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Sample records for influence weight loss

  1. The Influence of Sleep Disordered Breathing on Weight Loss in a National Weight Management Program

    PubMed Central

    Janney, Carol A.; Kilbourne, Amy M.; Germain, Anne; Lai, Zongshan; Hoerster, Katherine D.; Goodrich, David E.; Klingaman, Elizabeth A.; Verchinina, Lilia; Richardson, Caroline R.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective: To investigate the influence of sleep disordered breathing (SDB) on weight loss in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE!, a nationally implemented behavioral weight management program delivered by the National Veterans Health Administration health system. Methods: This observational study evaluated weight loss by SDB status in overweight/obese veterans enrolled in MOVE! from May 2008–February 2012 who had at least two MOVE! visits, baseline weight, and at least one follow-up weight (n = 84,770). SDB was defined by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision, Clinical Modification codes. Primary outcome was weight change (lb) from MOVE! enrollment to 6- and 12-mo assessments. Weight change over time was modeled with repeated-measures analyses. Results: SDB was diagnosed in one-third of the cohort (n = 28,269). At baseline, veterans with SDB weighed 29 [48] lb more than those without SDB (P < 0.001). On average, veterans attended eight MOVE! visits. Weight loss patterns over time were statistically different between veterans with and without SDB (P < 0.001); veterans with SDB lost less weight (−2.5 [0.1] lb) compared to those without SDB (−3.3 [0.1] lb; P = 0.001) at 6 months. At 12 mo, veterans with SDB continued to lose weight whereas veterans without SDB started to re-gain weight. Conclusions: Veterans with sleep disordered breathing (SDB) had significantly less weight loss over time than veterans without SDB. SDB should be considered in the development and implementation of weight loss programs due to its high prevalence and negative effect on health. Citation: Janney CA, Kilbourne AM, Germain A, Lai Z, Hoerster KD, Goodrich DE, Klingaman EA, Verchinina L, Richardson CR. The influence of sleep disordered breathing on weight loss in a national weight management program. SLEEP 2016;39(1):59–65. PMID:26350475

  2. Genetic variants influencing effectiveness of weight loss strategies.

    PubMed

    Deram, Sophie; Villares, Sandra M F

    2009-03-01

    Body weight excess has an increasingly high prevalence in the world. Obesity is a complex disease of multifactorial origin with a polygenic condition affected by environmental factors. Weight loss is a primary strategy to treat obesity and its morbidities. Weight changes through life depend on the interaction of environmental, behavioral and genetic factors. Interindividual variation of weight loss in response to different types of interventions (behavioral, caloric restriction, exercise, drug or surgery) has been observed. In this article, currently available data on the role of candidate gene polymorphisms in weight loss are reviewed. Even though control of weight loss by genotype was described in twin and family studies, it is premature to recommend use of genotyping in the design of therapeutic diets or drug treatment. Future studies will have to be large in order to assess the effects of multiple polymorphisms, and will have to control factors other than diet. PMID:19466204

  3. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss-rapid weight loss; Overweight-rapid weight loss; Obesity-rapid weight loss; Diet-rapid weight loss ... for people who have health problems because of obesity. For these people, losing a lot of weight ...

  4. Social influences are associated with BMI and weight loss intentions in young adults

    PubMed Central

    Leahey, Tricia M.; LaRose, Jessica Gokee; Fava, Joseph L.; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Christakis and colleagues have shown that health behaviors cluster in social networks and suggest social norms may account for the clustering. This study examined: 1) whether obesity clusters among young adults and whether social norms do in fact account for the clustering, and 2) among OW/OB young adults, whether number of social contacts trying to lose weight is associated with weight loss intentions and whether social norms for weight loss account for this effect. Normal weight (NW) and OW/OB young adults (N=288; 66%Female; 75%Caucasian) completed measures assessing number of OW social contacts and social norms for obesity. OW/OB young adults also indicated number of OW social contacts currently trying to lose weight, social norms for weight loss, and weight loss intentions. Compared to NW, OW/OB young adults were more likely to have OW romantic partners and best friends and had more OW casual friends and family members (p's<.05), but social norms for obesity did not differ between groups, and social norms did not mediate the relationship between OW social contacts and participants' weight status. However, among OW/OB young adults, having more social contacts trying to lose weight was associated with greater intention to lose weight (r=.20, p=.02) and social norms for weight loss fully mediated this effect (p<.01). This study is the first to show that social contacts and normative beliefs influence weight status and intentions for weight control in young adults. Findings underscore the importance of targeting social influence in the treatment and prevention of obesity in this high-risk age group. PMID:21164501

  5. Proven Weight Loss Methods

    MedlinePlus

    Fact Sheet Proven Weight Loss Methods What can weight loss do for you? Losing weight can improve your health in a number of ways. It can lower ... at www.hormone.org/Spanish . Proven Weight Loss Methods Fact Sheet www.hormone.org

  6. Weight-loss medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000346.htm Weight-loss medicines To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Several weight-loss medicines are available. Ask your health care provider ...

  7. Weight Loss & Acute Porphyria

    MedlinePlus

    ... Sale You are here Home Diet and Nutrition Weight loss & acute Porphyria Being overweight is a particular problem ... one of these diseases before they enter a weight-loss program. Also, they should not participate in a ...

  8. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    Weight loss surgery helps people with extreme obesity to lose weight. It may be an option if you cannot lose weight through diet and exercise or have serious health problems caused by obesity. There are different types of weight loss surgery. They often limit the ...

  9. Anthocyanins and weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This review evaluated the available scientific literature relative to anthocyanins and weight loss and/or obesity with mention of other effects of anthocyanins on pathologies that are closely related to obesity. Although there is considerable popular press concerning anthocyanins and weight loss, th...

  10. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations.

    PubMed

    Eldridge, Johanna D; Devine, Carol M; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E

    2016-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. PMID:26368577

  11. Environmental influences on small eating behavior change to promote weight loss among Black and Hispanic populations

    PubMed Central

    Eldridge, Johanna D.; Devine, Carol M.; Wethington, Elaine; Aceves, Luz; Phillips-Caesar, Erica; Wansink, Brian; Charlson, Mary E.

    2015-01-01

    Small eating behavior changes are proposed as more feasible to achieve and maintain than larger changes used in traditional behavioral weight loss studies. However, it is unclear whether overweight Black and Hispanic adults in a low-income urban setting experience small changes as feasible and what might influence feasibility. Participants' experiences in a 12-week pilot weight loss intervention were explored qualitatively to determine the feasibility of making small eating behavior changes in this population. After the intervention (69% retention), semi-structured interviews with 46 men and women (mean age 51, 50% Non-Hispanic Black, 43% Hispanic) revealed that making small eating changes was a process shaped by participants' intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environments. Participants responded to intrapersonal and interpersonal eating environmental challenges by adapting small change strategies, navigating eating environments, and negotiating household eating practices. Findings highlight how even small eating behavior changes called for adaptation, navigation, and negotiation of complex eating environments in daily life. These findings were used to improve the trial that followed and underline the importance of feasibility studies to inform community trials. Findings also add to understanding of contextual challenges and the skills needed to implement small changes in a low income, ethnic minority population. PMID:26368577

  12. Prizes for weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Englberger, L.

    1999-01-01

    A programme of weight loss competitions and associated activities in Tonga, intended to combat obesity and the noncommunicable diseases linked to it, has popular support and the potential to effect significant improvements in health. PMID:10063662

  13. Weight loss - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... of laxatives Other causes such as: Eating disorders, anorexia nervosa that have not been diagnosed yet Diabetes that ... do not know the reason. You have other symptoms along with the weight loss.

  14. Do environmental variables influence overnight weight loss of yearling steers in semiarid rangelands?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In order to measure the weight gains of free-ranging livestock, animals are frequently corralled and confined overnight prior to weighing. Animals may take several days to recover from this overnight loss in weight associated with dehydration and excretion of urine and feces. Quantitative estimates ...

  15. Weight Loss Nutritional Supplements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerson, Joan M.

    Obesity has reached what may be considered epidemic proportions in the United States, not only for adults but for children. Because of the medical implications and health care costs associated with obesity, as well as the negative social and psychological impacts, many individuals turn to nonprescription nutritional weight loss supplements hoping for a quick fix, and the weight loss industry has responded by offering a variety of products that generates billions of dollars each year in sales. Most nutritional weight loss supplements are purported to work by increasing energy expenditure, modulating carbohydrate or fat metabolism, increasing satiety, inducing diuresis, or blocking fat absorption. To review the literally hundreds of nutritional weight loss supplements available on the market today is well beyond the scope of this chapter. Therefore, several of the most commonly used supplements were selected for critical review, and practical recommendations are provided based on the findings of well controlled, randomized clinical trials that examined their efficacy. In most cases, the nutritional supplements reviewed either elicited no meaningful effect or resulted in changes in body weight and composition that are similar to what occurs through a restricted diet and exercise program. Although there is some evidence to suggest that herbal forms of ephedrine, such as ma huang, combined with caffeine or caffeine and aspirin (i.e., ECA stack) is effective for inducing moderate weight loss in overweight adults, because of the recent ban on ephedra manufacturers must now use ephedra-free ingredients, such as bitter orange, which do not appear to be as effective. The dietary fiber, glucomannan, also appears to hold some promise as a possible treatment for weight loss, but other related forms of dietary fiber, including guar gum and psyllium, are ineffective.

  16. What Influences Patient Participation in an Online Forum for Weight Loss Surgery? A Qualitative Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Faxvaag, Arild

    2014-01-01

    Background Many patients who undergo weight loss (bariatric) surgery seek information and social support in online discussion forums, but the vast amount of available information raises concerns about the impact of such information. A secure online discussion forum was developed and offered to bariatric surgery patients. The forum was moderated and allowed contact with peers and health care professionals. Objective The purposes of this study were to explore how individuals undergoing bariatric surgery used the moderated discussion forum and to better understand what influenced their participation in the forum. Methods The study was designed as an explorative case study. We conducted participant observation of the discussion forum over a time period of approximately six months. For further insight, we carried out in-depth semistructured interviews with seven patients who had access to the forum. We analyzed the material inductively, using content and thematic analysis. Results The patients used the forum as an arena in which to interact with peers and providers, as well as to provide and achieve informational and social support. The analysis suggests that there are three major themes that influenced participation in the online discussion forum: (1) the participant’s motivation to seek information, advice, and guidance, (2) the need for social support and networking among peers, and (3) concerns regarding self-disclosure. Conclusions The findings of this study imply that a moderated discussion forum for bariatric surgery patients has potential for use in a therapeutic context. The discussion forum fulfilled the informational and support needs of the bariatric surgery patients and was particularly useful for those who excluded themselves from the traditional program and experienced barriers to expressing their own needs. Even though our findings imply that the patients benefitted from using the forum regardless of their active or passive participation, restraining

  17. Influences of weight loss on monocytes and T-cell subpopulations in male judo athletes.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Kazuhiro; Aizawa, Katsuji; Suzuki, Natsumi; Masuchi, Katsuyuki; Okada, Hirotaka; Akimoto, Takayuki; Mesaki, Noboru; Kono, Ichiro; Akama, Takao

    2011-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine weight loss effects on immune function in judo athletes. Six elite male Japanese judo athletes (20.3 ± 0.4 years) were enrolled in this study. They completed usual weight loss programs during 2 weeks preceding an actual competition. Subjects noted the appearance of upper-respiratory tract infection (URTI) symptoms during the study period. Blood samples were obtained at 40 (baseline period: BL) and 3 (weight loss period: WL) days before and 1 day after the competition (AC). The CD3, CD4, CD8, CD56CD3, CD28CD4, CD28CD8, and Toll-like-receptor-4 (TLR-4) CD14 cells were counted by using flow cytometer analysis. The 6 subjects reported 1 headache, 3 runny nose conditions, and 1 coughing instance during the WL. The CD3, CD4, CD8, and CD28CD4 cell counts were significantly lower at WL than at BL (p ≤ 0.05); they reverted to the baseline value at AC. The TLR-4CD14 cells were significantly fewer at WL (p ≤ 0.05); they remained fewer than they had been at BL, even at AC. These results suggest that 2 weeks of weight loss before a competition can impair cell-mediated immune function and induce high susceptibility to URTI in judo athletes. Coaches, support staff, and athletes should monitor athletes' weight loss, hydration status, appearance of URTI symptoms, and immunocompetence such as lymphocytes and monocytes to prevent the physical condition from becoming worse. PMID:21499138

  18. Sociocultural and Individual Influences on Muscle Gain and Weight Loss Strategies among Adolescent Boys and Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ricciardelli, Lina A.; McCabe, Marita P.

    2003-01-01

    The study examined the role of body dissatisfaction, body image importance, sociocultural influences (media and parent and peer encouragement), self-esteem and negative affect on body change strategies to decrease weight and increase muscles in adolescent boys and girls. Surveys were administered to 587 boys and 598 girls aged between 11 and 15…

  19. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interact to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week meal-controlled weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dairy foods enhance weight loss in animal models possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study aimed to determine in overweight women (ages 20-45; n=51) whether inclusion of dairy foods in an energy-restricted diet affects basal and stimulated cortisol concentrations, and whet...

  20. The influence of distinct asthma phenotypes on lung function following weight loss in the obese

    PubMed Central

    Chapman, David G.; Irvin, Charles G.; Kaminsky, David A.; Forgione, Patrick M.; Bates, Jason H.T.; Dixon, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective There appears to be two distinct clinical phenotypes of obese patients with asthma – those with early-onset asthma and high serum IgE (TH2-high) and those with late-onset asthma and low serum IgE (TH2-low). The aim of the present study was to determine in the two phenotypes of obese asthma the effect of weight-loss on small airway function. Methods TH2-low (n=8) and TH2-high (n=5) obese asthmatics underwent methacholine challenge before and 12 months following bariatric surgery. Dose response slopes as measures of sensitivity to airway closure and narrowing were measured as maximum %fall FVC and FEV1/FVC, respectively, divided by dose. Resting airway mechanics were measured by forced oscillation technique. Results Weight-loss reduced sensitivity to airway closure in TH2-low but not TH2-high obese asthmatics (pre-post mean change ± 95%CI: 1.8 ± 0.8 doubling doses vs −0.3 ± 1.7 doubling doses, p=0.04). However, there was no effect of weight loss on the sensitivity to airway narrowing in either group (p=0.8, TH2-low: 0.8 ± 1.0 doubling doses, TH2-high: −1.1 ± 2.5 doubling doses). In contrast, respiratory resistance (20Hz) improved in TH2-high but not in TH2-low obese asthmatics (pre-post change median [IQR]: 1.5 [1.3 – 2.8] cmH2O/L/s vs 0.6 [−1.8 – 0.8] cmH2O/L/s, p=0.03). Conclusions TH2-low obese asthmatics appear to be characterised by increased small airway responsiveness and abnormalities in resting airway function that may persist following weight loss. However, this was not the case for TH2-high obese asthmatics, highlighting the complex interplay between IgE status and asthma pathophysiology in obesity. PMID:25138203

  1. [Beliefs and influences on weight loss diets among low-income obese individuals].

    PubMed

    Cavalcanti, Ana Paula Rodrigues; Dias, Mardonio Rique; Rodrigues, Carla Fernanda Ferreira; Gouveia, Charlene Nayana Nunes Alves; Ramos, Deborah Dornellas; Serrano, Fagner José de Oliveira

    2007-01-01

    Obesity has become an epidemic that requires immediate control, mainly among the poor, particularly women and the less educated. The WHO requests and several studies confirm that support is needed for research projects examining psychological and social behavior that hampers compliance with weight loss diets. This paper uses the Theory of Reasoned Action (TRA) of M. Fishbein (1975) in social psychology, comparing two series of open interviews (conducted in 2001 and 2005) that disclosed positive (advantageous) and negative (harmful) beliefs about weight loss diets among low-income obese patients in João Pessoa, Paraíba State, as well as their guides (people of influential opinion) on following their diets. The 2001 findings were corroborated in 2005, revealing fears of diseases related to obesity and the wish to feel healthier and lighter. Mothers, children and above all spouses were mentioned as diet supporters. It was stressed that will-power is not be enough, but also reflection and building up control skills, in addition to allocating and altering life styles. Concerns related to appearance were not high priority. This information may lead to better diet compliance. PMID:18813493

  2. Dairy food consumption and meal-induced cortisol response interacted to influence weight loss in overweight women undergoing a 12-week, meal-controlled, weight loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Witbracht, Megan G; Van Loan, Marta; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L; Laugero, Kevin D

    2013-01-01

    Dairy food enhances weight loss in animal models, possibly by modifying the metabolic effects of cortisol. This study determined in overweight women (ages 20.0-45.9 y; n = 51) whether including dairy food in an energy-restricted diet affects cortisol concentrations and whether differences in provoked cortisol explain the magnitude of weight loss. Women received either an adequate amount of dairy food (AD), the equivalent of ≥711 mL/d milk, or a low amount of dairy food (LD), the equivalent to ≤238 mL/d milk, in a 12-wk, energy-restricted dietary intervention. Participants were tested in a 12-h laboratory visit, which included 2 standard meals and a dinner buffet that was consumed ad libitum. Salivary cortisol was measured from waking to bedtime. Energy restriction increased (P ≤ 0.04) the minimum and decreased (P ≤ 0.02) the diurnal amplitude in the salivary cortisol concentration from baseline to postintervention. Energy restriction enhanced the dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol response (DMR) (P ≤ 0.02) but only in the LD group. Compared with the LD treatment, the AD treatment induced (P ≤ 0.04) greater reductions in body weight and fat, but only in women characterized as having a baseline DMR (responders) (n = 26); weight and fat lost in the AD and LD groups were similar in nonresponders (n = 25). Overall, energy restriction dampened diurnal salivary cortisol fluctuations [symptomatic of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis dysfunction] and enhanced dinner meal-stimulated salivary cortisol concentrations. The AD treatment prevented the latter. Furthermore, certain phenotypic markers of HPA axis function may help to expose the weight-reducing effects of consuming dairy food. PMID:23190756

  3. Hypnotherapy in Weight Loss Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cochrane, Gordon; Friesen, John

    1986-01-01

    Investigated effects of hypnosis as a treatment for weight loss among women. The primary hypothesis that hypnosis is an effective treatment for weight loss was confirmed, but seven concomitant variables and the use of audiotapes were not significant contributors to weight loss. (Author/ABB)

  4. Examining Social Influence on Participation and Outcomes among a Network of Behavioral Weight-Loss Intervention Enrollees

    PubMed Central

    Carson, T. L.; Eddings, K. E.; Krukowski, R. A.; Love, S. J.; Harvey-Berino, J. R.; West, D. S.

    2013-01-01

    Research suggests that social networks, social support, and social influence are associated with weight trajectories among treatment- and non-treatment-seeking individuals. This study examined the impact of having a social contact who participated in the same group behavioral weight-control intervention in the absence of specific social support training on women engaged in a weight-loss program. Participants (n = 92; 100% female; 54% black; mean age: 46 ± 10 years; mean BMI: 38 ± 6) were grouped based upon whether or not they reported a social contact enrolled previously/concurrently in our behavioral weight-control studies. Primary outcomes were 6-month weight change and treatment adherence (session attendance and self-monitoring). Half of the participants (53%) indicated that they had a social contact; black women were more likely to report a social contact than white women (67.3% versus 39.5%; P < 0.01). Among participants with a social contact, 67% reported at least one contact as instrumental in the decision to enroll in the program. Those with a contact lost more weight (5.9 versus 3.7 kg; P = 0.04), attended more group sessions (74% versus 54%; P < 0.01), and submitted more self-monitoring journals (69% versus 54%; P = 0.01) than those without a contact. Participants' weight change was inversely associated with social contacts' weight change (P = 0.04). There was no association between participant and contact's group attendance or self-monitoring. Social networks may be a promising vehicle for recruiting and engaging women in a behavioral weight-loss program, particularly black women. The role of a natural social contact deserves further investigation. PMID:23840944

  5. Influence of ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms on body weight and body composition changes after a controlled weight-loss intervention.

    PubMed

    Szendrei, Barbara; González-Lamuño, Domingo; Amigo, Teresa; Wang, Guan; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Benito, Pedro J; Gomez-Candela, Carmen; Calderón, Francisco J; Cupeiro, Rocío

    2016-03-01

    The β-2 and β-3 adrenergic receptors (ADRB2 and ADRB3) are thought to play a role in energy expenditure and lipolysis. However, the effects of the ADRB2 glutamine (Gln) 27 glutamic acid (glutamate) (Glu) and ADRB3 tryptophan (Trp) 64 arginine (Arg) polymorphisms on weight loss remain controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these polymorphisms on changes in weight and body composition during a controlled weight-loss program. One hundred seventy-three healthy overweight and obese participants (91 women, 82 men) aged 18-50 years participated in a 22-week-long intervention based on a hypocaloric diet and exercise. They were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 groups: strength, endurance, strength and endurance combined, and physical activity recommendations only. Body weight, body mass index (BMI), and body composition variables were assessed before and after the intervention. Genetic analysis was carried out according to standard protocols. No effect of the ADRB2 gene was shown on final weight, BMI, or body composition, although in the supervised male group, Glu27 carriers tended to have greater weight (p = 0.019, 2.5 kg) and BMI (p = 0.019, 0.88 kg/m(2)) reductions than did noncarriers. There seems to be an individual effect of the ADRB3 polymorphism on fat mass (p = 0.004) and fat percentage (p = 0.036), in addition to an interaction with exercise for fat mass (p = 0.038). After the intervention, carriers of the Arg64 allele had a greater fat mass and fat percentage than did noncarriers (p = 0.004, 2.8 kg). In conclusion, the ADRB2 Gln27Glu and ADRB3 Trp64Arg polymorphisms may influence weight loss and body composition, although the current evidence is weak; however, further studies are necessary to clarify their roles. PMID:26888112

  6. PREVENTING WEIGHT REGAIN AFTER WEIGHT LOSS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    For most dieters, a regaining of lost weight is an all too common experience. Indeed, virtually all interventions for weight loss show limited or even poor long-term effectiveness. This sobering reality was reflected in a comprehensive review of nonsurgical treatments of obesity conducted by the Ins...

  7. Weight loss and alcohol

    MedlinePlus

    ... weight gain in a couple of ways. First, alcohol is high in calories. Some mixed drinks can contain as many calories as a meal, but without the nutrients. You also may make poor food choices ... to cut out all alcohol if you are trying to lose weight, you ...

  8. Rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... 22990030 www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22990030 . Weight-control Information NetworkNational Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and ... www.niddk.nih.gov/health-information/health-topics/weight-control/very-low-calorie-diets/Pages/very-low-calorie- ...

  9. Weight Loss Surgery

    MedlinePlus

    ... loss surgery (especially gastric bypass). Doctors call this "dumping syndrome." It can cause nausea, weakness, sweating, cramping, ... high-sugar or high-fat foods can make dumping worse. Patients need to be careful about what ...

  10. Predictors of successful weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The identification of variables in the early stages of treatment that are related to successful weight loss provides practitioners with important information. These factors may be assessed to determine the likelihood of future success. Weight loss at the beginning of treatment, depressive symptomato...

  11. Geophysical weight loss diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schatten, Kenneth

    1984-04-01

    Having for numerous reasons acquired a three digit kilogram mass, the author is experienced at the painful struggles that the gourmand must suffer to reduce weight, particularly if he/she enjoys reasonably large amounts of good food. To the avant-garde geophysicist, utilizing the following approach could be pleasurable, rewarding, and may even enable the accomplishment of what Ghengis Khan, Alexander the Great, Napolean, and Hitler could not!The basic approach is the full utilization of Newton's formula for the attraction of two massive bodies: F=GM1M2/r2, where G, is the gravitational constant; r, the distance between the two bodies; and M1 and M2, the masses of the two bodies. Although one usually chooses M1 to be the earth's mass ME and M2 to be the mass of a small object, this unnecessarily restricts the realm of phenomena. The less restrictive assumption is M1 + M2 = ME.

  12. Respiratory weight losses during exercise.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, J. W.; Nadel, E. R.; Stolwijk, J. A. J.

    1972-01-01

    Evaporative water loss from the respiratory tract was determined over a wide range of exercise. The absolute humidity of the expired air was the same at all levels of exercise and equal to that measured at rest. The rate of respiratory water loss during exercise was found to be 0.019 of the oxygen uptake times (44 minus water vapor pressure). The rate of weight loss during exercise due to CO2-O2 exchange was calculated. For exercise at oxygen consumption rates exceeding 1.5 L/min in a dry environment with a water vapor pressure of 10 mm Hg, the total rate of weight loss via the respiratory tract is on the order of 2-5 g/min.

  13. Supporting your child with weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... health care provider can set healthy goals for weight-loss and help with monitoring and support. Getting support ... to get the whole family to join a weight-loss plan, even if weight loss is not the ...

  14. Dietary Supplements for Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements, they won’t be listed on the product label and they could harm you. Weight-loss supplements can be sold without being tested or approved by the U.S. Food and Drug ... can recall that product. Visit this website to view the FDA’s public ...

  15. The goat (Capra hircus) mammary gland secretory tissue proteome as influenced by weight loss: A study using label free proteomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is a significant limitation to animal production. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Herein, labelfree proteomics was used to characterize the effects of SWL in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to...

  16. FDA Approves New Weight-Loss Device

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_159362.html FDA Approves New Weight-Loss Device Surgically implanted port allows obese patients to ... have been unable to lose weight and maintain weight loss using nonsurgical treatments. The FDA approval is for ...

  17. Peroneal neuropathy after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Cruz-Martinez, A; Arpa, J; Palau, F

    2000-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate the clinical and electrophysiological findings in peroneal mononeuropathies following a weight-reduction diet. Thirty patients with acute peroneal palsy and weight loss were studied. Complete nerve conduction studies (NCS) were performed in upper and lower limbs. NCS showed conduction block (CB) of the peroneal nerve at the fibular head that recovered in 29 patients within 3 weeks to 3 months. Severity of CB was correlated with clinical weakness. Three patients had abnormalities consistent with polyneuropathy (PNP). NCS in asymptomatic relatives confirmed familial neuropathy. Nerve biopsy and molecular study were consistent with hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies (HNPP). One of these peroneal palsies (6 months) recovered after neurolysis. Weight loss might be a risk factor in peroneal mononeuropathies. NCS is a tool in the diagnosis of the site and severity of the nerve injury. Testing should be considered for relatives of patients with PNP because peroneal mononeuropathies may be the first expression of HNPP. PMID:10905469

  18. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  19. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... individual's baseline weight, sustained for three months or longer; and the term “minor weight loss” means a weight loss of 10 to 20 percent of the individual's baseline weight, sustained for three months or...

  20. Selecting a Weight-Loss Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Weight Tip Choose weight-loss programs that encourage healthy behaviors that help you lose weight gradually and maintain your weight over time. Looking for easy-to-use information for eating healthy on the go? The Maintaining a Healthy ...

  1. Weight Loss and Black Women: A Systematic Review of the Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention Literature

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Tussing-Humphreys, Lisa M.; Porter, Jerlym S.; Martin, Iman K.; Odoms-Young, Angela; Sharp, Lisa K.

    2011-01-01

    Background The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. However, the behavioral weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender. Purpose The purpose of this article is to conduct a systematic review of all behavioral weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 and 2010 that included and reported results separately for black women. Methods The criteria for inclusion included: 1) participants age ≥18 years; 2) a behavioral weight loss intervention; 3) weight as an outcome variable; 4) inclusion of black women; and 5) weight loss results reported separately by ethnicity and gender. Results The literature search identified 25 studies that met inclusion criteria. Our findings suggest more intensive randomized behavioral weight loss trials with medically at-risk populations yield better results. Conclusions Well-designed and more intensive multi-site trials with medically at-risk populations currently offer the most promising results for black women. Still, black women lose less weight than other subgroups in behavioral weight loss interventions. It is now critical to expand on individual-level approaches and incorporate the biological, social, and environmental factors that influence obesity. This will help enable the adoption of healthier behaviors for this group of women disproportionately affected by obesity. PMID:22074195

  2. The clinical and metabolic effects of rapid weight loss in obese pet cats and the influence of supplemental oral L-carnitine.

    PubMed

    Center, S A; Harte, J; Watrous, D; Reynolds, A; Watson, T D; Markwell, P J; Millington, D S; Wood, P A; Yeager, A E; Erb, H N

    2000-01-01

    The efficacy, safety, and metabolic consequences of rapid weight loss in privately owned obese cats by means of a canned weight-reduction diet and the influence of orally administered L-carnitine on rate of weight loss, routine clinical evaluations, hepatic ultrasonography, plasma amino acid profiles, and carnitine analytes were evaluated. A double-blinded placebo-controlled design was used with cats randomly divided into 2 groups: Group 1 (n = 14) received L-carnitine (250 mg PO q24h) in aqueous solution and group 2 (n = 10) received an identical-appearing water placebo. Median obesity (body condition scores and percentage ideal body weight) in each group was 25%. Caloric intake was restricted to 60% of maintenance energy requirements (60 kcal/kg) for targeted ideal weight. The reducing formula was readily accepted by all cats. Significant weight loss was achieved by week 18 in each group without adverse effects (group 1 = 23.7%, group 2 = 19.6%). Cats receiving carnitine lost weight at a significantly faster rate (P < .05). Significant increases in carnitine values developed in each group (P < .02). However, significantly higher concentrations of all carnitine moieties and a greater percentage of acetylcarnitine developed in cats of group 1 (P < .01). The dietary formula and described reducing strategy can safely achieve a 20% weight reduction within 18 weeks in obese cats. An aqueous solution of L-carnitine (250 mg PO q12h) was at least partially absorbed, was nontoxic, and significantly increased plasma carnitine analyte concentrations as well as rate of weight loss. PMID:11110381

  3. Weight of zero-loss electrons and sum rules in extrinsic processes that can influence photoemission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulte, K.; James, M. A.; Steeneken, P. G.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Suryanarayanan, R.; Dhalenne, G.; Revcolevschi, A.

    2001-04-01

    It was argued in a recent paper by Joynt [Science 284, 777 (1999)] that in the case of poorly conducting solids a photoemission spectrum close to the Fermi energy may be strongly influenced by extrinsic loss processes similar to those occurring in high-resolution electron-energy-loss spectroscopy, thereby obscuring information concerning the density of states or one-electron Green's function sought for. In this paper we present a number of arguments, both theoretical and experimental, that demonstrate that energy-loss processes occurring once the electron is outside the solid, contribute only weakly to the spectrum, and can in most cases be either neglected or treated as a weak structureless background.

  4. Timing of food intake predicts weight loss effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is emerging literature demonstrating a relationship between the timing of feeding and weight regulation in animals. However, whether the timing of food intake influences the success of a weight-loss diet in humans is unknown. To evaluate the role of food timing in weight-loss effectiveness in ...

  5. Weight-loss surgery and children

    MedlinePlus

    ... and blood pressure Fewer sleep problems In the United States, weight loss operations have been used with success ... is not yet approved for teenagers in the United States. All weight loss operations can be performed through ...

  6. Brain function predictors and outcome of weight loss and weight loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N.; Breslin, Florence J.; Lynch, Anthony M.; Patrician, Trisha M.; Martin, Laura E.; Lepping, Rebecca J.; Powell, Joshua N.; Yeh, Hung-Wen (Henry); Befort, Christie A.; Sullivan, Debra; Gibson, Cheryl; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Savage, Cary R.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are associated with public health consequences and rising health care costs. Weight loss interventions, while effective, do not work for everyone, and weight regain is a significant problem. Eating behavior is influenced by a convergence of processes in the brain, including homeostatic factors and motivational processing that are important contributors to overeating. Initial neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions that respond differently to visual food cues in obese and healthy weight individuals that are positively correlated with reports of hunger in obese participants. While these findings provide mechanisms of overeating, many important questions remain. It is not known whether brain activation patterns change after weight loss, or if they change differentially based on amount of weight lost. Also, little is understood regarding biological processes that contribute to long-term weight maintenance. This study will use neuroimaging in participants while viewing food and non-food images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging will take place before and after completion of a twelve-week weight loss intervention. Obese participants will be followed though a 6-month maintenance period. The study will address three aims: 1. Characterize brain activation underlying food motivation and impulsive behaviors in obese individuals. 2. Identify brain activation changes and predictors of weight loss. 3. Identify brain activation predictors of weight loss maintenance. Findings from this study will have implications for understanding mechanisms of obesity, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Results will be significant to public health and could lead to a better understanding of how differences in brain activation relate to obesity. PMID:25533729

  7. Brain function predictors and outcome of weight loss and weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Szabo-Reed, Amanda N; Breslin, Florence J; Lynch, Anthony M; Patrician, Trisha M; Martin, Laura E; Lepping, Rebecca J; Powell, Joshua N; Yeh, Hung-Wen Henry; Befort, Christie A; Sullivan, Debra; Gibson, Cheryl; Washburn, Richard; Donnelly, Joseph E; Savage, Cary R

    2015-01-01

    Obesity rates are associated with public health consequences and rising health care costs. Weight loss interventions, while effective, do not work for everyone, and weight regain is a significant problem. Eating behavior is influenced by a convergence of processes in the brain, including homeostatic factors and motivational processing that are important contributors to overeating. Initial neuroimaging studies have identified brain regions that respond differently to visual food cues in obese and healthy weight individuals that are positively correlated with reports of hunger in obese participants. While these findings provide mechanisms of overeating, many important questions remain. It is not known whether brain activation patterns change after weight loss, or if they change differentially based on amount of weight lost. Also, little is understood regarding biological processes that contribute to long-term weight maintenance. This study will use neuroimaging in participants while viewing food and non-food images. Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging will take place before and after completion of a twelve-week weight loss intervention. Obese participants will be followed though a 6-month maintenance period. The study will address three aims: 1. Characterize brain activation underlying food motivation and impulsive behaviors in obese individuals. 2. Identify brain activation changes and predictors of weight loss. 3. Identify brain activation predictors of weight loss maintenance. Findings from this study will have implications for understanding mechanisms of obesity, weight loss, and weight maintenance. Results will be significant to public health and could lead to a better understanding of how differences in brain activation relate to obesity. PMID:25533729

  8. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions in § 4.114, the term “substantial weight loss” means a loss of greater than 20 percent of...

  9. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions in § 4.114, the term “substantial weight loss” means a loss of greater than 20 percent of...

  10. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions in § 4.114, the term “substantial weight loss” means a loss of greater than 20 percent of...

  11. 38 CFR 4.112 - Weight loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Weight loss. 4.112... DISABILITIES Disability Ratings The Digestive System § 4.112 Weight loss. For purposes of evaluating conditions in § 4.114, the term “substantial weight loss” means a loss of greater than 20 percent of...

  12. Weight Loss Might Reduce Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... evidence in the jigsaw of the benefits of losing weight, and how important weight loss is to ... Hutchinson Cancer Research Center in Seattle. In general, losing weight reduces the risk of breast, colon and ...

  13. The influence of calcium supplement on body composition, weight loss and insulin resistance in obese adults receiving low calorie diet

    PubMed Central

    Shalileh, Maryam; Shidfar, Farzad; Haghani, Hamid; Eghtesadi, Shahriar; Heydari, Iraj

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Obesity and diabetes are the most important problems of public health. Evidence from molecular animal research and epidemiologic investigations indicate that calcium intake may have an influence on body composition, weight and insulin resistance. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of calcium supplementation on body composition, weight, insulin resistance and blood pressure in the face of calorie restriction in obese adults. METHODS: A double blind randomized placebo-controlled trial on 40 adults with Body Mass Index > 25kg/m2 was conducted. Subjects were maintained for 24 weeks on a balanced deficit diet (-500 kcal/d deficit) and randomly assigned into two groups with 1000 mg ca/d as calcium carbonate or placebo. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in variables at the 12th and 24th week between the two groups. The lean mass showed no significant increase in the calcium group at the 12th week compared to baseline and in placebo group at the 24th week compared to the 12th week. The insulin concentration showed a significant decrease in the calcium group at the 12th week compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). The diastolic blood pressure had a significant decrease at the 24th week compared to the 12th week in both groups (p = 0.013-0.009). CONCLUSIONS: Results from this study suggest that 24 weeks of supplementation with 1000 mg ca/d did not have any effect on weight, body composition, insulin resistance and blood pressure beyond what can be achieved in an energy restricted diet in obese adults. PMID:21526081

  14. Measuring Bearing Wear Via Weight Loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keba, John E.; Moore, Richard S.

    1989-01-01

    Wear in critical parts of bearings measured via amounts of weight lost during use. Technique applicable in general to bearings made of nonporous materials. Weight-loss measurements easier, faster, more precise, and less likely to damage measured parts. Weight-loss measurements performed in clean rooms and under constraint of extreme cleanliness for compatability with liquid oxygen.

  15. Comparison of weight loss by weight classification in a commercial, community-based weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of our study was to determine the impact of grade of obesity on weight-loss outcomes of a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers Points-Plus). Previous studies have shown that individuals with a higher body mass index (BMI) at the beginning of treatme...

  16. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain

    PubMed Central

    Greenway, F L

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an ‘obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their

  17. Physiological adaptations to weight loss and factors favouring weight regain.

    PubMed

    Greenway, F L

    2015-08-01

    Obesity is a major global health problem and predisposes individuals to several comorbidities that can affect life expectancy. Interventions based on lifestyle modification (for example, improved diet and exercise) are integral components in the management of obesity. However, although weight loss can be achieved through dietary restriction and/or increased physical activity, over the long term many individuals regain weight. The aim of this article is to review the research into the processes and mechanisms that underpin weight regain after weight loss and comment on future strategies to address them. Maintenance of body weight is regulated by the interaction of a number of processes, encompassing homoeostatic, environmental and behavioural factors. In homoeostatic regulation, the hypothalamus has a central role in integrating signals regarding food intake, energy balance and body weight, while an 'obesogenic' environment and behavioural patterns exert effects on the amount and type of food intake and physical activity. The roles of other environmental factors are also now being considered, including sleep debt and iatrogenic effects of medications, many of which warrant further investigation. Unfortunately, physiological adaptations to weight loss favour weight regain. These changes include perturbations in the levels of circulating appetite-related hormones and energy homoeostasis, in addition to alterations in nutrient metabolism and subjective appetite. To maintain weight loss, individuals must adhere to behaviours that counteract physiological adaptations and other factors favouring weight regain. It is difficult to overcome physiology with behaviour. Weight loss medications and surgery change the physiology of body weight regulation and are the best chance for long-term success. An increased understanding of the physiology of weight loss and regain will underpin the development of future strategies to support overweight and obese individuals in their efforts

  18. Human biology of weight maintenance after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Mariman, Edwin C M

    2012-01-01

    One year after losing weight, most people have regained a significant part of the lost weight. As such, weight regain after weight loss has a negative impact on human health. The risk for weight regain is determined by psychosocial and behavioral factors as well as by various physiological and molecular parameters. Here, the latter intrinsic factors are reviewed and assembled into four functional modules, two related to the energy balance and two related to resistance against weight loss. Reported genetic factors do not reveal additional functional processes. The modules form nodes in a network describing the complex interactions of intrinsically determined weight maintenance. This network indicates that after an initial weight loss persons with a high baseline fat mass will most easily succeed in maintaining weight, because they can lose fat without raising stress in adipocytes and at the same time spare fat-free mass. However, continued weight loss and weight maintenance requires extra measures like increased physical activity, limited energy intake and a fat-free sparing composition of the diet. Eventually, this network may help to design novel therapeutic measures based on preventing the return effect of specific plasma factors or by preventing the accumulation of adipocyte cellular stress. PMID:22472972

  19. Exercise and Weight Loss: The Uncertain Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawks, Steven R.

    1989-01-01

    In terms of physical impact, recent studies suggest that many benefits previously attributed to exercise as a factor in weight loss do not exist. Researchers do seem to agree that exercise does have a positive effect on body composition during weight loss. (IAH)

  20. Weight-Loss Surgery May Boost Survival

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159166.html Weight-Loss Surgery May Boost Survival Overall death risk dropped ... 3, 2016 THURSDAY, June 2, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery might significantly lower obese people's risk of ...

  1. Obesity Prevention and Weight Maintenance After Loss.

    PubMed

    German, Alexander James

    2016-09-01

    Obesity is one of the most prevalent medical diseases in pets. Outcomes are often disappointing; many animals either fail to reach target weight or regain weight. This article discusses managing obesity, focusing on prevention. It gives guidance on establishing monitoring programs that use regular body weight and condition assessments to identify animals at risk of inappropriate weight gain, enabling early intervention. Weight management in obese animals is a lifelong process. Regular weight and body condition monitoring are key to identifying animals that rebound early, while continuing to feed a therapeutic weight loss diet can help prevent it from happening. PMID:27255281

  2. Exercise and activity for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    An active lifestyle and exercise routine, along with eating healthy foods, is the best way to lose weight. ... Calories used in exercise > calories eaten = weight loss. This means that to lose weight, the number of calories you burn by exercising needs ...

  3. Do dietary supplements help promote weight loss?

    PubMed

    Bell, Stacey J; Van Ausdal, Wendy; Grochoski, Greg

    2009-01-01

    As two-thirds of the US population is overweight or obese, new strategies are needed to help individuals safely and effectively lose weight. One option is to use dietary supplements, but not all supplements that are touted for weight loss have published clinical support for efficacy. The purpose of this article was to identify all published articles on dietary supplements for weight loss. Effectiveness of these supplements was defined as promoting 1-2 lb of weight loss each week. Although several dozen different dietary supplements are sold, only 14 published studies were identified. Four individual ingredients and three blends of ingredients were considered to be effective. Additionally, we compared weight loss from these dietary supplements to over-the-counter (OTC) orlistat (alli™, GlaxoSmithKline, Brentford, UK). Five single ingredients and three blends of ingredients produced more weight loss than OTC orlistat. Persons who use dietary supplements for weight management, counsel patients on how to lose weight, and retailers who sell dietary supplements, should become familiar with those supplements only that are effective at producing weight loss to assure the best results. PMID:22435353

  4. Influence of additional resection of the gastric fundus on excessive weight loss in laparoscopic very very long limb Roux-en-Y gastric bypass.

    PubMed

    Delko, T; Köstler, T; Peev, M; Oertli, D; Zingg, U

    2013-03-01

    Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is the gold standard in bariatric surgery. The effect of the procedure is based on restriction, malabsorption and changes in hormonal axis. Ghrelin is an important appetite hormone which is produced mainly in the gastric fundus. By adding a resection of the gastric fundus, we hypothesized that excessive weight loss will be more prominent and the satiety feelings less pronounced compared to standard RYGB. A total of 73 patients with standard very very long limb (VVLL) RYGB (group A) were compared with 44 patients with VVLL RYGB with resection of the fundus (group B). Outcome measures were excessive weight loss (EWL), body mass index (BMI), early postoperative morbidity, change of co-morbidities, and appetite reduction as assessed by an appetite questionnaire over a postoperative period of 24 months. Groups were comparable in basic preoperative descriptions. Additional fundus resection did not influence EWL (group A 66.1 % vs. group B 70.6 %, p = 0.383) or BMI (group A 29 kg/m(2) vs. group B 27 kg/m(2), p = 0.199). No significant difference in morbidity or change of co-morbidities occurred. The appetite and satiety questionnaire showed no difference between group A and group B, respectively. Adding a resection of the gastric fundus in RYGB did not alter the clinical results, i.e., increased excessive weight loss, decrease of appetite, or increase of satiety. The value of removing a part of the ghrelin-producing cells might be overestimated. PMID:23135881

  5. The role of exercise in weight loss.

    PubMed

    Blix, G G; Blix, A G

    1995-01-01

    Aerobic exercise has traditionally been viewed as a critical component of most weight-reduction programs. The resulting weight loss from the exercise alone, however, is often disappointing. Researchers too frequently fail to take into account the normal energy expenditure associated with living; the degree of obesity; the intensity and duration of the exercise itself; the activity during the recovery period; food intake before and after the exercise; and the age, gender, and training status of the individuals. Nor do they consider variations in baseline resting metabolic rates. In this article, the authors explore the effect of the intensity of aerobic exercise on weight loss, emphasizing the inability of many obese individuals to maintain an intensity level sufficient to produce significant weight loss. Aerobic exercise should be emphasized for its health benefits rather than as a short-term method of enhancing weight loss. PMID:7579773

  6. Predictors of long-term weight loss in adults with modest initial weight loss, by sex and race.

    PubMed

    Svetkey, Laura P; Ard, Jamy D; Stevens, Victor J; Loria, Catherine M; Young, Deb Y; Hollis, Jack F; Appel, Lawrence J; Brantley, Phillip J; Kennedy, Betty M; Kumanyika, Shiriki K; Batch, Bryan C; Corsino, Leonor; Lien, Lillian F; Vollmer, William M

    2012-09-01

    Effective weight management interventions could reduce race-sex disparities in cardiovascular disease (CVD), yet little is known about factors associated with successful weight loss maintenance in race-sex subgroups. In the Weight Loss Maintenance trial (WLM), overweight/obese (BMI 25-45 kg/m(2)) adults who lost ≥4 kg in a 6-month behavioral weight loss intervention (phase I) were randomized into one of three 30-month maintenance interventions (phase II). To investigate predictors in subgroups, randomized groups were combined for this analysis. Of 1,685 phase I participants, 1,032 (61%) entered phase II, including 12% black men (BM), 26% black women (BW), 25% white men (WM), and 37% white women (WW). Weight change over the 36-month study ranged from -2.3% (95% confidence interval = -3.1 to -1.5%) in BW to -4.5% (95% confidence interval = -5.7 to -4.0%) in WM, the result of differential weight loss during phase I. Within race, men lost significantly more weight than women, but within sex group, weight loss did not differ significantly between races. Although participants regained weight during phase II, regain did not differ by race-sex group, and mean weight at the end of the study was significantly lower than phase I entry weight for each subgroup. In regression models, phase I weight loss predicted overall 36-month weight loss in all race-sex groups. Healthy dietary pattern at entry, improvement in dietary pattern, or both were predictive in three of four race-sex groups. Few other variables other than initial weight loss and dietary pattern were predictive. Future research should identify additional modifiable influences on long-term maintenance after a modest weight loss. PMID:21527896

  7. Weight loss and gain in athletes.

    PubMed

    Rankin, Janet Walberg

    2002-08-01

    Guidance from health professionals will assist the significant proportion of athletes who desire a change in their body weight. Athletes who use drastic food or fluid restriction to lose weight may experience negative consequences, including loss of lean tissue, hormonal disturbances, and performance impairment. Excess food consumption for weight gain can increase body fat and risk factors for chronic diseases. Weight change is best done during the off-season, modifying energy intake up or down by 500 kcal/d. Adequate carbohydrate (60%-65%, > 5 g/kg) and protein (15%, 1.2-1.8 g/kg) and a low fat intake (20%-25%) is appropriate for either weight loss or gain. The athletic staff should be knowledgeable about the latest rules related to weight and appropriate weight control methods so they may guide their athletes using modest, safe approaches that will not negatively affect health or performance. PMID:12831697

  8. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    PubMed Central

    Wing, Rena R.; Leahey, Tricia; Jeffery, Robert; Johnson, Karen C.; Hill, James O.; Coday, Mace; Espeland, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    Objective Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g. size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicenter study of the effects of an intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) in overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes. Design and Methods Weight losses and adherence (attendance, use of meal replacement products, and minutes of activity) were examined over one year of intervention in 2329 ILI participants in 209 treatment groups, which all received the same weight loss program. Results Weight losses did not cluster among members of a treatment group (intra-class correlation [ICC] of .007), whereas measures of adherence had small/moderate clustering (ICCs of .05–.11). The 209 groups varied in weight losses, with a mean of 8.64 % (SD=2.35 %, interquartile range=6.82%, 10.32%), but neither size nor baseline homogeneity of members affected the outcome. Conclusions Although these findings suggest that it may not be necessary to control for clustering in behavioral weight loss studies, they also indicate that merely treating individuals in groups is not sufficient to harness social influences on weight loss. PMID:23804576

  9. Herbal remedies and supplements for weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... dangerous. Before using an over-the-counter or herbal diet remedy, talk with your health care provider. Nearly all over-the-counter supplements with claims of weight-loss properties contain some ...

  10. Acculturation and weight loss strategies among Latinas.

    PubMed

    Marquez, Becky; Ayala, Guadalupe X; Wing, Rena R

    2015-04-01

    This study examined the relationship between indicators of acculturation and weight loss strategies among Latinas. Latinas residing in the United States longer had more experience with various weight loss strategies (r = 0.24, p = 0.05). Controlling for demographic factors and BMI, years of U.S. residence was related to whether increased physical activity (OR 1.18, 95% CI 1.01-1.39, p = 0.04) and reduced portion sizes (OR 1.39, 95% CI 1.02-1.91, p = 0.03) were used as strategies for weight loss. More English spoken at home was associated with use of reducing calories as a strategy for weight loss (OR 4.13, 95% CI 1.06-16.09, p = 0.04). Regardless of acculturation level, less empirically supported methods such as using herbal products and a girdle were more prevalent than commonly recommended methods such as using meal replacement products and commercial weight loss programs. Behavioral weight loss interventions for Latinas should consider acculturation to more effectively target subgroups, address cultural practices, and teach lifestyle-appropriate strategies. PMID:24150420

  11. Tailoring dietary approaches for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, C D

    2012-01-01

    Although the ‘Low-Fat' diet was the predominant public health recommendation for weight loss and weight control for the past several decades, the obesity epidemic continued to grow during this time period. An alternative ‘low-carbohydrate' (Low-Carb) approach, although originally dismissed and even vilified, was comparatively tested in a series of studies over the past decade, and has been found in general to be as effective, if not more, as the Low-Fat approach for weight loss and for several related metabolic health measures. From a glass half full perspective, this suggests that there is more than one choice for a dietary approach to lose weight, and that Low-Fat and Low-Carb diets may be equally effective. From a glass half empty perspective, the average amount of weight lost on either of these two dietary approaches under the conditions studied, particularly when followed beyond 1 year, has been modest at best and negligible at worst, suggesting that the two approaches may be equally ineffective. One could resign themselves at this point to focusing on calories and energy intake restriction, regardless of macronutrient distributions. However, before throwing out the half-glass of water, it is worthwhile to consider that focusing on average results may mask important subgroup successes and failures. In all weight-loss studies, without exception, the range of individual differences in weight change within any particular diet groups is orders of magnitude greater than the average group differences between diet groups. Several studies have now reported that adults with greater insulin resistance are more successful with weight loss on a lower-carbohydrate diet compared with a lower-fat diet, whereas adults with greater insulin sensitivity are equally or more successful with weight loss on a lower-fat diet compared with a lower-carbohydrate diet. Other preliminary findings suggest that there may be some promise with matching individuals with certain genotypes

  12. Dietary adherence during weight loss predicts weight regain.

    PubMed

    Del Corral, Pedro; Bryan, David R; Garvey, W Timothy; Gower, Barbara A; Hunter, Gary R

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between previous dietary adherence during a low-calorie diet weight loss intervention and subsequent weight change during a 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance. One hundred and sixteen healthy, recently weight reduced (lost ~12 kg, BMI 22-25 kg/m2) premenopausal women were studied. Dietary adherence was assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW) and body composition change. Comparisons were made between the upper and lower tertiles for previous dietary adherence and subsequent weight change at 1- and 2-year follow-up. Percent weight regained was significantly lower (30.9 ± 6.7% vs. 66.7 ± 9.4%; P < 0.05) in the upper compared to the lower adherence tertile for previous weight loss dietary adherence (49.9 ± 8.8% vs. 96.8 ± 12.8% P < 0.05) at 1- and 2-year follow-up, respectively. This difference was partly explained by increases in daily activity-related energy expenditure (AEE) (+95 ± 45 kcal/day vs. -44 ± 42 kcal/day, P < 0.05) and lower daily energy intake (2,066 ± 71 kcal/day vs. 2,289 ± 62 kcal/day, P < 0.05) in the higher tertile for previous dietary adherence, compared to the lower. These findings suggest that higher adherence (i.e., higher tertile) to the previous low-calorie diet predicts lower weight regain over 2-year follow-up for weight maintenance, which is explained by lower energy intake and higher physical activity. Finally, how well an individual adheres to a low-calorie diet intervention during weight loss may be a useful tool for identifying individuals who are particularly vulnerable to subsequent weight regain. PMID:21164500

  13. The weight loss blogosphere: an online survey of weight loss bloggers.

    PubMed

    Evans, Martinus; Faghri, Pouran D; Pagoto, Sherry L; Schneider, Kristin L; Waring, Molly E; Whited, Matthew C; Appelhans, Bradley M; Busch, Andrew; Coleman, Ailton S

    2016-09-01

    Blogging is a form of online journaling that has been increasingly used to document an attempt in weight loss. Despite the prevalence of weight loss bloggers, few studies have examined this population. We examined characteristics of weight loss bloggers and their blogs, including blogging habits, reasons for blogging, like and dislikes of blogging, and associations between blogging activity and weight loss. Participants (N = 194, 92.3 % female, mean age = 35) were recruited from Twitter and Facebook to complete an online survey. Participants reported an average weight loss of 42.3 pounds since starting to blog about their weight loss attempt. Blogging duration significantly predicted greater weight loss during blogging (β = -3.65, t(185) = -2.97, p = .003). Findings suggest that bloggers are generally successful with their weight loss attempt. Future research should explore what determines weight loss success/failure in bloggers and whether individuals desiring to lose weight would benefit from blogging. PMID:27528529

  14. Rapid Weight Loss in Sports with Weight Classes.

    PubMed

    Khodaee, Morteza; Olewinski, Lucianne; Shadgan, Babak; Kiningham, Robert R

    2015-01-01

    Weight-sensitive sports are popular among elite and nonelite athletes. Rapid weight loss (RWL) practice has been an essential part of many of these sports for many decades. Due to the limited epidemiological studies on the prevalence of RWL, its true prevalence is unknown. It is estimated that more than half of athletes in weight-class sports have practiced RWL during the competitive periods. As RWL can have significant physical, physiological, and psychological negative effects on athletes, its practice has been discouraged for many years. It seems that appropriate rule changes have had the biggest impact on the practice of RWL in sports like wrestling. An individualized and well-planned gradual and safe weight loss program under the supervision of a team of coaching staff, athletic trainers, sports nutritionists, and sports physicians is recommended. PMID:26561763

  15. Cumulative Weight Exposure Is Associated with Different Weight Loss Strategies and Weight Loss Success in Adults Age 50 or Above

    PubMed Central

    Sénéchal, Martin; Slaght, Jana; Bouchard, Danielle R.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. To evaluate if cumulative weight exposure is associated with weight loss strategy choices and weight loss success. Methods. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used; a total of 4,562 people age 50 years or older who reported trying to lose weight in the last year were studied. Cumulative weight exposure (CWE) score was defined as the sum of body mass index points above 25 kg/m2 at the age of 25, 10 years ago, 1 year ago, and now. Weight loss strategies were self-reported and weight loss success was defined as reaching a 5% weight loss in the last year. Results. Chosen strategies for weight loss vary across tertiles of CWE. Participants in the highest CWE tertile were about 4 to 20 times more likely to lose at least 5% of body weight in the past year compared to those in the lowest CWE tertile (P < 0.05).  Discussion. Strategies used to lose weight and weight loss success using different weight loss strategies vary considerably across cumulative weight exposure. Thus, cumulative weight exposure might be a variable worth considering when intervening with this population. PMID:26161269

  16. Weight loss counseling in primary care.

    PubMed

    Rosenblatt, E

    1989-01-01

    Caring for the overweight client requires a multifaceted approach. The nurse practitioner can help clients lose weight by providing them with strategies for reducing calorie intake, maintaining a healthy, balanced diet, exercising more, and developing positive behavioral and attitudinal changes. Weight reduction programs need to be individualized and clients should be periodically reassessed for changes in behaviors, eating patterns, and goals. Success in weight loss and maintenance requires a lifelong commitment to behavioral and nutritional changes. The goal of this article is to improve the clinician's understanding of the overweight person and to assist health care providers in counseling clients in weight reduction and maintenance. PMID:2631939

  17. Brief report: Weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The study objectives were to assess the association between weight dissatisfaction, weight status, and weight loss in Mexican-American children participating in a weight management program. Participants included 265 Mexican American children recruited for a school-based weight management program. Al...

  18. The relationship of alcohol use to weight loss in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Kase, Colleen A; Piers, Amani D; Schaumberg, Katherine; Forman, Evan M; Butryn, Meghan L

    2016-04-01

    Despite common wisdom that reducing alcohol intake will facilitate weight loss, little research has examined whether participants in behavioral weight loss treatments actually decrease their alcohol intake, or whether reduced alcohol intake relates to weight loss outcomes in this context. This study examined the relationship of alcohol use to energy intake excluding alcohol and to weight in 283 overweight and obese adults participating in a 26-session behavioral weight loss treatment. The majority of participants consumed low to moderate levels of alcohol at baseline. Participants who consumed alcohol at baseline meaningfully reduced their alcohol intake by end-of-treatment. Alcohol use did not relate to weight at baseline or end-of-treatment when controlling for relevant demographic variables, and change in alcohol use was unrelated to weight change in the overall sample during treatment. However, end-of-treatment alcohol intake did relate to end-of-treatment energy intake excluding alcohol. In addition, behavioral impulsivity and change in alcohol intake interacted to predict weight loss, such that decreases in alcohol intake were associated with greater percent weight loss at end-of-treatment for participants with higher levels of impulsivity. Alcohol consumption may lead to overeating episodes, and highly impulsive individuals may be at risk for increased energy intake during or after episodes of drinking. Therefore, the recommendation to reduce alcohol intake in the context of behavioral weight loss treatment seems warranted, particularly for individuals with high levels of impulsivity. PMID:26792773

  19. Dynamics of weight loss during prolonged spaceflight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leach, C. S.; Leonard, J. I.; Rambaut, P. C.

    1982-01-01

    Data from three Skylab flights lasting 28, 59, and 84 days are used to study changes in body composition occurring during extended spaceflight. The analysis includes pre- and postflight measurements used to compute lean body mass and body fat losses for an entire mission using previously accepted methods based on total body water, potassium, and density, and also includes the daily metabolic balances in order to provide an estimate of the time course of the changes in water, protein, and fat. The analytical approach is explained and the results presented, including a summary of changes in lean body mass and changes in weight loss and tissue components. It is concluded that little more than half of the weight loss observed during the missions can be attributed to loss in lean body mass, the remainder being derived from fat stores.

  20. Who succeeds in maintaining weight loss? A conceptual review of factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain.

    PubMed

    Elfhag, K; Rössner, S

    2005-02-01

    Weight loss is difficult to achieve and maintaining the weight loss is an even greater challenge. The identification of factors associated with weight loss maintenance can enhance our understanding for the behaviours and prerequisites that are crucial in sustaining a lowered body weight. In this paper we have reviewed the literature on factors associated with weight loss maintenance and weight regain. We have used a definition of weight maintenance implying intentional weight loss that has subsequently been maintained for at least 6 months. According to our review, successful weight maintenance is associated with more initial weight loss, reaching a self-determined goal weight, having a physically active lifestyle, a regular meal rhythm including breakfast and healthier eating, control of over-eating and self-monitoring of behaviours. Weight maintenance is further associated with an internal motivation to lose weight, social support, better coping strategies and ability to handle life stress, self-efficacy, autonomy, assuming responsibility in life, and overall more psychological strength and stability. Factors that may pose a risk for weight regain include a history of weight cycling, disinhibited eating, binge eating, more hunger, eating in response to negative emotions and stress, and more passive reactions to problems. PMID:15655039

  1. Weight Loss and Diet in Wrestling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Richard

    1980-01-01

    Most weight loss among wrestlers is accomplished by a combination of fasting, induced sweating, and reduced fluid intake resulting in dehydration in the final days prior to competition. The effects of acute thermal dehydration on cardiovascular dynamics are related to a reduction in plasma volume. (JN)

  2. Fasting headache, weight loss, and dehydration.

    PubMed

    Mosek, A; Korczyn, A D

    1999-03-01

    Recently, we showed that fasting is a strong headache precipitator unrelated to coffee, tea, or smoking withdrawal or to oversleeping. In the current study, we evaluated the role of dehydration as a possible precipitator of fasting headache. The effects of a 25-hour fast of the Jewish Yom Kippur (Day of Atonement) were studied in women who participated in our previous Yom Kippur study. We asked the subjects to weigh themselves at the beginning and at the end of the Yom Kippur fast, assuming that the weight loss would largely reflect dehydration. In all but 1 of the 56 participants, the fast resulted in weight loss but only 28 (50%) reported headache. The average weight loss was 1.4 +/- 0.8 kg in those who developed headache and 1.2 +/- 0.5 kg in those who did not. This small difference was not statistically significant. We conclude that dehydration, as reflected by acute weight loss, is an unlikely cause of headache during a single day of fasting. The mechanism of fasting headache remains unclear. PMID:15613218

  3. Food addiction in adults seeking weight loss treatment. Implications for psychosocial health and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Burmeister, Jacob M; Hinman, Nova; Koball, Afton; Hoffmann, Debra A; Carels, Robert A

    2013-01-01

    The present study examined food addiction symptomology and its relationship to eating pathology and psychological distress among adults seeking weight loss treatment. A primary interest was an examination of the relationship between food addiction symptoms and short-term weight loss. Adults beginning a behavioral weight loss program (N=57) were given the Yale Food Addiction Scale (YFAS) as well as measures of psychological distress, disordered eating, weight bias, and weight-focused attitudes. Weight loss was measured after 7 weeks. Severity of food addiction was related to increased depression, emotional eating, binge eating, anti-fat attitudes, internalized weight bias, body shame, and low eating self-efficacy, but not body satisfaction. Increased food addiction symptomology was also related to less weight lost at 7 weeks. Findings suggest that individuals attempting to lose weight while combating symptoms of food addiction may be especially prone to eating-related pathologies, internalized weight bias, and body shame. Importantly, findings provide evidence that food addiction may undermine efforts to lose weight. The pathology associated with addiction (e.g., tolerance, withdrawal) could make the adoption of more healthful eating habits especially difficult. PMID:23017467

  4. Factors Associated with Attrition in Weight Loss Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grave, Riccardo Dalle; Suppini, Alessandro; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio

    2006-01-01

    Attrition in weight loss programs is a complex process, influenced by patients' pretreatment characteristics and treatment variables, but available data are contradictory. Only a few variables have been confirmed by more than one study as relevant risk factors, but recently new data of clinical utility emerged from "real world" large observational…

  5. Body contouring following massive weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Langer, Vijay; Singh, Amitabh; Aly, Al S.; Cram, Albert E.

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is a global disease with epidemic proportions. Bariatric surgery or modified lifestyles go a long way in mitigating the vast weight gain. Patients following these interventions usually undergo massive weight loss. This results in redundant tissues in various parts of the body. Loose skin causes increased morbidity and psychological trauma. This demands various body contouring procedures that are usually excisional. These procedures are complex and part of a painstaking process that needs a committed patient and an industrious plastic surgeon. As complications in these patients can be quite frequent, both the patient and the surgeon need to be aware and willing to deal with them. PMID:21713202

  6. Rapid weight loss decreases serum testosterone.

    PubMed

    Karila, T A M; Sarkkinen, P; Marttinen, M; Seppälä, T; Mero, A; Tallroth, K

    2008-11-01

    To investigate the effects of a rapid weight reduction program under authentic pre-competition conditions, eighteen elite wrestlers were studied with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) before and after two to three weeks' weight reduction regimens. In order to establish the degree of dehydration and hormonal status, blood samples were collected to obtain blood chemistry, electrolytes and endocrinological parameters after both DXA measurements. The mean weight loss was 8.2 +/- 2.3 % and it was constituted by the mean reductions of fat mass of 16 +/- 6.9 % (p < or = 0.001) and lean body mass of 7.9 +/- 2.5 %. The rapid weight reduction caused significant dehydration which was noticed as increased blood hemoglobin (7.8 +/- 5.9 %, p < or = 0.001), hematocrit (11.3 +/- 6.8 %, p < or = 0.001), and serum creatinine (35 +/- 23 %, p < or = 0.001). There was a significant decrease in serum testosterone (63 +/- 33 %, p < or = 0.001) and luteinizing hormone (54 +/- 47 %, p < or = 0.001) concentrations. A reduced body weight correlated with decreased serum testosterone concentration (r = 0.53, p < or = 0.024). Serum sex hormone binding globulin concentration increased significantly (40 +/- 21 %, p < or = 0.001). The results suggest that even short-term weight reduction may have marked effects on body composition, blood chemistry and hormonal parameters. It may constitute a possible health risk at least in a growing adolescent athlete. PMID:18516767

  7. Testosterone and weight loss: the evidence

    PubMed Central

    Traish, Abdulmaged M.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review The purpose of this article is to examine the contemporary data linking testosterone therapy in overweight and obese men with testosterone deficiency to increased lean body mass, decreased fat mass, improvement in overall body composition and sustained weight loss. This is of paramount importance because testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency represents a novel and a timely therapeutic strategy for managing obesity in men with testosterone deficiency. Recent findings Long-term testosterone therapy in men with testosterone deficiency produces significant and sustained weight loss, marked reduction in waist circumference and BMI and improvement in body composition. Further, testosterone therapy ameliorates components of the metabolic syndrome. The aforementioned improvements are attributed to improved mitochondrial function, increased energy utilization, increased motivation and vigor resulting in improved cardio-metabolic function and enhanced physical activity. Summary The implication of testosterone therapy in management of obesity in men with testosterone deficiency is of paramount clinical significance, as it produces sustained weight loss without recidivism. On the contrary, alternative therapeutic approaches other than bariatric surgery failed to produce significant and sustained outcome and exhibit a high rate of recidivism. These findings represent strong foundations for testosterone therapy in obese men with testosterone deficiency and should spur clinical research for better understanding of usefulness of testosterone therapy in treatment of underlying pathophysiological conditions of obesity. PMID:25105998

  8. Partner Facilitation and Partner Interference in Individuals' Weight Loss Goals.

    PubMed

    Theiss, Jennifer A; Carpenter, Amanda M; Leustek, John

    2016-08-01

    Drawing on the logic of the relational turbulence model, this study examined the ways in which romantic partners facilitate and interfere with individuals' weight loss goals. Participants (N = 122) described the ways in which their romantic partner had recently helped or hindered their weight loss at four times over the course of 2 months. We conducted a content analysis of responses to identify themes of partner facilitation (Research Question 1 [RQ1]) and partner interference (RQ2) in individuals' weight loss goals. Results revealed seven themes of partner facilitation: (a) partner enabling diet, (b) motivation and encouragement, (c) emotional support and positive reinforcement, (d) exercising together, (e) partner enabling exercise, (f) dieting together, and (g) relationship influence and priorities. Four themes of partner interference emerged in the data: (a) inability to plan for healthy meals, (b) inability to control the food environment, (c) preventing or discouraging exercise, and (d) emotional or relational discouragement. PMID:25904678

  9. Increased vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss effort correlates with increased weight and fat loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. The objective was to determine if...

  10. Vegetable and fruit consumption during weight loss is positively correlated with weight and fat loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Recommendations to increase vegetable and fruit consumption often accompany guidelines for weight loss. A previous study indicated that people who were instructed to count calories lost more weight than those simply instructed to increase vegetable and fruit intake. Objective: The object...

  11. Associations between Obesity, Body Fat Distribution, Weight Loss and Weight Cycling on Serum Pesticide Concentrations

    PubMed Central

    Frugé, Andrew Dandridge; Cases, Mallory Gamel; Schildkraut, Joellen Martha; Demark-Wahnefried, Wendy

    2016-01-01

    Objective Preliminary studies suggest pesticides may be linked to increased cancer risk. Since most pesticides are lipophilic and stored within adipose tissue, serum levels of organochlorines are affected not only by environmental exposures, but also by factors related to lipid turnover and storage. Our objective was to investigate whether serum organochlorines are influenced by weight loss, body fat distribution, and weight cycling. Methods Ten overweight women were recruited upon entry into a weight loss program and surveyed regarding weight history, childbearing/lactation, and exposure to environmental contaminants. Anthropometric measures and phlebotomy were conducted at baseline and at four weeks (mean weight loss=5.1 kg). Serum was analyzed for 19 common polychlorinated pesticides and metabolites and 10 PCB congeners. Results Organochlorine levels were not significantly affected by weight loss nor associated with body mass index (BMI). Strong positive correlations were noted between levels of DDE/DDT and age (DDE β=0.6986/p=0.0246/DDT β=0.6536/p=0.0404) and between DDE/DDT and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) (DDE β=0.4356/p=0.0447/DDT β=0.8108/p=0.0044). Trends were noted for decreased levels of DDT in women who reported more episodes of weight cycling. Conclusion Serum organochlorine levels may be affected not only by age, but also factors related to lipid turnover (i.e., episodes of weight cycling and WHR), and warrants further study. PMID:27478857

  12. Brain responses to food and weight loss.

    PubMed

    Behary, Preeshila; Miras, Alexander D

    2014-09-01

    In this symposium report, we examine how functional neuroimaging has revolutionized the study of human eating behaviour. In the last 20 years, functional magnetic resonance and positron emission tomography techniques have enabled researchers to understand how the human brain regions that control homeostatic and hedonic eating respond to food in physiological and pathological states. Hypothalamic, brainstem, limbic and cortical brain areas form part of a well-co-ordinated brain system that responds to central and peripheral neuronal, hormonal and nutrient signals. Even in physiological conditions, it promotes the consumption of energy-dense food, because this is advantageous in evolutionary terms. Its function is dysregulated in the context of obesity so as to promote weight gain and resist weight loss. Pharmacological and bariatric surgical interventions might be more successful than lifestyle interventions in inducing weight loss and maintenance because, unlike dieting, they reduce not only hunger but also the reward value of food through their actions in homeostatic and hedonic brain regions. Functional neuroimaging is a research tool that cannot be used in isolation; its findings become meaningful and useful only when combined with data from direct measures of eating behaviour. The neuroimaging technology is continuously improving and is expected to contribute further to the in-depth understanding of the obesity phenotype and accelerate the development of more effective and safer treatments for the condition. PMID:25210111

  13. A randomized trial comparing two approaches to weight loss: Differences in weight loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Koball, Afton M; Oehlhof, Marissa W; Hinman, Nova; LeRoy, Michelle; Bannon, Erin; Ashrafioun, Lee; Storfer-Isser, Amy; Darby, Lynn A; Gumble, Amanda

    2013-01-01

    This study compared treatment outcomes for a new weight loss program that emphasized reducing unhealthy relationships with food, body image dissatisfaction, and internalized weight bias (New Perspectives) to a weight loss program that emphasizes environmental modification and habit formation and disruption (Transforming Your Life). Fifty-nine overweight and obese adults (body mass index ≥ 27 kg/m2) were randomly assigned to either a 12-week New Perspectives or Transforming Your Life intervention. Despite equivalent outcomes at the end of treatment, the Transforming Your Life participants were significantly more effective at maintaining their weight loss than New Perspectives participants during the 6-month no-treatment follow-up period. PMID:23349402

  14. Weighty dynamics: exploring couples' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction.

    PubMed

    Romo, Lynsey Kluever; Dailey, René M

    2014-01-01

    Although romantic couples can use communication to help one another lose weight and maintain weight loss, the effect of weight loss on partner interaction is less understood. However, an examination of the interpersonal context in which partners manage their weight is important to help partners negotiate their weight, their relationship, and the U.S. obesity epidemic. Guided by systems theory, this study explored partners' perceptions of post-weight-loss interaction in relationships in which one partner lost weight and the other did not. Through qualitative questionnaires of 42 adults (21 romantic couples), the dyadic investigation revealed that while losing weight resulted in positive interaction for many partners (e.g., engaging in a shared healthy lifestyle), shedding weight also yielded some negative consequences (e.g., non-weight-loss partner criticism). The extent to which partners embraced new weight management rules and patterns largely influenced post-weight-loss communication and behavior. PMID:24156394

  15. Lower weight loss expectations and healthier eating attitudes in older overweight and obese women attempting weight loss.

    PubMed

    Evans, E H; Boothroyd, L G; Muscariello, E; Stephan, B C M; Nasti, G; Colantuoni, A; Siervo, M

    2015-06-01

    Weight loss outcomes in overweight and obese individuals may be influenced by individual weight loss expectations (WLEs). Research on these phenomena in older women is lacking. This cross-sectional study compared groups of younger and older women on their WLEs and related attitudes (body dissatisfaction and disordered eating). Twenty-six younger (18-38 years) and 33 older (60-78 years) overweight and obese women were recruited from a weight loss clinic, prior to treatment. Disordered eating attitudes and body dissatisfaction were assessed using validated questionnaires and a pictorial figure-choice scale. Participants reported 10 WLEs categorized according to personal, lifestyle and social factors. Overall, women with a higher body mass index had greater WLEs. Older women reported lower WLEs than younger women (-14.5 kg vs. -22.4 kg) in all categories except past weight. Older women perceived that career success would necessitate the greatest level of weight loss (-18.5 kg), whereas younger women derived their greatest WLEs from mass media (-28.5 kg). Both older and younger groups perceived that their families would be supportive of the smallest amount of weight loss (-8.4 and -17.6 kg, respectively). The groups did not differ on body dissatisfaction, but younger women's disordered eating attitudes were significantly higher (p < .001). Older overweight and obese women have lower WLEs than younger women but experience similar levels of body dissatisfaction and healthier eating attitudes. The attitudinal constructs underlying these differences may be useful in clinical practice to tailor age-specific weight loss interventions. PMID:25872866

  16. Weight Loss During the Intensive Intervention Phase of the Weight-Loss Maintenance Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hollis, Jack F.; Gullion, Christina M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Brantley, Phillip J.; Appel, Lawrence J.; Ard, Jamy D.; Champagne, Catherine M.; Dalcin, Arlene; Erlinger, Thomas P.; Funk, Kristine; Laferriere, Daniel; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Loria, Catherine M.; Samuel-Hodge, Carmen; Vollmer, William M.; Svetkey, Laura P.

    2008-01-01

    Background To improve methods for long-term weight management, the Weight Loss Maintenance (WLM) trial, a four-center randomized trial, was conducted to compare alternative strategies for maintaining weight loss over a 30-month period. This paper describes methods and results for the initial 6-month weight-loss program (Phase I). Methods Eligible adults were aged ≥25, overweight or obese (BMI=25–45 kg/m2), and on medications for hypertension and/or dyslipidemia. Anthropomorphic, demographic, and psychosocial measures were collected at baseline and 6 months. Participants (n=1685) attended 20 weekly group sessions to encourage calorie restriction, moderate-intensity physical activity, and the DASH (dietary approaches to stop hypertension) dietary pattern. Weight-loss predictors with missing data were replaced by multiple imputation. Results Participants were 44% African American and 67% women; 79% were obese (BMI≥30), 87% were taking anti-hypertensive medications, and 38% were taking antidyslipidemia medications. Participants attended an average of 72% of 20 group sessions. They self-reported 117 minutes of moderate-intensity physical activity per week, kept 3.7 daily food records per week, and consumed 2.9 servings of fruits and vegetables per day. The Phase-I follow-up rate was 92%. Mean (SD) weight change was −5.8 kg (4.4), and 69% lost at least 4 kg. All race–gender subgroups lost substantial weight: African-American men (−5.4 kg ± 7.7); African-American women (−4.1 kg ± 2.9); non–African-American men (−8.5 kg ± 12.9); and non–African-American women (−5.8 kg ± 6.1). Behavioral measures (e.g., diet records and physical activity) accounted for most of the weight-loss variation, although the association between behavioral measures and weight loss differed by race and gender groups. Conclusions The WLM behavioral intervention successfully achieved clinically significant short-term weight loss in a diverse population of high-risk patients

  17. Obese Teens Take Weight-Loss Surgery in Stride

    MedlinePlus

    ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Obesity in Children Weight Loss Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Obesity in Children Weight Loss Surgery About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  18. Weight Loss Surgery May Boost Good Cholesterol in Obese Boys

    MedlinePlus

    ... or federal policy. More Health News on: Cholesterol Obesity in Children Weight Loss Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Cholesterol Obesity in Children Weight Loss Surgery About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs ...

  19. Determinants of weight loss success with alternate day fasting.

    PubMed

    Varady, Krista A; Hoddy, Kristin K; Kroeger, Cynthia M; Trepanowski, John F; Klempel, Monica C; Barnosky, Adrienne; Bhutani, Surabhi

    2016-01-01

    This study examined what characteristics predict weight loss success with alternate day fasting (ADF). Four 8-week trials of ADF (n=121) were included in the analysis. Subjects aged 50-59 y achieved greater (P=0.01) weight loss than other age groups. Males and females achieved similar weight loss. Caucasian subjects achieved greater (P=0.03) weight loss than other races. Baseline body weight and baseline BMI did not predict degree of weight loss achieved with the diet. These findings may help clinicians to decide which population groups may benefit most from an ADF approach. PMID:26385599

  20. Dietary fat intake, supplements, and weight loss

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyck, D. J.

    2000-01-01

    Although there remains controversy regarding the role of macronutrient balance in the etiology of obesity, the consumption of high-fat diets appears to be strongly implicated in its development. Evidence that fat oxidation does not adjust rapidly to acute increases in dietary fat, as well as a decreased capacity to oxidize fat in the postprandial state in the obese, suggest that diets high in fat may lead to the accumulation of fat stores. Novel data is also presented suggesting that in rodents, high-fat diets may lead to the development of leptin resistance in skeletal muscle and subsequent accumulations of muscle triacylglycerol. Nevertheless, several current fad diets recommend drastically reduced carbohydrate intake, with a concurrent increase in fat content. Such recommendations are based on the underlying assumption that by reducing circulating insulin levels, lipolysis and lipid oxidation will be enhanced and fat storage reduced. Numerous supplements are purported to increase fat oxidation (carnitine, conjugated linoleic acid), increase metabolic rate (ephedrine, pyruvate), or inhibit hepatic lipogenesis (hydroxycitrate). All of these compounds are currently marketed in supplemental form to increase weight loss, but few have actually been shown to be effective in scientific studies. To date, there is little or no evidence supporting that carnitine or hydroxycitrate supplementation are of any value for weight loss in humans. Supplements such as pyruvate have been shown to be effective at high dosages, but there is little mechanistic information to explain its purported effect or data to indicate its effectiveness at lower dosages. Conjugated linoleic acid has been shown to stimulate fat utilization and decrease body fat content in mice but has not been tested in humans. The effects of ephedrine, in conjunction with methylxanthines and aspirin, in humans appears unequivocal but includes various cardiovascular side effects. None of these compounds have been

  1. Eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss in a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The eating behaviors restraint and disinhibition have been suggested to predict weight loss (WL) but there is no information on whether these predictors are valid in worksite WL programs, which are increasingly being recommended for reducing the obesity epidemic. This study examined associations bet...

  2. Weight-loss surgery - before - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... your doctor; What to ask your doctor before weight-loss surgery ... What are the reasons someone should have weight-loss surgery? Why is weight-loss surgery not a good choice for everyone who is overweight or obese? What is diabetes ? High blood pressure ? ...

  3. Criteria for Evaluating the Success of Weight Loss Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Jennifer; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Outlines six components that can be used as evaluation criteria for weight loss programs: (1) weight loss; (2) maintenance of weight loss; (3) self-efficacy; (4) behavior modification; (5) attrition; and (6) exercise. Indicates that the program that satisfies requirements of all six categories has the best chance of success. (JOW)

  4. The Role of Resistance Exercise in Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Jeffrey L.

    2002-01-01

    Explains the role of weight training in weight loss, noting how weight training contributes to the creation of a negative energy balance and explaining how resistance exercise can cause an increase in fat oxidation, both acutely and chronically. Resistance exercise has an indirect impact on weight and fat loss through increasing resting metabolic…

  5. Assessing weight perception accuracy to promote weight loss among U.S. female adolescents: A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity have become a global epidemic. The prevalence of overweight and obesity among U.S. adolescents has almost tripled in the last 30 years. Results from recent systematic reviews demonstrate that no single, particular intervention or strategy successfully assists overweight or obese adolescents in losing weight. An understanding of factors that influence healthy weight-loss behaviors among overweight and obese female adolescents promotes effective, multi-component weight-loss interventions. There is limited evidence demonstrating associations between demographic variables, body-mass index, and weight perception among female adolescents trying to lose weight. There is also a lack of previous studies examining the association of the accuracy of female adolescents' weight perception with their efforts to lose weight. This study, therefore, examined the associations of body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method among a representative sample of U.S. female adolescents. Methods A nonexperimental, descriptive, comparative secondary analysis design was conducted using data from Wave II (1996) of the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (Add Health). Data representative of U.S. female adolescents (N = 2216) were analyzed using STATA statistical software. Descriptive statistics and survey weight logistic regression were performed to determine if demographic and independent (body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perception accuracy) variables were associated with trying to lose weight and engaging in exercise as a weight-loss method. Results Age, Black or African American race, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight perceptions accuracy were consistently associated with the likeliness of trying to lose weight among U.S. female adolescents. Age, body-mass index, weight perception, and weight-perception accuracy were

  6. Weight-loss practices among university students in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Dosamantes-Carrasco, Darina; Lamure, Michel; López-Loyo, Perla; Hernández-Palafox, Corín; Pineda-Pérez, Dayana; Flores, Yvonne; Salmerón, Jorge

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the prevalence of weight-loss practices among university students from Tlaxcala, Mexico. Methods A cross-sectional study of 2,651 university students was conducted. Logistic regression tests were used to estimate the probability of students trying to lose weight and successfully achieving weight loss. Results Nearly 40% of students attempted to lose weight, though only about 7% lost more than 10% of their body weight and maintained this weight loss during the time of the study. The methods used most were exercise and dieting, and those who dieted were more successful at losing weight. Conclusions The high prevalence of weight-loss attempts and the poor outcomes with these weight-loss methods among this sample of university students is a public health concern. Universities should provide students with healthy weight-control approaches, which include offering information about healthier lifestyles, access to healthy food and opportunities to be physically active. PMID:20013143

  7. Promoting weight loss methods in parenting magazines: Implications for women.

    PubMed

    Basch, Corey H; Roberts, Katherine J; Samayoa-Kozlowsky, Sandra; Glaser, Debra B

    2016-01-01

    Weight gain before and after pregnancy is important for women's health. The purpose of this study was to assess articles and advertisements related to weight loss in three widely read parenting magazines, "Parenting School Years," "Parenting Early Years," and "Parenting," which have an estimated combined readership of approximately 24 million (mainly women readers). Almost a quarter (23.7%, n = 32) of the 135 magazine issues over a four year period included at least one feature article on weight loss. A variety of topics were covered in the featured articles, with the most frequent topics being on losing weight to please yourself (25.2%), healthy ways to lose weight (21.1%), and how to keep the weight off (14.7%). Less than half (45.9%) of the articles displayed author credentials, such as their degree, qualifications, or expertise. A fifth (20.0%, n = 27) of the magazines included at least one prominent advertisement for weight loss products. Almost half (46.9%) of the weight loss advertisements were for weight loss programs followed by weight loss food products (25.0%), weight loss aids (21.9%), and only 6.2% of the advertisements for weight loss were on fitness. Parenting magazines should advocate for healthy weight loss, including lifestyle changes for sustained health. PMID:26212259

  8. Mood and Weight Loss in a Behavioral Treatment Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    Evaluated the relationship between mood and weight loss for 76 patients participating in two consecutive behavioral treatment programs. Weight losses averaged 12.2 pounds (5.55 kg) during the 10-week program. Positive changes in mood were reported during this interval, and these changes appeared to be related to changes in weight. (Author/RC)

  9. Doctor, How Much Weight Will I Lose?-a New Individualized Predictive Model for Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Goulart, André; Leão, Pedro; Costa, Patrício; Pereira, Maria; Fernandes, Aline; Manso, Fernando; Maia-da-Costa, José

    2016-06-01

    Bariatric surgery is an effective treatment for weight loss, but the patient's ability to reach a sustained weight loss depends upon several technical and individual factors. Creating an easy model that adapts bariatric surgery's weight loss goals for each patient is very important for pre-surgery and follow-up evaluations. PMID:26983633

  10. Demographic factors and weight change in a worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are increasingly being considered as locations for weight loss programs. We examined predictors of weight loss in employees participating in a 6 month randomized study of a weight loss intervention versus wait-listed control at 4 worksites (2 for-profit and 2 non-profit). Measures included...

  11. Weight Loss Practices and Body Weight Perceptions among US College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wharton, Christopher M.; Adams, Troy; Hampl, Jeffrey S.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors assessed associations between body weight perception and weight loss strategies. Participants: They randomly selected male and female college students (N = 38,204). Methods: The authors conducted a secondary data analysis of the rates of weight loss strategies and body weight perception among students who completed the…

  12. Using personality as a predictor of diet induced weight loss and weight management

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background A major challenge for successful weight management is tailoring weight loss programs to individual needs. The aim of this study was to investigate whether personality traits could be used to match individuals to a compatible weight loss program that would maximize weight loss. Method Two different weight loss trials were conducted, both with a weight loss greater than 5% the measure of success. Fifty-four individuals, BMI 30-40 kg/m2, either followed a slow, healthy eating weight loss diet (HEWLD) of 5000-6000 kJ/day for 12 weeks (n = 22), or a fast, very low energy diet (VLED) of 3000 kJ/day for 4 weeks (n = 32). Anthropometric measurements were recorded at baseline, at the end of the weight loss period and, for VLED, at the end of 10 weeks of weight maintenance. Personality traits were measured at baseline using the Tangney Self Control Scale plus 3 of the scales from the Five Factor Model - Neuroticism, Conscientiousness and Extraversion. Results The percentage weight loss was significantly greater in VLED (-7.38%) compared to HEWLD (-4.11%), (p < 0.001). Weight loss in HEWLD was positively correlated with Anxiety, a facet of Neuroticism. Weight loss in VLED was positively correlated with Neuroticism (r = 0.5, p < 0.01), and negatively correlated with Dutifulness and Discipline, facets of Conscientiousness, (p < 0.05 for both). No link was observed between weight loss and the personality trait, Self Control, in either HEWLD or VLED. Conclusion The personality factor, Neuroticism, was linked to successful weight loss (that is ≥ 5%) with a particular weight loss treatment, suggesting that there is a potential to use measures of personality to identify appropriate weight loss/management strategies for individuals. Trial registration Australia and New Zealand Clinical Trials Register (ANZCTR): ACTRN12611000716965 PMID:22112231

  13. "Guaranteed in Just Six Weeks...". Weight Loss Fads and Fantasies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, James H.; Allensworth, Diane D.

    1980-01-01

    The most popular fad diets, weight control devices, salons, and diet clubs are examined and the claims of each are evaluated in relation to their long-term success in producing weight loss and control. (JMF)

  14. Circadian rhythmicity as a predictor of weight-loss effectiveness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Some of the major challenges associated with successful dietary weight management include the identification of individuals not responsive to specific interventions. The aim was to investigate the potential relationship between weight loss and circadian rhythmicity, using wrist temperature and actim...

  15. Antiepileptic drugs influences on body weight in people with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Sherifa Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Data from clinical trials, retrospective and cross-sectional studies have quantified the metabolic changes associated with long-term use of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). AEDs can be associated with weight gain or weight loss, although most are weight neutral. Weight gain is not only a cosmetic problem but also a risk for obesity-related vascular disorders. Weight loss may compromise growth in children/adolescents. This review discusses the possible contribution of peripheral and central hormones/neuropeptides (as leptin, insulin, adiponectin, neuropeptide-Y, ghrelin and galanin) and pathways that influence energy balance in the pathogenesis of weight changes with AEDs. As AEDs may influence weight, physicians have to properly select and characterize the suitable AED as an initial step or modify the existing AED if it compromises patient's health. PMID:25487080

  16. Weight Loss Surgery May Boost Good Cholesterol in Obese Boys

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Surgery May Boost Good Cholesterol in Obese Boys Small study showed surgery also improved protective effects ... Weight loss surgery could help severely obese teenage boys reduce their risk for heart disease by increasing ...

  17. A dietary quality comparison of popular weight-loss plans.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yunsheng; Pagoto, Sherry L; Griffith, Jennifer A; Merriam, Philip A; Ockene, Ira S; Hafner, Andrea R; Olendzki, Barbara C

    2007-10-01

    Popular weight-loss plans often have conflicting recommendations, which makes it difficult to determine the most healthful approach to weight loss. Our study compares the dietary quality of popular weight-loss plans. Dietary quality, measured by the Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI), was calculated via sample menus provided in published media for the New Glucose Revolution, Weight Watchers, Atkins, South Beach, Zone, Ornish, and 2005 US Department of Agriculture Food Guide Pyramid (2005 Food Guide Pyramid) plans. The criterion for determining which weight-loss plans were the most popular was their status on the New York Times Bestseller list. Weight Watchers and the 2005 Food Guide Pyramid plan were included because they are the largest commercial weight-loss plan, and the current government recommendation, respectively. Analysis of variance was used to compare nutrient information among the weight-loss plans. The AHEI scores adjusted for energy content were also compared. Of a maximum possible score of 70, the AHEI scores for each weight-loss plan from the highest to the lowest plan were: Ornish (score 64.6), Weight Watchers high-carbohydrate (score 57.4), New Glucose Revolution (score 57.2), South Beach/Phase 2 (score 50.7), Zone (score 49.8), 2005 Food Guide Pyramid (score 48.7), Weight Watchers high-protein (score 47.3), Atkins/100-g carbohydrate (score 46), South Beach/Phase 3 (score 45.6), and Atkins/45-g carbohydrate (score 42.3). Dietary quality varied across popular weight-loss plans. Ornish, Weight Watchers high-carbohydrate, and New Glucose Revolution weight-loss plans have an increased capacity for cardiovascular disease prevention when assessed by the AHEI. PMID:17904938

  18. Ain't no mountain high enough? Setting high weight loss goals predict effort and short-term weight loss.

    PubMed

    De Vet, Emely; Nelissen, Rob M A; Zeelenberg, Marcel; De Ridder, Denise T D

    2013-05-01

    Although psychological theories outline that it might be beneficial to set more challenging goals, people attempting to lose weight are generally recommended to set modest weight loss goals. The present study explores whether the amount of weight loss individuals strive for is associated with more positive psychological and behavioral outcomes. Hereto, 447 overweight and obese participants trying to lose weight completed two questionnaires with a 2-month interval. Many participants set goals that could be considered unrealistically high. However, higher weight loss goals did not predict dissatisfaction but predicted more effort in the weight loss attempt, as well as more self-reported short-term weight loss when baseline commitment and motivation were controlled for. PMID:22933574

  19. A summer day camp approach to adolescent weight loss.

    PubMed

    Southam, M A; Kirkley, B G; Murchison, A; Berkowitz, R I

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five overweight adolescents completed a summer weight loss day camp program on the Stanford University campus. All participants attended camp four days per week for four hours to learn and practice eating and exercise skills conducive to weight loss. Parents met weekly to discuss the program content and to explore their role in their adolescent's weight management. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, percent overweight, and skinfold, with greater changes observed for the eight-week group than for the four-week group. Improvements were also evident in participants' self-reported habits and knowledge of weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp experience was very positive. The results of the summer weight loss day camp suggest that an intensive program of eating and exercise habit instruction, practice, and monitoring, which allows the participants to remain in the home setting, may provide benefits not found in other more traditional approaches to adolescent weight loss. PMID:6516934

  20. Weight Loss Maintenance in African–American Women: Focus Group Results and Questionnaire Development

    PubMed Central

    Goodrick, G. Kenneth; Pavlik, Valory; Markesino, Jennifer; Laws, Donna Y.; Taylor, Wendell C.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND African-American women are disproportionately affected by obesity. Weight loss can occur, but maintenance is rare. Little is known about weight loss maintenance in African-American women. OBJECTIVES (1) To increase understanding of weight loss maintenance in African-American women; (2) to use the elicitation procedure from the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to define the constructs of attitude, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control regarding weight loss and maintenance; and (3) to help develop a relevant questionnaire that can be used to explore weight loss and maintenance in a large sample of African Americans. DESIGN Seven focus groups were conducted with African-American women: four with women successful at weight loss maintenance, three with women who lost weight but regained it. Discussions centered on weight loss and maintenance experiences. PARTICIPANTS Thirty-seven African-American women. APPROACH Content analysis of focus group transcripts. RESULTS Weight loss maintainers lost 22% of body weight. They view positive support from others and active opposition to cultural norms as critical for maintenance. They struggle with weight regain, but have strategies in place to lose weight again. Some maintainers struggle with being perceived as sick or too thin at their new weight. Regainers and maintainers struggle with hairstyle management during exercise. The theoretical constructs from TPB were defined and supported by focus group content. CONCLUSIONS A weight loss questionnaire for African Americans should include questions regarding social support in weight maintenance, the importance of hair management during exercise, the influence of cultural norms on weight and food consumption, and concerns about being perceived as too thin or sick when weight is lost. PMID:17415617

  1. Weight Loss Surgery (Bariatric Surgery) (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... sick, but in time they can regain weight. "Dumping syndrome" is a problem associated mainly with gastric ... nausea, weakness, sweating, abdominal cramping, and diarrhea. Because dumping can be made worse by eating high-sugar ...

  2. Tweeting it off: characteristics of adults who tweet about a weight loss attempt

    PubMed Central

    Pagoto, Sherry; Schneider, Kristin L; Evans, Martinus; Waring, Molly E; Appelhans, Brad; Busch, Andrew M; Whited, Matthew C; Thind, Herpreet; Ziedonis, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to describe adults who use Twitter during a weight loss attempt and to compare the positive and negative social influences they experience from their offline friends, online friends, and family members. Materials and methods Participants (N=100, 80% female, mean age=37.65, SD=8.42) were recruited from Twitter. They completed a brief survey about their experiences discussing their weight loss attempt with their online and offline friends and provided responses to open-ended questions on the benefits and drawbacks of discussing weight on Twitter, Facebook, and weight-specific social networks. Results Participants rated their connections on Twitter and weight loss-specific social networks to be significantly greater sources of positive social influence for their weight loss (F(3)=3.47; p<0.001) and significantly lesser sources of negative social influence (F(3)=40.39 and F(3)=33.68 (both p<0.001)) than their offline friends, family, and Facebook friends. Greater positive social influence from Twitter and Facebook friends was associated with greater weight loss in participants’ most recent weight loss attempt (r=0.30, r=0.32; p<0.01). The most commonly reported benefits of tweeting about weight loss include social support, information, and accountability. The most common drawbacks reported are that interactions were too brief and lacked personal connection. Discussion People who discuss their weight loss on Twitter report more social support and less negativity from their Twitter friends than their Facebook friends and in-person relationships. Conclusions Online social networks should be explored as a tool for connecting patients who lack weight loss social support from their in-person relationships. PMID:24928175

  3. Energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones as predictors of weight loss in men and women.

    PubMed

    Williams, Rebecca L; Wood, Lisa G; Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2016-06-01

    Sex differences in weight loss are often seen despite using the same weight loss program. There has been relatively little investigation of physiological influences on weight loss success in males and females, such as energy homeostasis and appetite regulating hormones. The aims were to 1) characterise baseline plasma leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin concentrations in overweight and obese males and females, and 2) determine whether baseline concentrations of these hormones predict weight loss in males and females. Subjects were overweight or obese (BMI 25-40 kg/m(2)) adults aged 18-60 years. Weight was measured at baseline, and after three and six months participation in a weight loss program. Baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). An independent t-test or non-parametric equivalent was used to determine any differences between sex. Linear regression determined whether baseline hormone concentrations were predictors of six-month weight change. Females had significantly higher baseline concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and unacylated ghrelin as well as ratios of leptin:adiponectin and leptin:ghrelin. The ratio of acylated:unacylated ghrelin was significantly higher in males. In males and females, a higher baseline concentration of unacylated ghrelin predicted greater weight loss at six months. Additionally in females, higher baseline total ghrelin predicted greater weight loss and a higher ratio of leptin:ghrelin predicted weight gain at six months. A higher pre-weight-loss plasma concentration of unacylated ghrelin is a modest predictor of weight loss success in males and females, while a higher leptin:ghrelin ratio is a predictor of weight loss failure in females. Further investigation is required into what combinations and concentrations of these hormones are optimal for weight loss success. PMID:26921488

  4. Influence of depression and antidepressants on weight.

    PubMed

    Gottfries, C G

    1981-01-01

    Depression is often combined with loss of appetite and weight. Treatment with some psychotropic drugs, especially many of the tricyclic antidepressives, causes weight gain. Zimelidine, an antidepressive drug with selective inhibitory effect on the reuptake of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) causes no weight gain in treated patients. As even weight loss is seen it can be discussed whether the drug has an inhibitory effect on feeding behaviour. This would be theoretical interest as animal experiments show that 5-HT may be an anorectic transmitter. It is also of practical importance as then the embarrassing side effect of weight gain might be avoided in antidepressive treatment. PMID:6939316

  5. Weight-Loss Surgery Helps Treat Type 2 Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_159002.html Weight-Loss Surgery Helps Treat Type 2 Diabetes 45 professional groups say the procedure improves blood ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Diabetes Type 2 Weight Loss Surgery Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus ...

  6. An Attempt to Shorten the Quest for Weight Loss Predictors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black, David R.; And Others

    Health psychologists continue to have difficulty identifying prognostic indicators of weight loss success. Psychological, social, and demographic factors have been examined, but correlations with weight loss are disappointing. Actual behaviors or quantifications of specific actions and historical measures were examined for their validity in…

  7. Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160596.html Could Weight-Loss Surgery Boost Odds of Preemie Birth? Monitoring is ... HealthDay News) -- Mothers-to-be who've had weight-loss surgery may have increased odds for premature delivery, ...

  8. Do weight loss and adherence cluster within behavioral treatment groups?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Weight loss programs are often conducted in a group format, but it is unclear whether weight losses or adherence cluster within treatment group and whether characteristics of the group (e.g., size or homogeneity) affect outcomes. We examined these questions within Look AHEAD, a multicente...

  9. How Adolescent Girls Interpret Weight-Loss Advertising

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-01-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years…

  10. Contributions of Weight Perceptions to Weight Loss Attempts: Differences by Body Mass Index and Gender

    PubMed Central

    Lemon, Stephenie C.; Rosal, Milagros C.; Zapka, Jane; Borg, Amy; Andersen, Victoria

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have consistently observed that women are more likely to perceive themselves as overweight compared to men. Similarly, women are more likely than men to report trying to lose weight. Less is known about the impact that self-perceived weight has on weight loss behaviors of adults and whether this association differs by gender. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis among an employee sample to determine the association of self-perceived weight on evidence-based weight loss behaviors across genders, accounting for body mass index (BMI) and demographic characteristics. Women were more likely than men to consider themselves to be overweight across each BMI category, and were more likely to report attempting to lose weight. However, perceiving oneself to be overweight was a strong correlate for weight loss attempts across both genders. The effect of targeting accuracy of self-perceived weight status in weight loss interventions deserves research attention. PMID:19188102

  11. Mandatory weight loss during the wait for bariatric surgery.

    PubMed

    Glenn, Nicole M; Raine, Kim D; Spence, John C

    2015-01-01

    Mandatory presurgical, behavior-induced weight loss, although not standard, is a relatively common practice among bariatric surgical clinics. We explore the patient's experience of this practice using phenomenology. We gathered experiential accounts from 7 individuals waiting to have the procedure at a large publically funded clinic in western Canada. In writing this article, we focused on four phenomenological themes: "just nod your head and carry on"-silencing through the ideal; waiting and weighing-promoting weight consciousness to the weight conscious; paying for surgical approval through weight loss; and presurgical weight loss and questioning the need for weight loss surgery altogether. We contrast the experiential findings with the clinical literature to question the impact and possible (unintended or unexpected) effects the practice might have, particularly on patients' lives. We situate this article within a larger discussion about the possible contribution of experiential knowledge to clinical guidelines, practices, and pedagogies. PMID:25185162

  12. Relationship between weight loss and gallbladder motility in obese women.

    PubMed Central

    Sari, Ramazan; Balci, Mustafa Kemal

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVE AND AIM: Most studies have detected impairment of gallbladder motility among obese compared with nonobese people. However, the relationship between gallbladder motility and weight loss is not well defined. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between percent of weight loss and gallbladder motility during weight-reducing programs in obese women. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-four premenopausal obese women (body mass index >30 kg/m2) were included in the study. Following an overnight fast, fasting and postprandial 15-, 30-, 45-, 60-, 75-, 90-, 120- and 150th-minute gallbladder volumes and ejection fractions were evaluated with real-time ultrasonography as baseline and repeated after sixth months of weight-reducing programs. The lowest postprandial gallbladder volume was accepted as the residual volume. Gallstone formation was found in three (8.8%) patients during the study period, and these patients were dropped out. Thirty-one obese women were divided into three groups based on weight loss percent (group 1: 11 patients, weight loss <5%; group 2: 10 patients, weight loss 5-10%; group 3: 10 patients, weight loss >10%). RESULTS: Fasting gallbladder volume and all ejection fractions were not significantly different between baseline and after sixth months in all groups (p>0.05). Residual volume was decreased after sixth months in only group 3 (p=0.005). Difference of fasting and residual volumes, and ejection fractions at baseline and after sixth months was similar in all groups (p>0.05). There was a positive correlation between weight loss and the change of residual volume (r=0.395, p=0.028). CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest no relationship between degree of weight loss and ejection fraction. However, decreased residual volume and late-phase gallbladder volumes indicate gallbladder motility changing in patients who had >10% weight loss. PMID:17052060

  13. A Summer Day Camp Approach to Adolescent Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Southam, Mary A.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes the Stanford Adolescent Weight Loss Camp, which taught eating and exercise skills to 25 overweight adolescents. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, with improved habits and weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp was very positive. (JAC)

  14. Neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and gestational weight gain and loss

    PubMed Central

    Mendez, Dara D.; Doebler, Donna Almario; Kim, Kevin H.; Amutah, Ndidi N.; Fabio, Anthony; Bodnar, Lisa M.

    2013-01-01

    Objective We explored the relationship between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage (NSED) and gestational weight gain and loss and if the association differed by race. Methods A census tract level NSED index (categorized as low, mid-low, mid-high, and high) was generated from 12 measures from the 2000 US Census data. Gestational weight gain and other individual-level characteristics were derived from vital birth records for Allegheny County, PA for 2003–2010 (n=55,608). Crude and adjusted relative risks were estimated using modified multilevel Poisson regression models to estimate the association between NSED and excessive and inadequate gestational weight gain (GWG) and weight loss (versus adequate GWG). Results Black women lived in neighborhoods that were more likely to be socioeconomically disadvantaged compared to white women. Almost 55% of women gained an excessive amount of weight during pregnancy, and 2% lost weight during pregnancy. Black women were more likely than white women to have inadequate weight gain or weight loss. Mid-high (aRR=1.3, 95% CI: 1.2, 1.3) and high (aRR=1.5, 95% CI: 1.5, 1.6) NSED compared to low NSED was associated with inadequate weight gain while NSED was not associated with excessive weight gain. Among black women, high versus low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy (RR=1.6; 95% CI: 1.1, 2.5). Among white women, each level of NSED compared to low NSED was associated with weight loss during pregnancy. Conclusion This study demonstrates how neighborhood socioeconomic characteristics can contribute to our understanding of inadequate weight gain and weight loss during pregnancy, having implications for future research and interventions designed to advance pregnancy outcomes. PMID:24026397

  15. Predicting successful long-term weight loss from short-term weight-loss outcomes: new insights from a dynamic energy balance model (the POUNDS Lost study)123

    PubMed Central

    Ivanescu, Andrada E; Martin, Corby K; Heymsfield, Steven B; Marshall, Kaitlyn; Bodrato, Victoria E; Williamson, Donald A; Anton, Stephen D; Sacks, Frank M; Ryan, Donna; Bray, George A

    2015-01-01

    Background: Currently, early weight-loss predictions of long-term weight-loss success rely on fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Objective: The objective was to develop thresholds during the first 3 mo of intervention that include the influence of age, sex, baseline weight, percent weight loss, and deviations from expected weight to predict whether a participant is likely to lose 5% or more body weight by year 1. Design: Data consisting of month 1, 2, 3, and 12 treatment weights were obtained from the 2-y Preventing Obesity Using Novel Dietary Strategies (POUNDS Lost) intervention. Logistic regression models that included covariates of age, height, sex, baseline weight, target energy intake, percent weight loss, and deviation of actual weight from expected were developed for months 1, 2, and 3 that predicted the probability of losing <5% of body weight in 1 y. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves, area under the curve (AUC), and thresholds were calculated for each model. The AUC statistic quantified the ROC curve’s capacity to classify participants likely to lose <5% of their body weight at the end of 1 y. The models yielding the highest AUC were retained as optimal. For comparison with current practice, ROC curves relying solely on percent weight loss were also calculated. Results: Optimal models for months 1, 2, and 3 yielded ROC curves with AUCs of 0.68 (95% CI: 0.63, 0.74), 0.75 (95% CI: 0.71, 0.81), and 0.79 (95% CI: 0.74, 0.84), respectively. Percent weight loss alone was not better at identifying true positives than random chance (AUC ≤0.50). Conclusions: The newly derived models provide a personalized prediction of long-term success from early weight-loss variables. The predictions improve on existing fixed percent-weight-loss thresholds. Future research is needed to explore model application for informing treatment approaches during early intervention. The POUNDS Lost study was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00072995. PMID:25733628

  16. Behavior Change Strategies for Successful Long-Term Weight Loss: Focusing on Dietary and Physical Activity Adherence, Not Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hongu, Nobuko; Kataura, Martha P.; Block, Linda M.

    2011-01-01

    This article helps Extension professionals guide individuals in a successful long-term weight loss program. A program should focus on behavioral changes (improving eating habits and physical activity), not just weight loss. In order to do this, Extension professionals should implement behavior change strategies that motivate individuals to…

  17. Weight loss and African-American women: a systematic review of the behavioural weight loss intervention literature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The excess burden of obesity among black women is well-documented. The weight loss intervention literature often does not report results by ethnic group or gender; therefore, the purpose of this article was to conduct a systematic review of all weight loss intervention trials published between 1990 ...

  18. Relationship of cravings with weight loss and hunger: results from a 6 month worksite weight loss intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We examined the association of food cravings with weight loss and eating behaviors in a 6 month worksite lifestyle weight loss program. This randomized controlled trial of the intervention versus a wait-listed control was conducted at 4 worksites, and 95 participants completed outcome assessments ...

  19. IN-HOSPITAL WEIGHT LOSS, PRESCRIBED DIET AND FOOD ACCEPTANCE

    PubMed Central

    LEANDRO-MERHI, Vania Aparecida; SREBERNICH, Silvana Mariana; GONÇALVES, Gisele Mara Silva; de AQUINO, José Luiz Braga

    2015-01-01

    Background Weight loss and malnutrition may be caused by many factors, including type of disease and treatment. Aim The present study investigated the occurrence of in-hospital weight loss and related factors. Method This cross-sectional study investigated the following variables of 456 hospitalized patients: gender, age, disease, weight variation during hospital stay, and type and acceptance of the prescribed diet. Repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing patients' weight in the first three days in hospital stay and determining which factors affect weight. The generalized estimating equation was used for comparing the food acceptance rates. The significance level was set at 5%. Results The most prescribed diet was the regular (28.8%) and 45.5% of the patients lost weight during their stay. Acceptance of hospital food increased from the first to the third days of stay (p=0.0022) but weight loss was still significant (p<0.0001). Age and type of prescribed diet did not affect weight loss during the study period but type of disease and gender did. Patients with neoplasms (p=0.0052) and males (p=0.0002) lost more weight. Conclusion Weight loss during hospital stay was associated only with gender and type of disease. PMID:25861060

  20. Associated among endocrine, inflammatory, and bone markers, body composition and weight loss induced bone loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weight loss reduces co-¬morbidities of obesity but decreases bone mass. Our aims were to determine whether adequate dairy intake could prevent weight loss related bone loss and to evaluate the contribution of energy-related hormones and inflammatory markers to bone metabolism. Overweight and obese w...

  1. Randomized trial of tapas acupressure technique for weight loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity is an urgent public health problem, yet only a few clinical trials have systematically tested the efficacy of long-term weight-loss maintenance interventions. This randomized clinical trial tested the efficacy of a novel mind and body technique for weight-loss maintenance. Methods Participants were obese adults who had completed a six-month behavioral weight-loss program prior to randomization. Those who successfully lost weight were randomized into either an experimental weight-loss maintenance intervention, Tapas Acupressure Technique (TAT®), or a control intervention comprised of social-support group meetings (SS) led by professional facilitators. TAT combines self-applied light pressure to specific acupressure points accompanied by a prescribed sequence of mental steps. Participants in both maintenance conditions attended eight group sessions over six months of active weight loss maintenance intervention, followed by an additional 6 months of no intervention. The main outcome measure was change in weight from the beginning of the weight loss maintenance intervention to 12 months later. Secondary outcomes were change in depression, stress, insomnia, and quality of life. We used analysis of covariance as the primary analysis method. Missing values were replaced using multiple imputation. Results Among 285 randomized participants, 79% were female, mean age was 56 (standard deviation (sd) = 11), mean BMI at randomization was 34 (sd = 5), and mean initial weight loss was 9.8 kg (sd = 5). In the primary outcome model, there was no significant difference in weight regain between the two arms (1.72 kg (se 0.85) weight regain for TAT and 2.96 kg (se 0.96) weight regain for SS, p < 0.097) Tests of between- arm differences for secondary outcomes were also not significant. A secondary analysis showed a significant interaction between treatment and initial weight loss (p < .036), with exploratory post hoc tests showing that greater initial weight loss

  2. Performance on the Iowa Gambling Task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women.

    PubMed

    Witbracht, Megan G; Laugero, Kevin D; Van Loan, Marta D; Adams, Sean H; Keim, Nancy L

    2012-05-15

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision-making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision-making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participating in a 12-week controlled, calorie-reduced intervention. We hypothesized that a greater amount of weight loss over the course of the intervention would be associated with better performance on the IGT, assessed at the end of the intervention. The intervention led to significant weight loss of 5.8±3.1 kg (p<0.05) and fat loss of 5.1±3.0 kg (p<0.05). Body weight and fat mass losses over the 12-week intervention varied widely, ranging from -12.5 kg to 0.0 kg for body weight and -10.4 kg to +0.8 kg for fat mass. A greater amount of body weight loss was correlated (r=0.425; p<0.01) with a higher total score on the IGT. Similarly, the reduction in body fat mass was also correlated with the IGT score (r=0.408; p<0.05). We examined other physiological (salivary cortisol), metabolic (resting energy expenditure), and behavioral (food intake; dietary restraint) factors that might be related to differences in the magnitude of weight loss. Of these variables, ad libitum consumption of energy, fat and protein during a buffet meal was inversely related to weight loss (r=-0.428; p<0.05; r=-0.375; p<0.05 and r=-0.472; p=0.01, respectively). The present study is the first to report an association between diet-induced weight loss and performance on the IGT, and this association was specific to the loss of body fat. Our results suggest that differences in weight loss may be linked to executive function that involves decision-making about events that have emotionally or socially salient ramifications. These findings underscore the need to further investigate higher cognitive and neuroendocrine pathways that may influence or be altered by the process of dieting and weight loss. PMID:21565212

  3. Breakfast consumption and weight-loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Brikou, Dora; Zannidi, Dimitra; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    Daily breakfast consumption is a common eating behaviour among people who have maintained their weight loss after weight-loss management. However, there is not a precise definition for breakfast in the literature. The purpose of this study was to investigate potential associations between breakfast consumption (based on several definitions) and weight-loss maintenance, as well as to explore differences in breakfast quality between individuals who managed to maintain part of the weight loss and in those who regained weight loss. The study sample consisted of 354 participants of the MedWeight study (age: 32 (sd 10) years, 61 % women) who had lost ≥10 % of their initial body weight and either maintained the loss for ≥1 year (maintainers, n 257) or regained weight loss (regainers, n 97). Participants completed online questionnaires and reported their dietary intake through two telephone 24-h recalls. Breakfast consumption was evaluated using twelve different definitions. The analysis indicated that breakfast consumption was associated with weight-loss maintenance only in men, when using self-reported breakfast consumption or the following breakfast definitions: (1) the first eating episode consumed at home and (2) the first eating episode consumed at home excluding caffeinated drinks. This association remained statistically significant even after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Thus, breakfast, the first eating episode of the day, when consumed at home, may be protective against weight regaining. PMID:27185413

  4. Opinions and acceptability of common weight-loss practices.

    PubMed

    Varnado-Sullivan, P J; Savoy, S; O'Grady, M; Fassnacht, G

    2010-12-01

    A disconnect between research findings and public beliefs may lead to further dieting failures for consumers. Participants (N=300) were surveyed to determine their weight loss practices, opinions of weight loss methods, and rated the acceptability of popular and empirically validated weight loss programs. Dieting, the intention to diet, and the use of popular diets and diet aids were prevalent. There was a tendency for participants to view weight as more of a problem for society than themselves. The Behavioral Program was rated as most acceptable and Surgical Treatment least acceptable. However, participants were more likely to try a popular diet or supplement. It is vital for researchers and clinicians to improve communication with the public about efficacious weight loss programs. PMID:21406949

  5. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations.

    PubMed

    Melanson, Edward L; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A

    2013-08-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than what the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the subpopulation that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, that is, increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors and to develop strategies to minimize their effect. PMID:23470300

  6. Resistance to exercise-induced weight loss: compensatory behavioral adaptations

    PubMed Central

    Melanson, Edward L.; Keadle, Sarah Kozey; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Braun, Barry; King, Neil A.

    2013-01-01

    In many interventions that are based on an exercise program intended to induce weight loss, the mean weight loss observed is modest and sometimes far less than the individual expected. The individual responses are also widely variable, with some individuals losing a substantial amount of weight, others maintaining weight, and a few actually gaining weight. The media have focused on the sub-population that loses little weight, contributing to a public perception that exercise has limited utility to cause weight loss. The purpose of the symposium was to present recent, novel data that help explain how compensatory behaviors contribute to a wide discrepancy in exercise-induced weight loss. The presentations provide evidence that some individuals adopt compensatory behaviors, i.e. increased energy intake and/or reduced activity, that offset the exercise energy expenditure and limit weight loss. The challenge for both scientists and clinicians is to develop effective tools to identify which individuals are susceptible to such behaviors, and to develop strategies to minimize their impact. PMID:23470300

  7. Adult weight loss diets: metabolic effects and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Matarese, Laura E; Pories, Walter J

    2014-12-01

    The global prevalence of overweight and obesity as a public health concern is well established and reflects the overall lack of success in our ability to achieve and maintain a healthy body weight. Being overweight and obese is associated with numerous comorbidities and is a risk factor for several of the leading causes of death, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus, and many types of cancer. The foundation of treatment has been diet and exercise. There are >1,000 published weight loss diets, with more appearing in the lay literature and the media on a regular basis. The sheer number of existing diet regimens would suggest that no one diet has been universally successful at inducing and maintaining weight loss. Many of these dietary programs are based on sound scientific evidence and follow contemporary principles of weight loss. Others simply eliminate 1 or more of the essential food groups or recommend consumption of 1 type of food at the expense of other foods with little to no supporting evidence. The focus of this review is on weight loss diets, specifically those with the most supporting scientific evidence and those that are most likely to succeed in achievement and maintenance of desirable body weight. The effects of weight loss diets on energy expenditure, body weight, body composition, and metabolic parameters will be evaluated. Ultimately, the best diet is the one the patient will follow and incorporate into his or her daily life for lifelong maintenance of a healthy body weight. PMID:25293593

  8. Neonatal weight loss at a US Baby-Friendly Hospital.

    PubMed

    Grossman, Xena; Chaudhuri, Jana H; Feldman-Winter, Lori; Merewood, Anne

    2012-03-01

    Few if any studies have examined weight loss among term newborns by weighing infants daily for the first week of life. Perhaps because so few data exist, there is no standard in the United States for normal newborn weight loss. Our objective was to investigate normal newborn weight loss among infants born in a US Baby-Friendly hospital, by weighing infants daily for the first week of life. Using a prospective cohort design, infants born at an urban Boston, MA, hospital were enrolled within 72 hours of delivery and weighed daily for the first week of life. In hospital, infant weight was obtained from the medical record; post discharge, a research assistant visited the home daily and weighed the baby. All feeds in week 1 of life were recorded. Birth-related factors potentially affecting weight loss were abstracted from the medical record. Complete data were collected on 121 infants. Mean weight loss was 4.9% (range=0.0% to 9.9%); 19.8% (24 of 121) of infants lost >7% of their birth weight; no infant lost >10%. Maximum percent weight loss was significantly associated with feeding type: exclusively and mainly breastfed infants lost 5.5%, mainly formula-fed infants lost 2.7% and exclusively formula-fed infants lost 1.2% (P<0.001). Type of delivery and fluids received during labor were not associated with weight loss. Clinical practices at a Baby-Friendly hospital, which support and optimize breastfeeding, appear to be associated with only moderate weight loss in exclusively and mainly breastfed infants. PMID:22717201

  9. Diet and psoriasis, part I: Impact of weight loss interventions.

    PubMed

    Debbaneh, Maya; Millsop, Jillian W; Bhatia, Bhavnit K; Koo, John; Liao, Wilson

    2014-07-01

    One of the most frequently asked questions by patients with psoriasis is whether dietary changes can improve their condition. Included in this discussion is whether dietary weight loss can benefit their skin disease. Obesity has been associated with a proinflammatory state and several studies have demonstrated a relationship between body mass index and psoriasis severity. However, the question of whether weight loss interventions can impact psoriasis outcome is less clear. Here, we review the literature to examine the efficacy of weight loss interventions, both dietary and surgical, on psoriasis disease course. PMID:24709272

  10. Surgical solutions to the problem of massive weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Spector, Jason A; Levine, Steven M; Karp, Nolan S

    2006-01-01

    In response to the global rise in obesity, bariatric surgery has become increasingly more popular and successful. As a result, the demand for body contouring following massive weight loss is rapidly growing. Although bariatric procedures may produce impressive weight loss, people who achieve massive weight loss are often unhappy with the hanging folds of skin and subcutaneous tissue that remain. This review examines the nature of the post-bariatric deformity in each body region and briefly reviews common approaches to their treatment. PMID:17075971

  11. Factors influencing weight changes in callitrichids at the Bronx Zoo.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Elena; Shelmidine, Nichole

    2010-01-01

    Callitrichids are small monkeys with high metabolic rates who appear to be susceptible to spontaneous diseases and possibly to environmental changes creating challenges in maintaining them in captivity. This study investigates whether life events (i.e. medical, social and housing changes) can influence weight. In previous research, body mass has been shown to be correlated with periods of illness, group composition changes and stress. Weights of 56 individual callitrichid monkeys (20 marmosets, 26 tamarins and 11 lion tamarins) at the WCS's Bronx Zoo were examined over approximately 2½ years. Weight fluctuations were scored based on 5%, 10% and 1 standard deviation criteria during periods of medical (illness and injury), social (introductions and separations), housing (movement within or between buildings) events and during periods when no-events occurred. Additionally, weights were examined for 3 months before and after periods of illness to look for trends in weight changes for 47 medical events (14 marmosets, 21 tamarins and 12 lion tamarins). Moreover, in five alloparenting males (four tamarins and one lion tamarin), weights were examined to determine if weight loss occurred after births as observed in earlier studies. The results show that a 5% and 1SD criterion may be too sensitive a criterion. We therefore deemed that a 10% weight loss may be the best criterion. For marmosets, a 10% weight loss occurred in association with all events. For tamarins, weight loss occurred with housing events. In lion tamarins, weight loss was observed with medical events. No significant weight loss was observed in alloparenting males. PMID:19890903

  12. [Success in maintaining weight loss in Portugal: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry].

    PubMed

    Vieira, Paulo Nuno; Teixeira, Pedro; Sardinha, Luís Bettencourt; Santos, Teresa; Coutinho, Sílvia; Mata, Jutta; Silva, Marlene Nunes

    2014-01-01

    The scope of this article is to describe the Portuguese Weight Control Registry (PWCR) methodology and the participants currently enrolled specifically with respect to their individual and family weight history, previous weight loss attempts, and psychosocial characteristics. One hundred and ninety-eight adults (age: 39.7±11.1 years; BMI: 26.0±3.9 kg/m2), 59% women, filled out a questionnaire about demographics, health-related behaviors and motivation, and methods and strategies used to lose and/or maintain weight loss. Participants reported an average weight loss of 17.4 kg for an average of 29 months. Concerning the number of weight loss attempts, 73% of participants reported a maximum of three attempts of going on a diet, and 34% indicated only one attempt to lose weight in the past. The PWCR now features a considerable number of successful long-term weight loss maintainers in Portugal. Participants will be followed over the next years to learn about their characteristics and weight loss strategies in further detail, as well as to identify predictors of continued weight loss maintenance. PMID:24473606

  13. Cu influence on hens weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afonina, I. A.; Kleptsyna, E. S.; Petukhov, V. L.; Patrashkov, S. A.

    2003-05-01

    Copper plays an important part in living being bodies. But, both high and low Cu levels may cause human and animal diseases. Some East Siberia areas are characterized by Cu pollution [1]. 5 group of hens were formed: 1 - control, 2-5 - experimental. For a month the hens from experimental groups were drunk with water where Cu content was 5, 10, 20 and 30 times higher than the upper limits (UL). Group 1 - 3 hens' weight was almost the same during the experiment. Weight decrease (from 2020 to 1656 g) was detected in group 4 (20 UL) for the first half a month. All the hens of group 4 except for 3 hens were died for the last 2 weeks. In group 5 (30 UL) all the hens died after 2 ... 14 days. Thus, high Cu concentrations (20 ... 30 UL) cause hens' weight reduction of and their death.

  14. Does area of residence influence weight loss following a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes? Fixed effects longitudinal analysis of 54,707 middle-to-older aged Australians.

    PubMed

    Feng, Xiaoqi; Astell-Burt, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    Reductions in body mass index and reduced overweight/obesity risk among participants in the 45 and Up Study diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were relatively large in rural areas compared to those in urban environs. Further research is needed to explain why where people reside influences optimal management of T2DM. PMID:27321327

  15. Smartphone applications to support weight loss: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Pellegrini, Christine A; Pfammatter, Angela F; Conroy, David E; Spring, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    Lower cost alternatives are needed for the traditional in-person behavioral weight loss programs to overcome challenges of lowering the worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity. Smartphones have become ubiquitous and provide a unique platform to aid in the delivery of a behavioral weight loss program. The technological capabilities of a smartphone may address certain limitations of a traditional weight loss program, while also reducing the cost and burden on participants, interventionists, and health care providers. Awareness of the advantages smartphones offer for weight loss has led to the rapid development and proliferation of weight loss applications (apps). The built-in features and the mechanisms by which they work vary across apps. Although there are an extraordinary number of a weight loss apps available, most lack the same magnitude of evidence-based behavior change strategies typically used in traditional programs. As features develop and new capabilities are identified, we propose a conceptual model as a framework to guide the inclusion of features that can facilitate behavior change and lead to reductions in weight. Whereas the conventional wisdom about behavior change asserts that more is better (with respect to the number of behavior change techniques involved), this model suggests that less may be more because extra techniques may add burden and adversely impact engagement. Current evidence is promising and continues to emerge on the potential of smartphone use within weight loss programs; yet research is unable to keep up with the rapidly improving smartphone technology. Future studies are needed to refine the conceptual model’s utility in the use of technology for weight loss, determine the effectiveness of intervention components utilizing smartphone technology, and identify novel and faster ways to evaluate the ever-changing technology. PMID:26236766

  16. Treatment of Obesity: Weight Loss and Bariatric Surgery.

    PubMed

    Wolfe, Bruce M; Kvach, Elizaveta; Eckel, Robert H

    2016-05-27

    This review focuses on the mechanisms underlying, and indications for, bariatric surgery in the reduction of cardiovascular disease (CVD), as well as other expected benefits of this intervention. The fundamental basis for bariatric surgery for the purpose of accomplishing weight loss is the determination that severe obesity is a disease associated with multiple adverse effects on health, which can be reversed or improved by successful weight loss in patients who have been unable to sustain weight loss by nonsurgical means. An explanation of possible indications for weight loss surgery as well as specific bariatric surgical procedures is presented, along with review of the safety literature of such procedures. Procedures that are less invasive or those that involve less gastrointestinal rearrangement accomplish considerably less weight loss but have substantially lower perioperative and longer-term risk. The ultimate benefit of weight reduction relates to the reduction of the comorbidities, quality of life, and all-cause mortality. With weight loss being the underlying justification for bariatric surgery in ameliorating CVD risk, current evidence-based research is discussed concerning body fat distribution, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, inflammation, obstructive sleep apnea, and others. The rationale for bariatric surgery reducing CVD events is discussed and juxtaposed with impacts on all-cause mortalities. Given the improvement of established obesity-related CVD risk factors after weight loss, it is reasonable to expect a reduction of CVD events and related mortality after weight loss in populations with obesity. The quality of the current evidence is reviewed, and future research opportunities and summaries are stated. PMID:27230645

  17. Behavioral Weight Loss Treatment in Antipsychotic Treated Youth

    PubMed Central

    Nicol, Ginger E.; Kolko, Rachel P.; Mills, Monica; Gunnarsdottir, Thrudur; Yingling, Michael D.; Schweiger, Julia A.; Lenze, Eric J.; Newcomer, John W.; Wilfley, Denise

    2016-01-01

    Background Antipsychotic-treated youth have increased risk for the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Behavioral weight loss treatments show promise in reducing obesity and diabetes risk in antipsychotic treated adults, but have received no study in antipsychotic treated youth. Objective We describe a rationale for behavioral weight loss interventions in high-weight antipsychotic treated youth, and report behavioral, anthropomorphic, and metabolic findings from a case series of obese antipsychotic-treated adolescents participating in a short-term, family-based behavioral weight loss intervention. Methods We adapted the Traffic Light Plan, a 16-week family-based weight loss intervention that promotes healthy energy balance using the colors of the traffic light to categorize the nutritional value of foods and intensity of physical activity, adapting a social ecological framework to address health behavior change in multiple social contexts. The intervention was administered to three obese adolescents with long-term antipsychotic medication exposure. Efficacy of the intervention was evaluated with a battery of anthropomorphic and metabolic assessments including weight, body mass index percentile, whole body adiposity, liver fat content, and fasting plasma glucose and lipids. Participants and their parents also filled out a treatment satisfaction questionnaire upon study completion. Results Two males and 1 female (all aged 14 years) participated. All 3 participants attended all 16 sessions, and experienced beneficial changes in adiposity, fasting lipids and liver fat content associated with weight stabilization or weight loss. Adolescents and their parents all reported a high level of satisfaction with the treatment. Conclusions Family-based behavioral weight loss treatment can be feasibly delivered and is acceptable to antipsychotic-treated youth and their families. Randomized controlled trials are needed to fully evaluate the effectiveness and acceptability

  18. Institutional Improvement in Weight Loss after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy.

    PubMed

    Mangieri, Christopher W; Strode, Matthew A; Sherman, William E; Pierotti, Matthew L; Faler, Byron J; Choi, Yong U

    2016-05-01

    Laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) is a recent addition to the bariatric surgery armamentarium. It has been demonstrated to be an efficacious stand-alone bariatric procedure in regard to weight loss. This study evaluates the progress of our initial experience with LSG. Retrospective review of prospective data from 2008 to 2010. Compared data between our first operative year of experience with LSG (2008) and our third year of experience (2010). Data compared for up to three years postoperatively. End points were percentage of excess body weight loss (%EWL) and percentage of excess body mass index loss (%EBL). Institutional improvement in %EWL and %EBL rates as our collective experience increased with LSG. Mean increase in %EWL of 14 per cent and mean increase of %EBL of 22 per cent. In our first year performing LSG the institutional weight loss was <50 per cent EWL, which is often cited as a benchmark level for "success" after bariatric surgery. By our third year of experience with LSG we achieved an institutional weight loss >50 per cent EWL. Institutional improvement in weight loss results with LSG as the collective experience increased. Several factors could have contributed to this observation to include a surgical mentorship program and the institution of formal nutritional education. This study demonstrates that institutional experience is a significant factor in weight loss results with LSG. PMID:27215727

  19. Pharmacological Approaches in the Treatment and Maintenance of Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Van Gaal, Luc; Dirinck, Eveline

    2016-08-01

    Obesity is a growing global health concern, associated with a number of important comorbid conditions. It increases the risk of diabetes and contributes to development of cardiovascular disease. While the benefits of weight loss are well established, weight reduction remains a difficult-to-reach goal in overweight and obese individuals due to several metabolic and psychological factors. For many patients, lifestyle intervention is insufficient to achieve long-term weight loss, and additional options, such as pharmacotherapy, need to be considered. Besides the challenging enterprise of weight reduction, weight maintenance remains an even more crucial and outcome-determining aspect of weight management. This article focuses on the potential of currently available pharmacological strategies to support weight loss and maintenance goals in individuals at risk. Two pharmacotherapy types are considered: those developed primarily to induce weight loss and those developed primarily for blood glucose control that have a favorable effect on body weight. Finally, the potential of very low- and low-calorie diets combined with pharmacotherapy and pharmacological combination therapies are discussed, as well as emerging approaches in development. PMID:27440841

  20. [Etiological and exacerbation factors for COPD. Body weight loss].

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Akihito

    2016-05-01

    Hunger or malnutrition is not only a historical issue but also a current problem worldwide. Biological responses to hunger are evolutionary prepared in our body, including energy generation by degradation of body proteins. Extreme weight loss (malnutrition) can cause air space enlargement in human and rodents. However, the changes in rodents could be reversible, since refeeding could repair the pathology. On the other hand, weight loss is a common feature in patients with more severe COPD. Complex factors, such as increased energy consumption, decreased food uptake by low grade inflammation, socio-economic factors and so on, are involved in weight loss. Weight loss in patients with COPD also increases the risk of exacerbation, hospitalization, and death. PMID:27254941

  1. Long-Term Results from A Weight Loss Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, Barbara K.; Beneke, William M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a weight loss program utilizing behavior modification techniques. The program, taught by extension home economists, emphasizes stimulus control to reduce environmental eating cues and nutrition education guidelines for developing new eating habits. (Author/MA)

  2. Goal setting: Eating, Physical activity & Weight loss | Smokefree.gov

    Cancer.gov

    No matter what your weight loss goal is, the key to reaching your goals is to make changes to your lifestyle like eating and physical activity. This involves setting realistic expectations and making a plan. 

  3. Impact of parental weight status on weight loss efforts in Hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Parents have been shown to play an important role in weight loss for children. Parents are typically involved either as models for change or as supporters of children's weight loss efforts. It is likely that overweight/obese parents will need to be involved in changing the environment for themselv...

  4. Weight loss maintenance in relation to locus of control: The MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Anastasiou, Costas A; Fappa, Evaggelia; Karfopoulou, Eleni; Gkza, Anastasia; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2015-08-01

    Locus of control, i.e. the degree of an individual's belief on the control of his/her life, has been related to many health outcomes, including weight loss in overweight/obese individuals. No information is available on the impact of locus of control in maintaining weight loss. We aimed to investigate the effect of locus of control in weight loss maintenance and explore potential associations with lifestyle factors. Study participants included 239 individuals (41% males) who had lost at least 10% of body weight in the past and either maintained the loss (maintainers: weight maintenance of at least 10% of initial weight) or regained it (regainers). Locus of control was defined by a relevant multi-dimensional scale; participants were categorised to internals and externals, based on "internal" and "others" sub-scales. A significant interaction was found between locus of control and weight loss maintenance status (p < 0.001), with internals being more likely to be maintainers. Regainers had a more external orientation, compared to maintainers. Weight loss methods differ between groups, with internals reporting loosing weight by themselves more frequently, while externals reporting loosing weight mainly with the aid of an expert. Weight cycling of 2-3 kg in a typical year was reported more frequently in internals. Total and vigorous physical activity, as well as total hobbies score were associated with an internal profile, while sedentary activities with an external profile. No differences were found in dietary intake between internals and externals. Our results suggest that weight loss maintenance is associated with an internal locus of control. Individualised treatment, according to locus of control, may increase weight loss maintenance rates in former overweight/obese individuals. PMID:26057439

  5. Weight loss methods and changes in eating habits among successful weight losers.

    PubMed

    Soini, Sirpa; Mustajoki, Pertti; Eriksson, Johan G

    2016-02-01

    Background Changes in several lifestyle related factors are required for successful long-term weight loss. Identification of these factors is of major importance from a public health point of view. Methods/subjects This study was based upon findings from the Finnish Weight Control Registry (FWCR), a web-based registry. In total, 316 people were recruited and 184 met the study inclusion criteria. The aims of this study were to assess means and typical changes in eating habits associated with successful long-term weight loss. Results Half of the participants (48%) reported that they lost weight slowly primarily with dietary changes. Self-weighing frequency was high, 92% was weighing themselves at least once a week during the weight loss phase, and 75% during the maintenance phase. Dietary aspects associated with successful weight loss and weight maintenance included an increase in intake of vegetables, a reduction in frequency of eating candies and fast food, regular meal frequency and application of the Plate model. Conclusions Both slow and fast weight loss may lead to successful long-term results and weight maintenance. A decrease in energy intake was achieved by reducing intake of energy-dense food, applying the Plate model and by regular meal frequency. Key messages Successful long-term weight loss is associated with a reduction in intake of energy-dense food. A more regular meal frequency and a high frequency of self-weighing seem to be helpful. PMID:26820173

  6. Does Preoperative Weight Change Predict Postoperative Weight Loss After Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy?

    PubMed Central

    Lane, Aaron E.; Mangieri, Christopher W.; Choi, Yong U.; Faler, Byron J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some institutions and insurance companies mandate a preoperative weight loss regimen prior to bariatric surgery. Previous studies suggest little to no correlation between preoperative and postoperative weight loss for laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RNYGB). This study examined the impact of preoperative weight change for patients undergoing laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG). Materials and Methods: A retrospective analysis was performed on patients undergoing LSG at the authors' institution from 2010 to 2012. Patients were grouped based on preoperative weight gain or loss. The correlation between preoperative BMI change and postoperative BMI change was studied, as well as length of surgery. Results: Of 141 patients with 1-year follow-up, 72 lost, six maintained, and 64 gained weight preoperatively. Percentage of excess BMI loss at 1 year was not statistically different between those who lost weight and those who gained weight. Percent change in BMI from initial visit to surgery does not correlate with change in BMI at 1 year postoperatively or with length of surgery. Conclusions: Preoperative weight loss is not a reliable predictor of postoperative weight loss or shorter operative time after LSG. Potential patients who otherwise meet indications for LSG should not be denied based on inability to lose weight. PMID:26421248

  7. Association of weight misperception with weight loss in a diabetes prevention program

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Weight misperception may have an impact on perceived risk and susceptibility for chronic diseases. Little has been reported on the long term effects of this misperception in chronic disease interventions, particularly in field of diabetes prevention. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between weight misperception and weight loss during a diabetes prevention project conducted in south-east Australia with individuals at moderate to high risk of developing diabetes. Methods A total of n=251 at risk individuals provided self-reported weight during recruitment from 2004-2006. Objectively measured weight was assessed at baseline (0-21 days after recruitment), and subsequently at three months and 12 months after the intervention. Differences between self-reported and actual weight status are presented as percentages. Linear regression was used to investigate the relationship between weight misperception and weight loss, adjusting for baseline weight and BMI. Results Those who had high levels of under-reporting at baseline had greater weight loss at three and 12 months compared with those who under-reported to some degree, and those over-reporting their weight. A significant association was found between weight misperception and weight loss at the three and the 12 month time points. Baseline weight was not associated with weight loss. Conclusions Weight misperception should be acknowledged as a factor to be addressed when screening and identifying individuals at risk for diabetes. Screening and giving feedback is important in terms of awareness of participants’ actual weight status and may have an effect on program outcomes. PMID:24476459

  8. How adolescent girls interpret weight-loss advertising.

    PubMed

    Hobbs, Renee; Broder, Sharon; Pope, Holly; Rowe, Jonelle

    2006-10-01

    While they demonstrate some ability to critically analyze the more obvious forms of deceptive weight-loss advertising, many girls do not recognize how advertising evokes emotional responses or how visual and narrative techniques are used to increase identification in weight-loss advertising. This study examined how girls aged 9-17 years interpreted magazine advertising, television (TV) advertising and infomercials for weight-loss products in order to determine whether deceptive advertising techniques were recognized and to assess pre-existing media-literacy skills. A total of 42 participants were interviewed in seven geographic regions of the United States. In groups of three, participants were shown seven print and TV advertisements (ads) for weight-loss products and asked to share their interpretations of each ad. Common factors in girls' interpretation of weight-loss advertising included responding to texts emotionally by identifying with characters; comparing and contrasting persuasive messages with real-life experiences with family members; using prior knowledge about nutrition management and recognizing obvious deceptive claims like 'rapid' or 'permanent' weight loss. Girls were less able to demonstrate skills including recognizing persuasive construction strategies including message purpose, target audience and subtext and awareness of economic factors including financial motives, credibility enhancement and branding. PMID:16880220

  9. Resting State Brain Connectivity After Surgical and Behavioral Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lepping, Rebecca J.; Bruce, Amanda S.; Francisco, Alex; Yeh, Hung-Wen; Martin, Laura E.; Powell, Joshua N.; Hancock, Laura; Patrician, Trisha M.; Breslin, Florence J.; Selim, Niazy; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Brooks, William M.; Savage, Cary R.; Simmons, W. Kyle; Bruce, Jared M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We previously reported changes in food-cue neural reactivity associated with behavioral and surgical weight loss interventions. Resting functional connectivity represents tonic neural activity that may contribute to weight loss success. Here we explore whether intervention type is associated with differences in functional connectivity after weight loss. METHODS Fifteen obese participants were recruited prior to adjustable gastric banding surgery. Thirteen demographically matched obese participants were selected from a separate behavioral diet intervention. Resting state fMRI was collected three months after surgery/behavioral intervention. ANOVA was used to examine post-weight loss differences between the two groups in connectivity to seed regions previously identified as showing differential cue-reactivity after weight loss. RESULTS Following weight loss, behavioral dieters exhibited increased connectivity between left precuneus/superior parietal lobule (SPL) and bilateral insula pre- to post-meal and bariatric patients exhibited decreased connectivity between these regions pre- to post-meal (pcorrected<.05). CONCLUSIONS Behavioral dieters showed increased connectivity pre- to post-meal between a region associated with processing of self-referent information (precuneus/SPL) and a region associated with interoception (insula) whereas bariatric patients showed decreased connectivity between these regions. This may reflect increased attention to hunger signals following surgical procedures, and increased attention to satiety signals following behavioral diet interventions. PMID:26053145

  10. Epigenetic Patterns in Successful Weight Loss Maintainers: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Hawley, Nicola L.; Wing, Rena R.; Kelsey, Karl T.; McCaffery, Jeanne M.

    2014-01-01

    DNA methylation changes occur in animal models of calorie restriction, simulating human dieting, and in human subjects undergoing behavioral weight loss interventions. This suggests that obese individuals may possess unique epigenetic patterns that may vary with weight loss. Here, we examine whether methylation patterns in leukocytes differ in individuals who lost sufficient weight to go from obese to normal weight (successful weight loss maintainers; SWLM) vs currently obese (OB) or normal weight (NW) individuals. This study examined peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) methylation patterns in NW (n=16, current/lifetime BMI 18.5-24.9) and OB individuals (n=16, current BMI≥30), and SWLM (n=16, current BMI 18.5-24.9, lifetime maximum BMI ≥30, average weight loss 57.4 lbs) using an Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 BeadArray. No leukocyte population-adjusted epigenome-wide analyses were significant; however, potentially differentially methylated loci across groups were observed in RYR1 (p=1.54E-6), MPZL3 (p=4.70E-6), and TUBA3C (p=4.78E-6). In 32 obesity-related candidate genes, differential methylation patterns were found in BDNF (gene-wide p=0.00018). In RYR1, TUBA3C and BDNF, SWLM differed from OB but not NW. In this preliminary investigation, leukocyte SWLM DNA methylation patterns more closely resembled NW than OB individuals in three gene regions. These results suggest that PBMC methylation is associated with weight status. PMID:25520250

  11. Moderate Weight Loss: A Self-Directed Protocol for Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was performed to examine the efficacy of a self-directed diet and physical activity program as a method for weight loss in women. Forty-two hyperlipidemic overweight and obese women were recruited to participate in this twenty-four week weight intervention study. The women’s ages ranged...

  12. Rise of plasma ghrelin with weight loss is not sustained during weight maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ghrelin is postulated to be an orexigenic signal that promotes weight regain after weight loss (WL). However, it is not known whether this putative effect of ghrelin is sustained after weight stabilization. The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of plasma ghrelin concentrati...

  13. Sleep Is Increased By Weight Gain and Decreased By Weight Loss in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Zhiwei; Vgontzas, Alexandros N.; Bixler, Edward O.; Fang, Jidong

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether weight loss could reverse excessive sleep in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Design: Three groups of mice participated in the study. A weight gain/loss group was fed with high-fat food for 6 weeks (weight gain), and regular food again for 4 weeks (weight loss). A control group and a weight gain only group were fed with regular food and high-fat food, respectively, for 10 weeks after the baseline. Participants: Adult male C57BL/6 mice. Measurements: The amounts of wake, rapid eye movement sleep (REMS) and non-REM sleep (NREMS) were determined at week 0 (baseline), week 6, and week 10. Results: The weight gain/loss group displayed a significant decrease in wakefulness and increases in NREMS and episodes of NREMS during 6 weeks of weight gain, which were reversed during subsequent 4 weeks of weight loss. The weight gain only group displayed significant decrease in wakefulness and increase of NREMS and REMS at both week 6 and week 10. The control group did not show significant sleep alterations during the experiment. Conclusion: These observations indicate that sleep alterations induced by weight gain are reversed by weight loss in obese animals. These data may shed light on the mechanisms underlying the well-established association between obesity and sleepiness in humans and may lead to new therapeutic strategies for these 2 increasingly prevalent problems in the modern societies. Citation: Guan Z; Vgontzas AN; Bixler EO; Fang J. Sleep is increased by weight gain and decreased by weight loss in mice. SLEEP 2008;31(5):627-633. PMID:18517033

  14. Biological mechanisms that promote weight regain following weight loss in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Ochner, Christopher N; Barrios, Dulce M; Lee, Clement D; Pi-Sunyer, F Xavier

    2013-08-15

    Weight loss dieting remains the treatment of choice for the vast majority of obese individuals, despite the limited long-term success of behavioral weight loss interventions. The reasons for the near universal unsustainability of behavioral weight loss in [formerly] obese individuals have not been fully elucidated, relegating researchers to making educated guesses about how to improve obesity treatment, as opposed to developing interventions targeting the causes of weight regain. This article discusses research on several factors that may contribute to weight regain following weight loss achieved through behavioral interventions, including adipose cellularity, endocrine function, energy metabolism, neural responsivity, and addiction-like neural mechanisms. All of these mechanisms are engaged prior to weight loss, suggesting that these so called "anti-starvation" mechanisms are activated via reductions in energy intake, rather than depletion of energy stores. Evidence suggests that these mechanisms are not necessarily part of a homeostatic feedback system designed to regulate body weight, or even anti-starvation mechanisms per se. Although they may have evolved to prevent starvation, they appear to be more accurately described as anti-weight loss mechanisms, engaged with caloric restriction irrespective of the adequacy of energy stores. It is hypothesized that these factors may combine to create a biological disposition that fosters the maintenance of an elevated body weight and works to restore the highest sustained body weight, thus precluding the long-term success of behavioral weight loss. It may be necessary to develop interventions that attenuate these biological mechanisms in order to achieve long-term weight reduction in obese individuals. PMID:23911805

  15. Can't wait to lose weight? Characterizing temporal discounting parameters for weight-loss.

    PubMed

    Lim, Seung-Lark; Bruce, Amanda S

    2015-02-01

    Obesity is often related to steeper temporal discounting, that is, higher decision impulsivity for immediate rewards over delayed rewards. However, previous studies have measured temporal discounting parameters through monetary rewards. The aim of this study was to develop a temporal discounting measure based on weight-loss rewards, which may help to understand decision-making mechanisms more closely related to body weight regulation. After having their heights and weights measured, healthy young adults completed the Monetary Choice Questionnaire (MCQ), and an adapted version of the MCQ, with weight-loss as a reward. Participants also completed self-reports that measure obesity-related cognitive variables. For 42 participants who expressed a desire to lose weight, weight-loss rewards were discounted over time and had a positive correlation with temporal discounting for monetary rewards. Higher temporal discounting for weight loss rewards (i.e., preference for immediate weight loss) showed correlations with beliefs that obesity is under obese persons' control and largely due to lack of willpower, while temporal discounting parameters for monetary rewards did not. Taken together, our weight loss temporal discounting measure demonstrated both convergent and divergent validity, which can be utilized for future obesity research and interventions. PMID:25450897

  16. Weight loss before conception: A systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Forsum, Elisabet; Brantsæter, Anne Lise; Olafsdottir, Anna-Sigrid; Olsen, Sjurdur F; Thorsdottir, Inga

    2013-01-01

    The prevalence of overweight and obesity in women has increased during the last decades. This is a serious concern since a high BMI before conception is an independent risk factor for many adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, dietary counseling, intended to stimulate weight loss in overweight and obese women prior to conception has recently been recommended. However, dieting with the purpose to lose weight may involve health risks for mother and offspring. We conducted a systematic literature review to identify papers investigating the effects of weight loss due to dietary interventions before conception. The objective of this study is to assess the effect of weight loss prior to conception in overweight or obese women on a number of health-related outcomes in mother and offspring using studies published between January 2000 and December 2011. Our first literature search produced 486 citations and, based on predefined eligibility criteria, 58 were selected and ordered in full text. Two group members read each paper. Fifteen studies were selected for quality assessment and two of them were considered appropriate for inclusion in evidence tables. A complementary search identified 168 citations with four papers being ordered in full text. The two selected studies provided data for overweight and obese women. One showed a positive effect of weight loss before pregnancy on the risk of gestational diabetes and one demonstrated a reduced risk for large-for-gestational-age infants in women with a BMI above 25 who lost weight before pregnancy. No study investigated the effect of weight loss due to a dietary intervention before conception. There is a lack of studies on overweight and obese women investigating the effect of dietary-induced weight loss prior to conception on health-related variables in mother and offspring. Such studies are probably lacking since they are difficult to conduct. Therefore, alternative strategies to control the body weight of girls and women

  17. Long-term weight status in regainers after weight loss by lifestyle intervention: status and challenges.

    PubMed

    Stelmach-Mardas, Marta; Mardas, Marcin; Walkowiak, Jarosław; Boeing, Heiner

    2014-11-01

    After having participated in a weight loss trial, most participants do not stabilise the obtained weight loss but return to their initial weight. The aim of this review is to describe the main determinants of continued low weight status after weight loss, and the effectiveness of physical activity (PA), energy restriction and macronutrient composition of the diet for low long-term weight regain. Studies with intervention periods of at least 3 months duration of weight reduction measures and a follow-up at least 2 years after the intervention period were considered as eligible for the review. Owing to limited data, the studies describing the role of PA in weight management were eligible with a follow-up of 1 year only. It appears that a diet with self-regulation of dietary intake seems to be given a prominent role in the strategy of successful long-term weight loss among the obese. This measure could be combined with behaviour therapy and PA and tailored to the individual situation. However, considering available evidence it is difficult to conclude regarding unambiguous measures and to recommend a specific dietary intervention. Nevertheless, interventions should be effective in promoting intrinsic motivation and self-efficacy. The harmonisation and standardisation of data collection in the follow-up period of long-term weight loss studies is a major challenge. PMID:25192545

  18. [Plastic reconstructive operations after weight loss through gastric banding].

    PubMed

    Rhomberg, M; Piza-Katzer, H

    2002-09-01

    The number of patients who desire reconstructive surgery after a huge weight loss through gastric banding is increasing. From 1999 to 2001, 40 reconstructive operations were performed on 25 patients after an average decrease in weight of 58 kg. Six months later, a follow-up examination was done. A questionnaire was handed out and the aesthetic results were judged by five independent plastic surgeons. The department of psychology judged the patient's attitude towards their body, the presentation of their body for attractiveness, satisfaction with life, anxiety and depression, and changes in experience and behavior. The results showed a discrepancy between the subjective satisfaction of the patients and the judgment of the plastic surgeons; the preference for long scars instead of remaining surplus tissue, the necessity of a strict indication for transplantation of one's own tissue, the importance of detailed preoperative information using pictures, advantages and disadvantages of simultaneous operations in different anatomical regions, the need for exact planning and postoperative care as well as the importance of interdisciplinary teamwork. These results will influence the indication for a reconstructive operation in the future. PMID:12297958

  19. The perceptions of obese school children in Hong Kong toward their weight-loss experience.

    PubMed

    Wong, E M Y; Sit, J W H; Tarrant, M A; Cheng, M M H

    2012-10-01

    Most studies related to addressing weight management of obese children have focused on understanding the perceptions of parents and health professionals. This study identifies the factors that obese children who have tried to lose weight perceive as affecting their efforts. This descriptive qualitative study has sought to identify factors affecting obese children's weight-loss decision making and process and to explore the development of an effective weight-loss program. This study screened 603 primary school children equivalent to U.S. Grades 5 and 6 of age 10-12. Seventy-nine out of 93 obese children who had been trying on their own to lose weight for at least 1 month formed 6 focus groups. Four themes were identified: Making the decision, self-efficacy, social influences, and environmental constraints. The results suggest that the design of a weight-loss program for obese children should include the contribution of family members, school, and health professionals. PMID:22427318

  20. Relationship Between Sleep Quality and Quantity and Weight Loss in Women Participating in a Weight-Loss Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Cynthia A.; Morrow, Kelly L.; Flatt, Shirley W.; Wertheim, Betsy C.; Perfect, Michelle M.; Ravia, Jennifer J.; Sherwood, Nancy E.; Karanja, Njeri; Rock, Cheryl L.

    2016-01-01

    Evidence suggests that individuals who report fewer total hours of sleep are more likely to be overweight or obese. Few studies have prospectively evaluated weight-loss success in relation to reported sleep quality and quantity. This analysis sought to determine the association between sleep characteristics and weight loss in overweight or obese women enrolled in a randomized clinical trial of a weight-loss program. We hypothesized that in overweight/obese women, significant weight loss would be demonstrated more frequently in women who report a better Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) Global Score or sleep >7 h/night as compared to women who report a worse PSQI score or sleep ≤7 h/night. Women of ages 45.5 ± 10.4 (mean ± SD) years and BMI of 33.9 ± 3.3 (n = 245) were randomized and completed PSQI at baseline and 6 months; 198 had weight change assessed through 24 months. At baseline, 52.7% reported PSQI scores above the clinical cutoff of 5. Better subjective sleep quality increased the likelihood of weight-loss success by 33% (relative risk (RR), 0.67; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.52–0.86), as did sleeping >7 h/night. A worse Global Score at 6 months was associated with a 28% lower likelihood of continued successful weight loss at 18 months, but unassociated by 24 months. These results suggest that sleep quality and quantity may contribute to weight loss in intervention-based studies designed to promote weight control in overweight/obese adult women. PMID:22402738

  1. The role for adipose tissue in weight regain after weight loss.

    PubMed

    MacLean, P S; Higgins, J A; Giles, E D; Sherk, V D; Jackman, M R

    2015-02-01

    Weight regain after weight loss is a substantial challenge in obesity therapeutics. Dieting leads to significant adaptations in the homeostatic system that controls body weight, which promotes overeating and the relapse to obesity. In this review, we focus specifically on the adaptations in white adipose tissues that contribute to the biological drive to regain weight after weight loss. Weight loss leads to a reduction in size of adipocytes and this decline in size alters their metabolic and inflammatory characteristics in a manner that facilitates the clearance and storage of ingested energy. We present the hypothesis whereby the long-term signals reflecting stored energy and short-term signals reflecting nutrient availability are derived from the cellularity characteristics of adipose tissues. These signals are received and integrated in the hypothalamus and hindbrain and an energy gap between appetite and metabolic requirements emerges and promotes a positive energy imbalance and weight regain. In this paradigm, the cellularity and metabolic characteristics of adipose tissues after energy-restricted weight loss could explain the persistence of a biological drive to regain weight during both weight maintenance and the dynamic period of weight regain. PMID:25614203

  2. Obesity: the allostatic load of weight loss dieting.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Angelo; Chaput, Jean-Philippe

    2012-04-12

    The obesity epidemic that is prevailing in most countries of the world is generally attributed to the increased amount of opportunities to be in positive energy balance in a context of modernity. This obviously refers not only to sedentariness and unhealthy eating that may dominate life habits of many individuals but also to unsuspected non-caloric factors which produce discrete allostatic changes in the body. In this paper, the focus is put on the impact of some of these factors with the preoccupation to document the allostatic burden of weight loss. Thus, beyond the fact that modernity favors opportunities to eat much and not to be active, the proposed conceptual integration leads to the conclusion that a modern lifestyle makes weight loss more difficult for obese individuals. In addition to the natural effects of weight loss favoring resistance to lose fat, a lifestyle promoting shorter sleep duration and more cognitive demand produces allostatic changes that may interfere with weight loss. The case of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) is also discussed as an example of the potential detrimental effects of a contaminated environment on metabolic processes involved in the control of energy expenditure. Taken together, these observations suggest that weight loss is more than ever a search for compromise between its metabolic benefits and its allostatic effects promoting body weight regain. PMID:21627975

  3. Effect of physical activity on weight loss, energy expenditure and energy intake during diet induced weight loss

    PubMed Central

    DeLany, James P.; Kelley, David E.; Hames, Kazanna C.; Jakicic, John M.; Goodpaster, Bret H.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Objective measurements of physical activity (PA), energy expenditure (EE) and energy intake can provide valuable information regarding appropriate strategies for successful sustained weight loss. Design and methods We examined total EE by doubly labeled water, resting metabolic rate, PA with activity monitors, and energy intake by the Intake/Balance technique in 116 severely obese undergoing intervention with diet alone (DO) or diet plus PA (D-PA). Results Weight loss of 9.6±6.8 kg resulted in decreased EE which was not minimized in the D-PA group. Comparing the highest and lowest quartiles of increase in PA revealed a lower decrease in TDEE (−122±319 vs. −376±305 kcal/d), elimination of the drop in AEE (83±279 vs. −211±284 kcal/d) and greater weight loss (13.0±7.0 vs. 8.1±6.3 kg). Increased PA was associated with greater adherence to energy restriction and maintenance of greater weight loss during months 7–12. Conclusion Noncompliance to prescribed PA in the DO and D-PA groups partially masked the effects of PA to increase weight loss and to minimize the reduced EE. Increased PA was also associated with improved adherence to prescribed caloric restriction. A strong recommendation needs to be made to improve interventions that promote PA within the context of behavioral weight loss interventions. PMID:23804562

  4. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    PubMed

    Harden, Samantha M; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A; Hill, Jennie L; Linnan, Laura A; Allen, Kacie C; Estabrooks, Paul A

    2015-12-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire) at baseline and postintervention. Twenty-two percent of the participants lost a clinically meaningful amount of weight (≥5% weight loss). There were no statistically significant (p < .05) relationships between weight change from baseline to 12 months and change scores of absolute or relative absenteeism or for absolute or relative presenteeism. Within a modestly successful Internet-based, worksite weight loss intervention, weight loss did not improve self-reported absenteeism or presenteeism. Further studies are needed to explore the sensitivity of the World Health Organization's Health and Work Performance Questionnaire and the long-term effects of weight loss on productivity. PMID:25842385

  5. Self-Directed Weight Loss Strategies: Energy Expenditure Due to Physical Activity Is Not Increased to Achieve Intended Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Elbelt, Ulf; Schuetz, Tatjana; Knoll, Nina; Burkert, Silke

    2015-01-01

    Reduced physical activity and almost unlimited availability of food are major contributors to the development of obesity. With the decline of strenuous work, energy expenditure due to spontaneous physical activity has attracted increasing attention. Our aim was to assess changes in energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits in obese subjects aiming at self-directed weight loss. Methods: Energy expenditure and physical activity patterns were measured with a portable armband device. Nutritional habits were assessed with a food frequency questionnaire. Results: Data on weight development, energy expenditure, physical activity patterns and nutritional habits were obtained for 105 patients over a six-month period from an initial cohort of 160 outpatients aiming at weight loss. Mean weight loss was −1.5 ± 7.0 kg (p = 0.028). Patients with weight maintenance (n = 75), with substantial weight loss (>5% body weight, n = 20) and with substantial weight gain (>5% body weight, n = 10) did not differ in regard to changes of body weight adjusted energy expenditure components (total energy expenditure: −0.2 kcal/kg/day; non-exercise activity thermogenesis: −0.3 kcal/kg/day; exercise-related activity thermogenesis (EAT): −0.2 kcal/kg/day) or patterns of physical activity (duration of EAT: −2 min/day; steps/day: −156; metabolic equivalent unchanged) measured objectively with a portable armband device. Self-reported consumption frequency of unfavorable food decreased significantly (p = 0.019) over the six-month period. Conclusions: An increase in energy expenditure or changes of physical activity patterns (objectively assessed with a portable armband device) are not employed by obese subjects to achieve self-directed weight loss. However, modified nutritional habits could be detected with the use of a food frequency questionnaire. PMID:26193310

  6. Beta-cell preservation…Is weight loss the answer?

    PubMed

    Mazza, Angela D; Pratley, Richard E; Smith, Steven R

    2011-01-01

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). Pancreatic beta-cell failure is an early event in the development of glucose dysregulation and diabetes. Interventions to halt beta-cell failure in T2D include diet modification, exercise, and use of pharmacologic agents. There is evidence that abdominal obesity may contribute to diabetes through insulin resistance and beta-cell impairment. Pivotal long-term studies into the prevention of T2D have shown the importance of weight loss beside diet, lifestyle, and medication. The Finnish Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) showed that weight loss gradually reduces the risk of diabetes, and that even modest weight loss can significantly reduce the incidence of T2D. Similarly, in the US DPP, weight loss as part of intensive lifestyle modification was the major factor in reducing the incidence of T2D in high-risk subjects, being more effective than drug intervention. While understanding the relationship between obesity and diabetes is complex, we know that weight loss has positive effects on adipose tissue. It causes an increase in the beneficial fat cell hormone adiponectin, and a decrease in adipose tissue inflammation. Also, it is associated with reduced insulin resistance and a consequential reduction in glucolipotoxicity, which can improve beta-cell function. In summary, weight loss improves glycemic control and thereby mitigates diabetes symptoms and complications, possibly through the preservation of beta-cell function. Therefore, efforts to prevent diabetes and preserve beta-cell function in patients with T2D should more consequently emphasize and target weight loss. PMID:22580726

  7. Weight loss-induced stress in subcutaneous adipose tissue is related to weight regain.

    PubMed

    Roumans, Nadia J T; Camps, Stefan G; Renes, Johan; Bouwman, Freek G; Westerterp, Klaas R; Mariman, Edwin C M

    2016-03-14

    Initial successful weight loss is often followed by weight regain after the dietary intervention. Compared with lean people, cellular stress in adipose tissue is increased in obese subjects. However, the relation between cellular stress and the risk for weight regain after weight loss is unclear. Therefore, we determined the expression levels of stress proteins during weight loss and weight maintenance in relation to weight regain. In vivo findings were compared with results from in vitro cultured human Simpson-Golabi-Behmel syndrome (SGBS) adipocytes. In total, eighteen healthy subjects underwent an 8-week diet programme with a 10-month follow-up. Participants were categorised as weight maintainers or weight regainers (WR) depending on their weight changes during the intervention. Abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies were obtained before and after the diet and after the follow-up. In vitro differentiated SGBS adipocytes were starved for 96 h with low (0·55 mm) glucose. Levels of stress proteins were determined by Western blotting. WR showed increased expressions of β-actin, calnexin, heat shock protein (HSP) 27, HSP60 and HSP70. Changes of β-actin, HSP27 and HSP70 are linked to HSP60, a proposed key factor in weight regain after weight loss. SGBS adipocytes showed increased levels of β-actin and HSP60 after 96 h of glucose restriction. The increased level of cellular stress proteins in the adipose tissue of WR probably resides in the adipocytes as shown by in vitro experiments. Cellular stress accumulated in adipose tissue during weight loss may be a risk factor for weight regain. PMID:26759119

  8. Weight loss and weight cycling in amateur wrestlers: implications for performance and resting metabolic rate.

    PubMed

    Horswill, C A

    1993-09-01

    Amateur wrestlers practice weight loss for ergogenic reasons. The effects of rapid weight loss on aerobic performance are adverse and profound, but the effects of anaerobic performance are equivocal. Anaerobic performance--strength and power--may be the most relevant type of performance to the wrestler. Maintenance of or even small decrements in anaerobic performance may translate into improvements in performance relative to the weight class, the factor by which wrestlers are matched for competition. During the recovery period between the official weigh-in and competition, wrestlers achieve at least partial nutritional recovery, which appears to benefit performance. Successive bouts of (a) weight loss to make weight and (b) recovery for performance lead to weight cycling. There is speculation that weight cycling may contribute to chronic glycogen depletion, reductions in fat-free weight, a decrease in resting metabolic rate, and an increase in body fat. The latter two would augment the difficulty of losing weight for subsequent weigh-ins. Most research indicates that the suppressed resting metabolic rate with weight loss in wrestlers appears to be transient, but subsequent research is needed for confirmation. PMID:8220391

  9. Why do patients with weight loss have a worse outcome when undergoing chemotherapy for gastrointestinal malignancies?

    PubMed

    Andreyev, H J; Norman, A R; Oates, J; Cunningham, D

    1998-03-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether weight loss at presentation, in patients who were to receive chemotherapy for gastrointestinal carcinomas, influences outcome and whether nutritional intervention would be worthwhile. This study was a retrospective review of prospectively gathered data. The outcomes of patients with or without weight loss and treated for locally advanced or metastatic tumours of the oesophagus, stomach, pancreas, colon or rectum were compared. In 1555 such consecutive patients treated over a 6-year period, weight loss at presentation was reported more commonly by men than women (51 versus 44%, P = 0.01). Although patients with weight loss received lower chemotherapy doses initially, they developed more frequent and more severe dose limiting toxicity--specifically plantar-palmar syndrome (P < 0.0001) and stomatitis (P < 0.0001)--than patients without weight loss. Consequently, patients with weight loss on average received 1 month (18%) less treatment (P < 0.0001). Weight loss correlated with shorter failure-free (P < 0.0001, hazard ratio = 1.25) and overall survival (P < 0.0001, hazard ratio = 1.63), decreased response (P = 0.006), quality of life (P < 0.0001) and performance status (P < 0.0001). Patients who stopped losing weight had better overall survival (P = 0.0004). Weight loss at presentation was an independent prognostic variable (hazard ratio = 1.43). The poorer outcome from treatment in patients with weight loss appears to occur because they receive significantly less chemotherapy and develop more toxicity rather than any specifically reduced tumour responsiveness to treatment. These findings provide a rationale for attempting randomised nutritional intervention studies in these patients. PMID:9713300

  10. A losing battle: weight regain does not restore weight loss-induced bone loss in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Villalon, Karen L; Gozansky, Wendolyn S; Van Pelt, Rachael E; Wolfe, Pam; Jankowski, Catherine M; Schwartz, Robert S; Kohrt, Wendy M

    2011-12-01

    Previously, we reported significant bone mineral density (BMD) loss in postmenopausal women after modest weight loss. It remains unclear whether the magnitude of BMD change in response to weight loss is appropriate (i.e., proportional to weight loss) and whether BMD is recovered with weight regain. We now report changes in BMD after a 1-year follow-up. Subjects (n = 23) in this secondary analysis were postmenopausal women randomized to placebo as part of a larger trial. They completed a 6-month exercise-based weight loss program and returned for follow-up at 18 months. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) was performed at baseline, 6, and 18 months. At baseline, subjects were aged 56.8 ± 5.4 years (mean ± s.d.), 10.0 ± 9.2 years postmenopausal, and BMI was 29.6 ± 4.0 kg/m(2). They lost 3.9 ± 3.5 kg during the weight loss intervention. During follow-up, they regained 2.9 ± 3.9 kg. Six months of weight loss resulted in a significant decrease in lumbar spine (LS) (-1.7 ± 3.5%; P = 0.002) and hip (-0.04 ± 3.5%; P = 0.03) BMD that was accompanied by an increase in a biomarker of bone resorption (serum C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen, CTX: 34 ± 54%; P = 0.08). However, weight regain was not associated with LS (0.05 ± 3.8%; P = 0.15) or hip (-0.6 ± 3.0%; P = 0.81) bone regain or decreased bone resorption (CTX: -3 ± 37%; P = 0.73). The findings suggest that BMD lost during weight reduction may not be fully recovered with weight regain in hormone-deficient, postmenopausal women. Future studies are needed to identify effective strategies to prevent bone loss during periods of weight loss. PMID:21852813

  11. A Patient-Centered Electronic Tool for Weight Loss Outcomes after Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass

    PubMed Central

    Gerhard, Glenn S.; Miller, Elaina K.; Zaccone, Richard J.; Argyropoulos, George A.; Petrick, Anthony T.; Still, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Current patient education and informed consent regarding weight loss expectations for bariatric surgery candidates are largely based on averages from large patient cohorts. The variation in weight loss outcomes illustrates the need for establishing more realistic weight loss goals for individual patients. This study was designed to develop a simple web-based tool which provides patient-specific weight loss expectations. Methods. Postoperative weight measurements after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) were collected and analyzed with patient characteristics known to influence weight loss outcomes. Quantile regression was used to create expected weight loss curves (25th, 50th, and 75th %tile) for the 24 months after RYGB. The resulting equations were validated and used to develop web-based tool for predicting weight loss outcomes. Results. Weight loss data from 2986 patients (2608 in the primary cohort and 378 in the validation cohort) were included. Preoperative body mass index (BMI) and age were found to have a high correlation with weight loss accomplishment (P < 0.0001 for each). An electronic tool was created that provides easy access to patient-specific, 24-month weight loss trajectories based on initial BMI and age. Conclusions. This validated, patient-centered electronic tool will assist patients and providers in patient teaching, informed consent, and postoperative weight loss management. PMID:24772350

  12. Impact of Weight Loss Surgery on Esophageal Physiology

    PubMed Central

    Naik, Rishi D.; Choksi, Yash A.

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery has come to the forefront of weight loss treatment due to its complex interactions via anatomic, physiologic, and neurohormonal changes leading to sustained weight loss. Unlike lifestyle and pharmacologic options, which fail to show long-term sustained weight loss, bariatric surgery has been shown to decrease overall mortality and morbidity. Bariatric surgery can be purely restrictive, such as laparoscopic adjustable gastric band (LAGB) or laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG), or restrictive-malabsorptive, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). These surgeries cause specific anatomic changes that promote weight loss; however, they also have unintended effects on the esophagus, particularly in terms of gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and esophageal motility. Via restrictive surgery, LAGB has been widely reported to cause significant weight loss, although studies have also shown an increase and worsening of GERD as well as elevated rates of esophageal dilation, aperistalsis, and alterations in lower esophageal sphincter pressure. Along with LAGB, LSG has shown not only a worsening of GERD, but also the formation of de novo GERD in patients who were asymptomatic before the operation. In a restrictive-malabsorptive approach, RYGB has been reported to improve GERD and preserve esophageal motility. Bariatric surgery is a burgeoning field with immense implications on overall mortality. Future randomized, controlled trials are needed to better understand which patients should undergo particular surgeries, with greater emphasis on esophageal health and prevention of GERD and esophageal dysmotility. PMID:27134597

  13. Evaluating commercial weight loss programmes: an evolution in outcomes research.

    PubMed

    Hamilton, M; Greenway, F

    2004-11-01

    The increasing prevalence of obesity has been mirrored by a parallel increase in the number of commercial weight loss programmes. Research evaluating these programmes is meagre, however, compared to the numbers treated. Reluctance of commercial weight loss programmes to meaningfully evaluate their weight loss efficacy may arise from fear that competitors will use the results against them. Evaluation of commercial weight loss programmes usually progresses from testimonials, often by famous people who were successful, to uncontrolled studies of past participants evaluated either by the programme itself or by an outside entity. The gold standard, however, is a scientifically rigorous, controlled study of the programme conducted by an independent entity. Such a study, published in a peer-reviewed journal, can gain credibility for a programme, as it did with Slim Fast, if the results are positive, or herald the end of the programme, as it was with Simeons human chorionic gonadotropin injection clinics. This review of the evolution of the evaluation process of commercial weight loss programmes leads us to conclude that consumers are likely to demand greater scientific rigour in the future, a change that will favour informed choice and discourage the practice of unrealistic advertising that raises false hopes. PMID:15458396

  14. Gastrointestinal Hormones and Bariatric Surgery-induced Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Ionut, Viorica; Burch, Miguel; Youdim, Adrienne; Bergman, Richard N.

    2015-01-01

    Obesity continues to be a major public health problem in the United States and worldwide. While recent statistics have demonstrated that obesity rates have begun to plateau, more severe classes of obesity are accelerating at a faster pace with important implications in regards to treatment. Bariatric surgery has a profound and durable effect on weight loss, being to date one of the most successful interventions for obesity. Objective To provide updates to the possible role of gut hormones in post bariatric surgery weight loss and weight loss maintenance. Design and Methods The current review examines the changes in gastro-intestinal hormones with bariatric surgery and the potential mechanisms by which these changes could result in decreased weight and adiposity. Results The mechanism by which bariatric surgery results in body weight changes is incompletely elucidated, but it clearly goes beyond caloric restriction and malabsorption. Conclusion Changes in gastro-intestinal hormones, including increases in GLP-1, PYY, and oxyntomodulin, decreases in GIP and ghrelin, or the combined action of all these hormones might play a role in induction and long-term maintenance of weight loss. PMID:23512841

  15. Rapid Weight Loss Among Adolescents Participating In Competitive Judo.

    PubMed

    Berkovich, Ben-El; Eliakim, Alon; Nemet, Dan; Stark, Aliza Hannah; Sinai, Tali

    2016-06-01

    Athletes competing in individual sports such as judo are categorized by weight. Before competitions, weight cutting is common. This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize and determine the prevalence of rapid weight loss (RWL) among adolescent judo competitors. Male athletes aged 12- to 17-years old (N = 108) were recruited from local judo teams. Each participant completed a validated questionnaire regarding RWL practices. Anthropometric measurements were also performed. Average age was 14.6 ± 1.6 years and all participants were of normal body mass index (BMI). RWL was practiced by 80% of the athletes before competition, beginning at an average age of 12.5 ± 2.2 years with the highest prevalence (~94%) in the oldest group of judoka (16-17.9 years). Precompetition weight loss duration was 8 ± 5.4 days, with an average weight reduction of 1.5 ± 1.1 kg. The number of weight loss efforts per athlete in the past season was 2.8 ± 2.2. RWL was achieved by increased physical activity (82.6%), skipped meals (56.3%), or fasting at least once (47%). Two-thirds of the athletes indicated that their coaches were the most influential figure in their decision to lose weight before competition. RWL is highly prevalent in adolescent judo competitors. The methods used by these athletes can potentially lead to significant health risks including compromised nutritional status, diminished physical performance and impaired growth and development. It is of great importance to insure that those who guide young adults in weight loss for competitive sports have the knowledge and understanding to make safe recommendations and appropriate decisions regarding achieving specific weight goals. PMID:26479490

  16. Interactive computer-based interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance in overweight or obese people

    PubMed Central

    Wieland, L. Susan; Falzon, Louise; Sciamanna, Chris N; Trudeau, Kimberlee J; Folse, Suzanne Brodney; Schwartz, Joseph E; Davidson, Karina W

    2014-01-01

    Background The World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that the number of obese or overweight individuals worldwide will increase to 1.5 billion by 2015. Chronic diseases associated with overweight or obesity include diabetes, heart disease, hypertension and stroke. Objectives To assess the effects of interactive computer-based interventions for weight loss or weight maintenance in overweight or obese people. Search methods We searched several electronic databases, including CENTRAL, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CINAHL, LILACS and PsycINFO, through 25 May 2011. We also searched clinical trials registries to identify studies. We scanned reference lists of included studies and relevant systematic reviews. Selection criteria Studies were included if they were randomized controlled trials or quasi-randomized controlled trials that evaluated interactive computer-based weight loss or weight maintenance programs in adults with overweight or obesity. We excluded trials if the duration of the intervention was less than four weeks or the loss to follow-up was greater than 20% overall. Data collection and analysis Two authors independently extracted study data and assessed risk of bias. Where interventions, control conditions, outcomes and time frames were similar between studies, we combined study data using meta-analysis. Main results We included 14 weight loss studies with a total of 2537 participants, and four weight maintenance studies with a total of 1603 participants. Treatment duration was between four weeks and 30 months. At six months, computer-based interventions led to greater weight loss than minimal interventions (mean difference (MD) −1.5 kg; 95% confidence interval (CI) −2.1 to −0.9; two trials) but less weight loss than in-person treatment (MD 2.1 kg; 95% CI 0.8 to 3.4; one trial). At six months, computer-based interventions were superior to a minimal control intervention in limiting weight regain (MD −0.7 kg; 95% CI −1.2 to −0.2; two trials), but not

  17. Body contouring surgery for military personnel following massive weight loss.

    PubMed

    Chong, S J; Kok, Y O; Foo, C L

    2011-12-01

    The burgeoning global obesity epidemic extends to the military service, where 6-53% of military personnel are overweight. Obese military personnel who adhere to a strict training and diet regime may potentially achieve and maintain significant weight loss. They may however face physical problems such as excess skin folds causing discomfort, difficulty in uniform fitting, personal hygiene, interference with full physical activities and psychological issues such as body image dissatisfaction, low self esteem and difficulty in social acceptance. We present a case report of a highly motivated military conscript who achieved and maintained significant weight loss but had physical defects following Massive Weight Loss. Body contouring surgery was successfully utilised to correct his physical defects and allowed him to return to full physical duties. PMID:22319988

  18. Increased Hydration Can Be Associated with Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Simon N.

    2016-01-01

    This mini-review develops the hypothesis that increased hydration leads to body weight loss, mainly through a decrease in feeding, and a loss of fat, through increased lipolysis. The publications cited come from animal, mainly rodent, studies where manipulations of the central and/or the peripheral renin–angiotensin system lead to an increased drinking response and a decrease in body weight. This hypothesis derives from a broader association between chronic hypohydration (extracellular dehydration) and raised levels of the hormone angiotensin II (AngII) associated with many chronic diseases, such as obesity, diabetes, cancer, and cardiovascular disease. Proposed mechanisms to explain these effects involve an increase in metabolism due to hydration expanding cell volume. The results of these animal studies often can be applied to the humans. Human studies are consistent with this hypothesis for weight loss and for reducing the risk factors in the development of obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:27376070

  19. IODINE CONTENT OF U.S. WEIGHT-LOSS FOOD

    PubMed Central

    Kuriti, Manikya; Pearce, Elizabeth N.; Braverman, Lewis E.; He, Xuemei; Leung, Angela M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The recommended iodine intake is 150 µg/day in adults, 220 µg/day during pregnancy, and 290 µg/day during lactation. Individuals exclusively consuming restricted diets as part of a weight-loss program may be at risk for mild to moderate iodine deficiency. The purpose of this study was to assess the iodine content in meals and snacks from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs, all of which are intended to be the sole source of dietary intake during the desired weight-loss period. Methods The iodine contents in the products representing 1 week of all meals and snacks from 3 U.S. commercial weight-loss programs were measured by spectrophotometry. The measured total iodine content in 1 week’s worth of food from each program is reported as an average level per day. Results A total of 53 total items were analyzed (29 different items [7 breakfasts, 7 lunches, 7 dinners, 6 snacks, 2 desserts] from Jenny Craig®, 21 different items [7 breakfasts, 7 lunches, 7 dinners] from Nutrisystem®, and 3 different items [1 breakfast, 1 lunch, 1 dinner; each to be intended to be eaten daily for 1 week] from Medifast®). Daily iodine content (mean ± SD) of meals and snacks from the weight-loss programs were 34.2 ± 1.2 (Jenny Craig®), 12.2 ± 0.7 (Nutrisystem®), and 70.1 ± 1.1 (Medifast) µg/day. Conclusion These results indicate that the dietary content in the foods from 3 U.S. commercial weightloss programs is far less than the recommendations for iodine intake of 150 µg/day in nonpregnant, nonlactating adults. Individuals following each weight-loss program should be advised to take a multivitamin containing 150 µg of iodine daily. PMID:24246349

  20. Weight Loss, Dietary Intake and Pulse Wave Velocity.

    PubMed

    Petersen, Kristina; Blanch, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-09-01

    We have recently conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of weight loss achieved by an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise, anti-obesity drugs or bariatric surgery on pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured at all arterial segments. Twenty studies, including 1,259 participants, showed that modest weight loss (8% of the initial body weight) caused a reduction in PWV measured at all arterial segments. However, due to the poor methodological design of the included studies, the results of this meta-analysis can only be regarded as hypothesis generating and highlight the need for further research in this area. In the future, well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to determine the effect of diet-induced weight loss on PWV and the mechanisms involved. In addition, there is observational evidence that dietary components such as fruit, vegetables, dairy foods, sodium, potassium and fatty acids may be associated with PWV, although evidence from well-designed intervention trials is lacking. In the future, the effect of concurrently improving dietary quality and achieving weight loss should be assessed in randomised controlled trials. PMID:26587462

  1. Weight loss reduces dyspnea on exertion in obese women.

    PubMed

    Bernhardt, Vipa; Babb, Tony G

    2014-12-01

    During submaximal exercise, some otherwise healthy obese women experience breathlessness, or dyspnea on exertion (+DOE), while others have mild or no DOE (-DOE). We investigated whether weight loss could reduce DOE. Twenty nine obese women were grouped based on their Ratings of Perceived Breathlessness (RPB) during constant load 60 W cycling: +DOE (n = 14, RPB ≥ 4, 34 ± 8 years, and 36 ± 3 kg/m(2)) and -DOE ( n= 15, RPB ≤ 2, 32 ± 8 years, and 36 ± 4 kg/m(2)) and then completed a 12-week weight loss program. Both groups lost a moderate amount of weight (+DOE: 6.6 ± 2.4 kg, -DOE: 8.4 ± 3.5 kg, and p < 0.001). RPB decreased significantly in the +DOE group (from 4.7 ± 1.1 to 3.1 ± 1.6) and remained low in the -DOE (from 1.5 ± 0.7 to 1.6 ± 1.1) (interaction p < 0.002). Most physiological variables measured (i.e. body composition, fat distribution, pulmonary function, oxygen cost of breathing, and cardiorespiratory measures) improved with weight loss; however, the decrease in RPB was not correlated with any of these variables (p > 0.05). In conclusion, moderate weight loss was effective in reducing breathlessness on exertion in obese women who experienced DOE at baseline. PMID:25220695

  2. Weight Loss, Dietary Intake and Pulse Wave Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Kristina; Blanch, Natalie; Keogh, Jennifer; Clifton, Peter

    2015-01-01

    We have recently conducted a meta-analysis to determine the effect of weight loss achieved by an energy-restricted diet with or without exercise, anti-obesity drugs or bariatric surgery on pulse wave velocity (PWV) measured at all arterial segments. Twenty studies, including 1,259 participants, showed that modest weight loss (8% of the initial body weight) caused a reduction in PWV measured at all arterial segments. However, due to the poor methodological design of the included studies, the results of this meta-analysis can only be regarded as hypothesis generating and highlight the need for further research in this area. In the future, well-designed randomised controlled trials are required to determine the effect of diet-induced weight loss on PWV and the mechanisms involved. In addition, there is observational evidence that dietary components such as fruit, vegetables, dairy foods, sodium, potassium and fatty acids may be associated with PWV, although evidence from well-designed intervention trials is lacking. In the future, the effect of concurrently improving dietary quality and achieving weight loss should be assessed in randomised controlled trials. PMID:26587462

  3. Young Adults, Technology, and Weight Loss: A Focus Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Moscou-Jackson, Gyasi; Allen, Jerilyn K.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity are a major concern in young adults. Technology has been integrated into many weight loss interventions; however little is known about the use of this technology in young adults. The purpose of this study was to explore through focus group sessions the opinions of young adults on the use of technology for weight loss. A total of 17 young adults, between 18 and 25 years of age, participated in three focus group sessions. Major results indicated that young adults have very little knowledge on the use of Smartphone technology for weight loss but would like to use this type of technology to help them lose weight. Results also indicated that young adults struggle to make healthy food choices and have priorities that outweigh exercise and they need support and guidance to make better decisions. In conclusion, young adults would be open to using Smartphone technology for weight loss but also need feedback and guidance to help make healthy decisions. PMID:25789170

  4. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C.; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A.; Coons, Michael J.; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22 419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  5. Social embeddedness in an online weight management programme is linked to greater weight loss.

    PubMed

    Poncela-Casasnovas, Julia; Spring, Bonnie; McClary, Daniel; Moller, Arlen C; Mukogo, Rufaro; Pellegrini, Christine A; Coons, Michael J; Davidson, Miriam; Mukherjee, Satyam; Nunes Amaral, Luis A

    2015-03-01

    The obesity epidemic is heightening chronic disease risk globally. Online weight management (OWM) communities could potentially promote weight loss among large numbers of people at low cost. Because little is known about the impact of these online communities, we examined the relationship between individual and social network variables, and weight loss in a large, international OWM programme. We studied the online activity and weight change of 22,419 members of an OWM system during a six-month period, focusing especially on the 2033 members with at least one friend within the community. Using Heckman's sample-selection procedure to account for potential selection bias and data censoring, we found that initial body mass index, adherence to self-monitoring and social networking were significantly correlated with weight loss. Remarkably, greater embeddedness in the network was the variable with the highest statistical significance in our model for weight loss. Average per cent weight loss at six months increased in a graded manner from 4.1% for non-networked members, to 5.2% for those with a few (two to nine) friends, to 6.8% for those connected to the giant component of the network, to 8.3% for those with high social embeddedness. Social networking within an OWM community, and particularly when highly embedded, may offer a potent, scalable way to curb the obesity epidemic and other disorders that could benefit from behavioural changes. PMID:25631561

  6. Personality, attrition and weight loss in treatment seeking women with obesity.

    PubMed

    Dalle Grave, R; Calugi, S; Compare, A; El Ghoch, M; Petroni, M L; Colombari, S; Minniti, A; Marchesini, G

    2015-10-01

    Studies on small samples or in single units applying specific treatment programmes found an association between some personality traits and attrition and weight loss in individuals treated for obesity. We aimed to investigate whether pre-treatment personality traits were associated with weight loss outcomes in the general population of women with obesity. Attrition and weight loss outcomes after 12 months were measured in 634 women with obesity (mean age, 48; body mass index (BMI), 37.8 kg m(-2)) seeking treatment at eight Italian medical centres, applying different medical/cognitive behavioural programmes. Personality traits were assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory (TCI), eating disorder features with the Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Night Eating Questionnaire (NEQ). Within the 12-month observation period, 32.3% of cases were lost to follow-up. After adjustment for demographic confounders and the severity of eating disorders, no TCI personality traits were significantly associated with attrition, while low scores of the novelty seeking temperament scale remained significantly associated with weight loss ≥ 10% (odds ratio, 0.983; 95% confidence interval, 0.975-0.992). Additional adjustment for education and job did not change the results. We conclude that personality does not systematically influence attrition in women with obesity enrolled into weight loss programmes in the community, whereas an association is maintained between novelty seeking and weight loss outcome. Studies adapting obesity interventions on the basis of individual novelty seeking scores might be warranted to maximize the results on body weight. PMID:26256916

  7. A Human Thrifty Phenotype Associated With Less Weight Loss During Caloric Restriction

    PubMed Central

    Thearle, Marie S.; Ibrahim, Mostafa; Hohenadel, Maximilian G.; Bogardus, Clifton; Krakoff, Jonathan; Votruba, Susanne B.

    2015-01-01

    Successful weight loss is variable for reasons not fully elucidated. Whether effective weight loss results from smaller reductions in energy expenditure during caloric restriction is not known. We analyzed whether obese individuals with a “thrifty” phenotype, that is, greater reductions in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and smaller increases with overfeeding, lose less weight during caloric restriction than those with a “spendthrift” phenotype. During a weight-maintaining period, 24-h energy expenditure responses to fasting and 200% overfeeding were measured in a whole-room indirect calorimeter. Volunteers then underwent 6 weeks of 50% caloric restriction. We calculated the daily energy deficit (kilocalories per day) during caloric restriction, incorporating energy intake and waste, energy expenditure, and daily activity. We found that a smaller reduction in 24-h energy expenditure during fasting and a larger response to overfeeding predicted more weight loss over 6 weeks, even after accounting for age, sex, race, and baseline weight, as well as a greater rate of energy deficit accumulation. The success of dietary weight loss efforts is influenced by the energy expenditure response to caloric restriction. Greater decreases in energy expenditure during caloric restriction predict less weight loss, indicating the presence of thrifty and spendthrift phenotypes in obese humans. PMID:25964395

  8. Adolescents' Perceptions of Relative Weight and Self-Reported Weight Loss Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felts, Michael; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Data from the 1990 North Carolina Youth Risk Behavior Survey were used to examine adolescents' perceptions of relative weight and the relationship of these perceptions to physical activity levels, weight loss efforts, and television viewing time. About 25 percent (860) considered themselves too fat and reported little physical activity. (SM)

  9. Methodological quality of behavioural weight loss studies: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lemon, S C; Wang, M L; Haughton, C F; Estabrook, D P; Frisard, C F; Pagoto, S L

    2016-07-01

    This systematic review assessed the methodological quality of behavioural weight loss intervention studies conducted among adults and associations between quality and statistically significant weight loss outcome, strength of intervention effectiveness and sample size. Searches for trials published between January, 2009 and December, 2014 were conducted using PUBMED, MEDLINE and PSYCINFO and identified ninety studies. Methodological quality indicators included study design, anthropometric measurement approach, sample size calculations, intent-to-treat (ITT) analysis, loss to follow-up rate, missing data strategy, sampling strategy, report of treatment receipt and report of intervention fidelity (mean = 6.3). Indicators most commonly utilized included randomized design (100%), objectively measured anthropometrics (96.7%), ITT analysis (86.7%) and reporting treatment adherence (76.7%). Most studies (62.2%) had a follow-up rate > 75% and reported a loss to follow-up analytic strategy or minimal missing data (69.9%). Describing intervention fidelity (34.4%) and sampling from a known population (41.1%) were least common. Methodological quality was not associated with reporting a statistically significant result, effect size or sample size. This review found the published literature of behavioural weight loss trials to be of high quality for specific indicators, including study design and measurement. Identified for improvement include utilization of more rigorous statistical approaches to loss to follow up and better fidelity reporting. PMID:27071775

  10. Weight loss and PTSD symptom severity in former POWs.

    PubMed

    Myers, Michael W; Kimbrell, Tim A; Booe, Leroy Q; Freeman, Thomas W

    2005-04-01

    To determine the relationship between weight loss suffered by former prisoners of war during captivity during World War II and the Korean Conflict and current posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, the Clinician-Administered PTSD Symptom Scale, a lifetime stressor checklist, and the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV were administered to 102 former prisoners of war. Preconfinement and postconfinement weights and length of confinement were obtained from military medical records. Percentage of body weight lost during captivity was significantly higher in those subjects with PTSD and correlated with current PTSD symptom severity. Length of confinement was not associated with current PTSD symptoms. PMID:15805825

  11. The role of social support in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study.

    PubMed

    Karfopoulou, Eleni; Anastasiou, Costas A; Avgeraki, Evangelia; Kosmidis, Mary H; Yannakoulia, Mary

    2016-06-01

    The role of social support in weight management is not fully understood, as more support has been linked to both favorable and unfavorable outcomes. We examined social support in relation to weight loss maintenance, comparing between maintainers and regainers of weight loss. The MedWeight study is a Greek registry of people who have intentionally lost ≥10 % of their weight and are either maintaining this loss for over a year (maintainers), or have regained weight (regainers). Demographics and lifestyle habits questionnaires are completed online. Dietary assessment is carried out by two telephone 24 h recalls. Perceived social support was assessed by validated scales examining support from family and friends regarding healthy eating and exercise. 289 maintainers and 122 regainers participated. Regainers received more support compared to maintainers. However, maintainers reported receiving compliments and active participation, whereas regainers receiving verbal instructions and encouragements. Maintainers who received diet support displayed improved dietary intakes, such as lower energy intake; regainers' diet was unaffected by support. Positive, rather than instructive, support appears beneficial in weight loss maintenance. PMID:26801339

  12. Organizing a Community "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Kirstin D.

    2013-01-01

    The program described here shows how Extension can be a strong collaborative partner in a rural setting in improving the overall health of the community by organizing a three month "Biggest Loser" Weight Loss Challenge. A pre-and post-fitness assessment and bi-weekly weigh-ins were administered. Three healthy lifestyle educational…

  13. Effect of Length of Treatment on Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Tested efficacy of behavior therapy for obesity and duration of treatment. Assigned obese clients (N=48) to either 20 or 40 weekly sessions with identical program content; treatment procedures were introduced more gradually in extended treatment. Both groups showed equivalent weight loss at week 20; extended treatment produced significantly…

  14. Differential diagnosis of emotional disorders that cause weight loss.

    PubMed Central

    Garfinkel, P. E.; Garner, D. M.; Kaplan, A. S.; Rodin, G.; Kennedy, S.

    1983-01-01

    Recently, anorexia nervosa has received much attention in the scientific and lay press. As a result there is a danger that the other emotional disorders that can present with weight loss and vomiting will be overlooked. Case examples are presented for anorexia nervosa, conversion disorder, schizophrenia and depression. The presentation and treatment of these four disorders are compared. PMID:6367916

  15. Self-Management Patient Education and Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stombaugh, Angela M.

    2010-01-01

    Self-management of a disease is defined as "having or being able to obtain, the skills and resources necessary to best accommodate to the chronic disease and its consequences" (Holman & Lorig, 1992, p. 309). Self-management has been used in the management of several chronic conditions and this model may be useful in the management of weight loss.…

  16. Energy Drinks, Weight Loss, and Disordered Eating Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffers, Amy J.; Vatalaro Hill, Katherine E.; Benotsch, Eric G.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The present study examined energy drink consumption and relations with weight loss attempts and behaviors, body image, and eating disorders. Participants/Methods: This is a secondary analysis using data from 856 undergraduate students who completed the American College Health Association-National College Health Assessment II…

  17. Support Needs of Overweight African American Women for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Janet L.; Stewart, Diana W.; Lynam, Ian M.; Daley, Christine M.; Befort, Christie; Scherber, Robyn M.; Mercurio, Andrea E.; Okuyemi, Kolawole S.; Ahluwalia, Jasjit S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: To examine social support needs of obese and overweight African American women for weight loss. Methods: Focus groups were conducted with overweight and obese African American women. Data were analyzed using standard grounded theory text analysis. Results: Our middle-aged (45.7 years; SD = 12.6) women (N = 66) were interested in…

  18. A worksite-based weight loss intervention for obesity prevention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Worksites are increasingly being used as locations for implementing healthy diet and weight loss interventions. Hence, there is an urgent need to identify programs that are both successful and sustainable. We conducted a 6-month pilot randomized controlled trial in overweight and obese employees a...

  19. Psychosocial outcomes in a weight loss camp for overweight youth

    PubMed Central

    QUINLAN, NICOLE P.; KOLOTKIN, RONETTE L.; FUEMMELER, BERNARD F.; COSTANZO, PHILIP R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective There is good evidence that youth attending weight loss camps in the UK and US are successful at achieving weight loss. Limited research suggests improvement in body image and self-esteem as well. This study evaluated changes in eight psychosocial variables following participation in a weight loss camp and examined the role of gender, age, length of stay, and body mass index (BMI) in these changes. Methods This was an observational and self-report study of 130 participants (mean age=12.8; mean BMI=33.5; 70% female; 77% Caucasian). The program consisted of an 1 800 kcal/day diet, daily supervised physical activities, cooking/nutrition classes, and weekly psycho-educational/support groups led by psychology staff. Participants completed measures of anti-fat attitudes, values (e.g., value placed on appearance, athletic ability, popularity), body- and self-esteem, weight- and health-related quality of life, self-efficacy, and depressive symptoms. Results Participants experienced significant BMI reduction (average decrease of 7.5 kg [standard deviation, SD=4.2] and 2.9 BMI points [SD=1.4]). Participants also exhibited significant improvements in body esteem, self-esteem, self-efficacy, generic and weight-related quality of life, anti-fat attitudes, and the importance placed on appearance. Changes in self-efficacy, physical functioning and social functioning remained significant even after adjusting for initial zBMI, BMI change, and length of stay. Gender differences were found on changes in self-efficacy, depressive symptoms, and social functioning. Conclusion Participation in weight loss programs in a group setting, such as a camp, may have added benefit beyond BMI reduction. Greater attention to changes in psychosocial variables may be warranted when designing such programs for youth. PMID:19107660

  20. Osteopontin as a marker of weight loss in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Karadag, Fisun; Gulen, Sule T; Karul, Aslihan B; Kilicarslan, Naciye; Ceylan, Emel; Kuman, Nilgun K; Cildag, Orhan

    2011-12-01

    Although the role of osteopontin (OPN) in tumorigenesis and invasiveness is well-known, its role in systemic consequences of lung cancer has not been studied yet. The objective of the current study was to assess the value of osteopontin as a marker of weight loss in relation to systemic inflammation in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. A total of 63 male NSCLC patients (stage III and IV) and 25 age and sex-matched controls were included. The NSCLC patients were further divided into subgroups depending on whether they had > 5% weight loss in the last 6 months or not. Serum OPN and TNF-α concentrations were measured by ELISA using commercially available kits. Serum C-reactive protein (CRP) concentration was measured by the turbidimetric method. OPN (p = 0.001) and CRP (p < 0.001) concentrations were significantly higher in lung cancer patients compared to controls whereas TNF-α concentrations were similar in cancer and control groups (p = 0.063). There were 33 NSCLC patients (52.4%) with weight loss. Serum OPN concentration was found to be higher in this weight-losing group (p = 0.042). CRP concentration was also higher in the weight-losing group but the difference was not statistically significant (p = 0.246). TNF-α concentrations were similar in both subgroups (p = 0.094). In correlation tests, there was a positive correlation between OPN and CRP (r = 0.299, p = 0.044), but no correlation was detected between OPN and TNF-α (r = − 0.009, p = 0.930). A negative correlation was detected between OPN and BMI (r = − 0.246, p = 0.048). In addition to being an indicator of systemic inflammation in lung cancer patients, osteopontin may also be an indicator of weight loss. PMID:22017168

  1. Weight loss practices in Taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels

    PubMed Central

    da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Takito, Monica Yuri; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rap-id weight loss among male and female Taekwondo athletes from all competitive levels. A questionnaire was administered to 72 men (regional/state level, n=31; national/international level, n=41) and 44 women (regional/state level, n=9; national/international, n=35). Among the male athletes, 77.4% of the regional/state level and 75.6% of the national/international athletes declared to have reduced weight to compete in lighter weight categories. Among women, 88.9% of regional/state level and 88.6% of national/international level reported the use of rapid weight loss strategies. Athletes reported to usually lose ~3% of their body weight, with some athletes reaching ~7% of their body weight. The methods used to achieve weight loss are potentially dangerous to health and no difference between sexes was found. Four methods were more frequently used by men athletes in higher competitive levels as compared to lower levels, as follows: skipping meals (Z=2.28, P=0.023, η2=0.21), fasting (Z=2.337, P=0.019, η2=0.22), restricting fluids (Z=2.633, P=0.009, η2=0.24) and spitting (Z=2.363, P=0.018, η2=0.22). Taekwondo athletes lost ~3% of their body mass, using methods potentially dangerous for their health. Although no difference was found between sexes, lower level athletes more frequently used methods such as skipping meals, fasting, restricting fluids and spitting. Considering that these health-threating methods are more commonly used by lower level athletes, specific education programs should be directed to them. PMID:27419116

  2. Weight loss practices in Taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels.

    PubMed

    da Silva Santos, Jonatas Ferreira; Takito, Monica Yuri; Artioli, Guilherme Giannini; Franchini, Emerson

    2016-06-01

    This study investigated the prevalence, magnitude, and methods of rap-id weight loss among male and female Taekwondo athletes from all competitive levels. A questionnaire was administered to 72 men (regional/state level, n=31; national/international level, n=41) and 44 women (regional/state level, n=9; national/international, n=35). Among the male athletes, 77.4% of the regional/state level and 75.6% of the national/international athletes declared to have reduced weight to compete in lighter weight categories. Among women, 88.9% of regional/state level and 88.6% of national/international level reported the use of rapid weight loss strategies. Athletes reported to usually lose ~3% of their body weight, with some athletes reaching ~7% of their body weight. The methods used to achieve weight loss are potentially dangerous to health and no difference between sexes was found. Four methods were more frequently used by men athletes in higher competitive levels as compared to lower levels, as follows: skipping meals (Z=2.28, P=0.023, η(2)=0.21), fasting (Z=2.337, P=0.019, η(2)=0.22), restricting fluids (Z=2.633, P=0.009, η(2)=0.24) and spitting (Z=2.363, P=0.018, η(2)=0.22). Taekwondo athletes lost ~3% of their body mass, using methods potentially dangerous for their health. Although no difference was found between sexes, lower level athletes more frequently used methods such as skipping meals, fasting, restricting fluids and spitting. Considering that these health-threating methods are more commonly used by lower level athletes, specific education programs should be directed to them. PMID:27419116

  3. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  4. Clozapine-induced dysphagia with secondary substantial weight loss.

    PubMed

    Osman, Mugtaba; Devadas, Vekneswaran

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia is listed as a 'rare' side effect following clozapine treatment. In this case report, we describe how significant clozapine-induced dysphagia has led to significant reduction of nutritional intake with subsequent substantial weight loss. An 18-year-old single man with an established diagnosis of treatment-resistant paranoid schizophrenia recovered well on a therapeutic dose of clozapine. However, he was noted to lose weight significantly (up to 20% of his original weight) as the dose was uptitrated. This was brought about by development of dysphagia, likely to be due to clozapine. Addition of nutritional supplementary liquids and initiation of a modified behavioural dietary/swallowing programme, while repeatedly mastering the Mendelsohn manoeuvre technique, alleviated the swallowing difficulties and restored his weight. PMID:27543610

  5. Does Successful Weight Loss in an Internet-Based Worksite Weight Loss Program Improve Employee Presenteeism and Absenteeism?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harden, Samantha M.; You, Wen; Almeida, Fabio A.; Hill, Jennie L.; Linnan, Laura A.; Allen, Kacie C.; Estabrooks, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    Certain risk factors associated with overweight and obesity may lead to reduced productivity in the workforce (i.e., increased absenteeism and presenteeism). Participants in a large, Internet-based worksite weight loss intervention, who were present at follow-up (N = 1,030), completed a self-reported productivity measure (World Health…

  6. Weight Loss Attitudes and Social Forces in Urban Poor Black and White Women

    PubMed Central

    Keith, NiCole R.; Hemmerlein, Kimberly A.; Clark, Daniel O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore differences between Blacks and Whites in perceived influences on weight-related behaviors among obese urban poor women. Methods Participants (N = 27) received physician referrals to a weight loss program located in Federally Qualified Health Centers and either never attended or stopped attending. We conducted in-depth, in home interviews using a script informed by focus groups, pilot discussions, and the theory of planned behavior (TPB) to learn about participants’ weight loss attitudes, social forces and perceived behavioral control. Results White women reported having more social support and social pressure for weight management activities. Black women reported eating for positive reasons whereas white women associated eating with negative emotions. Conclusion Social networks and emotions may be critical factors in weight management and lifestyle program participation. PMID:25290595

  7. liraglutide (SAXENDA⁰) and obesit. Still no satisfactory weight loss drugs.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    No existing weight loss drug has an acceptable harm-benefit balance. Liraglutide, a GLP-1 agonist administered by subcutaneous injection and already authorised in type 2 diabetes, is also approved for use in the European Union by obese patients or overweight individuals with other cardiovascular risk factors. The recommended dose in this setting is 3 mg per day, instead of the dose of 1.2 to 1.8 mg per day used in diabetes. In four randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials, each lasting one year, mean weight loss with liraglutide, beyond the placebo effect, was about 5% among patients initially weighing between 100 and 118 kg. These trials were not designed to show an effect of liraglutide on complications of excess weight. Gallstones, one of the complications of obesity, were more frequent in the liraglutide groups. Partial weight regain was reported during the 3 months following liraglutide withdrawal. effects, including pancreatic disorders. Patients should not be exposed to these unjustified risks. The known adverse effect profile of liraglutide, which includes severe pancreatitis and gallstones, was confirmed in the trials in obese patients. Gastrointestinal disorders (nausea, vomiting and diarrhoea) were very frequent. Hypoglycaemic episodes, sometimes severe, have mainly been reported in diabetic patients. Reactions at the injection site can also be serious. In trials in obese patients, liraglutide was associated with an increased risk of miscarriage. In practice, sometimes excessive weight loss is a known adverse effect of GLP-1 agonists used in diabetes. Many patients lose several kilograms with high-dose liraglutide but regain the weight after treatment discontinuation. Liraglutide has no proven impact on complications of obesity and carries a risk of serious adverse. PMID:26942248

  8. [Ketogenic diets and weight loss: basis and effectiveness].

    PubMed

    Pérez-Guisado, Joaquín

    2008-06-01

    The international consensus is that carbohydrates are the basis of the food pyramid of a healthy diet. Today's specialists believe that the best way to lose weight is by cutting down on calories, essentialy in the form of fat. However, this paper will clarify that ketogenic diets are, from a physiological, biochemicale and practical point of view, a much more effective way of losing weight, since such diets provide metabolic advantages such as the capacity to preserve muscle mass, reduce appetite, to have a lower metabolic efficiency, produce a metabolic activation of thermogenesis and favour a greater fat loss even with a greater number of calories. PMID:18833988

  9. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, F. Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M.; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  10. [Unhealthy weight loss. Erosion by apple cider vinegar].

    PubMed

    Gambon, D L; Brand, H S; Veerman, E C I

    2012-12-01

    Erosive tooth wear was diagnosed in the dentition of a 15-year-old girl with a Moroccan background. After an anamnesis, extensive analysis of possible risk factors and a study of the pattern of erosion, it was concluded that the erosive tooth wear was induced by daily consumption of a glass of apple cider vinegar Further investigation revealed that in North-African culture, women have used apple cider vinegar to achieve weight loss for generations. Bodybuilders are also known to make use of this method of weight reduction. PMID:23373303

  11. Adverse Psychiatric Effects Associated with Herbal Weight-Loss Products.

    PubMed

    Bersani, F Saverio; Coviello, Marialuce; Imperatori, Claudio; Francesconi, Marta; Hough, Christina M; Valeriani, Giuseppe; De Stefano, Gianfranco; Bolzan Mariotti Posocco, Flaminia; Santacroce, Rita; Minichino, Amedeo; Corazza, Ornella

    2015-01-01

    Obesity and overeating are among the most prevalent health concerns worldwide and individuals are increasingly using performance and image-enhancing drugs (PIEDs) as an easy and fast way to control their weight. Among these, herbal weight-loss products (HWLPs) often attract users due to their health claims, assumed safety, easy availability, affordable price, extensive marketing, and the perceived lack of need for professional oversight. Reports suggest that certain HWLPs may lead to onset or exacerbation of psychiatric disturbances. Here we review the available evidence on psychiatric adverse effects of HWLPs due to their intrinsic toxicity and potential for interaction with psychiatric medications. PMID:26457296

  12. Safety first: precautions for the massive weight loss patient.

    PubMed

    Davison, Steven P; Clemens, Mark W

    2008-01-01

    A significant increase in bariatric procedures has led to success in maintaining long-term weight loss. The increasing population of patients who have lost massive amounts of weight also has led to a growing responsibility placed on body-contouring surgeons to perform safe and cautious procedures in this inherently difficult patient population. We stratify risk groups and present several case reports and a systematic review of safety precautions. The risks and complications of body contouring can be minimized by a team approach with a meticulous attention to patient evaluation, preoperative planning, safe detailed operative measures, and thorough postoperative care. PMID:18061812

  13. Factors associated with inappropriate weight loss attempts by early adolescent girls in Japan.

    PubMed

    Sugawara, A; Sato, M; Totsuka, K; Saito, K; Kodama, S; Fukushi, A; Yamanashi, Y; Matsushima, E; Fujiwara, Y; Suzuki, E; Kondo, K; Yamamoto, S; Sone, H

    2011-09-01

    Attempting to lose weight by normal or underweight adolescent girls is a serious issue in many countries. It has been reported that the mode of attempted weight loss does not differ between normal weight and overweight girls. These inappropriate weight loss attempts (IWLA) by normal or underweight adolescent girls is associated with various health issues, but factors associated with IWLA have only been marginally elucidated. In this study, we applied a single multivariate regression analysis to clarify independent factors for IWLA. Study subjects were 134 pairs of early adolescent girls (aged 12-15) and their mothers. In addition to IWLA, many factors including height, weight, body image, perceived weight status, depressive symptoms, media influence and self-esteem were surveyed in both mothers and daughters and subjected to multivariate analysis. Approximately half of girls surveyed had IWLA, even though all were of normal weight and 62.9% knew that they were of normal weight. IWLA were independently associated with depressive symptoms (OR (95% CI); 2.80 (1.21-6.50), p=0.016) independent of actual or perceived weight status. Factors significantly associated with IWLA by the girls were percentage deviation of weight from standard weight (%DW) and media influence on the girls themselves, and media influence on and self-esteem of their mothers. IWLA, which were frequently observed among early adolescent girls even among those of normal weight, were closely related to depressive status. IWLA were significantly associated with not only factors related to the girls (1.09 (1.04-1.14), p=0.001), but also with maternal psychological factors (1.06 (1.00-1.13), p=0.035) conveyed by the media. Future prospective or interventional studies are required to clarify whether these factors could be targeted in an effort to prevent IWLA. PMID:22290031

  14. The role of genes involved in lipolysis on weight loss program in overweight and obese individuals.

    PubMed

    Luglio, Harry Freitag; Sulistyoningrum, Dian Caturini; Susilowati, Rina

    2015-09-01

    The ability of obese people to reduce weight in the same treatment varied. Genetic make up as well as the behavioral changes are important for the successfulness of the program. One of the most proposed genetic variations that have been reported in many intervention studies was genes that control lipolysis process. This review summarizes studies that were done showing the influence of genetic polymorphisms in lipolysis pathway and weight loss in a weight loss treatment program. Some studies had shown that certain enzymes involved in this process were related to successfulness of weight loss program. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in PLIN (11482G>A) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) are the most studied polymorphisms that have effect on weight loss intervention. However, those studies were not conclusive because of limited number of subjects used and controversies in the results. Thus, replication and confirmation on the role of those genes in weight loss are important due to their potential to be used as predictors of the results of the program. PMID:26388665

  15. The role of genes involved in lipolysis on weight loss program in overweight and obese individuals

    PubMed Central

    Luglio, Harry Freitag; Sulistyoningrum, Dian Caturini; Susilowati, Rina

    2015-01-01

    The ability of obese people to reduce weight in the same treatment varied. Genetic make up as well as the behavioral changes are important for the successfulness of the program. One of the most proposed genetic variations that have been reported in many intervention studies was genes that control lipolysis process. This review summarizes studies that were done showing the influence of genetic polymorphisms in lipolysis pathway and weight loss in a weight loss treatment program. Some studies had shown that certain enzymes involved in this process were related to successfulness of weight loss program. Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) in PLIN (11482G>A) and ADRB3 (Trp64Arg) are the most studied polymorphisms that have effect on weight loss intervention. However, those studies were not conclusive because of limited number of subjects used and controversies in the results. Thus, replication and confirmation on the role of those genes in weight loss are important due to their potential to be used as predictors of the results of the program. PMID:26388665

  16. Weight loss competitions at the work site: impact on weight, morale and cost-effectiveness.

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, K D; Cohen, R Y; Stunkard, A J; Felix, M R; Cooley, N B

    1984-01-01

    Three weight loss competitions were held in business/industrial settings. One competition was between three banks; the other two were within industries, either between employee teams selected at random or between divisions of the industry. Attrition in the competitions was less than 1 per cent and weight loss averaged 5.5 kg. Both employees and management reported positive changes in morale and employee/management relations, and both considered the competition important to the success of the program. The cost-effectiveness ratio ($ 2.93 per 1 per cent reduction in percentage overweight) is the best yet reported. PMID:6437259

  17. Weight loss in combat sports: physiological, psychological and performance effects

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The present article briefly reviews the weight loss processes in combat sports. We aimed to discuss the most relevant aspects of rapid weight loss (RWL) in combat sports. Methods This review was performed in the databases MedLine, Lilacs, PubMed and SciELO, and organized into sub-topics: (1) prevalence, magnitude and procedures, (2) psychological, physiological and performance effects, (3) possible strategies to avoid decreased performance (4) organizational strategies to avoid such practices. Results There was a high prevalence (50%) of RWL, regardless the specific combat discipline. Methods used are harmful to performance and health, such as laxatives, diuretics, use of plastic or rubber suits, and sauna. RWL affects physical and cognitive capacities, and may increase the risk of death. Conclusion Recommendations during different training phases, educational and organizational approaches are presented to deal with or to avoid RWL. PMID:23237303

  18. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Michael V.; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A.; Bayley, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments. PMID:27574603

  19. Mindfulness as a Weight Loss Treatment for Veterans.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Michael V; Matsuura, Justin; Fairchild, Jennifer Kaci; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Bayley, Peter J

    2016-01-01

    Despite substantial evidence for their effectiveness in treating disordered eating and obesity, mindfulness-based treatments have not been broadly implemented among Veterans. A number of reviews have reported mindfulness to be beneficial in promoting healthy eating behaviors and weight loss among non-Veteran samples. We discuss this approach in the context of the Veterans Affairs system, the largest integrated healthcare provider in the U.S. and in the context of Veterans, among whom obesity is at epidemic proportions. In this article, we discuss what is known about treating obesity using a mindfulness approach, mindfulness interventions for Veterans, a new pilot mindfulness-based weight loss program designed for Veterans, and future directions for this type of obesity treatment in Veterans. We conclude that this population may be uniquely poised to benefit from mindfulness-based treatments. PMID:27574603

  20. Laparoscopic Greater Curve Plication as an Outpatient Weight Loss Procedure

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco, Ilvia

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Laparoscopic greater curve plication is emerging as a weight loss procedure that avoids many of the complications of other surgeries that require gastrointestinal division, amputation, or use of a foreign body. Cost savings and affordability have also been promoted, as plication does not require the use of stapling devices, adjustable gastric bands, or prolonged hospitalization. The ability to predictably perform plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as a therapeutic option for treating morbid obesity. We present the 30-day outcomes and supplementary 12-month data in a series of 141 laparoscopic greater curve plication surgeries performed as outpatient procedures. Methods: Laparoscopic greater curve plication was performed as outpatient surgery in 141 consecutive patients. Outcomes including perioperative complications, incidental 12-month follow-up for weight loss, and change in diabetic and hypertensive medication are reported. Results: Of the 141 plications performed, 138 patients were discharged from the recovery room and 6 were readmitted. There was no conversion to open surgery and no mortality. Conclusions: The ability to reliably perform greater curve plication as an outpatient surgery may further define its role as an additional weight loss surgery technique. PMID:26508824

  1. Impact of commissioning weight-loss surgery for bariatric patients.

    PubMed

    Petty, Natasha

    Obesity is a major UK public health issue that is increasingly costly to an individual's personal health, the NHS and society. It requires an immediate intervention, as well as a long-term strategy to decrease the rising rates of obesity. NHS England (2013) has published a policy to commission bariatric surgery for carefully selected individuals according to National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) guidelines (NICE, 2006). This has been shown to be a clinically and cost effective weight-loss treatment option (Picot et al, 2009), but is invasive and expensive compared with non-surgical weight-loss programmes. In addition, there remains inequality in access to bariatric care services across England, thereby preventing potentially eligible patients from getting the treatment they need. Further clarity is required regarding the commissioning responsibilities across the four tiers of the obesity care services. This clarity would help to achieve a more 'joined-up' clinical pathway that is focused at a local level to improve access. However, there is criticism that too much funding is currently being invested in the provision of bariatric surgery when it could be better spent on national roll-out programmes for intensive lifestyle interventions that promote more sustainable weight loss across England. PMID:26266444

  2. Lifestyle medicine consulting walking meetings for sustained weight loss.

    PubMed

    Frates, Elizabeth Pegg; Crane, Margaret E

    2016-01-01

    With rates of obesity and diabetes rising worldwide, effective ways of managing weight are becoming more important. We present the case study of a middle-aged Caucasian-American woman (body mass index (BMI) 27.8, overweight category) who wanted to lose weight. The patient participated in a behaviour modification programme with a physician trained in lifestyle medicine as well as health and wellness coaching. After the 14-week programme, which included 9, 1 h long walking sessions with the clinician, the patient lost 11 Ibs (BMI 24.7, normal category). The programme included a combination of increasing physical activity, eating appropriate quantities of healthy foods, goal setting and a positive attitude. The patient has kept her BMI at or below 24.1 for over 2 years. This case demonstrates a novel approach to weight loss management--walking therapeutic sessions--and also outlines critical components of lifestyle medicine counselling that facilitate the process of sustainable weight loss and lasting change. PMID:26833954

  3. Variations of Weight Loss Following Gastric Bypass and Gastric Band

    PubMed Central

    Puzziferri, Nancy; Nakonezny, Paul A.; Livingston, Edward H.; Carmody, Thomas J.; Provost, David A.; Rush, A. John

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare and describe the weight loss outcomes from gastric bypass and gastric band so as to define the variation of excess weight loss (EWL) among individual patients, the time to onset of effect, and the durability of weight loss in severely obese adults. Summary Background Data Gastric bypass and gastric band are the most common operations for obesity performed in the United States, but few reports have compared these 2 procedures. Methods Patients (N = 1733, aged 18–65 years) met National Institutes of Health criteria for obesity surgery and underwent either gastric bypass or gastric band between March 1997 and November 2006. The selection of bypass versus band was based on patient/surgeon discussion. The evaluable sample consisted of 1518 patients. The percentage of EWL was assessed over 2 years. Successful weight loss was defined a priori as ≥40% EWL in each of four 6-month postoperative measurement periods. The analyses included a mixed model and generalized estimating equation (GEE) model with repeated measures. Odds ratios and descriptive analyses were also provided. Results Gastric bypass was associated with less individual variation in weight loss than gastric band. Both procedures were associated with a significant EWL benefit (Treatment Group effect P < 0.0001), but they differed in terms of time to effect (Treatment Group × Period interaction effect P < 0.0001). The mean EWL for gastric bypass was greater at each measurement period (6, 12, 18, 24 months) compared with gastric band (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, at each of the postoperative measurement periods within each treatment group (bypass and band), the mean EWL was greater for those who had preoperative body mass index (BMI) ≤50 kg/m2 than for those who had preoperative BMI >50 kg/m2 (P < 0.0001). Gastric bypass was consistently associated with a greater likelihood of at least a 40% EWL in each of the 6-month postoperative measurement periods (GEE, P < 0.0001). The odds ratio

  4. Naltrexone + bupropion (Mysimba). Too risky for only modest weight loss.

    PubMed

    2015-10-01

    Weight loss and its long-term maintenance are mainly based on dietary measures and regular physical activity. There are currently no weight-loss medications with a favourable harm-benefit balance. Bupropion is chemically related to certain amphetamines, while naltrexone is an opioid receptor antagonist. A fixed-dose combination of these two drugs has received marketing authorisation in the European Union for obese patients and for over-weight patients with other cardiovascular risk factors. In five placebo-controlled, randomised, double-blind trials, the patients, weighing on average between 100 kg and 105 kg (average body mass index 36 kg/m2), the naltrexone + bupropion combination was associated with an average weight loss of a few additional kilograms compared with placebo, after 6 months or one year of treatment. There are no post-trial follow-up data to show whether or not the patients regained their lost weight after treatment discontinuation. One trial including more than 8900 patients examined the effect of the naltrexone + bupropion combination on the freauency of maior cardiovascular events, but poor handling of an interim analysis undermined the validity of the final results. The known adverse effects of bupropion consist of potentially severe neuropsychiatric disorders such as aggressiveness, depression and suicidal ideation, and also allergic reactions, including Stevens-Johnson syndrome. Misuse and excessive consumption have been reported. In trials in obese or overweight patients, the naltrexone + bupropion combination caused sometimes severe neuropsychiatric disorders, including seizures, cognitive impairment, dizziness, anxiety, sleep disorders and psychotic symptoms. In clinical trials, the combination led to an increase in blood pressure compared with placebo, and also an excess of cardiac arrhythmias. About half of patients who took naltrexone + bupropion experienced gastrointestinal disorders such as nausea, vomiting and constipation. The

  5. Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home Current Issue Past Issues Healthy Weight Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To ... have more questions or need help. Responsible, Safe Weight Loss If your health-care provider says you should ...

  6. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives.

    PubMed

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or "apps" along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to "self-digitize" and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  7. Smartphone applications to aid weight loss and management: current perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Sutton, Elizabeth F; Redman, Leanne M

    2016-01-01

    The development and dissemination of smart devices has cultivated a global environment of hyperconnectivity and increased our access to information. The paralleled launch and success of the Mobile Health industry has created a market of commercially available applications or “apps” along with tools or sensors, which allow the user to receive and collect personal health information. Apps and accompanying tools now allow an individual to “self-digitize” and, pertaining to weight management, monitor their body weight, caloric intake, physical activity, and more. These products possess the ability to improve the scalability of traditional in-person weight management services considering their near ubiquity, affordability, and capability to deliver information directly and personally to the user. However, similar to the dietary supplement market, the anecdotal value of these products has driven their popularity and acceptance by the general public without requirement of scientific validation or, in the area of weight management or diet/exercise, validation of the safety and efficacy by the Food and Drug Administration prior to market launch. By conducting a literature and clinical trial search, we found remarkably few active, completed, or published studies testing the efficacy of smart device applications using randomized controlled trials. Research efforts must be focused on illuminating the efficacy of behavioral interventions and remote self-monitoring for weight loss/maintenance treatment with true, randomized controlled trials. PMID:27486338

  8. Maintaining weight loss after bariatric surgery: when the spectator role is no longer enough.

    PubMed

    Jones, L; Cleator, J; Yorke, J

    2016-08-01

    Bariatric (weight loss) surgery is the gold standard treatment for severe obesity. Concern exists that patients are regaining weight in the longer term. Success and cost-effectiveness of surgery are threatened due to the re-emergence of related conditions such as diabetes. This exploratory qualitative study investigates patients' expectations and experiences of weight regain (WR) 2 years or more after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). Ten participants (two men and eight women) who experienced WR were interviewed between 2 and 6 years following surgery. Findings highlight that participants reacted to initial weight loss as passive spectators and were unprepared for subsequent WR. Their tolerability of WR reduced as the amount of regain increased, suggesting a 'line of tolerance' for WR. WR was influenced by a new vulnerability arising from weight loss over time, and participants struggled to manage their own weight actively as surgical effects waned. They considered self-management skills, and carer and professional support to be limited at the time when WR was most likely to occur. Degrees of tolerability are noted in individuals regaining weight after RYGB. More studies are needed to further understand these problems. Pre- and post-operative support and teaching patients self-management skills may be helpful to minimize WR. PMID:27273813

  9. Complications of abdominoplasty after weight loss as a result of bariatric surgery or dieting/postpregnancy.

    PubMed

    Staalesen, Trude; Olsén, Monika Fagevik; Elander, Anna

    2012-12-01

    It is well known that the risk of complications after abdominal contouring surgery is high. Sparse data in published reports exist, suggesting that complication rates are higher in postbariatric patients compared with patients who have lost weight by dieting. The aim of this study was to analyse the incidence of complications after abdominoplasty in postbariatric patients compared with in patients who have not had weight loss surgery. The aim was also to identify predictive factors associated with the development of postoperative complications. This study retrospectively analysed 190 consecutive patients operated on with abdominoplasty due to abdominal tissue excess from January 2006 to December 2008 at Sahlgrenska University Hospital. Variables analysed were sex, age, max body mass index (BMI), delta BMI (max BMI minus preoperative BMI), preoperative BMI, method of weight reduction, resection weight, and complications. The early complication rates were significantly higher in postbariatric patients (48%) than in patients who had not had weight loss surgery (29%). Resection weight was significantly higher for patients with early local complications compared with patients without early local complications. Max BMI, delta BMI, or preoperative BMI had no influence on the incidence of complications. In conclusion, this study confirms in a fairly large sample that the complication rate after abdominoplasty seems to be higher in postbariatric patients compared with patients who have not had weight loss surgery. However, no predictive factors could be identified explaining these differences. Further studies need to be conducted to identify predictive factors for the occurrence of complications after abdominal contouring surgery. PMID:23088637

  10. The role of exercise and physical activity in weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Swift, Damon L; Johannsen, Neil M; Lavie, Carl J; Earnest, Conrad P; Church, Timothy S

    2014-01-01

    This review explores the role of physical activity (PA) and exercise training (ET) in the prevention of weight gain, initial weight loss, weight maintenance, and the obesity paradox. In particular, we will focus the discussion on the expected initial weight loss from different ET programs, and explore intensity/volume relationships. Based on the present literature, unless the overall volume of aerobic ET is very high, clinically significant weight loss is unlikely to occur. Also, ET also has an important role in weight regain after initial weight loss. Overall, aerobic ET programs consistent with public health recommendations may promote up to modest weight loss (~2 kg), however the weight loss on an individual level is highly heterogeneous. Clinicians should educate their patients on reasonable expectations of weight loss based on their physical activity program and emphasize that numerous health benefits occur from PA programs in the absence of weight loss. PMID:24438736

  11. Pattern of Weight Loss of Young Female and Male Wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Viveiros, Luis; Moreira, Alexandre; Zourdos, Michael C; Aoki, Marcelo S; Capitani, Caroline D

    2015-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the magnitude of rapid weight loss (RWL) of female and male young wrestlers at the Brazilian high-school games. High-school wrestlers (females: n = 16, 13 ± 2 years; males: n = 15, 13 ± 2 years) participated in this study. The official weigh-in was conducted 24 hours before competition. Immediately after the official weigh-in, wrestlers completed a hydration habits and a standardized weight loss questionnaires. Twenty-four hours later, wrestlers took part in an unofficial prematch weigh-in. Sodium, potassium, chloride, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were measured immediately before the first competitive match by iSTAT Blood Gas Analyzer. A significant body mass increase was observed from the official weigh-in to the prematch weigh-in (females: 2.7 ± 1.4 kg and males: 1.5 ± 0.9 kg; p ≤ 0.05) with significantly greater body mass increase in females (6.3%) vs. males (3.1%) (p ≤ 0.05). Rapid weight loss practices were exercised by 42.0% of the wrestlers. Furthermore, 46.2% of those who performed RWL practices reported side effects, which they perceived negatively altered past performance. Despite RWL and subsequent body mass increase, all biomarkers (sodium, potassium, chloride, hematocrit, and hemoglobin) were in the normal range at the prematch weigh-in. The majority (82.0%) of the athletes agreed that hydration habits are important to health and performance. It seems that although wrestlers acknowledge negative performance effects due to RWL, the practice is still exercised among both female and male wrestlers. Therefore, educational programs should be implemented in high-school athletes to discourage RWL and provide information for exercise and nutritional strategies to maintain a healthy body mass and avoid chronic health issues. PMID:25932982

  12. Fasting for weight loss: an effective strategy or latest dieting trend?

    PubMed

    Johnstone, A

    2015-05-01

    With the increasing obesity epidemic comes the search for effective dietary approaches for calorie restriction and weight loss. Here I examine whether fasting is the latest 'fad diet' as portrayed in popular media and discuss whether it is a safe and effective approach or whether it is an idiosyncratic diet trend that promotes short-term weight loss, with no concern for long-term weight maintenance. Fasting has long been used under historical and experimental conditions and has recently been popularised by 'intermittent fasting' or 'modified fasting' regimes, in which a very low-calorie allowance is allowed, on alternate days (ADF) or 2 days a week (5:2 diet), where 'normal' eating is resumed on non-diet days. It is a simple concept, which makes it easy to follow with no difficult calorie counting every other day. This approach does seem to promote weight loss, but is linked to hunger, which can be a limiting factor for maintaining food restriction. The potential health benefits of fasting can be related to both the acute food restriction and chronic influence of weight loss; the long-term effect of chronic food restriction in humans is not yet clear, but may be a potentially interesting future dietary strategy for longevity, particularly given the overweight epidemic. One approach does not fit all in the quest to achieve body weight control, but this could be a dietary strategy for consideration. With the obesity epidemic comes the search for dietary strategies to (i) prevent weight gain, (ii) promote weight loss and (iii) prevent weight regain. With over half of the population of the United Kingdom and other developed countries being collectively overweight or obese, there is considerable pressure to achieve these goals, from both a public health and a clinical perspective. Certainly not one dietary approach will solve these complex problems. Although there is some long-term success with gastric surgical options for morbid obesity, there is still a requirement

  13. Weight Maintenance Following the STRIDE Weight Loss and Lifestyle Intervention for Individuals taking Antipsychotic Medications

    PubMed Central

    Green, Carla A.; Yarborough, Bobbi Jo H.; Leo, Michael C.; Stumbo, Scott P.; Perrin, Nancy A.; Nichols, Gregory A.; Stevens, Victor J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Individuals taking antipsychotic medications have increased risk of obesity-related early morbidity/mortality. This report presents weight maintenance results from a successful weight loss and behavioral lifestyle change program developed for people taking antipsychotic medications. Design and Methods STRIDE was a 2-arm, randomized controlled trial. Intervention participants attended weekly group meetings for 6 months, then monthly group meetings for 6 months. Assessments were completed at baseline, 6, 12, and 24 months. Results At 24-months, intervention participants lost 3.7% of baseline weight and control participants 2.1%, a non-significant difference. Fasting glucose results followed a similar pattern. There was a statistically significant difference, however, for fasting insulin—the intervention group’s levels decreased between the end of the intensive intervention (at 6 months) and 24 months (10.1 to 7.91μU/mL); control participants’ levels increased (11.66 to 12.92μU/mL) during this period. There were also fewer medical hospitalizations among intervention participants (5.7%) than controls (21.1%; Χ2=8.47, p=0.004) during the 12 to 24-month post-intervention maintenance period. Conclusions Weight-change differences between arms diminished following the intervention period, though fasting insulin levels continued to improve. Reduced hospitalizations suggest that weight loss, even with regain, may have long-term positive benefits for people taking antipsychotic medications and may reduce costs. PMID:26334929

  14. Body Contouring Surgery in the Massive Weight Loss Patient.

    PubMed

    Hurwitz, Dennis J; Ayeni, Omodele

    2016-08-01

    Plastic surgeons subspecializing in body contouring are meeting the challenge of postbariatric surgery massive weight loss patients. With an appreciation of the magnitude of the surface deformity, and altered metabolism, nutrition, and psychological makeup of these patients, innovative plastic surgeons have forged an organized approach to preparation, operative technique, and postoperative care. Patients at greatest risk for complications are identified, appraised, and either their condition improved or they are counselled to reduce expectations. Beyond the removal of excess skin and adipose tissue, advanced gender-specific techniques have improved aesthetics. PMID:27473807

  15. [Weight loss and night sweats with unexpected tumor localization].

    PubMed

    Oberholzer, C; Sawatzki, M; Rothermundt, C

    2007-11-28

    A 52-year-old patient presented himself with weight loss and night sweats. Laboratory analyses revealed a high sedimentation rate, elevated immunoglobulines and anaemia with sludge phenomenon. Differential diagnoses included Multiple Myeloma and Lymphoma. Having a risk constellation for HIV infection and just having recovered from oral thrush also made this diagnosis possible. Urinary analysis and chest x-ray were normal; however, CT-scan detected renal cell cancer with pulmonary metastases. Renal cell cancer is heterogeneous in presentation, symptoms are unspecific, therefore they are often discovered late when they have already metastasized. Paraneoplastic syndromes, e.g. hypercalcaemia or hypertension are not infrequent in renal cell cancer. PMID:18072582

  16. Watching reality weight loss TV. The effects on body satisfaction, mood, and snack food consumption.

    PubMed

    Bourn, Rebecca; Prichard, Ivanka; Hutchinson, Amanda D; Wilson, Carlene

    2015-08-01

    The present study investigated the influence of a weight loss reality TV show on body satisfaction, mood and food consumption. Young Australian women (N = 99) first completed baseline measures of state body satisfaction and mood. They were then randomly allocated to either a weight loss or a home renovation programme and were provided with snack foods during viewing. Post-measures included state body satisfaction, state mood and trait dietary restraint and snack food consumption. BMI moderated the relationship between condition and body satisfaction and mood. Larger women experienced less body satisfaction and less positive mood in response to the weight loss programme. Dietary restraint moderated the relationship between condition and food consumption. A greater percentage of women with lower dietary restraint ate in the control condition; whilst a greater percentage of women with higher dietary restraint ate food whilst watching the weight loss programme. These findings highlight the potential negative impact of weight-focused reality TV on mood, body satisfaction and snack food consumption among some women. PMID:25936290

  17. The effects of water and non‐nutritive sweetened beverages on weight loss and weight maintenance: A randomized clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Jimikaye; Cardel, Michelle; Wyatt, Holly R.; Foster, Gary D.; Pan, Zhaoxing; Wojtanowski, Alexis C.; Vander Veur, Stephanie S.; Herring, Sharon J.; Brill, Carrie; Hill, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of water versus beverages sweetened with non‐nutritive sweeteners (NNS) on body weight in subjects enrolled in a year‐long behavioral weight loss treatment program. Methods The study used a randomized equivalence design with NNS or water beverages as the main factor in a trial among 303 weight‐stable people with overweight and obesity. All participants participated in a weight loss program plus assignment to consume 24 ounces (710 ml) of water or NNS beverages daily for 1 year. Results NNS and water treatments were non‐equivalent, with NNS treatment showing greater weight loss at the end of 1 year. At 1 year subjects receiving water had maintained a 2.45 ± 5.59 kg weight loss while those receiving NNS beverages maintained a loss of 6.21 ± 7.65 kg (P < 0.001 for difference). Conclusions Water and NNS beverages were not equivalent for weight loss and maintenance during a 1‐year behavioral treatment program. NNS beverages were superior for weight loss and weight maintenance in a population consisting of regular users of NNS beverages who either maintained or discontinued consumption of these beverages and consumed water during a structured weight loss program. These results suggest that NNS beverages can be an effective tool for weight loss and maintenance within the context of a weight management program. PMID:26708700

  18. Intermuscular adipose tissue and thigh muscle area dynamics during an 18-month randomized weight loss trial.

    PubMed

    Yaskolka Meir, Anat; Shelef, Ilan; Schwarzfuchs, Dan; Gepner, Yftach; Tene, Lilac; Zelicha, Hila; Tsaban, Gal; Bilitzky, Avital; Komy, Oded; Cohen, Noa; Bril, Nitzan; Rein, Michal; Serfaty, Dana; Kenigsbuch, Shira; Chassidim, Yoash; Zeller, Lior; Ceglarek, Uta; Stumvoll, Michael; Blüher, Matthias; Thiery, Joachim; Stampfer, Meir J; Rudich, Assaf; Shai, Iris

    2016-08-01

    It remains unclear whether intermuscular adipose tissue (IMAT) has any metabolic influence or whether it is merely a marker of abnormalities, as well as what are the effects of specific lifestyle strategies for weight loss on the dynamics of both IMAT and thigh muscle area (TMA). We followed the trajectory of IMAT and TMA during 18-mo lifestyle intervention among 278 sedentary participants with abdominal obesity, using magnetic resonance imaging. We measured the resting metabolic rate (RMR) by an indirect calorimeter. Among 273 eligible participants (47.8 ± 9.3 yr of age), the mean IMAT was 9.6 ± 4.6 cm(2) Baseline IMAT levels were directly correlated with waist circumference, abdominal subdepots, C-reactive protein, and leptin and inversely correlated with baseline TMA and creatinine (P < 0.05 for all). After 18 mo (86.3% adherence), both IMAT (-1.6%) and TMA (-3.3%) significantly decreased (P < 0.01 vs. baseline). The changes in both IMAT and TMA were similar across the lifestyle intervention groups and directly corresponded with moderate weight loss (P < 0.001). IMAT change did not remain independently associated with decreased abdominal subdepots or improved cardiometabolic parameters after adjustments for age, sex, and 18-mo weight loss. In similar models, 18-mo TMA loss remained associated with decreased RMR, decreased activity, and with increased fasting glucose levels and IMAT (P < 0.05 for all). Unlike other fat depots, IMAT may not represent a unique or specific adipose tissue, instead largely reflecting body weight change per se. Moderate weight loss induced a significant decrease in thigh muscle area, suggesting the importance of resistance training to accompany weight loss programs. PMID:27402560

  19. Unexplained weight loss in an 80-year-old woman.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Imogen Aleksandra; Gill, Isaac; Harripaul, Azad

    2015-01-01

    An 80-year-old woman presented with long-standing history of weight loss and malnutrition, which had caused her to become reliant on the use of a wheelchair. Her symptoms were initially attributed to her medical comorbidities, however, during admission it became apparent that she had been suffering from depression and had gone on to develop an eating disorder. Eating disorders are most common in young adults but can affect all age groups, including the elderly population. The diagnosis is rarely considered in such patients and easily overlooked, especially when in the presence of chronic conditions and cognitive decline. A pre-existing psychiatric issue, most often depression, may also be present in this age group. There are no current treatment methods targeting patients in this population, who may not respond as effectively to the available strategies directed at young adults. It is important to always consider an eating disorder as a contributor or direct cause of unexplained weight loss in elderly patients. PMID:25618876

  20. Cannabis and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) for weight loss?

    PubMed

    Le Foll, Bernard; Trigo, Jose M; Sharkey, Keith A; Le Strat, Yann

    2013-05-01

    Obesity is one of the highest preventable causes of morbidity and mortality in the developed world [1]. It has been well known for a long time that exposure to cannabis produces an increase of appetite (a phenomenon referred to as the 'munchies'). This phenomenon led to an exploration of the role of the endocannabinoid system in the regulation of obesity and associated metabolic syndrome. This effort subsequently led to the development of a successful therapeutic approach for obesity that consisted of blocking the cannabinoid CB1 receptors using ligands such as Rimonabant in order to produce weight loss and improve metabolic profile [2]. Despite being efficacious, Rimonabant was associated with increased rates of depression and anxiety and therefore removed from the market. We recently discovered that the prevalence of obesity is paradoxically much lower in cannabis users as compared to non-users and that this difference is not accounted for by tobacco smoking status and is still present after adjusting for variables such as sex and age. Here, we propose that this effect is directly related to exposure to the Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) present in cannabis smoke. We therefore propose the seemingly paradoxical hypothesis that THC or a THC/cannabidiol combination drug may produce weight loss and may be a useful therapeutic for the treatment of obesity and its complications. PMID:23410498

  1. Experiences of a commercial weight-loss programme after primary care referral: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Jodie T; Cohn, Simon R; Ahern, Amy L

    2015-01-01

    Background Referral to a commercial weight-loss programme is a cost-effective intervention that is already used within the NHS. Qualitative research suggests this community-based, non-medical intervention accords with participants’ view of weight management as a lifestyle issue. Aim To examine the ways in which participants’ attitudes and beliefs about accessing a commercial weight management programme via their doctor relate to their weight-loss experience, and to understand how these contextual factors influence motivation and adherence to the intervention. Design and setting A qualitative study embedded in a randomised controlled trial evaluating primary care referral to a commercial weight-loss programme in adults who are overweight or obese in England. The study took place from June–September 2013. Method Twenty-nine participants (body mass index [BMI] ≥28 kg/m2; age ≥18 years), who took part in the WRAP (Weight Loss Referrals for Adults in Primary Care) trial, were recruited at their 3-month assessment appointment to participate in a semi-structured interview about their experience of the intervention and weight management more generally. Interviews were audiorecorded, transcribed verbatim, and analysed inductively using a narrative approach. Results Although participants view the lifestyle-based, non-medical commercial programme as an appropriate intervention for weight management, the referral from the GP and subsequent clinical assessments frame their experience of the intervention as medically pertinent with clear health benefits. Conclusion Referral by the GP and follow-up assessment appointments were integral to participant experiences of the intervention, and could be adapted for use in general practice potentially to augment treatment effects. PMID:25824185

  2. Tackling obesity: new therapeutic agents for assisted weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Karam, JG; McFarlane, SI

    2010-01-01

    The pandemic of overweight and obesity continues to rise in an alarming rate in western countries and around the globe representing a major public health challenge in desperate need for new strategies tackling obesity. In the United States nearly two thirds of the population is overweight or obese. Worldwide the number of persons who are overweight or obese exceeded 1.6 billion. These rising figures have been clearly associated with increased morbidity and mortality. For example, in the Framingham study, the risk of death increases with each additional pound of weight gain even in the relatively younger population between 30 and 42 years of age. Overweight and obesity are also associated with increased co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension and cardiovascular disease as well as certain types of cancer. In this review we discuss the epidemic of obesity, highlighting the pathophysiologic mechanisms of weight gain. We also provide an overview of the assessment of overweight and obese individuals discussing possible secondary causes of obesity. In a detailed section we discuss the currently approved therapeutic interventions for obesity highlighting their mechanisms of action and evidence of their efficacy and safety as provided in clinical trials. Finally, we discuss novel therapeutic interventions that are in various stages of development with a special section on the weight loss effects of anti-diabetic medications. These agents are particularly attractive options for our growing population of obese diabetic individuals. PMID:21437080

  3. Weight loss endoscopy: Development, applications, and current status

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Nitin

    2016-01-01

    Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to achieve proven weight loss and metabolic benefits. Others, such as aspiration therapy, employ novel mechanisms of action. Intragastric balloons have recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and a number of other technologies have completed large multicenter trials (such as AspireAssist aspiration therapy and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal). Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and transoral outlet reduction for endoscopic revision of gastric bypass have proven safe and effective in a number of studies. As devices are approved for use, data will continue to accumulate for safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. Bariatric endoscopists should be prepared to appropriately target and apply various endoscopic bariatric therapies in the context of a comprehensive long-term weight management program. PMID:27610017

  4. Genetic Control of Weight Loss During Pneumonic Burkholderia pseudomallei Infection

    PubMed Central

    Emery, Felicia D.; Parvathareddy, Jyothi; Pandey, Ashutosh K.; Cui, Yan; Williams, Robert W.; Miller, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei (Bp) is the causal agent of a high morbidity/mortality disease syndrome known as melioidosis. This syndrome can range from acute fulminate disease to chronic, local, and disseminated infections that are often difficult to treat because Bp exhibits resistance to many antibiotics. Bp is a prime candidate for use in biological warfare/terrorism and is classified as a Tier-1 Select Agent by HHS and APHIS. It is known that inbred mouse strains display a range of susceptibility to Bp and that the murine infection model is ideal for studying acute melioidosis. Here we exploit a powerful mouse genetics resource that consists of a large family of BXD type recombinant inbred strains, to perform genome-wide linkage analysis of the weight loss phenotype following pneumonic infection with Bp. We infected parental mice and 32 BXD strains with 50-100 CFU of Bp (strain 1026b) and monitored weight retention each day over an eleven-day time course. Using the computational tools in GeneNetwork, we performed genome-wide linkage analysis to identify an interval on chromosome 12 that appears to control the weight retention trait. We then analysed and ranked positional candidate genes in this interval, several of which have intriguing connections with innate immunity, calcium homeostasis, lipid transport, host cell growth and development, and autophagy. PMID:24687986

  5. Weight loss endoscopy: Development, applications, and current status.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Nitin

    2016-08-21

    Obesity and its comorbidities - including diabetes and obstructive sleep apnea - have taken a large and increasing toll on the United States and the rest of the world. The availability of commercial, clinical, and operative therapies for weight management have not been effective at a societal level. Endoscopic bariatric therapy is gaining acceptance as more effective than diet and lifestyle measures, and less invasive than bariatric surgery. Various endoscopic therapies are analogues of the restrictive or bypass components of bariatric surgery, utilizing gastric remodeling or intestinal anastomosis to achieve proven weight loss and metabolic benefits. Others, such as aspiration therapy, employ novel mechanisms of action. Intragastric balloons have recently been approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and a number of other technologies have completed large multicenter trials (such as AspireAssist aspiration therapy and Primary Obesity Surgery Endolumenal). Endoscopic sleeve gastroplasty and transoral outlet reduction for endoscopic revision of gastric bypass have proven safe and effective in a number of studies. As devices are approved for use, data will continue to accumulate for safety, effectiveness, and cost effectiveness. Bariatric endoscopists should be prepared to appropriately target and apply various endoscopic bariatric therapies in the context of a comprehensive long-term weight management program. PMID:27610017

  6. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project

    PubMed Central

    Dill, Edward J.; Manson, Spero M.; Jiang, Luohua; Pratte, Katherine A.; Gutilla, Margaret J.; Knepper, Stephanie L.; Beals, Janette; Roubideaux, Yvette; Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project

    2016-01-01

    The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality) with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n = 3,135) were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components. PMID:26649314

  7. Psychosocial Predictors of Weight Loss among American Indian and Alaska Native Participants in a Diabetes Prevention Translational Project.

    PubMed

    Dill, Edward J; Manson, Spero M; Jiang, Luohua; Pratte, Katherine A; Gutilla, Margaret J; Knepper, Stephanie L; Beals, Janette; Roubideaux, Yvette; Special Diabetes Program For Indians Diabetes Prevention Demonstration Project

    2016-01-01

    The association of psychosocial factors (psychological distress, coping skills, family support, trauma exposure, and spirituality) with initial weight and weight loss among American Indians and Alaska Natives (AI/ANs) in a diabetes prevention translational project was investigated. Participants (n = 3,135) were confirmed as prediabetic and subsequently enrolled in the Special Diabetes Program for Indians Diabetes Prevention (SDPI-DP) demonstration project implemented at 36 Indian health care programs. Measures were obtained at baseline and after completing a 16-session educational curriculum focusing on weight loss through behavioral changes. At baseline, psychological distress and negative family support were linked to greater weight, whereas cultural spirituality was correlated with lower weight. Furthermore, psychological distress and negative family support predicted less weight loss, and positive family support predicted greater weight loss, over the course of the intervention. These bivariate relationships between psychosocial factors and weight remained statistically significant within a multivariate model, after controlling for sociodemographic characteristics. Conversely, coping skills and trauma exposure were not significantly associated with baseline weight or change in weight. These findings demonstrate the influence of psychosocial factors on weight loss in AI/AN communities and have substantial implications for incorporating adjunctive intervention components. PMID:26649314

  8. Examination of whether early weight loss predicts 1-year weight loss among those enrolled in an Internet-based weight loss program.

    PubMed

    Unick, J L; Leahey, T; Kent, K; Wing, R R

    2015-10-01

    One-month weight loss (WL) predicts posttreatment WL in face-to-face interventions; however, whether this holds true within Internet programs is unknown. This study examined whether 4-week WL predicts WL following a 12-week Internet program and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. A total of 181 participants (body mass index=33.4±5.5 kg m(-)(2); 83.1% female) received a 12-week behavior-based Internet WL program consisting of weekly video lessons. Participants were given a daily WL, calorie and physical-activity goal and asked to enter these data on the study website weekly. Personalized feedback was provided. Using 4-week WL, individuals were categorized as 'early nonresponders' (<2.0% WL) or 'early responders' (⩾2.0% WL). Early nonresponders had significantly lower WL than early responders at 3 (-1.3±3.8% vs -6.3±4.3%), 6 (-1.7±5.1% vs -5.8±5.2%) and 12 months (-0.05±6.8% vs -2.7±6.3%, P<0.05). The odds of achieving a ⩾5% WL were 8.5 (95% confidence interval (CI), 3.3-22.1), 3.4 (95% CI, 1.4-8.3) and 2.6 (95% CI, 0.93-7.4) times lower in early nonresponders, compared with early responders at 3, 6 and 12 months, respectively. Compared with early responders, early nonresponders viewed fewer video lessons and self-monitored less often across the 12-week intervention (P<0.05). This study provides initial evidence that a 4-week WL of <2.0% places an individual at an increased risk of failing to achieve clinically significant WL following an Internet program. PMID:25982792

  9. A Dynamical Systems Model for Understanding Behavioral Interventions for Weight Loss

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarro-Barrientos, J.-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E.; Collins, Linda M.

    We propose a dynamical systems model that captures the daily fluctuations of human weight change, incorporating both physiological and psychological factors. The model consists of an energy balance integrated with a mechanistic behavioral model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB); the latter describes how important variables in a behavioral intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The model can be used to inform behavioral scientists in the design of optimized interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

  10. DietBet: A Web-Based Program that Uses Social Gaming and Financial Incentives to Promote Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Rosen, Jamie

    2014-01-01

    Background Web-based commercial weight loss programs are increasing in popularity. Despite their significant public health potential, there is limited research on the effectiveness of such programs. Objective The objective of our study was to examine weight losses produced by DietBet and explore whether baseline and engagement variables predict weight outcomes. Methods DietBet is a social gaming website that uses financial incentives and social influence to promote weight loss. Players bet money and join a game. All players have 4 weeks to lose 4% of their initial body weight. At enrollment, players can choose to share their participation on Facebook. During the game, players interact with one another and report their weight loss on the DietBet platform. At week 4, all players within each game who lose at least 4% of initial body weight are declared winners and split the pool of money bet at the start of the game. Official weigh-in procedures are used to verify weights at the start of the game and at the end. Results From December 2012 to July 2013, 39,387 players (84.04% female, 33,101/39,387; mean weight 87.8kg, SD 22.6kg) competed in 1934 games. The average amount bet was US $27 (SD US $22). A total of 65.63% (25,849/39,387) provided a verified weight at the end of the 4-week competition. The average intention-to-treat weight loss was 2.6% (SD 2.3%). Winners (n=17,171) won an average of US $59 (SD US $35) and lost 4.9% (SD 1.0%) of initial body weight, with 30.68% (5268/17,171) losing 5% or more of their initial weight. Betting more money at game entry, sharing on Facebook, completing more weigh-ins, and having more social interactions during the game predicted greater weight loss and greater likelihood of winning (Ps<.001). In addition, weight loss clustered within games (P<.001), suggesting that players influenced each others’ weight outcomes. Conclusions DietBet, a social gaming website, reached nearly 40,000 individuals in just 7 months and produced

  11. Seasonality of reproductive function and weight loss in rural Nepali women.

    PubMed

    Panter-Brick, C; Lotstein, D S; Ellison, P T

    1993-05-01

    Menstrual and hormonal disturbances have been reported in thin, dieting and exercising Western women, and also recently in rural African women. A study of salivary progesterone profiles was undertaken in a Nepali population to examine whether seasonal increases in workload and changes in energy balance influenced ovarian function. Women's energy expenditure levels were moderately heavy in the winter and very heavy in the monsoon, and body mass fluctuated by -2.8 to +4.8 kg. Samples were collected from 24 normally menstruating women in two seasons, each individual serving as her own control. Progesterone levels were significantly depressed in the monsoon relative to winter for women who lost weight, but not for women who gained weight, indicating that energy imbalance is associated with a loss of fecundity. No differences in body mass index were found between women who lost or gained weight. Progesterone levels were age-dependent, and the degree of hormonal disturbance between age-groups was related to weight loss. The study demonstrates seasonal changes in the fecundity of hard-working Nepali women and a direct link between ovarian function and weight loss (negative energy balance), which is independent of current nutritional status. PMID:8314959

  12. Balloon-In-A-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Balloon-in-a-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool Those using the device were nearly 7 ... while current balloons prompt 80 percent of their weight loss in the first three months before trailing off, ...

  13. Ulcerative colitis associated with the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut

    PubMed Central

    Sivarajah, Vernon; Abdul, Quddus; Pardoe, Helen; Lunniss, Peter

    2013-01-01

    A 25-year-old Iranian gentleman was admitted to hospital with severe bloody diarrhoea and abdominal pain. He had similar episodes in the past. On each occasion his symptoms developed following the consumption of the herbal weight loss supplement Hydroxycut Hardcore X. On this admission, a (CT) scan demonstrated bowel wall thickening and peri-colonic fat stranding in the sigmoid colon. On flexible sigmoidoscopy, a continuous length of congested mucosa with multiple small ulcers was seen extending up to the mid-transverse colon, in keeping with ulcerative colitis. Histological analysis of biopsies was taken at the time and confirmed this. He was started on steroids early during his admission but this only provided a transient clinical improvement. The addition of cyclosporine, which was later changed to azathioprine, did not improve his condition either. He therefore underwent an open subtotal colectomy with end ileostomy. He made a slow but steady recovery and was discharged 3 weeks later. PMID:23291814

  14. [Weight loss and healing of ulcers - case report].

    PubMed

    Seremet, Jasmina; Laginja, Stanislava; Marinović, Marin

    2013-10-01

    Diabetes mellitus type 2 is one of the most common diseases with a prevalence increasing with age. If blood sugar is not controlled, complications arise and diabetic foot ulcer occurs. Depending on the blood vessels involved, we distinguish venous and arterial ulcers. Venous ulcers respond very well to modern methods of treatment such as compression therapy and hydrocolloid dressings, but for arterial ulcer prevention is most significant, e.g. weight loss, dietary modification, etc. The aim of this study was to show that despite all the available therapeutic options, we cannot cure ulcers completely because the patient's readiness to change his lifestyle plays a decisive role. Therefore, we present a patient having suffered from venous ulcers for several years and arterial ulcer that healed only after the patient had lost about 20 pounds. PMID:24371990

  15. Quantitative and qualitative HPLC analysis of thermogenic weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Schaneberg, B T; Khan, I A

    2004-11-01

    An HPLC qualitative and quantitative method of seven analytes (caffeine, ephedrine, forskolin, icariin, pseudoephedrine, synephrine, and yohimbine) in thermogenic weight loss preparations available on the market is described in this paper. After 45 min the seven analytes were separated and detected in the acetonitrile: water (80:20) extract. The method uses a Waters XTerra RP18 (5 microm particle size) column as the stationary phase, a gradient mobile phase of water (5.0 mM SDS) and acetonitrile, and a UV detection of 210 nm. The correlation coefficients for the calibration curves and the recovery rates ranged from 0.994 to 0.999 and from 97.45% to 101.05%, respectively. The qualitative and quantitative results are discussed. PMID:15587578

  16. Developing weight loss interventions for African-American women: elements of successful models.

    PubMed Central

    Bronner, Yvonne; Boyington, Josephine E. A.

    2002-01-01

    This review examines published reports of weight-loss interventions targeted to overweight African-American women and identifies specific factors that may account for the variability in observed outcomes. The review will identify program elements that have been associated with weight loss in obese African-American women, describe behavior modification elements of weight loss programs, and provide a list of "lessons learned" that may be useful in planning future weight-loss intervention programs for this target population. PMID:11991335

  17. Dynamics of circulating microparticles in obesity after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Campello, Elena; Zabeo, Eva; Radu, Claudia M; Spiezia, Luca; Foletto, Mirto; Prevedello, Luca; Gavasso, Sabrina; Bulato, Cristiana; Vettor, Roberto; Simioni, Paolo

    2016-08-01

    A definitive relationship between adiposity and MP production is yet to be demonstrated. The aim of our study was to prospectively evaluate the levels of microparticles (MP) in a group of 20 III degree obese patients before and after weight loss. Plasma levels of annexin V-MP, endothelial-derived MP, platelet-derived MP (CD61+ and P-Selectin+), leukocyte-derived MP, tissue factor-bearing (TF+) and CD36+MP were prospectively measured in 20 patients with III degree obesity (BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2)) before (T0) and 3 (T3) and 12 (T12) months after sleeve gastrectomy (SLG). Obese patients had lost 18 % of their body weight at T3 and 41 % at T12. We find that considering all MP, except for endothelial-derived MP, which had significantly decreased at T3, all MP subtypes had significantly decreased at T12. At T12, subjects showed a higher median level of all types of MP, except endothelial-derived MP, compared to T3, but without a statistically significant difference. The percentages of reduction of all the MP were significantly correlated with the percentage of reduction of BMI. The reductions of leukocyte-derived, TF+ and CD36+MP were significantly correlated with the reduction of leptin. Moreover, the reductions of leukocyte-derived and CD36+MP were significantly correlated with hs-CRP decrease. The decrease of BMI post-SLG in morbid obesity was matched with a decrease of circulating MP of endothelial, platelet, leukocyte origin, TF+ and CD36+. A trend of slight increase in all MP subtypes, except endothelial-derived, was detected 12 months after gastrectomy, indicating a possible underlying slow low-grade inflammatory/hypercoagulability state from adipose tissue before the potential overt weight gain. PMID:26837209

  18. Losing Weight on Reality TV: A Content Analysis of the Weight Loss Behaviors and Practices Portrayed on The Biggest Loser.

    PubMed

    Klos, Lori A; Greenleaf, Christy; Paly, Natalie; Kessler, Molly M; Shoemaker, Colby G; Suchla, Erika A

    2015-01-01

    A number of weight loss-related reality television programs chronicle the weight loss experience of obese individuals in a competitive context. Although highly popular, such shows may misrepresent the behavior change necessary to achieve substantial weight loss. A systematic, quantitative content analysis of Seasons 10-13 (n = 66 episodes) of The Biggest Loser was conducted to determine the amount of time and number of instances that diet, physical activity, or other weight management strategies were presented. The average episode was 78.8 ± 15.7 min in length. Approximately 33.3% of an episode, representing 1,121 segments, portrayed behavioral weight management-related content. Within the episode time devoted to weight management content, 85.2% was related to physical activity, 13.5% to diet, and 1.2% to other. Recent seasons of The Biggest Loser suggest that substantial weight loss is achieved primarily through physical activity, with little emphasis on modifying diet and eating behavior. Although physical activity can impart substantial metabolic health benefits, it may be difficult to create enough of an energy deficit to induce significant weight loss in the real world. Future studies should examine the weight loss attitudes and behaviors of obese individuals and health professionals after exposure to reality television shows focused on weight loss. PMID:25909247

  19. 48 CFR 252.237-7015 - Loss or damage (weight of articles).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Loss or damage (weight of... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7015 Loss or damage (weight of articles). As prescribed in 237.7101(d), use the following clause: Loss or Damage (Weight of Articles) (DEC 1991) (a) The...

  20. 48 CFR 252.237-7015 - Loss or damage (weight of articles).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Loss or damage (weight of... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7015 Loss or damage (weight of articles). As prescribed in 237.7101(d), use the following clause: Loss or Damage (Weight of Articles) (DEC 1991) (a) The...

  1. 48 CFR 252.237-7015 - Loss or damage (weight of articles).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Loss or damage (weight of... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7015 Loss or damage (weight of articles). As prescribed in 237.7101(d), use the following clause: Loss or Damage (Weight of Articles) (DEC 1991) (a) The...

  2. 48 CFR 252.237-7015 - Loss or damage (weight of articles).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Loss or damage (weight of... of Provisions And Clauses 252.237-7015 Loss or damage (weight of articles). As prescribed in 237.7101(d), use the following clause: Loss or Damage (Weight of Articles) (DEC 1991) (a) The...

  3. Relationship of Physical Activity to Eating Behaviors and Weight Loss in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakicic, John M.; Wing, Rena R.; Winters-Hart, Carena

    2002-01-01

    Examined whether change in physical activity would relate to compliance with changes in dietary intake and eating behaviors in an 18-month behavioral weight loss program, also noting the contribution of exercise to weight loss. Data on 104 women indicated that physical activity related to long-term weight loss and was part of a constellation of…

  4. Drug abuse and weight loss in HIV-infected Hispanic men

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Weight loss is an independent risk factor for mortality in HIV, but the role of drug use in HIV-related weight loss is not well described. We conducted this study to determine the role of drug abuse in HIV-related weight loss. Men (n=304), all of whom were Hispanic, were recruited into one of three ...

  5. Physiological effects of a weight loss regimen practiced by college wrestlers.

    PubMed

    Webster, S; Rutt, R; Weltman, A

    1990-04-01

    The effects of weight loss (dehydration) techniques (which mimicked techniques used prior to actual competition) used by intercollegiate wrestlers on selected physiological parameters (strength, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, the lactate threshold (LT), and peak aerobic power) were examined in seven intercollegiate wrestlers. During the 36 h weight loss period, subjects lost 3.3 kg (4.9% body weight), all of which occurred during the 12 h prior to weigh-in, using exercise in a rubberized sweat suit. Weight loss resulted in a reduction in upper body but not lower body strength measures (peak torque and average work per repetition). Anaerobic power and anaerobic capacity were significantly reduced in a dehydrated state (81.4 kgm.s-1, normal weight; 63.9 kgm.s-1, weight loss; 1984.3 kgm.40 s-1, normal weight; 1791.4 kgm.40 s-1, weight loss). Analyses of treadmill data revealed the following: 1) velocity was decreased at LT (4.4%) and peak (6.5%) during weight loss (P less than 0.05); 2) VO2 peak was significantly reduced with weight loss (6.7%, P less than 0.05); 3) treadmill time to exhaustion was significantly reduced in the weight loss state (12.4%) (35.7 min, normal weight; 31.3 min, weight loss). It was concluded that typical wrestling weight loss techniques result in deleterious effects on strength, anaerobic power, anaerobic capacity, the lactate threshold, and aerobic power. PMID:2355820

  6. Human Cardiovascular Disease IBC Chip-Wide Association with Weight Loss and Weight Regain in the Look AHEAD Trial

    PubMed Central

    McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Papandonatos, George D.; Huggins, Gordon S.; Peter, Inga; Erar, Bahar; Kahn, Steven E.; Knowler, William C.; Lipkin, Edward W.; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Wagenknecht, Lynne E.; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims The present study identified genetic predictors of weight change during behavioral weight loss treatment. Methods Participants were 3,899 overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI), including weight loss and physical activity, relative to diabetes support and education, on cardiovascular outcomes. Analyses focused on associations of single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on the Illumina CARe iSelect (IBC) chip (minor allele frequency >5%; n = 31,959) with weight change at year 1 and year 4, and weight regain at year 4, among individuals who lost ≥ 3% at year 1. Results Two novel regions of significant chip-wide association with year-1 weight loss in ILI were identified (p < 2.96E-06). ABCB11 rs484066 was associated with 1.16 kg higher weight per minor allele at year 1, whereas TNFRSF11A, or RANK, rs17069904 was associated with 1.70 kg lower weight per allele at year 1. Conclusions This study, the largest to date on genetic predictors of weight loss and regain, indicates that SNPs within ABCB11, related to bile salt transfer, and TNFRSF11A, implicated in adipose tissue physiology, predict the magnitude of weight loss during behavioral intervention. These results provide new insights into potential biological mechanisms and may ultimately inform weight loss treatment. PMID:24081232

  7. Cognitive Interference From Food Cues in Weight Loss Maintainers, Normal Weight, and Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Phelan, Suzanne; Hassenstab, Jason; McCaffery, Jeanne M.; Sweet, Lawrence; Raynor, Hollie A.; Cohen, Ronald A.; Wing, Rena R.

    2011-01-01

    Much attention has been paid to the behavioral characteristics of successful weight loss maintenance, but less is known about the cognitive processes that underlie this process. The purpose of this study was to investigate cognitive interference from food-related cues in long-term weight loss maintainers (WLM; N = 15) as compared with normal weight (NW; N = 19) and obese (OB; N = 14) controls. A Food Stroop paradigm was used to determine whether successful WLM differed from controls in both the speed and accuracy of color naming words for low-calorie and high-calorie foods. A significant group × condition interaction for reaction time was observed (P = 0.04). In post hoc analyses, no significant differences in reaction time across the three groups were observed for the low-calorie foods (P = 0.66). However, for the high-calorie foods, WLM showed a significantly slower reaction time than the NW (0.04) and OB (0.009) groups (885 ± 17.6, 834 ± 15.8, 816 ± 18.3 ms, respectively). No significant group differences were seen for number of correct trials in 45 s (P = 0.12). The differential interference among WLM did not appear to generalize to other types of distracters (i.e., nonfood). Overall, findings from this study suggest that WLM differ from OB and NW controls in their cognitive responses to high-calorie food cues. Future research is needed to better understand why this bias exists and whether and how interventions can change cognitive processes to better facilitate long-term weight control. PMID:20539296

  8. Weight Change in a Commercial Web-Based Weight Loss Program and its Association With Website Use: Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Morgan, Philip J; Collins, Clare E

    2011-01-01

    Background There is a paucity of information in the scientific literature on the effectiveness of commercial weight loss programs, including Web-based programs. The potential of Web-based weight loss programs has been acknowledged, but their ability to achieve significant weight loss has not been proven. Objective The objectives were to evaluate the weight change achieved within a large cohort of individuals enrolled in a commercial Web-based weight loss program for 12 or 52 weeks and to describe participants’ program use in relation to weight change. Method Participants enrolled in an Australian commercial Web-based weight loss program from August 15, 2007, through May 31, 2008. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 12- and 52-week subscriptions. The primary analysis estimated weight change using generalized linear mixed models (GLMMs) for all participants who subscribed for 12 weeks and also for those who subscribed for 52 weeks. A sensitivity analysis was conducted using the last observation carried forward (LOCF) method. Website use (ie, the number of days participants logged on, made food or exercise entries to the Web-based diary, or posted to the discussion forum) was described from program enrollment to 12 and 52 weeks, and differences in website use by percentage weight change category were tested using Kruskal-Wallis test for equality of populations. Results Participants (n = 9599) had a mean (standard deviation [SD]) age of 35.7 (9.5) years and were predominantly female (86% or 8279/9599) and obese (61% or 5866/9599). Results from the primary GLMM analysis including all enrollees found the mean percentage weight change was −6.2% among 12-week subscribers (n = 6943) and −6.9% among 52-week subscribers (n = 2656). Sensitivity analysis using LOCF revealed an average weight change of −3.0% and −3.5% after 12 and 52 weeks respectively. The use of all website features increased significantly (P < .01) as

  9. Motivation and Its Relationship to Adherence to Self-Monitoring and Weight Loss in a 16-Week Internet Behavioral Weight Loss Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webber, Kelly H.; Tate, Deborah F.; Ward, Dianne S.; Bowling, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To examine changes in motivation and the relationship of motivation to adherence to self-monitoring and weight loss in a 16-week Internet behavioral weight-loss intervention. Design: Two-group randomized design. Setting: This study was conducted over the Internet. Participants: Sixty-six women, ages 22-65, with a body mass index (BMI)…

  10. Performance on the Iowa gambling task is related to magnitude of weight loss and salivary cortisol in a diet-induced weight loss intervention in overweight women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The overall objective of this study was to examine the relationship between executive function, specifically decision making, and weight loss. We used the Iowa Gambling Task (IGT) to characterize decision making and compared performance on this task to weight loss in obese women (n=29) participatin...

  11. Weight loss in full-term negroid infants: relationship to body water compartments at birth?

    PubMed

    Offringa, P J; Boersma, E R; Brunsting, J R; Meeuwsen, W P; Velvis, H

    1990-02-01

    The possible influence of the body fluid compartments at birth on postnatal weight loss was studied in normal term negroid infants when on a standardized oral fluid, sodium and energy regimen during the first three days of life. Measurements of plasma volume (PV), total body water (TBW), and extracellular water (ECW) were performed simultaneously on vaginally-born infants on the first day of life, by using a triple indicator (Evans blue, deuterium oxide and sucrose) single injection dilution technique. PV was 54 +/- 7 ml/kg (N = 9), TBW was 751 +/- 50 ml/kg (N = 13) and ECW was 311 +/- 61 ml/kg (N = 13) (mean +/- S.D.). Postnatal weight loss (3.7% of birth weight) occurred during the first two days. The postnatal weight loss was not related to any of the body water compartments. However, there was a highly significant correlation with the (cumulative) urine water excretion (r = 0.833, P less than 0.001 on day 1, with similar values for days 1 and 2). PMID:2318126

  12. A dynamical model for describing behavioural interventions for weight loss and body composition change.

    PubMed

    Navarro-Barrientos, J-Emeterio; Rivera, Daniel E; Collins, Linda M

    2011-01-12

    We present a dynamical model incorporating both physiological and psychological factors that predicts changes in body mass and composition during the course of a behavioral intervention for weight loss. The model consists of a three-compartment energy balance integrated with a mechanistic psychological model inspired by the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB). The latter describes how important variables in a behavioural intervention can influence healthy eating habits and increased physical activity over time. The novelty of the approach lies in representing the behavioural intervention as a dynamical system, and the integration of the psychological and energy balance models. Two simulation scenarios are presented that illustrate how the model can improve the understanding of how changes in intervention components and participant differences affect outcomes. Consequently, the model can be used to inform behavioural scientists in the design of optimised interventions for weight loss and body composition change. PMID:21673826

  13. Determinants of Successful Weight Loss After Using a Commercial Web-Based Weight Reduction Program for Six Months: Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Postrach, Elisa; Aspalter, Rosa; Elbelt, Ulf; Koller, Michael; Longin, Rita; Schulzke, Jörg-Dieter

    2013-01-01

    Background The Internet is widely available and commonly used for health information; therefore, Web-based weight loss programs could provide support to large parts of the population in self-guided weight loss. Previous studies showed that Web-based weight loss interventions can be effective, depending on the quality of the program. The most effective program tools are visual progress charts or tools for the self-monitoring of weight, diet, and exercises. KiloCoach, a commercial program currently available in German-speaking countries, incorporates these features. A previous investigation showed that the program effectively supports users in losing weight. Objective We investigated weight loss dynamics stratified by weight loss success after 6-month use of KiloCoach. Furthermore, we analyzed possible associations between intensity of program use and weight loss. The results are intended for tailoring user recommendations for weight-loss Internet platforms. Methods Datasets of KiloCoach users (January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2011) who actively used the platform for 6 months or more were assigned to this retrospective analysis. Users (N=479) were 42.2% men, mean age of 44.0 years (SD 11.7), with a mean body mass index (BMI) of 31.7 kg/m2 (SD 3.2). Based on the weight loss achieved after 6 months, 3 success groups were generated. The unsuccessful group lost <5%, the moderate success group lost 5%-9.9%, and the high success group lost ≥10% of their baseline body weight. At baseline, the unsuccessful (n=261, 54.5%), moderate success (n=133, 27.8%), and high success (n=85, 17.8%) groups were similar in age, weight, BMI, and gender distribution. Results After 6 months, the unsuccessful group lost 1.2% (SD 2.4), the moderate success group lost 7.4% (SD 1.5), and the high success group lost 14.2% (SD 3.8) of their initial weight (P<.001). Multivariate regression showed that early weight loss (weeks 3-4), the total number of dietary protocols, and the total number of

  14. Determinants of Weight Loss prior to Diagnosis in Inflammatory Bowel Disease: A Retrospective Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Elsherif, Yasser; Mendall, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Aims. To identify prevalence, severity, and environmental determinants of weight loss in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients just prior to time of formal diagnosis. Methodology. IBD patients attending outpatient clinic were questioned about weight loss prior to diagnosis and other environmental and demographic variables. The percentage BMI loss was calculated for each subject and factors associated with weight loss were determined. Results. Four hundred and ninety-four subjects were recruited (237 cases of Crohn's disease (CD) and 257 cases of ulcerative colitis (UC)). Overall, 57% of subjects with CD and 51% of subjects with UC experienced significant weight loss prior to diagnosis (>5% BMI loss). Younger age at diagnosis and history of previous IBD surgery were significantly associated with both lower BMI at diagnosis and increased weight loss prior to diagnosis. In CD patients, increasing age at diagnosis was inversely associated with weight loss prior to diagnosis. Ileal disease was a risk factor of weight loss, whereas prior appendectomy was associated with reduced risk of weight loss. Conclusions. Weight loss is a significant problem for many IBD patients at presentation, especially in younger age and CD with ileal involvement. Appendectomy is associated with diminished weight loss. PMID:25506359

  15. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Campbell, Marci K.

    2016-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss among overweight individuals. Data are from Pounds off Digitally, a study testing the efficacy of two weight loss podcast interventions (control podcast and theory-based podcast). Path models were constructed (n = 66). The IPTs—elaboration likelihood model, information control theory, and cognitive load theory—mediated the effect of a theory-based podcast on weight loss. The intervention was significantly associated with all IPTs. Information control theory and cognitive load theory were related to elaboration, and elaboration was associated with weight loss. Social cognitive theory constructs did not mediate weight loss. Future podcast interventions grounded in theory may be effective in promoting weight loss. PMID:24082027

  16. Maintaining Large Weight Losses: The Role of Behavioral and Psychological Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; Papandonatos, George; Fava, Joseph L.; Gorin, Amy A.; Phelan, Suzanne; McCaffery, Jeanne; Tate, Deborah F.

    2008-01-01

    Few studies have examined predictors of weight regain after significant weight losses. This prospective study examined behavioral and psychological predictors of weight regain in 261 successful weight losers who completed an 18-month trial of weight regain prevention that compared a control condition with self-regulation interventions delivered…

  17. Randomised comparison of diets for maintaining obese subjects' weight after major weight loss: ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet v fixed energy intake.

    PubMed Central

    Toubro, S.; Astrup, A.

    1997-01-01

    < 0.07). CONCLUSION: Ad lib, low fat, high carbohydrate diet was superior to fixed energy intake for maintaining weight after a major weight loss. The rate of the initial weight loss did not influence long term outcome. PMID:9001476

  18. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare...

  19. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare...

  20. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare...

  1. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare...

  2. 49 CFR 1005.7 - Weight as a measure of loss.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Weight as a measure of loss. 1005.7 Section 1005.7... VOLUNTARY DISPOSITION OF LOSS AND DAMAGE CLAIMS AND PROCESSING SALVAGE § 1005.7 Weight as a measure of loss. Where weight is used as a measure of loss in rail transit of scrap iron and steel and actual tare...

  3. Weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer in a prospective cohort of overweight and obese US women.

    PubMed

    Teras, Lauren R; Goodman, Michael; Patel, Alpa V; Diver, W Ryan; Flanders, W Dana; Feigelson, Heather Spencer

    2011-04-01

    Overweight and obesity are associated with increased postmenopausal breast cancer risk; however, it is unclear whether losing excess weight will lower risk. Therefore, we examined the relationship between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer among 13,055 overweight and obese, cancer-free women who enrolled in the Cancer Prevention Study-II (CPS-II) Nutrition Cohort in 1992. During the 15 year follow-up, 816 postmenopausal breast cancer cases were diagnosed. Self-reported weight was collected before diagnosis at baseline and 10 years prior to baseline. The median weight loss was 11 lbs, but only 58% of the women maintained this weight loss through the first 5 year follow-up interval (1992-1997). Using both restricted cubic splines and multivariate Cox proportional hazards modeling, we observed no association between weight loss and postmenopausal breast cancer. The hazard ratio for 30+ pounds of weight loss compared to stable weight was 0.95 (95%: CI 0.47-1.95). An inverse association was, however, suggested among women who maintained ten or more pounds of weight loss through the next interval. There was no evidence of effect modification by postmenopausal hormone use, initial BMI, or other factors examined. In summary, weight loss was not associated with postmenopausal breast cancer in this study. Future studies should focus on sustained weight loss and whether the timing of weight loss is important. PMID:21327461

  4. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Ross, A; Brooks, A; Touchton-Leonard, K; Wallen, G

    2016-01-01

    Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n = 11) and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n = 9). Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight. PMID:27594890

  5. A Different Weight Loss Experience: A Qualitative Study Exploring the Behavioral, Physical, and Psychosocial Changes Associated with Yoga That Promote Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Brooks, A.; Touchton-Leonard, K.

    2016-01-01

    Yoga interventions improve obesity-related outcomes including body mass index (BMI), body weight, body fat, and waist circumference, yet it is unclear whether these improvements are due to increased physical activity, increased lean muscle mass, and/or changes in eating behaviors. The purpose of this study is to expand our understanding of the experience of losing weight through yoga. Methods. Semistructured interviews were qualitatively analyzed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Results. Two distinct groups who had lost weight through yoga responded: those who were overweight and had repeatedly struggled in their attempts to lose weight (55%, n = 11) and those who were of normal weight and had lost weight unintentionally (45%, n = 9). Five themes emerged that differed slightly by group: shift toward healthy eating, impact of the yoga community/yoga culture, physical changes, psychological changes, and the belief that the yoga weight loss experience was different than past weight loss experiences. Conclusions. These findings imply that yoga could offer diverse behavioral, physical, and psychosocial effects that may make it a useful tool for weight loss. Role modeling and social support provided by the yoga community may contribute to weight loss, particularly for individuals struggling to lose weight. PMID:27594890

  6. The impact of supervised weight loss and intentional weight regain on sex hormone binding globulin and testosterone in premenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aubuchon, Mira; Liu, Ying; Petroski, Gregory F; Thomas, Tom R; Polotsky, Alex J

    2016-08-01

    What is the impact of intentional weight loss and regain on serum androgens in women? We conducted an ancillary analysis of prospectively collected samples from a randomized controlled trial. The trial involved supervised 10% weight loss (8.5 kg on average) with diet and exercise over 4-6 months followed by supervised intentional regain of 50% of the lost weight (4.6 kg on average) over 4-6 months. Participants were randomized prior to the partial weight regain component to either continuation or cessation of endurance exercise. Analytic sample included 30 obese premenopausal women (mean age of 40 ± 5.9 years, mean baseline body mass index (BMI) of 32.9 ± 4.2 kg/m(2)) with metabolic syndrome. We evaluated sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), total testosterone (T), free androgen index (FAI), and high molecular weight adiponectin (HMWAdp). Insulin, homeostasis model assessment (HOMA), and quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (QUICKI), and visceral adipose tissue (VAT) measured in the original trial were reanalyzed for the current analytic sample. Insulin, HOMA, and QUICKI improved with weight loss and were maintained despite weight regain. Log-transformed SHBG significantly increased from baseline to weight loss, and then significantly decreased with weight regain. LogFAI and logVAT decreased similarly and increased with weight loss followed by weight regain. No changes were found in logT and LogHMWAdp. There was no significant difference in any tested parameters by exercise between the groups. SHBG showed prominent sensitivity to body mass fluctuations, as reduction with controlled intentional weight regain showed an inverse relationship to VAT and occurred despite stable HMWAdp and sustained improvements with insulin resistance. FAI showed opposite changes to SHBG, while T did not change significantly with weight. Continued exercise during weight regain did not appear to impact these findings. PMID:27192090

  7. American College of Sports Medicine position stand. Appropriate intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults.

    PubMed

    Jakicic, J M; Clark, K; Coleman, E; Donnelly, J E; Foreyt, J; Melanson, E; Volek, J; Volpe, S L

    2001-12-01

    In excess of 55% of adults in the United States are classified as either overweight (body mass index = 25-29.9 kg.m(-2)) or obese (body mass index > or = 30 kg.m(-2)). To address this significant public health problem, the American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the combination of reductions in energy intake and increases in energy expenditure, through structured exercise and other forms of physical activity, be a component of weight loss intervention programs. An energy deficit of 500-1000 kcal.d-1 achieved through reductions in total energy intake is recommended. Moreover, it appears that reducing dietary fat intake to <30% of total energy intake may facilitate weight loss by reducing total energy intake. Although there may be advantages to modifying protein and carbohydrate intake, the optimal doses of these macronutritents for weight loss have not been determined. Significant health benefits can be recognized with participation in a minimum of 150 min (2.5 h) of moderate intensity exercise per week, and overweight and obese adults should progressively increase to this initial exercise goal. However, there may be advantages to progressively increasing exercise to 200-300 min (3.3-5 h) of exercise per week, as recent scientific evidence indicates that this level of exercise facilitates the long-term maintenance of weight loss. The addition of resistance exercise to a weight loss intervention will increase strength and function but may not attenuate the loss of fat-free mass typically observed with reductions in total energy intake and loss of body weight. When medically indicated, pharmacotherapy may be used for weight loss, but pharmacotherapy appears to be most effective when used in combination with modifications of both eating and exercise behaviors. The American College of Sports Medicine recommends that the strategies outlined in this position paper be incorporated into interventions targeting weight loss and the prevention of weight regain for

  8. Preoperative weight loss in super-obese patients: study of the rate of weight loss and its effects on surgical morbidity

    PubMed Central

    Santo, Marco Aurelio; Riccioppo, Daniel; Pajecki, Denis; de Cleva, Roberto; Kawamoto, Flavio; Cecconello, Ivan

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The incidence of obesity and particularly super obesity, has increased tremendously. At our institution, super obesity represents 30.1% of all severely obese individuals in the bariatric surgery program. In super obesity, surgical morbidity is higher and the results are worse compared with morbid obesity, independent of the surgical technique. The primary strategy for minimizing complications in these patients is to decrease the body mass index before surgery. Preoperative weight reduction can be achieved by a hypocaloric diet, drug therapy, an intragastric balloon, or hospitalization. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of a period of hospitalization for preoperative weight loss in a group of super-obese patients. METHODS: Twenty super-obese patients were submitted to a weight loss program between 2006 and 2010. The mean patient age was 46 years (range 21-59). The mean BMI was 66 kg/m2 (range 51-98) and 12 were women. The average hospital stay was 19.9 weeks and the average weight loss was 19% of the initial weight (7-37%). The average caloric intake was 5 kcal/kg/day. After the weight loss program, the patients underwent gastric bypass surgery. RESULTS: The statistical analysis revealed that after 14 weeks of treatment (15% loss of initial weight), the weight loss was not significant. All patients had satisfactory surgical recovery and were discharged after an average of 4.6 days. CONCLUSION: In super obesity, preoperative weight loss is an important method for reducing surgical risks. Hospitalization and a hypocaloric diet are safe and effective. After 14 weeks, the weight loss rate stabilized, signaling the time of surgical intervention in our study. PMID:25627995

  9. Eating behavior traits and sleep as determinants of weight loss in overweight and obese adults

    PubMed Central

    Filiatrault, M-L; Chaput, J-P; Drapeau, V; Tremblay, A

    2014-01-01

    together to influence the outcome of weight-loss programs. PMID:25329602

  10. Weight-related teasing and non-normative eating behaviors as predictors of weight loss maintenance. A longitudinal mediation analysis.

    PubMed

    Hübner, Claudia; Baldofski, Sabrina; Crosby, Ross D; Müller, Astrid; de Zwaan, Martina; Hilbert, Anja

    2016-07-01

    Weight loss maintenance is essential for the reduction of obesity-related health impairments. However, only a minority of individuals successfully maintain reduced weight in the long term. Research has provided initial evidence for associations between weight-related teasing (WRT) and greater non-normative eating behaviors. Further, first evidence was found for associations between non-normative eating behaviors and weight loss maintenance. Hence, the present study aimed to examine the predictive value of WRT for weight loss maintenance and the role of non-normative eating behaviors as possible mediators of this relationship. The study was part of the German Weight Control Registry that prospectively followed individuals who had intentionally lost at least 10% of their maximum weight and had maintained this reduced weight for at least one year. In N = 381 participants, retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence, current non-normative eating behaviors (i.e., restrained, external, emotional eating), and change in body mass index (BMI, kg/m(2)) over two years were examined using self-report assessments. Structural equation modeling was used to analyze the assumed mediational relationship. As a result, a greater effect of retrospective WRT during childhood and adolescence predicted less successful adult weight loss maintenance over two years. Current emotional eating fully mediated this relationship while current restrained and external eating yielded no mediational effects. Hence, a greater effect of WRT predicted greater current emotional eating, which in turn predicted a smaller decrease or a greater increase in BMI. Our findings suggest that suffering from WRT during childhood and adolescence might lead to emotional eating which in turn impairs long-term weight loss maintenance. Thus, our results highlight the need for interventions aiming at reducing weight stigmatization and targeting emotional eating for successful long-term weight loss maintenance

  11. Maintaining Healthy Behaviors Following Weight Loss: A Grounded Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zunker, Christie; Cox, Tiffany L.; Ard, Jamy D.; Ivankova, Nataliya V.; Rutt, Candace D.; Baskin, Monica L.

    2011-01-01

    This study explored the process of how women maintained their healthy behaviors after a weight management program using a grounded theory approach. We conducted 2 focus groups and 23 interviews with a purposeful sample of African American and Caucasian women aged 30 and older who lost greater than 5% of their body weight during a weight management…

  12. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-01

    In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5-6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation protocols on animals in regard to the principles of the 3Rs introduced by Russell and Burch. PMID:26751481

  13. An Evaluation of a Television-Delivered Behavioral Weight Loss Program: Are the Ratings Acceptable?.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyers, Andrew W.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Evaluated a television-delivered behavioral weight reduction program. Overweight adults (n=71) were randomly assigned to a live-contact weight loss group videotaped for viewing by other groups, a live-contact group not videotaped, a television-delivered group that observed the videotaped weight loss sessions, or a waiting-list control group.…

  14. Effects of dietary composition of energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reduced energy expenditure following weight loss is thought to contribute to weight gain. However, the effect of dietary composition on energy expenditure during weight-loss maintenance has not been studied. To examine the effects of 3 diets differing widely in macronutrient composition and glycemic...

  15. WEIGHT LOSS WITH MEAL REPLACEMENT AND MEAL REPLACEMENT PLUS SNACKS: A RANDOMIZED TRIAL

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To evaluate whether snacking would improve weight loss and weight maintenance in overweight individuals within the context of a structured meal replacement (MR) weight loss program. A prospective 24 week, 2 (snacking vs nonsnacking) x 2 (MR vs meal replacement augmented with snacks (MRPS)...

  16. Best Practice Updates for Pediatric/Adolescent Weight Loss Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Pratt, Janey S.A.; Lenders, Carine M.; Dionne, Emily A.; Hoppin, Alison G.; Hsu, George L.K.; Inge, Thomas H.; Lawlor, David F.; Marino, Margaret F.; Meyers, Alan F.; Rosenblum, Jennifer L.; Sanchez, Vivian M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study is to update evidence-based best practice guidelines for pediatric/adolescent weight loss surgery (WLS). We performed a systematic search of English-language literature on WLS and pediatric, adolescent, gastric bypass, laparoscopic gastric banding, and extreme obesity published between April 2004 and May 2007 in PubMed, MEDLINE, and the Cochrane Library. Keywords were used to narrow the search for a selective review of abstracts, retrieval of full articles, and grading of evidence according to systems used in established evidence-based models. In light of evidence on the natural history of obesity and on outcomes of WLS in adolescents, guidelines for surgical treatment of obesity in this age group need to be updated. We recommend modification of selection criteria to include adolescents with BMI ≥ 35 and specific obesity-related comorbidities for which there is clear evidence of important short-term morbidity (i.e., type 2 diabetes, severe steatohepatitis, pseudotumor cerebri, and moderate-to-severe obstructive sleep apnea). In addition, WLS should be considered for adolescents with extreme obesity (BMI ≥ 40) and other comorbidities associated with long-term risks. We identified >1,085 papers; 186 of the most relevant were reviewed in detail. Regular updates of evidence-based recommendations for best practices in pediatric/adolescent WLS are required to address advances in technology and the growing evidence base in pediatric WLS. Key considerations in patient safety include carefully designed criteria for patient selection, multidisciplinary evaluation, choice of appropriate procedure, thorough screening and management of comorbidities, optimization of long-term compliance, and age-appropriate fully informed consent. PMID:19396070

  17. Weight Loss at a Cost: Implications of High-Protein, Low- Carbohydrate Diets.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabel, Kathe A.; Lund, Robin J.

    2002-01-01

    Addresses three claims of high-protein, low-carbohydrate diets: weight loss is attributed to the composition of the diet; insulin promotes the storage of fat, thereby, by limiting carbohydrates, dieters will decrease levels of insulin and body fat; and weight loss is the result of fat loss. The paper examines relevant scientific reports and notes…

  18. Weight loss after bariatric surgery normalizes brain opioid receptors in morbid obesity.

    PubMed

    Karlsson, H K; Tuulari, J J; Tuominen, L; Hirvonen, J; Honka, H; Parkkola, R; Helin, S; Salminen, P; Nuutila, P; Nummenmaa, L

    2016-08-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) studies suggest opioidergic system dysfunction in morbid obesity, while evidence for the role of the dopaminergic system is less consistent. Whether opioid dysfunction represents a state or trait in obesity remains unresolved, but could be assessed in obese subjects undergoing weight loss. Here we measured brain μ-opioid receptor (MOR) and dopamine D2 receptor (D2R) availability in 16 morbidly obese women twice-before and 6 months after bariatric surgery-using PET with [(11)C]carfentanil and [(11)C]raclopride. Data were compared with those from 14 lean control subjects. Receptor-binding potentials (BPND) were compared between the groups and between the pre- and postoperative scans among the obese subjects. Brain MOR availability was initially lower among obese subjects, but weight loss (mean=26.1 kg, s.d.=7.6 kg) reversed this and resulted in ~23% higher MOR availability in the postoperative versus preoperative scan. Changes were observed in areas implicated in reward processing, including ventral striatum, insula, amygdala and thalamus (P's<0.005). Weight loss did not influence D2R availability in any brain region. Taken together, the endogenous opioid system plays an important role in the pathophysiology of human obesity. Because bariatric surgery and concomitant weight loss recover downregulated MOR availability, lowered MOR availability is associated with an obese phenotype and may mediate excessive energy uptake. Our results highlight that understanding the opioidergic contribution to overeating is critical for developing new treatments for obesity. PMID:26460230

  19. A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Mobile Devices and Weight Loss with an Intervention Content Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Lyzwinski, Lynnette Nathalie

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Overweight and obesity constitute leading global public health challenges. Tackling overweight and obesity by influencing human behaviour is a complex task, requiring novel emerging health psychology interventions. The aims of this review will be to determine whether mobile devices induce weight loss and improvements in diet and physical activity levels when compared with standard controls without a weight loss intervention or controls allocated to non-mobile device weight loss interventions. Methods: A systematic review on mobile devices and weight loss was conducted. The inclusion criteria were all randomized controlled trials with baseline and post-intervention weight measures in adult subjects >18 years of age without pre-specified co-morbidities. Mobile device specifications included modern, portable devices in the form of smartphones, PDAs, iPods, and Mp3 players. Cohen’s d for standardized differences in mean weight loss was calculated. A random effects meta-analysis was generated using Comprehensive meta-analysis software. Theories and intervention content were coded and analysed. Results: A total of 17 studies were identified, of which 12 were primary trials and 5 were secondary analyses. The meta-analysis generated a medium significant effect size of 0.430 (95% CI 0.252–0.609) (p-value ≤ 0.01), favouring mobile interventions. Throughout the systematic review, mobile devices were found to induce weight loss relative to baseline weight. When comparing them with standard no intervention controls as well as controls receiving non-mobile weight loss interventions, results favoured mobile devices for weight loss. Reductions in Body mass index, waist circumference, and percentage body fat were also found in the review. Improvements in the determinants of weight loss in the form of improved dietary intake and physical activity levels were also found. Theory appears to largely inform intervention design, with the most common theories being

  20. Outcomes and Utilization of a Low Intensity Workplace Weight Loss Program

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Kelly M.; Lovejoy, Jennifer C.; Lange, Jane M.; Hapgood, Jenny E.; Zbikowski, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is related to high health care costs and lost productivity in the workplace. Employers are increasingly sponsoring weight loss and wellness programs to ameliorate these costs. We evaluated weight loss outcomes, treatment utilization, and health behavior change in a low intensity phone- and web-based, employer-sponsored weight loss program. The intervention included three proactive counseling phone calls with a registered dietician and a behavioral health coach as well as a comprehensive website. At six months, one third of those who responded to the follow-up survey had lost a clinically significant amount of weight (≥5% of body weight). Clinically significant weight loss was predicted by the use of both the counseling calls and the website. When examining specific features of the web site, the weight tracking tool was the most predictive of weight loss. Health behavior changes such as eating more fruits and vegetables, increasing physical activity, and reducing stress were all predictive of clinically significant weight loss. Although limited by the low follow-up rate, this evaluation suggests that even low intensity weight loss programs can lead to clinical weight loss for a significant number of participants. PMID:24688791

  1. An Evidence-Based Review of Fat Modifying Supplemental Weight Loss Products

    PubMed Central

    Egras, Amy M.; Hamilton, William R.; Lenz, Thomas L.; Monaghan, Michael S.

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  2. An evidence-based review of fat modifying supplemental weight loss products.

    PubMed

    Egras, Amy M; Hamilton, William R; Lenz, Thomas L; Monaghan, Michael S

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To review the literature on fat modifying dietary supplements commonly used for weight loss. Methods. Recently published randomized, placebo-controlled trials were identified in PubMed, MEDLINE, International Pharmaceutical Abstracts, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar using the search terms dietary supplement, herbal, weight loss, obesity, and individual supplement names. Discussion. Data for conjugated linoleic acid (CLA), Garcinia cambogia, chitosan, pyruvate, Irvingia gabonensis, and chia seed for weight loss were identified. CLA, chitosan, pyruvate, and Irvingia gabonensis appeared to be effective in weight loss via fat modifying mechanisms. However, the data on the use of these products is limited. Conclusion. Many obese people use dietary supplements for weight loss. To date, there is little clinical evidence to support their use. More data is necessary to determine the efficacy and safety of these supplements. Healthcare providers should assist patients in weighing the risks and benefits of dietary supplement use for weight loss. PMID:20847896

  3. A Comparison of the Effectiveness of Three Group Treatments for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byom, Tianna K.

    2009-01-01

    Rising overweight and obesity rates in the United States and the accompanying health issues underscore the need for an effective treatment for weight loss. While most people tend to lose weight as a result of cognitive-behavioral treatment, the weight is often regained after treatment ends. Possible reasons for weight regain include not fully…

  4. Sex differences in the composition of weight gain and loss in overweight and obese adults.

    PubMed

    Millward, D Joe; Truby, Helen; Fox, Kenneth R; Livingstone, M Barbara E; Macdonald, Ian A; Tothill, Peter

    2014-03-14

    Sex differences in the ratio of fat mass (FM):fat-free mass (FFM) during weight change should differentially affect the extent of weight change during energy imbalance in men and women. In the present study, we determined FM and FFM contents by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and calculated the P-ratios (protein energy/total energy) of excess weight and weight loss during a randomised controlled trial of four commercial weight loss regimens. Overweight and obese women (n 210) and men (n 77) were studied at baseline and at 2 and 6 months during weight loss on four dietary regimens: Dr Atkins' New Diet Revolution; The Slim-Fast Plan; Weight-Watchers programme; Rosemary Conley's Diet and Fitness Plan. At baseline, the percentage of FFM (%FFM) and P-ratios of excess weight were 40 % and 0·071 for men and 27 % and 0·039 for women. At 2 months, men had lost twice as much weight as women and three times more FFM than women, indicating higher FFM content and P-ratios of weight loss for men, 0·052, than for women, 0·029, with no dietary effects. Between 2 and 6 months, the rate at which weight was lost decreased and the %FFM of weight loss decreased to similar low levels in men (7 %) and women (5 %): i.e. P-ratios of 0·009 and 0·006, respectively, with no dietary effects. Thus, for men compared with women, there were greater FFM content and P-ratios of weight change, which could partly, but not completely, explain their greater weight loss at 2 months. However, protein-conserving adaptations occur with increasing weight loss and over time, more extensively in men, eventually eliminating any sex difference in the composition of weight loss. PMID:24103395

  5. Results of a faith-based weight loss intervention for black women.

    PubMed Central

    Fitzgibbon, Marian L.; Stolley, Melinda R.; Ganschow, Pamela; Schiffer, Linda; Wells, Anita; Simon, Nolanna; Dyer, Alan

    2005-01-01

    Obesity is a risk factor for a variety of chronic diseases. Although weight loss may reduce these risks, weight loss programs designed for black women have yielded mixed results. Studies suggest that religion/spirituality is a prominent component of black culture. Given this, the inclusion of religion/spirituality as an active component of a weight loss program may enhance the benefits of the program. The role of religion/spirituality, however, has not been specifically tested as a mechanism that enhances the weight loss process. This paper presents the results of "Faith on the Move," a randomized pilot study of a faith-based weight loss program for black women. The goals of the study were to estimate the effects of a 12-week culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention on weight loss, dietary fat consumption and physical activity. The culturally tailored, faith-based weight loss intervention was compared to a culturally tailored weight loss intervention with no active faith component. Fifty-nine overweight/obese black women were randomized to one of the two interventions. Although the results were not statistically significant, the effect size suggests that the addition of the faith component improved results. These promising preliminary results will need to be tested in an adequately powered trial. PMID:16355489

  6. Weight loss during chronic, cervical vagus nerve stimulation in depressed patients with obesity

    PubMed Central

    Pardo, JV; Sheikh, SA; Kuskowski, MA; Surerus-Johnson, C; Hagen, MC; Lee, JT; Rittberg, BR; Adson, DE

    2008-01-01

    Fourteen patients were treated over 2 years with cervical vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) for adjunctive therapy of severe, treatment-resistant depression. Here, we report the serendipitous observation that this treatment was associated with highly significant, gradual weight loss despite the patients’ report of not dieting or exercising. The weight loss was proportional to the initial BMI, that is, the more severe the obesity, the greater the weight loss. Weight loss did not correlate with changes in mood symptoms. The vagus nerve carries visceral information to and from the brain; modulation of its activity may alter eating behavior. Chronic cervical VNS may merit controlled study for the treatment of severe obesity. PMID:17563762

  7. Fat Christians and fit elites: negotiating class and status in Evangelical Christian weight-loss culture.

    PubMed

    Gerber, Lynne

    2012-01-01

    As American culture has become increasingly concerned about fatness, the fat body and weight loss have become salient symbols for other social tensions. This article uses the case of evangelical Christian weight-loss culture to argue that class is one of those tensions. Drawing on ethnographic work in a Christian weight-loss program as well as on recent theories of class, I argue that certain recurring concerns in Christians’ weight-loss discourse, notably concerns about fat Christian leaders and appearing healthy, reflect tensions about class-based aspirations and class-based denigrations evangelicals face in negotiating their position in American society. PMID:22826895

  8. Learning to Lose: Weight Loss Classes and Personal Transformation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jarvis, Christine

    2012-01-01

    Adult learning takes place not only in educational organisations, but through participation in leisure and special interest groups. Commercially operated weight management organisations recruit large numbers of adults to their classes to learn how to eat healthily and lose weight. They publish readers' "real life" success stories in their…

  9. Components of Effective Weight Loss Program: Theory, Research, and Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalodner, Cynthia R.; DeLucia, Janice L.

    1990-01-01

    Presents a review of behavioral, cognitive, social support, and nutritional components of comprehensive weight control programs. Includes rationale for each treatment component, description of techniques, and relevant research. Claims counselors may assess the individual needs of clients and develop effective weight control programs that match…

  10. Human cardiovascular disease IBC chip-wide association with weight loss and weight regain in the look ahead trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background/Aims: The present study identified genetic predictors of weight change during behavioral weight loss treatment. Methods: Participants were 3,899 overweight/obese individuals with type 2 diabetes from Look AHEAD, a randomized controlled trial to determine the effects of intensive lifestyle...

  11. Investigating the impact of deconditioning anxiety on weight loss.

    PubMed

    Nagler, W; Androff, A

    1990-04-01

    The effectiveness of a new model for the treatment of obesity was studied. This model assumed that obesity was not an eating disorder but a "not eating" disorder. Obese individuals do not have a problem eating, they are overly good at it. Obese individuals have a problem not eating. They experience difficulty or anxiety when they do not eat. The model assumed that removal of anxiety associated with "not eating" would allow obese subjects to lose weight. Wolpe and Lazarus' progressive relaxation techniques were used to decondition anxiety assumed associated with "not eating" in subjects. Inferred anxiety was deconditioned under conditions of "not eating" when imagining hunger, emotions, and cravings. Twenty-five subjects were instructed not to follow a diet after deconditioning but to eat less and be hungry to lose weight. A control group of 10 was instructed to follow a balanced 1000-calorie diet to lose weight. The former group lost a statistically significant amount of weight (7.5% of their body weight) over 11.9 months, while the control group subjects gained 6.5% of their weight. The model appears to be effective for the treatment of some individuals who wish to lose weight, based upon this preliminary study. Replication with other and larger groups is essential. PMID:2190255

  12. [Influence of dietary supplementation on newborn weight].

    PubMed

    Urbaniak, Tomasz; Klejewski, Andrzej; Pisarska, Magdalena; Kostecka, Ewelina

    2012-01-01

    The basic source of vitamins and microelements for an expectant mother should be a good arranged diet. The diet should mainly meets the demand for individual nutrient elements, evolves during a pregnancy and supplies with indispensable macro and microelements to mother and a growing up embryo. The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo that means: women from a lower social and economic status, with lower education, young mothers, with an unhealthy diet, exposed to anemia, with too low body mass before conception and with bad habits and a lifestyle. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. Special attention should be emphasized on the necessity of a health education to the extent of a healthy diet and a weight gain of mother while a cyophoria. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research - the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and

  13. The Tracking Study: Description of a randomized controlled trial of variations on weight tracking frequency in a behavioral weight loss program

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Jennifer A.; Jeffery, Robert W.; Crow, Scott J.; Brelje, Kerrin L.; Pacanowski, Carly R.; Gavin, Kara L.; Smolenski, Derek J.

    2014-01-01

    Observational evidence from behavioral weight control trials and community studies suggests that greater frequency of weighing oneself, or tracking weight, is associated with better weight outcomes. Conversely, it has also been suggested that frequent weight tracking may have a negative impact on mental health and outcomes during weight loss, but there are minimal experimental data that address this concern in the context of an active weight loss program. To achieve the long-term goal of strengthening behavioral weight loss programs, the purpose of this randomized controlled trial (the Tracking Study) is to test variations on frequency of self-weighing during a behavioral weight loss program, and to examine psychosocial and mental health correlates of weight tracking and weight loss outcomes. Three hundred thirty-nine overweight and obese adults were recruited and randomized to one of three variations on weight tracking frequency during a 12-month weight loss program with a 12-month follow-up: daily weight tracking, weekly weight tracking, or no weight tracking. The primary outcome is weight in kilograms at 24 months. The weight loss program integrates each weight tracking instruction with standard behavioral weight loss techniques (goal setting, self-monitoring, stimulus control, dietary and physical activity enhancements, lifestyle modifications); participants in weight tracking conditions were provided with wireless Internet technology (Wi-Fi-enabled digital scales and touchscreen personal devices) to facilitate weight tracking during the study. This paper describes the study design, intervention features, recruitment, and baseline characteristics of participants enrolled in the Tracking Study. PMID:25533727

  14. Choosing a Safe and Successful Weight-Loss Program

    MedlinePlus

    ... Research Training & Career Development Grant programs for students, postdocs, and faculty Research at NIDDK Labs, faculty, and ... diabetes, digestive and liver diseases, kidney diseases, weight control and nutrition, urologic diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, ...

  15. Weight Loss Improves the Adipogenic Capacity of Human Preadipocytes and Modulates Their Secretory Profile

    PubMed Central

    Rossmeislová, Lenka; Mališová, Lucia; Kračmerová, Jana; Tencerová, Michaela; Kováčová, Zuzana; Koc, Michal; Šiklová-Vítková, Michaela; Viquerie, Nathalie; Langin, Dominique; Štich, Vladimír

    2013-01-01

    Calorie restriction–induced weight loss is accompanied by profound changes in adipose tissue characteristics. To determine the effect of weight loss on differentiation of preadipocytes and secretory capacity of in vitro differentiated adipocytes, we established cultures of these cells from paired subcutaneous adipose tissue biopsies obtained before and at the end of weight-reducing dietary intervention (DI) in 23 obese women. Based on lipid accumulation and the expression of differentiation markers, in vitro adipogenesis increased after weight loss and it was accompanied by enhanced expression of genes involved in de novo lipogenesis. This effect of weight loss was not driven by changes of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor γ sensitivity to rosiglitazone. Weight loss also enhanced the expression of adiponectin and leptin while reducing that of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 and interleukin-8 by cultured adipocytes. Thus, the weight-reducing (DI) increased adipogenic capacity of preadipocytes and shifted their secretion toward lower inflammatory profile. Reprogramming of preadipocytes could represent an adaptation to weight loss leading to partial restoration of preobese adipose tissue traits and thus contribute to the improvement of metabolic status. However, enhanced adipogenesis could also contribute to the unwanted weight regain after initial weight loss. PMID:23378611

  16. Predictors of clinically significant weight loss and participant retention in an insurance-sponsored community-based weight management program.

    PubMed

    Abildso, Christiaan G; Zizzi, Sam; Fitzpatrick, Sean J

    2013-07-01

    Health insurance providers are a logical partner in providing third-party payment for behavioral weight loss programming, but little evidence of predictors of improved outcomes or retention in large, insurance-sponsored lifestyle programming is available. The purpose was to determine predictors of weight loss and retention in an insurance-sponsored, community-based weight management program. Current and former participants (N = 2,106) were recruited to complete a program evaluation survey. Respondents' survey and objective outcome data (n = 766) were analyzed using logistic regression procedures to understand the factors predictive of clinically-significant (5%) weight loss and program retention (>6 months). Clinically significant weight loss was predicted by completing more than 6 months of the program, positive ratings of staff interaction, and social support from friends on success. Ratings of positive impact of site hours of operation, nurse calls, and availability of safe places to be active and feeling comfortable at the site were predictive of program retention. Modifiable intervention, social factors, and site-level factors were predictive of clinically significant weight loss and program retention, providing fodder for further study and dissemination to current providers and to a broader network of health promotion professionals. PMID:23075503

  17. Weight loss effect of dietary diacylglycerol in obese dogs.

    PubMed

    Umeda, T; Bauer, J E; Otsuji, K

    2006-06-01

    Obesity in dogs and cats have been increasingly recognized in recent years. Because obesity underlies various diseases, pet owners and veterinarians have an important responsibility to help animals lose weight and maintain their health. Diet therapy, however, is typically based on limited calorie intake and animals may suffer stress from hunger and this is also a concern to animal owners. For this reason, many clients drop out of weight control programmes. In the present study, we focused on dietary diacylglycerol (DAG) as a potentially effective ingredient for canine weight control without caloric restriction. We replaced a portion of the fat in dog food with either DAG or triacylglycerol (TAG), referred to as DAG or TAG diets here, and fed overweight beagle dogs (body condition score of 4 or higher) with either the DAG or TAG diet for a 6-week period. Results indicated that, even though the food composition other than fat type were identical, dogs fed the DAG diet showed a statistically significant reduction in body weight averaging a 2.3% reduction within 6 weeks while the TAG-fed dogs maintained their obese body weights. In addition, the DAG group also showed a reduction in body fat content, serum triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations. These results suggest the possibility of developing a pet food using DAG to control weight and serum lipid levels without compromising caloric intake. PMID:16684141

  18. Weight-loss surgery - after - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Loss Program, Penn State Milton S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Isla Ogilvie, PhD, and the A.D.A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics ...

  19. Effects of intermittent compared to continuous energy restriction on short-term weight loss and long-term weight loss maintenance.

    PubMed

    Keogh, J B; Pedersen, E; Petersen, K S; Clifton, P M

    2014-06-01

    Effective strategies are needed to help individuals lose weight and maintain weight loss. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the effect of intermittent energy restriction (IER) compared to continuous energy restriction (CER) on weight loss after 8 weeks and weight loss maintenance after 12 months. Secondary aims were to determine changes in waist and hip measurements and diet quality. In a randomized parallel study, overweight and obese (body mass index [BMI] ≥ 27 kg m(-2)) women were stratified by age and BMI before randomization. Participants undertook an 8-week intensive period with weight, waist and hip circumference measured every 2 weeks, followed by 44 weeks of independent dieting. A food frequency questionnaire was completed at baseline and 12 months, from which diet quality was determined. Weight loss was not significantly different between the two groups at 8 weeks (-3.2 ± 2.1 kg CER, n = 20, -2.0 ± 1.9 kg IER, n = 25; P = 0.06) or at 12 months (-4.2 ± 5.6 kg CER, n = 17 -2.1 ± 3.8 kg IER, n = 19; P = 0.19). Weight loss between 8 and 52 weeks was -0.7 ± 49 kg CER vs. -1 ± 1.1 kg IER; P = 0.6. Waist and hip circumference decreased significantly with time (P < 0.01), with no difference between groups. There was an increase in the Healthy Eating Index at 12 months in the CER compared with the IER group (CER 8.4 ± 9.1 vs. IER -0.3 ± 8.4, P = 0.006). This study indicates that intermittent dieting was as effective as continuous dieting over 8 weeks and for weight loss maintenance at 12 months. This may be useful for individuals who find CER too difficult to maintain. PMID:25826770

  20. The Weight-Inclusive versus Weight-Normative Approach to Health: Evaluating the Evidence for Prioritizing Well-Being over Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Tylka, Tracy L.; Annunziato, Rachel A.; Burgard, Deb; Daníelsdóttir, Sigrún; Shuman, Ellen; Calogero, Rachel M.

    2014-01-01

    Using an ethical lens, this review evaluates two methods of working within patient care and public health: the weight-normative approach (emphasis on weight and weight loss when defining health and well-being) and the weight-inclusive approach (emphasis on viewing health and well-being as multifaceted while directing efforts toward improving health access and reducing weight stigma). Data reveal that the weight-normative approach is not effective for most people because of high rates of weight regain and cycling from weight loss interventions, which are linked to adverse health and well-being. Its predominant focus on weight may also foster stigma in health care and society, and data show that weight stigma is also linked to adverse health and well-being. In contrast, data support a weight-inclusive approach, which is included in models such as Health at Every Size for improving physical (e.g., blood pressure), behavioral (e.g., binge eating), and psychological (e.g., depression) indices, as well as acceptability of public health messages. Therefore, the weight-inclusive approach upholds nonmaleficience and beneficience, whereas the weight-normative approach does not. We offer a theoretical framework that organizes the research included in this review and discuss how it can guide research efforts and help health professionals intervene with their patients and community. PMID:25147734

  1. Environmental organic pollutants in human milk before and after weight loss.

    PubMed

    Lignell, Sanna; Winkvist, Anna; Bertz, Fredrik; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Glynn, Anders; Aune, Marie; Brekke, Hilde Kristin

    2016-09-01

    Many persistent organic pollutants (POPs) are banned because they accumulate in organisms and are toxic. Lipophilic POPs are stored in maternal adipose tissue and concentrations in human milk (HM) may increase during weight loss. Our aim was to examine associations between weight loss and concentrations of chlorinated POPs in HM in lactating women participating in a weight loss study. We analysed POPs (PCB 28, PCB 153, HCB, DDE) in HM at 12 and 24 weeks postpartum from 32 women who participated in a randomized, 2 × 2 factorial trial of diet and exercise for postpartum weight loss. Participants donated milk before and after the intervention period. We examined associations between weight loss and change in POP concentrations and estimated the intake of POPs by their breastfed infants. Most (n = 27) women lost weight during intervention, 0.45 ± 0.30 kg/week (mean ± SD). Among these women, the concentration of PCB 153 in HM was significantly (p = 0.04) higher at follow-up than at baseline. Weight loss was significantly positively associated with changes in concentrations of all studied POPs (2.0-2.4% increase per percent weight loss). Estimated mean intakes of POPs (ng/day) remained stable because infant milk consumption decreased during the study period. As infants gained weight, estimated mean intakes per kg body weight decreased 17-22%. Changes in concentrations of POPs in HM correlated positively with maternal weight loss, but it is unlikely that the balance between the benefits and risks of breastfeeding will change if the weight loss is restricted to 0.5 kg per week. PMID:27281542

  2. Weight loss and progressive left ventricular remodelling: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA)

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ravi V; Murthy, Venkatesh L; Abbasi, Siddique A; Eng, John; Wu, Colin; Ouyang, Pamela; Kwong, Raymond Y; Goldfine, Allison; Bluemke, David A; Lima, Joao; Jerosch-Herold, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Aims Impact of weight loss on cardiac structure has not been extensively investigated in large, multi-ethnic, community-based populations. We investigated the longitudinal impact of weight loss on cardiac structure by cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR). Methods and results 2351 participants in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA) who underwent CMR at Exam 1 (2002) and Exam 5 (2011) were included. Primary outcomes were percentage change in LV mass (indexed to height) and LV mass-to-volume ratio (concentric LV remodelling). Multivariable linear regression was used to measure the association between outcomes and weight change. At median 9.4 years' follow-up, 639 individuals (27%) experienced >5% weight loss (median 6.9 kg) and 511 (22%) had >5% weight gain (median 6.4 kg). A >5% weight gain was associated with the greatest increase in LV mass (+5.4% median) and LV mass-to-volume ratio (+12.2% median). Adjusting for medications, hypertension/diabetes (and change in these risk factors), age, race and other risk factors, every 5% weight loss was associated with a 1.3% decrease in height-indexed LV mass and 1.3% decrease in LV mass-to-volume ratio (p <0.0001). There was no effect modification/confounding by age, race, gender or baseline BMI. Change in LV mass-to-volume ratio was roughly linear, specifically for modest degrees of weight loss (−10% to +10%). Change in LV mass was linear with weight loss, suggesting no threshold of weight loss is needed for LV mass regression. Conclusions In a large multi-ethnic population, weight loss is associated with beneficial effects on cardiac structure, independent of age, race, gender, BMI and obesity-related cardiometabolic risk. There is no threshold of weight loss required to produce these effects. PMID:25009171

  3. Evaluation of early weight loss thresholds for identifying nonresponders to an intensive lifestyle intervention

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: Weight losses in lifestyle interventions are variable, yet prediction of long-term success is difficult. The utility of using various weight loss thresholds in the first 2 months of treatment for predicting 1-year outcomes was examined. Methods: Participants included 2,327 adults with t...

  4. Weight-Loss Surgery Doesn't Boost Bone Health: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160161.html Weight-Loss Surgery Doesn't Boost Bone Health: Study Increased ... 29, 2016 FRIDAY, July 29, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Weight-loss surgery helps severely obese patients shed pounds and ...

  5. Impact of weight loss on ankle-brachial index and interartery blood pressures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To assess whether weight loss improves markers of peripheral artery disease and vascular stenosis. Methods: The Action for Health in Diabetes randomized clinical trial compared intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) for weight loss to a control condition of diabetes support and education...

  6. Continuation of Weight Loss Treatment Is Associated with the Number of Self-Selected Treatment Modalities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Corby K.; Drab-Hudson, Danae L.; York-Crowe, Emily; Mayville, Stephen B.; Yu, Ying; Greenway, Frank L.

    2007-01-01

    Behavior therapy is a cornerstone of weight loss treatment and behaviorists help direct patients' treatment. A novel design was used that allowed participants to choose different treatment modalities during behavioral weight loss treatment. The association between the selection of different treatment modalities and program completion was examined…

  7. The Relationship between Physical, Sexual, and Emotional Abuse and Unhealthy Weight Loss Behaviors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferrier, Amanda G.; Martens, Matthew P.; Cimini, M. Dolores

    2005-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between abuse in adult relationships and the tendency to engage in unhealthy weight loss behaviors. Undergraduate women responded to questions regarding weight loss behaviors, whether or not they had recently been in an abusive relationship, and perceived body image. Results indicated that women who had…

  8. Weighting of Acoustic Cues to a Manner Distinction by Children with and without Hearing Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nittrouer, Susan; Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Children must develop optimal perceptual weighting strategies for processing speech in their first language. Hearing loss can interfere with that development, especially if cochlear implants are required. The three goals of this study were to measure, for children with and without hearing loss: (a) cue weighting for a manner distinction,…

  9. Effects of Peer Support and Therapist Contact on Long-Term Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perri, Michael G.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of posttreatment programs to enhance weight loss maintenance. Obese clients (N=85) participated in either behavior therapy, behavior therapy and peer-support, or behavior therapy and therapist-contact programs. At 7-month follow-up, therapist-contact program showed significantly greater weight loss maintenance than did…

  10. Greater hunger and less restraint predict weight loss success with phentermine treatment

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Elizabeth A.; McNair, Bryan; Bechtell, Jamie L.; Ferland, Annie; Cornier, Marc-Andre; Eckel, Robert H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Phentermine is thought to cause weight loss through a reduction in hunger. We hypothesized that higher hunger ratings would predict greater weight loss with phentermine. Design and Methods This is an observational pilot study in which all subjects were treated with phentermine for 8 weeks and appetite and eating behaviors were measured at baseline and week 8. Outcomes were compared in subjects with ≥5% vs <5% weight loss, and linear regression was used to identify predictors of percent weight loss. Results 27 subjects (37 ± 4.5 yrs, 93.8 ± 12.1 kg, BMI 33.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2) completed the study, with mean weight loss of -5.4 ± 3.3 kg (-5.7 ± 3.2%). Subjects with ≥5% weight loss had higher baseline pre-breakfast hunger (p=0.017), desire to eat (p=0.003), and prospective food consumption (0.006), and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p=0.01). In addition, higher baseline home prospective food consumption (p=0.002) and lower baseline cognitive restraint (p<0.001) were found to be predictors of weight loss. Conclusion These results suggest that individuals reporting greater hunger and less restraint are more likely to achieve significant weight loss with phentermine. This information can be used clinically to determine who might benefit most from phentermine treatment. PMID:26584649

  11. An Investigation of Hormone and Lipid Associations after Weight Loss in Women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objectives of this study were to determine 1) whether the extent of weight loss is predictive of the degree of changes in hormone and lipid levels; 2) the interactions between energy regulating hormones after weight loss through an energy deficit/exercise protocol diet and exercise; 3) whether i...

  12. A Review of Efficacious Technology-Based Weight-Loss Interventions: Five Key Components

    PubMed Central

    Yiaslas, Themis; Bergstrom, Jessica; Gore-Felton, Cheryl

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Obesity is highly prevalent among American adults and has negative health and psychosocial consequences. The purpose of this article was to qualitatively review studies that used technology-based interventions for weight loss and to identify specific components of these interventions that are effective in facilitating weight loss. Materials and Methods: We conducted a narrow, qualitative review, focusing on articles published in the last 10 years that used an experimental or pre/posttest design and used a technology-based intervention for weight loss. Results: Among the 21 studies reviewed, we identified the following five components that we consider to be crucial in technology-based weight-loss interventions that are successful in facilitating weight loss: self monitoring, counselor feedback and communication, social support, use of a structured program, and use of an individually tailored program. Conclusions: Short-term results of technologically driven weight-loss interventions using these components have been promising, but long-term results have been mixed. Although more longitudinal studies are needed for interventions implementing these five components, the interface of technology and behavior change is an effective foundation of a successful, short-term weight-loss program and may prove to be the basis of long-term weight loss. PMID:21091286

  13. Metabolic, endocrine, and immunologic biomarkers change in response to weight loss in obese Hispanic children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pediatric obesity and its associated comorbid conditions continue to grow in epidemic proportions. While it is known that moderate 10% weight loss in adults is correlated with improvements in metabolic risk factors, the relationship between weight loss and risk reduction in children is not well defi...

  14. Effect of glycemic load on eating behavior self-efficacy during weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High eating behavior self-efficacy may contribute to successful weight loss. Diet interventions that maximize eating behavior self-efficacy may therefore improve weight loss outcomes. However, data on the effect of diet composition on eating behavior self-efficacy are sparse. To determine the eff...

  15. The Efficacy of Weight-Loss Clinics: An Issue in Consumer Health Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Susan E.

    1988-01-01

    Weight loss clinics based on scientific fact and containing diet therapy, exercise therapy, and behavior modification components can be effective vehicles for weight loss among the mildly to moderately obese. Health educators are called on to disseminate the information necessary to establish scientifically based criteria and program evaluation…

  16. Comparison of Methods for Assessing Body Composition Changes during Weight Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weyers, Anna M.; Mazzetti, Scott A.; Love, Dawn M.; Gomez, Ana L.; Kraemer, William J.; Volek, Jeff S.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated whether dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) and air displacement plethysmography (ADP) would detect similar changes in body composition after moderate weight loss. Twenty adults had their body composition measured using DXA and ADP before and after an 8-week weight loss program. Overall, both DXA and ADP detected similar changes in…

  17. Cholesterol Metabolism and Body Composition in Women: The Effects of Moderate Weight Loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective was to determine how moderate weight loss protocol through diet and exercise may affect changes in body composition, to determine the effects of weight loss on cholesterol metabolism, and to examine the relationship between cholesterol metabolism and changes in body composition. Thirt...

  18. Social Network Characteristics Associated with Weight Loss among Black and Hispanic Adults with Overweight and Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Winston, Ginger; Phillips, Erica G.; Wethington, Elaine; Devine, Carol; Wells, Martin; Peterson, Janey C.; Hippolyte, Jessica; Ramos, Rosio; Martinez, Guillerma; Eldridge, Johanna; Charlson, Mary

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine social network member characteristics associated with weight loss. Methods Cross-sectional examination of egocentric network data from 245 Black and Hispanic adults with BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2 enrolled in a small change weight loss study. The relationship between weight loss at 12 months and characteristics of helpful and harmful network members (relationship, contact frequency, living proximity and body size) were examined. Results There were 2,571 network members identified. Mean weight loss was -4.8 (±11.3) lbs. among participants with network help and no harm with eating goals vs. +3.4 (±7.8) lbs. among participants with network harm alone. In a multivariable regression model, greater weight loss was associated with help from a child with eating goals (p=.0002) and coworker help with physical activity (p=.01). Weight gain was associated with having network members with obesity living in the home (p=.048) and increased network size (p=.002). Conclusions There was greater weight loss among participants with support from children and coworkers. Weight gain was associated with harmful network behaviors and having network members with obesity in the home. Incorporating child and co-worker support, and evaluating network harm and the body size of network members should be considered in future weight loss interventions. PMID:26179578

  19. Weight, muscle and bone loss during space flight: another perspective.

    PubMed

    Stein, T P

    2013-09-01

    Space flight is a new experience for humans. Humans adapt if not perfectly, rather well to life without gravity. There is a reductive remodeling of the musculo-skeletal system. Protein is lost from muscles and calcium from bones with anti-gravity functions. The observed biochemical and physiological changes reflect this accommodative process. The two major direct effects of the muscle loss are weakness post-flight and the increased incidence of low back ache pre- and post-flight. The muscle protein losses are compromised by the inability to maintain energy balance inflight. Voluntary dietary intake is reduced during space flight by ~20 %. These adaptations to weightlessness leave astronauts ill-equipped for life with gravity. Exercise, the obvious counter-measure has been repeatedly tried and since the muscle and bone losses persist it is not unreasonable to assume that success has been limited at best. Nevertheless, more than 500 people have now flown in space for up to 1 year and have done remarkably well. This review addresses the question of whether enough is now known about these three problems (negative energy balance, muscle loss and bone loss) for to the risks to be considered either acceptable or correctible enough to meet the requirements for a Mars mission. PMID:23192310

  20. High trait self-control predicts positive health behaviors and success in weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Crescioni, A. Will; Ehrlinger, Joyce; Alquist, Jessica L.; Conlon, Kyle E.; Baumeister, Roy F.; Schatschneider, Christopher; Dutton, Gareth R.

    2015-01-01

    Surprisingly few studies have explored the intuitive connection between self-control and weight loss. We tracked participants’ diet, exercise and weight loss during a 12-week weight loss program. Participants higher in self-control weighed less and reported exercising more than their lower self-control counterparts at baseline. Independent of baseline differences, individuals high in dispositional self-control ate fewer calories overall and fewer calories from fat, burned marginally more calories through exercise, and lost more weight during the program than did those lower in self-control. These data suggest that trait self-control is, indeed, an important predictor of health behaviors. PMID:21421645

  1. 'Are you still on that stupid diet?': women's experiences of societal pressure and support regarding weight loss, and attitudes towards health policy intervention.

    PubMed

    Whale, Katie; Gillison, Fiona B; Smith, Paula C

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated how people's attitudes and motivations towards losing weight are influenced by societal pressures surrounding weight loss, their interaction with the obesogenic environment and individuals' attitudes and motivations towards weight. Semi-structured qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 women currently attending commercial weight-loss programmes. Participants experienced conflicting messages regarding weight norms, with the media portraying powerful social norms relating to thinness and beauty, and changes to the food environment and interactions with family and friends commonly undermining weight-loss activities and promoting increased consumption. Providing social and environmental support for the behaviours needed to produce weight loss may need to be a primary focus for obesity policy. PMID:23928985

  2. Brief report: A randomized controlled trial examining peer support and behavioral weight loss treatment.

    PubMed

    Kulik, Noel; Ennett, Susan T; Ward, Dianne S; Bowling, J Michael; Fisher, Edwin B; Tate, Deborah F

    2015-10-01

    Peer support among adolescents has been positively associated with heath behaviors; however, enhancing peer support for weight loss has rarely been studied among adolescents. This study examined whether a peer support training component delivered to enhance a standard weight loss program led to improved outcomes. Forty-one overweight adolescent females were randomly assigned to a Standard or Enhanced Peer Support intervention. The Enhanced group received in person peer support skills training and practiced skills using social networking. At 16 weeks, participants in the Enhanced condition reported significantly increased perceptions of friend support. Both groups demonstrated significant weight loss (6.4 lbs, ± 8.3). Attendance and self-monitoring were associated with weight loss. Perceptions of peer support can be increased with a peer training component, but did not increase weight loss during the short term. PMID:26265590

  3. Benefits of recruiting participants with friends and increasing social support for weight loss and maintenance.

    PubMed

    Wing, R R; Jeffery, R W

    1999-02-01

    To determine the benefits of social support for weight loss and maintenance, this study recruited participants (N = 166) either alone or with 3 friends or family members and then randomly assigned them to a standard behavioral treatment (SBT) or SBT with social support strategies. Participants recruited with friends had greater weight losses at the end of the 4-month treatment and at Month 10 follow-up. Both recruitment strategy and the social support manipulation affected treatment completion and weight-loss maintenance. In those recruited alone and given SBT, 76% completed treatment and 24% maintained their weight loss in full from Months 4 to 10. Among those recruited with friends and given SBT plus social support, 95% completed treatment and 66% maintained their weight loss in full. PMID:10028217

  4. Performance of a canine weight-loss program in clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Saker, Korinn E; Remillard, Rebecca L

    2005-01-01

    Two canine studies evaluating the effectiveness of a specific computerized weight reduction program in two different clinical settings are summarized to give an overall assessment of an obesity management software program. The weight loss program utilizes a low calorie food formulation (dry, canned and treat) and software to suggest daily calorie intake for weight loss. The software utilizes current body weight and a desired weekly rate of weight loss to predict the dog's body weight in 30 days. The dietary product and software were used in a 3- and 6-month weight loss regime for 60 overweight adult dogs in two different clinical settings. On average, the dogs in this summary lost 0.75% per week regardless of more aggressive rates set by the nutritionist. Accuracy in predicting future weights by the software was dependent upon the desired rate of weight loss selected, the equation used to estimate maintenance energy requirement, and owner compliance. Over time, accuracy in predicting future canine weights improved. All healthy, overweight or obese dogs summarized in these two studies did lose weight and reached an optimal or at least lower body condition score with the aid of this software program and diet. PMID:16550491

  5. Interventions to improve long-term weight loss in patients following bariatric surgery: challenges and solutions

    PubMed Central

    McGrice, Melanie; Don Paul, Kathlene

    2015-01-01

    Bariatric surgery aims to provide long-term weight loss and improvement in weight-related comorbidities. Unfortunately, some patients do not achieve predicted weight loss targets and many regain a portion of their lost weight within 2–10 years postsurgery. A review of the literature found that behavioral, dietary, psychological, physical, and medical considerations can all play a role in suboptimal long-term weight loss. Recommendations to optimize long-term weight loss include ensuring that the patient understands how the procedure works, preoperative and postoperative education sessions, tailored nutritional supplements, restraint with liquid kilojoules, pureed foods, grazing and eating out of the home, an average of 60 minutes of physical activity per day, and lifelong annual medical, psychological, and dietary assessments. PMID:26150731

  6. Adaptations to a diet-based weight-reducing programme in obese women resistant to weight loss.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, A; Lepage, C; Panahi, S; Couture, C; Drapeau, V

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess energy intake, resting metabolic rate (RMR), appetite sensations, eating behaviours and sleep duration and quality in obese women resistant to body weight loss when subjected to a diet-based weight-reducing programme. A pooled cohort of obese women (n = 75; aged 39 ± 8 years; body mass index: 33 ± 4 kg m(-2)) participated in a 12-16-week diet-based weight loss programme targeting a daily energy deficit of 500-700 kcal d(-1). Women were classified in tertiles a posteriori based on the response of their body weight to dietary supervision (high, moderate and low responders). Post-intervention, mean weight loss was 3.3 ± 2.8 kg and explained by the 2.9 ± 2.6 kg reduction in fat mass. Mean weight loss was 6.2 ± 1.6, 3.4 ± 0.6 and 0.2 ± 1.4 kg in participants classified in the high, middle and low tertiles, respectively. Women in the low tertile reduced their daily energy intake and susceptibility to hunger during the programme to a lesser extent than those in the high tertile and had higher fasting hunger in response to the dietary intervention. Women in the high tertile maintained their RMR, which was in contrast to the significant decrease predicted by their weight loss. They also reported a significant improvement in sleep quality and an increase in sleep duration compared with other tertiles. The differences in the response of body weight to dietary supervision may be explained, in part, by variations in energy intake, eating behaviours, appetite sensations and sleep duration and quality. PMID:25872975

  7. A Mobile Health Intervention to Sustain Recent Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Ryan Jeffrey

    2012-01-01

    The goal of this study was to design an intervention that would help people stay in the continued response phase of the Behavior Change Process and help prevent weight relapse. Using the Behavior Change Process and regulatory focus theory, an intervention was developed that leveraged short message service (SMS) to deliver messages to people who…

  8. Predictors of weight loss in Mexican American adolescents

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined predictors of weight change in Mexican American adolescents. Eighty overweight Mexican American children were randomized to receive either the intensive intervention or self help program. Physiological (e.g. standardized BMI (zBMI), percent body fat, and tanner stage), psychologi...

  9. Should Medicare Reimburse Providers for Weight Loss Interventions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Robert M.

    2007-01-01

    This issue of the American Psychologist (April 2007) includes two reviews of the literature on the effects of behavioral programs to reduce body weight. One review (T. Mann et al., 2007) concentrates on dietary interventions and finds little evidence that diets are of benefit. The second review (L. H. Powell, J. E. Calvin III, & J. E. Calvin Jr.,…

  10. GLP-1 and weight loss: unraveling the diverse neural circuitry.

    PubMed

    Kanoski, Scott E; Hayes, Matthew R; Skibicka, Karolina P

    2016-05-15

    Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is currently one of the most promising biological systems for the development of effective obesity pharmacotherapies. Long-acting GLP-1 analogs potently reduce food intake and body weight, and recent discoveries reveal that peripheral administration of these drugs reduces food intake largely through humoral pathways involving direct action on brain GLP-1 receptors (GLP-1R). Thus, it is of critical importance to understand the neural systems through which GLP-1 and long-acting GLP-1 analogs reduce food intake and body weight. In this review, we discuss several neural, physiological, cellular and molecular, as well as behavioral mechanisms through which peripheral and central GLP-1R signaling reduces feeding. Particular attention is devoted to discussion regarding the numerous neural substrates through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce food intake and body weight, including various hypothalamic nuclei (arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus, periventricular hypothalamus, lateral hypothalamic area), hindbrain nuclei (parabrachial nucleus, medial nucleus tractus solitarius), hippocampus (ventral subregion; vHP), and nuclei embedded within the mesolimbic reward circuitry [ventral tegmental area (VTA) and nucleus accumbens (NAc)]. In some of these nuclei [VTA, NAc, and vHP], GLP-1R activation reduces food intake and body weight without concomitant nausea responses, suggesting that targeting these specific pathways may be of particular interest for future obesity pharmacotherapy. The widely distributed neural systems through which GLP-1 and GLP-1 analogs act to reduce body weight highlight the complexity of the neural systems regulating energy balance, as well as the challenges for developing effective obesity pharmacotherapies that reduce feeding without producing parallel negative side effects. PMID:27030669

  11. Qualitative analysis of the role of self-weighing as a strategy of weight control for weight-loss maintainers in comparison with a normal, stable weight group.

    PubMed

    Carrard, Isabelle; Kruseman, Maaike

    2016-10-01

    Self-weighing seems to have a primary role in weight-loss maintenance. The use of this strategy may help correct even slight weight regain and contribute to long-term weight stability. However, self-weighing has also been associated with negative psychological health consequences in specific subgroups. This study aimed to explore the use and the behavioral and psychological consequences of self-weighing in a group of weight-loss maintainers (WLoMs). We chose a qualitative design to conduct this investigation. Eighteen WLoMs were interviewed and compared to a matched comparison group of 18 participants with a lifelong normal stable weight (NSW). Analyses showed that most WLoMs needed regular self-weighing to be aware of their weight. The weight displayed on the scale helped WLoMs sustain the continuous efforts needed to maintain weight loss and also at times triggered corrective actions that were sometimes drastic. Weight changes generated both negative and positive affect among WLoMs, who could experience anxiety because of self-weighing or have their self-esteem impaired in the case of weight gain. In comparison, the NSW group rarely used self-weighing. They relied on a conscious way of living to control their weight and needed fewer strategies. NSW participants simply went back to their routine when they felt a slight increase in their weight, without experiencing consequences on their mood or self-esteem. Regular self-weighing as a component of weight-loss maintenance should be encouraged to help WLoMs regulate their food and physical activity, provided that potential consequences on psychological well-being, including self-esteem, are screened and addressed when needed. PMID:27374738

  12. A smartphone-supported weight loss program: design of the ENGAGED randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Obesity remains a major public health challenge, demanding cost-effective and scalable weight management programs. Delivering key treatment components via mobile technology offers a potential way to reduce expensive in-person contact, thereby lowering the cost and burden of intensive weight loss programs. The ENGAGED study is a theory-guided, randomized controlled trial designed to examine the feasibility and efficacy of an abbreviated smartphone-supported weight loss program. Methods/design Ninety-six obese adults (BMI 30–39.9 kg/m2) will be randomized to one of three treatment conditions: (1) standard behavioral weight loss (STND), (2) technology-supported behavioral weight loss (TECH); or (3) self-guided behavioral weight loss (SELF). All groups will aim to achieve a 7% weight loss goal by reducing calorie and fat intake and progressively increasing moderate intensity physical activity to 175 minutes/week. STND and TECH will attend 8 group sessions and receive regular coaching calls during the first 6 months of the intervention; SELF will receive the Group Lifestyle Balance Program DVD’s and will not receive coaching calls. During months 1–6, TECH will use a specially designed smartphone application to monitor dietary intake, body weight, and objectively measured physical activity (obtained from a Blue-tooth enabled accelerometer). STND and SELF will self-monitor on paper diaries. Linear mixed modeling will be used to examine group differences on weight loss at months 3, 6, and 12. Self-monitoring adherence and diet and activity goal attainment will be tested as mediators. Discussion ENGAGED is an innovative weight loss intervention that integrates theory with emerging mobile technologies. We hypothesize that TECH, as compared to STND and SELF, will result in greater weight loss by virtue of improved behavioral adherence and goal achievement. Trial registration NCT01051713 PMID:23194256

  13. Weight change in control group participants in behavioural weight loss interventions: a systematic review and meta-regression study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Unanticipated control group improvements have been observed in intervention trials targeting various health behaviours. This phenomenon has not been studied in the context of behavioural weight loss intervention trials. The purpose of this study is to conduct a systematic review and meta-regression of behavioural weight loss interventions to quantify control group weight change, and relate the size of this effect to specific trial and sample characteristics. Methods Database searches identified reports of intervention trials meeting the inclusion criteria. Data on control group weight change and possible explanatory factors were abstracted and analysed descriptively and quantitatively. Results 85 trials were reviewed and 72 were included in the meta-regression. While there was no change in control group weight, control groups receiving usual care lost 1 kg more than control groups that received no intervention, beyond measurement. Conclusions There are several possible explanations why control group changes occur in intervention trials targeting other behaviours, but not for weight loss. Control group participation may prevent weight gain, although more research is needed to confirm this hypothesis. PMID:22873682

  14. Identification and Prediction of Latent Classes of Weight-loss Strategies Among Women

    PubMed Central

    Lanza, Stephanie T.; Savage, Jennifer S.; Birch, Leann L.

    2009-01-01

    We apply latent class analysis (LCA) to quantify multidimensional patterns of weight-loss strategies in a sample of 197 women, and explore the degree to which dietary restraint, disinhibition, and other individual characteristics predict membership in latent classes of weight-loss strategies. Latent class models were fit to a set of 14 healthy and unhealthy weight-loss strategies. BMI, weight concern, body satisfaction, depression, dietary disinhibition and restraint, and the interaction of disinhibition and restraint were included as predictors of latent class membership. All analyses were conducted with PROC LCA, a recently developed SAS procedure available for download. Results revealed four subgroups of women based on their history of weight-loss strategies: No Weight Loss Strategy (10.0%), Dietary Guidelines (26.5%), Guidelines+Macronutrients (39.4%), and Guidelines+Macronutrients+Restrict ive (24.2%). BMI, weight concerns, the desire to be thinner, disinhibition, and dietary restraint were all significantly related to weight-control strategy latent class. Among women with low dietary restraint, disinhibition increases the odds of engaging in any set of weight-loss strategies vs. none, whereas among medium- and high-restraint women disinhibition increases the odds of use of unhealthy vs. healthy strategies. LCA was an effective tool for organizing multiple weight-loss strategies in order to identify subgroups of individuals who have engaged in particular sets of strategies over time. This person-centered approach provides a measure weight-control status, where the different statuses are characterized by particular combinations of healthy and unhealthy weight-loss strategies. PMID:19696754

  15. Multi-component access to a community-based weight loss program: 12 week results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The current study examined weight loss between a comprehensive lifestyle modification program (Weight Watchers PointsPlus program) that included three ways to access and a self-help (SH) condition. A total of 293 participants were randomized to either a Weight Watchers condition (WW) (n=148) or a SH...

  16. Behavior Change; Weight Loss, and Physiological Improvements in Type II Diabetic Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wing, Rena R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Investigated whether behavior modification would improve short- and long-term results of weight control programs for obese patients (N=53) with Type II diabetes. The behavior modification group lost more weight than the nutrition education or standard-care condition during the 16-week treatment, but at 16-month follow-up, weight loss differences…

  17. Multi-component access to a commercially available weight loss program: A randomized controlled trial

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study examined weight loss between a community-based, intensive behavioral counseling program (Weight Watchers PointsPlus that included three treatment access modes and a self-help condition. A total of 292 participants were randomized to a Weight Watchers (WW; n=147) or a self-help condition (...

  18. The Influence of Attitudes about Weight

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Physical Education, Recreation & Dance (JOPERD), 2005

    2005-01-01

    Obesity stereotypes and anti fat attitudes influence the social behavior of middle school students according to a study presented last June at the annual meeting of the American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM). Using a series of questionnaires and fat and thin silhouette figures, the researchers quizzed 176 boys and 141 girls between the ages of…

  19. Food Thought Suppression Inventory: Test-retest reliability and relationship to weight loss treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Barnes, Rachel D; Ivezaj, Valentina; Grilo, Carlos M

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the test-retest reliability of the Food Thought Suppression Inventory (FTSI) and its relationship with weight loss during weight loss treatment. Participants were 89 adults with and without binge eating disorder (BED) recruited through primary care for weight loss treatment who completed the FTSI twice prior to starting treatment. Intra-class correlations for the FTSI ranged from .74-.93. Participants with BED scored significantly higher on the FTSI than those without BED at baseline only. Percent weight loss from baseline to mid-treatment was significantly negatively correlated with the FTSI at baseline and at post-treatment. Participants reaching 5% loss of original body weight by post-treatment had significantly lower FTSI scores at post assessment when compared to those who did not reach this weight loss goal. While baseline binge-eating episodes were significantly positively correlated with baseline FTSI scores, change in binge-eating episodes during treatment were not significantly related to FTSI scores. The FTSI showed satisfactory one week test-retest reliability. Higher levels of food thought suppression may impair individuals' ability to lose weight while receiving weight loss treatment. PMID:27112114

  20. Evaluation of early weight loss thresholds for identifying non-responders to an intensive lifestyle intervention

    PubMed Central

    Unick, Jessica L.; Hogan, Patricia E.; Neiberg, Rebecca H.; Cheskin, Lawrence J.; Dutton, Gareth R.; Evans-Hudnall, Gina; Jeffery, Robert; Kitabchi, Abbas E.; Nelson, Julie A.; Pi-Sunyer, F. Xavier; West, Delia Smith; Wing, Rena R.

    2014-01-01

    Weight losses in lifestyle interventions are variable, yet prediction of long-term success is difficult. Objective We examined the utility of using various weight loss thresholds in the first 2 months of treatment for predicting 1-year outcomes. Design and Methods Participants included 2327 adults with type 2 diabetes (BMI:35.8±6.0) randomized to the intensive lifestyle intervention (ILI) of the Look AHEAD trial. ILI included weekly behavioral sessions designed to increase physical activity and reduce caloric intake. 1-month, 2-month, and 1-year weight changes were calculated. Results Participants failing to achieve a ≥2% weight loss at Month 1 were 5.6 (95% CI:4.5,7.0) times more likely to also not achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1, compared to those losing ≥2% initially. These odds were increased to 11.6 (95% CI:8.6,15.6) when using a 3% weight loss threshold at Month 2. Only 15.2% and 8.2% of individuals failing to achieve the ≥2% and ≥3% thresholds at Months 1 and 2 respectively, go on to achieve a ≥10% weight loss at Year 1. Conclusions Given the association between initial and 1-year weight loss, the first few months of treatment may be an opportune time to identify those who are unsuccessful and utilize rescue efforts. PMID:24771618

  1. Influence of unilateral weight on bilateral cyclograms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellicer Costa, Juan José; Dusza, Jacek J.

    2014-11-01

    The paper presents the results of gait parameters as a function of unilateral weight. The object of the research was a woman walking on a stationary surface and carrying in his hand weights from 0 to 15 kg. Her movement was recorded by 6 cameras recording the location of 34 markers placed at appropriate points in the body. 3D reconstruction was performed for each of the reflecting markers. Tested signals were changes in the value the joint angles of ankle, knee and hip. On the basis of about 6 cycles of movement of each load, a model for the average gait cycle was developed. The result of the experiments are graphs of changes the joint angles as a function of time, bilateral cyclograms, synchronized bilateral cyclograms and regression lines. The conclusion of the study is to determine how one-sided load affects gait asymmetry. Simple and easy to interpret method of presentation of results were also shown. Studies were conducted using VICON system.

  2. Weight Loss Predicts Progression of Mild Cognitive Impairment to Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cova, Ilaria; Rossi, Annalia; Cucumo, Valentina; Ghiretti, Roberta; Maggiore, Laura; Pomati, Simone; Galimberti, Daniela; Scarpini, Elio; Mariani, Claudio; Caracciolo, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Background Weight loss is common in people with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and it could be a marker of impending AD in Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) and improve prognostic accuracy, if accelerated progression to AD would be shown. Aims To assess weight loss as a predictor of dementia and AD in MCI. Methods One hundred twenty-five subjects with MCI (age 73.8 ± 7.1 years) were followed for an average of 4 years. Two weight measurements were carried out at a minimum time interval of one year. Dementia was defined according to DSM-IV criteria and AD according to NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. Weight loss was defined as a ≥4% decrease in baseline weight. Results Fifty-three (42.4%) MCI progressed to dementia, which was of the AD-type in half of the cases. Weight loss was associated with a 3.4-fold increased risk of dementia (95% CI = 1.5–6.9) and a 3.2-fold increased risk of AD (95% CI = 1.4–8.3). In terms of years lived without disease, weight loss was associated to a 2.3 and 2.5 years earlier onset of dementia and AD. Conclusions Accelerated progression towards dementia and AD is expected when weight loss is observed in MCI patients. Weight should be closely monitored in elderly with mild cognitive impairment. PMID:26990757

  3. Implementation of an Internet Weight Loss Program in a Worksite Setting

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Kathryn M.; Wing, Rena R.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Worksite wellness programs typically produce modest weight losses. We examined whether an efficacious Internet behavioral weight loss program could be successfully implemented in a worksite setting. Methods. Participants were 75 overweight or obese employees/dependents of a large healthcare system who were given access to a 12-week Internet-based, multicomponent behavioral weight loss program. Assessments occurred at baseline, Month 3 (end of intervention), and Month 6 (follow-up). Results. Retention was excellent (93% at Month 3 and 89% at Month 6). Intent-to-treat analyses demonstrated that participants lost an average (±SE) of −5.8 ± .60 kg from baseline to Month 3 and regained 1.1 ± .31 kg from Month 3 to Month 6; overall, weight loss from baseline to Month 6 was −4.7 ± .71 kg, p < .001. Men lost more weight than women, p = .022, and individuals who had a college degree or higher lost more weight than those with less education, p = .005. Adherence to viewing lessons (8 of 12) and self-monitoring (83% of days) was excellent and significantly associated with weight loss, ps < .05. Conclusions. An Internet-based behavioral weight management intervention can be successfully implemented in a worksite setting and can lead to clinically significant weight losses. Given the low costs of offering this program, it could easily be widely disseminated. PMID:26942006

  4. The SELF Trial: A self-efficacy based behavioral intervention trial for weight-loss maintenance

    PubMed Central

    Burke, Lora E.; Ewing, Linda J.; Ye, Lei; Styn, Mindi; Zheng, Yaguang; Music, Edvin; Loar, India; Mancino, Juliet; Imes, Christopher C.; Hu, Lu; Goode, Rachel; Sereika, Susan M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The SELF Trial examined the effect of adding individual, self-efficacy (SE) enhancement sessions to standard behavioral weight loss treatment (SBT). Methods Participants were randomly assigned to SBT or SBT plus SE sessions (SBT+SE). Outcome measures were weight loss maintenance, quality of life, intervention adherence and self-efficacy at 12 and 18 months. Results The sample (N=130) was female (83.08%) with a mean (SD) body mass index of 33.15 (4.11) kg/m2. There was a significant time effect for percent weight change (p=.002), yet no significant group or group-by-time effects. The weight loss for the SBT+SE group was 8.38% (7.48) at 12 months and 8.00% (7.87) at 18 months, with no significant difference between the two time points (p=.06). However, weight loss for the SBT group was 6.95% (6.67) at 12 months and 5.96% (7.35) at 18 months, which was significantly different between the two time points (p=.005) indicating that the SBT group had significant weight regain. Conclusions Both groups achieved clinically significant weight loss. The group receiving an intervention targeting enhanced self-efficacy had greater weight loss maintenance whereas the SBT group demonstrated significant weight regain possibly related to the greater attention provided to the SBT+SE group. PMID:26381151

  5. Safety of herbal medicine in treatment of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Najafian, Jamshid; Abdar-Esfahani, Morteza; Arab-Momeni, Morteza; Akhavan-Tabib, Afshan

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND Obesity is a common health problem in both developed and developing countries. There are many unconventional therapies, including herbal medicine, to treat this condition. Some people believe that herbal medicines are safe. This case and review is about adverse complication of treating obesity with some herbal medicine. CASE REPORT A 19 year old male with sever obesity (120 kg) used green tea (15 cups of green tea per day) and an intensive dietary regimen to lose weight. He lost 30 kg after 2 months. At that time, one day after usual exercise he suddenly lost consciousness due to left ventricular fibrillation. CONCLUSION Use of herbal medicine for weight reduction is not always safe. Moreover, for some herbal medicine the risk is sufficient to shift the risk-benefit balance against the use that medicine. PMID:24963315

  6. An 8-Week Web-Based Weight Loss Challenge With Celebrity Endorsement and Enhanced Social Support: Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    Collins, Clare E; Morgan, Philip J; Callister, Robin

    2013-01-01

    Background Initial engagement and weight loss within Web-based weight loss programs may predict long-term success. The integration of persuasive Web-based features may boost engagement and therefore weight loss. Objective To determine whether an 8-week challenge within a commercial Web-based weight loss program influenced weight loss, website use, and attrition in the short term, when compared to the standard program. Methods De-identified data for participants (mean age 36.7±10.3 years; 86% female) who enrolled in the Biggest Loser Club (BLC) (n=952) and the BLC’s Shannan Ponton Fast Track Challenge (SC) for 8 weeks (n=381) were compared. The BLC program used standard evidence-based website features, with individualized calorie and exercise targets to facilitate a weight loss of 0.5-1 kg per week (–500kcal/day less than estimated energy expenditure). SC used the same website features but in addition promoted greater initial weight loss using a 1200 kcal/day energy intake target and physical activity energy expenditure of 600 kcal/day. SC used persuasive features to facilitate greater user engagement, including offering additional opportunities for social support (eg, webinar meetings with a celebrity personal trainer and social networking) endorsed by a celebrity personal trainer. Self-reported weekly weight records were used to determine weight change after 8 weeks. A primary analysis was undertaken using a generalized linear mixed model (GLMM) with all available weight records for all participants included. Dropout (participants who cancelled their subscription) and nonusage (participants who stopped using the Web-based features) attrition rates at 8 weeks were calculated. The number of participants who accessed each website feature and the total number of days each feature was used were calculated. The difference between attrition rates and website use for the two programs were tested using chi-square and Wilcoxon Rank Sum tests, respectively. Results

  7. Taking weight-loss supplements may elicit liberation from dietary control. A laboratory experiment.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yevvon Yi-Chi; Chiou, Wen-Bin

    2014-01-01

    Given that changes in diet and exercise habits are difficult to initiate and maintain, the use of weight-loss supplements has become an appealing alternative approach to weight management for many individuals. The current research examined whether the use of weight-loss supplements induced overly optimistic assessments of progress toward weight reduction, leading to psychological abdication of dietary regulation. Participants were randomly assigned to take either an identified placebo or a purported weight-loss supplement (actually the same placebo). Each participant reported perceived progress toward weight reduction following the manipulation. Consumption of snacks in a taste test and choice of sugary drinks were recorded. The results showed that participants receiving a purported supplement ate more in a taste task and preferred larger quantities of sugar in their reward drinks than did controls. Mediation analysis supported that the perception of progress toward weight reduction contributed to the liberating effect. Using weight-loss supplements may increase perceived progress toward weight reduction but decrease dietary self-regulation. These thought-provoking findings can serve as a basis for educating the public about the myth that they are free to feel liberated from the need to regulate their eating when using weight-loss supplements. PMID:24096084

  8. Influence Re-weighted G-Estimation.

    PubMed

    Rich, Benjamin; Moodie, Erica E M; A Stephens, David

    2016-05-01

    Individualized medicine is an area that is growing, both in clinical and statistical settings, where in the latter, personalized treatment strategies are often referred to as dynamic treatment regimens. Estimation of the optimal dynamic treatment regime has focused primarily on semi-parametric approaches, some of which are said to be doubly robust in that they give rise to consistent estimators provided at least one of two models is correctly specified. In particular, the locally efficient doubly robust g-estimation is robust to misspecification of the treatment-free outcome model so long as the propensity model is specified correctly, at the cost of an increase in variability. In this paper, we propose data-adaptive weighting schemes that serve to decrease the impact of influential points and thus stabilize the estimator. In doing so, we provide a doubly robust g-estimator that is also robust in the sense of Hampel (15). PMID:26234949

  9. Weight Loss Interventions for Breast Cancer Survivors: Impact of Dietary Pattern

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Henry J.; Sedlacek, Scot M.; Playdon, Mary C.; Wolfe, Pamela; McGinley, John N.; Paul, Devchand; Lakoski, Susan G.

    2015-01-01

    Body weight management is not emphasized in clinical practice guidelines for breast cancer survivors, reflecting the lack of evidence that weight loss improves prognosis. Even if this situation changes, the optimal design for weight loss interventions is unclear. We conducted a 6-month non-randomized, controlled weight loss intervention in 249 post-menopausal breast cancer survivors. This paper reports effects on two secondary endpoints, change in body weight and composition. Participants were predominantly non-Hispanic whites (89%) with a mean age of 54.9 ± 9.2 years, a mean BMI of 29.0 ± 2.6 kg/m: 2 and an average of 43 ± 5% body fat. Two dietary interventions, low fat or low carbohydrate, were investigated and consisted of a 42 day cycle of menus and recipes. Weight loss counseling and anthropometric assessment were provided at monthly clinic visits. One hundred ninety-two women completed the trial (77% retention). In comparison to the nonintervention control, both intervention arms achieved significant decreases in body weight (12.5%), body fat (27.5%), waist circumference (9.5%), and hip circumference (7.8%) (all p < 0.001) with minimal effects on lean mass (1.3% decrease). Median time to 5 and 10% weight loss was 2 (95% confidence interval = 1 to 3) and 4 (95% confidence interval = 3 to 5) months, respectively, and 23% of participants experienced ≥ 15% weight loss. Loss of body weight and fat mass was rapid and substantial irrespective of dietary approach when a structured program was provided with monthly anthropometric assessment and weight loss counseling. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01315483 PMID:26010254

  10. Randomized trial of a behavioral weight loss intervention for low-income women: the Weight Wise Program.

    PubMed

    Samuel-Hodge, Carmen D; Johnston, Larry F; Gizlice, Ziya; Garcia, Beverly A; Lindsley, Sara C; Bramble, Kathy P; Hardy, Trisha E; Ammerman, Alice S; Poindexter, Patricia A; Will, Julie C; Keyserling, Thomas C

    2009-10-01

    Low-income women in the United States have the highest rates of obesity, yet they are seldom included in weight loss trials. To address this research gap, components of two evidence-based weight loss interventions were adapted to create a 16-week intervention for low-income women (Weight Wise Program), which was evaluated in a randomized trial with the primary outcome of weight loss at 5-month follow-up. Participants were low-income women (40-64 years) with a BMI of 25-45. Of 143 participants, 72 were randomized to the Weight Wise Program (WWP) and 71 to the Control Group (CG). Five-month follow-up data were obtained from 64 (89%) WWP and 62 (87%) CG participants. With baseline values carried forward for missing data, WWP participants had a weight change of -3.7 kg compared to 0.7 kg in the CG (4.4 kg difference, 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.2-5.5, P<0.001). For systolic blood pressure (SBP), change in the WWP was -6.5 mm Hg compared to -0.4 mm Hg among controls (6.2 mm Hg difference, 95% CI, 1.7-10.6, P=0.007); for diastolic BP (DBP), changes were -4.1 mm Hg for WWP compared to -1.3 mm Hg for controls (2.8 mm Hg difference, 95% CI, 0.0-5.5, P=0.05). Of the 72 WWP participants, 64, 47, and 19% lost at least 3, 5, and 7% of their initial body weight, respectively. In conclusion, the WWP was associated with statistically significant and clinically important short-term weight loss. PMID:19407810

  11. Food Deprivation, Body Weight Loss and Anxiety-Related Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dietze, Silke; Lees, Katarina R.; Fink, Heidrun; Brosda, Jan; Voigt, Jörg-Peter

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Food deprivation protocols are frequently used in behavioral studies. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. Regarding the refinement of experiments involving animals, this study investigated the effects of food deprivation on body weight loss and behavior in male and female rats. Sex difference in behavior and motivational state after food deprivation is the main finding of the study. The data highlights the need for tailored pilot experiments to evaluate the impact of food deprivation on animals with regard to the 3Rs principles (replacement, reduction, refinement) in animal science. Abstract In behavioral studies, food deprivation protocols are routinely used to initiate or maintain motivational states that are required in a particular test situation. However, there is limited evidence as to when food deprivation compromises animal welfare. This study investigated the effects of different lengths of food deprivation periods and restricted (fixed-time) feeding on body weight loss as well as anxiety-related and motivated behavior in 5–6 month old male and female Wistar rats. The observed body weight loss was not influenced by sex and ranged between 4% (16 h deprivation) to approximately 9% (fixed-time feeding). Despite significant body weight loss in all groups, the motivation to eat under the aversive test conditions of the modified open field test increased only after 48 h of food deprivation. Long-lasting effects on anxiety as measured in the elevated plus maze test 24 h after refeeding have not been observed, although fixed-time feeding could possibly lead to a lasting anxiogenic effect in female rats. Overall, female rats showed a more anxiolytic profile in both tests when compared to male rats. Despite these sex differences, results suggest that food deprivation is not always paralleled by an increased motivation to feed in a conflict situation. This is an important finding as it highlights

  12. Low carbohydrate diets improve atherogenic dyslipidemia even in the absence of weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Feinman, Richard D; Volek, Jeff S

    2006-01-01

    Because of its effect on insulin, carbohydrate restriction is one of the obvious dietary choices for weight reduction and diabetes. Such interventions generally lead to higher levels of dietary fat than official recommendations and have long been criticized because of potential effects on cardiovascular risk although many literature reports have shown that they are actually protective even in the absence of weight loss. A recent report of Krauss et al. (AJCN, 2006) separates the effects of weight loss and carbohydrate restriction. They clearly confirm that carbohydrate restriction leads to an improvement in atherogenic lipid states in the absence of weight loss or in the presence of higher saturated fat. In distinction, low fat diets seem to require weight loss for effective improvement in atherogenic dyslipidemia. PMID:16790045

  13. Emphasising personal investment effects weight loss and hedonic thoughts about food after obesity surgery.

    PubMed

    Husted, Margaret; Ogden, Jane

    2014-01-01

    Obesity surgery is the most effective treatment method for the severely obese but does not work for everyone. Indications are that weight-loss success may be related to individuals' sense of investment in surgery, with failure linked to higher automatic hedonic motivations to consume food and greater susceptibility to food in the environment. A pilot study using an independent experimental design recruited bariatric surgery patients (n = 91) via a UK obesity-surgery charity website who were randomly allocated to either the intervention or the control condition. The intervention involved raising the salience of the personal investment made in having weight-loss surgery in an attempt to reduce automatic hedonic thoughts about food and aid weight loss. Data was collected initially with subsequent weight loss measured at 3 months of follow-up. Following the intervention, participants reported significantly reduced hedonic thoughts, increased liking for low-fat foods, reduced liking of high-fat food, and higher self-efficacy for achieving sustained weight loss than controls. By 3 months, this was translated into significant differences in mean weight losses of 6.77 kg for the intervention group and 0.91 kg for control participants. To conclude, a quick simple cost-effective intervention encouraging participants to focus on investment helped weight loss and changed hedonic thoughts about food in bariatric patients. PMID:24987525

  14. Can limiting dietary variety assist with reducing energy intake and weight loss?☆

    PubMed Central

    Raynor, Hollie A.

    2013-01-01

    Due to the high prevalence of overweight and obesity, developing strategies to improve weight loss and weight loss maintenance is imperative. One dietary environmental variable that has received little attention in being targeted in an intervention to assist with obesity treatment is dietary variety. Experimental research has consistently shown that greater dietary variety increases consumption, with the effect of variety on consumption hypothesized to be a consequence of the differential experience of the more varied sensory properties of food under those conditions with greater dietary variety. As reduced energy intake is required for weight loss, limiting variety, particularly in food groups that are high in energy-density and low in nutrient-density, may assist with reducing energy intake and improving weight loss. A series of investigations, both observational and experimental, were conducted to examine if limiting variety in an energydense, non-nutrient-dense food group, snack foods (i.e., cookies, chips), assisted with reducing energy intake of the food group and improving weight loss. Results of the investigations suggest that a prescription for limiting variety in a food group can be implemented during obesity treatment, limiting variety is associated with the occurrence of monotony, and that reducing food group variety is related to decreased consumption of that food group. Future research is needed to ascertain the long-term effect of prescriptions targeting dietary variety on weight loss and weight loss maintenance. PMID:22450259

  15. Effect of Macronutrient Composition on Short-Term Food Intake and Weight Loss12

    PubMed Central

    Bellissimo, Nick; Akhavan, Tina

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to describe the role of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term food intake (FI) and weight loss. The effects of macronutrient composition on short-term FI will be reviewed first, followed by a brief examination of longer-term clinical trials that vary in effects of dietary macronutrient composition on weight loss. The objectives were: 1) to examine the effect of macronutrient composition on the suppression of short-term FI, 2) to determine whether some macronutrient sources suppress FI beyond their provision of energy, 3) to assess the combined effects of macronutrients on FI and glycemic response, and 4) to determine whether knowledge of the effect of macronutrients on short-term FI has led to greater success in spontaneous weight loss, adherence to energy-restricted diets, and better weight maintenance after weight loss. Although knowledge of macronutrient composition on short-term FI regulation has advanced our understanding of the role of diet composition on energy balance, it has yet to lead to greater success in long-term weight loss and weight maintenance. It is clear from this review that many approaches based on manipulating dietary macronutrient composition can help people lose weight as long as they follow the diets. However, only by evaluating the interaction between the physiologic systems that govern FI and body weight may the benefits of dietary macronutrient composition be fully realized. PMID:25979503

  16. Vivamos Activos: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Two Community-Based Weight Loss Strategies among Obese, Low-income Latinos

    PubMed Central

    Rosas, Lisa Goldman; Thiyagarajan, Sreedevi; Goldstein, Benjamin Alan; Drieling, Rebecca Lucia; Romero, Priscilla Padilla; Ma, Jun; Yank, Veronica; Stafford, Randall Scott

    2015-01-01

    Background Latino immigrants have high rates of obesity and face barriers to weight loss. Objective Evaluate the effectiveness of a case-management (CM) intervention with and without community health workers (CHWs) for weight loss. Design Two-year, randomized controlled trial comparing two interventions to each other and to usual care (UC). Participants/setting Eligible participants included Latinos with a Body Mass Index of 30-60 and one or more heart disease risk factors. The 207 participants recruited from 2009-2011 had a mean age of 47 years and were mostly female (77%). At 24 months, 86% of the sample was assessed. Intervention The CM+CHW (n=82) and CM (n=84) interventions were compared to each other and to UC (n=41). Both included an intensive 12 month phase followed by 12 months of maintenance. The CM+CHW group received home visits. Main outcome measures Weight change at 24 months. Statistical Analyses Generalized estimating equations using intent-to-treat. Results At 6 months, mean weight loss in the CM+CHW arm was −2.1 kg (95% CI −2.8, −1.3) or −2% of baseline weight (−1%, −2%) compared to −1.6 kg (−2.4, −0.7; % weight change: −2%, −1%, −3%) in CM and −0.9 kg (−1.8, 0.1; % weight change: −1%, 0%, −2%) in UC. By 12 and 24 months, differences narrowed and CM+CHW was no longer statistically distinct. Men achieved greater weight loss than women in all groups at each time point (p<0.05). At 6 months, men in the CM+CHW arm lost more weight (−4.4 kg, −6.0, −2.7) compared to UC (−0.4 kg, −2.4, 1.5), but by 12 and 24 months differences were not significant. Conclusions Incorporation of CHWs may help promote early weight loss, especially among men, but it did not achieve weight maintenance. Social and environmental influences may need to be addressed to achieve sustained weight loss in Latino immigrant populations. PMID:25578925

  17. Effects of cognitive-behavioral treatment for weight loss in family members.

    PubMed

    Rossini, Raffaella; Moscatiello, Simona; Tarrini, Giulietta; Di Domizio, Silvia; Soverini, Valentina; Romano, Andreina; Mazzotti, Arianna; Dalle Grave, Riccardo; Marchesini, Giulio

    2011-11-01

    The possibility that lifestyle changes may be shared by the family members of subjects with obesity attending cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) for weight loss has been scarcely evaluated. The purpose of this study was to measure the changes in body weight, lifestyle habits, and stage of change toward physical activity in the family members of 149 subjects with overweight/obesity enrolled into a weekly group CBT for weight management in the years 2007-2008. 230 adult (aged >18 years) family members (129 spouses, 72 children (43 female, 29 male), 29 with a different family relationship) completed a self-administered questionnaire at baseline and soon after the end of the completion of their relatives' program (approximately 6 months later). The questionnaire consisted of qualitative information regarding food choices, estimation of energy and food intake, self-report of height and weight, and motivation toward physical activity. At baseline, self-reported body mass index was normal in 115 cases, in the range 25 to 29.9 in 80 and ≥30 in 35. Following CBT of their relatives, the family members significantly reduced their average daily energy intake (-232 kcal/day; P<0.001) and the reported body weight decreased on average by 1 kg (P=0.001). The analysis of food choices revealed a reduced average daily amount of energy from dressings (-40 kcal, P<0.001), main courses with cheese or fat meat (-24 kcal, P=0.002), refined carbohydrates (-16 kcal, P<0.001), bread (-58 kcal, P<0.001), breakfast biscuits (-23 kcal, P=0.005), chocolate (-7 kcal, P=0.024), and nonalcoholic beverages (fruit juices and carbonated drinks; -10 kcal; P=0.013), whereas fruit consumption was increased (+10 kcal; P=0.023). There was also a shift in the stage of change toward exercising. Body mass index changes of family members and CBT subjects were significantly correlated, mainly within spouses. In conclusion, CBT for weight loss positively influences the lifestyle habits of family members of

  18. Short message service (SMS) text messaging as an intervention medium for weight loss: A literature review

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Ryan; Bosworth, Hayden

    2013-01-01

    Nearly 68% of American adults are obese or overweight. Mobile devices such as mobile phones have emerged as a mode of intervention delivery to help people improve their health, particularly in relation to weight loss. This literature review examines the relationship between the use of short message service (SMS) text messaging as an intervention medium and weight loss. Results from this literature review (n = 14) suggest that SMS as an intervention tool for weight loss is still in its infancy. Initial results are promising but continued investigation is needed. We offer several recommendations for future research. PMID:23257055

  19. Healthy Weight: Healthy Weight Loss Starts With a Plan You Can Stick To

    MedlinePlus

    ... program designed for families and communities to help children maintain healthy weight. It focuses on improved food choices, increased physical activity, and reduced television, computer, and videogame screen time. The NIH also ...

  20. Public and health professionals’ misconceptions about the dynamics of body weight gain/loss

    PubMed Central

    Abdel-Hamid, Tarek; Ankel, Felix; Battle-Fisher, Michele; Gibson, Bryan; Gonzalez-Parra, Gilberto; Jalali, Mohammad; Kaipainen, Kirsikka; Kalupahana, Nishan; Karanfil, Ozge; Marathe, Achla; Martinson, Brian; McKelvey, Karma; Sarbadhikari, Suptendra Nath; Pintauro, Stephen; Poucheret, Patrick; Pronk, Nicolaas; Qian, Ying; Sazonov, Edward; Van Oorschot, Kim; Venkitasubramanian, Akshay; Murphy, Philip

    2014-01-01

    Human body energy storage operates as a stock-and-flow system with inflow (food intake) and outflow (energy expenditure). In spite of the ubiquity of stock-and-flow structures, evidence suggests that human beings fail to understand stock accumulation and rates of change, a difficulty called the stock–flow failure. This study examines the influence of health care training and cultural background in overcoming stock–flow failure. A standardized protocol assessed lay people’s and health care professionals’ ability to apply stock-and-flow reasoning to infer the dynamics of weight gain/loss during the holiday season (621 subjects from seven countries). Our results indicate that both types of subjects exhibited systematic errors indicative of use of erroneous heuristics. Stock–flow failure was found across cultures and was not improved by professional health training. The problem of stock–flow failure as a transcultural global issue with education and policy implications is discussed. PMID:25620843

  1. Equilibration Influence on Jet Energy Loss

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng Luan; Wang Enke

    2010-05-12

    With the initial conditions in the chemical non-equilibrated medium and Bjorken expanding medium at RHIC, we investigate the consequence for parton evolution. With considering the parton equilibration, we obtain the time dependence of the opacity when the jet propagates through the QGP medium. The parton equilibration affect the jet energy loss with detailed balance evidently. Both parton energy loss from stimulated emission in the chemical non-equilibrated expanding medium and in Bjorken expanding medium are linear dependent on the propagating distance rather than square dependent in the static medium. This will increase the energy and propagating distance dependence of the parton energy loss.

  2. Quality of life is reduced in obese dogs but improves after successful weight loss.

    PubMed

    German, A J; Holden, S L; Wiseman-Orr, M L; Reid, J; Nolan, A M; Biourge, V; Morris, P J; Scott, E M

    2012-06-01

    Obesity is thought to affect quality of life, but limited objective data exist to support this supposition. The current study aim was to use a questionnaire to determine health-related quality of life (HRQOL) both before and after weight loss, in obese client-owned dogs. Fifty obese dogs were included, and represented a variety of breeds and genders. Prior to weight loss, owners were asked to complete a validated standardised questionnaire to determine HRQOL. Thirty of the dogs successfully completed their weight loss programme and reached target, and owners then completed a follow-up questionnaire. The completed questionnaire responses were transformed to scores corresponding to each of four factors (vitality, emotional disturbance, anxiety and pain), and scored on a scale of 0-6. Changes in the scores were used to explore the sensitivity of the questionnaire, and scores were correlated with responses to direct questions about quality of life and pain, as well as weight loss. Dogs that failed to complete their weight loss programme had lower vitality and higher emotional disturbance scores than those successfully losing weight (P=0.03 for both). In the 30 dogs that completed, weight loss led to an increased vitality score (P<0.001), and decreased scores for both emotional disturbance (P<0.001) and pain (P<0.001). However, there was no change in anxiety (P=0.09). The change in vitality score was positively associated with percentage weight loss (r(P)=0.43, P=0.02) and percentage body fat loss (r(P)=0.39, P=0.03). These results indicate demonstrable improvement in HRQOL for obese dogs that successfully lose weight. PMID:22075257

  3. Unrealistic weight-loss goals among obese patients are associated with age and causal attributions.

    PubMed

    Wamsteker, Erika W; Geenen, Rinie; Zelissen, Pierre M J; van Furth, Eric F; Iestra, Jolein

    2009-11-01

    Unrealistic weight-loss goals may impede the success of weight-loss attempts. The aim of this study was to examine the frequency of unrealistic goals and their association with other patient characteristics at the start of a weight-loss program. For patients with a body mass index (calculated as kg/m(2)) of 30 to 35, 35 to 40, or 40 to 50, medically advised weight-loss goals were set at 10%, 15%, and 20% of current weight, respectively. Personal weight-loss goals exceeding the medically advised goal by >50% were considered unrealistic. Obesity-related beliefs were measured by the "Obesity Cognition Questionnaire" and the eating-behavior self-efficacy scale of the "Obesity Psychosocial State Questionnaire." From September 2003 until March 2006, 90 patients were enrolled in the study, 26 men and 64 women, with a mean age of 43 years (range=18 to 68 years) and body mass indexes ranging from 30 to 50. Unrealistic goals were observed in 49% of the patients and were more frequent in younger patients (P=0.03), in patients attributing their obesity to physical causes (r=0.35, P=0.001), and in patients not attributing their obesity to behavioral causes (r=-0.28, P=0.008). This study confirms that discrepancies in weight-loss goals between obese patients and professionals occur frequently. Because unrealistic goals can hamper long-term outcomes of weight-loss programs, better outcomes could possibly be achieved by addressing unrealistic weight-loss goals before treatment. PMID:19857632

  4. The BestFIT trial: A SMART approach to developing individualized weight loss treatments.

    PubMed

    Sherwood, Nancy E; Butryn, Meghan L; Forman, Evan M; Almirall, Daniel; Seburg, Elisabeth M; Lauren Crain, A; Kunin-Batson, Alicia S; Hayes, Marcia G; Levy, Rona L; Jeffery, Robert W

    2016-03-01

    Behavioral weight loss programs help people achieve clinically meaningful weight losses (8-10% of starting body weight). Despite data showing that only half of participants achieve this goal, a "one size fits all" approach is normative. This weight loss intervention science gap calls for adaptive interventions that provide the "right treatment at the right time for the right person." Sequential Multiple Assignment Randomized Trials (SMART), use experimental design principles to answer questions for building adaptive interventions including whether, how, or when to alter treatment intensity, type, or delivery. This paper describes the rationale and design of the BestFIT study, a SMART designed to evaluate the optimal timing for intervening with sub-optimal responders to weight loss treatment and relative efficacy of two treatments that address self-regulation challenges which impede weight loss: 1) augmenting treatment with portion-controlled meals (PCM) which decrease the need for self-regulation; and 2) switching to acceptance-based behavior treatment (ABT) which boosts capacity for self-regulation. The primary aim is to evaluate the benefit of changing treatment with PCM versus ABT. The secondary aim is to evaluate the best time to intervene with sub-optimal responders. BestFIT results will lead to the empirically-supported construction of an adaptive intervention that will optimize weight loss outcomes and associated health benefits. PMID:26825020

  5. Weight loss in patients receiving radical radiation therapy for head and neck cancer: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Johnston, C A; Keane, T J; Prudo, S M

    1982-01-01

    Thirty-one patients receiving radiation therapy for localized cancer of the head and neck areas were systematically assessed before, during, and after treatment. The pathogenesis of weight loss and its association with treatment morbidity and other determinants were sought. The serial data collected consisted of a food frequency questionnaire based on Canada's Food Guide, anthropometric measurements, 10 Linear Analogue Self Assessment questions on morbidity, and biochemical and hematological indices. Twenty of 31 patients (68%) lost over 5% of their presenting weight within one month after completing treatment. The mean weight loss was 10% and the range of weight loss in this group was 5.4 to 18.9%. Pretreatment dietary habits, serum albumin, absolute lymphocyte count, serum creatinine, creatinine height index, and anthropometric measurements did not predict for weight loss. However, weight loss can be predicted on the basis of field size and site irradiated. Treatment-related morbidity involving dysguesia, xerostomia, dysphagia of solids, and mouth pain was greater and of longer duration in patients with weight loss. The sequence of development of these symptoms during treatment and their duration provide a rational basis for the timing and methods of nutritional intervention in this patient population. PMID:6891412

  6. Step-down approach to behavioural weight loss treatment: a pilot of a randomised clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A.; Hoffmann, Debra A.; Hinman, Nova; Burmeister, Jacob M.; Koball, Afton; Ashrafioun, Lisham; Oehlhof, Marissa W.; Bannon, Erin; LeRoy, Michelle; Darby, Lynn

    2013-01-01

    Background In a stepped-down approach, patients begin with a more intensive treatment and are stepped down to a less intensive treatment based on achieving treatment goals. This study compared a standard behavioural weight loss programme (BWLP) to a stepped-down approach to treatment. Methods Fifty-two overweight/obese adults (Age: M = 47 years, SD = 13.5; female = 67%) participated in an 18-week BWLP. Half of them were randomly assigned to be stepped down from weekly group meetings based on completion of weight loss goals (3%) every 6 weeks, while the other half remained in their groups regardless of weight loss. Results There was a significant difference favouring the BWLP in the proportion of participants who met or exceeded their 3% weight loss goal during the first six weeks. While not statistically significant by the end of treatment, the BWLP participants lost nearly 3% more body weight than stepped-down participants (SC = 4.9% vs. BWLP = 7.8%; p = .10). Greater self-monitoring was associated with increased likelihood of stepped-care eligibility and higher percent weight loss at the end of treatment (p < .01). Conclusion There was little evidence to support the efficacy of the stepped-down approach for behavioural weight loss treatment employed in this investigation. PMID:23607537

  7. Effects of protein intake and gender on body composition changes: a randomized clinical weight loss trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Limited data on sex differences in body composition changes in response to higher protein diets (PRO) compared to higher carbohydrate diets (CARB) suggest that a PRO diet helps preserve lean mass (LM) in women more so than in men. Objective To compare male and female body composition responses to weight loss diets differing in macronutrient content. Design Twelve month randomized clinical trial with 4mo of weight loss and 8mo weight maintenance. Subjects Overweight (N = 130; 58 male (M), 72 female (F); BMI = 32.5 ± 0.5 kg/m2) middle-aged subjects were randomized to energy-restricted (deficit ~500 kcal/d) diets providing protein at 1.6 g.kg-1.d-1 (PRO) or 0.8 g.kg-1.d-1 (CARB). LM and fat mass (FM) were measured using dual X-ray absorptiometry. Body composition outcomes were tested in a repeated measures ANOVA controlling for sex, diet, time and their two- and three-way interactions at 0, 4, 8 and 12mo. Results When expressed as percent change from baseline, males and females lost similar amounts of weight at 12mo (M:-11.2 ± 7.1 %, F:-9.9 ± 6.0 %), as did diet groups (PRO:-10.7 ± 6.8 %, CARB:-10.1 ± 6.2 %), with no interaction of gender and diet. A similar pattern emerged for fat mass and lean mass, however percent body fat was significantly influenced by both gender (M:-18.0 ± 12.8 %, F:-7.3 ± 8.1 %, p < 0.05) and diet (PRO:-14.3 ± 11.8 %, CARB:-9.3 ± 11.1 %, p < 0.05), with no gender-diet interaction. Compared to women, men carried an extra 7.0 ± 0.9 % of their total body fat in the trunk (P < 0.01) at baseline, and reduced trunk fat during weight loss more than women (M:-3.0 ± 0.5 %, F:-1.8 ± 0.3 %, p < 0.05). Conversely, women carried 7.2 ± 0.9 % more total body fat in the legs, but loss of total body fat in legs was similar in men and women. Conclusion PRO was more effective in reducing percent body fat vs. CARB over 12mo weight loss

  8. Weight Loss Can Lead to Resolution of Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Symptoms: A Prospective Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Mandeep; Lee, Jaehoon; Gupta, Neil; Gaddam, Srinivas; Smith, Bryan K.; Wani, Sachin B.; Sullivan, Debra K.; Rastogi, Amit; Bansal, Ajay; Donnelly, Joseph E.; Sharma, Prateek

    2013-01-01

    Objective Weight gain is an important risk factor for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD); however, whether weight loss can lead to resolution of GERD symptoms is not clear. Our aim was to measure the impact of weight loss on GERD symptoms. Design and Methods In a prospective cohort study at a tertiary referral center, overweight/obese subjects (BMI 25-39.9 kg/m2) were enrolled in a structured weight loss program. Weight loss strategies included dietary modifications, increased physical activity and behavioral changes. At baseline and at 6 months, BMI and waist circumference were measured and all participants completed a validated reflux disease questionnaire. Results A total of 332 adult subjects, mean age 46 years and 66% women were prospectively enrolled. At baseline, the mean body weight, BMI, and waist circumference were 101 (±18) kg, 35 (±5) kg/m2 and 103 (±13) cm. At 6 months, majority of the subjects (97%) lost weight (average weight loss: 13 ± 7.7 kg) and as compared with baseline, there was a significant decrease in the overall prevalence of GERD (15 vs. 37%; P < 0.01) and the mean GERD symptom score (1.8 vs. 5.5; P < 0.01). Overall, 81% of the subjects had reduction in GERD symptom scores; 65% had complete resolution and 15% had partial resolution of reflux symptoms. There was a significant correlation between % body weight loss and reduction in GERD symptom scores (r = 0.17, P < 0.05). Conclusions In conclusion, the overall prevalence of GERD symptoms is high (37%) in overweight and obese subjects. A structured weight loss program can lead to complete resolution of GERD symptoms in the majority of these subjects. PMID:23532991

  9. Identification and Determination of Synthetic Pharmaceuticals as Adulterants in Eight Common Herbal Weight Loss Supplements

    PubMed Central

    Khazan, Marjan; Hedayati, Mehdi; Kobarfard, Farzad; Askari, Sahar; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2014-01-01

    Background: Adulterated herbal weight loss products with containing undeclared synthetic drugs are common and responsible for many serious health damages. Objectives: The purpose of the study was to determine five synthetic adulterants in eight common herbal weight loss supplements, which are currently sold in Iran markets, to verify their presence in supplements, without mentioning on the labels. Materials and Methods: Eight common herbal weight loss samples were obtained from the Iran pharmaceutical market after advertising in the Persian language on satellite channels and internet. Five pharmacological classes of drugs used for weight loss, namely sibutramine, phenolphthalein, phenytoin, bumetanide and rimonabant, were investigated and quantified by GC-MS for the first three and LC-MS for the last two medications. Results: The most undeclared ingredients, which were illegally added include sibutramine, phenolphthalein, bumetanide, and phenytoin in the original super slim, herbaceous essence, super slim green lean, and fat loss, supplements, respectively. Rimonabant was not found. Caffeine, pseudoephedrine, theobromine and amfepramone were also found in the supplements using GC-MS assay. Conclusions: Adulterated synthetic substances were detected in the herbal weight loss products. Health care professionals should make people aware of the risks of taking herbal weight-loss supplements. PMID:24829782

  10. Individual vs. Group-Based Incentives for Weight Loss: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kullgren, Jeffrey T.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Loewenstein, George; Asch, David A.; Norton, Laurie A.; Wesby, Lisa; Tao, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Jingsan; Volpp, Kevin G.

    2014-01-01

    Background There are limited data on the effectiveness of employer-sponsored financial incentives for employee weight loss. Objective To test the effectiveness of two financial incentive designs for promoting weight loss among obese employees. Design Randomized controlled trial. Allocation sequence was generated dynamically at the time of request of treatment assignment. Participants were unblinded to assignment; investigators were blinded to assignment until collection of primary outcome data. Setting Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia Participants 105 employees with a body mass index between 30 and 40 kg/m2 Interventions 24 weeks of monthly weigh-ins (control)(n=35); individual incentive, designed as $100 per person per month for meeting or exceeding target weight loss (individual arm)(n=35); group incentive, designed as $500 per month split between any participant within groups of 5 who met or exceeded their target weight loss (group arm)(n=35). Measurements Weight loss after 24 weeks (primary outcome); weight loss after 36 weeks, changes in behavioral mediators of weight loss (secondary outcomes). Results Group incentive participants lost more weight than individual arm participants (between-group difference in weight loss favoring group = mean 9.7 pounds, 95% CI 4.4 to 14.9; P < 0.001). Twelve weeks after incentives ended and adjusting for 3-group comparisons, group arm participants maintained greater weight loss than control arm participants (between-group difference in weight loss = mean 6.5 pounds, 95% CI 1.2 to 11.7; P = 0.016) but not more than individual arm participants (difference = 5.9 pounds, 95% CI, 0.8 to 11.0; P = 0.024). Limitations Single employer, short follow-up Conclusions A group-based financial incentive was more effective than an individual incentive and monthly weigh-ins at promoting weight loss among obese employees at 24 weeks. Primary Funding Source National Institute on Aging Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT

  11. The role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Catenacci, Victoria A; Wyatt, Holly R

    2015-01-01

    Summary The majority of randomized, controlled trials (RCTs) show only modest weight loss with exercise intervention alone, and slight increases in weight loss when exercise intervention is added to dietary restriction. In most RCTs, the energy deficit produced by the prescribed exercise is far smaller than that usually produced by dietary restriction. In prospective studies that prescribed high levels of exercise, enrolled individuals achieved substantially greater weight loss—comparable to that obtained after similar energy deficits were produced by caloric restriction. High levels of exercise might, however, be difficult for overweight or obese adults to achieve and sustain. RCTs examining exercise and its effect on weight-loss maintenance demonstrated mixed results; however, weight maintenance interventions were usually of limited duration and long-term adherence to exercise was problematic. Epidemiologic, cross-sectional, and prospective correlation studies suggest an essential role for physical activity in weight-loss maintenance, and post hoc analysis of prospective trials shows a clear dose–response relationship between physical activity and weight maintenance. This article reviews the role of physical activity in producing and maintaining weight loss. We focus on prospective, RCTs lasting at least 4 months; however, other prospective trials, meta-analyses and large systematic reviews are included. Limitations in the current body of literature are discussed. PMID:17581621

  12. Comparison of weight loss outcomes 1 year after sleeve gastrectomy and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass in patients aged above 50 years

    PubMed Central

    Praveenraj, Palanivelu; Gomes, Rachel M; Kumar, Saravana; Perumal, Sivalingam; Senthilnathan, Palanisamy; Parthasarathi, Ramakrishnan; Rajapandian, Subbiah; Palanivelu, Chinnusamy

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Safe, effective weight loss with resolution of comorbidities has been convincingly demonstrated with bariatric surgery in the aged obese. They, however, lose less weight than younger individuals. It is not known if degree of weight loss is influenced by the choice of bariatric procedure. The aim of this study was to compare the degree of weight loss between laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) and laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) in patients above the age of 50 years at 1 year after surgery. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A retrospective analysis was performed of all patients more than 50 years of age who underwent LSG or LRYGB between February 2012 and July 2013 with at least 1 year of follow-up. Data evaluated at 1 year included age, sex, weight, body mass index (BMI), mean operative time, percentage of weight loss and excess weight loss, resolution/remission of diabetes, morbidity and mortality. RESULTS: Of a total of 86 patients, 54 underwent LSG and 32 underwent LRYGB. The mean percentage of excess weight loss at the end of 1 year was 60.19 ± 17.45 % after LSG and 82.76 ± 34.26 % after LRYGB (P = 0.021). One patient developed a sleeve leak after LSG, and 2 developed iron deficiency anaemia after LRYGB. The remission/improvement in diabetes mellitus and biochemistry was similar. CONCLUSION: LRYGB may offer better results than LSG in terms of weight loss in patients over 50 years of age. PMID:27279392

  13. Culturally-sensitive weight loss program produces significant reduction in weight, blood pressure, and cholesterol in eight weeks.

    PubMed Central

    Ard, J. D.; Rosati, R.; Oddone, E. Z.

    2000-01-01

    Dietary and behavioral needs of special populations are rarely considered in traditional weight loss programs. This study assessed the impact of culturally-sensitive modifications to the Duke University Rice Diet weight loss program for African-American dieters. The study was a randomized modified cross-over study in which volunteers received either early or delayed weight loss intervention. Final outcomes were measured at 8 weeks. At the onset of the study, there were 56 African American participants, however, only 44 (79%) completed the study. The eight-week intervention was a modified 1000-calorie/day version of the Rice Diet. Modifications to the program included decreased cost, culturally-sensitive recipes, addressing attitudes about exercise, and including family members in weight loss efforts. Average weight loss for subjects completing the program was 14.8 pounds (SD = 6.8 pounds). BMI decreased from 37.8 kg/m2 to 35.3 kg/m2 (p < 0.01). Total cholesterol levels decreased from 199.2 mg/dL to 185.4 mg/dL (p < 0.01); systolic and diastolic blood pressure decreased by 4.3 mmHg (p < 0.01) and 2.4 mmHg (p < 0.05), respectively. The control group showed no significant change in any outcome measures. We found that diet programs can be successfully tailored to incorporate the needs of African-Americans. Most importantly, these dietary program changes can lead to significant improvement in clinical parameters. Additional studies are necessary to determine the permanence of these short-term changes. PMID:11152083

  14. Weight losses of marble and limestone briquettes exposed to outdoor environments in the eastern United States

    SciTech Connect

    Youngdahl, C.A.

    1987-08-01

    Weight losses of marble and limestone samples exposed to outdoor environments at field sites in the eastern United States have been monitored in studies initiated in 1984. The prodcedures are described, and the results are tabulated and discussed. A rate of marble loss approximately equivalent to 16 ..mu..m of surface recession per year was found in North Carolina, and losses of this order were also observed in New Jersey, New York, and Washington, DC. Limestone weight losses were much higher than for marble in the first year; loss of extraneous materials from the porous limestone appeared to be a likely contributor to the overall loss. The rate of limestone loss diminished in the second year, though it continued to be higher than for marble. Exposures are continuing in a planned 10-yr program of tests. 8 refs., 3 figs., 5 tabs.

  15. Weight and water loss in the neonate in natural and forced convection.

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, M H; Stothers, J K; McLellan, N J

    1984-01-01

    We describe a simple method of determining weight loss and hence water loss of infants in incubators. Unlike previously reported methods, it does not interfere with the microenvironment surrounding the infant. Weight loss of 16 term and 32 preterm infants was measured in both forced and natural convection. No significant increase in water loss was observed in the term infants but in the preterm infants the mean loss in natural convection was 0.85 g/kg/hour compared with 1.26 g/kg/hour in forced convection: in the most extreme situation it was doubled. This water loss represents a substantial energy loss and suggestions to minimise it are discussed. Images Fig. 1 PMID:6497432

  16. A chart review of cyproheptadine for stimulant-induced weight loss.

    PubMed

    Daviss, W Burleson; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    Youths with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder often experience weight loss on stimulants, which may limit optimal dosing and compliance. Cyproheptadine has been shown in medical samples to stimulate weight gain. We conducted a retrospective chart review of 28 consecutive pediatric psychiatry outpatients prescribed cyproheptadine for weight loss or insomnia while on stimulants. Of these, 4 patients never took cyproheptadine consistently, and 3 discontinued it within the first 7 days due to intolerable side effects. Data were analyzed for 21 other patients (age range 4-15 years) who continued with 4-8 mg of cyproheptadine nightly (mean final dose = 4.9 mg/day) for at least 14 days (mean duration = 104.7 days). Most had lost weight on stimulant alone (mean weight loss was 2.1 kg, mean weight velocity was -19.3 g/day). All 21 gained weight taking concomitant cyproheptadine, with a mean gain of 2.2 kg (paired t = 6.87, p < 0.0001) and a mean weight velocity of 32.3 g/day. Eleven of 17 patients who had reported initial insomnia on stimulant alone noted significant improvements in sleep with cyproheptadine added. We conclude that concomitant cyproheptadine may be useful in youths with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder for stimulant-induced weight loss, pending future randomized controlled trials. PMID:15142393

  17. Iatrogenic newborn weight loss: knowledge translation using a study protocol for your maternity setting

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In our original study of newborn weight loss, we determined there were positive correlations among newborn weight loss, neonatal output, and the IV fluids mothers received before their babies' birth. Basically, an increase in maternal IV fluids is correlated to an increase in neonatal output and newborn weight loss. When assessing newborn weight change, our recommendation is to change baseline from birth weight to a weight measured at 24 hours. The purpose of this paper is to provide a protocol for clinicians to collect and analyze data from their own maternity site to determine if the newborns experience such an iatrogenic weight loss and to make decisions about how to assess newborn weight changes. Methods We recommend a prospective observational study with data collected about maternal fluids, neonatal output, and newborn weight measurements. The methods we suggest include specifics about recruitment, data collection, and data analysis. Discussion Quality assurance and research ethics considerations are described. We also share practical information that we learned from our original study. Ultimately, to encourage knowledge translation and research uptake, we provide a protocol and sound advice to do a research study in your maternity setting. PMID:21843331

  18. [Influence of dietary supplementation on newborn weight].

    PubMed

    Tomaszewska, Kornelia; Klejewska, Andrzej; Kostecka, Ewelina

    2015-01-01

    The usage of multivitamin supplements for expectant mothers ought to always consult with a physician responsible for an expectant mother. Dietary supplements ought to be good chose to individual needs so that it can in an optimal way aid the health of an expectant mother and the progress of baby. The specialist literature and my ones researches show that a supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements and preparations with a folic acid in pregnancy can affect the mass of a neonate and increaser it. One should considers the implementation of multivitamin supplements by women from a risk group of the disorder development of an embryo. It should be mentioned that not only complications as a result of too low body mass of a neonate but also too high body mass can redound to many irregularities and disorders during a pregnancy. To them we can include a higher rate of caesareans and an increase in a perinatal mortality of neonates. So that is way the decision of including a supplementary diet should be made very carefully and individually for every patient. The aim of carried out researches was estimation the influence of supplementary diet on the body mass of a neonate. One hundred respondents were covered by the research--the patients of "Maternity and Gynaecology Ward" with the obstetric, perinatology and reproduction ward in the Voivodship Hospital in Poznań. My own researches show that the most important source of knowledge about a diet during a pregnancy is a gynaecologist, the Internet and families of surveyed women. Most of surveyed persons know that a diet has got an impact on a growing up embryo and they consider that a diet should be supplementary. It was noticed both side effects and positive effects of supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements. The key issue of my thesis is the fact that taken a folic acid before getting pregnant and a regular supplementary diet with multivitamin supplements for pregnants increases the chance of a higher body mass

  19. Daily energy expenditure and physical activity measured in Parkinson's disease patients with and without weight loss

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss, which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated resting energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REF) and physical activit...

  20. Balloon-In-A-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159005.html Balloon-in-a-Pill May Be New Weight-Loss Tool Those using the device were ... 2016 TUESDAY, May 24, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A new ingestible and inflatable balloon system seems to be ...

  1. Weight-Loss Surgery May Help Control Type 2 Diabetes in Long Run

    MedlinePlus

    ... fullstory_158126.html Weight-Loss Surgery May Help Control Type 2 Diabetes in Long Run After 5 ... States, according to the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. More than 70,000 people die ...

  2. [Low-carbohydrate or low-fat diet for weight loss--which is better?].

    PubMed

    Hauner, H

    2004-10-01

    Several recent clinical studies show that a low-carbohydrate diet produces a greater initial weight loss than conventional low-fat diets, and is associated with a greater reduction of elevated serum triglycerides. After one year, however, weight loss is similar with both diets. Since the intake of saturated fat is higher on a low-carbohydrate diet, there may be an increased risk of elevated levels of LDL cholesterol, thus furthering atherosclerosis, over the long term. Before low-carbohydrate diets can be considered an equivalent alternative to low-fat diets for the treatment of obesity, long-term clinical trials are urgently required. The greater weight loss under low-carbohydrate diets would appear to be due to a lower caloric intake. Successful weight loss largely depends on restricting the intake of calories, but the supply of essential nutrients should be guaranteed. PMID:15532735

  3. Daily energy expenditure, physical activity, and weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) commonly exhibit weight loss (WL) which investigators attribute to various factors, including elevated energy expenditure. We tested the hypothesis that daily energy expenditure (DEE) and its components, resting energy expenditure (REE) and physical activity (P...

  4. The Effect of Impermeable Clothing on Weight Loss, Heart Rate, and Core Temperature in Wrestlers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falls, Harold B.; Humphrey, L. Dennis

    1976-01-01

    Results refute the hypotheses that weight losses in lightly clothed wrestlers might equal or exceed those of wrestlers wearing vapor barrier suits under conditions of equal thermal and exercise stress. (JD)

  5. How Important Is Surgeon's Skill for Weight-Loss Surgery Outcomes?

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158292.html How Important Is Surgeon's Skill for Weight-Loss Surgery Outcomes? Study saw no ... WEDNESDAY, April 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A surgeon's skill level does not seem to have a big ...

  6. Time to Talk: 7 Things to Know about Complementary Health Practices for Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... the use of acai berry, bitter orange, and green tea supplements for weight loss. There is little reliable ... effects from taking bitter orange supplements and concentrated green tea extracts. Ephedra is dangerous, and the increased risk ...

  7. Use of alternative medicine for weight loss among Mexican-American women

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Nangel M.; Stevens, Victor J.; Elder, Charles; Funk, Kristine; DeBar, Lynn

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To examine the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for weight loss among Mexican-American women. Design Cross-sectional survey of different CAM modalities, including traditional Mexican medicine therapies. Settings The sample was drawn from women participating in a weight-loss program in Portland, Oregon. Subjects Sample consisted of 31 adult Mexican-American women. Results Most respondents reported using some form of CAM for weight loss, with most reporting using herbs and teas (70%), home remedies (61%) and massage (55%). Conclusions Mexican-American women report using a wide range of CAM therapies for weight loss. Understanding their patterns of use will enhance cultural competence of health care professionals and help address their medical needs. PMID:22773011

  8. Use of alternative medicine for weight loss among Mexican-American women.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Nangel M; Stevens, Victor J; Elder, Charles; Funk, Kristine; Debar, Lynn

    2013-10-01

    The objective of this study is to examine the use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) for weight loss among Mexican-American women. Cross-sectional survey of different CAM modalities, including traditional Mexican medicine therapies. The sample was drawn from women participating in a weight-loss program in Portland, Oregon. Sample consisted of 31 adult Mexican-American women. Most respondents reported using some form of CAM for weight loss, with most reporting using herbs and teas (70 %), home remedies (61 %) and massage (55 %). Mexican-American women report using a wide range of CAM therapies for weight loss. Understanding their patterns of use will enhance cultural competence of health care professionals and help address their medical needs. PMID:22773011

  9. Changes in choice evoked brain activations after a weight loss intervention in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mata, Fernanda; Verdejo-Roman, Juan; Soriano-Mas, Carles; Yücel, Murat; Verdejo-Garcia, Antonio

    2016-08-01

    This study was aimed to investigate if treatment-related success in weight loss (i.e., reductions of BMI and fat percentage) is linked to significant changes in choice evoked brain activity in adolescents with excess weight. Sixteen adolescents with excess weight (age range: 12-18; BMI range: 22-36) performed the Risky-Gains Task during functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) both before and after a 12-week weight loss intervention. Success in weight loss was selectively associated with increased activation in the anterior insula. We concluded that adolescents with the greatest increases in activation of the insula-related interoceptive neural circuitry also show greater reductions in BMI and fat mass. PMID:27058280

  10. Investigations of the endocannabinoid system in adipose tissue: effects of obesity/ weight loss and treatment options.

    PubMed

    Bennetzen, Marianne Faurholt

    2011-04-01

    Obesity is a world wide epidemic; it is becoming more usual to be overweight or obese than to be normal weight. Obesity increases the risk of an extensive range of diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus type 2, hypertension, depression and some types of cancer. Adipose tissue is more than a storage organ for surplus energy - it is also a setting for complex metabolic processes and adipose tissue releases substances that interact with other parts of the body to influence several systems including food intake and energy metabolism. The endocannabinoid system (ECS) is one of the signalling systems that control feeding behaviour. The ECS is implicated in many functions, such as pain, memory, addiction, inflammation, and feeding, and could be considered a stress recovery system. It also seems to integrate nutrient intake, metabolism and storage maintaining homeostatic balance. The ECS is a recently discovered system, and research indicates hyperactivity in obesity. The aim of this thesis is to elaborate on the relationships of this widespread system and its elements in adipose tissue in obesity. Study I is a 4 weeks rat intervention study to investigate whether weight independent effect of Rimonabant treatment exists. We found that food intake-tolerance development could be circumvented by cyclic administration of Rimonabant and implications of weight independent effects of treatment. Study II is a cross-sectional study to establish the expression of cannabinoid receptor 1 from various adipose tissue depots of lean and obese persons. In this study we conclude, that the subcutaneous adipose tissue express more CBR1 than the visceral depot in lean, but comparable levels in obese. Study III is a 10 weeks human intervention study to asses the effects on the ECS of 10% weight loss. We found reduction in the ECS in obesity that normalised with weight loss. Our results clearly show the presence of all the components of the ECS in human adipose tissue, and

  11. A new approach to the minimum weight/loss design of switching power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.; Rahman, S.; Wu, C. J.; Kolacki, J.

    1981-01-01

    A new technique using the mathematical nonlinear programming ALAG is proposed to facilitate design optimizations of switching power converters. This computer-aided approach provides a minimum weight (or loss) design down to the details of component level and concurrently satisfies all related power-circuit performance requirements. It also provides such design insights as tradeoffs between power loss and system weight as the switching frequency is increased.

  12. The utility of monetary contingency contracts for weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sykes-Muskett, Bianca J; Prestwich, Andrew; Lawton, Rebecca J; Armitage, Christopher J

    2015-01-01

    Financial incentives to improve health have received increasing attention, but are subject to ethical concerns. Monetary Contingency Contracts (MCCs), which require individuals to deposit money that is refunded contingent on reaching a goal, are a potential alternative strategy. This review evaluates systematically the evidence for weight loss-related MCCs. Randomised controlled trials testing the effect of weight loss-related MCCs were identified in online databases. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to calculate overall effect sizes for weight loss and participant retention. The association between MCC characteristics and weight loss/participant retention effects was calculated using meta-regression. There was a significant small-to-medium effect of MCCs on weight loss during treatment when one outlier study was removed. Group refunds, deposit not paid as lump sum, participants setting their own deposit size and additional behaviour change techniques were associated with greater weight loss during treatment. Post-treatment, there was no significant effect of MCCs on weight loss. There was a significant small-to-medium effect of MCCs on participant retention during treatment. Researcher-set deposits paid as one lump sum, refunds delivered on an all-or-nothing basis and refunds contingent on attendance at classes were associated with greater retention during treatment. Post-treatment, there was no significant effect of MCCs on participant retention. The results support the use of MCCs to promote weight loss and participant retention up to the point that the incentive is removed and identifies the conditions under which MCCs work best. PMID:25933128

  13. Weight loss by calorie restriction versus bariatric surgery differentially regulates the HPA axis in male rats

    PubMed Central

    Grayson, Bernadette E.; Hakala-Finch, Andrew P.; Kekulawala, Melani; Laub, Holly; Egan, Ann E.; Ressler, Ilana B.; Woods, Stephen C.; Herman, James P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Benoit, Stephen C.; Ulrich-Lai, Yvonne M.

    2015-01-01

    Behavioral modifications for the treatment of obesity, including caloric restriction, have notoriously low long-term success rates relative to bariatric weight-loss surgery. The reasons for the difference in sustained weight loss are not clear. One possibility is that caloric restriction alone activates the stress-responsive hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis, undermining the long-term maintenance of weight loss, and that this is abrogated after bariatric surgery. Accordingly, we compared the HPA response to weight loss in 5 groups of male rats: (1) high-fat diet-induced obese (DIO) rats treated with Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB, n=7), (2) DIO rats treated with vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG, n=11), (3) DIO rats given sham surgery and subsequently restricted to the food intake of the VSG/RYGB groups (Pair-fed, n=11), (4) ad libitum-fed DIO rats given sham surgery (Obese, n=11) and (5) ad libitum chow-fed rats given sham surgery (Lean, n=12). Compared to Lean controls, food-restricted rats exhibited elevated morning (nadir) non-stress plasma corticosterone concentrations and increased hypothalamic corticotropin releasing hormone and vasopressin mRNA expression, indicative of basal HPA activation. This was largely prevented when weight loss was achieved by bariatric surgery. DIO increased HPA activation by acute (novel environment) stress and this was diminished by bariatric surgery-, but not pair-feeding-, induced weight loss. These results suggest that the HPA axis is differentially affected by weight loss from caloric restriction versus bariatric surgery, and this may contribute to the differing long-term effectiveness of these two weight-loss approaches. PMID:25238021

  14. Effects of low carbohydrate diets high in red meats or poultry, fish and shellfish on plasma lipids and weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Cassady, Bridget A; Charboneau, Nicole L; Brys, Emily E; Crouse, Kristin A; Beitz, Donald C; Wilson, Ted

    2007-01-01

    Background Low carbohydrate diets (LCDs) have been demonstrated to be effective tools for promoting weight loss and an improved plasma lipid profile. Such diets are often associated with increased meat consumption, either poultry, fish, and shellfish (PFS), which are generally high in polyunsaturated fat (PUFA) or red meats (RM), generally high in saturated fat (SFA). The fatty acid profile and content of a diet may influence the plasma lipid profile of humans. This study examined whether the type of meat consumed could influence the outcome of an LCD. Methods Moderately obese subjects consumed two different LCDs as part of a weight loss regimen: 1) a diet high in foods of mammalian origin (RM) intended to contain more SFA, or 2) a diet high in PFS intended to contain more PUFA. Diet dependent changes in body weight, nutritional intake, and plasma lipids were evaluated during a 28 day study period. Results Both diets were associated with significant weight loss after 28 days, -5.26 ± 0.84 kg and -5.74 ± 0.63 kg for RM and PFS groups, respectively. The PFS diet was associated with a significantly higher intake of PUFA and cholesterol. Despite high cholesterol and fat intakes, neither diet was associated with significant changes in plasma cholesterol or the plasma lipoprotein cholesterol profile. While plasma triglycerides were reduced in both groups, the effect was only statistically significant for the PFS diet. PMID:17974023

  15. Intentional Weight Loss and Longevity in Overweight Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: A Population-Based Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Køster-Rasmussen, Rasmus; Simonsen, Mette Kildevæld; Siersma, Volkert; Henriksen, Jan Erik; Heitmann, Berit Lilienthal; de Fine Olivarius, Niels

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study examined the influence of weight loss on long-term morbidity and mortality in overweight (BMI≥25kg/m2) patients with type 2 diabetes, and tested the hypothesis that therapeutic intentional weight loss supervised by a medical doctor prolongs life and reduces the risk for cardiovascular disease in these patients. Methods This is a 19 year cohort study of patients in the intervention arm of the randomized clinical trial Diabetes Care in General Practice. Weight and prospective intentions for weight loss were monitored every third month for six years in 761 consecutive patients (≥40 years) newly diagnosed with diabetes in general practices throughout Denmark in 1989–92. Multivariable Cox regression was used to estimate the association between weight change during the monitoring period (year 0 to 6) and the outcomes during the succeeding 13 years (year 6 to 19) in 444 patients who were overweight at diagnosis and alive at the end of the monitoring period (year 6). The analysis was adjusted for age, sex, education, BMI at diagnosis, change in smoking, change in physical activity, change in medication, and the Charlson comorbidity 6-year score. Outcomes were from national registers. Results Overall, weight loss regardless of intention was an independent risk factor for increased all-cause mortality (P<0.01). The adjusted hazard ratio for all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cardiovascular morbidity attributable to an intentional weight loss of 1 kg/year was 1.20 (95%CI 0.97–1.50, P = 0.10), 1.26 (0.93–1.72, P = 0.14), and 1.06 (0.79–1.42, P = 0.71), respectively. Limiting the analysis to include only those patients who survived the first 2 years after the monitoring period did not substantially change these estimates. A non-linear spline estimate indicated a V-like association between weight change and all-cause mortality, suggesting the best prognosis for those who maintained their weight. Conclusions In this population

  16. Adjusting Measured Weight Loss of Aged Graphite Fabric/PMR-15 Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bowles, Kenneth J.

    1998-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to evaluate the growth of the surface damage layer in polymer matrix composites (PMC's) fabricated with graphite fabric reinforcement and to determine the effects of the cut-surface degradation on the overall thermo-oxidative (TOS) stability of these materials. Four important conclusions were made about the TOS behavior of T650-35/PNIR- 15 fabric-reinforced composites: (1) Three stages of composite weight loss were seen on the plot of weight loss versus aging time; (2) the depth of the cut-edge damage is related to the composite thickness; (3) the actual weight loss realized by a mechanical test specimen that has had all the aging-induced cut-edge damage removed during the preparation process is significantly less than the weight loss measured using specimens with a high percentage of cut edges exposed to the damaging environment; and (4) an extrapolation of a section of the weight loss curve can be used to obtain a more correct estimate of the actual weight loss after extended periods of aging at elevated temperatures.

  17. Predictors of dropout in weight loss interventions: a systematic review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Moroshko, I; Brennan, L; O'Brien, P

    2011-11-01

    Attendance and completion of weight loss intervention is associated with better weight loss outcomes; however, attrition is neither consistently reported nor comprehensively explored in the weight loss literature. A systematic review was undertaken to identify factors associated with attrition in weight loss interventions involving overweight or obese (body mass index ≥ 25) adults (18-65 years). Sixty-one studies published before May 2011 and addressing factors associated with weight loss programme attrition were identified. Conclusions were limited by the large number of variables explored, the small number of studies exploring each variable, the large variety of study settings and methodologies used, the inconsistent reporting of results, and the conflicting findings across studies. A consistent set of predictors has not yet been identified. The majority of studies relied on pre-treatment routinely collected data rather than variables selected because of their theoretical and/or empirical relationship with attrition. However, psychological and behavioural patient factors and processes associated with the treatment were more commonly associated with attrition than patient background characteristics. Future research should consider theoretically grounded social-psychological and behavioural processes as potential predictors of dropout. Identification of patients at risk of dropout will contribute to both the effectiveness and the cost-effectiveness of weight loss interventions. PMID:21815990

  18. Translating weight loss into agency: Men's experiences 5 years after bariatric surgery

    PubMed Central

    Natvik, Eli; Gjengedal, Eva; Moltu, Christian; Råheim, Målfrid

    2015-01-01

    Fewer men than women with severe obesity undergo bariatric surgery for weight loss, and knowledge about men's situation after surgery, beyond medical status, is lacking. Our aim was to explore men's experiences with life after bariatric surgery from a long-term perspective. We conducted in-depth interviews with 13 men, aged 28–60 years, between 5 and 7 years after surgery. The analysis was inspired by Giorgi's phenomenological method. We found that agency was pivotal for how the men understood themselves and their lives after surgery. Weight loss meant regaining opportunities for living and acting in unrestricted and independent daily lives, yet surgery remained a radical treatment with complex consequences. Turning to surgery had involved conceptualizing their own body size as illness, which the men had resisted doing for years. After surgery, the rapid and major weight loss and the feelings of being exhausted, weak, and helpless were intertwined. The profound intensity of the weight loss process took the men by surprise. Embodying weight loss and change involved an inevitable renegotiating of experiences connected to the large body. Having bariatric surgery was a long-term process that seemed unfinished 5 years after surgery. Restrictions and insecurity connected to health and illness persist, despite successful weight loss and embodied change. Bariatric surgery initiated a complex and long-lasting life-changing process, involving both increased capacity for agency and illness-like experiences. PMID:26066518

  19. Failed Surgical Weight Loss Does Not Necessarily Mean Failed Metabolic Effects.

    PubMed

    Aminian, Ali; Jamal, Mohammad; Augustin, Toms; Corcelles, Ricard; Kirwan, John P; Schauer, Philip R; Brethauer, Stacy A

    2015-10-01

    The metabolic profile of patients after a failed surgical weight loss procedure is unknown. Long-term clinical outcomes of 31 obese diabetes patients with post-bariatric surgery excess weight loss of ≤25% were assessed. At a median follow-up of 6 years (range, 5-9 years) after surgery, remission and clinical improvement of diabetes occurred in seven (23%) and 13 (42%) patients, respectively. A long-term mean total weight loss of 7.0±4.7% and excess weight loss of 13.7±8.5% were associated with a mean reduction in fasting blood glucose level, from 158.9±66.7 to 128.4±35.3 mg/dL (P=0.03), and a significant decrease in diabetes medication requirements (P<0.001). A significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (11.1±23.4 mm Hg, P=0.01) and level of circulating triglycerides (35.7±73.4 mg/dL, P=0.04) was also observed after surgery. A modest surgical weight loss in the range of 5-10% of initial weight was associated with significant improvement in cardiometabolic risk factors of morbidly obese diabetes patients. The markedly improved glycemic control (65% remission or clinical improvement) may be partly explained by weight-independent antidiabetes mechanisms of certain bariatric surgical procedures. PMID:26177379

  20. Multimorbidity and weight loss in obese primary care patients: longitudinal study based on electronic healthcare records

    PubMed Central

    Calderón-Larrañaga, Amaia; Hernández-Olivan, Paola; González-Rubio, Francisca; Gimeno-Feliu, Luis A; Poblador-Plou, Beatriz; Prados-Torres, Alexandra

    2015-01-01

    Objective To analyse the association between cardiovascular and mental comorbidities of obesity and weight loss registered in the electronic primary healthcare records. Design and setting Longitudinal study of a cohort of adult patients assigned to any of the public primary care centres in Aragon, Spain, during 2010 and 2011. Participants Adult obese patients for whom data on their weight were available for 2010 (n=62 901), and for both 2010 and 2011 (n=42 428). Outcomes Weight loss (yes/no) was calculated based on the weight difference between the first value registered in 2010 and the last value registered in 2011. Multivariate logistic regression models were adjusted for individuals’ age, sex, total number of chronic comorbidities, type of obesity and length of time between both weight measurements. Results According to the recorded clinical information, 9 of 10 obese patients showed at least one chronic comorbidity. After adjusting for covariates, weight loss seemed to be more likely among obese patients with a diagnosis of diabetes and/or dementia and less likely among those with hypertension, anxiety and/or substance use problems (p<0.05). The probability of weight loss was also significantly higher in male patients with more severe obesity and older age. Conclusions An increased probability of weight loss over 1 year was observed in older obese male patients, especially among those already manifesting high levels of obesity and severe comorbidities such as diabetes and/or dementia. Yet patients with certain psychological problems showed lower rates of weight reduction. Future research should clarify if these differences persist beyond potential selective weight documentation in primary care, to better understand the trends in weight reduction among obese patients and the underlying role of general practitioners regarding such trends. PMID:25783419

  1. "Now My Old Self Is Thin": Stigma Exits after Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Granberg, Ellen M.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, I employ a structural symbolic interaction framework to examine the processes by which persons can exit a stigmatized identity. Using the empirical example of weight loss, I analyze how individuals evolve from an identity as "fat" and stigmatized to one that is "normal" with respect to weight and free from identification with…

  2. Repeated Measures in Case Studies Relating Social Competence and Weight Loss in Two Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina

    2007-01-01

    In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…

  3. Repeated Measures in Case Studies Relating Social Competence and Weight Loss in Two Obese Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Sonia Beatriz; Barbosa, Debora Regina

    2009-01-01

    In individual behavior therapy two clients were evaluated using behavior categories created by the therapist. Both clients were observed to improve in terms of social competence. One demonstrated a significant inverse correlation between improvement of social competence and weight loss during treatment (16 sessions) and lost weight. The other…

  4. A randomized controlled trial of a commercially available weight loss program

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommends that clinicians refer obese adults for intensive, multi-component behavioral counseling, yet most obese Americans choose a self-help approach to lose weight. The current study examined weight loss between a community-based, intensive behavi...

  5. An Open Trial of an Acceptance-Based Behavioral Intervention for Weight Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forman, Evan M.; Butryn, Meghan L.; Hoffman, Kimberly L.; Herbert, James D.

    2009-01-01

    Innovative approaches are urgently needed to improve behavioral treatment for weight loss. The weight regain that is so common after treatment may be a result of an environment that makes it challenging to adhere, long-term, to a dietary and physical activity regimen. This study was designed to test, via a 12-week open trial, the preliminary…

  6. Case Study: The Hunger Pains--Ghrelin, Weight Loss, and Maintenance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Diener, Lynn M.

    2013-01-01

    This article presents a case study regarding healthy weight loss and the role of the hormone ghrelin in maintaining a lower body weight. This study was designed specifically for use in an introductory college-level physiology course. It addresses the use of the case study in teaching digestion and metabolism, exploring the role of hormones in…

  7. The Wii Club: Gaming for Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Youth

    PubMed Central

    Abraham, Anisha A.; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Our 20-week “Wii Club” intervention for overweight and obese adolescents demonstrated weight loss, increased self-efficacy, and improved peer support from cooperative exergame play. Videogames that require motor activity in a social context may be a fun, effective tool to promote healthy weight and physical activity among youth. PMID:23565349

  8. Weight Loss in Adults with Down Syndrome and with Dementia in Alzheimer's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prasher, V. P.; Metseagharun, T.; Haque, S.

    2004-01-01

    An association between weight loss and Alzheimer's disease has been established in the general population but little information is available regarding this association in people with intellectual disabilities. A 4-year longitudinal study of adults with Down syndrome with and without Alzheimer's disease was undertaken. Age-associated weight loss…

  9. Long-term weight loss maintenance for obesity: a multidisciplinary approach.

    PubMed

    Montesi, Luca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Brodosi, Lucia; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The long-term weight management of obesity remains a very difficult task, associated with a high risk of failure and weight regain. However, many people report that they have successfully managed weight loss maintenance in the long term. Several factors have been associated with better weight loss maintenance in long-term observational and randomized studies. A few pertain to the behavioral area (eg, high levels of physical activity, eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet; frequent self-monitoring of weight), a few to the cognitive component (eg, reduced disinhibition, satisfaction with results achieved, confidence in being able to lose weight without professional help), and a few to personality traits (eg, low novelty seeking) and patient-therapist interaction. Trials based on the most recent protocols of lifestyle modification, with a prolonged extended treatment after the weight loss phase, have also shown promising long-term weight loss results. These data should stimulate the adoption of a lifestyle modification-based approach for the management of obesity, featuring a nonphysician lifestyle counselor (also called "lifestyle trainer" or "healthy lifestyle practitioner") as a pivotal component of the multidisciplinary team. The obesity physicians maintain a primary role in engaging patients, in team coordination and supervision, in managing the complications associated with obesity and, in selected cases, in the decision for drug treatment or bariatric surgery, as possible more intensive, add-on interventions to lifestyle treatment. PMID:27013897

  10. Information Processing Versus Social Cognitive Mediators of Weight Loss in a Podcast-Delivered Health Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ko, Linda K.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle M.; Campbell, Marci K.

    2014-01-01

    Podcasting is an emerging technology, and previous interventions have shown promising results using theory-based podcast for weight loss among overweight and obese individuals. This study investigated whether constructs of social cognitive theory and information processing theories (IPTs) mediate the effect of a podcast intervention on weight loss…

  11. A Psychological and Nutritional Approach to Weight Loss: A Collaborative Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessler, Lisa; Kalodner, Cynthia

    Collaboration between a dietitian and a psychologist has been described as critical to the development and implementation of this weight control programs, and this paper describes such a program conducted through a college student health center. Nutritional components of weight loss programs should provide information which will enable…

  12. Long-term weight loss maintenance for obesity: a multidisciplinary approach

    PubMed Central

    Montesi, Luca; El Ghoch, Marwan; Brodosi, Lucia; Calugi, Simona; Marchesini, Giulio; Dalle Grave, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    The long-term weight management of obesity remains a very difficult task, associated with a high risk of failure and weight regain. However, many people report that they have successfully managed weight loss maintenance in the long term. Several factors have been associated with better weight loss maintenance in long-term observational and randomized studies. A few pertain to the behavioral area (eg, high levels of physical activity, eating a low-calorie, low-fat diet; frequent self-monitoring of weight), a few to the cognitive component (eg, reduced disinhibition, satisfaction with results achieved, confidence in being able to lose weight without professional help), and a few to personality traits (eg, low novelty seeking) and patient–therapist interaction. Trials based on the most recent protocols of lifestyle modification, with a prolonged extended treatment after the weight loss phase, have also shown promising long-term weight loss results. These data should stimulate the adoption of a lifestyle modification-based approach for the management of obesity, featuring a nonphysician lifestyle counselor (also called “lifestyle trainer” or “healthy lifestyle practitioner”) as a pivotal component of the multidisciplinary team. The obesity physicians maintain a primary role in engaging patients, in team coordination and supervision, in managing the complications associated with obesity and, in selected cases, in the decision for drug treatment or bariatric surgery, as possible more intensive, add-on interventions to lifestyle treatment. PMID:27013897

  13. The Wii Club: Gaming for Weight Loss in Overweight and Obese Youth.

    PubMed

    Staiano, Amanda E; Abraham, Anisha A; Calvert, Sandra L

    2012-10-01

    Our 20-week "Wii Club" intervention for overweight and obese adolescents demonstrated weight loss, increased self-efficacy, and improved peer support from cooperative exergame play. Videogames that require motor activity in a social context may be a fun, effective tool to promote healthy weight and physical activity among youth. PMID:23565349

  14. DXA, bioelectrical impedance, ultrasonography and biometry for the estimation of fat and lean mass in cats during weight loss

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Few equations have been developed in veterinary medicine compared to human medicine to predict body composition. The present study was done to evaluate the influence of weight loss on biometry (BIO), bioimpedance analysis (BIA) and ultrasonography (US) in cats, proposing equations to estimate fat (FM) and lean (LM) body mass, as compared to dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) as the referenced method. For this were used 16 gonadectomized obese cats (8 males and 8 females) in a weight loss program. DXA, BIO, BIA and US were performed in the obese state (T0; obese animals), after 10% of weight loss (T1) and after 20% of weight loss (T2). Stepwise regression was used to analyze the relationship between the dependent variables (FM, LM) determined by DXA and the independent variables obtained by BIO, BIA and US. The better models chosen were evaluated by a simple regression analysis and means predicted vs. determined by DXA were compared to verify the accuracy of the equations. Results The independent variables determined by BIO, BIA and US that best correlated (p < 0.005) with the dependent variables (FM and LM) were BW (body weight), TC (thoracic circumference), PC (pelvic circumference), R (resistance) and SFLT (subcutaneous fat layer thickness). Using Mallows’Cp statistics, p value and r2, 19 equations were selected (12 for FM, 7 for LM); however, only 7 equations accurately predicted FM and one LM of cats. Conclusions The equations with two variables are better to use because they are effective and will be an alternative method to estimate body composition in the clinical routine. For estimated lean mass the equations using body weight associated with biometrics measures can be proposed. For estimated fat mass the equations using body weight associated with bioimpedance analysis can be proposed. PMID:22781317

  15. Energy balance and the composition of weight loss during prolonged space flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, J. I.

    1982-01-01

    Integrated metabolic balance analysis, Skylab integrated metabolic balance analysis and computer simulation of fluid-electrolyte responses to zero-g, overall mission weight and tissue losses, energy balance, diet and exercise, continuous changes, electrolyte losses, caloric and exercise requirements, and body composition are discussed.

  16. Determinants of Weight Loss in an Interdisciplinary Long-Term Care Program for Childhood Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Dubuisson, A. C.; Zech, F. R.; Dassy, M. M.; Jodogne, N. B.; Beauloye, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Background. Efforts are needed to improve the long-term efficiency of childhood obesity treatment. To adapt strategies, the identification of subgroups of patients with a greater weight loss may be useful. Objective. To analyze the results of a chronic care program for childhood obesity and to determine baseline factors (medical, dietary, and psychosocial) associated with successful weight loss. Subjects and Method. We set up a family-targeted and individually adapted interdisciplinary long-term care program. We reviewed the medical files of 144 children (59 boys and 85 girls; 10.5 ± 3.1 y; mean BMI-z-score: 2.73 ± 0.62) who had ≥2 interdisciplinary visits and ≥1-year treatment. Results. Mean treatment length was 2.2 y (1–6.7 y) with 3 ± 1 visits/year. The duration of treatment did not depend on the initial weight loss, but this was predictive of the weight change over time. Furthermore any additional weight loss was observed with time whatever the initial weight change. High levels of physical activity and daily water intake from baseline conditions were associated with a greater weight loss after 9 months of intervention. In contrast, a high baseline consumption of soft drinks resulted in lower weight loss. Family specific factors such as being a single child or the child's family support were identified as baseline factors which may contribute to better results. Conclusion. Our study suggests that the benefit of a chronic weight control program supports the need for its integration into the current concept of treatment. Better prevention policy and parental support may improve the success of the childhood obesity treatment. PMID:24527260

  17. Predictors of Child Weight Loss and Maintenance Among Family-Based Treatment Completers

    PubMed Central

    Stein, Richard I.; Saelens, Brian E.; Epstein, Leonard H.; Wilfley, Denise E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine general and treatment-specific predictors of children's weight outcomes during a pediatric weight management trial. Method 150 overweight children [69.3% female; M BMI z-score (z-BMI)=2.21±0.30] completed family-based behavioral weight loss treatment (FBT), followed by randomization to social facilitation maintenance treatment (SFM) addressing social support and body image; behavioral skills maintenance treatment (BSM) which extended FBT skills to maintenance; or a control condition with no maintenance treatment. Regression and mixed-effects repeated-measures ANCOVA examined child and parent anthropometric, demographic, and psychosocial variables in predicting relative weight outcomes over short- and long-term follow-ups. Results Among FBT completers, lower child baseline z-BMI and age, and greater parent BMI reductions during FBT and baseline self-efficacy predicted better child relative weight loss following FBT [F(6,137)=7.77; p<.001]. Higher child-reported post-FBT eating pathology predicted greater relative weight loss in SFM than BSM or control from post-FBT to 2-year follow-up [F(4,255.88)=3.48; p=.009], whereas higher parent-reported post-FBT social support predicted greater relative weight loss in BSM than control [F(2,141.65)=3.28; p=.04]. Lower parent-reported post-FBT behavioral problems predicted greater relative weight loss in SFM and BSM versus control [F(2,147.84)=7.37; p<.001]; higher problems predicted equivalent outcome across treatments. Conclusion SFM may improve weight outcomes for FBT completers with initially higher eating pathology, whereas extending FBT skills may be effective for those with higher familial support. These results suggest that certain pretreatment variables moderate the effectiveness of different pediatric weight control interventions. Further understanding these findings may help optimally match families to treatments. PMID:24932567

  18. [Vitality loss: influence of orthodontic process].

    PubMed

    Bernard-Granger, Chloé; Gebeile-Chauty, Sarah

    2015-06-01

    Vitality loss is an unusual event that can occur before, during or after an orthodontic treatment. It can lead to loss of sensitivity, color change or necrosis of the pulp tissue. Before starting the orthodontic treatment, we have to identify the tooth's risk (injured tooth, included occlusal trauma...). Knowing that, if an endodontic treatment has to be done, it is better to do it before starting orthodontic forces. Lamps do not provide problems except high intensity halogen ones. RPE on children, Le Fort I and mandibular osteotomies, corticotomies, genioplasties are responsible of a transitory ischemia without reaching a pathogen level. Mini-screws or mini-plates may be iatrogenic, if they impact the root. The repair options depend on the delay before removing the miniscrew and the nature of injured tissue. PMID:26337093

  19. What Overweight Women Want From a Weight Loss App: A Qualitative Study on Arabic Women

    PubMed Central

    Alkhalifa, Abdulrahman Saleh; Sathiaseelan, Arjuna; Marais, Debbi

    2015-01-01

    Background Overweight and obesity are international public health issues. With mobile and app use growing globally, the development of weight loss apps are increasing along with evidence that interventions using technology have been effective in the treatment of obesity. Although studies have been conducted regarding what content health professionals would recommend within weight loss apps, there are limited studies that explore users’ viewpoints. There is specifically a paucity of research that takes the cultural background of the user into consideration, especially in Middle Eastern countries where the lives and weight loss intervention needs of women not only vary vastly from the West, but the obesity rate is also increasing exponentially. Objective The current study sought to explore the proposed features of an Arabic weight loss app by seeking the experiences and opinions of overweight and obese Saudi Arabian users in order to design a mobile phone app to fit their needs. Methods Focus group discussions were conducted with a purposive sample of volunteer overweight and obese Saudi women (BMI ≥ 25) who were older than 18 years and who owned a mobile phone. The most common Arabic and English weight loss mobile apps were downloaded to initiate dialogue about app usage and to get their opinions on what an ideal weight loss app would look like and the features it would include. All transcribed, translated discussions were thematically analyzed, categorized for each of the main topics of the discussion, and specific quotations were identified. Results Four focus groups were conducted with a total of 39 participants. Most participants owned an Android mobile phone and only a few participants were aware of the availability of health-related apps. Barriers to weight loss were identified including: motivation, support (social and professional), boring diets, customs, and lifestyle. Diverse themes emerged as suggestions for an ideal weight loss app including: Arabic

  20. The effects of weight loss treatments on upper and lower body fat.

    PubMed

    Kopelman, P G

    1997-08-01

    obesity. Dexfenfluramine is effective in reducing total body fat but the results from a six month randomised controlled trial indicates that it does not specifically influence changes in waist circumference associated with weight loss. In conclusion, any treatment which reduces total body fat will, by its nature, reduce intra-abdominal visceral fat. There are presently no specific treatments which can be recommended for intra-abdominal fat but increasing knowledge of the biochemical aberrations associated with visceral adiposity may lead to more specific therapies for the future. PMID:15481759

  1. Potential role of meal frequency as a strategy for weight loss and health in overweight or obese adults.

    PubMed

    Kulovitz, Michelle G; Kravitz, Len R; Mermier, Christine; Gibson, Ann L; Conn, Carole A; Kolkmeyer, Deborah; Kerksick, Chad M

    2014-04-01

    Improved dietary strategies for weight loss are necessary to decrease metabolic disease risk in overweight or obese adults. Varying meal frequency (MF; i.e., increasing or decreasing eating occasions beyond the traditional pattern of three meals daily) has been thought to have an influence on body weight regulation, hunger control, and blood markers of health. It is common practice for weight management clinicians to recommend increasing MF as a strategy for weight management and to improve metabolic parameters. However, limited research exists investigating the effect of MF during controlled hypocaloric dietary interventions. Furthermore, MF literature often speculates with regard to efficacy of MF treatments based on research using normal weight, overweight/obese, or some combination, where much diversity exists within these various populations. In this review, we suggest that normal-weight and overweight/obese populations, as well as free-living versus investigator-controlled research trials, should be studied independently. Therefore, the objective of the present review is to survey the literature to assess whether the alteration of MF influences body weight regulation, hunger control, and/or blood markers of health in overweight/obese participants undergoing a controlled hypocaloric diet to induce weight loss. Findings of this review indicate that there is uncertainty in the literature when interpreting the optimal MF for obesity treatment, where reduced MF may even show more favorable lipid profiles in obese individuals compared with increased MF. Furthermore, the simple relationship of comparing MF with body fatness or body mass index should also consider whether eating frequency is associated with other healthy factors (e.g., increased physical activity). PMID:24268866

  2. The relationship between weight loss and interleukin 6 in non-small-cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Scott, H R; McMillan, D C; Crilly, A; McArdle, C S; Milroy, R

    1996-06-01

    Markers of the inflammatory response, interleukin 6, C-reactive protein, albumin and full blood count, were measured in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients (n = 21) with and without weight loss ( > 5%). There were significant increases in circulating C-reactive protein (P < 0.001), interleukin 6 (P < 0.01) and platelets (P < 0.01) in the weight-losing group. Moreover, there was a statistically significant correlation (r = 0.785, P < 0.001) between interleukin 6 and C-reactive protein concentrations. These results are consistent with interleukin 6 and the acute phase response promoting weight loss in NSCLC. PMID:8664130

  3. Effects of individual and combined dietary weight loss and exercise interventions in postmenopausal women on adiponectin and leptin levels

    PubMed Central

    Abbenhardt, Clare; McTiernan, Anne; Alfano, Catherine M.; Wener, Mark H.; Campbell, Kristin L.; Duggan, Catherine; Foster-Schubert, Karen E.; Kong, Angela; Toriola, Adetunji T; Potter, John D.; Mason, Caitlin; Xiao, Liren; Blackburn, George L.; Bain, Carolyn; Ulrich, Cornelia M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Excess body weight and a sedentary lifestyle are associated with the development of several diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and cancer in women. One proposed mechanism linking obesity to chronic diseases is an alteration in adipose-derived adiponectin and leptin levels. We investigated the effects of 12-month reduced calorie, weight loss and exercise interventions on adiponectin and leptin concentrations. Methods Overweight/obese postmenopausal women (n=439) were randomized as follows: 1) a reduced calorie, weight loss diet (diet; N=118); 2) moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (exercise; N=117); 3) a combination of a reduced calorie, weight loss diet and moderate-to-vigorous intensity aerobic exercise (diet+exercise; N=117); or 4) control (N=87). The reduced calorie diet had a 10% weight loss goal. The exercise intervention consisted of 45 minutes of moderate-to-vigorous aerobic activity 5 days/week. Adiponectin and leptin levels were measured at baseline and after 12 months of intervention using a radioimmunoassay. Results Adiponectin increased by 9.5 % in the diet group and 6.6 % in the diet+exercise group (both p≤0.0001 vs. control). Compared with controls, leptin decreased with all interventions (diet+exercise, −40.1%, p<0.0001; diet, −27.1%, p<0.0001; exercise, −12.7%, p=0.005). The results were not influenced by the baseline body mass index (BMI). The degree of weight loss was inversely associated with concentrations of adiponectin (diet, p-trend=0.0002; diet+exercise, p-trend=0.0005) and directly associated with leptin (diet, p-trend<0.0001; diet+exercise, p-trend<0.0001). Conclusion Weight loss through diet or diet+exercise increased adiponectin concentrations. Leptin concentrations decreased in all of the intervention groups, but the greatest reduction occurred with diet+exercise. Weight loss and exercise exerted some beneficial effects on chronic diseases via effects on adiponectin and leptin. PMID

  4. The effect of job loss on body weight during an economic collapse.

    PubMed

    Jónsdóttir, Sif; Ásgeirsdóttir, Tinna Laufey

    2014-07-01

    Studies on the relationship between unemployment and body weight show a positive relationship between Body Mass Index (BMI) and unemployment at the individual level, while aggregate unemployment is negatively related to a population's average BMI. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between job loss and changes in body weight following the Icelandic economic collapse of 2008. The analysis relies on a health and lifestyle survey "Heilsa og líðan", carried out by The Public Health Institute of Iceland in the years 2007 and 2009. The sample is a stratified random sample of 9,807 Icelanders between the ages of 18 and 79, with a net response rate of 42.1% for individuals responding in both waves. A linear regression model was used when estimating the relationship between job loss following the economic collapse and changes in body weight. Family income and mental health were explored as mediators. Point estimates indicated that both men and women gain less weight in the event of a job loss relative to those who retained their employment. The coefficients of job loss were only statistically significant for females, but not in the male population. The results from all three models were inconsistent with results from other studies where job loss has been found to increase body weight. However, body weight has been shown to be procyclical, and the fact that the data used were gathered during a severe economic downturn might separate these results from earlier findings. PMID:23757095

  5. Assessment of psychological predictors of weight loss: How and what for?

    PubMed Central

    Lazzeretti, Lisa; Rotella, Francesco; Pala, Laura; Rotella, Carlo Maria

    2015-01-01

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease and the prominent factors playing a role in its pathogenesis are biological, environmental and psychological. There is a growing interest in understanding psychological functioning of obese subjects and the influence of psychological factors on treatment outcome. The aim of the present narrative review is to critically analyze the current literature, in order to point out the most common psychological constructs studied in obesity and to give an overview of the main existing tools investigating psychological features which have been considered significant for the prediction of success in weight loss and maintenance programs in obese patients. In this framework, the most common psychological constructs studied are: self-motivation, self-efficacy, locus of control, health related quality of life, self-esteem, self-control, concerns about body image, outcome expectations, and personality traits. These features have been explored through a wide variety of psychometric instruments. However, as an overall, studies evaluating the association between psychological features and treatment outcome failed to give consistent results. A possible explanation may consist on the fact that many tools widely used to explore psychological features were not specifically designed for obese patients and none of them was comprehensive of all possible psychological features involved. The identification of well-defined sub-groups of patients and the validation of more reliable and comprehensive tools, specifically designed for obese subjects, should be forecasted in order to reach a better knowledge of psychological functioning of obese individuals and to improve the outcome of weight loss programs. PMID:25815255

  6. Assessment of psychological predictors of weight loss: How and what for?

    PubMed

    Lazzeretti, Lisa; Rotella, Francesco; Pala, Laura; Rotella, Carlo Maria

    2015-03-22

    Obesity is a multifactorial disease and the prominent factors playing a role in its pathogenesis are biological, environmental and psychological. There is a growing interest in understanding psychological functioning of obese subjects and the influence of psychological factors on treatment outcome. The aim of the present narrative review is to critically analyze the current literature, in order to point out the most common psychological constructs studied in obesity and to give an overview of the main existing tools investigating psychological features which have been considered significant for the prediction of success in weight loss and maintenance programs in obese patients. In this framework, the most common psychological constructs studied are: self-motivation, self-efficacy, locus of control, health related quality of life, self-esteem, self-control, concerns about body image, outcome expectations, and personality traits. These features have been explored through a wide variety of psychometric instruments. However, as an overall, studies evaluating the association between psychological features and treatment outcome failed to give consistent results. A possible explanation may consist on the fact that many tools widely used to explore psychological features were not specifically designed for obese patients and none of them was comprehensive of all possible psychological features involved. The identification of well-defined sub-groups of patients and the validation of more reliable and comprehensive tools, specifically designed for obese subjects, should be forecasted in order to reach a better knowledge of psychological functioning of obese individuals and to improve the outcome of weight loss programs. PMID:25815255

  7. Variation at the Melanocortin 4 Receptor gene and response to weight-loss interventions in the Diabetes Prevention Program

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Qing; Delahanty, Linda M.; Jablonski, Kathleen A.; Knowler, William C.; Kahn, Steven E.; Florez, Jose C.; Franks, Paul W.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess associations and genotype × treatment interactions for melanocortin 4 receptor (MC4R) locus variants and obesity-related traits. Design and Methods Diabetes Prevention Program (DPP) participants (N=3,819, of whom 3,356 were genotyped for baseline and 3,234 for longitudinal analyses) were randomized into intensive lifestyle modification (diet, exercise, weight loss), metformin or placebo control. Adiposity was assessed in a subgroup (n=909) using computed tomography. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, ethnicity and treatment. Results The rs1943218 minor allele was nominally associated with short-term (6 month; P=0.032) and long-term (2 year; P=0.038) weight change. Eight SNPs modified response to treatment on short-term (rs17066856, rs9966412, rs17066859, rs8091237, rs17066866, rs7240064) or long-term (rs12970134, rs17066866) reduction in body weight, or diabetes incidence (rs17066829) (all Pinteraction <0.05). Conclusion This is the first study to comprehensively assess the role of MC4R variants and weight regulation in a weight loss intervention trial. One MC4R variant was directly associated with obesity-related traits or diabetes; numerous other variants appear to influence body weight and diabetes risk by modifying the protective effects of the DPP interventions. PMID:23512951

  8. The Potential of Virtual Reality Technologies to Improve Adherence to Weight Loss Behaviors

    PubMed Central

    Coons, Michael J; Roehrig, Megan; Spring, Bonnie

    2011-01-01

    A significant proportion of the global population is obese, foreshadowing an epidemic of chronic disease. Self-monitoring (of diet, exercise, and body weight), decreasing energy intake, and increasing energy expenditure are robust predictors of successful weight loss. However, few individuals consistently practice these behaviors, making long-term weight loss and maintenance unlikely. Technologies afford unique opportunities to overcome barriers and increase the reach of traditional obesity interventions. In this article, we introduce ENGAGED, a technology-enhanced modification of the Diabetes Prevention Program designed to improve adherence to weight loss behaviors. Using a treatment implementation framework, we suggest how virtual reality technologies might further improve the delivery, receipt, and enactment of ENGAGED to maximize patient impact. PMID:21527103

  9. Participants’ Explanatory Model of Being Overweight and Their Experiences of 2 Weight Loss Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Ahern, Amy L.; Boyland, Emma J.; Jebb, Susan A.; Cohn, Simon R.

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE We explored participants’ accounts of weight loss interventions to illuminate the reasons behind the greater weight loss observed among those attending a commercial program compared with those receiving standard care in a recent large-scale trial. We further wanted to examine how participants’ general explanatory model of being overweight related to the 2 different interventions. METHODS Our study was based on thematic analysis of semistructured telephone interviews with a purposeful sample of 16 female participants from the UK center of a randomized controlled trial of weight loss in primary care. RESULTS The commercial provider delivered weight management in a nonmedical context, which mirrors how participants regard being overweight. Participants felt they needed support and motivation rather than education, and valued the ease of access and frequent contact the commercial provider offered. Some participants preferred individual level support with their primary care clinician, and all were positive about the opportunity to access support through the primary care setting. CONCLUSIONS Primary care referral to a commercial weight loss program for people who do not require specific clinical care appears to be in accord with their general explanatory model about being overweight, offering motivation and support to lose weight outside a strictly medical context. This approach may not be effective or acceptable for everyone, however, and there are likely to be considerable variations in the explanatory models held. Findings support the argument that a range of evidence-based options for weight management should be available in primary care. PMID:23690325

  10. Diet quality of adults using intuitive eating for weight loss - pilot study.

    PubMed

    Anglin, Judith C; Borchardt, Nadia; Ramos, Elizabeth; Mhoon, Kendra

    2013-01-01

    As the incidence of obesity and related disease steadily increases, researchers and medical practitioners are continuously examining new approaches to prevent and manage the epidemic. Intuitive eating (IE) is a new and innovative approach that uses an individual's response to internal cues of hunger, satiety, and appetite, and replaces calorie restriction (CR). CR is the standard approach for weight reduction. This study was a randomized controlled trial with two groups in which we accessed records of the dietary intake of obese adults using CR and IE to achieve weight loss. The participants were sedentary obese individuals with no history of chronic diseases. They engaged in physical activity three times per week for 30 min and recorded their daily food intake in a food diary. Instructions were given for CR and IE at the start and midpoint of the study. The duration of the study was six weeks. Weight and waist circumference were measured, and body mass index (BMI) calculated. The CR group's total weight loss was significantly (p = 0.03) lower than that of the IE group. The CR group had consistent weight loss throughout the study, while the IE group's weight loss was significantly less at the endpoint compared to the midpoint. CR is a superior approach to weight management than IE. PMID:26399269

  11. [Gastrointestinal causes of weight loss: clinical presentation, diagnostic workup and therapy].

    PubMed

    Fromhold-Treu, Sophie; Lamprecht, Georg

    2016-02-01

    This review describes the gasterointestinal entities, their pathophysiology, clinical presentation, diagnostic workup and therapy that typically involve weight loss as the major presenting symptom. The differentiation of malassimilation into maldigestion and malabsorption is clinically mostly not helpful. Instead primary malasssimilation can be distinguished from secondary due to another disease. Celiac disease, lambliasis, small bowel CD, CVIDS and Whipple's disease result in loss of absorptive surface. Chronic intestinal pseudobstruction leads to weight loss through dysmotility and postprandial pain. Microscopic colitis involves some weight loss and needs to be considered because of its high prevalence. Exocrine pancreatic insufficiency and the various protein loosing enteropathies may be primary or secondary syndromes. Dumping, bile acid malabsorption and short bowel syndrome occur after typical operative procedures. Chronic radiation enteritis, chronic intestinal ischemia and intestinal diabetic polyneuropathy are due to chronic intestinal injury. PMID:26886038

  12. Tissue components of weight loss in cancer patients. A new method of study and preliminary observations.

    PubMed

    Heymsfield, S B; McManus, C B

    1985-01-01

    A new approach using anthropometric, radiographic, biochemical, and ultrasonic methods allowed partition of body weight into fat, fat-free mass, skeletal muscle, and volume of heart, liver, kidneys, spleen, and tumor. These methods were used to evaluate body composition longitudinally in a pilot group of nine cancer patients, seven of whom lost weight (greater than 2.5 kg) during the study period. Two control groups also underwent the protocol: (1) healthy subjects (+/- 10% IBW) of similar age, sex, and height; and (2) patients with weight loss due to anorexia nervosa. Weight loss in both the cancer and anorexia nervosa groups could be accounted for primarily by loss in fat and skeletal muscle; although the relative magnitude of these tissue losses were approximately the same in both groups, cancer patients lost relatively less body weight. This was because (1) overt or occult ascites (detected radiographically) was present in cancer patients (3 of 9); (2) tumor bulk increased fat-free mass by up to 1 to 2 kg; and (3) the proportional loss in visceral organ volume was less in cancer patients than in anorexia nervosa patients. In the latter group, heart, liver, kidneys, and spleen were reduced in proportion to body weight, whereas in the cancer group as a whole, these organs (when uninvolved with tumor) lost little (heart and kidneys) or no volume (liver and spleen). This initial study suggests that the principal endogenous energy and nitrogen sources during evolution of weight loss in cancer are primarily adipose tissue triglycerides and skeletal muscle proteins. In some cancer patients, fluid accumulation, a large tumor burden, and the slow rate of visceral organ atrophy make body weight an unreliable index of available energy-nitrogen reserves. PMID:3965090

  13. Factors Related to Weight Loss Behavior in a Multiracial/Ethnic Workforce

    PubMed Central

    Zapka, Jane; Lemon, Stephenie C.; Estabrook, Barbara; Rosal, Milagros C.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We examined whether factors associated with attempting to lose weight in a hospital-based employee workforce varied by race/ethnicity. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 6 hospitals in a health system in central Massachusetts. The stratified random sample included 813 employees; men and and non-White employees were oversampled. The primary outcome measure was current evidence-based weight loss attempts. Results Factors positively associated with attempting to lose weight among non-Hispanic Blacks included self-perceived overweight, female sex, higher education, physician recommendation to lose weight, and having a chronic medical condition. Among Hispanics, body mass index and self-perceived overweight were associated with attempts to lose weight, while working full time and second or third shift were associated with lower likelihood of weight loss attempts. Among non-Hispanic Whites, self-perceived overweight, female sex, higher education, and physician recommendation to lose weight were positively associated with attempting to lose weight, while working full time and working third shift were negatively associated. Conclusions Rates of overweight and obesity were high among hospital employees. Findings suggest that factors associated with attempting to lose weight vary across racial and ethnic groups. Workplace-based interventions for weight control should include strategies tailored to these differences. PMID:19537226

  14. Development of a Theoretically Driven mHealth Text Messaging Application for Sustaining Recent Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Hess, Jeffrey C

    2013-01-01

    Background Mobile phone short message service (SMS) text messaging, has the potential to serve as an intervention medium to promote sustainability of weight loss that can be easily and affordably used by clinicians and consumers. Objective To develop theoretically driven weight loss sustaining text messages and pilot an mHealth SMS text messaging intervention to promote sustaining recent weight loss in order to understand optimal frequency and timing of message delivery, and for feasibility and usability testing. Results from the pilot study were used to design and construct a patient privacy compliant automated SMS application to deliver weight loss sustaining messages. Methods We first conducted a pilot study in which participants (N=16) received a daily SMS text message for one month following a structured weight loss program. Messages were developed from diet and exercise guidelines. Following the intervention, interviews were conducted and self-reported weight was collected via SMS text messaging. Results All participants (N=16) were capable of sending and receiving SMS text messages. During the phone interview at 1 month post-baseline and at 3 months post-baseline, 13/14 (93%) of participants who completed the study reported their weight via SMS. At 3 months post-baseline, 79% (11/14) participants sustained or continued to lose weight. Participants (13/14, 93%) were favorable toward the messages and the majority (10/14, 71%) felt they were useful in helping them sustain weight loss. All 14 participants who completed the interview thought SMS was a favorable communication medium and was useful to receive short relevant messages promptly and directly. All participants read the messages when they knew they arrived and most (11/14, 79%) read the messages at the time of delivery. All participants felt that at least one daily message is needed to sustain weight loss behaviors and that they should be delivered in the morning. Results were then used to develop the

  15. Intention, perceived control, and weight loss: an application of the theory of planned behavior.

    PubMed

    Schifter, D E; Ajzen, I

    1985-09-01

    Success at attempted weight reduction among college women was predicted on the basis of a theory of planned behavior. At the beginning of a 6-week period, participants expressed their attitudes, subjective norms, perceived control, and intentions with respect to losing weight. In addition, the extent to which they had made detailed weight reduction plans was assessed, as were a number of general attitudes and personality factors. In support of the theory, intentions to lose weight were accurately predicted on the basis of attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived control; perceived control and intentions were together moderately successful in predicting the amount of weight that participants actually lost over the 6-week period. Actual weight loss was also found to increase with development of a plan and with ego strength, factors that were assumed to increase control over goal attainment. Other factors, such as health locus of control, perceived competence, and action control, were found to be unrelated to weight reduction. PMID:4045706

  16. How Formerly Overweight and Obese Individuals Negotiate Disclosure of Their Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Romo, Lynsey K

    2016-09-01

    Overweight and obese individuals frequently experience weight-based stigma, and reducing stigma is one reason people want to lose weight. However, research suggests even after individuals become a normal weight, knowledge of their old body size can result in stigma. Through interviews of 30 formerly overweight or obese individuals and the framework of Communication Privacy Management theory, this study found the vast majority of participants perceived more benefits from disclosing their larger identity than risks, regardless of weight-loss method. Participants revealed their weight loss in order to inspire others, build relationships, or hold themselves accountable. Conversely, a few participants concealed to protect their thinner identity (i.e., they feared stigma) or to avoid coming across as boastful. In contrast to previous studies, this investigation suggests most participants were not dissuaded from revealing their former body size due to a threat of residual stigma. Participants' disclosure was overwhelmingly met with encouraging and supportive responses. PMID:26881478

  17. Walking Programs to Promote Weight Loss among Obese and Overweight Individuals: Walking Buses for Adults

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Elizabeth H.; Milner, Adrienne N.; Campbell, Anthony D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess whether the concept of a walking bus program is a viable option for increasing physical activity and weight loss among overweight and obese adults Methods A pilot study was conducted where 45overweight and obese participants were monitored over an 8 week period and their walking bus use and weight changes were measured longitudinally. Results Participants who utilized the walking bus were more likely than those who did not use the walking bus to lose weight. Black walking bus users were less likely to lose weight than non-black walking bus users. 98% of participants said they would likely participate in a walking bus program again. Conclusions Walking buses programs are a viable option to promote weight loss among overweight and obese adults. PMID:25940648

  18. Weighting of Acoustic Cues to a Manner Distinction by Children With and Without Hearing Loss

    PubMed Central

    Lowenstein, Joanna H.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Children must develop optimal perceptual weighting strategies for processing speech in their first language. Hearing loss can interfere with that development, especially if cochlear implants are required. The three goals of this study were to measure, for children with and without hearing loss: (a) cue weighting for a manner distinction, (b) sensitivity to those cues, and (c) real-world communication functions. Method One hundred and seven children (43 with normal hearing [NH], 17 with hearing aids [HAs], and 47 with cochlear implants [CIs]) performed several tasks: labeling of stimuli from /bɑ/-to-/wɑ/ continua varying in formant and amplitude rise time (FRT and ART), discrimination of ART, word recognition, and phonemic awareness. Results Children with hearing loss were less attentive overall to acoustic structure than children with NH. Children with CIs, but not those with HAs, weighted FRT less and ART more than children with NH. Sensitivity could not explain cue weighting. FRT cue weighting explained significant amounts of variability in word recognition and phonemic awareness; ART cue weighting did not. Conclusion Signal degradation inhibits access to spectral structure for children with CIs, but cannot explain their delayed development of optimal weighting strategies. Auditory training could strengthen the weighting of spectral cues for children with CIs, thus aiding spoken language acquisition. PMID:25813201

  19. Exercise Decreases Lipogenic Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue and Alters Adipocyte Cellularity during Weight Regain After Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Erin D.; Steig, Amy J.; Jackman, Matthew R.; Higgins, Janine A.; Johnson, Ginger C.; Lindstrom, Rachel C.; MacLean, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity. Mature, obese rats were weight-reduced for 2 weeks with or without daily treadmill exercise (EX). Rats were weight maintained for 6 weeks, followed by relapse on: (a) ad libitum low fat diet (LFD), (b) ad libitum LFD plus EX, or (c) a provision of LFD to match the positive energy imbalance of exercised, relapsing animals. 24 h retention of dietary- and de novo-derived fat were assessed directly using 14C palmitate/oleate and 3H20, respectively. Exercise decreased the size, but increased the number of adipocytes in both retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose depots, and prevented the relapse-induced increase in adipocyte size. Further, exercise decreased the expression of genes involved in lipid uptake (CD36 and LPL), de novo lipogenesis (FAS, ACC1), and triacylglycerol synthesis (MGAT and DGAT) in RP adipose during relapse following weight loss. This was consistent with the metabolic data, whereby exercise reduced retention of de novo-derived fat even when controlling for the positive energy imbalance. The decreased trafficking of dietary fat to adipose tissue with exercise was explained by reduced energy intake which attenuated energy imbalance during refeeding. Despite having decreased expression of lipogenic genes, the net retention of de novo-derived lipid was higher in both the RP and SC adipose of exercising

  20. Exercise Decreases Lipogenic Gene Expression in Adipose Tissue and Alters Adipocyte Cellularity during Weight Regain After Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Giles, Erin D; Steig, Amy J; Jackman, Matthew R; Higgins, Janine A; Johnson, Ginger C; Lindstrom, Rachel C; MacLean, Paul S

    2016-01-01

    Exercise is a potent strategy to facilitate long-term weight maintenance. In addition to increasing energy expenditure and reducing appetite, exercise also favors the oxidation of dietary fat, which likely helps prevent weight re-gain. It is unclear whether this exercise-induced metabolic shift is due to changes in energy balance, or whether exercise imparts additional adaptations in the periphery that limit the storage and favor the oxidation of dietary fat. To answer this question, adipose tissue lipid metabolism and related gene expression were studied in obese rats following weight loss and during the first day of relapse to obesity. Mature, obese rats were weight-reduced for 2 weeks with or without daily treadmill exercise (EX). Rats were weight maintained for 6 weeks, followed by relapse on: (a) ad libitum low fat diet (LFD), (b) ad libitum LFD plus EX, or (c) a provision of LFD to match the positive energy imbalance of exercised, relapsing animals. 24 h retention of dietary- and de novo-derived fat were assessed directly using (14)C palmitate/oleate and (3)H20, respectively. Exercise decreased the size, but increased the number of adipocytes in both retroperitoneal (RP) and subcutaneous (SC) adipose depots, and prevented the relapse-induced increase in adipocyte size. Further, exercise decreased the expression of genes involved in lipid uptake (CD36 and LPL), de novo lipogenesis (FAS, ACC1), and triacylglycerol synthesis (MGAT and DGAT) in RP adipose during relapse following weight loss. This was consistent with the metabolic data, whereby exercise reduced retention of de novo-derived fat even when controlling for the positive energy imbalance. The decreased trafficking of dietary fat to adipose tissue with exercise was explained by reduced energy intake which attenuated energy imbalance during refeeding. Despite having decreased expression of lipogenic genes, the net retention of de novo-derived lipid was higher in both the RP and SC adipose of exercising

  1. In ovum exposure to pesticides increases the egg weight loss and decreases hatchlings weight of Caiman latirostris (Crocodylia: Alligatoridae).

    PubMed

    Beldomenico, P M; Rey, F; Prado, W S; Villarreal, J C; Muñoz-de-Toro, M; Luque, E H

    2007-10-01

    The increasing use of pesticides affects ecosystem health. Caiman latirostris is a South American species with ecological and physiological features that render it vulnerable to exposure to pesticides with endocrine disruptor's action. Our main objective was to test the effect of in ovum exposure to atrazine and endosulfan on the sex ratio of caiman hatchlings; however, we are also presenting unexpected findings regarding pesticide effects on egg weight loss during incubation and hatchlings relative weight. Caiman eggs were incubated under controlled temperature (30 and 33 degrees C) and humidity (>90%). They were treated with vehicle, 17 beta-estradiol (1.4ppm), atrazine (0.2ppm) and endosulfan (0.02; 2; 20ppm). Pesticides did not cause estrogen-like effects on sex determination. Greater egg weight loss was observed in eggs treated with atrazine and higher doses of endosulfan (2 and 20ppm) (p=0.0005). These pesticides also caused a reduction in hatchling fractional weight (p=0.0497). These effects might have a significant impact on caiman population dynamics. PMID:17280716

  2. Long-term Successful Weight Loss Improves Vascular Endothelial Function in Severely Obese Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Bigornia, Sherman J.; Mott, Melanie M.; Hess, Donald T.; Apovian, Caroline M.; McDonnell, Marie E.; Duess, Mai-Ann; Kluge, Matthew A.; Fiscale, Antonino J.; Vita, Joseph A.; Gokce, Noyan

    2010-01-01

    Obesity is associated with increased cardiovascular risk. Although short-term weight loss improves vascular endothelial function, longer term outcomes have not been widely investigated. We examined brachial artery endothelium-dependent vasodilation and metabolic parameters in 29 severely obese subjects who lost ≥10% body weight (age 45 ± 13 years; BMI 48 ± 9 kg/m2) at baseline and after 12 months of dietary and/or surgical intervention. We compared these parameters to 14 obese individuals (age 49 ± 11 years; BMI 39 ± 7 kg/m2) who failed to lose weight. For the entire group, mean brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) was impaired at 6.7 ± 4.1%. Following sustained weight loss, FMD increased significantly from 6.8 ± 4.2 to 10.0 ± 4.7%, but remained blunted in patients without weight decline from 6.5 ± 4.0 to 5.7 ± 4.1%, P = 0.013 by ANOVA. Endothelium-independent, nitroglycerin-mediated dilation (NMD) was unaltered. BMI fell by 13 ± 7 kg/m2 following successful weight intervention and was associated with reduced total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (CRP). Vascular improvement correlated most strongly with glucose levels (r = −0.51, P = 0.002) and was independent of weight change. In this cohort of severely obese subjects, sustained weight loss at 1 year improved vascular function and metabolic parameters. The findings suggest that reversal of endothelial dysfunction and restoration of arterial homeostasis could potentially reduce cardiovascular risk. The results also demonstrate that metabolic changes in association with weight loss are stronger determinants of vascular phenotype than degree of weight reduction. PMID:20057371

  3. Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... decisions about when and where they should receive healthcare. Unfortunately, most people lack the medical knowledge needed to make these decisions safely. FreeMD.com is powered by a computer program that performs symptom triage. The goal of ...

  4. Weight Loss

    MedlinePlus

    > Find Us On Facebook Twitter Pinterest Youtube Instagram Diabetes Stops Here Blog Online Community Site Menu Are You at Risk? Diagnosis Lower Your Risk Risk Test Alert Day Prediabetes My Health Advisor Tools to ...

  5. The baboon model (Papio hamadryas) of fetal loss: Maternal weight, age, reproductive history and pregnancy outcome

    PubMed Central

    Schlabritz-Loutsevitch, Natalia; Moore, Charleen M.; Lopez-Alvarenga, Juan Carlos; Dunn, Betty G.; Dudley, Donald; Hubbard, Gene B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Several risk factors are associated with the incidence of human stillbirths. The prevention of stillbirths in women is a pressing clinical problem. Methods We reviewed 402 pathology records of fetal loss occurring in a large baboon (Papio spp.) colony during a 15-year period. Clinical histories of 565 female baboons with one or more fetal losses during a 20-year period were analyzed for weight, age, and reproductive history. Results Fetal loss was most common at term (35.57%) and preterm (28.61%) and less common in the first half of gestation (11.20%) and post-term (5.22%). Greater maternal weight, older age, history of stillbirth and higher parity were independent predictors for stillbirth. An exponential increase in the incidence of fetal loss was observed beginning at age 14 years in baboons. Conclusion Fetal loss and maternal risk factors associated with stillbirths in baboons were similar to those documented in women. PMID:19017195

  6. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss.

    PubMed

    Scheller, Erica L; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L; Wee, Natalie K Y; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M; Abrishami, Simin H; Zamarron, Brian F; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  7. Changes in Skeletal Integrity and Marrow Adiposity during High-Fat Diet and after Weight Loss

    PubMed Central

    Scheller, Erica L.; Khoury, Basma; Moller, Kayla L.; Wee, Natalie K. Y.; Khandaker, Shaima; Kozloff, Kenneth M.; Abrishami, Simin H.; Zamarron, Brian F.; Singer, Kanakadurga

    2016-01-01

    The prevalence of obesity has continued to rise over the past three decades leading to significant increases in obesity-related medical care costs from metabolic and non-metabolic sequelae. It is now clear that expansion of body fat leads to an increase in inflammation with systemic effects on metabolism. In mouse models of diet-induced obesity, there is also an expansion of bone marrow adipocytes. However, the persistence of these changes after weight loss has not been well described. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of high-fat diet (HFD) and subsequent weight loss on skeletal parameters in C57Bl6/J mice. Male mice were given a normal chow diet (ND) or 60% HFD at 6 weeks of age for 12, 16, or 20 weeks. A third group of mice was put on HFD for 12 weeks and then on ND for 8 weeks to mimic weight loss. After these dietary challenges, the tibia and femur were removed and analyzed by micro computed-tomography for bone morphology. Decalcification followed by osmium staining was used to assess bone marrow adiposity, and mechanical testing was performed to assess bone strength. After 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, mice had significant weight gain relative to controls. Body mass returned to normal after weight loss. Marrow adipose tissue (MAT) volume in the tibia increased after 16 weeks of HFD and persisted in the 20-week HFD group. Weight loss prevented HFD-induced MAT expansion. Trabecular bone volume fraction, mineral content, and number were decreased after 12, 16, or 20 weeks of HFD, relative to ND controls, with only partial recovery after weight loss. Mechanical testing demonstrated decreased fracture resistance after 20 weeks of HFD. Loss of mechanical integrity did not recover after weight loss. Our study demonstrates that HFD causes long-term, persistent changes in bone quality, despite prevention of marrow adipose tissue accumulation, as demonstrated through changes in bone morphology and mechanical strength in a mouse

  8. Job-loss and weight gain in British adults: Evidence from two longitudinal studies.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Forouhi, Nita G; Wareham, Nicholas J

    2015-10-01

    Overweight and obesity have been associated with unemployment but less is known about changes in weight associated with changes in employment. We examined weight changes associated with job-loss, retirement and maintaining employment in two samples of working adults in the United Kingdom. This was a prospective study of 7201 adults in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study (aged 39-76 years) and 4539 adults in the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) who were followed up over 43 months and 26 months, respectively. In both samples, changes in measured (EPIC) and self-reported (BHPS) weight were computed for each participant and assessed in relation to three employment transitions: maintaining paid employment, retirement and job-loss. Regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Further analyses evaluated the contribution of diet, physical activity and smoking to weight gain. In EPIC-Norfolk, weight change differed across the three employment transitions for women but not men. The mean (95% CI) annualised change in weight for women who became unemployed over the follow-up period was 0.70 (0.55, 0.85) kg/y while those who maintained employment gained 0.49 (0.43, 0.55) kg/y (P = 0.007). Accounting for changes in smoking, diet and physical activity did not substantially alter the difference in weight gain among groups. In BHPS, job-loss was associated with weight gain of 1.56 (0.89, 2.23) kg/y, while those who maintained employment 0.60 (0.53, 0.68) kg/y (P < 0.001). In both samples, weight changes associated with retirement were similar to those staying in work. In BHPS, job-loss was also associated with significant declines in self-reported well-being and increases in sleep-loss. Two UK-based samples of working adults reveal strong associations between job-loss and excess weight gain. The mediating behaviours are so far unclear but psychosocial mechanisms and sleep-loss may contribute to the excess weight gain among individuals

  9. Metabolic abnormalities associated with weight loss during chemoirradiation of head-and-neck cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Alexander; Jabbari, Siavash; Worden, Francis P.; Chepeha, Douglas B.; Teknos, Theodoros N.; Nyquist, Gurston G.; Tsien, Christina; Schipper, Matthew J.; Urba, Susan . E-mail: eisbruch@umich.edu

    2005-12-01

    Purpose: Weight loss caused by acute mucositis and dysphagia is common during concurrent chemoirradiation (chemo-RT) of head-and-neck (HN) cancer. The metabolic consequences of weight loss during chemo-RT were investigated. Patients and Methods: Ninety-six patients with locally advanced HN cancer were treated from 1995 to 2001 on protocols that consisted of 1 to 2 cycles of induction cisplatin/5-fluorouracil followed by irradiation (70 Gy over 7 weeks) concurrent with cisplatin (100 mg/m{sup 2} every 3 weeks). Body weights and metabolic evaluations were obtained before and during induction chemotherapy and chemo-RT. Greatest percent changes in weight and in the laboratory values were calculated for each phase of therapy. Results: During induction chemotherapy, significant changes were found in BUN, BUN:creatinine ratio, HCO{sub 3}, Mg, and albumin, but not in creatinine, Na, K, or weight. During chemo-RT, significant additional changes were observed in all parameters measured, including increases in BUN, creatinine, BUN: creatinine ratio, and HCO{sub 3} and decreases in Mg, albumin, Na, K, and weight. The magnitude of most of these changes was significantly greater during chemo-RT than during induction chemotherapy. During chemo-RT, 35% of the patients had more than 10% body weight loss and 6 patients had an increase in creatinine of more than 100%, including 5 patients with Grade 2 nephrotoxicity, all of whom had weight loss 10% or more. Significant correlations were found between weight loss and creatinine (p < 0.0001) or BUN (p = 0.0002) rises, but not with BUN:creatinine ratio or other metabolic changes. Age, gender, tobacco history, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus were not significant predictors of nephrotoxicity. Conclusions: Weight loss during cisplatin-containing chemo-RT was found to be associated with reduced kidney function. These findings do not establish cause-effect relationships; however, they highlight the importance of intensive supportive

  10. Job-loss and weight gain in British adults: Evidence from two longitudinal studies

    PubMed Central

    Monsivais, Pablo; Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Forouhi, Nita G.; Wareham, Nicholas J.

    2015-01-01

    Overweight and obesity have been associated with unemployment but less is known about changes in weight associated with changes in employment. We examined weight changes associated with job-loss, retirement and maintaining employment in two samples of working adults in the United Kingdom. This was a prospective study of 7201 adults in the European Prospective Investigation of Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk study (aged 39–76 years) and 4539 adults in the British Household Panel Survey (BHPS) who were followed up over 43 months and 26 months, respectively. In both samples, changes in measured (EPIC) and self-reported (BHPS) weight were computed for each participant and assessed in relation to three employment transitions: maintaining paid employment, retirement and job-loss. Regression models adjusted for potential confounders. Further analyses evaluated the contribution of diet, physical activity and smoking to weight gain. In EPIC-Norfolk, weight change differed across the three employment transitions for women but not men. The mean (95% CI) annualised change in weight for women who became unemployed over the follow-up period was 0.70 (0.55, 0.85) kg/y while those who maintained employment gained 0.49 (0.43, 0.55) kg/y (P = 0.007). Accounting for changes in smoking, diet and physical activity did not substantially alter the difference in weight gain among groups. In BHPS, job-loss was associated with weight gain of 1.56 (0.89, 2.23) kg/y, while those who maintained employment 0.60 (0.53, 0.68) kg/y (P < 0.001). In both samples, weight changes associated with retirement were similar to those staying in work. In BHPS, job-loss was also associated with significant declines in self-reported well-being and increases in sleep-loss. Two UK-based samples of working adults reveal strong associations between job-loss and excess weight gain. The mediating behaviours are so far unclear but psychosocial mechanisms and sleep-loss may contribute to the excess weight gain among

  11. Analysis of the juice and water losses in salted and unsalted pork samples heated in water bath. Consequences for the prediction of weight loss by transfer models.

    PubMed

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Portanguen, Stéphane; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2015-01-01

    This study has analyzed the effect of different factors on variation of meat weight due to juice loss, and variation of water content of pork samples heated in a water bath. The weight loss (WL) was influenced by initial water content of raw meat which can be connected to meat pH, muscle type, and by pre-salting. WL was also influenced by sample thickness and by nature of the surrounding fluid. These effects were significant at 50°C and in thinner samples but decreased as meat temperature and sample thickness increased. WL showed no significant difference in response to prior freezing, applying a surface constraint during heating or varying meat salt content from 0.8 to 2.0%. The results were interpreted from literature knowledge on protein denaturation, contraction and, transport phenomena. Reliably predicting WL from water content variation during heating hinges on taking into account the loss of dry matter and the possible effects of meat pH, sample size or surrounding fluid. PMID:25443971

  12. Recruiting young adults into a weight loss trial: report of protocol development and recruitment results.

    PubMed

    Corsino, Leonor; Lin, Pao-Hwa; Batch, Bryan C; Intille, Stephen; Grambow, Steven C; Bosworth, Hayden B; Bennett, Gary G; Tyson, Crystal; Svetkey, Laura P; Voils, Corrine I

    2013-07-01

    Obesity has spread to all segments of the U.S. population. Young adults, aged 18-35 years, are rarely represented in clinical weight loss trials. We conducted a qualitative study to identify factors that may facilitate recruitment of young adults into a weight loss intervention trial. Participants were 33 adults aged 18-35 years with BMI ≥25 kg/m(2). Six group discussions were conducted using the nominal group technique. Health, social image, and "self" factors such as emotions, self-esteem, and confidence were reported as reasons to pursue weight loss. Physical activity, dietary intake, social support, medical intervention, and taking control (e.g. being motivated) were perceived as the best weight loss strategies. Incentives, positive outcomes, education, convenience, and social support were endorsed as reasons young adults would consider participating in a weight loss study. Incentives, advertisement, emphasizing benefits, and convenience were endorsed as ways to recruit young adults. These results informed the Cellphone Intervention for You (CITY) marketing and advertising, including message framing and advertising avenues. Implications for recruitment methods are discussed. PMID:23591327

  13. Assessment of plasma acylcarnitines before and after weight loss in obese subjects.

    PubMed

    Schooneman, Marieke G; Napolitano, Antonella; Houten, Sander M; Ambler, Graeme K; Murgatroyd, Peter R; Miller, Sam R; Hollak, Carla E M; Tan, Chong Y; Virtue, Samuel; Vidal-Puig, Antonio; Nunez, Derek J; Soeters, Maarten R

    2016-09-15

    Acylcarnitines, fatty acid oxidation (FAO) intermediates, have been implicated in diet-induced insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus, as increased levels are found in obese insulin resistant humans. Moreover plasma acylcarnitines have been associated with clinical parameters related to glucose metabolism, such as fasting glucose levels and HbA1c. We hypothesized that plasma acylcarnitines would correlate with energy expenditure, insulin sensitivity and other clinical parameters before and during a weight loss intervention. We measured plasma acylcarnitines in 60 obese subjects before and after a 12 week weight loss intervention. These samples originated from three different interventions (diet alone (n = 20); diet and exercise (n = 21); diet and drug treatment (n = 19)). Acylcarnitine profiles were analysed in relation to clinical parameters of glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity and energy expenditure. Conclusions were drawn from all 60 subjects together. Despite amelioration of HOMA-IR, plasma acylcarnitines levels increased during weight loss. HOMA-IR, energy expenditure and respiratory exchange ratio were not related to plasma acylcarnitines. However non-esterified fatty acids correlated strongly with several acylcarnitines at baseline and during the weight loss intervention (p < 0.001). Acylcarnitines did not correlate with clinical parameters of glucose metabolism during weight loss, questioning their role in insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27444119

  14. Effects on cardiovascular risk factors of weight losses limited to 5-10.

    PubMed

    Brown, Joshua D; Buscemi, Joanna; Milsom, Vanessa; Malcolm, Robert; O'Neil, Patrick M

    2016-09-01

    Little is known about the cardiovascular effects of modest weight loss. To determine whether weight losses limited to 5-10 % are sufficient to produce cardiovascular health benefits, data from 401 overweight and obese adults who enrolled in a behavioral weight loss program from 2003 to 2011 were analyzed. Primary outcomes were changes in fasting glucose, triglycerides, and cholesterol. Patients who lost 5-10 % showed significant reductions in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol. Patients who lost >10 % experienced significantly greater improvements in triglycerides, total cholesterol, and LDL cholesterol than patients losing less. For higher-risk patients, those who lost 5-10 % significantly reduced fasting glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol; those who lost >10 % improved on all risk factors (except HDL cholesterol) and to a significantly greater degree than those losing less. Five to 10 % weight losses produced improvements in cardiovascular risk factors, but greater weight losses were associated with even greater improvement. PMID:27528523

  15. Self-directed interventions to promote weight loss: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jason C H; Abraham, Charles; Greaves, Colin J; Nikolaou, Vasilis

    2016-09-01

    Many self-directed weight-loss interventions have been developed using a variety of delivery formats (e.g., internet and smartphone) and change techniques. Yet, little research has examined whether self-directed interventions can exclusively promote weight loss. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, and the Cochrane Library were systematically reviewed for randomised controlled trials evaluating self-directed interventions in relation to weight-loss outcomes in adults. Standardised mean differences (SMD) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated using a random effects model. Twenty-seven trials incorporating 36 comparisons met our inclusion criteria. Participants using self-directed interventions lost significantly more weight (MD = -1.56 kg, CI -2.25, -0.86 ranging from 0.6 to 5.3 kg) compared to those in the minimal intervention or no-treatment groups (3.1-month follow-up median). The majority of interventions were internet based (18 evaluations) and these were effective at 3 months (MD = -1.74 kg, CI -2.65, -0.82 ranging from 0.6 to 4.8 kg) (SMD = -0.48, 95% CI -0.72, -0.24, I(2) = 82%; p < .0001; 16 evaluations) and 6 months follow-up (MD = -2.71 kg, CI -4.03, -1.39 ranging from 2.2 to 5.3 kg) (SMD = -0.59, 95% CI -0.99, -0.19, I(2) = 76%; p = .004; 4 evaluations). Self-directed weight-loss interventions can generate modest weight loss for up to 6 months but may need to be supplemented by other interventions to achieve sustained and clinically meaningful weight loss. PMID:27091296

  16. GLP-1 Receptor Agonists: Nonglycemic Clinical Effects in Weight Loss and Beyond

    PubMed Central

    Ryan, Donna; Acosta, Andres

    2015-01-01

    Obective Glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonists are indicated for treatment of type 2 diabetes since they mimic the actions of native GLP-1 on pancreatic islet cells, stimulating insulin release, while inhibiting glucagon release, in a glucose-dependent manner. The observation of weight loss has led to exploration of their potential as antiobesity agents, with liraglutide 3.0 mg day−1 approved for weight management in the US on December 23, 2014, and in the EU on March 23, 2015. This review examines the potential nonglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Methods A literature search was conducted to identify preclinical and clinical evidence on nonglycemic effects of GLP-1 receptor agonists. Results GLP-1 receptors are distributed widely in a number of tissues in humans, and their effects are not limited to the well-recognized effects on glycemia. Nonglycemic effects include weight loss, which is perhaps the most widely recognized nonglycemic effect. In addition, effects on the cardiovascular, neurologic, and renal systems and on taste perception may occur independently of weight loss. Conclusions GLP-1 receptor agonists may provide other nonglycemic clinical effects besides weight loss. Understanding these effects is important for prescribers in using GLP-1 receptor agonists for diabetic patients, but also if approved for chronic weight management. PMID:25959380

  17. Family versus individually oriented intervention for weight loss in Mexican American women.

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, J H; Rubovits, D S; Dunn, J K; Reeves, R S; Ramirez, A G; Foreyt, J P

    1992-01-01

    Mexican Americans are more likely to be obese than non-Hispanic whites, yet little research has been conducted on the treatment of obesity in Mexican Americans. The purpose of this study was to compare a family-based intervention with a traditional program oriented to the individual for achieving weight loss by obese Mexican American women. A total of 168 obese women were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Group 1 served as a comparison group and received only printed materials on nutrition, exercise, and behavioral principles for weight loss. Subjects in the individual group (group 2) received the same printed information, but they also attended classes led by bilingual registered dietitians. Subjects in the family group (group 3) received materials and attended classes that emphasized a family-oriented approach to making changes in eating habits and exercise behavior. Spouses and children attended classes with subjects in this group. Results revealed a significant linear trend in both body mass index and weight reduction across the groups, with losses greatest in the family group, followed by the individual group, and least in the comparison group. Both the individual and the family groups lost significantly more weight than the comparison group, although the difference between these two groups was not statistically significant. The results suggest that a culturally and linguistically appropriate program can achieve significant weight reduction among Mexican Americans. More research should be conducted on the effects of family and other types of social support on weight loss by Mexican Americans. PMID:1410236

  18. Effect of obesity and weight loss on ventricular repolarization: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Omran, J; Firwana, B; Koerber, S; Bostick, B; Alpert, M A

    2016-06-01

    We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of obesity ± overweight and weight loss on the corrected QT interval (QTc) and QT or QTc dispersion (indices of ventricular repolarization). Mean difference for both QTc and QT or QTc dispersion with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) was calculated comparing obese ± overweight subjects and normal weight controls and QTc and QT or QTc dispersion before and after weight loss from diet ± exercise or bariatric surgery. A total of 22 studies fulfilled the selection criteria. Compared with normal weight controls, there was a significantly longer QTc in obese ± overweight subjects (mean difference of 21.74 msec, 95% CI: 18.76 to 22.32) and significantly longer QT or QTc dispersion (mean difference of 15.17 msec, 95% CI: 13.59 to 16.74). Weight loss was associated with a significant decrease in QTc (mean difference -25.77 msec, 95% CI: -28.33-23.21) and QT or QTc dispersion (mean difference of -13.46 msec, 95% CI: -15.60 to -11.32 in obese ± overweight subjects. Thus, obesity ± overweight is associated with significant prolongation of QTc and QT or QTC dispersion. Weight loss in obese ± overweight subjects produces significant decreases in these variables. © 2016 World Obesity. PMID:26956255

  19. Effects of calorie restriction and weight loss on glucose and insulin levels in obese humans.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, R L; Kaiser, D L

    1985-01-01

    The relative contributions of weight loss vs calorie restriction in the improvement of glucose tolerance in obese subjects has not been well studied. We measured fasting and stimulated glucose and insulin levels in seven obese subjects at 4 time periods: on a regular diet before weight loss, on a very low calorie ketogenic diet (VLCKD) after 4 days and after 6 weeks, and after 4 days back on a regular diet. Fasting glucose and insulin levels fell significantly after only 4 days of calorie restriction and did not change after 6 weeks. With return to a regular diet, these levels rose toward baseline even through body weight remained well below baseline. Stimulated glucose and insulin levels during an insulin tolerance test, intravenous glucose tolerance test, and standard meal demonstrated a similar pattern, although the changes due to either diet or weight loss were minimal. We conclude that calorie restriction has a greater effect on glucose and insulin levels than does weight loss in obese subjects who are losing weight. PMID:3900179

  20. Prepregnancy and Early Adulthood Body Mass Index and Adult Weight Change in Relation to Fetal Loss

    PubMed Central

    Gaskins, Audrey J.; Rich-Edwards, Janet W.; Colaci, Daniela S.; Afeiche, Myriam C.; Toth, Thomas L.; Gillman, Matthew W.; Missmer, Stacey A.; Chavarro, Jorge E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To examine prospectively the relationships of prepregnancy body mass index (BMI), BMI at age 18, and weight change since age 18 with risk of fetal loss. Methods Our prospective cohort study included 25,719 pregnancies reported by 17,027 women in the Nurses’ Health Study II between 1990 and 2009. In 1989, height, current weight, and weight at age 18 were self-reported. Current weight was updated every 2 years thereafter. Pregnancies were self-reported, with case pregnancies lost spontaneously and comparison pregnancies ending in ectopic pregnancy, induced abortion, or live birth. Results Incident fetal loss was reported in 4,494 (17.5%) pregnancies. Compared to those of normal BMI, the multivariate relative risk (RR) (95% confidence interval [CI]) of fetal loss was 1.07 (1.00, 1.15) for overweight women, 1.10 (0.98, 1.23) for class I obese women, and 1.27 (1.11, 1.45) for class II & III obese women (P, trend=<0.001). BMI at age 18 was not associated with fetal loss (P, trend=0.59). Compared to women who maintained a stable weight (+/− 4 kg) between age 18 and before pregnancy, women who lost weight had a 20% (95% CI 9, 29%) lower risk of fetal loss. This association was stronger among women who were overweight at age 18. Conclusion Being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy was associated with higher risk of fetal loss. In women overweight or obese at age 18, losing 4 kg or more was associated with a lower risk of fetal loss. PMID:25198273