, as well as their family member’s (FM) HF knowledge with patient outcomes of depressive symptoms and HF quality of life (QOL). Methods Participants (n = 117) with HF were enrolled in a family partnership intervention study. Self-report questionnaires measuring the HF patient’s perceptions of family context and the FM’s knowledge were analyzed relative to the HF patient’s outcomes using correlations and sequential multivariate regression analyses. Only pre-intervention, baseline data are reported here. Results Age, ethnicity, Charlson comorbidity index, global family functioning and FM’s HF knowledge accounted for 37.8 % (p < .001) of the variance in patient’s depressive symptoms. An additional moderating effect of ethnicity on the association between global family functioning and patient’s depressive symptoms was significant (change R2 = .06, p = .001) resulting in a final model that accounted 43.3% of depressive symptom variance. Age, ethnicity, global family functioning and autonomy support accounted for 24.9% (p < .001) of the variance in emotional HF QOL. An additional moderating effect of ethnicity on the association between global family functioning and patient’s emotional HF QOL was significant (change R2 = .05, p = .009) resulting in a final model that accounted for 28.9% of emotional QOL variance. Conclusions This study underscores the importance of the patient’s perspective on family functioning and autonomy support, along with FM’s HF knowledge, on HF patient outcomes moderated by ethnicity. Future interventions could target the modifiable patient-family context relationships for improving

  4. Maternal Discussions of Mental States and Behaviors: Relations to Emotion Situation Knowledge in European American and Immigrant Chinese Children

    PubMed Central

    Doan, Stacey N.; Wang, Qi

    2010-01-01

    This study examined in a cross-cultural context mothers’ discussions of mental states and external behaviors in a story-telling task with their 3-year-old children and the relations of such discussions to children’s emotion situation knowledge (ESK). The participants were 71 European American and 60 Chinese immigrant mother-child pairs in the U.S. Mothers and children read a storybook together at home, and children’s ESK was assessed. Results showed that European American mothers made more references to thoughts and emotions during storytelling than did Chinese mothers, who commented more frequently on behaviors. Regardless of culture, mothers’ use of mental states language predicted children’s ESK, whereas their references to behaviors were negatively related to children’s ESK. Finally, mothers’ emphasis on mental states over behaviors partially mediated cultural effects on children’s ESK. PMID:20840236

  5. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle.

    PubMed

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim; Rahman, Mohammad Tariqur

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  6. Influence of Immunology Knowledge on Healthcare and Healthy Lifestyle

    PubMed Central

    Abu Kassim, Noor Lide; Saleh Huddin, Afiqah Binti; Daoud, Jamal Ibrahim

    2016-01-01

    Completing a course in Immunology is expected to improve health care knowledge (HCK), which in turn is anticipated to influence a healthy lifestyle (HLS), controlled use of health care services (HCS) and an awareness of emerging health care concerns (HCC). This cross-sectional study was designed to determine whether these interrelationships are empirically supported. Participants involved in this study were government servants from two ministries in Malaysia (n = 356) and university students from a local university (n = 147). Participants were selected using the non-random purposive sampling method. Data were collected using a self-developed questionnaire, which had been validated in a pilot study involving similar subjects. The questionnaire items were analyzed using Rasch analysis, SPSS version 21 and AMOS version 22. Results have shown that participants who followed a course in Immunology (CoI) had a higher primary HCK (Mean = 0.69 logit, SD = 1.29 logits) compared with those who had not (Mean = -0.27logit, SD = 1.26 logits). Overall, there were significant correlations among the HLS, the awareness of emerging HCC, and the controlled use of HCS (p <0.001). However, no significant correlations were observed between primary HCK and the other variables. However, significant positive correlation was observed between primary HCK and controlled use of HCS for the group without CoI. Path analysis showed that the awareness of emerging HCC exerted a positive influence on controlled use of HCS (β = 0.156, p < .001) and on HLS (β = 0.224, p < .001). These findings suggest that having CoI helps increase primary HCK which influences controlled use of HCS but does not necessarily influence HLS. Hence, introducing Immunology at various levels of education and increasing the public awareness of emerging HCC might help to improve population health en masse. In addition, further investigations on the factors affecting HLS is required to provide a better understanding on the

  7. Guanfacine Modulates the Influence of Emotional Cues on Prefrontal Cortex Activation for Cognitive Control

    PubMed Central

    Clerkin, Suzanne M.; Fan, Jin; Halperin, Jeffrey M.; Newcorn, Jeffrey H.

    2012-01-01

    Rationale Functional interactions between limbic regions that process emotions and frontal networks that guide response functions provide a substrate for emotional cues to influence behavior. Stimulation of postsynaptic α2 adrenoceptors enhances the function of prefrontal regions in these networks. However, the impact of this stimulation on the emotional biasing of behavior has not been established. Objectives This study tested the effect of the postsynaptic α2 adrenoceptor agonist guanfacine on the emotional biasing of response execution and inhibition in prefrontal cortex. Methods Fifteen healthy young adults were scanned twice with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task following counterbalanced administration of single doses of oral guanfacine (1 mg) and placebo in a double-blind, crossover design. Results Lower perceptual sensitivity and less response bias for sad faces resulted in fewer correct responses compared to happy and neutral faces, but had no effect on correct inhibitions. Guanfacine increased the sensitivity and bias selectively for sad faces, resulting in response accuracy comparable to happy and neutral faces, and reversed the valence-dependent variation in response-related activation in left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), resulting in enhanced activation for response execution cued by sad faces relative to happy and neutral faces, in line with other frontoparietal regions. Conclusions These results provide evidence that guanfacine stimulation of postsynaptic α2 adrenoceptors moderates DLPFC activation associated with the emotional biasing of response execution processes. The findings have implications for the α2 adrenoceptor agonist treatment of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:23086020

  8. The influence of emotions on cognitive control: feelings and beliefs—where do they meet?

    PubMed Central

    Harlé, Katia M.; Shenoy, Pradeep; Paulus, Martin P.

    2013-01-01

    The influence of emotion on higher-order cognitive functions, such as attention allocation, planning, and decision-making, is a growing area of research with important clinical applications. In this review, we provide a computational framework to conceptualize emotional influences on inhibitory control, an important building block of executive functioning. We first summarize current neuro-cognitive models of inhibitory control and show how Bayesian ideal observer models can help reframe inhibitory control as a dynamic decision-making process. Finally, we propose a Bayesian framework to study emotional influences on inhibitory control, providing several hypotheses that may be useful to conceptualize inhibitory control biases in mental illness such as depression and anxiety. To do so, we consider the neurocognitive literature pertaining to how affective states can bias inhibitory control, with particular attention to how valence and arousal may independently impact inhibitory control by biasing probabilistic representations of information (i.e., beliefs) and valuation processes (e.g., speed-error tradeoffs). PMID:24065901

  9. [Factors influencing student nurses' emotions toward children and their concept of motherhood].

    PubMed

    Jitsuzaki, Mina; Anan, Ayumi; Fukuzawa, Yukiko; Kawachi, Shinobu; Kanayama, Masako

    2006-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the factors influencing the emotions of student nurses toward children in order to apply the results to their practical training, since the opportunity for contact with children has been decreasing in recent years due to the declining birth rate. 278 student nurses completed a self-administered anonymous questionnaire that consisted of their background, such as living with children and experience of contact with children, their learning process, such as finished lectures and nursing training in child and maternal care or not, 28 items from Hanazawa's scale of emotions toward children, and 27 items for the concept of motherhood. The obtained data was analyzed using the SPSS 12.0J for Windows with the Spearman's correlation coefficient, Mann-Whitney U test and Kruskal Wallis test. The valid recovery was 121 (43.5%). The negative point for the concept of motherhood was significantly lower in the group that had finished nursing training in child and maternal care than in the group without such training. On the other hand, living with children and experience of contact with children did not influence their emotions toward children or concept of motherhood. The results of this study suggest that the experiences that student nurses have some deliberate and active contacts with children and mothers during their nursing training in child and maternal care have an influence on their concept of motherhood. PMID:16981406

  10. The influence of environmental hazard maps on risk beliefs, emotion, and health-related behavioral intentions.

    PubMed

    Severtson, Dolores J

    2013-08-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N = 446) answered questions about a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem's seriousness mediated attributes' influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  11. The Influence of Environmental Hazard Maps on Risk Beliefs, Emotion, and Health-related Behavioral Intentions

    PubMed Central

    Severtson, Dolores

    2013-01-01

    To test a theoretical explanation of how attributes of mapped environmental health hazards influence health-related behavioral intentions and how beliefs and emotion mediate the influences of attributes, 24 maps were developed that varied by four attributes of a residential drinking water hazard: level, proximity, prevalence, and density. In a factorial design, student participants (N=446) answered questions for a subset of maps. Hazard level and proximity had the largest influences on intentions to test water and mitigate exposure. Belief in the problem’s seriousness mediated attributes’ influence on intention to test drinking water, and perceived susceptibility mediated the influence of attributes on intention to mitigate risk. Maps with carefully illustrated attributes of hazards may promote appropriate health-related risk beliefs, intentions, and behavior. PMID:23533022

  12. Genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in emotion regulation and its relation to working memory in toddlerhood.

    PubMed

    Wang, Manjie; Saudino, Kimberly J

    2013-12-01

    This is the first study to explore genetic and environmental contributions to individual differences in emotion regulation in toddlers, and the first to examine the genetic and environmental etiology underlying the association between emotion regulation and working memory. In a sample of 304 same-sex twin pairs (140 MZ, 164 DZ) at age 3, emotion regulation was assessed using the Behavior Rating Scale of the Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BRS; Bayley, 1993), and working memory was measured by the visually cued recall (VCR) task (Zelazo, Jacques, Burack, & Frye, 2002) and several memory tasks from the Mental Scale of the BSID. Based on model-fitting analyses, both emotion regulation and working memory were significantly influenced by genetic and nonshared environmental factors. Shared environmental effects were significant for working memory, but not for emotion regulation. Only genetic factors significantly contributed to the covariation between emotion regulation and working memory. PMID:24098922

  13. Emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes influence observers' face expressions, fixations and pupil-size

    PubMed Central

    Kret, Mariska E.; Roelofs, Karin; Stekelenburg, Jeroen J.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    We receive emotional signals from different sources, including the face, the whole body, and the natural scene. Previous research has shown the importance of context provided by the whole body and the scene on the recognition of facial expressions. This study measured physiological responses to face-body-scene combinations. Participants freely viewed emotionally congruent and incongruent face-body and body-scene pairs whilst eye fixations, pupil-size, and electromyography (EMG) responses were recorded. Participants attended more to angry and fearful vs. happy or neutral cues, independent of the source and relatively independent from whether the face body and body scene combinations were emotionally congruent or not. Moreover, angry faces combined with angry bodies and angry bodies viewed in aggressive social scenes elicited greatest pupil dilation. Participants' face expressions matched the valence of the stimuli but when face-body compounds were shown, the observed facial expression influenced EMG responses more than the posture. Together, our results show that the perception of emotional signals from faces, bodies and scenes depends on the natural context, but when threatening cues are presented, these threats attract attention, induce arousal, and evoke congruent facial reactions. PMID:24391567

  14. Elements of Emotional Intelligence that Facilitate Exper-to-Peer Tacit Knowledge Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Catherine M.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this quantitative study was to compare the emotional intelligence competencies of a group of technical experts with high skills in problem-solving, leadership and mentoring (Group A) with a group of technical experts with lower skills in problem solving, leadership, and mentoring (Group B) at a semiconductor manufacturing factory in…

  15. Special Educators' Knowledge regarding Psychotropic Interventions for Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Reid, Robert; Ellis, Cynthia

    2008-01-01

    The use of psychotropic interventions to manage the inappropriate behaviors displayed by students with emotional and behavior disorders has become more common over the past several decades. The efficacious use of these medications requires monitoring students for desired behavioral outcomes as well as potential side effects. Educators are in an…

  16. Translating Knowledge of Social-Emotional Learning and Evidence-Based Practice into Responsive School Innovations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2011-01-01

    As the number of children engaging in problem behaviors grows, teachers increasingly report feeling unprepared to effectively meet students' mental health needs. Social-emotional learning (SEL) should be a prominent goal of school programs because social competence prevents school failure. This commentary reviews the challenges associated with…

  17. Variation in normal mood state influences sensitivity to dynamic changes in emotional expression.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Margaret C; Arlegui-Prieto, Maritxu

    2016-03-01

    Normal social functioning depends on the ability to efficiently and accurately detect when someone's facial expression changes to convey positive or negative emotion. While observer mood state has been shown to influence emotion recognition, how variations in normal mood might influence sensitivity to the dynamic emergence of expressions has not yet been addressed. To investigate this, we modified an existing face-morphing paradigm in which a central face gradually changes from neutral to expressive (angry, sad, happy, surprised). Our sample comprised healthy young adults, and current mood state was measured using the PANAS-X. Participants pressed a key as soon as they (1) noticed a physical change in expression (perceptual sensitivity-novel task element), and (2) could clearly conceptualize which expression was emerging (conceptual sensitivity). A final unspeeded response required participants to explicitly label the expression as a measure of recognition accuracy. We measured the percentage morph (expression intensity) at which a perceptual and conceptual change was detected, where greater intensity equates to poorer sensitivity. Increased positive mood reduced perceptual and conceptual sensitivity to angry and sad expressions only (a mood incongruency effect). Of particular interest, increased negative mood decreased conceptual sensitivity for all expressions, but had limited impact on perceptual sensitivity. Thus, heightened negative mood is particularly detrimental for effectively decoding someone else's mood change. This may reflect greater introspection and consumption of attentional resources directed toward the negative self, leaving fewer resources to process emotional signals conveyed by others. This could have important consequences for human social interaction. PMID:26479773

  18. How does graphotactic knowledge influence children's learning of new spellings?

    PubMed Central

    Pacton, Sébastien; Sobaco, Amélie; Fayol, Michel; Treiman, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments investigated whether and how the learning of spellings by French third graders is influenced by two graphotactic patterns: consonants cannot double in word-initial position (Experiment 1) and consonants cannot double after single consonants (Experiment 2). Children silently read meaningful texts that contained three types of novel spellings: no doublet (e.g., mupile, guprane), doublet in a legal position (e.g., muppile, gupprane), and doublet in an illegal position (e.g., mmupile, guprrane). Orthographic learning was assessed with a task of spelling to dictation. In both experiments, children recalled items without doublets better than items with doublets. In Experiment 1, children recalled spellings with a doublet in illegal word-initial position better than spellings with a doublet in legal word-medial position, and almost all misspellings involved the omission of the doublet. The fact that the graphotactic violation in an item like mmupile was in the salient initial position may explain why children often remembered both the presence and the position of the doublet. In Experiment 2, children recalled non-words with a doublet before a single consonant (legal, e.g., gupprane) better than those with a doublet after a single consonant (illegal, e.g., guprrane). Omission of the doublet was the most frequent error for both types of items. Children also made some transposition errors on items with a doublet after a single consonant, recalling for example gupprane instead of guprrane. These results suggest that, when a doublet is in the hard-to-remember medial position, children sometimes remember that an item contains a doublet but not which letter is doubled. Their knowledge that double consonants can occur before but not after single consonants leads to transposition errors on items like guprrane. These results shed new light on the conditions under which children use general knowledge about the graphotactic patterns of their writing system to

  19. The Influence of Mindfulness and Emotion Skills Training on Teachers' Classrooms: The Effects of the Cultivating Emotional Balance Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennings, Patricia A.; Foltz, Carol; Snowberg, Karin E.; Sim, Heewon; Kemeny, Margaret E.

    2011-01-01

    Cultivating Emotional Balance (CEB), an emotion skills and mindfulness intervention, improved wellbeing in a sample of teachers. Two studies examined whether such gain is associated with improvements in classrooms. Study 1 examined post-intervention differences in 20 dimensions of classroom climate (N = 21). CEB teachers were rated higher in…

  20. Menstrual cycle influence on cognitive function and emotion processing—from a reproductive perspective

    PubMed Central

    Sundström Poromaa, Inger; Gingnell, Malin

    2014-01-01

    The menstrual cycle has attracted research interest ever since the 1930s. For many researchers the menstrual cycle is an excellent model of ovarian steroid influence on emotion, behavior, and cognition. Over the past years methodological improvements in menstrual cycle studies have been noted, and this review summarizes the findings of methodologically sound menstrual cycle studies in healthy women. Whereas the predominant hypotheses of the cognitive field state that sexually dimorphic cognitive skills that favor men are improved during menstrual cycle phases with low estrogen and that cognitive skills that favor women are improved during cycle phases with increased estrogen and/or progesterone, this review has not found sufficient evidence to support any of these hypotheses. Mental rotation has gained specific interest in this aspect, but a meta-analysis yielded a standardized mean difference in error rate of 1.61 (95% CI −0.35 to 3.57), suggesting, at present, no favor of an early follicular phase improvement in mental rotation performance. Besides the sexually dimorphic cognitive skills, studies exploring menstrual cycle effects on tasks that probe prefrontal cortex function, for instance verbal or spatial working memory, have also been reviewed. While studies thus far are few, results at hand suggest improved performance at times of high estradiol levels. Menstrual cycle studies on emotional processing, on the other hand, tap into the emotional disorders of the luteal phase, and may be of relevance for women with premenstrual disorders. Although evidence at present is limited, it is suggested that emotion recognition, consolidation of emotional memories, and fear extinction is modulated by the menstrual cycle in women. With the use of functional magnetic resonance imaging, several studies report changes in brain reactivity across the menstrual cycle, most notably increased amygdala reactivity in the luteal phase. Thus, to the extent that behavioral changes

  1. The influence of clinician emotion on decisions in child and adolescent eating disorder treatment: a survey of self and others.

    PubMed

    Lafrance Robinson, Adele; Kosmerly, Stacey

    2015-01-01

    Eating disorder clinicians from various disciplines participated in one of two surveys: the "self" group (n = 143) completed a survey assessing the negative influence of emotions on their own clinical decisions, while the "other" group (n = 145) completed a parallel version of the survey that assessed their perceptions of the negative influence of emotion in their colleagues. Both groups endorsed this phenomenon to some degree, although differences in reporting were noted between groups. The perceived negative influence of emotion with regards to specific treatment decisions fell within three categories: decisions regarding food and weight, decisions regarding the involvement of the family in treatment, and decisions related to autonomy and control. Decisions regarding the involvement of the family were perceived to be the most emotionally charged, in particular the involvement of a critical or dismissive parent. PMID:25401960

  2. Anger Emotional Stress Influences VEGF/VEGFR2 and Its Induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Peng; Wei, Sheng; Wei, Xia; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiao, Mingqi; Wu, Jibiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We discuss the influence of anger emotional stress upon VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Methods. We created a rat model of induced anger (anger-out and anger-in) emotional response using social isolation and resident-intruder paradigms and assessed changes in hippocampus' VEGF content, neuroplasticity, and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Results. The resident-intruder method successfully generated anger-out and anger-in models that differed significantly in composite aggression score, aggression incubation, open field behavior, sucrose preference, and weight gain. Anger emotional stress decreased synaptic connections and VEGFR2 expression. Anger emotional stress led to abnormal expression of VEGF/VEGFR2 mRNA and protein and disorderly expression of key factors in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Fluoxetine administration ameliorated behavioral abnormalities and damage to hippocampal neurons caused by anger emotional stress, as well as abnormal expression of some proteins in VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Conclusion. This research provides a detailed classification of anger emotion and verifies its influence upon VEGF and the VEGF-induced signaling pathway, thus providing circumstantial evidence of mechanisms by which anger emotion damages neurogenesis. As VEGFR2 can promote neurogenesis and vasculogenesis in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, these results suggest that anger emotional stress can result in decreased neurogenesis. PMID:27057362

  3. Anger Emotional Stress Influences VEGF/VEGFR2 and Its Induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR Signaling Pathway.

    PubMed

    Sun, Peng; Wei, Sheng; Wei, Xia; Wang, Jieqiong; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Qiao, Mingqi; Wu, Jibiao

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We discuss the influence of anger emotional stress upon VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Methods. We created a rat model of induced anger (anger-out and anger-in) emotional response using social isolation and resident-intruder paradigms and assessed changes in hippocampus' VEGF content, neuroplasticity, and the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathway. Results. The resident-intruder method successfully generated anger-out and anger-in models that differed significantly in composite aggression score, aggression incubation, open field behavior, sucrose preference, and weight gain. Anger emotional stress decreased synaptic connections and VEGFR2 expression. Anger emotional stress led to abnormal expression of VEGF/VEGFR2 mRNA and protein and disorderly expression of key factors in the PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Fluoxetine administration ameliorated behavioral abnormalities and damage to hippocampal neurons caused by anger emotional stress, as well as abnormal expression of some proteins in VEGF/VEGFR2 and its induced PI3K/AKT/mTOR signal pathway. Conclusion. This research provides a detailed classification of anger emotion and verifies its influence upon VEGF and the VEGF-induced signaling pathway, thus providing circumstantial evidence of mechanisms by which anger emotion damages neurogenesis. As VEGFR2 can promote neurogenesis and vasculogenesis in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, these results suggest that anger emotional stress can result in decreased neurogenesis. PMID:27057362

  4. No Influence of Positive Emotion on Orbitofrontal Reality Filtering: Relevance for Confabulation.

    PubMed

    Liverani, Maria Chiara; Manuel, Aurélie L; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Nahum, Louis; Schnider, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Orbitofrontal reality filtering (ORFi) is a mechanism that allows us to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. Its failure induces reality confusion with confabulation and disorientation. Confabulations have been claimed to have a positive emotional bias, suggesting that they emanate from a tendency to embellish the situation of a handicap. Here we tested the influence of positive emotion on ORFi in healthy subjects using a paradigm validated in reality confusing patients and with a known electrophysiological signature, a frontal positivity at 200-300 ms after memory evocation. Subjects made two continuous recognition tasks ("two runs"), composed of the same set of neutral and positive pictures, but arranged in different order. In both runs, participants had to indicate picture repetitions within, and only within, the ongoing run. The first run measures learning and recognition. The second run, where all items are familiar, requires ORFi to avoid false positive responses. High-density evoked potentials were recorded from 19 healthy subjects during completion of the task. Performance was more accurate and faster on neutral than positive pictures in both runs and for all conditions. Evoked potential correlates of emotion and reality filtering occurred at 260-350 ms but dissociated in terms of amplitude and topography. In both runs, positive stimuli evoked a more negative frontal potential than neutral ones. In the second run, the frontal positivity characteristic of reality filtering was separately, and to the same degree, expressed for positive and neutral stimuli. We conclude that ORFi, the ability to place oneself correctly in time and space, is not influenced by emotional positivity of the processed material. PMID:27303276

  5. No Influence of Positive Emotion on Orbitofrontal Reality Filtering: Relevance for Confabulation

    PubMed Central

    Liverani, Maria Chiara; Manuel, Aurélie L.; Guggisberg, Adrian G.; Nahum, Louis; Schnider, Armin

    2016-01-01

    Orbitofrontal reality filtering (ORFi) is a mechanism that allows us to keep thought and behavior in phase with reality. Its failure induces reality confusion with confabulation and disorientation. Confabulations have been claimed to have a positive emotional bias, suggesting that they emanate from a tendency to embellish the situation of a handicap. Here we tested the influence of positive emotion on ORFi in healthy subjects using a paradigm validated in reality confusing patients and with a known electrophysiological signature, a frontal positivity at 200–300 ms after memory evocation. Subjects made two continuous recognition tasks (“two runs”), composed of the same set of neutral and positive pictures, but arranged in different order. In both runs, participants had to indicate picture repetitions within, and only within, the ongoing run. The first run measures learning and recognition. The second run, where all items are familiar, requires ORFi to avoid false positive responses. High-density evoked potentials were recorded from 19 healthy subjects during completion of the task. Performance was more accurate and faster on neutral than positive pictures in both runs and for all conditions. Evoked potential correlates of emotion and reality filtering occurred at 260–350 ms but dissociated in terms of amplitude and topography. In both runs, positive stimuli evoked a more negative frontal potential than neutral ones. In the second run, the frontal positivity characteristic of reality filtering was separately, and to the same degree, expressed for positive and neutral stimuli. We conclude that ORFi, the ability to place oneself correctly in time and space, is not influenced by emotional positivity of the processed material. PMID:27303276

  6. Managing stress: the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nicole M.; Balogun, Shyngle K.; Oratile, Kutlo N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more likely to use problem-solving, cognitive restructuring and express emotion coping strategies. In addition, problems in emotion regulation significantly predicted problem-and emotion-focused engagement, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement and coping strategies. There was a unique finding that non-acceptance of emotional responses, a type of emotion suppression, was positively correlated with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expressing emotion, social support, problem avoidance and wishful thinking coping strategies. Cultural context and implications for student well-being and university support are discussed. PMID:24910491

  7. A cortical network model of cognitive and emotional influences in human decision making.

    PubMed

    Nazir, Azadeh Hassannejad; Liljenström, Hans

    2015-10-01

    Decision making (DM)(2) is a complex process that appears to involve several brain structures. In particular, amygdala, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and lateral prefrontal cortex (LPFC) seem to be essential in human decision making, where both emotional and cognitive aspects are taken into account. In this paper, we present a computational network model representing the neural information processing of DM, from perception to behavior. We model the population dynamics of the three neural structures (amygdala, OFC and LPFC), as well as their interaction. In our model, the neurodynamic activity of amygdala and OFC represents the neural correlates of secondary emotion, while the activity of certain neural populations in OFC alone represents the outcome expectancy of different options. The cognitive/rational aspect of DM is associated with LPFC. Our model is intended to give insights on the emotional and cognitive processes involved in DM under various internal and external contexts. Different options for actions are represented by the oscillatory activity of cell assemblies, which may change due to experience and learning. Knowledge and experience of the outcome of our decisions and actions can eventually result in changes in our neural structures, attitudes and behaviors. Simulation results may have implications for how we make decisions for our individual actions, as well as for societal choices, where we take examples from transport and its impact on CO2 emissions and climate change. PMID:26184761

  8. Influencing Teacher Attitudes and Knowledge about Child Maltreatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayers, Jerry B.; Richey, David Dean

    Child maltreatment, including physical, emotional, and sexual abuse as well as chronic neglect, is a growing problem in society and one that educators must understand and be prepared to address. In 1981, Tennessee Technological University was selected by the American Association of Colleges for Teacher Education to be one of 13 institutions across…

  9. Discrete Model of Opinion Changes Using Knowledge and Emotions as Control Variables

    PubMed Central

    Sobkowicz, Pawel

    2012-01-01

    We present a new model of opinion changes dependent on the agents emotional state and their information about the issue in question. Our goal is to construct a simple, yet nontrivial and flexible representation of individual attitude dynamics for agent based simulations, that could be used in a variety of social environments. The model is a discrete version of the cusp catastrophe model of opinion dynamics in which information is treated as the normal factor while emotional arousal (agitation level determining agent receptiveness and rationality) is treated as the splitting factor. Both variables determine the resulting agent opinion, which itself can be in favor of the studied position, against it, or neutral. Thanks to the flexibility of implementing communication between the agents, the model is potentially applicable in a wide range of situations. As an example of the model application, we study the dynamics of a set of agents communicating among themselves via messages. In the example, we chose the simplest, fully connected communication topology, to focus on the effects of the individual opinion dynamics, and to look for stable final distributions of agents with different emotions, information and opinions. Even for such simplified system, the model shows complex behavior, including phase transitions due to symmetry breaking by external propaganda. PMID:22984516

  10. Age differences in suggestibility to contradictions of demonstrated knowledge: the influence of prior knowledge.

    PubMed

    Umanath, Sharda

    2016-11-01

    People maintain intact general knowledge into very old age and use it to support remembering. Interestingly, when older and younger adults encounter errors that contradict general knowledge, older adults suffer fewer memorial consequences: Older adults use fewer recently-encountered errors as answers for later knowledge questions. Why do older adults show this reduced suggestibility, and what role does their intact knowledge play? In three experiments, I examined suggestibility following exposure to errors in fictional stories that contradict general knowledge. Older adults consistently demonstrated more prior knowledge than younger adults but also gained access to even more across time. Additionally, they did not show a reduction in new learning from the stories, indicating lesser involvement of episodic memory failures. Critically, when knowledge was stably accessible, older adults relied more heavily on that knowledge compared to younger adults, resulting in reduced suggestibility. Implications for the broader role of knowledge in aging are discussed. PMID:27045461

  11. Analyzing How Emotion Awareness Influences Students' Motivation, Engagement, Self-Regulation and Learning Outcome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arguedas, Marta; Daradoumis, Thanasis; Xhafa, Fatos

    2016-01-01

    Considering social and emotional competence in learning, "emotion awareness" aims to detect the emotions that students show during their learning interactions and make these emotions explicit to them. Being aware of their emotions, students become more conscious of their situation, what may prompt them to behavioral change. The main goal…

  12. The influence of self-generated emotions on physical performance: an investigation of happiness, anger, anxiety, and sadness.

    PubMed

    Rathschlag, Marco; Memmert, Daniel

    2013-04-01

    The present study examined the relationship between self-generated emotions and physical performance. All participants took part in five emotion induction conditions (happiness, anger, anxiety, sadness, and an emotion-neutral state) and we investigated their influence on the force of the finger musculature (Experiment 1), the jump height of a counter-movement jump (Experiment 2), and the velocity of a thrown ball (Experiment 3). All experiments showed that participants could produce significantly better physical performances when recalling anger or happiness emotions in contrast to the emotion-neutral state. Experiments 1 and 2 also revealed that physical performance in the anger and the happiness conditions was significantly enhanced compared with the anxiety and the sadness conditions. Results are discussed in relation to the Lazarus (1991, 2000a) cognitive-motivational-relational (CMR) theory framework. PMID:23535977

  13. Influence of Ethnic Group-Membership and Gaze Direction on the Perception of Emotions. A Cross-Cultural Study between Germany and China

    PubMed Central

    Krämer, Katharina; Bente, Gary; Luo, Siyang; Pfeiffer, Ulrich J.; Han, Shihui; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person’s ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception. PMID:23762487

  14. Influence of ethnic group-membership and gaze direction on the perception of emotions. A cross-cultural study between Germany and China.

    PubMed

    Krämer, Katharina; Bente, Gary; Luo, Siyang; Pfeiffer, Ulrich J; Han, Shihui; Vogeley, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Emotional facial expressions provide important nonverbal cues in human interactions. The perception of emotions is not only influenced by a person's ethnic background but also depends on whether a person is engaged with the emotion-encoder. Although these factors are known to affect emotion perception, their impact has only been studied in isolation before. The aim of the present study was to investigate their combined influence. Thus, in order to study the influence of engagement on emotion perception between persons from different ethnicities, we compared participants from China and Germany. Asian-looking and European-looking virtual agents expressed anger and happiness while gazing at the participant or at another person. Participants had to assess the perceived valence of the emotional expressions. Results indicate that indeed two factors that are known to have a considerable influence on emotion perception interacted in their combined influence: We found that the perceived intensity of an emotion expressed by ethnic in-group members was in most cases independent of gaze direction, whereas gaze direction had an influence on the emotion perception of ethnic out-group members. Additionally, participants from the ethnic out-group tended to perceive emotions as more pronounced than participants from the ethnic in-group when they were directly gazed at. These findings suggest that gaze direction has a differential influence on ethnic in-group and ethnic out-group dynamics during emotion perception. PMID:23762487

  15. Asymmetries of Influence: Differential Effects of Body Postures on Perceptions of Emotional Facial Expressions

    PubMed Central

    Mondloch, Catherine J.; Nelson, Nicole L.; Horner, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    The accuracy and speed with which emotional facial expressions are identified is influenced by body postures. Two influential models predict that these congruency effects will be largest when the emotion displayed in the face is similar to that displayed in the body: the emotional seed model and the dimensional model. These models differ in whether similarity is based on physical characteristics or underlying dimensions of valence and arousal. Using a 3-alternative forced-choice task in which stimuli were presented briefly (Exp 1a) or for an unlimited time (Exp 1b) we provide evidence that congruency effects are more complex than either model predicts; the effects are asymmetrical and cannot be accounted for by similarity alone. Fearful postures are especially influential when paired with facial expressions, but not when presented in a flanker task (Exp 2). We suggest refinements to each model that may account for our results and suggest that additional studies be conducted prior to drawing strong theoretical conclusions. PMID:24039996

  16. The influence of culture of honor and emotional intelligence in the acculturation of Moroccan immigrant women.

    PubMed

    Lopez-Zafra, Esther; El Ghoudani, Karima

    2014-01-01

    Migration is a normal process of people seeking new opportunities, work, or leisure in societies. The way people adapt to a new country (acculturation) is a complex process in which immigrants' evaluations about the culture of origin and their perceptions of the host country interact. The combination of these two factors produces four types of acculturation: separation, assimilation, integration, and marginalization. Several variables, such as personality, attitudes, and emotional intelligence, have been studied to help explain this process. However, the impact of a culture of honor and its interaction with other variables remains an open question that may help to explain how migrants can better adjust to their host culture. In this study, we examine the influence of the culture of honor (social) and emotional intelligence (individual) on acculturation. In a sample of 129 Moroccan women (mean age = 29, SD = 9.40) immigrants in Spain (mean time in Spain = 6 years, SD = 3.60), we investigated the relations among the variables of interest. Our results show that no significant differences emerged in the scores given for culture of honor (CH) and the acculturation strategies of the Moroccan immigrant women F(3, 99) = .233; p = .87. However women who preferred the integration strategy scored highest on emotional intelligence (EI), whereas the assimilated immigrants showed the lowest scores for EI F(3, 92) = 4.63; p = .005. Additionally, only in the case of integration does EI mediate between CH and the value given to the immigrant's own and host cultures (p <.001). PMID:25012470

  17. Familial Influence of Substance Use Disorder on Emotional Disorder across Three Generations

    PubMed Central

    Leventhal, Adam M.; Pettit, Jeremy W.; Lewinsohn, Peter M.

    2010-01-01

    The concomitant influence of grandparental (Generation 1; G1) and parental (G2) substance use disorder (SUD) on grandchild (G3) emotional disorder (EmD) across three generations is unclear. The present study addressed this in a sample of 284 families participating in the Oregon Adolescent Depression Project. Structured clinical interviews were used to collect psychiatric history data on a community cohort of G2 individuals and their G1 parents. G2 parents rated EmD symptoms in their G3 children (M age = 5 years, SD = 2.8). Results indicated that G1 SUD was associated with increased risk of G3 EmD symptom elevations, above and beyond the influence of comorbid G1 EmD. G2 SUD was associated with a similar independent increase in risk for G3 EmD symptoms. Also, G1 SUD conferred risk for G2 SUD. Mediational tests indicated that the influence of G1 SUD on G3 EmD was transmitted via its influence on G2 SUD. G1 and G2 SUD did not interact in predicting G3 EmD; rather results suggested an additive influence. There was no evidence that the influence of G1 SUD on G3 EmD was transmitted via G2 EmD. These findings shed light on the multigenerational processes through which SUD influences EmD. PMID:20825999

  18. The Influence of Relational Knowledge and Executive Function on Preschoolers' Repeating Pattern Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Michael R.; Rittle-Johnson, Bethany; Loehr, Abbey M.; Fyfe, Emily R.

    2016-01-01

    Children's knowledge of repeating patterns (e.g., ABBABB) is a central component of early mathematics, but the developmental mechanisms underlying this knowledge are currently unknown. We sought clarity on the importance of relational knowledge and executive function (EF) to preschoolers' understanding of repeating patterns. One hundred…

  19. [Psychogenic NonEpileptic Seizures: Current Knowledge and Contributions of the Study of Emotions].

    PubMed

    Rutka, Roman; Denis, Anne; Vercueil, Laurent; Hot, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures (PNES) are paroxysmal attacks that can imitate epileptic seizures but do not have a neurological origin. There has been mounting interest these last few years to unravel psychological and neuronal factors that contribute to the development of PNES. The objective of this review is twofold. First, we examine recent contributions of clinical and researches studies to define the main features of PNES. Then, we focus on the possible link between changes in processing of emotional information and the onset of PNES. In this article, we identify promising directions for future research and argue that affective neuroscience may provide original findings to better understand this disease. PMID:27570954

  20. Factors that influence women's nutrition knowledge in Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Mansour, A A; Hassan, S A

    1994-01-01

    We studied knowledge of nutritional needs during pregnancy and lactation in 150 pregnant Saudi women at three primary health care centers in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We used an interview schedule to collect data regarding the women's knowledge and to determine the effects of certain independent variables on the knowledge scores. Green et al.'s (1980) PRECEDE model provided the theoretical framework for the study. Descriptive statistics, t test, and chi-square methods were used to analyze the data. The majority of the women had poor nutrition knowledge scores, with no significant differences among the three centers. A positive relationship was found between knowledge score and educational level. Negative relationships were found between knowledge score and number of pregnancies, number of deliveries, and number of living children. The findings have several implications for efforts to improve the health status of women in Saudi Arabia. PMID:8002417

  1. Parental Influences on Children's Self-Regulation of Energy Intake: Insights from Developmental Literature on Emotion Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Frankel, Leslie A.; Hughes, Sheryl O.; O'Connor, Teresia M.; Power, Thomas G.; Fisher, Jennifer O.; Hazen, Nancy L.

    2012-01-01

    The following article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to children's behavior, assistance in helping children self-regulate, and motivating children through rewards and punishments. Additionally, sources of variation in parental influences on regulation are examined, including parenting style, child temperament, and child-parent attachment security. Parallels in the nature of parents' role in socializing children's regulation of emotions and energy intake are examined. Implications for future research are discussed. PMID:22545206

  2. Presence and emotions in playing a group game in a virtual environment: the influence of body participation.

    PubMed

    Aymerich-Franch, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study assesses the influence of body participation on the sense of presence and emotions, and the relationship between the two dependent variables in playing a group game in a virtual environment. A total of 56 volunteers were asked to play a virtual game in a 360-degree stereoscopic immersive interactive visualization environment using either body movement or a joystick. Presence was measured with the post hoc SUS Presence Questionnaire. The pictorial tool of Self-Assessment Manikin was employed for measuring emotions of arousal and valence. Both arousal and valence positively correlated with presence. However, body participation did not significantly affect reported presence or the above-mentioned emotions. PMID:21142989

  3. Parental influences on children's self-regulation of energy intake: Insights from developmental literature on emotion regulation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article examines the role of parents in the development of children's self-regulation of energy intake. Various paths of parental influence are offered based on the literature on parental influences on children's emotion self-regulation. The parental paths include modeling, responses to childre...

  4. Influencing University Students' Knowledge and Attitudes toward Breastfeeding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Froehlich, Jan; Boivin, Meghan; Rice, Desiree.; McGraw, Katie; Munson, Elin; Walter, Katherine Corcoran; Bloch, Mary K. S.

    2013-01-01

    Spending a few minutes reading about the benefits of breastfeeding had a significant, positive effect on university students' knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding on post-surveys and follow-up surveys one month later. Since lactation duration is correlated with both knowledge and attitudes toward breastfeeding, implications of these…

  5. Personal Background Knowledge Influences Cross-Cultural Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Xiaodong; Bransford, John D.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: The purpose of the study was to investigate how two types of videos, personal background knowledge (PBK) and general background knowledge (GBK), affect people's interpretation of a classroom problem case that involved a disconnection between a foreign college professor and her students. The PBK video described the professor's…

  6. Modeling Social Influences in a Knowledge Management Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franco, Giacomo; Maresca, Paolo; Nota, Giancarlo

    2010-01-01

    The issue of knowledge management in a distributed network is receiving increasing attention from both scientific and industrial organizations. Research efforts in this field are motivated by the awareness that knowledge is more and more perceived as a primary economic resource and that, in the context of organization of organizations, the…

  7. Factors Influencing Primary School Children's Knowledge of Wildlife

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huxham, Mark; Welsh, Angela; Berry, Alice; Templeton, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    We examined the wildlife knowledge of primary (aged 4-12) schoolchildren. In particular, we examined the effects of children's age and gender, as well as the taxonomy and origin (indigenous versus exotic) of wildlife, on the degree of knowledge about different species. We used illustrated "flashcards" of mammals, birds and arthropods, drawn…

  8. Emotion: empirical contribution. Maternal borderline personality pathology and infant emotion regulation: examining the influence of maternal emotion-related difficulties and infant attachment.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Kim L; Kiel, Elizabeth J; Latzman, Robert D; Elkin, T David; Moore, Sarah Anne; Tull, Matthew T

    2014-02-01

    Evidence suggests that maternal borderline personality (BP) pathology increases offspring risk. This study examined the relations between maternal BP pathology and related emotional dysfunction (including emotion regulation [ER] difficulties and emotional intensity/reactivity) and infant ER difficulties. Specifically, we examined both self-focused and caregiver-focused ER behaviors and the modulation of emotional expressions (one indicator of ER in young children) in response to fear- and anger-eliciting stimuli among 101 infants (12 to 23 months old) of mothers with and without clinically relevant BP pathology. The authors also examined the moderating role of mother-infant attachment. Findings of a series of multiple regression mediation analyses revealed an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on infant ER difficulties through maternal emotional dysfunction, with maternal ER difficulties facilitating an indirect effect of maternal BP pathology on expressivity-related indicators of infant ER difficulties and maternal emotional intensity/reactivity linking maternal BP pathology to lower self-focused ER for infants in insecure-resistant attachment relationships. PMID:24344887

  9. The Construct of Emotion in the Study of Nonverbal Communication: A Need for Definition and Greater Consideration for the Influences of Socialization and Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Ed

    Nonverbal communicative behaviors are a primary channel for emotional expression. Emotions, in turn, strongly influence nonverbal communication displays. Thus, the role of emotions should be a central consideration in nonverbal communication studies. A study examined 34 articles, published in the "Journal of Nonverbal Behavior" between 1976 and…

  10. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics.

    PubMed

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  11. Emotional Effects on University Choice Behavior: The Influence of Experienced Narrators and Their Characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Callejas-Albiñana, Ana I.; Callejas-Albiñana, Fernando E.; Martínez-Rodríguez, Isabel

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence that experienced users of university resources might have as narrative sources of information for other students in the process of choosing their schools. Informative videos about the benefits of studying at the university provide a reference model. In these videos, a group of young people present their views and explain their reasons for choosing the university in which they are pursuing their degrees; the various narrators detail all the resources available. This study investigates whether the individual identifiers of these narrators (e.g., gender, age, physical appearance, nonverbal gestures such as smiling, posture) influence perceptions of the credibility of the information they provide. Among a sample of 150 students in their last year of pre-university training, the results demonstrate that the students' ability to identify with the narrators provides information and arouses emotions that inform their perceptions of reliability and therefore their consumption choices. None of these predictors appear to serve as determinants that can be generalized, but if emotional attitudes in response to narratives about the topic (i.e., the university) are positive, then they prompt a change in attitude toward that reference topic too. PMID:27252664

  12. Influence of Content Knowledge on Pedagogical Content Knowledge: The Case of Teaching Photosynthesis and Plant Growth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kapyla, Markku; Heikkinen, Jussi-Pekka; Asunta, Tuula

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the research was to investigate the effect of the amount and quality of content knowledge on pedagogical content knowledge (PCK). The biological content photosynthesis and plant growth was used as an example. The research sample consisted of 10 primary and 10 secondary (biology) teacher students. Questionnaires, lesson preparation task…

  13. Pre-Existing Background Knowledge Influences Socioeconomic Differences in Preschoolers' Word Learning and Comprehension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaefer, Tanya; Neuman, Susan B.; Pinkham, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of the current study is to explore the influence of knowledge on socioeconomic discrepancies in word learning and comprehension. After establishing socioeconomic differences in background knowledge (Study 1), the authors presented children with a storybook that incorporates this knowledge (Study 2). Results indicated that middle-income…

  14. Mechanisms of disturbed emotion processing and social interaction in borderline personality disorder: state of knowledge and research agenda of the German Clinical Research Unit.

    PubMed

    Schmahl, Christian; Herpertz, Sabine C; Bertsch, Katja; Ende, Gabriele; Flor, Herta; Kirsch, Peter; Lis, Stefanie; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Rietschel, Marcella; Schneider, Miriam; Spanagel, Rainer; Treede, Rolf-Detlef; Bohus, Martin

    2014-01-01

    The last two decades have seen a strong rise in empirical research in the mechanisms of emotion dysregulation in borderline personality disorder. Major findings comprise structural as well as functional alterations of brain regions involved in emotion processing, such as amygdala, insula, and prefrontal regions. In addition, more specific mechanisms of disturbed emotion regulation, e.g. related to pain and dissociation, have been identified. Most recently, social interaction problems and their underlying neurobiological mechanisms, e.g. disturbed trust or hypersensitivity to social rejection, have become a major focus of BPD research. This article covers the current state of knowledge and related relevant research goals. The first part presents a review of the literature. The second part delineates important open questions to be addressed in future studies. The third part describes the research agenda for a large German center grant focusing on mechanisms of emotion dysregulation in BPD. PMID:26401296

  15. Influence of trait empathy on the emotion evoked by sad music and on the preference for it

    PubMed Central

    Kawakami, Ai; Katahira, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals’ trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years) listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking toward them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy (FS). We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that FS, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music. PMID:26578992

  16. Influence of trait empathy on the emotion evoked by sad music and on the preference for it.

    PubMed

    Kawakami, Ai; Katahira, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Some people experience pleasant emotion when listening to sad music. Therefore, they can enjoy listening to it. In the current study, we aimed to investigate such apparently paradoxical emotional mechanisms and focused on the influence of individuals' trait empathy, which has been reported to associate with emotional responses to sad music and a preference for it. Eighty-four elementary school children (42 males and 42 females, mean age 11.9 years) listened to two kinds of sad music and rated their emotional state and liking toward them. In addition, trait empathy was assessed using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index scale, which comprises four sub-components: Empathic Concern, Personal Distress, Perspective Taking, and Fantasy (FS). We conducted a path analysis and tested our proposed model that hypothesized that trait empathy and its sub-components would affect the preference for sad music directly or indirectly, mediated by the emotional response to the sad music. Our findings indicated that FS, a sub-component of trait empathy, was directly associated with liking sad music. Additionally, perspective taking ability, another sub-component of trait empathy, was correlated with the emotional response to sad music. Furthermore, the experience of pleasant emotions contributed to liking sad music. PMID:26578992

  17. The Influence of Narrative and Expository Lesson Text Structures on Knowledge Structures: Alternate Measures of Knowledge Structure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.; Wolfe, Michael B.; Kim, Kyung

    2014-01-01

    This investigation applies two approaches for representing and comparing text structures as undirected network graphs to describe the influence of narrative and expository lesson texts on readers' knowledge structure elicited as free recall. Narrative and expository lesson texts and undergraduate participants' free recall essays (n = 90)…

  18. Embracing "Fields of Influence" while Exploring Alternative Paths of Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuiack, Marguerite

    2004-01-01

    This paper uses narrative and reflective methodologies to examine pedagogical practices that enable the production of meaningful relationships. I suggest that the term "fields of influence" encapsulates practices that enable some people to influence relationships with others. The narrative invites readers to consider how the embodied qualities…

  19. Emotion Regulation and Depressive Symptoms: Close Relationships as Social Context and Influence

    PubMed Central

    Marroquín, Brett; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Depression is associated with social dysfunction and maladaptive social environments, but mechanisms through which social relationships affect depressive psychopathology are unclear. We hypothesized that emotion regulation (ER) is such a mechanism, with outcomes of individuals’ ER efforts sensitive to the social context, and individuals’ ER strategy repertoire and use sensitive to social influence. In Study 1, a longitudinal study of community adults (N = 1,319), associations of individuals’ ER strategies with depressive symptoms depended on social connectedness and romantic relationship status (social context hypothesis). Moreover, associations of social connectedness and relationship status with symptoms were accounted for by maladaptive ER concurrently and, for social connectedness, prospectively over 1 year (social influence hypothesis). Study 2a, using a national sample (N = 772), replicated and extended these findings with a broader array of ER strategies, and ruled out alternative explanations regarding social skills and psychological wellbeing. Among participants in romantic relationships (Study 2b; N = 558), intimacy and trust buffered associations of maladaptive ER strategies with symptoms (context), and maladaptive and adaptive ER mediated links between relationship variables and symptoms (influence). Findings suggest that close relationships—and variation in underlying relational processes within relationships— influence the ER strategies people use, and also affect whether individuals’ own ER repertoires contribute to depression when deployed. Results elucidate core social mechanisms of ER in terms of both basic processes and depressive psychopathology, suggest ER is a channel through which social factors affect internal functioning and mental health, and inform relationship pathways for clinical intervention. PMID:26479366

  20. Emotion regulation and depressive symptoms: Close relationships as social context and influence.

    PubMed

    Marroquín, Brett; Nolen-Hoeksema, Susan

    2015-11-01

    Depression is associated with social dysfunction and maladaptive social environments, but mechanisms through which social relationships affect depressive psychopathology are unclear. We hypothesized that emotion regulation (ER) is such a mechanism, with outcomes of individuals' ER efforts sensitive to the social context, and individuals' ER strategy repertoire and use sensitive to social influence. In Study 1, a longitudinal study of community adults (N = 1,319), associations of individuals' ER strategies with depressive symptoms depended on social connectedness and romantic relationship status (social context hypothesis). Moreover, associations of social connectedness and relationship status with symptoms were accounted for by maladaptive ER concurrently and, for social connectedness, prospectively over 1 year (social influence hypothesis). Study 2a, using a national sample (N = 772), replicated and extended these findings with a broader array of ER strategies, and ruled out alternative explanations regarding social skills and psychological wellbeing. Among participants in romantic relationships (Study 2b; N = 558), intimacy and trust buffered associations of maladaptive ER strategies with symptoms (context), and maladaptive and adaptive ER mediated links between relationship variables and symptoms (influence). Findings suggest that close relationships-and variation in underlying relational processes within relationships-influence the ER strategies people use, and also affect whether individuals' own ER repertoires contribute to depression when deployed. Results elucidate core social mechanisms of ER in terms of both basic processes and depressive psychopathology, suggest ER is a channel through which social factors affect internal functioning and mental health, and inform relationship pathways for clinical intervention. PMID:26479366

  1. Family Day Care Educators' Knowledge, Confidence and Skills in Promoting Children's Social and Emotional Wellbeing: Baseline Data from Thrive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Elise; Corr, Lara; Ummer-Christian, Rahila; Gilson, Kim-Michelle; Waters, Elizabeth; Mihalopoulos, Cathrine; Marshall, Bernie; Cook, Kay; Herman, Helen; Mackinnon, Andrew; Harrsion, Linda; Sims, Margaret

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents baseline data from Thrive, a capacity-building program for family day care educators. Educators completed a self-report survey assessing knowledge and confidence in promoting children's social and emotional wellbeing. An in-home observation was used to assess care quality. Twenty-four educators responded to the survey (40…

  2. Emotional Stress and Cardiovascular Complications in Animal Models: A Review of the Influence of Stress Type

    PubMed Central

    Crestani, Carlos C.

    2016-01-01

    Emotional stress has been recognized as a modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. The impact of stress on physiological and psychological processes is determined by characteristics of the stress stimulus. For example, distinct responses are induced by acute vs. chronic aversive stimuli. Additionally, the magnitude of stress responses has been reported to be inversely related to the degree of predictability of the aversive stimulus. Therefore, the purpose of the present review was to discuss experimental research in animal models describing the influence of stressor stimulus characteristics, such as chronicity and predictability, in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by emotional stress. Regarding chronicity, the importance of cardiovascular and autonomic adjustments during acute stress sessions and cardiovascular consequences of frequent stress response activation during repeated exposure to aversive threats (i.e., chronic stress) is discussed. Evidence of the cardiovascular and autonomic changes induced by chronic stressors involving daily exposure to the same stressor (predictable) vs. different stressors (unpredictable) is reviewed and discussed in terms of the impact of predictability in cardiovascular dysfunctions induced by stress. PMID:27445843

  3. Factors that influence emotional disturbance in adults living in extreme poverty.

    PubMed

    Palomar-Lever, Joaquina; Victorio-Estrada, Amparo

    2012-04-01

    Living in poverty conditions implies exposure to severe circumstances of social disadvantage, associated with greater propensity to contract illnesses. A negative correlation has consistently been observed between health and poverty. The chronic exposure to stress affects people's well-being through the development of symptoms of anxiety and depression. The suffering of these symptoms for a long time period may be considered as part of a more general syndrome of emotional disturbance, in detriment to a person's mental health. The objective of this study is to identify psychological factors that influence emotional disturbance, measured as symptoms of anxiety and depression, in adults living in poverty conditions in Mexico's central region. A total of 913 adults, 65.2% female, were surveyed. The mean age of the participants was 43.71 (±12.58) years and the mean number of years of schooling was 4.04 (±3.36). Variables corresponding to personal characteristics were measured. The results indicate that the most important risk factor for depression is anxiety and vice versa. Additionally, gender, negative self-esteem, lack of adequate strategies for confronting and resolving difficulties, and lack of self-regulation predicted depression, whereas stress, lack of self-regulation, and coping style predicted anxiety. These variables were better predictors than optimism, locus of control, sense of humor or religiosity. PMID:22023014

  4. Judgements about Knowledge: Searching for Factors that Influence Their Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mengelkamp, Christoph; Bannert, Maria

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: Research in the field of metacomprehension often uses the accuracy of judgements of own knowledge as a measure of monitoring which is a central component of metacognition. One aim of this study is to investigate if the accuracy above chance usually found in studies using traditional texts can be replicated with hypermedia. More…

  5. Influence of emotion on the biomechanical organization of backward and forward step initiation.

    PubMed

    Yiou, Eric; Gendre, Manon; Deroche, Thomas; Le Bozec, Serge

    2014-10-01

    This study examined how pleasant and unpleasant emotional states influence the biomechanical organization of both forward and backward step initiation (SI). Participants (N = 31) purposely took a single step toward or away from a screen following the presentation of a pleasant (erotic), unpleasant (mutilation) or neutral (objects and landscapes) image. The main results showed that the reaction time for forward SI was shortened when individuals were exposed to pleasant pictures as compared with unpleasant pictures. The anticipatory whole-body center-of-mass velocity associated with backward SI, as well as the peak of center-of-mass velocity associated with forward SI both reached lower values when individuals were exposed to pleasant pictures as compared with neutral pictures. In contrast, unpleasant pictures did not significantly induce any change in the forward or backward SI parameters. Overall, these results obtained for whole-body approach/avoidance-like behaviors provided mitigated support for the so-called "motivational direction hypothesis." PMID:24717180

  6. Disentangling fast and slow attentional influences of negative and taboo spoken words in the emotional Stroop paradigm.

    PubMed

    Bertels, Julie; Kolinsky, Régine

    2016-09-01

    Although the influence of the emotional content of stimuli on attention has been considered as occurring within trial, recent studies revealed that the presentation of such stimuli would also involve a slow component. The aim of the present study was to investigate fast and slow effects of negative (Exp. 1) and taboo (Exp. 2) spoken words. For this purpose, we used an auditory variant of the emotional Stroop paradigm in which each emotional word was followed by a sequence of neutral words. Replicating results from our previous study, we observed slow but no fast effects of negative and taboo words, which we interpreted as reflecting difficulties to disengage attention from their emotional dimension. Interestingly, while the presentation of a negative word only delayed the processing of the immediately subsequent neutral word, slow effects of taboo words were long-lasting. Nevertheless, such attentional effects were only observed when the emotional words were presented in the first block of trials, suggesting that once participants develop strategies to perform the task, attention-grabbing effects of emotional words disappear. Hence, far from being automatic, the occurrence of these effects would depend on participants' attentional set. PMID:26197360

  7. The Influence Paths of Emotion on the Occupational Safety of Rescuers Involved in Environmental Emergencies- Systematic Review Article

    PubMed Central

    LU, Jintao; YANG, Naiding; YE, Jinfu; WU, Haoran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A detailed study and analysis of previous research has been carried out to illustrate the relationships between a range of environmental emergencies, and their effects on the emotional state of the rescuers involved in responding to them, by employing Pub Med, Science Direct, Web of Science, Google Scholar, CNKI and Scopus for required information with the several keywords “emergency rescue”, “occupational safety”, “natural disaster”, “emotional management”. The effect of the rescuers’ emotion on their occupational safety and immediate and long-term emotional behavior is then considered. From these considerations, we suggested four research propositions related to the emotional effects at both individual and group levels, and to the responsibilities of emergency response agencies in respect of ensuring the psychological and physical occupational safety of rescuers during and after environmental emergencies. An analysis framework is proposed which could be used to study the influence paths of these different aspects of emotional impact on a range of occupational safety issues for rescue workers. The authors believe that the conclusions drawn in this paper can provide a useful theoretical reference for decision-making related to the management and protection of the occupational safety of rescuers responding to natural disasters and environmental emergencies. PMID:26060714

  8. Superior analgesic effect of an active distraction versus pleasant unfamiliar sounds and music: the influence of emotion and cognitive style.

    PubMed

    Villarreal, Eduardo A Garza; Brattico, Elvira; Vase, Lene; Østergaard, Leif; Vuust, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Listening to music has been found to reduce acute and chronic pain. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood; however, emotion and cognitive mechanisms have been suggested to influence the analgesic effect of music. In this study we investigated the influence of familiarity, emotional and cognitive features, and cognitive style on music-induced analgesia. Forty-eight healthy participants were divided into three groups (empathizers, systemizers and balanced) and received acute pain induced by heat while listening to different sounds. Participants listened to unfamiliar Mozart music rated with high valence and low arousal, unfamiliar environmental sounds with similar valence and arousal as the music, an active distraction task (mental arithmetic) and a control, and rated the pain. Data showed that the active distraction led to significantly less pain than did the music or sounds. Both unfamiliar music and sounds reduced pain significantly when compared to the control condition; however, music was no more effective than sound to reduce pain. Furthermore, we found correlations between pain and emotion ratings. Finally, systemizers reported less pain during the mental arithmetic compared with the other two groups. These findings suggest that familiarity may be key in the influence of the cognitive and emotional mechanisms of music-induced analgesia, and that cognitive styles may influence pain perception. PMID:22242169

  9. Influences of Moral, Emotional and Adversity Quotient on Good Citizenship of Rajabhat University's Students in the Northeast of Thailand

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siphai, Sunan

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the influences of moral, emotional and adversity quotient on good citizenship of Rajabhat University's students in Northeastern Region of Thailand. The samples included 1,087 undergraduate students from 8 different Rajabhat universities. Data analysis was conducted in descriptive statistics and…

  10. Sad or Fearful? The Influence of Body Posture on Adults' and Children's Perception of Facial Displays of Emotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mondloch, Catherine J.

    2012-01-01

    The current research investigated the influence of body posture on adults' and children's perception of facial displays of emotion. In each of two experiments, participants categorized facial expressions that were presented on a body posture that was congruent (e.g., a sad face on a body posing sadness) or incongruent (e.g., a sad face on a body…

  11. Adolescent Self-Esteem and Gender: Exploring Relations to Sexual Harassment, Body Image, Media Influence, and Emotional Expression.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polce-Lynch, Mary; Myers, Barbara J.; Kliewer, Wendy; Kilmartin, Christopher

    2001-01-01

    Evaluated self-reported influences on self-esteem involving the media, sexual harassment, body image, family and peer relationships, and emotional expression for 93 boys and 116 girls in grades 5, 8, and 12. Results generally supported a pattern in which boys and girls were most similar in late childhood and again in late adolescence. Discusses…

  12. The Influence of Electronic Dictionaries on Vocabulary Knowledge Extension

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rezaei, Mojtaba; Davoudi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Vocabulary learning needs special strategies in language learning process. The use of dictionaries is a great help in vocabulary learning and nowadays the emergence of electronic dictionaries has added a new and valuable resource for vocabulary learning. The present study aims to explore the influence of Electronic Dictionaries (ED) Vs. Paper…

  13. Does knowledge of college drinking policy influence student binge drinking?

    PubMed

    Rhodes, Warren A; Singleton, Edward; McMillan, Tiffany B; Perrino, Carrol S

    2005-01-01

    The authors explored alcohol policies at 5 historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) to gain an understanding of how students' awareness of these policies might correlate with campus binge drinking rates. Findings indicated that male students who reported being unaware of certain alcohol policies were more likely to report binge drinking than their counterparts who reported they were aware of the policies. Gender differences in awareness of alcohol policy might be an important variable influencing binge drinking on HBCU campuses. PMID:16052735

  14. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure

    PubMed Central

    David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula

    2015-01-01

    The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist’s truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context. PMID:27247646

  15. The influence on perceptions of truthfulness of the emotional expressions shown when talking about failure.

    PubMed

    David, Shlomo; Hareli, Shlomo; Hess, Ursula

    2015-02-01

    The study aimed to assess whether showing emotion in an organizational inquiry into failure affects perceptions of truthfulness as a function of the match between the explanation of what caused the failure and the emotion expressed. Two web-based studies were conducted. Participants with work experience saw videos of an inquiry and rated the protagonist's truthfulness. In both studies protagonists who expressed an emotion (anger or shame) were rated as less truthful than protagonists who expressed no emotion, regardless of what the failure was attributed to. In order to not confound effects of emotions with occupational stereotype effects only male protagonists were shown. Showing emotions when questioned is normal. Managers have to be aware of a tendency to count this against the employee. This is the only research focusing on the effects of showing emotions on perceptions of truthfulness in an organizational context. PMID:27247646

  16. The Influence of Emotional State and Pictorial Cues on Perceptual Judgments

    SciTech Connect

    Kimberly R. Raddatz; Abigail Werth; Tuan Q. Tran

    2007-10-01

    Perspective displays (e.g., CDTI) are commonly used as decision aids in environments characterized by periods of high emotional arousal (e.g., terrain enhanced primary flight displays). However, little attention has been devoted to understanding how emotional state, independently or in conjunction with other perceptual factors (e.g., pictorial depth cues), can impact perceptual judgments. Preliminary research suggests that induced emotional state (positive or negative) adversely impacts size comparisons in perspective displays (Tran & Raddatz, 2006). This study further investigated how size comparisons are affected by emotional state and pictorial depth cues while attenuating the limitations of the Tran & Raddatz (2006) study. Results confirmed that observers do make slower judgments under induced emotional state. However, observers under negative emotional state showed higher sensitivity (d’) and required more evidence to respond that a size difference exists (response bias) than observers under positive emotional state. Implications for display design and human performance are discussed.

  17. Parental Knowledge and Substance Use among African American Adolescents: Influence of Gender and Grade Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tebes, Jacob Kraemer; Cook, Emily C.; Vanderploeg, Jeffrey J.; Feinn, Richard; Chinman, Matthew J.; Shepard, Jane K.; Brabham, Tamika; Connell, Christian M.

    2011-01-01

    Parental knowledge is defined as parental awareness and information about a child's activities, whereabouts, and associations that is obtained through parental monitoring, parental solicitation, or self-disclosure. Increased parental knowledge is generally associated with lower adolescent substance use; however, the influence of various contextual…

  18. Measurement and Influence of Preservice Teachers' Knowledge Structure in an Educational Psychology Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coco, Clare

    Concept maps are visual representations of knowledge structure and thought. Not enough attention has been paid to the measurement and influence of preservice teachers' knowledge structure and its development over time. This study implemented instructional scaffolding interventions in order to determine the effect on preservice teachers' knowledge…

  19. Collocational Links in the L2 Mental Lexicon and the Influence of L1 Intralexical Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolter, Brent; Gyllstad, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    This article assesses the influence of L1 intralexical knowledge on the formation of L2 intralexical collocations. Two tests, a primed lexical decision task (LDT) and a test of receptive collocational knowledge, were administered to a group of non-native speakers (NNSs) (L1 Swedish), with native speakers (NSs) of English serving as controls on the…

  20. Examining the Factors Influencing Participants' Knowledge Sharing Behavior in Virtual Learning Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Irene Y. L.; Chen, Nian-Shing; Kinshuk

    2009-01-01

    Increasing organizations and educational institutions have implemented virtual learning communities to encourage knowledge sharing. However, this task can not be accomplished simply by grouping people together and telling them "sharing your knowledge will make you learn better". This research attempts to examine the factors influencing knowledge…

  1. How District Leaders Use Knowledge Management to Influence Principals' Instructional Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGloughlin, Denise Marie

    2016-01-01

    The study of knowledge management, an integrated system of an organization's culture, conditions, and structure, as applied to educational institutions is limited. It was not known how district leaders use knowledge management to influence principals' instructional leadership performance. The purpose of this qualitative single-case study was to…

  2. Understanding the Influence of Two Mathematics Textbooks on Prospective Secondary Teachers' Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Jon D.

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the influence of reading and planning from two differently organized mathematics textbooks on prospective high school mathematics teachers' pedagogical content knowledge and content knowledge of exponential functions. The teachers completed a pretest and two posttests. On the pretest, the teachers possessed an incomplete…

  3. Influences of culture and environmental attitude on thermal, emotional and perceptual evaluations of a public square

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knez, Igor; Thorsson, Sofia

    2006-05-01

    The main objective of the present quasi-experimental study was to examine the influence of culture (Swedish vs Japanese) and environmental attitude (urban vs open-air person) on participants’ thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a square, within the PET (physiological equivalent temperature) comfortable interval of 18 23°C. It was predicted that persons living in different cultures with different environmental attitudes would psychologically evaluate a square differently despite similar thermal conditions. Consistent with this prediction, Japanese participants estimated the current weather as warmer than did Swedish participants and, consistent with this, they felt less thermally comfortable on the site, although participants in both countries perceived similar comfortable thermal outdoor conditions according to the PET index. Compared to the Japanese, the Swedes estimated both the current weather and the site as windier and colder, indicating a consistency in weather assessment on calm-windy and warm-cold scales in participants in both cultures. Furthermore, Swedish participants felt more glad and calm on the site and, in line with their character (more glad than gloomy), they estimated the square as more beautiful and pleasant than did Japanese participants. All this indicates that thermal, emotional and perceptual assessments of a physical place may be intertwined with psychological schema-based and socio-cultural processes, rather than fixed by general thermal indices developed in line with physiological heat balance models. In consequence, this implies that thermal comfort indices may not be applicable in different cultural/climate zones without modifications, and that they may not be appropriate if we do not take into account the psychological processes involved in environmental assessment.

  4. Influence of emotional context on concreteness effects in words processing for field-independent and field-dependent individuals.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qin; Jiao, Lihua; Cui, Lixia

    2014-06-18

    The phenomenon that concrete words are easier to process than abstract words is referred to as the word concreteness effect. Previous research has investigated influences of semantic context and word emotionality on concreteness effects. It is still unclear whether word concreteness effects might be influenced by emotional context for individuals with different cognitive styles. The present study showed how affective congruency between picture context and word target impacts concreteness effects in the word processing for field-independent and field-dependent individuals using event-related potential measures. The participants evaluated pleasantness of the target word following the presentation of an affective picture. Concrete words were associated with a larger N400 and a smaller late positive component (LPC) than abstract words. Moreover, the LPC concreteness effect occurred only in the affectively incongruent context for field-dependent participants. These findings suggest that emotional context and concreteness modulate the N400 independently, but the LPC concreteness effect is influenced by emotional context and cognitive style. PMID:24709915

  5. Emotions about Teaching about Human-Induced Climate Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lombardi, Doug; Sinatra, Gale M.

    2013-01-01

    Global climate change is receiving increasing attention as a classroom topic. At the same time, research has shown that individuals have strong emotions about the topic. Emotions about controversial topics and individuals' dispositions toward knowledge have been shown to influence judgments about these topics. This study examined the relationships…

  6. The influence of self-awareness on emotional memory formation: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Pais-Vieira, Carla; Wing, Erik A; Cabeza, Roberto

    2016-04-01

    Evidence from functional neuroimaging studies of emotional perception shows that when attention is focused on external features of emotional stimuli (external perceptual orienting-EPO), the amygdala is primarily engaged, but when attention is turned inwards towards one's own emotional state (interoceptive self-orienting-ISO), regions of the salience network, such as the anterior insula (AI) and the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), also play a major role. Yet, it is unknown if ISO boosts the contributions of AI and dACC not only to emotional 'perception' but also to emotional 'memory'. To investigate this issue, participants were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while viewing emotional and neutral pictures under ISO or EPO, and memory was tested several days later. The study yielded three main findings: (i) emotion boosted perception-related activity in the amygdala during both ISO and EPO and in the right AI exclusively during ISO; (ii) emotion augmented activity predicting subsequent memory in AI and dACC during ISO but not during EPO and (iii) high confidence memory was associated with increased amygdala-dACC connectivity, selectively for ISO encoding. These findings show, for the first time, that ISO promotes emotional memory formation via regions associated with interoceptive awareness of emotional experience, such as AI and dACC. PMID:26645274

  7. Exploring Factors Influencing Collaborative Knowledge Construction in Online Discussions: Student Facilitation and Quality of Initial Postings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ioannou, Andri; Demetriou, Skevi; Mama, Maria

    2014-01-01

    Although lots of studies have investigated collaborative knowledge construction in online courses, the factors influencing this process are yet to be fully determined. This study provides quantitative and qualitative types of evidence on how (naturally emerged) student facilitation and quality of initial postings influence collaborative knowledge…

  8. The Reflexive Producer: The Influence of Farmer Knowledge upon the Use of Bt Corn

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaup, Brent Z.

    2008-01-01

    This paper examines the influence of farmer knowledge upon decision making processes. Drawing upon the sociological debates around the ideas of reflexive modernity and biotechnology as well as from classic adoption and diffusion studies, I explore the influences upon farmers' use of "Bacillus thuringiensis" (Bt) corn. Utilizing survey data…

  9. The influence of emotional salience on the integration of person names into context.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin; Bastiaansen, Marcel; Yang, Yufang

    2015-06-01

    Previous event-related potentials (ERP) studies on the processing of emotional information in sentence/discourse context have yielded inconsistent findings. An important reason for the discrepancies is the different lexico-semantic properties of the emotional words. The present study controlled for the lexico-semantic meaning of emotional information by endowing the same person names with either positive or negative valence. ERPs were computed for positively and negatively valenced person names that were either congruent or incongruent to previous emotional contexts. We found that positive names elicited an N400 effect while negative names elicited a P600 effect in response to the incongruence. These results suggest that the integration of positive and negative information into emotional context exhibits different time courses, with a relatively delayed integration for negative information. Our study demonstrates that using person names constitutes a new and improved tool for investigating the integration of emotional information into context. PMID:25813827

  10. Does exposure to ambient odors influence the emotional content of memories?

    PubMed

    Castellanos, Kenia M; Hudson, Judith A; Haviland-Jones, Jeannette; Wilson, Patricia J

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effects of implicitly presented odors on the emotional content of memory narratives. Participants were exposed to low levels of perfumes or no odors while they reconstructed a memory from childhood and a recurrent dream. Narratives were analyzed for emotional content using the Linguistic and Inquiry Word Count program. Exposure to perfumes increased the percentage of positive emotion words used by participants in recalling both dreams and childhood memories. In addition, exposure to odors decreased the percentage of negative emotion words that men used in their narratives, whereas the opposite effect was found for women. Discussion focuses on gender differences in written emotional expression, possible ways by which perfumes may exert their effects, and the usefulness of using ambient odors and objective content analysis when studying emotions in memories. PMID:20923081