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1

Information communication on complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Since communication networks such as the Internet, which is regarded as a complex network, have recently become a huge scale and a lot of data pass through them, the improvement of packet routing strategies for transport is one of the most significant themes in the study of computer networks. It is especially important to find routing strategies which can bear as many traffic as possible without congestion in complex networks. First, using neural networks, we introduce a strategy for packet routing on complex networks, where path lengths and queue lengths in nodes are taken into account within a framework of statistical physics. Secondly, instead of using shortest paths, we propose efficient paths which avoid hubs, nodes with a great many degrees, on scale-free networks with a weight of each node. We improve the heuristic algorithm proposed by Danila et. al. which optimizes step by step routing properties on congestion by using the information of betweenness, the probability of paths passing through a node in all optimal paths which are defined according to a rule, and mitigates the congestion. We confirm the new heuristic algorithm which balances traffic on networks by achieving minimization of the maximum betweenness in much smaller number of iteration steps. Finally, We model virus spreading and data transfer on peer-to-peer (P2P) networks. Using mean-field approximation, we obtain an analytical formulation and emulate virus spreading on the network and compare the results with those of simulation. Moreover, we investigate the mitigation of information traffic congestion in the P2P networks.

Igarashi, Akito; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Maruyama, Takahiro; Morioka, Atsushi; Naganuma, Yuki

2013-02-01

2

Networking Paradigms: Information Technology and Communication Studies.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Communications media have long been acknowledged as the site of intense political struggle over issues of access to, control over, and representations in these media. That communications research is likewise the site of struggle between the various paradigms of the discipline is, however, troubling to the neophyte communication scholar. For well…

Howley, Kevin

3

Gender, Information and Communication Networks: Implications for Extension.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

In Nepal a study of 243 female and 179 male farmers showed that males demonstrated horizontal communication patterns among themselves; females actively sought information in both horizontal and heterogeneous patterns. Extension strategies that take advantage of gender-based networks were suggested to increase the flow of information. (SK)

Subedi, A.; Garforth, Chr.

1996-01-01

4

Efficient attack strategy to communication networks with partial degree information  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the tolerance of complex networks to attacks. Due to the large network scale, it is almost impossible for an attacker to have the complete topology information about the whole network. Thus, an efficient attack strategy based on partial degree information is proposed. Using the generating function method we give the exact solution for the attack strategy. A theoretical

Yongxiang Xia; Jin Fan

2011-01-01

5

ContactMap: Integrating Communication and Information Through Visualizing Personal Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

What could provide an organizing principle for advanced user interfaces that afford information and communication services in a single integrated system? Based on our research on communication patterns in the workplace, our answer is models of personal social networks. Our research showed that people invest considerable effort in maintaining links with networks of colleagues, acquaintances and friends, and that these

Bonnie A. Nardi; Steve Whittaker; Ellen Isaacs; Mike Creech; Jeff Johnson; John Hainsworth

6

Information, communication and networks in international migration systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on the role of information and communication in international migration by means of a survey which covers economic and broader perspectives, both at the micro and macro levels. The human capital model of migration is reviewed and the likely impact of recent and anticipated developments in telecommunications technology is noted. The job search model is reformulated in

Jacques Poot

1996-01-01

7

Communications Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The Multi-Compatible Network Interface Unit (MCNIU) is intended to connect the space station's communications and tracking, guidance and navigation, life support, electric power, payload data, hand controls, display consoles and other systems, and also communicate with diverse processors. Honeywell is now marketing MCNIU commercially. It has applicability in certain military operations or civil control centers. It has nongovernment utility among large companies, universities and research organizations that transfer large amounts of data among workstations and computers. *This product is no longer commercially available.

1990-01-01

8

Communicability in temporal networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A first-principles approach to quantify the communicability between pairs of nodes in temporal networks is proposed. It corresponds to the imaginary-time propagator of a quantum random walk in the temporal network, which accounts for unique structural and temporal characteristics of both streaming and nonstreaming temporal networks. The influence of the system's temperature on the perdurability of information and how the communicability identifies patterns of communication hidden in the temporal and topological structure of the networks are also studied for synthetic and real-world systems.

Estrada, Ernesto

2013-10-01

9

Communicating Immunization Science: The Genesis and Evolution of the National Network for Immunization Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 10 years, the National Network for Immunization Information (NNii) has pursued its goal to “provide the public, health professionals, policy makers, and the media with up-to-date, scientifically valid information related to immunizations to help them understand the issues and to make informed decisions.” This investigation provides a critical evaluation of the strategic communication planning and implementation of NNii from

Christy J. W. Ledford; Kristen L. Willett; Gary L. Kreps

2012-01-01

10

Communicating Immunization Science: The Genesis and Evolution of the National Network for Immunization Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

For 10 years, the National Network for Immunization Information (NNii) has pursued its goal to “provide the public, health professionals, policy makers, and the media with up-to-date, scientifically valid information related to immunizations to help them understand the issues and to make informed decisions.” This investigation provides a critical evaluation of the strategic communication planning and implementation of NNii from

Christy J. W. Ledford; Kristen L. Willett; Gary L. Kreps

2011-01-01

11

Police Innovations and the Structure of Informal Communication Between Police Agencies: Network and LEMAS Data.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This study examined (1) the pattern of informal communication ties between police agencies and (2) the influence of network contacts on adoption of innovations and change in agency practices. To study the structure of the police network, we used Weiss (19...

A. Roberts J. M. Roberts

2006-01-01

12

The Wealth of (Occupation) Networks? Communication Patterns and Information Distribution in a Twitter Protest Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Can social media facilitate better protest action organisation and coordination? This question has been at the forefront of discussion between media pundits and academic scholars. But what networking mechanisms and communication patterns help activists achieve better organisation and coordination? This study uses social network analysis to explore students' Twitter use during the 2010 university occupations. It maps the interconnections between

Yannis Theocharis

2012-01-01

13

A new generalized mechanism of secure internetworked information service creation for future personal communications networks. VI  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the next millennium, to globally provide versatile resource-rich multimedia-based internetworked broadband personal communications services (PCS) with and for everyone, at any time, on any place, and in any format, is the expected ultimate goal of telecommunications networks. The main purpose of this paper is to initially discuss a new generalized mechanism of secure internetworked information service creation using the

Geng-Sheng Kuo

1998-01-01

14

ANALYZING THE EFFECT OF ATTITUDE IN FRIENDSHIP NETWORKS TO IMPROVE INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY KNOWLEDGE SHARING: A GENDER APPROACH  

Microsoft Academic Search

Based in 14 focus groups, this exploratory study attempts to analyze the way women and men perceive talking about information and communication technology in their same sex friendship networks and the way it impact in information and communication technology (ICT) attitude and knowledge sharing. Our research findings reveal that friendship networks play an important role in ICT knowledge sharing. There

Jose Esteves

15

Information communication networks in severe traumatic brain injury.  

PubMed

In this study we explored the use of coherence and Granger causality (GC) to separate patients in minimally conscious state (MCS) from patients with severe neurocognitive disorders (SND) that show signs of awareness. We studied 16 patients, 7 MCS and 9 SND with age between 18 and 49 years. Three minutes of ongoing electroencephalographic (EEG) activity was obtained at rest from 19 standard scalp locations, while subjects were alert but kept their eyes closed. GC was formulated in terms of linear autoregressive models that predict the evolution of several EEG time series, each representing the activity of one channel. The entire network of causally connected brain areas can be summarized as a graph of incompletely connected nodes. The 19 channels were grouped into five gross anatomical regions, frontal, left and right temporal, central, and parieto-occipital, while data analysis was performed separately in each of the five classical EEG frequency bands, namely delta, theta, alpha, beta, and gamma. Our results showed that the SND group consistently formed a larger number of connections compared to the MCS group in all frequency bands. Additionally, the number of connections in the delta band (0.1-4 Hz) between the left temporal and parieto-occipital areas was significantly different (P < 0.1%) in the two groups. Furthermore, in the beta band (12-18 Hz), the input to the frontal areas from all other cortical areas was also significantly different (P < 0.1%) in the two groups. Finally, classification of the subjects into distinct groups using as features the number of connections within and between regions in all frequency bands resulted in 100% classification accuracy of all subjects. The results of this study suggest that analysis of brain connectivity networks based on GC can be a highly accurate approach for classifying subjects affected by severe traumatic brain injury. PMID:20224956

Pollonini, Luca; Pophale, Swaroop; Situ, Ning; Wu, Meng-Hung; Frye, Richard E; Leon-Carrion, Jose; Zouridakis, George

2010-03-12

16

Regional-technical information network system by PC-based communication 'Kougi Net Niigata'  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

'Regional-technical information' database was constructed by Industrial research institute of Niigata prefecture. This is available for industries in our prefecture with our PC-based communication network system. And also, it provides communication measures called BBS and electronic mail service with which they can communicate each other. This system is considered to give three effects. First of all, they can get technical information required in regional industries that is not provided by commercial database at their office or factory speedy and correctly. Secondly, they can easily survey technical background of local industries they want to take into partnership in their extension of work. Thirdly, since it provides a place where they can exchange information each other, it promotes their development of new commercial products and partnership.

Tanaka, Koichi; Kitagawa, Yoichi; Hoshino, Kimiaki

17

Proceedings of the Conference: Universities in World Network of Information and Communication (3rd, Dubrovnik, May 20-23, 1980).  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The study, exploration, and debate of relations between universities, world information systems, and communication networks seeking to establish a sustainable system to handle recent developments in information and communication, utilizing universities as focal points, was continued at this third annual conference attended by 31 information

Soucek, Branko, Ed.

1980-01-01

18

Communicability across evolving networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Many natural and technological applications generate time-ordered sequences of networks, defined over a fixed set of nodes; for example, time-stamped information about “who phoned who” or “who came into contact with who” arise naturally in studies of communication and the spread of disease. Concepts and algorithms for static networks do not immediately carry through to this dynamic setting. For example, suppose A and B interact in the morning, and then B and C interact in the afternoon. Information, or disease, may then pass from A to C, but not vice versa. This subtlety is lost if we simply summarize using the daily aggregate network given by the chain A-B-C. However, using a natural definition of a walk on an evolving network, we show that classic centrality measures from the static setting can be extended in a computationally convenient manner. In particular, communicability indices can be computed to summarize the ability of each node to broadcast and receive information. The computations involve basic operations in linear algebra, and the asymmetry caused by time’s arrow is captured naturally through the noncommutativity of matrix-matrix multiplication. Illustrative examples are given for both synthetic and real-world communication data sets. We also discuss the use of the new centrality measures for real-time monitoring and prediction.

Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark C.; Higham, Desmond J.; Estrada, Ernesto

2011-04-01

19

Communicability across evolving networks.  

PubMed

Many natural and technological applications generate time-ordered sequences of networks, defined over a fixed set of nodes; for example, time-stamped information about "who phoned who" or "who came into contact with who" arise naturally in studies of communication and the spread of disease. Concepts and algorithms for static networks do not immediately carry through to this dynamic setting. For example, suppose A and B interact in the morning, and then B and C interact in the afternoon. Information, or disease, may then pass from A to C, but not vice versa. This subtlety is lost if we simply summarize using the daily aggregate network given by the chain A-B-C. However, using a natural definition of a walk on an evolving network, we show that classic centrality measures from the static setting can be extended in a computationally convenient manner. In particular, communicability indices can be computed to summarize the ability of each node to broadcast and receive information. The computations involve basic operations in linear algebra, and the asymmetry caused by time's arrow is captured naturally through the noncommutativity of matrix-matrix multiplication. Illustrative examples are given for both synthetic and real-world communication data sets. We also discuss the use of the new centrality measures for real-time monitoring and prediction. PMID:21599253

Grindrod, Peter; Parsons, Mark C; Higham, Desmond J; Estrada, Ernesto

2011-04-25

20

The Biomedical Communications Network *  

PubMed Central

The Biomedical Communications Network (BCN) is the embodiment of the plans of the National Library of Medicine to provide improved information, document, and education services to the health community. The BCN also will be the “core” public service network to ensure the most expeditious delivery of health information and education products to a selected public. As such, utilization of communications satellites as well as other more common forms of telecommunications are planned. The library component of the Network will provide decentralized library services to medical libraries, medical schools, hospitals, MEDLARS Centers, local medical centers and individual medical practitioners. These decentralized services will be provided through an information network with its hub at the Bethesda, Maryland site of the NLM. The NLM intends that the library services network be a controlled rather than a permissive system. This simply implies that participation and access to the services of the system will be determined by the NLM. Planning has already progressed to the point where services to be provided can be enumerated.

McCarn, Davis B.

1969-01-01

21

The Impact of Information and Communication Technologies on Inter-organisational Routines and Activities of Learning Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper uses the conceptual tools of technology-in-practice and the enacted structures to examine the impact of Information and Communication Technologies on the activities of learning networks, that is inter-firm networks specifically formed to enable their members to share and increase their knowledge. The basic assumption is that the measurement of the real impact of Information and Communication Technologies on

George Tsekouras; Despina Kanellou

22

Dry information, communication, and communities  

Microsoft Academic Search

I propose a new definition of information. It is information humidity, dry versus wet, which can explain various styles of communications and communities on the network. I suggest that the ideal community on the network is a dry community that is mediated only by dry information. In the dry community, members interact with dry information, i.e., the contents of a

Shintaro Azechi

2000-01-01

23

Creating a new security for tomorrow’s communication networks and information systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The article provides a global overview of modem security issues in the future communication networks. It presents a prospective\\u000a viewpoint of Internet and mobile security, and gives many starting points to research on. The author describes the limitations\\u000a of current communication security in the rising multimedia communication age, the need for more complex\\/subtle security mechanisms\\u000a and policies. This article starts

Michel Riguidel

2000-01-01

24

Communicating Networked Control Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes research conducted over a twelve month period under support from a multi-university research grant whose focus is the technological foundations of Communicating Networked Control Systems. Coordinated efforts at four participating ins...

J. Baillieul P. R. Kumar P. S. Krishnaprasad R. W. Brockett

2007-01-01

25

Out of sight but not out of mind?: Informal networks, communication and media use in global software teams  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an effort to reduce costs and improve staffing options, companies are going offshore to staff software projects. Although advances in communication technologies make it easier to share information, a growing number of studies have highlighted the disadvantages and hidden costs of distributed teams. This paper reports the results of a study that used social network analysis to study the

Klarissa T. Chang; Kate Ehrlich

2007-01-01

26

Reconsidering Social Networks for Enterprise Communication Services  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networking applications leverage valuable information from social graphs and integrate communication capabilities to offer new services. However, currently, these applications are limited to communication capabilities such as click-to-call or click-to-conference. Once the communication session is established the social context and the communication context are not integrated in these services. For social network communication services such integration permits new and

Krishna Kishore Dhara; Venkatesh Krishnaswamy; Taranjeet Singh

2010-01-01

27

Information and Communications Technologies Tutorials  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Information and Communications Technologies Center (ICT) presents this collection of links to a number of online tutorials. The tutorials fall under the categories of electronics, fiber optics, general computing and programming, general telecommunications, java, math, matlab, networking and physics.

2012-12-17

28

Communication Network Analysis Methods.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper reviews a variety of analytic procedures that can be applied to network data, discussing the assumptions and usefulness of each procedure when applied to the complexity of human communication. Special attention is paid to the network properties measured or implied by each procedure. Factor analysis and multidimensional scaling are among…

Farace, Richard V.; Mabee, Timothy

29

Energy-aware secure multicast communication in ad-hoc networks using geographic location information  

Microsoft Academic Search

The problem of securing multicast communications in an energy-constrained ad-hoc network requires the efficient management of cryptographic quantities. We show that existing efficient key distribution techniques for wired networks that rely on logical hierarchies are extremely energy inefficient. We also show that the consideration of the physical location of the members is critical for developing energy-efficient key distribution schemes. By

Loukas Lazos; Radha Poovendran

2003-01-01

30

Visualization Management for Mobile Communication Network Resource  

Microsoft Academic Search

We combine database and graphics technology to accomplish a visualization management for mobile communication network resource. The system not only can edit and search base station, fiber optic cable and cording hole et al. resource information not also manage these information with visual manner. The resource using case about mobile communication network may be showed by picture. We utilize artificial

Ling Lu; Yufeng Wang; Bin Tang

2009-01-01

31

Neural Network Communications Signal Processing.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This final technical report describes the research and development results of the Neural Network Communications Signal Processing (NNCSP) Program. The objectives of the NNCSP program are to: (1) develop and implement a neural network and communications si...

D. Tebbe J. Doner T. Billhartz

1994-01-01

32

Communication Structure of Cortical Networks  

PubMed Central

Large-scale cortical networks exhibit characteristic topological properties that shape communication between brain regions and global cortical dynamics. Analysis of complex networks allows the description of connectedness, distance, clustering, and centrality that reveal different aspects of how the network's nodes communicate. Here, we focus on a novel analysis of complex walks in a series of mammalian cortical networks that model potential dynamics of information flow between individual brain regions. We introduce two new measures called absorption and driftness. Absorption is the average length of random walks between any two nodes, and takes into account all paths that may diffuse activity throughout the network. Driftness is the ratio between absorption and the corresponding shortest path length. For a given node of the network, we also define four related measurements, namely in- and out-absorption as well as in- and out-driftness, as the averages of the corresponding measures from all nodes to that node, and from that node to all nodes, respectively. We find that the cat thalamo-cortical system incorporates features of two classic network topologies, Erdös–Rényi graphs with respect to in-absorption and in-driftness, and configuration models with respect to out-absorption and out-driftness. Moreover, taken together these four measures separate the network nodes based on broad functional roles (visual, auditory, somatomotor, and frontolimbic).

da Fontoura Costa, Luciano; Batista, Joao Luiz B.; Ascoli, Giorgio A.

2011-01-01

33

Social networks, information and communication technologies, and high school youths' civic and political role- identities  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study investigates how the structures and dynamics of social relationships and information and communication technologies shape high school youths' civic and political role-identities. Structural symbolic interactionism, a framework that looks at what societal and social psychological aspects define individuals' roles and shape individuals' actions, is applied as a framework to unravel processes that may mediate adolescents' civic and political

Peyina Lin

34

The influence of the chain and network information and communication structure on sustainable business development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article links the public-private information and communication structure (IC-structure) and Ajzen¿s model of planned behaviour to explain the development of environmental management systems (EMSs). The structure of the IC-system, especially the public-private information exchange, can influence the priorities of managers in favour of environmental management development. From an survey under medium-sized companies in the Dutch agri-food sector we conclude

H. J. Bremmers; D. J. Haverkamp; S. W. F. Omta

2005-01-01

35

Social network analysis and dual rover communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Social network analysis (SNA) refers to the collection of techniques, tools, and methods used in sociometry aiming at the analysis of social networks to investigate decision making, group communication, and the distribution of information. Human factors engineers at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) conducted a social network analysis on communication data collected during a 14-day field study operating a dual rover exploration mission to better understand the relationships between certain network groups such as ground control, flight teams, and planetary science. The analysis identified two communication network structures for the continuous communication and Twice-a-Day Communication scenarios as a split network and negotiated network respectfully. The major nodes or groups for the networks' architecture, transmittal status, and information were identified using graphical network mapping, quantitative analysis of subjective impressions, and quantified statistical analysis using Sociometric Statue and Centrality. Post-questionnaire analysis along with interviews revealed advantages and disadvantages of each network structure with team members identifying the need for a more stable continuous communication network, improved robustness of voice loops, and better systems training/capabilities for scientific imagery data and operational data during Twice-a-Day Communications.

Litaker, Harry L.; Howard, Robert L.

2013-10-01

36

Making sense of information in noisy networks: human communication, gossip, and distortion.  

PubMed

Information from others can be unreliable. Humans nevertheless act on such information, including gossip, to make various social calculations, thus raising the question of whether individuals can sort through social information to identify what is, in fact, true. Inspired by empirical literature on people's decision-making when considering gossip, we built an agent-based simulation model to examine how well simple decision rules could make sense of information as it propagated through a network. Our simulations revealed that a minimalistic decision-rule 'Bit-wise mode' - which compared information from multiple sources and then sought a consensus majority for each component bit within the message - was consistently the most successful at converging upon the truth. This decision rule attained high relative fitness even in maximally noisy networks, composed entirely of nodes that distorted the message. The rule was also superior to other decision rules regardless of its frequency in the population. Simulations carried out with variable agent memory constraints, different numbers of observers who initiated information propagation, and a variety of network types suggested that the single most important factor in making sense of information was the number of independent sources that agents could consult. Broadly, our model suggests that despite the distortion information is subject to in the real world, it is nevertheless possible to make sense of it based on simple Darwinian computations that integrate multiple sources. PMID:23000073

Laidre, Mark E; Lamb, Alex; Shultz, Susanne; Olsen, Megan

2012-09-19

37

Communicability betweenness in complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Betweenness measures provide quantitative tools to pick out fine details from the massive amount of interaction data that is available from large complex networks. They allow us to study the extent to which a node takes part when information is passed around the network. Nodes with high betweenness may be regarded as key players that have a highly active role. At one extreme, betweenness has been defined by considering information passing only through the shortest paths between pairs of nodes. At the other extreme, an alternative type of betweenness has been defined by considering all possible walks of any length. In this work, we propose a betweenness measure that lies between these two opposing viewpoints. We allow information to pass through all possible routes, but introduce a scaling so that longer walks carry less importance. This new definition shares a similar philosophy to that of communicability for pairs of nodes in a network, which was introduced by Estrada and Hatano [E. Estrada, N. Hatano, Phys. Rev. E 77 (2008) 036111]. Having defined this new communicability betweenness measure, we show that it can be characterized neatly in terms of the exponential of the adjacency matrix. We also show that this measure is closely related to a Fréchet derivative of the matrix exponential. This allows us to conclude that it also describes network sensitivity when the edges of a given node are subject to infinitesimally small perturbations. Using illustrative synthetic and real life networks, we show that the new betweenness measure behaves differently to existing versions, and in particular we show that it recovers meaningful biological information from a protein-protein interaction network.

Estrada, Ernesto; Higham, Desmond J.; Hatano, Naomichi

2009-03-01

38

System, method and article of manufacture for a mobile communication network utilizing a distributed communication network  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A system, method, and article of manufacture are provided for obtaining information on a mobile computing environment utilizing a distributed communication network. A pattern template is generated. This pattern template is stored on a thin client computer. A query is then created on the thin client computer based in part on user input. A network is queried for information utilizing a distributed communication network. A response is then received to the query from the distributed communication network. This response is processed utilizing an application tool on the thin client computer. The response is filtered by the application tool based on the pattern template. Information is then displayed to a user.

Gershman; Anatole Vitaly (Chicago, IL); Swaminathan; Kishore Sundaram (Downers Grove, IL); Meyers; James L. (Chicago, IL); Fano; Andrew Ernest (Evanston, IL)

2001-03-06

39

Mapping Efficient Communication Networks in Higher Education.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Some perspectives are presented that help explain communication networks in institutions of higher education and the factors that impede or facilitate their efficient functioning. The first theory that informs this exploration is that of K. Wieck (1969), which states that communication can be viewed through the lens of "sensemaking." The…

Lubinescu, E. S.; Prabhu, R. P.; Terheggen, S. L.

40

Communication Dynamics of Blog Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the communication dynamics of Blog networks, focusing on the Russian section of LiveJournal as a case study. Communication (blogger-to-blogger links) in such online communication networks is very dynamic: over 60% of the links in the network are new from one week to the next, though the set of bloggers remains approximately constant. Two fundamental questions are: (i) what models adequately describe such dynamic communication behavior; and (ii) how does one detect the phase transitions, i.e. the changes that go beyond the standard high-level dynamics? We approach these questions through the notion of stable statistics. We give strong experimental evidence to the fact that, despite the extreme amount of communication dynamics, several aggregate statistics are remarkably stable. We use stable statistics to test our models of communication dynamics postulating that any good model should produce values for these statistics which are both stable and close to the observed ones. Stable statistics can also be used to identify phase transitions, since any change in a normally stable statistic indicates a substantial change in the nature of the communication dynamics. We describe models of the communication dynamics in large social networks based on the principle of locality of communication: a node's communication energy is spent mostly within its own "social area," the locality of the node.

Goldberg, Mark; Kelley, Stephen; Magdon-Ismail, Malik; Mertsalov, Konstantin; Wallace, William (Al)

41

CAPANINA - Communications from Aerial Platform Networks Delivering Broadband Information for All  

Microsoft Academic Search

An overview of CAPANINA, a project funded by the European Commission's 6th Framework Programme is presented. The project is developing communications technologies for use with aerial platforms with the aim of delivering communications to users in hard to reach users and those disadvantaged by geography. The paper discusses the three broad areas of the project. Specific aspects covered include: HAP

D. Grace; M. Mohorcic; M. Oodo; M. H. Capstick; M. Bobbio Pallavicini; M. Lalovic

42

The physics of communicability in complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A fundamental problem in the study of complex networks is to provide quantitative measures of correlation and information flow between different parts of a system. To this end, several notions of communicability have been introduced and applied to a wide variety of real-world networks in recent years. Several such communicability functions are reviewed in this paper. It is emphasized that communication and correlation in networks can take place through many more routes than the shortest paths, a fact that may not have been sufficiently appreciated in previously proposed correlation measures. In contrast to these, the communicability measures reviewed in this paper are defined by taking into account all possible routes between two nodes, assigning smaller weights to longer ones. This point of view naturally leads to the definition of communicability in terms of matrix functions, such as the exponential, resolvent, and hyperbolic functions, in which the matrix argument is either the adjacency matrix or the graph Laplacian associated with the network.Considerable insight on communicability can be gained by modeling a network as a system of oscillators and deriving physical interpretations, both classical and quantum-mechanical, of various communicability functions. Applications of communicability measures to the analysis of complex systems are illustrated on a variety of biological, physical and social networks. The last part of the paper is devoted to a review of the notion of locality in complex networks and to computational aspects that by exploiting sparsity can greatly reduce the computational efforts for the calculation of communicability functions for large networks.

Estrada, Ernesto; Hatano, Naomichi; Benzi, Michele

2012-05-01

43

Online Social Networks and the Need for New Privacy Research in Information and Communication Technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New developments on the Internet in the past years have brought up a number of online social networking applications within the so-called Web 2.0 world that experienced phenomenal growth and a tremendous attention in the public. Online social networking services build their business model on the myriad of sensitive personal data given by its users, a fact that is increasingly

Stefan Weiss

44

A Survey on Mix Networks and Their Secure Applications These networks are designed to use multiple-stage cryptography and permutation to protect communicated information such as medical records, personal opinions and electronic voting results  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anonymity is a subdiscipline of information hiding, required in a number of applications, such as in electronic voting. For network communications, anonymity can be provided by a mix network (mixnet). A mixnet is a multistage system that uses cryptography and permutations to provide anonymity. The basic idea of a mixnet has evolved into a number of different classes. In addition

Krishna Sampigethaya; Radha Poovendran

45

Stabilization of Networked Control Systems: Designing Effective Communication Sequences.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper discusses the stabilization of a networked control system (NCS) whose sensors and actuators exchange information with a remote controller over a shared communication medium. Access to that medium is governed by a pair of periodic communication ...

L. Zhang D. Hristu-Varsakelis

2004-01-01

46

Underwater optical wireless communication network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary, and ecological changes in the sea, ocean, and lake environments, and in helping to

Shlomi Arnon

2010-01-01

47

Distributed wireless quantum communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The distributed wireless quantum communication network (DWQCN) has a distributed network topology and transmits information by quantum states. In this paper, we present the concept of the DWQCN and propose a system scheme to transfer quantum states in the DWQCN. The system scheme for transmitting information between any two nodes in the DWQCN includes a routing protocol and a scheme for transferring quantum states. The routing protocol is on-demand and the routing metric is selected based on the number of entangled particle pairs. After setting up a route, quantum teleportation and entanglement swapping are used for transferring quantum states. Entanglement swapping is achieved along with the process of routing set up and the acknowledgment packet transmission. The measurement results of each entanglement swapping are piggybacked with route reply packets or acknowledgment packets. After entanglement swapping, a direct quantum link between source and destination is set up and quantum states are transferred by quantum teleportation. Adopting this scheme, the measurement results of entanglement swapping do not need to be transmitted specially, which decreases the wireless transmission cost and transmission delay.

Yu, Xu-Tao; Xu, Jin; Zhang, Zai-Chen

2013-09-01

48

Voice Communications Over Packet Radio Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The use of packet virtual circuit technique for voice communications in military radio networks was investigated. The work was concerned with various aspects of networking which include network modeling, communications techniques, traffic analysis and net...

M. M. Seah

1985-01-01

49

Communication Dynamics in Finite Capacity Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In communication networks, structure and dynamics are tightly coupled. The structure controls the flow of information and is itself shaped by the dynamical process of information exchanged between nodes. In order to reconcile structure and dynamics, a generic model, based on the local interaction between nodes, is considered for the communication in large social networks. In agreement with data from a large human organization, we show that the flow is non-Markovian and controlled by the temporal limitations of individuals. We confirm the versatility of our model by predicting simultaneously the degree-dependent node activity, the balance between information input and output of nodes, and the degree distribution. Finally, we quantify the limitations to network analysis when it is based on data sampled over a finite period of time.

Haerter, Jan O.; Jamtveit, Bjørn; Mathiesen, Joachim

2012-10-01

50

On Hidden Groups in Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We describe models and efficient algorithms for detecting groups (communities) func- tioning in communication networks which attempt to hide their functionality - hidden groups. A hidden group is a group that is planning some activity using some pub- lic communication network. Whether intentional, or not, the hidden group uses the surrounding background communications in the communication network to disguise its

J. Baumes; M. Goldberg; M. Magdon-Ismail; W. Wallace

51

Hubless Satellite Communications Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Frequency Comb Multiple Access (FCMA) is a new combined modulation and multiple access method which will allow cheap hubless Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT) networks to be constructed. Theoretical results show bandwidth efficiency and power efficiency...

P. A. Robinson

1994-01-01

52

Underwater optical wireless communication network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing need for underwater observation and subsea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, biogeochemical, evolutionary, and ecological changes in the sea, ocean, and lake environments, and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. Models are presented for three kinds of optical wireless communication links: (a) a line-of-sight link, (b) a modulating retroreflector link, and (c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered light it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. It is concluded from the analysis that a high-data-rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV-to-UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

Arnon, Shlomi

2010-01-01

53

The Structure of Online Consumer Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study the structure of the bilateral communication links within Online Consumer Communication Networks (OCCNs), such as virtual communities. Compared to the offline world, consumers in online networks are highly flexible to choose their communication partners and little is known about how this affects communication exchange structures. We analyze these structures by using a general approach from

Marjolein J. W. Harmsen-van Hout; P. Jean-Jacques Herings; Benedict G. C. Dellaert

2006-01-01

54

Adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in academic libraries: A strategy for library networking in Nigeria  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This study aims to investigate the extent of adoption of information and communication technology (ICT) in university libraries in Nigeria. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Postal survey was the instrument used for data collection. Almost 60 per cent of the University Librarians out of the 29 university libraries surveyed completed their questionnaires. Findings – The results of the survey show that

Okon E. Ani; Jacob E. Esin; Nkoyo Edem

2005-01-01

55

Communication and control co-design for networked control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper discusses the stabilization of a networked control system (NCS) in which sensors and actuators of a plant exchange information with a remote controller via a shared communication medium. Access to that medium is governed by a pair of periodic communication sequences. Under the model utilized here, the controller and plant handle communication disruptions by “ignoring” (in a sense

Lei Zhang; Dimitrios Hristu-varsakelis

2006-01-01

56

Fault detection of networked control systems with limited communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Fault detection (FD) of networked control systems (NCS) with limited communication is addressed in this article. In periodic communication sequence-based NCS, at each time instant only parts of the actuators and sensors are allowed to communicate with the central FD system, which leads to incomplete plant information at the central station. In this article, a parity space based multi-solution FD

Yongqiang Wang; Hao Ye; Steven X. Ding; Yue Cheng; Ping Zhang; Guizeng Wang

2009-01-01

57

Communicability betweenness in complex networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Betweenness measures provide quantitative tools to pick out fine details from the massive amount of interaction data that is available from large complex networks. They allow us to study the extent to which a node takes part when information is passed around the network. Nodes with high betweenness may be regarded as key players that have a highly active role.

Ernesto Estrada; Desmond J. Higham; Naomichi Hatano

2009-01-01

58

Geographical dispersal of mobile communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this paper, we analyze statistical properties of a communication network constructed from the records of a mobile phone company. The network consists of 2.5 million customers that have placed 810 million communications (phone calls and text messages) over a period of 6 months and for whom we have geographical home localization information. It is shown that the degree distribution in this network has a power-law degree distribution k and that the probability that two customers are connected by a link follows a gravity model, i.e. decreases as d, where d is the distance between the customers. We also consider the geographical extension of communication triangles and we show that communication triangles are not only composed of geographically adjacent nodes but that they may extend over large distances. This last property is not captured by the existing models of geographical networks and in a last section we propose a new model that reproduces the observed property. Our model, which is based on the migration and on the local adaptation of agents, is then studied analytically and the resulting predictions are confirmed by computer simulations.

Lambiotte, Renaud; Blondel, Vincent D.; de Kerchove, Cristobald; Huens, Etienne; Prieur, Christophe; Smoreda, Zbigniew; van Dooren, Paul

2008-09-01

59

Intelligent digital mobile communications network architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

ital Mobile Communications Network which is based on the hierarchicalfunction arrangement. The network is layered to the intelligent layer and the transport layer. And each layer is also layered to several sub-hers. The network hasa capability which guarantees the mobility between plural mobile communications networks. The MSSP (multi-switch simultaneous paging) technique is applied in metropolitan areas io simultaneously page the

Akihisa NAKAJIMA; Masato EGUCHI; Takemi ARITA; Hideo TAKEDA

1990-01-01

60

Network design for information networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a new class of network design problems motivated by designing information networks. In our model, the cost of transporting flow for a set of users (or servicing them by a facility) depends on the amount of information requested by the set of users. We assume that the aggregation cost follows economies of scale, that is, the incremental cost

Ara Hayrapetyan; Chaitanya Swamy; Éva Tardos

2005-01-01

61

Communication security in open health care networks.  

PubMed

Fulfilling the shared care paradigm, health care networks providing open systems' interoperability in health care are needed. Such communicating and co-operating health information systems, dealing with sensitive personal medical information across organisational, regional, national or even international boundaries, require appropriate security solutions. Based on the generic security model, within the European MEDSEC project an open approach for secure EDI like HL7, EDIFACT, XDT or XML has been developed. The consideration includes both securing the message in an unsecure network and the transport of the unprotected information via secure channels (SSL, TLS etc.). Regarding EDI, an open and widely usable security solution has been specified and practically implemented for the examples of secure mailing and secure file transfer (FTP) via wrapping the sensitive information expressed by the corresponding protocols. The results are currently prepared for standardisation. PMID:10724890

Blobel, B; Pharow, P; Engel, K; Spiegel, V; Krohn, R

1999-01-01

62

Extreme Simulation of C4ISR Communications and Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Internet is viewed by many to be the network of choice for worldwide communications. Indeed, as the Internet proliferates, one will have a global base from which to choose technologies and methods for building intra- and inter- network systems. This emerging information infrastructure comprises wire and wireless networks of vast complexity. A fundamental issue for military users, however, is

Donald M. Leskiw; Donald R. Pflug; Alex F. Sisti

63

The Shared Information Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the use of shared information networks within organizations to decrease information hoarding and maximize operating efficiencies. Network development issues discussed include choosing the department responsible for development, selecting information to be included in the network, designing the information format, distribution strategies,…

Stanat, Ruth

1990-01-01

64

Research on Reliability Optimization Method for Mesh Network Communication Based on Node Congestion Degree  

Microsoft Academic Search

Using wireless mesh network characteristics of multi-hop networks, self-organization and other features, to improve the question of the overlarge quantities of communication task, uneven use of resources lead to the problem of low reliability of network communication. Analyze the factors which affect network reliability in the processes of information communication. And combine with bandwidth, node cache and node processing speed.

Ying Zhang; Fengjun Wang; Miao Li

2010-01-01

65

Stabilization of Networked Control Systems Under Feedback-based Communication.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

We study the stabilization of a networked control system (NSC) in which multiple sensors and actuators of a physical plant share a communication medium to exchange information with a remote controller. The plant's sensors and actuators are allowed only li...

L. Zhang D. Hristu-Varsakelis

2004-01-01

66

Optimal communication logics in networked control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses the control of spatially distributed processes over a network that imposes bandwidth constraints and communication delays. Optimal communication policies are derived for an estimator-based networked control system architecture to reduce the communication load. These policies arise as solutions of an average cost optimization problem, which is solved using dynamic programming. The optimal policies are shown to be

Yonggang Xu; J. P. Hespanha

2004-01-01

67

Broadcasting in Small-world Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The two main characteristics of small-world networks are strong local clustering, and small diameter. These two characteristics are desirable prop- erties in communication networks since typical communication patterns show large amounts of local communication and a small amount of non-local com- munication that must be completed quickly. In this paper, we study variants of broadcasting that resemble the spread of

Francesc Comellas; Margarida Mitjana; Joseph G. Peters

2002-01-01

68

Using Egocentric Networks to Understand Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social-network analysis generally helps researchers understand how groups of people interact. In this article the author uses small-scale egocentric social networks, based on volitional, explicit connections, to understand how people manage their personal and group communications. Two research projects using this approach show that such networks can give researchers important insight into the people who communicate online. Soylent, a project

Danyel Fisher

2005-01-01

69

PIPELINES AS COMMUNICATION NETWORK LINKS  

SciTech Connect

This report presents the results of an investigation into two methods of using the natural gas pipeline as a communication medium. The work addressed the need to develop secure system monitoring and control techniques between the field and control centers and to robotic devices in the pipeline. In the first method, the pipeline was treated as a microwave waveguide. In the second method, the pipe was treated as a leaky feeder or a multi-ground neutral and the signal was directly injected onto the metal pipe. These methods were tested on existing pipeline loops at UMR and Batelle. The results reported in this report indicate the feasibility of both methods. In addition, a few suitable communication link protocols for this network were analyzed.

Kelvin T. Erickson; Ann Miller; E. Keith Stanek; C.H. Wu; Shari Dunn-Norman

2005-03-14

70

Communication and Information Systems Infrastructure.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Provides a conceptualization of a communication and information system's infrastructure in order to help campus leaders plan more effectively. Discusses its elements, creating access to information, infrastructure maturity, infrastructure assessment, and technology planning for higher education. (EV)

Maughan, George R.

2001-01-01

71

Cognitive networking with software programmable intelligent networks for wireless and wireline critical communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Given all the plans to use slightly modified IP network architectures as a basis for critical communications infrastructures such as network centric warfare (NCW), joint tactical radio (JTRS), ForceNet, future combat systems (FCS), the global information grid (GIG), the warfighter information network tactical (WIN-T), and many other high profile, life-critical networks, the inherent weaknesses of IP networking must be examined.

S. M. Lake

2005-01-01

72

PERSONAL NETWORKS AND THE PERSONAL COMMUNICATION SYSTEM  

Microsoft Academic Search

In contrast to technologically deterministic approaches that focus on how communication technology affects social relationships, this paper examines how individuals draw on a variety of commonly used communication media in conjunction with in-person contact to stay connected to their personal networks. I term this use of multiple communication media the ‘personal communication system’. Findings are based on a random sample

Jeffrey Boase

2008-01-01

73

Group Communications in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Efficient support of group communications is critical for most ad hoc network applications. However, manet group communications issues differ from those in wired environments because the wireless communications medium has variable and unpredictable characteristics, and the signal strength and propagation fluctuate with respect to time and environment. We provide an overview of group communications issues such as protocol design, state

Prasant Mohapatra; Chao Gui; Jian Li

2004-01-01

74

The Lower Saxony research network design of environments for ageing: towards interdisciplinary research on information and communication technologies in ageing societies.  

PubMed

Worldwide, ageing societies are bringing challenges for independent living and healthcare. Health-enabling technologies for pervasive healthcare and sensor-enhanced health information systems offer new opportunities for care. In order to identify, implement and assess such new information and communication technologies (ICT) the 'Lower Saxony Research Network Design of Environments for Ageing' (GAL) has been launched in 2008 as interdisciplinary research project. In this publication, we inform about the goals and structure of GAL, including first outcomes, as well as to discuss the potentials and possible barriers of such highly interdisciplinary research projects in the field of health-enabling technologies for pervasive healthcare. Although GAL's high interdisciplinarity at the beginning slowed down the speed of research progress, we can now work on problems, which can hardly be solved by one or few disciplines alone. Interdisciplinary research projects on ICT in ageing societies are needed and recommended. PMID:21133766

Haux, Reinhold; Hein, Andreas; Eichelberg, Marco; Appell, Jens-E; Appelrath, Hans-Jürgen; Bartsch, Christian; Bisitz, Thomas; Bitzer, Jörg; Blau, Matthias; Boll, Susanne; Buschermöhle, Michael; Büsching, Felix; Erdmann, Birte; Fachinger, Uwe; Felber, Juliane; Fleuren, Tobias; Gietzelt, Matthias; Goetze, Stefan; Gövercin, Mehmet; Helmer, Axel; Heuten, Wilko; Hohmann, Volker; Huber, Rainer; Hülsken-Giesler, Manfred; Jacobs, Gerold; Kayser, Riana; Kerling, Arno; Klingeberg, Timo; Költzsch, Yvonne; Künemund, Harald; Kunze, Jennifer; Ludwig, Wolfram; Marschollek, Michael; Martens, Birger; Meis, Markus; Meyer, Eike Michael; Meyer, Jochen; Nebel, Wolfgang; Neyer, Franz J; Okken, Petra-Karin; Remmers, Hartmut; Rölker-Denker, Lars; Rohdenburg, Thomas; Schilling, Meinhard; Schulze, Gisela C; Song, Bianying; Spehr, Jens; Steinhagen-Thiessen, Elisabeth; Tegtbur, Uwe; Thoben, Wilfried; Van Hengel, Peter; Wabnik, Stefan; Wahl, Friedrich; Wegel, Sandra; Wilken, Olaf; Winkelbach, Simon; Wist, Thorben; Wittrock, Manfred; Wolf, Klaus-Hendrik; Wolf, Lars; Zokoll-Van Derlaan, Melanie

75

On the processing of metabolic information through metabolite-gene communication networks: an approach for modelling causality.  

PubMed

Gene-metabolite correlation networks of three independent biological systems were interrogated using an approach to define, and subsequently model, causality. The major goal of this work was to analyse how information from those metabolites, that displayed a rapid response to perturbation of the biological system, is processed through the response network to provide signal-specific adaptation of metabolism. For this purpose, comparison of network topologies was carried out on three different groups of system elements: transcription factors, other genes and metabolites, with special emphasis placed on those features which are possible sites of metabolic regulation or response propagation. The degree of connectivity in all three analysed gene-metabolite networks followed power-law and exponential functions, whilst a comparison of connectivities of the various cellular entities suggested, that metabolites are less involved in the regulation of the sulfur stress response than in the ripening of tomatoes (in which metabolites seem to have an even greater regulatory role than transcription factors). These findings reflect different degree of metabolic regulation for distinct biological processes. Implementing causality into the network allowed classification of metabolite-gene associations into those with causal directionality from gene to metabolite and from metabolite to gene. Several metabolites were positioned relatively early in the causal hierarchy and possessed many connections to the downstream elements. Such metabolites were considered to have higher regulatory potential. For the biological example of hypo-sulfur stress response in Arabidopsis, the highest regulatory potential scores were established for fructose and sucrose, isoleucine, methionine and sinapic acid. Further developments in profiling techniques will allow greater cross-systems comparisons, necessary for reliability and universality checks of inferred regulatory capacities of the particular metabolites. PMID:17544461

Szymanski, Jedrzej; Bielecka, Monika; Carrari, Fernando; Fernie, Alisdair R; Hoefgen, Rainer; Nikiforova, Victoria J

2007-06-04

76

The performance analysis of computer communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many communication networks can be modeled as Markov chains of Quasi-Birth-Death (QBD) type, M\\/G\\/1-type or G\\/M\\/1-type. For the purpose of analyzing and optimizing the performance of these communication networks, these three classes of processes are studied extensively in this thesis.^ Carrier Sense Multiple Access (CSMA) networks can be modeled as QBD processes. To better understand these networks, a recently proposed

Ji Zhang

1989-01-01

77

Crossover behavior in a communication network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We address the problem of message transfer in a communication network. The network consists of nodes and links, with the nodes lying on a two-dimensional lattice. Each node has connections with its nearest neighbors, whereas some special nodes, which are designated as hubs, have connections to all the sites within a certain area of influence. The degree distribution for this network is bimodal in nature and has finite variance. The distribution of travel times between two sites situated at a fixed distance on this lattice shows fat-fractal behavior as a function of hub density. If extra assortative connections are now introduced between the hubs so that each hub is connected to two or three other hubs, the distribution crosses over to power-law behavior. Crossover behavior is also seen if end-to-end short cuts are introduced between hubs whose areas of influence overlap, but this is much milder in nature. In yet another information transmission process, namely, the spread of infection on the network with assortative connections, we again observed crossover behavior of another type, viz., from one power law to another for the threshold values of disease transmission probability. Our results are relevant for the understanding of the role of network topology in information spread processes.

Singh, Brajendra K.; Gupte, Neelima

2003-12-01

78

Methodology for network communication vulnerability analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

A framework for a developing network vulnerability assessment methodology is described. An original network taxonomy is used to orient the analyst to the new network and to assess the potential vulnerability issues. Four network characteristics are used, as in data link vulnerability analysis susceptibility; interceptability; accessibility; and feasibility. Susceptibility issues are pursued in terms of three perspectives: topology; communication protocols;

Marlin P. Ristenbatt

1988-01-01

79

Satellite communications representation in network simulation  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents methodologies to represent satellite communications (SATCOM) behaviors in network simulation. This paper is based on tasks performed for generic network warfare simulation that employs traditional network simulation models. The methodologies also include the integration issues of SATCOM tools and the network simulation models. We first characterize space segments and assets involved in warfare operations and exercises, and

Kenneth Y. Jo

2001-01-01

80

Computer networks in communication survey research  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper explores the feasibility of using computer networks as communication survey research instruments. Also covered are the use of computers and computer networks in survey studies; a listing of the advantages and disadvantages of network surveys as compared with mail, phone, and fax surveys; a description of the development steps of network surveys; and a comparison of differences in

Chien Chou

1997-01-01

81

Sensor information networking architecture and applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article introduces a sensor information networking architecture, called SINA, that facilitates querying, monitoring, and tasking of sensor networks. SINA serves the role of middleware that abstracts a network of sensor nodes as a collection of massively distributed objects. SINA's execution environment provides a set of configuration and communication primitives that enable scalable and energy-efficient organization of and interactions among

Chien-Chung Shen; Chavalit Srisathapornphat; Chaiporn Jaikaeo

2001-01-01

82

The Sociotechnical Networks of Scholarly Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the state of flux in scholarly communications and publishing, explains the Actor-Network Theory that offers an interdisciplinary approach to understanding the impact on libraries, provides an overview of the evolution of scholarly communications sociotechnical networks, and analyzes the strategy of the Scholarly Publishing and Academic…

Beagle, Donald

2001-01-01

83

Communication network model for industrial control  

Microsoft Academic Search

the main objective of this paper is to describe the developed simulation model of a determinist wire and wireless communication network for industrial applications in the real time. The means of modeling, which are based on parallel processing and data transfer for various network topologies, are discussed here. We have focused our research to WiMAX, WiFi and Industrial Ethernet communication

Zdenek Machacek; Vilem Srovnal Jr

2010-01-01

84

Information and Communication Technology: 2004.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Supplemental to the current Annual Capital Expenditure Survey (ACES), the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Survey collects investment figures related to technology falling below a company's capitalization threshold. This survey is sent to a ...

2006-01-01

85

Military Information Networks as Complex Adaptive Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

New information technology now permits a vastly increased degree of connectivity in military communication networks. This more connected architecture should result in faster response times and greater efficiencies in military operations. A potential downs...

L. D. Miller

2001-01-01

86

Variable-base tacit communication: a new energy efficient communication scheme for sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

ó Energy conservation is a major concern in wireless sensor networking. Conventionally in wireless communications, each bit transmitted by a node consumes one unit of energy. Some recent advances, however, explore silent time intervals between signal transmissions to convey information (Zhu and Sivakumar (1)). Such a scheme of Communication through Silence (CtS), while reducing energy consumption for sensor nodes, introduces

Yuanzhu Peter Chen; Dan Wang; Jian Zhang

2006-01-01

87

Effective Protocols for Mobile Communications and Networking  

SciTech Connect

This report examines methods of mobile communications with an emphasis on mobile computing and wireless communications. Many of the advances in communications involve the use of Internet Protocol (IP), Asynchronous Transfer Mode (ATM), and ad hoc network protocols. However, many of the advances in these protocols have been focused on wired communications. Recently much focus has been directed at advancing communication technology in the area of mobile wireless networks. This report discusses various protocols used in mobile communications and proposes a number of extensions to existing protocols. A detailed discussion is also included on desirable protocol characteristics and evaluation criteria. In addition, the report includes a discussion on several network simulation tools that maybe used to evaluate network protocols.

Espinoza, J.; Sholander, P.; Van Leeuwen, B,

1998-12-01

88

Comparative Analysis of Human Communication Networks in Selected Formal Organizations.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This paper briefly describes the organization of a "data bank" containing research on communication networks, specifies the kinds of information compiled about various network properties, discusses some specific results of the work done to date, and presents some general conclusions about the overall project and its potential advantages to…

Farace, Richard V.; Johnson, Jerome David

89

Computing and communicating statistics in sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents the computing and communicating statistics in sensor networks. A deterministic sequence of message passing between sensors, result in the vector of function values being, communicated to the fusion center, for any combination of individual measurement vectors. A wireless communication model using protocols is also discussed.

Arvind Giridhar; P. R. Kumar

2004-01-01

90

Toward in vivo nanoscale communication networks: utilizing an active network architecture  

Microsoft Academic Search

A safe and reliable in vivo nanoscale communication network will be of great benefit for medical diagnosis and monitoring as well as medical implant\\u000a communication. This review article provides a brief introduction to nanoscale and molecular networking in general and provides\\u000a opinions on the role of active networking for in vivo nanoscale information transport. While there are many in vivo

Stephen F. Bush

91

Communications Network Handbook: Communications Tools for Community Workers.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The ADAMHA Communications Network, referred to as ComNet, was begun in 1970. Through the years articles about communications and how to use them were developed or reprinted and distributed to State and local agencies throughout the Nation. A number of the...

1981-01-01

92

The Future School Manager: Information and Communication Technology Aspects.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Argues that the competence demands of the future school manager in a decentralized system of local management of schools imply proficiency of the manager in the use of ICT (Information and Communications Technology). Discusses communication habits, information processing, networking, the promotion of shared values, and leadership development.…

Slenning, Kah

2000-01-01

93

The Cooperative Information Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Library Directors of Santa Clara County in July, 1972, organized the Cooperative Information Network (CIN), funded under the Library Services and Construction Act. The present CIN covers only information and reference services. CIN is composed of 83 l...

S. E. Choi

1973-01-01

94

Network management architecture toward universal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Ubiquity of networked devices is one of the first steps toward realization of universal communication services. However, not much attention has been paid to the management architecture of the mashed-up services provided across the network domains. Absence of the scalable cross-domain network management architecture restricts the availability and penetration of the service. In this paper, we propose Tambourine framework which

Yoshihiro Kawahara; Ahmad Kamil Abdul Hamid; TaeYoung Song; Kei Wada; Tohru Asami

2009-01-01

95

Reliability consideration of a mobile communication system with network congestion  

Microsoft Academic Search

High quality traffic for networks is urgently needed for mobile communication systems. Mobile stations frequently become unavailable due to communication errors generated by network congestion. Traffic congestion in a network system may occur intermittently and continue for a length of time, sometimes causing communication errors. If congestions happens during communication, communication errors occur and the communication is rejected. This paper

Mitsutaka Kimura; Kazumi Yasui; Toshio Nakagawa; Naohiro Ishii

2006-01-01

96

Conformance testing to space communication network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Space Internet technology is the Internet that refers to technology which is widely used in the terrestrial network, improved under the space communications feature, thus using the improved Internet protocols and technology, to meet the needs of future space mission technology. In protocol engineering area, conformance testing is a very important step. The purpose of conformance testing is to determine to what extent a single implementation of a particular standard conforms to the individual requirements of that standard. Conformance testing can increase the confidence level of implementation complying with the protocol specification, and enhance the probability of interoperability between different implementation. The ISO/IEC9646 standard described by ISO is the maturest theory in protocol conformance testing theories. Space communication network test framework is proposed, in which the test architecture is defined for conformance testing to space communication network. In this paper, the ISO9646 standard is improved, in order to meet the requirements of conformance testing of space communication network. The contribution of this paper is the proposition of a complete method to the design of conformance testing against space communication network. The simulation results have shown that the method has better test results, to meet the space communications network testing needs. With the testing of the space communications network protocol implementation, we discovered the problems of the protocol implementation. It has verified the theory and method.

Xie, Lei; Wei, Jiaolong; Zhu, Guangxi

2007-11-01

97

INFORMATIONAL FIELD AND SUPERLUMINAL COMMUNICATION  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of scalar and vector potentials in electrodynamics is shown to represent an informational field capable of superluminally transmitting a signal (information) with no energy and momentum transfer. This conclusion strictly follows from Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic field interacting with electric charges and currents in vacuum, without resort to any additional hypotheses. That superluminal communication is possible is seen

V. P. Oleinik

98

PESTICIDE INFORMATION NETWORK  

EPA Science Inventory

The Pesticide Information Network (PIN) is an interactive database containing information about pesticides. PIN is a free service offered by the USEPAs Office of Pesticide Programs which provides contacts on pesticide issues, has a bulletin board network for public and private us...

99

Informal Helping Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An area probability sample of 200 elderly residents, living in two California cities, were interviewed to determine the nature of informal helping networks enabling them to maintain independence, specifically the relationship between involvement in informal helping networks and utilization of social and health services. Preliminary findings…

Kaplan, Barbara Hade; And Others

100

Information Network Development.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The International Bureau of Education (IBE) and Unesco, together with their member states, are faced with the task of implementing a proposed network--the International Network for Educational Information (INED)--for the better use of information resources for educational development. This review of issues that need to be considered in the…

Mahon, F. V.

101

Impact of Communication Delays and Deadline Times on Distributed Processing in Packet Radio Networks. (Reannouncement with New Availability Information).  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper describes a simulation model to aid in the evaluation of time-critical distributed processing scenarios utilizing a multi-hop packet radio network. The simulation model includes a user defined network, spread spectrum random access protocols, e...

R. J. Doyle I. Shahnawaz A. R. Sastry

1992-01-01

102

Robust Sensor Placements at Informative and Communication-efficient Locations.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

When monitoring spatial phenomena with wireless sensor networks, selecting the best sensor placements is a fundamental task. Not only should the sensors be informative, but they should also be able to communicate efficiently. In this paper we present a da...

A. Gupta A. Krause C. Guestrin J. Kleinberg

2010-01-01

103

Quantum communication network utilizing quadripartite entangled states of optical field  

SciTech Connect

We propose two types of quantum dense coding communication networks with optical continuous variables, in which a quadripartite entangled state of the optical field with totally three-party correlations of quadrature amplitudes is utilized. In the networks, the exchange of information between any two participants can be manipulated by one or two of the remaining participants. The channel capacities for a variety of communication protocols are numerically calculated. Due to the fact that the quadripartite entangled states applied in the communication systems have been successfully prepared already in the laboratory, the proposed schemes are experimentally accessible at present.

Shen Heng; Su Xiaolong; Jia Xiaojun; Xie Changde [State Key Laboratory of Quantum Optics and Quantum Optics Devices, Institute of Opto-Electronics, Shanxi University, Taiyuan 030006 (China)

2009-10-15

104

The Information "Revolution": Information, Communications and Culture.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Today's communications systems and technology facilitate the erosion of cultural differences, threatening cultural sovereignty. In the fifteenth century, the first information revolution created the concept of the nation-state with its unique cultural identity. The technology of the second information revolution, which has advanced video…

Ostry, Bernard

105

Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Center Print Publications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This website from the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) Center provides a list of print publications from the ICT Center Delmar Learning Series, created by Delmar Learning and the ICT Center. Titles include Introduction to Telecommunications Networks, Basic Telecommunications: The Physical Layer, Fiber Optic Communications and Network Security. The listings for each book include links to information and sample chapters on Delmar Learning's website, as well as links to order the titles on Amazon.com.

2012-10-29

106

Network multipliers and the optimality of indirect communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We study the problem of a firm M which wishes to inform a community of in- dividuals about its product. Information travels within the community because of the social interactions between individuals. Our interest is in understanding how the firm can incorporate the network of social interactions in the design of its communication strategy. We study a model of undirected

Andrea Galeotti; Sanjeev Goyal

107

75 FR 49870 - Effects on Broadband Communications Networks of Damage to or Failure of Network Equipment or...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Network Equipment or Severe Overload AGENCY: Federal Communications...submitting comments and additional information on the notice process, see the SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION section of this document. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Jeffery...

2010-08-16

108

An ATM access network for multimedia communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

In an ATM customer premises network, there is advantage in having shared access across the one broadband user network interface (UNI). We consider ATM shared access issues based on the generic flow control (GFC) protocols as network support for multimedia communications, and we propose a mechanism for shared-medium access to an ATM\\/B-ISDN network to support multimedia traffic. The access scheme

Martin Soto; Sebastia Sallent

1997-01-01

109

Management and control of interconnected communications networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

NATO is placing increased emphasis on the effective utilization of national military and PTT networks as an approach to achieve an early enhancement of the NATO Integrated Communications System (NICS) presently under implementation. Concepts for interconnection with national military transmission and switched networks are under active consideration to extend NICS services and enhance NICS survivability and flexibility. These concepts necessitate a much greater focus on interoperability aspects and on NATO/national interface arrangements across network boundaries for management and control. This paper highlights network management and control issues raised by these different uses of national military systems to enhance NATO communications survivability and flexibility across the threat spectrum.

Hingorani, G. D.; Powers, F. J.; Wentz, L. K.

110

Trends in the development of communication networks: Cognitive networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

One of the main challenges already faced by communication networks is the efficient management of increasing complexity. The recently proposed concept of cognitive network appears as a candidate that can address this issue. In this paper, we survey the existing research work on cognitive networks, as well as related and enabling techniques and technologies. We start with identifying the most

Carolina Fortuna; Mihael Mohorcic

2009-01-01

111

Multimedia Communication in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The technological advances in Micro Electro- Mechanical Systems (MEMS) and wireless communications have enabled the realization of wireless sensor networks (WSN) com- prised of large number of low-cost, low-power, multifunctional sensor nodes. These tiny sensor nodes communicate in short dis- tances and collaboratively work toward fulfilling the application- specific objectives of WSN. However, realization of wide range of envisioned WSN

Eren G

112

An underwater optical wireless communication network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The growing need for underwater observation and sub-sea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, bio-geochemical, evolutionary and ecological changes in the sea, ocean and lake environments and in helping to

Shlomi Arnon

2009-01-01

113

Unequal Importance Image Communication over Heterogeneous Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An unequal importance communication approach, for reliable and real-time image communication over heterogeneous networks and its applications in mobile communication systems is presented. Here, an image is partitioned into different layers of importance: base layer and enhancement layers. The base layer description, which can be strongly protected, is transmitted through a robust, low-bandwidth channel, supporting delay- sensitive applications (e.g. GSM

Mehdi Malboubi; Ahmad Bahai; Mustafa Ergen; Pravin Varaiya; Jean C. Walrand

2007-01-01

114

Information, Education, Communication in Population.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Programs and services of the Swedish International Development Authority (SIDA) are reviewed in this report on resources available for the support of population information, education, and communication activities. Four major sections describe in concise, outline form: (1) the agency and its programs, (2) the specific program in population/family…

Hawaii Univ., Honolulu. East-West Center.

115

Information Field and Superluminal Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The field of scalar and vector potentials in electrodynamics is shown to\\u000arepresent an informational field capable of superluminally transmitting a\\u000asignal (information) with no energy and momentum transfer. This conclusion\\u000astrictly follows from Maxwell's equations for electromagnetic field interacting\\u000awith electric charges and currents in vacuum, without resort to any additional\\u000ahypotheses. That superluminal communication is possible is seen

V. P. Oleinik; Prospect Pobedy

2003-01-01

116

Universal communications - Towards ubiquitous networked society  

Microsoft Academic Search

First, some statistical data in Internet and mobile communications in the world will be shown. By these data, it will become very clear that our social activities are depending more and more on networks. Mobile phones and Internet have become essential social infrastructures in our societies. These networked societies are expanding more and more to include any kinds of social

S. Ohmori

2006-01-01

117

Laser satellite communication network-vibration effect and possible solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of serious consortiums develop satellite communication networks. The objective of these communication projects is to service personal communication users almost everywhere on Earth. The intersatellite links in those projects use microwave radiation as the carrier. Free-space optical communication between satellites networked together can make possible high-speed communication between different places on Earth. Some advantages of an optical communication

SHLOMI ARNON; N. S. Kopeika

1997-01-01

118

Neural networks for routing communication traffic  

Microsoft Academic Search

The use of neural network computational algorithms to determine optimal traffic routing for communication networks is introduced. The routing problem requires choosing multilink paths for node-to-node traffic to minimize loss, which is represented by expected delay or some other function of traffic. The minimization procedure is implemented using a modification of the neural network traveling-salesman algorithm. Illustrative simulation results on

Herbert E. Rauch; T. Winarske

1988-01-01

119

Energy Efficient Wireless Networks Towards Green Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless networks have become an essential part of the modern life. However, currently, 3% of the world-wide energy is consumed\\u000a by the ICT infrastructures which causes about 2% of the world-wide CO2 emissions. The transmitted data-volume increases rapidly and wireless communications are used extensively while network design\\u000a rules have practically ignored the energy efficient network design approach to limit CO2

Mauro De Sanctis; Ernestina Cianca; Viraj Joshi

120

Review and evaluation of security threats on the communication networks in the smart grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

The smart grid, generally referred to as the next-generation power electric system, relies on robust communication networks to provide efficient, secure, and reliable information delivery. Thus, the network security is of critical importance in the smart grid. In this paper, we aim at classifying and evaluating the security threats on the communication networks in the smart grid. Based on a

Zhuo Lu; Xiang Lu; Wenye Wang; C. Wang

2010-01-01

121

Information Push Technology and Its Application in Network Control System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The application of push technology will change our ways of obtaining information via Internet. The paper focuses on the methods of developing the application of network and the network integration techniques. The construction of communications interface between field control network and Internet, the accomplishment of the information exchange between web database and field control network, and the technique of real-time

Junman Sun; Huajing Fang; Ganyi Wang; Zhendong He

2008-01-01

122

GPCA Method for Fraud Detection in Mobile Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

To improve the fraud detection accuracy by SVM(support vector machine), a feature extraction method named GPCA based on IG (information gain) and PCA (principal component analysis) is proposed. It analyzes the data on CDR(call detail record), customer information,paying and arrear information etc in mobile communication networks , and then the data can be used by the classifier SVM to build

WANG Da-zhen

2006-01-01

123

Blended Learning Networks Supported by Information and Communication Technology: An Intervention for Knowledge Transformation within Family Care of Older People  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This article describes an innovative practice called Blended Learning Networks (BLNs) whose aim is to enable older people, their families, and care providers to exchange knowledge, learn together, and support each other in local development work so that care is improved for older people. BLNs were established in 31 municipalities, headed…

Hanson, Elizabeth; Magnusson, Lennart; Sennemark, Eva

2011-01-01

124

Coupled map networks as communication schemes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Networks of chaotic coupled maps are considered as string and language generators. It is shown that such networks can be used as encrypting systems where the cipher text contains information about the evolution of the network and also about the way to select the plain text symbols from the string associated with the network evolution. The secret key provides the network parameters, such as the coupling strengths.

García, P.; Parravano, A.; Cosenza, M. G.; Jiménez, J.; Marcano, A.

2002-04-01

125

Network design tool for EHF satellite communications networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This document describes the design concept of the network design tool. The network design tool (NDT) is a collection of analytical techniques, algorithms and simulation methods that may be used to characterize the performance of a computer communication network. Much work has been done over the past several years in network performance analysis and many techniques have been developed or proposed. Each of these methods applies to a particular aspect of the network design and is based on a particular modeling point of view. We define the computer communication network and then describe the different ways the network may be modeled. Each network model is related to the particular design problem being addressed. The various analytical approaches are briefly described and their relationship to the network models discussed. Chapter 2 is a survey of the major approaches to specific network design problems while chapters 3 and 4 discuss two fairly well defined areas of network analysis: topological design/optimization and protocol validation. Chapter 5 is a survey of network design tools presently available locally or on the advanced research projects agency network (ARPANET). Finally, chapter 6 presents an outline of the NDT specification.

Norvell, S.; Brown, G. J.

1983-06-01

126

Data Communications and Networking. Curriculum Improvement Project. Region II.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This course curriculum is intended for use by community college instructors and administrators in implementing a data communications networking course. A student course syllabus provides this information: credit hours, catalog description, prerequisites, required text, instructional process, objectives, student evaluation, and class schedule. A…

Easter, Diane

127

A Hierarchy Management Framework for LEO Satellite Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

An autonomous iteration-based approach is proposed to identify faulty links for LEO satellite systems employing intersatellite links (ISLpsilas). A designed network satellite with management responsibilities collects the routing information of communication itself with other satellites, based on which a fault diagnosis model is introduced. Then the most likely faulty link is identified by using an iteration-based probability method, in conjunction

Zhi-Gang Zhao; Jian-Hui Wang

2008-01-01

128

Child Rights Information Network Newsletter, 1997.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

These three newsletter issues communicate activities of the Child Rights Information Network (CRIN) and report on information resources and worldwide activities concerning children and child rights. The January 1997 issue profiles CRIN members in Costa Rica, Tanzania, Germany, and Switzerland; and provides updates on the activities of projects…

Purbrick, Becky, Ed.

1997-01-01

129

Modeling MAC layer for powerline communications networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The usage of electrical power distribution networks for voice and data transmission, called Powerline Communications, becomes nowadays more and more attractive, particularly in the telecommunication access area. The most important reasons for that are the deregulation of the telecommunication market and a fact that the access networks are still property of former monopolistic companies. In this work, first we analyze a PLC network and system structure as well as a disturbance scenario in powerline networks. After that, we define a logical structure of the powerline MAC layer and propose the reservation MAC protocols for the usage in the PLC network which provides collision free data transmission. This makes possible better network utilization and realization of QoS guarantees which can make PLC networks competitive to other access technologies.

Hrasnica, Halid; Haidine, Abdelfatteh

2001-02-01

130

Environmental Uncertainty and Communication Network Complexity: A Cross-System, Cross-Cultural Test.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|An infographic model is proposed to account for the operation of systems within their information environments. Infographics is a communication paradigm used to indicate the clustering of information processing variables in communication systems. Four propositions concerning environmental uncertainty and internal communication network complexity,…

Danowski, James

131

Environmental effects of information and communications technologies.  

PubMed

The digital revolution affects the environment on several levels. Most directly, information and communications technology (ICT) has environmental impacts through the manufacturing, operation and disposal of devices and network equipment, but it also provides ways to mitigate energy use, for example through smart buildings and teleworking. At a broader system level, ICTs influence economic growth and bring about technological and societal change. Managing the direct impacts of ICTs is more complex than just producing efficient devices, owing to the energetically expensive manufacturing process, and the increasing proliferation of devices needs to be taken into account. PMID:22094696

Williams, Eric

2011-11-16

132

Communication networks for medical image transmission.  

PubMed

Digital communication networks are of increasing importance for data exchange in health care environments. They may be used to transmit multi-media data, such as text, images, graphics, signals and sound. The essential characteristics of modern network technologies are summarized in this article and are seen in the context of local, metropolitan and wide area networks. Standardized technologies discussed are Ethernet, token oriented systems, FDDI, DQDB and ATM. Off-line communication media based on magnetic optical disk, such as IS&C, are briefly introduced. The conclusion reached is that therapy planning for radiation therapy or hyperthermia can make use of communication technologies, for example, to transmit patient images, modelling data and results of distribution calculations of physical phenomena. PMID:8211670

Lemke, H U

1993-09-01

133

The Lymphoma Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Lymphoma Information Network website strives to "put a bit of humanity and understanding to this disease, to gather lymphoma information and resources in one place, and to present information in an easy to understand and logical format." The award-winning site offers information sections on Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma, Fighting Lymphoma, and Surviving Lymphoma. The site also offers a special resource section for kids and teenagers, and information about childhood lymphoma. In addition, the site contains an extensive Glossary of Lymphoma Terms, The Lymphoma Blog, resources for independent research, book lists, and related links.

134

Surgeon Information Transfer and Communication  

PubMed Central

Objective: To determine the nature of surgeon information transfer and communication (ITC) errors that lead to adverse events and near misses. To recommend strategies for minimizing or preventing these errors. Summary Background Data: Surgical hospital practice is changing from a single provider to a team-based approach. This has put a premium on effective ITC. The Information Transfer and Communication Practices (ITCP) Project is a multi-institutional effort to: 1) better understand surgeon ITCP and their patient care consequences, 2) determine what has been done to improve ITCP in other professions, and 3) recommend ways to improve these practices among surgeons. Methods: Separate, semi-structured focus group sessions were conducted with surgical residents (n = 59), general surgery attending physicians (n = 36), and surgical nurses (n = 42) at 5 medical centers. Case descriptions and general comments were classified by the nature of ITC lapses and their effects on patients and medical care. Information learned was combined with a review of ITC strategies in other professions to develop principles and guidelines for re-engineering surgeon ITCP. Results: A total of 328 case descriptions and general comments were obtained and classified. Incidents fell into 4 areas: blurred boundaries of responsibility (87 reports), decreased surgeon familiarity with patients (123 reports), diversion of surgeon attention (31 reports), and distorted or inhibited communication (67 reports). Results were subdivided into 30 contributing factors (eg, shift change, location change, number of providers). Consequences of ITC lapses included delays in patient care (77% of cases), wasted surgeon/staff time (48%), and serious adverse patient consequences (31%). Twelve principles and 5 institutional habit changes are recommended to guide ITCP re-engineering. Conclusions: Surgeon communication lapses are significant contributors to adverse patient consequences, and provider inefficiency. Re-engineering ITCP will require significant cultural changes.

Williams, Reed G.; Silverman, Ross; Schwind, Cathy; Fortune, John B.; Sutyak, John; Horvath, Karen D.; Van Eaton, Erik G.; Azzie, Georges; Potts, John R.; Boehler, Margaret; Dunnington, Gary L.

2007-01-01

135

Global Communications Network 2.9.1  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

More and more individuals are turning to the Internet to communicate with colleagues, friends, and relatives and there are a number of helpful programs currently available for general use. This edition of the Global Communications Network application allows visitors to engage in video and voice chat and administer their own chat rooms, all within a secure format. This version is compatible with Windows 95 or newer.

136

An underwater optical wireless communication network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The growing need for underwater observation and sub-sea monitoring systems has stimulated considerable interest in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. This communication technology is expected to play an important role in investigating climate change, in monitoring biological, bio-geochemical, evolutionary and ecological changes in the sea, ocean and lake environments and in helping to control and maintain oil production facilities and harbors using unmanned underwater vehicles (UUVs), submarines, ships, buoys, and divers. However, the present technology of underwater acoustic communication cannot provide the high data rate required to investigate and monitor these environments and facilities. Optical wireless communication has been proposed as the best alternative to meet this challenge. We present models of three kinds of optical wireless communication links a) a line-of-sight link, b) a modulating retro-reflector link and c) a reflective link, all of which can provide the required data rate. We analyze the link performance based on these models. From the analysis, it is clear that as the water absorption increases, the communication performance decreases dramatically for the three link types. However, by using the scattered lighted it was possible to mitigate this decrease in some cases. We conclude from the analysis that a high data rate underwater optical wireless network is a feasible solution for emerging applications such as UUV to UUV links and networks of sensors, and extended ranges in these applications could be achieved by applying a multi-hop concept.

Arnon, Shlomi

2009-08-01

137

Wireless Extensions of Wired Industrial Communications Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless (sub)networks are becoming appealing for their characteristics also for the industrial automation and manufacturing scenarios. Since they cannot be considered as a total replacement for more traditional wired communications, at least in the short\\/mid-term, it is worth focusing on their integration with popular industrial wired solutions in order to achieve efficiency and performance for the overall networked system. This

Gianluca Cena; Adriano Valenzano; Stefano Vitturi

2007-01-01

138

Interconnected communications networks and home market effects  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract.?This study develops a model of trade that highlights the effects of the interconnection of country‐specific communications networks as a driving force behind trade in high‐tech products with positive transport costs. By constructing a two‐country model of monopolistic competition with two production factors, it is shown that the locational decisions of firms may magnify the influence of interconnected networks. In

Toru Kikuchi

2005-01-01

139

Global Networks and Virtual Communication (SIG III)  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Outlines a planned panel discussion on ways the Internet facilitates collaborative work in researching, interviewing, and writing; using computer mediated communication systems in a virtual conference; and experiences in building a virtual community of practitioners and researchers in information and communications technology in Latin America and…

Xu, Hong

2000-01-01

140

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools…?  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay ‘lip service’ to these pressing environmental issues? This project will explore the background connections between social networking and environmental communication and education; and outline why such tools might be an appropriate way to connect to a broad audience in an efficient and unconventional manner. Further, research will survey the current prevalence of reliable environmental change information on social networking Internet-based media; and finally, suggestions for improved strategies and new directions will be provided.

Montain, J.; Byrne, J. M.

2010-12-01

141

The Automated Digital Network System (ADNS) Interface to Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT)  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U. S. Department of Defense (DoD) is in the initial phase of building the Global Information Grid (GIG), a private secure internetwork connecting a number of its joint and service-specific IP networks. Two of these networks are the Automated Digital Network System (ADNS) and the Transformational Satellite Communications System (TSAT). ADNS provides network services and entry into the Defense

Joanna N. Ptasinski; Yenchi Congtang

2007-01-01

142

A communication model of distributed information sources bacteria colonies inspired  

Microsoft Academic Search

The implementation of communication organizational strategies constitutes an essential performance factor. Nowadays, the organization becomes companies competitiveness element (organizational structures), networks, knowledge and competences management, and cooperation. This, to be better reactive to ensure the competing character, to support better new information technologies, concerning the data exchange inside as outside an organization. The information systems specification gives a partial description

H. Mellah; S. Hassas; H. Drias

2006-01-01

143

Decentralized estimation in communication networks with delay  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Previous work on decentralized estimation has assumed unlimited capacity on the communication channels between the sensors and the estimators. In practice, this is not possible; increased traffic rate leads to network congestion and decreased performance. This thesis develops optimum reporting schedules for sensors, routing schemes for messages and data fusion algorithms for intermediate nodes.

Oezbek, A.

1984-01-01

144

Davis Social Links: Leveraging Social Networks for Future Internet Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present a social network based network communication architecture, Davis Social Links (DSL). DSL uses the trust and relationships inherent to human so- cial networks to provide an enhanced communication ar- chitecture for future Internet designs. We begin with a con- ceptual discussion of how future network architectures can leverage social networks. Next, we describe the DSL

Lerone Banks; Prantik Bhattacharyya; Matthew Spear; Shyhtsun Felix Wu

2009-01-01

145

Pharmacovigilance and communicating safety information.  

PubMed

Safe and effective prescribing can only happen when the prescriber has sufficient current knowledge of the potential harms and likely benefits of the drug. When a new drug is first marketed, knowledge about its adverse effects profile is limited to what has been learned from its use in a relatively small number of people (who may be unrepresentative of the general population) for a limited amount of time in preclinical and clinical trials.(1) Rare, but serious unwanted effects may emerge only after a drug is marketed, sometimes years later.(1) It is therefore crucial to continue monitoring the safety of drugs after marketing and that healthcare professionals have access to timely communication about any safety concerns. The activity of monitoring the safety of medicines in clinical use and taking appropriate action to minimise risk is known as pharmacovigilance, and is governed by a range of complex UK and European regulations.(2) Background information relating to drug safety issues and pharmacovigilance decisions are not always easy to find. Here we explain the pharmacovigilance process and how new information on adverse effects is communicated to healthcare professionals. PMID:23241564

2012-12-01

146

Next generation satellite communications networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Existing communication satellites are primarily bent pipe systems retransmitting unprocessed signals in a range of reserved frequency bands. Recent flown or planned space experiments employ a new generation of space hardware, involving a high level of signal handling and switching. The decoupling of up and down links through regeneration as well as advanced routing and switching, allow new markets and applications to be economically addressed, as well as enhancements to present services. Two possible services are highlighted in this paper, one an enhancement of current private business services offered in the Ku band. This allows full mesh T1 services to be offered on low cost very small aperture terminals (VSAT). The other utilizes similar on-board technologies, applying them to the Ka band in support of new personal / mobile services. These services require the development of a new generation of regenerative / switching satellites. A possible Canadian service and technology demonstration mission, projected for the 1997 timeframe is described.

Garland, P. J.; Osborne, F. J.

147

A network of interorganellar communications underlies cellular aging.  

PubMed

Organelles within a eukaryotic cell respond to age-related intracellular stresses and environmental factors by altering their functional states to generate, direct and process the flow of interorganellar information that is essential for establishing a pro- or antiaging cellular pattern. The scope of this review is to critically analyze recent progress in understanding how various intercompartmental (i.e., organelle-organelle and organelle-cytosol) communications regulate cellular aging in evolutionarily distant eukaryotes. Our analysis suggests a model for an intricate network of intercompartmental communications that underly cellular aging in eukaryotic organisms across phyla. This proposed model posits that the numerous directed, coordinated and regulated organelle-organelle and organelle-cytosol communications integrated into this network define the long-term viability of a eukaryotic cell and, thus, are critical for regulating cellular aging. PMID:23818261

Leonov, Anna; Titorenko, Vladimir I

2013-07-02

148

An analog spread-spectrum interface for power-line data communication in home networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication using power line as a medium of signal transmission offers a convenient and inexpensive solution for multimedia signal transmission and control applications in smart home networking. This work presents a novel analog spread-spectrum (SS) scheme for physical-layer interface in home networking. The proposed communication scheme uses a chaotic system to modulate the information signal for wideband transmission. The wideband

K. Shanmugam Surendran; Henry Leung

2005-01-01

149

Networked sensor communications for the objective force  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The US Army's Future Combat Systems (FCS) and Objective Force will rely heavily on the use of unattended sensor networks to detect, locate and identify enemy targets in order to survive with less armor protection on the future battlefield. Successful implementation of these critical communication networks will require the collection of the sensor data, processing and collating it with available intelligence, then transporting it in a format conducive to make quick and accurate command decisions based on the latest tactical situational awareness. The networked communications must support both static deployed and mobile ground and air robotic sensors with secure, stealthy, and jam resistant links for sensor fusion and command and control. It is envisioned for broadest application that sensor networks can be deployed in a two-tiered architecture. The architecture includes a lower sensor sub- layer consisting of mixes of acoustic, magnetic and seismic detectors and an upper sub-layer consisting of infrared or visual imagers. The upper sub-layer can be cued by the lower sub-layer and provides a gateway link to the higher echelon tactical maneuver layer networks such as the Tactical Internet. The sensor deployments, networking constraints and reach back distances to Command and Control (C2) nodes will be mission scenario specific, however, the architecture will also apply to tactical unattended sensor, munition and robotic application. Technologies from the Army Research Laboratory, Defense Research Projects Agency (DARPA), and commercial will be leveraged for this effort.

Nemeroff, Jay L.; Garcia, Luis; Hampel, Daniel; Di Pierro, Stefano

2002-08-01

150

A Systems Theory View of Organizations as Communication Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Focusing on the analysis of communication networks within organizations with an eye toward implications for study of external communication, this paper (1) develops a systems theory/communication view of the nature of formal organizations, (2) illustrates the notion of holistic organizational communication networks in organizations which include…

Schwartz, Donald F.

151

Spectrum-Aware Underwater Networks: Cognitive Acoustic Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Communication capacity in underwater acoustic networks is severely limited by the uniquely challenging characteristics of underwater acoustic communications (UACs). In this article, dynamic spectrum sharing inspired from cognitive radio (CR) is applied to UAC networks, and spectrum-aware underwater networks (SUNs), i.e., cognitive acoustic communications (CACs), are proposed. First, the problem of spectrum scarcity in SUN is elaborately discussed by investigating

A. Bicen; A. Sahin; Ozgur Akan

2012-01-01

152

A Network API-Driven Survey of Communication Requirements of Distributed Data Processing Algorithms for Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In (105), we present the design of a sensor network application program- ming interface (API) to cover the common communication requirements of data processing applications in sensor networks, motivated by a study of all such applications proposed to date in the proceedings of Information Pro- cessing in Sensor Networks (IPSN). Due to space limitations, only a subset of the more

Raymond Wagner; Marco Duarte; J. Ryan; David B. Johnson; Richard Baraniuk

153

Allocation of copies of a file in an information network  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider a mathematical model of an information network of n nodes, some of which contain copies of a given data file. Within this network, every node is able to communicate with every other node over communication links (a process which may entail routing through intermediate nodes). In particular, we are concerned with transactions with the multiply-located file. Such transactions

R. G. Casey

1972-01-01

154

Net-centric optical communication for the global information grid  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Optical communications technologies are being actively explored by the defense and security communities as a potential solution to alleviate bandwidth bottlenecks and to provide covert, jam resistant communications without spectrum restrictions. While static fiber-optic networks are widely deployed in the Department of Defense (DoD) communications network, the integration of wireless, free space optical (FSO) communications technology is required to provide end-to-end high bandwidth paths to support mobile defense and security operations. This paper presents an analysis of inherent benefits of optical wireless communications technologies in enabling net-centric applications and discusses specific technology and architectural challenges that need to be overcome before these technologies can be seamlessly integrated in the Global Information Grid (GIG) to fully realize the net-centric vision.

Dwivedi, Anurag

2006-06-01

155

Efficient routing on multilayered communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We study the optimal routing on multilayered communication networks, which are composed of two layers of subnetworks. One is a wireless network, and the other is a wired network. We develop a simple recurrent algorithm to find an optimal routing on this kind of multilayered networks, where the single-channel transmission mode and the multichannel transmission mode used on the wireless subnetwork are considered, respectively. Compared with the performance of the shortest path algorithm, our algorithm can significantly enhance the transport capacity. We show that our methods proposed in this letter could take advantage of the coupling of the two layers to the most extent, so that the wireless subnetwork could sufficiently utilize the wired subnetwork for transportation.

Zhou, Jie; Yan, Gang; Lai, Choy-Heng

2013-04-01

156

Network Design for Information Networks (Extended Abstract)  

Microsoft Academic Search

We define a new class of network design problems motivated by designing information networks. In our model, the cost of transporting flow for a set of users (or servicing them by a fac ility) depends on the amount of information requested by the set of users. We assume that the aggregation cost follows economies of scale, that is, the incremental

Ara Hayrapetyan; Chaitanya Swamy; Eva Tardos

157

Performance management of multiple access communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This paper focuses on conceptual design, development, and implementation of a performance management tool for computer communication networks to serve large-scale integrated systems. The objective is to improve the network performance in handling various types of messages by on-line adjustment of protocol parameters. The techniques of perturbation analysis of Discrete Event Dynamic Systems (DEDS), stochastic approximation (SA), and learning automata have been used in formulating the algorithm of performance management. The efficacy of the performance management tool has been demonstrated on a network testbed. The conceptual design presented in this paper offers a step forward to bridging the gap between management standards and users' demands for efficient network operations since most standards such as ISO (International Standards Organization) and IEEE address only the architecture, services, and interfaces for network management. The proposed concept of performance management can also be used as a general framework to assist design, operation, and management of various DEDS such as computer integrated manufacturing and battlefield C(sup 3) (Command, Control, and Communications).

Lee, Suk; Ray, Asok

1993-12-01

158

Position estimation of transceivers in communication networks  

DOEpatents

This invention provides a system and method using wireless communication interfaces coupled with statistical processing of time-of-flight data to locate by position estimation unknown wireless receivers. Such an invention can be applied in sensor network applications, such as environmental monitoring of water in the soil or chemicals in the air where the position of the network nodes is deemed critical. Moreover, the present invention can be arranged to operate in areas where a Global Positioning System (GPS) is not available, such as inside buildings, caves, and tunnels.

Kent, Claudia A. (Pleasanton, CA); Dowla, Farid (Castro Valley, CA)

2008-06-03

159

Modeling and Measuring Link Capacity in Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The capacity of a link is a fundamental parameter in communication networks. Its knowledge is needed for both network planning and management. This is why capacity estimation was one of the first measurement challenges in wired communication networks. In the recent past, some experimental tests permitted imputing the poor performance of capacity measurement techniques in wireless networks to some pitfalls

Leopoldo Angrisani; Aniello Napolitano; Michele Vadursi

2010-01-01

160

Network centric satellite communication with IP networks based on regenerative satellite Mesh-A (RSM-A) Ka band technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network centric unification of diverse communication and information sharing systems is a key objective for national defense. Overall, IP-convergence is the basis for seamlessly integrating the DoD SATCOM networking and information needs with the Global Information Grid (GIG). This paper explores IP networking with the emerging Regenerative Satellite Mesh-A (RSM-A) Ka band technology. The focus is on RSM-A capabilities to

Rajeev Gopal; Steve Arnold; Lisa Orr; Syed Ali

2008-01-01

161

Research on the key techniques of wireless communication for emergency information system  

Microsoft Academic Search

As China's continuous improvement in the degree of information, the wireless communication network has covered all regions of the country, and information has also brought a great deal of information network security issues. In this paper, firstly, the information security emergency response procedures and disposal system are proposed according to the comprehensive analysis of weak links in information security defense

Zhigang Yang

2010-01-01

162

On attractant scheduling in networks based on bacterial communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we explore the problem of attrac- tant scheduling in networks based on bacterial communication. Bacterial communication is a communication paradigm between biological cells which involves the physical motion of flagellated bacteria such as E. coli from the transmitter to the receiver using chemical attractants. Although bacterial communication occurs in nature, engineering such communication links is non-trivial because

Yunlong Gao; Sriram Lakshmanan; Raghupathy Sivakumar

2011-01-01

163

Distributed communications resource management for tracking and surveillance networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We present a market-like method for distributed communications resource management in the context of networked tracking and surveillance systems. This method divides communication resources according to the expected utility provided by information of particular types. By formulating the problem as an optimization of the joint utility of information flow rates, the dual of the problem can be understood to provide a price for particular routes. Distributed rate control can be accomplished using primal-dual iteration in combination with communication of these route prices. We extend the previous work on the subject in a few important ways. First, we consider utility functions that are jointly-dependent on flow rates, to properly account for geometric synergy that can occur in sensor fusion problems. Second, we do not require that the rate-update algorithms have explicit knowledge of utility functions. Instead, our update algorithms involve transmitting marginal utility values. We present simulation results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the technique.

Chong, Edwin K. P.; Brewington, Brian

2005-09-01

164

Social Networking and Smart Technology: Viable Environmental Communication Tools...?  

Microsoft Academic Search

To what extent do popular social networking channels represent a viable means for disseminating information regarding environmental change to the general public? Are new forms of communication such as YouTube™, Facebook™, MySpace™ and Twitter™ and smart devices such as iPhone™ and BlackBerry™ useful and effective in terms motivating people into social action and behavioural modification; or do they simply pay

J. Montain; J. M. Byrne

2010-01-01

165

Communication Networks from the Enron Email Corpus \\  

Microsoft Academic Search

The Enron email corpus is appealing to researchers because it represents a rich temporal record of internal communication\\u000a within a large, real-world organization facing a severe and survival-threatening crisis. We describe how we enhanced the original\\u000a corpus database and present findings from our investigation undertaken with a social network analytic perspective. We explore\\u000a the dynamics of the structure and properties

Jana Diesner; Terrill L. Frantz; Kathleen M. Carley

2005-01-01

166

Performability Issues in Wireless Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This chapter discusses the performability models for WCN. The reliability issues, such as component failure models and evaluations\\u000a that are relevant to WCN are described. System communication models for WCN, including the many-sources-to-terminal model\\u000a widely used in WSN, are described. The performability evaluations of two typical WCN environments: static topology and the\\u000a ad hoc network are described in detail. This

Sieteng Soh; Suresh Rai; Richard R. Brooks

167

Physical network infrastructure design based on user communication patterns  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In order to ensure end-to-end links between the users of communication systems, the underlying physical communication network is usually designed independently. We present two design methods for such networks that depend on a particular logical communication network among users. The designs are optimized by minimizing the average path length between logically linked users. One physical network maintains a homogeneous distribution of degrees between nodes, whereas the other network permits each node to have as many degrees as possible. The data traffic capacity of the homogeneous network is always greater than that of the heterogeneous network. Moreover, the average path length of the homogeneous network is not much larger than in the heterogeneous case. This result supports the assertion that the limitation of degree in physical communication networks to meet the physical constraints of network equipment does not act as a harmful factor in the design of communication infrastructure.

Kwon, Okyu; Jung, Sangsu

2013-10-01

168

Information and Communication Technologies: Perspectives and their Impact on Society  

Microsoft Academic Search

:   The most fundamental changes of information exchange and communication in society today have been caused by the fast and\\u000a thorough penetration of all facets of life through networked computers and mobile phones, which will both soon merge with\\u000a our traditional TV. In this report, these developments will be discussed on four different levels: individuals, groups, organisations and networks. Furthermore

Dietrich Brandt; Klaus Henning

2002-01-01

169

Analyzing Information Flows in Service Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Value chains increasingly rely on the bundling of physical products and services from different providers in networks. More\\u000a and more, information flows which are needed for communication and coordination cross inter-organizational boundaries. This\\u000a is especially true for immaterial services and of utmost importance for service management, since the provision of an undisturbed\\u000a information flow affects the performance of the whole

Christoph Rosenkranz

170

GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. A prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron mains and tested in a spider- and serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The prototype unit combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-slave architecture to collect data from a distributed spider-arrangement, and in a master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was found that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and valuable data was collected in order to determine how to improve on range and data-quality in the future.

Hagen Schempf, Ph.D.

2003-02-27

171

Position Estimation of Tranceivers in Communication Networks  

SciTech Connect

With the rapid development in wireless sensor networks, there is an important need for transceiver position estimation independent of Global Positioning Systems (GPS) [1,3]. While GPS might be useful for outdoor sensor nodes, it is not for indoor node localization. In this case, position estimation is possible through network range estimates from time-of-flight (TOF) measurements, a technique well suited to large bandwidth physical links, such as in ultra-wideband (UWB) communications. For example, in our UWB systems, with pulse duration less than 200 pico-seconds, range can easily be resolved to less than a foot. Assuming an encoded UWB or spread spectrum physical layer, we developed algorithms and simulation tools to test transceiver position localization. Simulations were designed to lend insight into system characteristics such as position error sensitivities to network geometry, to range estimation errors, and to number of sensor nodes.

Kent, C A; Dowla, F U

2003-10-13

172

Structural changes in data communication in wireless sensor networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Wireless sensor networks are an important technology for making distributed autonomous measures in hostile or inaccessible environments. Among the challenges they pose, the way data travel among them is a relevant issue since their structure is quite dynamic. The operational topology of such devices can often be described by complex networks. In this work, we assess the variation of measures commonly employed in the complex networks literature applied to wireless sensor networks. Four data communication strategies were considered: geometric, random, small-world, and scale-free models, along with the shortest path length measure. The sensitivity of this measure was analyzed with respect to the following perturbations: insertion and removal of nodes in the geometric strategy; and insertion, removal and rewiring of links in the other models. The assessment was performed using the normalized Kullback-Leibler divergence and Hellinger distance quantifiers, both deriving from the Information Theory framework. The results reveal that the shortest path length is sensitive to perturbations.

da Silva Cabral, Raquel; Aquino, Andre L. L.; Frery, Alejandro C.; Rosso, Osvaldo A.; Ramírez, Jaime A.

2013-10-01

173

Layering techniques for space-time communication in multi-user networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we consider a multiuser communication network where all the nodes in the network are equipped with multiple antennas and different users are identified through their spatial signatures. We present some results on the capacity of such networks. We consider two cases of interest: (i) when the transmitter (the base) has full knowledge of the channel state information

Behrouz Farhang-Boroujeny; Quentin Spencer; Lee Swindlehurst

2003-01-01

174

Electrical communication in branching arterial networks  

PubMed Central

Electrical communication and its role in blood flow regulation are built on an examination of charge movement in single, isolated vessels. How this process behaves in broader arterial networks remains unclear. This study examined the nature of electrical communication in arterial structures where vessel length and branching were varied. Analysis began with the deployment of an existing computational model expanded to form a variable range of vessel structures. Initial simulations revealed that focal endothelial stimulation generated electrical responses that conducted robustly along short unbranched vessels and to a lesser degree lengthened arteries or branching structures retaining a single branch point. These predictions matched functional observations from hamster mesenteric arteries and support the idea that an increased number of vascular cells attenuate conduction by augmenting electrical load. Expanding the virtual network to 31 branches revealed that electrical responses increasingly ascended from fifth- to first-order arteries when the number of stimulated distal vessels rose. This property enabled the vascular network to grade vasodilation and network perfusion as revealed through blood flow modeling. An elevation in endothelial-endothelial coupling resistance, akin to those in sepsis models, compromised this ascension of vasomotor/perfusion responses. A comparable change was not observed when the endothelium was focally disrupted to mimic disease states including atherosclerosis. In closing, this study highlights that vessel length and branching play a role in setting the conduction of electrical phenomenon along resistance arteries and within networks. It also emphasizes that modest changes in endothelial function can, under certain scenarios, impinge on network responsiveness and blood flow control.

Tran, Cam Ha T.; Vigmond, Edward J.; Goldman, Daniel; Plane, France

2012-01-01

175

Electrical communication in branching arterial networks.  

PubMed

Electrical communication and its role in blood flow regulation are built on an examination of charge movement in single, isolated vessels. How this process behaves in broader arterial networks remains unclear. This study examined the nature of electrical communication in arterial structures where vessel length and branching were varied. Analysis began with the deployment of an existing computational model expanded to form a variable range of vessel structures. Initial simulations revealed that focal endothelial stimulation generated electrical responses that conducted robustly along short unbranched vessels and to a lesser degree lengthened arteries or branching structures retaining a single branch point. These predictions matched functional observations from hamster mesenteric arteries and support the idea that an increased number of vascular cells attenuate conduction by augmenting electrical load. Expanding the virtual network to 31 branches revealed that electrical responses increasingly ascended from fifth- to first-order arteries when the number of stimulated distal vessels rose. This property enabled the vascular network to grade vasodilation and network perfusion as revealed through blood flow modeling. An elevation in endothelial-endothelial coupling resistance, akin to those in sepsis models, compromised this ascension of vasomotor/perfusion responses. A comparable change was not observed when the endothelium was focally disrupted to mimic disease states including atherosclerosis. In closing, this study highlights that vessel length and branching play a role in setting the conduction of electrical phenomenon along resistance arteries and within networks. It also emphasizes that modest changes in endothelial function can, under certain scenarios, impinge on network responsiveness and blood flow control. PMID:22796538

Tran, Cam Ha T; Vigmond, Edward J; Goldman, Daniel; Plane, France; Welsh, Donald G

2012-07-13

176

An innovative communication model to disseminate information.  

PubMed

Nurse leaders need effective communication models to articulate the functions, processes, and activities of health care organizations. This article describes the development and use of a communication model to streamline the dissemination of information to the targeted organizational entities that need it. The model's step-by-step process enhances the broadcasting of information needed to ensure patient safety and promote quality patient care by capturing the components integral to the communication process. PMID:21135708

Crawford, Cecelia L; Johnson, Joyce A; Valdez, Regina M

177

The usefulness of information and communication technologies in crisis response.  

PubMed

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) play a vital role in coordinating crisis response between pre-hospital services and emergency departments of hospitals. In spite of the advances in these technologies, there remain a variety of challenges to their usage during a crisis. To identify these challenges, we conducted focus group interviews with emergency department (ED) and emergency medical services (EMS) personnel. We found that ED and EMS personnel have widely varying perceptions about the usefulness and ease-of-use of information tools and communication tools used in crisis management. We discuss the importance of bringing together communication and information tools into integrated networks of ICTs for effective crisis response. We also highlight design features of ICTs which can support seamless and effective communication and coordination between ED and EMS teams. PMID:18998898

Paul, Sharoda A; Reddy, Madhu; Abraham, Joanna; DeFlitch, Christopher; Deflitch, Christopher J

2008-11-06

178

Research on optic antenna of space laser communication networking  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the highlights of the high transmission rate, large capacity, strong anti-interference and anti-capture ability, good security and small light, space laser communication becomes an important hotspot. At present, the focus of research of the laser communication system is point to point communication structure. However, from the application point of view, both the realization of space laser communication among multiple points and the establishment of the information transmission network can really have the practical value. Aiming at the problem of space laser communication network, this article puts forward the general idea about optical antenna to achieve multiple tracking goals at the same time. Through the analysis of the optical antenna, and the comparing of the current commonly used mirror driving mechanism, a new mirror driving mechanism is designed. The azimuth motion, containing circular grating feedback, is driven by torque motor?voice coil motor of fan produces pitch motion that has fan-shaped grating feedback, so that compression of the structure size to improve the efficiency of the reflector assembly. Through the establishment of the driving mechanism and the kinematic model of 3D entity, the relationship between the single drive azimuth and pitch angle following the angle of incident light is explained. The biggest ideal view area affecting the optical antenna is obtained by the simulation analysis of the kinematics model using MATLAB. The several factors of field overlap area and blind area offers a theoretical basis for structure optimization and control system for the subsequent optical antenna design.

Meng, Li-Xin; Li, Long; Zhang, Li-zhong; Zhao, Shan-shan; Jiang, Hui-lin

2013-08-01

179

The Speed of Information Propagation in Large Wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper investigates the speed limit of informa- tion propagation in large wireless networks, which provides fun- damental understanding of the fastest information transportation and delivery that a wireless network is able to accommodate. We show that there is a unified speed upper bound for broadcast and unicast communications in large wireless networks. When net- work connectivity and successful packet

Yi Xu; Wenye Wang

2008-01-01

180

Analyzing the Dynamics of Communication in Online Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This chapter deals with the analysis of interpersonal communication dynamics in online social networks and social media. Communication is central to the evolution of social systems. Today, the different online social sites feature variegated interactional affordances, ranging from blogging, micro-blogging, sharing media elements (i.e., image, video) as well as a rich set of social actions such as tagging, voting, commenting and so on. Consequently, these communication tools have begun to redefine the ways in which we exchange information or concepts, and how the media channels impact our online interactional behavior. Our central hypothesis is that such communication dynamics between individuals manifest themselves via two key aspects: the information or concept that is the content of communication, and the channel i.e., the media via which communication takes place. We present computational models and discuss large-scale quantitative observational studies for both these organizing ideas. First, we develop a computational framework to determine the "interestingness" property of conversations cented around rich media. Second, we present user models of diffusion of social actions and study the impact of homophily on the diffusion process. The outcome of this research is twofold. First, extensive empirical studies on datasets from YouTube have indicated that on rich media sites, the conversations that are deemed "interesting" appear to have consequential impact on the properties of the social network they are associated with: in terms of degree of participation of the individuals in future conversations, thematic diffusion as well as emergent cohesiveness in activity among the concerned participants in the network. Second, observational and computational studies on large social media datasets such as Twitter have indicated that diffusion of social actions in a network can be indicative of future information cascades. Besides, given a topic, these cascades are often a function of attribute homophily existent among the participants. We believe that this chapter can make significant contribution into a better understanding of how we communicate online and how it is redefining our collective sociological behavior.

de Choudhury, Munmun; Sundaram, Hari; John, Ajita; Seligmann, Doree Duncan

181

Lewis Information Network (LINK): Background and overview  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The NASA Lewis Research Center supports many research facilities with many isolated buildings, including wind tunnels, test cells, and research laboratories. These facilities are all located on a 350 acre campus adjacent to the Cleveland Hopkins Airport. The function of NASA-Lewis is to do basic and applied research in all areas of aeronautics, fluid mechanics, materials and structures, space propulsion, and energy systems. These functions require a great variety of remote high speed, high volume data communications for computing and interactive graphic capabilities. In addition, new requirements for local distribution of intercenter video teleconferencing and data communications via satellite have developed. To address these and future communications requirements for the next 15 yrs, a project team was organized to design and implement a new high speed communication system that would handle both data and video information in a common lab-wide Local Area Network. The project team selected cable television broadband coaxial cable technology as the communications medium and first installation of in-ground cable began in the summer of 1980. The Lewis Information Network (LINK) became operational in August 1982 and has become the backbone of all data communications and video.

Schulte, Roger R.

1987-11-01

182

A Model for Social Network-Enhanced Health Communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networks have the potential to provide a number of capabilities for augmenting healthcare service delivery and providing new capabilities not present in traditional clinical health communication or public health communication. In this paper we propose a model for social network-enhanced health communication and describe and analyze how this can assist health consumers in the population as a whole, those

Robert Steele

2011-01-01

183

Layered Protocols Approach to Analyze Haptic Communication over a Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A layered protocols interaction model to describe haptic communication between two persons over a network is presented. This approach allows to consider all aspects of the haptic communication process: the intention to do an action, limitations of the human body, the communication device, and the network. The goal of the model is threefold, firstly it is a tool to identify

H. A. Van Essen; A. F. Rovers

2005-01-01

184

Deterministic Recurrent Communication and Synchronization in Restricted Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Monitoring physical phenomena in Sensor Networks requires guaranteeing permanent communication between nodes. Moreover, in an eective implementation of such infrastructure, the delay between any two consecutive communications should be minimized. The problem is challenging because, in a restricted Sensor Network, the communication is carried out through a single and shared radio channel without colli- sion detection. Dealing with collisions is

Antonio Fernández Anta; Miguel A. Mosteiro; Christopher Thraves

2010-01-01

185

Fast Secure Communication Establishing Mechanism for Aero-wireless Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Secure communication reestablishment together with fast secret materials generations are key points in terms of the quality and performance of secure aero-wireless networks. In this paper, a fast secure communication reestablishing mechanism for secure aero-wireless networks is initially presented. The performance in terms of the consumed time and bit error rate (BER) while reestablishing secure communication using the proposed mechanism

Kihong Kim; Jinkeun Hong; Jongin Lim

2007-01-01

186

Self-organizing hierarchies in sensor and communication networks.  

PubMed

We consider a hierarchical multicellular sensing and communication network, embedded in an ageless aerospace vehicle that is expected to detect and react to multiple impacts and damage over a wide range of impact energies. In particular, we investigate self-organization of impact boundaries enclosing critically damaged areas, and impact networks connecting remote cells that have detected noncritical impacts. Each level of the hierarchy is shown to have distinct higher-order emergent properties, desirable in self-monitoring and self-repairing vehicles. In addition, cells and communication messages are shown to need memory (hysteresis) in order to retain desirable emergent behavior within and between various hierarchical levels. Spatiotemporal robustness of self-organizing hierarchies is quantitatively measured with graph-theoretic and information-theoretic techniques, such as the Shannon entropy. This allows us to clearly identify phase transitions separating chaotic dynamics from ordered and robust patterns. PMID:16197671

Prokopenko, Mikhail; Wang, Peter; Valencia, Philip; Price, Don; Foreman, Mark; Farmer, Anthony

2005-01-01

187

On cost-effective communication network designing  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

How to efficiently design a communication network is a paramount task for network designing and engineering. It is, however, not a single objective optimization process as perceived by most previous researches, i.e., to maximize its transmission capacity, but a multi-objective optimization process, with lowering its cost to be another important objective. These two objectives are often contradictive in that optimizing one objective may deteriorate the other. After a deep investigation of the impact that network topology, node capability scheme and routing algorithm as well as their interplays have on the two objectives, this letter presents a systematic approach to achieve a cost-effective design by carefully choosing the three designing aspects. Only when routing algorithm and node capability scheme are elegantly chosen can BA-like scale-free networks have the potential of achieving good tradeoff between the two objectives. Random networks, on the other hand, have the built-in character for a cost-effective design, especially when other aspects cannot be determined beforehand.

Zhang, Guo-Qiang

2010-02-01

188

Data communication network topological description using datatrieve  

SciTech Connect

This paper describes the design and implementation of a database that maintains circuitry information about several thousand data communication channels. The topological database consists of an integrated series of Datatrieve files, Datatrieve procedures, and Fortran tasks. Together they describe the physical layout of all synchronous and asynchronous communication channels from the individual offices to the Central Computing Facility at the Los Alamos National Laboratory. The database also records administrative data for each channel. The host computer is a PDP--11/70 running RSX-11M, Version 4.0. All files, procedures, and programs are described.

Creel, L.R.; Horning, R.R.

1982-01-01

189

Application of vulnerability analysis in electric power communication network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The electric power communication network is special for the electric power network. Research on its essential vulnerability is advantageous to strengthen the toughness of the electric system. Take the complex network theory as the foundation, research on topology modeling, the basic parameters and network characteristic, take the service feature and the characteristics of the network structure into account, revising the

Hui-Sheng Gao; Jing Guo

2009-01-01

190

Route Optimization for Intra Communication of a Nested Mobile Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Network mobility, i.e. Internet access services for a moving network as a single unit brings about new challenging issues. A nested mobile network is a hierarchical form of multiple mobile networks. Nested mobile networks sufier from a pin- ball routing problem. This problem becomes more serious in the case of a communication between any two nodes in the same nested

Sungmin Baek; Jinkyu Yoo; Hosik Cho

191

Information transmission and recovery in neural communications channels  

SciTech Connect

Biological neural communications channels transport environmental information from sensors through chains of active dynamical neurons to neural centers for decisions and actions to achieve required functions. These kinds of communications channels are able to create information and to transfer information from one time scale to the other because of the intrinsic nonlinear dynamics of the component neurons. We discuss a very simple neural information channel composed of sensory input in the form of a spike train that arrives at a model neuron, then moves through a realistic synapse to a second neuron where the information in the initial sensory signal is read. Our model neurons are four-dimensional generalizations of the Hindmarsh-Rose neuron, and we use a model of chemical synapse derived from first-order kinetics. The four-dimensional model neuron has a rich variety of dynamical behaviors, including periodic bursting, chaotic bursting, continuous spiking, and multistability. We show that, for many of these regimes, the parameters of the chemical synapse can be tuned so that information about the stimulus that is unreadable at the first neuron in the channel can be recovered by the dynamical activity of the synapse and the second neuron. Information creation by nonlinear dynamical systems that allow chaotic oscillations is familiar in their autonomous oscillations. It is associated with the instabilities that lead to positive Lyapunov exponents in their dynamical behavior. Our results indicate how nonlinear neurons acting as input/output systems along a communications channel can recover information apparently ''lost'' in earlier junctions on the channel. Our measure of information transmission is the average mutual information between elements, and because the channel is active and nonlinear, the average mutual information between the sensory source and the final neuron may be greater than the average mutual information at an earlier neuron in the channel. This behavior is strikingly different than the passive role communications channels usually play, and the ''data processing theorem'' of conventional communications theory is violated by these neural channels. Our calculations indicate that neurons can reinforce reliable transmission along a chain even when the synapses and the neurons are not completely reliable components. This phenomenon is generic in parameter space, robust in the presence of noise, and independent of the discretization process. Our results suggest a framework in which one might understand the apparent design complexity of neural information transduction networks. If networks with many dynamical neurons can recover information not apparent at various waystations in the communications channel, such networks may be more robust to noisy signals, may be more capable of communicating many types of encoded sensory neural information, and may be the appropriate design for components, neurons and synapses, which can be individually imprecise, inaccurate ''devices.''

Eguia, M. C.; Rabinovich, M. I.; Abarbanel, H. D. I.

2000-11-01

192

Wide area mobile communication networks with multiple routing mode options  

Microsoft Academic Search

A wide area mobile communication network with multiple modes of transmission routing is described. This is achieved through the integration of multiple, independent wide area networks at both the fixed base station and the mobile device. Through this network, mobile communication devices have access to multiple rf transmission paths with varying characteristics of signal strength, coverage, data rates and cost.

David W. Best; Santanu Dutta; Dennis Sutherland

1995-01-01

193

Using a home-networking gateway to manage communications  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

Techniques are provided for managing communications from an external computer system to a gateway device on a home network. Content is downloaded to the home network, stored on the home-networking gateway and then made available to a device on the home network that is capable of using the stored content. Additionally, a home-networking gateway manages communications between external computer systems and the home network to give priority to human interactive communications over the downloading of entertainment content for future use.

2011-06-28

194

WindTalker: A P2P-Based Low-Latency Anonymous Communication Network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with traditional static anonymous communication networks, the P2P architecture can provide higher anonymity in communication. However, the P2P architecture also leads to more challenges, such as route, stability, trust and so on. In this paper, we present WindTalker, a P2P-based low-latency anonymous communication network. It is a pure decentralized mix network and can provide low-latency services which help users hide their real identity in communication. In order to ensure stability and reliability, WindTalker imports “seed nodes” to help a peer join in the P2P network and the peer nodes can use gossip-based protocol to exchange active information. Moreover, WindTalker uses layer encryption to ensure the information of relayed messages cannot be leaked. In addition, malicious nodes in the network are the major threat to anonymity of P2P anonymous communication, so WindTalker imports a trust mechanism which can help the P2P network exclude malicious nodes and optimize the strategy of peer discovery, tunnel construction, and relaying etc. in anonymous communications. We deploy peer nodes of WindTalker in our campus network to test reliability and analyze anonymity in theory. The network measurement and simulation analysis shows that WindTalker can provide low-latency and reliable anonymous communication services.

Zhang, Jia; Duan, Haixin; Liu, Wu; Wu, Jianping

195

Global Legal Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Legal scholars and those with an interest in the law will definitely want to take a look at the Global Legal Information Network (GLIN) website. Here visitors can search official full text legal documents, including judicial decisions, legislation, and laws. The database is provided courtesy of the Law Library of the United States Congress, and it draws from countries from around the world who wish to provide access to their own legal documents. Some of the countries who participate in the program include Brazil, Costa Rica, Kuwait, Peru, and Romania. Visitors will find that the ways to search the database are extremely helpful. Options include searching by jurisdiction, publication date, subject terms, and language. The site is rounded out by a section that provides answers to frequently asked questions about using the database.

2005-01-01

196

GAS MAIN SENSOR AND COMMUNICATIONS NETWORK SYSTEM  

SciTech Connect

Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the New York Gas Group (NYGAS), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. In Phase II of this three-phase program, an improved prototype system was built for low-pressure cast-iron and high-pressure steel (including a no-blow installation system) mains and tested in a serial-network configuration in a live network in Long Island with the support of Keyspan Energy, Inc. The experiment was carried out in several open-hole excavations over a multi-day period. The prototype units (3 total) combined sensors capable of monitoring pressure, flow, humidity, temperature and vibration, which were sampled and combined in data-packages in an in-pipe master-repeater-slave configuration in serial or ladder-network arrangements. It was verified that the system was capable of performing all data-sampling, data-storage and collection as expected, yielding interesting results as to flow-dynamics and vibration-detection. Wireless in-pipe communications were shown to be feasible and the system was demonstrated to run off in-ground battery- and above-ground solar power. The remote datalogger access and storage-card features were demonstrated and used to log and post-process system data. Real-time data-display on an updated Phase-I GUI was used for in-field demonstration and troubleshooting.

Hagen Schempf

2004-09-30

197

Feedback control for communication and traffic networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The main objective of this article is to develop techniques of robust control and their applications to communication and transportation networks. Three following problems will be studied in detail: (1) Resource Sharing: These systems belong to a class of hybrid systems where the plant to be controlled is a continuous drift free system, and the controller is implemented as a FSM. (2) Admission Control. Ramp metering control problem can be studied in either distributed or lumped parameter setting. These two settings to an isolated case have been studied by the authors and solutions for these have been obtained. (3) Traffic Routing. Traditionally both kinds of network systems have been treated using static optimization methods for congestion control. The traffic routing problem for both types of networks can be solved either in user-equilibrium setting or system-optimal. In user-equilibrium, the aim of the controller is to obtain equal travel times on alternate routes. In system-optimal, the aim is to obtain minimum total travel time on the entire network.

Ball, Joseph A.; Day, Martin V.; Kachroo, Pushkin; Midkiff, Scott F.; Sarigul, Erol; Lee, David C.

1999-01-01

198

Shared Sensing and Communications in Sensor Networks : The Multihop Case  

Microsoft Academic Search

A joint sensing\\/communication problem is considered for sensor networks. Herein, the channel(s) between a source and destination are the parameters to be sensed and communicated over the network. Lower bounds on the end-to-end distortion are developed for a multihop, linear network. Internode communication is assumed to be done via an encode-and-forward approach. For a many-to-one topology with two hops, data

Satish Vedantam; Urbashi Mitra; Ashutosh Sabharwal

2006-01-01

199

Next generation information communication infrastructure and case studies for future power systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

As power industry enters the new century, powerful driving forces, uncertainties and new functions are compelling electric utilities to make dramatic changes in their information communication infrastructure. Expanding network services such as real time measurement and monitoring are also driving the need for more bandwidth in the communication network. These needs will grow further as new remote real-time protection and

Bin Qiu

2002-01-01

200

Child Rights Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Established in 1995 and based in London, the Children's Rights Information Network (CRIN) uses the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (CRC) as their inspiration. Visitors unfamiliar with the reasons for the need for a group that advocates for the rights of children should check out the "Issues" tab. The CRIN Quiz section is a good place for visitors to learn about some of the specifics of children's rights in various countries, such as the "African Committee on the Rights and the Welfare of the Child" from 15/03/2010 and "Child Rights and the United States" from 05/11/2008. There are quizzes on some specific issues that involve children, such as "Child Slavery" from 28/03/2007 and "Quiz on Children Affected by Armed Conflict" from 24/11/2006. The "Information By Country", which can be accessed on the left hand side of the homepage, features International Law, National Law, and Regional Law related to the country, as well as the "Latest Resources", which include such valuable guides as the "Human Rights Watch: Global Report 2010".

201

Global Raptor Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Global Raptor Information Network includes newly compiled species accounts for 331 species of diurnal raptors (hawks, eagles, falcons, vultures). These are linked to homepages of raptor researchers from 66 countries, and the site also offers a searchable bibliographic database (with nearly 39,000 records) on birds of prey. Other features include a species database, which includes distributional information and conservation status for raptors in 260 countries and island groups, links to raptor organizations, hawkwatches, database resources, and homepages of over 200 ornithological journals. There is also a bulletin board with notices of upcoming raptor meetings, recent raptor news, and appeals for assistance. The site is maintained by The Peregrine Fund in Boise, Idaho in an effort to create a global community of raptor researchers and to make its research library, which contains one of the largest collections of ornithological references (now about 21,000 titles) in the world, accessible to researchers in any locality. A free PDF service is maintained to provide researchers in library-poor areas with access to the technical literature.

Fund, The P.

202

Cooperative UAV-Based Communications Backbone for Sensor Networks  

SciTech Connect

The objective of this project is to investigate the use of unmanned air vehicles (UAVs) as mobile, adaptive communications backbones for ground-based sensor networks. In this type of network, the UAVs provide communication connectivity to sensors that cannot communicate with each other because of terrain, distance, or other geographical constraints. In these situations, UAVs provide a vertical communication path for the sensors, thereby mitigating geographic obstacles often imposed on networks. With the proper use of UAVs, connectivity to a widely disbursed sensor network in rugged terrain is readily achieved. Our investigation has focused on networks where multiple cooperating UAVs are used to form a network backbone. The advantage of using multiple UAVs to form the network backbone is parallelization of sensor connectivity. Many widely spaced or isolated sensors can be connected to the network at once using this approach. In these networks, the UAVs logically partition the sensor network into sub-networks (subnets), with one UAV assigned per subnet. Partitioning the network into subnets allows the UAVs to service sensors in parallel thereby decreasing the sensor-to-network connectivity. A UAV services sensors in its subnet by flying a route (path) through the subnet, uplinking data collected by the sensors, and forwarding the data to a ground station. An additional advantage of using multiple UAVs in the network is that they provide redundancy in the communications backbone, so that the failure of a single UAV does not necessarily imply the loss of the network.

Roberts, R S

2001-10-07

203

Communication and Informed Consent in Clinical Geriatrics.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Obtaining a valid informed consent from an elderly person, especially with possible senile dementia of the Alzheimer's type, first may involve solving the practical problems of effective communication. Impediments to effective communication with these individuals is discussed and suggestions for how to obviate them are given. (Author/BL)

Ratzan, Richard M.

1986-01-01

204

Exploring the Morphospace of Communication Efficiency in Complex Networks  

PubMed Central

Graph theoretical analysis has played a key role in characterizing global features of the topology of complex networks, describing diverse systems such as protein interactions, food webs, social relations and brain connectivity. How system elements communicate with each other depends not only on the structure of the network, but also on the nature of the system's dynamics which are constrained by the amount of knowledge and resources available for communication processes. Complementing widely used measures that capture efficiency under the assumption that communication preferentially follows shortest paths across the network (“routing”), we define analytic measures directed at characterizing network communication when signals flow in a random walk process (“diffusion”). The two dimensions of routing and diffusion efficiency define a morphospace for complex networks, with different network topologies characterized by different combinations of efficiency measures and thus occupying different regions of this space. We explore the relation of network topologies and efficiency measures by examining canonical network models, by evolving networks using a multi-objective optimization strategy, and by investigating real-world network data sets. Within the efficiency morphospace, specific aspects of network topology that differentially favor efficient communication for routing and diffusion processes are identified. Charting regions of the morphospace that are occupied by canonical, evolved or real networks allows inferences about the limits of communication efficiency imposed by connectivity and dynamics, as well as the underlying selection pressures that have shaped network topology.

Goni, Joaquin; Avena-Koenigsberger, Andrea; Velez de Mendizabal, Nieves; van den Heuvel, Martijn P.; Betzel, Richard F.; Sporns, Olaf

2013-01-01

205

Gas Main Sensor and Communications Network System  

SciTech Connect

Automatika, Inc. was contracted by the Department of Energy (DOE) and with co-funding from the Northeast Gas Association (NGA), to develop an in-pipe natural gas prototype measurement and wireless communications system for assessing and monitoring distribution networks. This projected was completed in April 2006, and culminated in the installation of more than 2 dozen GasNet nodes in both low- and high-pressure cast-iron and steel mains owned by multiple utilities in the northeastern US. Utilities are currently logging data (off-line) and monitoring data in real time from single and multiple networked sensors over cellular networks and collecting data using wireless bluetooth PDA systems. The system was designed to be modular, using in-pipe sensor-wands capable of measuring, flow, pressure, temperature, water-content and vibration. Internal antennae allowed for the use of the pipe-internals as a waveguide for setting up a sensor network to collect data from multiple nodes simultaneously. Sensor nodes were designed to be installed with low- and no-blow techniques and tools. Using a multi-drop bus technique with a custom protocol, all electronics were designed to be buriable and allow for on-board data-collection (SD-card), wireless relaying and cellular network forwarding. Installation options afforded by the design included direct-burial and external polemounted variants. Power was provided by one or more batteries, direct AC-power (Class I Div.2) and solar-array. The utilities are currently in a data-collection phase and intend to use the collected (and processed) data to make capital improvement decisions, compare it to Stoner model predictions and evaluate the use of such a system for future expansion, technology-improvement and commercialization starting later in 2006.

Hagen Schempf

2006-05-31

206

Design and analysis of large-scale wireless communications networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents fundamental design and performance assessment methodologies for modern large-scale enterprise wireless communications networks comprised of many system components. Large-scale wireless networks are needed to serve mobile users in a region and to satisfy their intra- and inter-region communications requirements by adopting network-on-the-move (NOTM) concepts. For global access, the NOTM systems will connect to wireless and terrestrial networks

Kenneth Y. Jo; Syed R. Ali

2006-01-01

207

Design of hybrid mobile communication networks for planetary exploration  

Microsoft Academic Search

The mobile exploration system project (MEX) at NASA Ames Research Center has been conducting studies into hybrid communication networks for future planetary missions. These networks consist of space-based communication assets connected to ground-based Internets and planetary surface-based mobile wireless networks. These hybrid mobile networks have been deployed in rugged field locations in the American desert and the Canadian arctic for

Richard L. Alena; John Ossenfort; Charles Lee; Edward Walker; Thom Stone

2004-01-01

208

Information and communication technologies for the poor  

Microsoft Academic Search

This brief is based on Information and Communication Technologies for Development and Poverty Reduction: The Potential of Telecommunications, ed. Maximo Torero and Joachim von Braun (Johns Hopkins University Press and IFPRI, 2006) \\

Maximo Torero; Joachim von Braun

2005-01-01

209

Proactive and adaptive reconfiguration for reliable communication in tactical networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Due to the layer-independency design, in current wireless networks, only after a complete failure occurs in one of the involved layers, is the next higher layer notified, and by then performance degradation may already be observed. Also, the new connection establishment process has to go through all the layers. It is time-consuming and usually results in an extra latency and resource unavailability within the transition region, which in turn leads to inefficient bandwidth usage and a poor user experience. Moreover, the root-cause of the connection termination is typically hidden, and not utilized for the repair or reestablishment. To mitigate the problem, in this paper, we propose a proactive and adaptive cross-layer reconfiguration (PACR) scheme for reliable communication in tactical networks. The PACR scheme allows the user (e.g., network operator) to adaptively reconfigure operating parameters in the corresponding layers through proactive prediction, root-cause identification, and cross-layer negotiations. The core of the PACR scheme is an integrated crosslayer information sharing architecture that expedites information exchange and inter-layer interactions between different network layers in a proactive manner. Through simulation and experiments, it has been shown that our proposed PACR scheme can significantly improve the network performance, and facilitate the nodes or users to make smart decisions accordingly in an adaptive manner.

Zeng, Hui; Kwak, Kyung Joon; Deng, Julia; Fu, Bo; Xiao, Yang; Jeski, John

2012-05-01

210

Globalization from the Information and Communication Perspective  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper globalization is analyzed from the electronic information and communication perspective. Two kinds of communities\\u000a are distinguished: traditional territorial communities and new kind of content communities. Content communities are the results\\u000a of human communication via Internet. Content communities group people round a particular information content that is of interest\\u000a to them. Features of both kinds of communities are

Wojciech Cellary

2007-01-01

211

Using deadbands to reduce communication in networked control systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

The most effective way to improve networked control systems (NCSs) performance is to reduce network traffic. By adapting a system to a network configuration, the communication medium is more efficiently used and time-delays are minimized. Adjustable deadbands are explored as a solution to reduce network traffic in NCSs. The stability of deadband control is derived and then verified via simulation.

P. G. Otanez; J. R. Moyne; Dawn M. Tilbury

2002-01-01

212

Mobility management in current and future communications networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article describes current and proposed protocols for mobility management for public land mobile networks (PLMNs), Mobile IP, wireless ATM, and satellite networks. The integration of these networks is discussed in the context of the next evolutionary step of wireless communications networks. First, a review is provided of location management algorithms for PCS implemented over a PLMN. The latest protocol

L. F. Akyildiz; Janise McNair; Joseph Ho; H. Uzunalioglu; Wenye Wang

1998-01-01

213

Integrated Wireless Communication Protocol for Ad-Hoc Mobile Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless ad-hoc networks have recently emerged as a relevant research topic. The management of ad hoc networks raises many interesting problems, and adding the mobility to the network's components in- creases the number of these challenges. The ap- proaches to the real-time communication among the network's units should guarantee robustness, flexi- bility and scalability, while meeting the timing con- straints

Tullio Facchinetti; Giorgio Buttazzo

2004-01-01

214

Organizational structure and communication networks in a university environment  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The “six degrees of separation” between any two individuals on Earth has become emblematic of the “small world” theme, even though the information conveyed via a chain of human encounters decays very rapidly with increasing chain length, and diffusion of information via this process may be very inefficient in large human organizations. The information flow on a communication network in a large organization, the University of Oslo, has been studied by analyzing email records. The records allow for quantification of communication intensity across organizational levels and between organizational units (referred to as “modules”). We find that the number of email messages within modules scales with module size to the power of 1.29±.06 , and the frequency of communication between individuals decays exponentially with the number of links required upward in the organizational hierarchy before they are connected. Our data also indicates that the number of messages sent by administrative units is proportional to the number of individuals at lower levels in the administrative hierarchy, and the “divergence of information” within modules is associated with this linear relationship. The observed scaling is consistent with a hierarchical system in which individuals far apart in the organization interact little with each other and receive a disproportionate number of messages from higher levels in the administrative hierarchy.

Mathiesen, Joachim; Jamtveit, Bjørn; Sneppen, Kim

2010-07-01

215

Net-centric optical communication for the global information grid  

Microsoft Academic Search

Optical communications technologies are being actively explored by the defense and security communities as a potential solution to alleviate bandwidth bottlenecks and to provide covert, jam resistant communications without spectrum restrictions. While static fiber-optic networks are widely deployed in the Department of Defense (DoD) communications network, the integration of wireless, free space optical (FSO) communications technology is required to provide

Anurag Dwivedi

2006-01-01

216

Information diffusion and external influence in networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social networks play a fundamental role in the diffusion of information. However, there are two different ways of how information reaches a person in a network. Information reaches us through connections in our social networks, as well as through the influence external out-of-network sources, like the mainstream media. While most present models of information adoption in networks assume information only

Seth A. Myers; Chenguang Zhu; Jure Leskovec

2012-01-01

217

System Models of Information, Communication and Mass Communication: Revaluation of Some Basic Concepts of Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|A more unified approach to communication theory can evolve through systems modeling of information theory, communication modes, and mass media operations. Such systematic analysis proposes, as is the case care here, that information models be based upon combinations of energy changes and exchanges and changes in receiver systems. The mass media…

Wiio, Osmo A.

218

Decentralized Localization of Sparsely-Communicating Robot Networks: A Centralized-Equivalent Approach  

Microsoft Academic Search

Finite-range sensing and communication are factors in the connectivity of a dynamic mobile-robot network. State es- timation becomes a difficult problem when communication con- nections allowing information exchange between all robots are not guaranteed. This paper presents a decentralized state-estimation algorithm guaranteed to work in dynamic robot networks with- out connectivity requirements. We prove that a robot only needs to

Keith Yu Kit Leung; Timothy D. Barfoot; Hugh H. T. Liu

2010-01-01

219

International Research Network in European Political Communications  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

EurPolCom was initially established in 2000, by Professor Paul Statham, and located at the University of Leeds. In 2007, it was re-launched as a 'network' which advances research in the fields of political communications, the public sphere and social movements and is now located at the University of Bristol. On their website visitors can learn more about this organization and their various research projects. In addition, there are a number of working papers available to the public including "Constitutionalism of the European Public Sphere" and "The Politics of Immigration and Asylum Policy in Western Europe" to name only a few. After getting acquainted, visitors may want to learn more about their grants and awards available as well as upcoming events. Lastly, a set of related links is provided for those interested in a specific aspect of the site.

220

Defending Traffic Analysis with Communication Cycles in Wireless Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In wireless sensor networks, sensor nodes collect and forward environmental data back to the base station via multi-hop communications and nodes closer to the base station take relatively heavier communication loads. Therefore, an attacker may identify the location of the base station and cause security breaches by analyzing the network traffic. In this paper, we create traffic decoys that also

Hou-Jie Wang; Tien-Ruey Hsiang

2009-01-01

221

Spatial traffic estimation and characterization for mobile communication network design  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a new method for the estimation and characterization of the expected teletraffic in mobile communication networks. The method considers the teletraffic from the network viewpoint. The traffic estimation is based on the geographic traffic model, which obeys the geographical and demographical factors for the demand for mobile communication services. For the spatial teletraffic characterization, a novel representation

Kurt Tutschku; Phuoc Tran-Gia

1998-01-01

222

Modelling and simulation of intelligent multimedia communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Techniques and features that have been found useful for modeling and simulating intelligent multimedia communications networks are described. Key ingredients are a robust, commercially available and supported simulation language and a modeling and simulation architecture that consists of custom-designed modules of the features that clearly occur in communication network simulation. The simulation architecture used is described at length.

Rawdin, Eugene

223

Collision-Free Access Control for Computer Communication Bus Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper considers access control for local area computer communication networks. We propose two distributed access control schemes for a bus network. The schemes are simple and asynchronous, and provide for collision-free communication among ports. In addition, one of the schemes provides a bounded, guaranteed time to transmisidon for each port. We also show that this scheme is efficient in

Kapali P. Eswaran; V. Carl Hamacher; Gerald S. Shedler

1981-01-01

224

On Many-to-Many Communication in Packet Radio Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Radio networks model wireless data communication when bandwidth is limited to one wave frequency. The key restriction of such networks is mu- tual interference of packets arriving simultaneously to a node. The many-to- many (m2m) communication primitive involves p participant nodes of a dis- tance at most d between any pair of them, from among n nodes in the net-

Bogdan S. Chlebus; Dariusz R. Kowalski; Tomasz Radzik

2006-01-01

225

DES cryptographic services designed for the DOE wide band communications network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To exchange information between separate facilities of the Nuclear Weapons Complex quickly, accurately, and in computer-readable form, the Department of Energy (DOE) has built a secure data communicaitons facility called the Wide Band Communications Network. The network properly achieves security by using high-grade encryption for the communications links and strict physical security measures at the nodes. To provide need-to-know separation among various elements and users of the network, data are encrypted before transmission using the National Bureau of Standards' Data Encryption Standard (DES) algorithm. The software described here provides the key management, key distribution, and cipher processing for this network.

Hurdle, Sharon; Burnham, Blaine

1987-11-01

226

Random walk for self-stabilizing group communication in ad hoc networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract, We introduce a self-stabilizing group communication system for ad hoc networks. The system design is based on a mobile agent, collecting and distributing information, during a random walk. Three possible settings for modeling the location of the mobile nodes (processors) in the ad hoc network are presented: slow location change, complete random change, and neighbors with probability. The group

Shlomi Dolev; Elad Schiller; Jennifer L. Welch

2002-01-01

227

Communication Inequalities and Public Health Implications of Adult Social Networking Site Use in the United States  

Microsoft Academic Search

Social media, and specifically social networking sites (SNSs), are emerging as an important platform for communication and health information exchange. Yet, despite the increase in popularity and use, only a limited number of empirical studies document which segments of the adult population are and are not using social networking sites and with what, if any, affect on health. The purpose

Emily Z. Kontos; Karen M. Emmons; Elaine Puleo; K. Viswanath

2010-01-01

228

Flexible access secure transfer (FAST) tactical communications waveform for airborne networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The military capabilities necessary to realize DOD's vision on network centric operation depends upon achieving information and decision superiority through the implementation of an IP enabled jam resistant airborne networking waveform that extends the capabilities of the GIG into the tactical edge airborne and space environments. This paper describes a novel communication protocol called flexible access secure transfer (FAST) for

R. Ghanadan; P. Tufano; J. Hsu; J. Gu; C. Connelly

2005-01-01

229

Annealed Embeddings of Communication Patterns in an Interconnection Cached Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The communication needs of many parallel applications exhibit what we call switching locality. In such applications, each computation entity (process, thread, etc.) tends to restrict its communication to a small set of other entities. The physical location or proximity of these entities can be arbitrary, as long as the communication degree is small. The Interconnection Cached Network (ICN) is a

Vipul Gupta; Eugen Schenfeld

1995-01-01

230

A power line communication network infrastructure for the smart home  

Microsoft Academic Search

Low voltage electrical wiring has largely been dismissed as too noisy and unpredictable to support high-speed communication signals. Advances in communication and modulation methodologies as well as in adaptive digital signal processing and error detection and correction have spawned novel protocols capable of supporting power line communication networks at speeds comparable to wired LANs. We motivate the use of power

Yu-Ju Lin; H. A. Latchman; Minkyu Lee; S. Katar

2002-01-01

231

Wireless Mesh Networks for Public Safety and Disaster Recovery Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent events have revealed significant shortcomings in Public Safety and Disaster Recovery (PSDR) communications. A lot of currently deployed PSDR communication technology suffers from lack of interoperability and reliability in disaster scenarios. Furthermore, even the most advanced PSDR communication systems do not provide true broadband capabilities to support bandwidth intensive applications such as high quality real-time video. Wireless Mesh Networks

Marius Portmann

232

A New Communication Architecture Based on the Spatial Information Field Model  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a hybrid communication architecture through the integration of network and field models. The architecture is based on the spatial information field model that is defined in a four dimensional time-space, and consists of numbers of independent IAs (intelligent agents). Each IA has 7 different communication and information processing patterns. Through different space allocation and physical

Haibin Liu

2006-01-01

233

Communicating Benefit and Risk Information  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... professional. Benefit and risk information in clinical trials, Medication Guides, and drug advertisements are reviewed. FDA ... More results from www.fda.gov/drugs/resourcesforyou/healthprofessionals

234

The analysis of network transmission method for welding robot information  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

On the asis of User Datagram Protocol (UserDatagram Protocol, UDP), to do some improvement and design a welding robot network communication protocol (welding robot network communicate protocol: WRNCP), working on the fields of the transport layer and application layer of TCP / IP protocol. According to the characteristics of video data, to design the radio push-type (Broadcast Push Model, BPM) transmission method, improving the efficiency and stability of video transmission.and to designed the network information transmission system, used for real-time control of welding robot network.

Cheng, Weide; Zhang, Hua; Liu, Donghua; Wang, Hongbo

2011-12-01

235

Consensus in networks of mobile communicating agents  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Populations of mobile and communicating agents describe a vast array of technological and natural systems, ranging from sensor networks to animal groups. Here, we investigate how a group-level agreement may emerge in the continuously evolving network defined by the local interactions of the moving individuals. We adopt a general scheme of motion in two dimensions and we let the individuals interact through the minimal naming game, a prototypical scheme to investigate social consensus. We distinguish different regimes of convergence determined by the emission range of the agents and by their mobility, and we identify the corresponding scaling behaviors of the consensus time. In the same way, we rationalize also the behavior of the maximum memory used during the convergence process, which determines the minimum cognitive/storage capacity needed by the individuals. Overall, we believe that the simple and general model presented in this paper can represent a helpful reference for a better understanding of the behavior of populations of mobile agents.

Baronchelli, Andrea; Díaz-Guilera, Albert

2012-01-01

236

Information Theory, The Copernician System of Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

IT IS ARGUED that Shannon's theory of information is the scientific basis of commumcataons in the same sense that Copernicus' heliocentric theory is the scientific basis of astronomy. Some parallels between Copernicus and Shannon are drawn. It is further argued that the fundamental thesis of information theory is that all communications is essentially digital and that the main theorem of

James L. Massey

1984-01-01

237

Integrating Information & Communications Technologies into the Classroom  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|"Integrating Information & Communications Technologies Into the Classroom" examines topics critical to business, computer science, and information technology education, such as: school improvement and reform, standards-based technology education programs, data-driven decision making, and strategic technology education planning. This book also…

Tomei, Lawrence, Ed.

2007-01-01

238

Communicating Drug Information to Physicians  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the studies of researchers who have attempted to identify the sources of drug information, both professional and commercial, utilized by physicians, discussing relationship between physicians' sources and the choice of drugs and severity of conditions being treated. Also notes new sources of drug information being considered by the Food…

Herman, Colman M.; Rodowskas, Christopher A.

1976-01-01

239

Opportunistic Information Retrieval in Sparsely Connected Ad Hoc Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

With the advancement in technology, many users carry wireless computing de-vices e.g., PDAs, cell-phones etc. Such devices can form mobile ad hoc networks and communicate with one another via the help of intermediate nodes. Such ad hoc networks are very useful in several scenarios e.g., battlefield operations, vehicular ad hoc networks and disaster response scenarios. The ability to access important information in these scenarios is highly critical. Many ad hoc routing schemes have been designed for ad hoc networks but such routing schemes are not useful in some challenging network scenarios where the nodes have intermittent connectivity and suffer frequent partitioning. Recently, disruption tolerant network technologies [5, 12] have been proposed to allow nodes in such extreme network-ing environment to communicate with one another. Several DTN routing schemes [4, 14] have been proposed.

Chuah, Mooi-Choo; Han, Jian-Bin

240

Using information networks for competitive advantage.  

PubMed

Although the healthcare "information superhighway" has received considerable attention, the use of information technology to create a sustainable competitive advantage is not new to other industries. Economic survival in the new world of managed care may depend on a healthcare delivery system's ability to use network-based communications technologies to differentiate itself in the market, especially through cost savings and demonstration of desirable outcomes. The adaptability of these technologies can help position healthcare organizations to break the paradigms of the past and thrive in a market environment that stresses coordination, efficiency, and quality in various settings. PMID:10146130

Rothenberg, R L

1995-01-01

241

76 FR 36154 - In the Matter of Certain Equipment for Communications Networks, Including Switches, Routers...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Communications Networks, Including Switches, Routers, Gateways, Bridges...communications networks, including switches, routers, gateways, bridges...communications networks, including switches, routers, gateways, bridges...complaint is to be served: Cisco Systems, Inc., 170...

2011-06-21

242

Artificial neural network for location estimation in wireless communication systems.  

PubMed

In a wireless communication system, wireless location is the technique used to estimate the location of a mobile station (MS). To enhance the accuracy of MS location prediction, we propose a novel algorithm that utilizes time of arrival (TOA) measurements and the angle of arrival (AOA) information to locate MS when three base stations (BSs) are available. Artificial neural networks (ANN) are widely used techniques in various areas to overcome the problem of exclusive and nonlinear relationships. When the MS is heard by only three BSs, the proposed algorithm utilizes the intersections of three TOA circles (and the AOA line), based on various neural networks, to estimate the MS location in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. Simulations were conducted to evaluate the performance of the algorithm for different NLOS error distributions. The numerical analysis and simulation results show that the proposed algorithms can obtain more precise location estimation under different NLOS environments. PMID:22736978

Chen, Chien-Sheng

2012-03-01

243

Illinois Library and Information Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This theme issue discusses the Illinois Library and Information Network (ILLINET). Topics addressed include network components, the interlibrary loan code, the resource sharing union catalog, the OCLC users' group, OCLC's EPIC service, access to indexing services, SILO (Serials of Illinois Libraries Online) members, and excerpts from the…

Allen, Barbara McFadden, Ed.; And Others

1993-01-01

244

A cross-domain communication resource scheduling method for grid-enabled communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

To support a wide range of different grid applications in environments where various heterogeneous communication networks coexist, it is important to enable advanced capabilities in on-demand and dynamical integration and efficient co-share with cross-domain heterogeneous communication resource, thus providing communication services which are impossible for single communication resource to afford. Based on plug-and-play co-share and soft integration with communication resource, Grid-enabled communication network is flexibly built up to provide on-demand communication services for gird applications with various requirements on quality of service. Based on the analysis of joint job and communication resource scheduling in grid-enabled communication networks (GECN), this paper presents a cross multi-domain communication resource cooperatively scheduling method and describes the main processes such as traffic requirement resolution for communication services, cross multi-domain negotiation on communication resource, on-demand communication resource scheduling, and so on. The presented method is to afford communication service capability to cross-domain traffic delivery in GECNs. Further research work towards validation and implement of the presented method is pointed out at last.

Zheng, Xiangquan; Wen, Xiang; Zhang, Yongding

2011-10-01

245

The impact of information technology on internal communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study explored the impact of information technology on internal communication at a tertiary education institution. An employee survey was distributed to determine the current impact of information technology on internal communication, and to explore the possible impact of two further information technology based communication systems. The survey found that despite a preference for face-to-face communication, respondents were better informed,

TIM O'Donovan

1998-01-01

246

Design of computer communication networks under link reliability constraints  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes a method to design a cost effective computer communication network which employs unreliable links. The design is aimed at obtaining a minimum cost network which satisfies the given constraints of grade of service defined in terms of the degree of availability of the network and the node to node traffic capacities in normal conditions. We present a

Debashis Saha; A. Mukherjee; S. K. Dutta

1993-01-01

247

Sensing the channel: sensor networks with shared sensing and communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

A new class of abstract sensor networks is introduced and analyzed. The object of the sensing is the inter-node channel. Examples of systems which seek to sense the channel include: underwater sonar, radar and optics based atmospheric sensor networks. In these networks, the sensing and communication tasks share the bandwidth resource in addition to the sharing of power resources as

Satish Vedantam; Urbashi Mitra; Ashutosh Sabharwal

2006-01-01

248

A hybrid wireless network enhanced with multihopping for emergency communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper proposes a hybrid wireless network scheme enhanced with ad hoc networking for disaster damage assessment and emergency communications. The network aims to maintain the connection between a base station (BS) and nodes by way of multihopping. In the event that a direct link between BS and a node is disconnected, the node switches modes from cellular to ad

Takahiro Fujiwara; Noboru Iida; Takashi Watanabe

2004-01-01

249

Teleoperation of robots via the mobile communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Internet-based teleoperation is becoming an important research field in robotics. Most of existing works employed the wired Internet or wireless local area network to transmit signals, which largely limited the movement of the robots. This paper presented a teleoperation project based upon mobile communication networks. Using mobile networks as the wireless transmission media free robots from space restriction, which is

Y. Y. Li; W. H. Fan; Y. H. Liu; X. P. Cai

2005-01-01

250

A novel impulse radio network for tactical military wireless communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Two of the major concerns in tactical military wireless communication networks are covertness and throughput. Impulse radio is an ultra-wideband code division multiple access (UWB-CDMA) technique being considered as the physical layer for future networks. Impulse radio exhibits low power spectral density and relatively high immunity to fading but suffers from relatively long acquisition times. In traditional packet radio networks

Santosh S. Kolenchery; J. K. Townsend; J. A. Freebersyser

1998-01-01

251

ANALYTICAL MODELS OF DISTRIBUTED COMPUTER BASED COMMUNICATION NETWORKS  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid rate of growth of computer based communication systems (e.g. distributed computer networks, mobile data networks) has resulted in a renewed and intensive interest in modelling of such systems. Efficient design of their service facilities leads to the sharing of resources among users. Such public shared networks are largely oversubscribed by independent users, who make random demands on the

Hanuliak I; Velky Diel

252

Overlapping Computations and Communications in Torus Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental aspect in the design of parallel applications consists in minimizing communications: reducing the number of messages, or overlapping computations and communications. The objective of this paper is the design of parallel algorithms that use processors and expensive resources such as communications efficiently. We present a partial embedding of computation and communication graphs that have a cubic or planar

Álvaro Suárez; Carmen N. Ojeda-guerra

1996-01-01

253

Community readiness for a computer-based health information network.  

PubMed

The need for timely and accurate communication among healthcare providers has prompted the development of computer-based health information networks that allow patient and client information to be shared among agencies. This article reports the findings of a study to assess whether residents of an upstate New York community were ready for a computer-based health information network to facilitate delivery of long term care services. Focus group sessions, which involved both consumers and professionals, revealed that security of personal information was of concern to healthcare providers, attorneys, and consumers. Physicians were the most enthusiastic about the possibility of a computer-based health information network. Consumers and other healthcare professionals, including nurses, indicated that such a network would be helpful to them personally. Nurses and other healthcare professionals need to be knowledgeable about the use of computer-based health information networks and other electronic information systems as this trend continues to spread across the U.S. PMID:16929715

Ervin, Naomi E; Berry, Michelle M

254

Adaptive Self-Organizing Overlay Network for Car-to-Car Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article proposes a model of car-to-car networks based on an adaptive self-organization overlay network. Car-to-car network is one of the promising ways to deliver the information and services among cars in order to increase the safety and reduce the traffic congestion. However, conventional works focus on the low-level communication protocols. Little works are done on the model and its

Mikio Aoyama; Hiroshi Takeichi

2008-01-01

255

Models, Entropy and Information of Temporal Social Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Temporal social networks are characterized by heterogeneous duration of contacts, which can either follow a power-law distribution, such as in face-to-face interactions, or a Weibull distribution, such as in mobile-phone communication. Here we model the dynamics of face-to-face interaction and mobile phone communication by a reinforcement dynamics, which explains the data observed in these different types of social interactions. We quantify the information encoded in the dynamics of these networks by the entropy of temporal networks. Finally, we show evidence that human dynamics is able to modulate the information present in social network dynamics when it follows circadian rhythms and when it is interfacing with a new technology such as the mobile-phone communication technology.

Zhao, Kun; Karsai, Márton; Bianconi, Ginestra

256

Automatic Generation of Social Network Data from Electronic-Mail Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Most organizations have formal and informal elements. Formal structures are usually documented in organizational charts showing chain of command, levels of authority, and personnel resources. The actual effectiveness of the organization or specific ind ividuals may actually depend on informal structures and internal communication networks. These are by definition personality-dependent and may provide significant insight into how work actually gets

Jason Yee; Robert F. Mills; Gilbert L. Peterson; Summer E. Bartczak

257

Facilitating networks of information.  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe an approach to respond to a request for information with the identification and location of the appropriate person as a source of information for answering the question. The expertise of a person is characterized using a weighted profile that has been derived from a series of documents describing the expert's activities. Having these profiles, requests for information can be matched with these profiles. The best matches correspond with the people that are experts for providing information on the request.

van Mulligen, E. M.; Diwersy, M.; Schmidt, M.; Buurman, H.; Mons, B.

2000-01-01

258

SCHOOL LEADERSHIP AND INFORMATION COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY  

Microsoft Academic Search

Leadership is an important component in guiding the teaching-learning process. Principal as school leaders have a major responsibility for initiating and implementing school change through the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and can facilitate complex decision to integrate it into learning, teaching and school administration. Hence, educational leaders must understand, promote and implement the notion that technology integration

Mojgan AFSHARI; Kamariah Abu BAKAR; Wong Su LUAN; Bahaman Abu SAMAH; Foo Say FOOI

2008-01-01

259

Power-law behavior in complex organizational communication networks during crisis  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Communication networks can be described as patterns of contacts which are created due to the flow of messages and information shared among participating actors. Contemporary organizations are now commonly viewed as dynamic systems of adaptation and evolution containing several parts, which interact with one another both in internal and in external environment. Although there is limited consensus among researchers on the precise definition of organizational crisis, there is evidence of shared meaning: crisis produces individual crisis, crisis can be associated with positive or negative conditions, crises can be situations having been precipitated quickly or suddenly or situations that have developed over time and are predictable etc. In this research, we study the power-law behavior of an organizational email communication network during crisis from complexity perspective. Power law simply describes that, the probability that a randomly selected node has k links (i.e. degree k) follows P(k)˜k, where ? is the degree exponent. We used social network analysis tools and techniques to analyze the email communication dataset. We tested two propositions: (1) as organization goes through crisis, a few actors, who are prominent or more active, will become central, and (2) the daily communication network as well as the actors in the communication network exhibit power-law behavior. Our preliminary results support these two propositions. The outcome of this study may provide significant advancement in exploring organizational communication network behavior during crisis.

Uddin, Shahadat; Murshed, Shahriar Tanvir Hasan; Hossain, Liaquat

2011-08-01

260

Trust-Based Collaborative Control for Teams on Communication Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Grant objectives are to develop new cooperative control protocols and trust propagation mechanisms for networked teams of nonlinear dynamical systems on communication graphs. We developed a body of knowledge for optimal control and adaptive control on gra...

F. L. Lewis

2012-01-01

261

Some New Algorithms for Deterministic and Probabilistic Communication Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the effort reported herein is twofold: to develop more efficient algorithms for communication networks and to implement the algorithms. Two problems are included: the maximum flow problem and the terminal-pair reliability problem. For the...

P. M. Lin B. J. Leon T. C. Huang R. Krzyzanowski

1974-01-01

262

A network architecture for International Business Satellite communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Demand Assignment (DA) control is expected to be introduced in the International Business Satellte communications (IBS) network in order to cope with a growing international business traffic. The paper discusses the DA/IBS network from the viewpoints of network configuration, satellite channel configuration and DA control. The network configuration proposed here consists of one Central Station with network management function and several Network Coordination Stations with user management function. A satellite channel configuration is also presented along with a tradeoff study on transmission bit rate, high power amplifier output power requirement, and service quality. The DA control flow and protocol based on CCITT Signalling System No. 7 are also proposed.

Takahata, Fumio; Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio

263

Anomaly Detection Approaches for Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a In recent years, network anomaly detection has become an important area for both commercial interests as well as academic\\u000a research. Applications of anomaly detection typically stem from the perspectives of network monitoring and network security.\\u000a In network monitoring, a service provider is often interested in capturing such network characteristics as heavy flows, flow\\u000a size distributions, and the number of distinct

Marina Thottan; Guanglei Liu; Chuanyi Ji

2010-01-01

264

The Great Lakes Information Network: the region's Internet information service.  

PubMed

Communication is the cornerstone of ecosystem protection and sustainable development efforts in the binational Great Lakes region of North America. Great Lakes environmental protection, remediation, and pollution prevention efforts bring together individuals from across the public sector, business and industry, citizens groups, and academia. The region is now working to enhance communications between these groups and the rest of the world, through the Internet-based Great Lakes Information Network (GLIN). Diverse regional data, information, and human resources located at key agencies and organizations are accessible via GLIN. These online resources span environmental quality, human health effects and other research, resource management, transportation, demographic, and economic data, as well as other resources in the Great Lakes region of the United States and Canada. Federal, state, provincial, and regional agencies and a range of citizen, business, and research organizations are cooperating with the lead agency, the Great Lakes Commission, in developing GLIN into the region's shared Internet resource. GLIN resources are accessible to users of ubiquitous Internet research tools including World Wide Web and Gopher. Statistical information on usage and the region's response to ongoing efforts to build the GLIN system and solicit contributions of data and information indicate that we can continue to build GLIN into a truly regional resource which enhances communication among researchers, policy makers, students, and the general public. PMID:8843572

Ratza, C A

265

Transparent optical self-healing-ring communication network  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

An optical self-healing-ring communication network is described which include: a first optical communication line, forming a closed optical path; at least two add/drop nodes for optical signals, optically connected along the line; a second optical communication line forming a closed optical path and optically connected to the optical-signal add/drop nodes. Defined in the network are first and second mutually opposite travel directions of the optical signals, with respect to the position of the optical-signal add/drop nodes. At least one of said nodes further comprises selection means, controlled by the optical signals, for the selective dropping of the optical signals from one of the communication lines. At least one of the optical-signal add/drop nodes further include means for the simultaneous input of at least one optical signal in the first direction along the first communication line and in the second direction along the second communication line.

Arecco; Fulvio (Monza, IT); Meli; Fausto (Piacenza, IT); Sanches; Marcos Antonio Brandao (Monza, IT)

1999-05-11

266

Communication, advice exchange and job satisfaction of nursing staff: a social network analyses of 35 long-term care units  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background  The behaviour of individuals is affected by the social networks in which they are embedded. Networks are also important for\\u000a the diffusion of information and the influence of employees in organisations. Yet, at the moment little is known about the\\u000a social networks of nursing staff in healthcare settings. This is the first study that investigates informal communication\\u000a and advice networks

Adriana PA van Beek; Cordula Wagner; Peter PM Spreeuwenberg; Dinnus HM Frijters; Miel W Ribbe; Peter P Groenewegen

2011-01-01

267

Network communication between CORS base station and control center  

Microsoft Academic Search

In A stable and reliable communication link is required to be established between the CORS base station and the control center, in this paper the Synchronous Digital Hierarchy is selected as be the main communication network, and high-speed interconnection InfiniBand between workstations of the control center and base stations is realized; In view of the status there are no alternative

Liu Shaotang; Yang Xiaoming; Liang Yubao; Liu Lifang

2010-01-01

268

An Underwater Sensor Network with Dual Communications, Sensing, and Mobility  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper describes an underwater sensor network with dual communication and support for sensing and mobility. The nodes in the system are connected acoustically for broadcast communication using an acoustic modem we developed. The nodes are connected optically for higher speed point to point data transfers using an optical modem we developed. We describe the hardware details of the underwater

Carrick Detweiller; Iuliu Vasilescu; Daniela Rus

2007-01-01

269

New generation features for tactical wireless communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobility of forces, increased range between formations and advances in data processing technologies call for new technical solutions for tactical communication networks. Access to fast, secure and reliable communications is more than ever before the key to success. Different services and different applications should be supported. This paper outlines developments in data transport capabilities, functionality and performance of tactical wireless

D. D. Vergados; C. Gizelis; A. D. Liveris; E. Verentziotis; G. I. Stassinopoulos

2000-01-01

270

Mobile Robot Communication Without the Drawbacks of Wireless Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

The default solution for mobile robot communication is RF- networking, typically based on one of the IEEE 802.11 standards also known as WLAN technology. Radio communication frees the robots from umbilical cords. But it suers from several significant drawbacks, espe- cially limited bandwidth and range. The limitations of both aspects are in addition hard to predict as they are strongly

Andreas Birk; Cosmin Condea

2005-01-01

271

Smart communication networks standards for smart energy management  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper reports on a study focused on smart energy management using advanced metering infrastructure (AMI). The paper digs into AMI communication standards understood and proposed by power utilities and regulators. Furthermore, the paper discusses a study of different AMI communication networks architectures designed by various proprietors and compares these system architectures with requirements stated by utilities and regulators. It

Monontsi Nthontho; S. P. Chowdhury; Simon Winberg

2011-01-01

272

User Character and Communication Pattern Detecting on Social Network Site  

Microsoft Academic Search

As a newly emergent interpersonal communication media, social network site has been attracting researchers' attention world wide. Aiming at disclosing user characters and interpersonal communication pattern, an empirical study based on xiaonei.com is conducted. User's profile data of a typical university has been crawled based on which four types of interaction are identified. Then, these types are used as each

Lailei Huang; Zhengyou Xia

2009-01-01

273

The outlook of DCS 1800 for personal communications networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The future of the wireless communications industry is perhaps one of the most interesting areas in the 1990s. The market for wireless telephony is expected to increase dramatically during the 90s. It will be a real challenge to infrastructure manufacturers and network operators to meet the massive market growth and provide quality service. Personal communications is a new kind of

Johnny N. Ku

1992-01-01

274

Overview of channel models for underwater wireless communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Acoustic communication in Underwater Wireless Communication Networks (UWCNs) has several challenges due to the presence of fading, multipath and refractive properties of the sound channel which necessitate the development of precise underwater channel models. Some existing channel models are simplified and do not consider multipath or multipath fading. In this paper, a detailed survey on ray-theory-based multipath Rayleigh underwater channel

Mari Carmen Domingo

2008-01-01

275

Information and Communications Technologies (ICT) Center  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The National Center for Information and Communications Technologies, an Advanced Technology Education (ATE) resource center, aims to "contribute to scientific and technological innovation in telecommunications education" as well as to "provide appropriately skilled technicians and technologists" to information and communication technologies (ICT) businesses, industry, and users. In the "Publications" section of this site, visitors will find links to ICT textbooks and a helpful glossary of telecommunications terms. In the "Resources" section, there are a number of ICT workforce development presentations and Flash simulations on topics such as shift keying and Ethernet switching. Also in this section, there is a web tutorial on designing accessible web pages. This site has a great deal of information to assist students and technologists in telecommunications fields, as well as ready-to-use instructional materials for educators.

2007-08-20

276

Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) - Other Resources  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

The Earth System Science Informal Education Network (ESSIEN) is dedicated to improving Earth system literacy through increased communication and collaboration among providers of informal Earth system education. The collection is designed for museum professionals (educators, exhibits designers, developers) as a resource of ideas, tools, traveling exhibits and online materials. The resources are web portals to organizations providing substantial informal Earth system science education. They describe educational programming, resources and exhibits that are pertinent to an informal educator.

277

Synchronization and a secure communication scheme using optical star network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

This work aims to show the effect of synchronization phenomena in multi-nodal star optical network topology as well as to develop an efficient symmetric cryptosystem utilizing available parameters. The optical network is based on chaotic semiconductor laser (SL) systems described by dimensionless modified Lang-Kobayashi's (L-K) delay differential equations. The network nodes are mutually connected with a central semiconductor laser hub with bidirectional linear optical feedback. It has been observed that the laser output can be modulated using a star network setup. The laser intensity increases with the number of nodes and its much more higher than the same for solitary laser, keeping all other inputs as constant. So the network topology is an effective way to optimize the output power. The process by each nodes into the network is illustrated graphically for three, five and seven SLs, respectively. Also the whole network can be implemented as an optical communication system for transmission of signals. Each SL can act as a transceiver during communication. The communication process is examined using a chaotic signal as a plaintext connected with the SL hub and successfully provided a symmetrically secure mechanism upon the communication protocol. The result shows the optimization of output power with the increment of the number of nodes. Also the communication scheme can successfully decode the encrypted signal from SL Hub, at each other nodes.

Jeeva Sathya Theesar, S.; Ariffin, M. R. K.; Banerjee, Santo

2013-12-01

278

Network analysis of team communication in a busy emergency department  

PubMed Central

Background The Emergency Department (ED) is consistently described as a high-risk environment for patients and clinicians that demands colleagues quickly work together as a cohesive group. Communication between nurses, physicians, and other ED clinicians is complex and difficult to track. A clear understanding of communications in the ED is lacking, which has a potentially negative impact on the design and effectiveness of interventions to improve communications. We sought to use Social Network Analysis (SNA) to characterize communication between clinicians in the ED. Methods Over three-months, we surveyed to solicit the communication relationships between clinicians at one urban academic ED across all shifts. We abstracted survey responses into matrices, calculated three standard SNA measures (network density, network centralization, and in-degree centrality), and presented findings stratified by night/day shift and over time. Results We received surveys from 82% of eligible participants and identified wide variation in the magnitude of communication cohesion (density) and concentration of communication between clinicians (centralization) by day/night shift and over time. We also identified variation in in-degree centrality (a measure of power/influence) by day/night shift and over time. Conclusions We show that SNA measurement techniques provide a comprehensive view of ED communication patterns. Our use of SNA revealed that frequency of communication as a measure of interdependencies between ED clinicians varies by day/night shift and over time.

2013-01-01

279

Finding Quasi-Optimal Network Topologies for Information Transmission in Active Networks  

PubMed Central

This work clarifies the relation between network circuit (topology) and behaviour (information transmission and synchronization) in active networks, e.g. neural networks. As an application, we show how one can find network topologies that are able to transmit a large amount of information, possess a large number of communication channels, and are robust under large variations of the network coupling configuration. This theoretical approach is general and does not depend on the particular dynamic of the elements forming the network, since the network topology can be determined by finding a Laplacian matrix (the matrix that describes the connections and the coupling strengths among the elements) whose eigenvalues satisfy some special conditions. To illustrate our ideas and theoretical approaches, we use neural networks of electrically connected chaotic Hindmarsh-Rose neurons.

Baptista, Murilo S.; de Carvalho, Josue X.; Hussein, Mahir S.

2008-01-01

280

Collaborative Networked Communication: MUDs as Systems Tools  

Microsoft Academic Search

A systems administration group is only as effective as its internal communication mechanisms. On-line communication has traditionally been managed via electronic mail or news, which are neither real-time nor truly collaborative. Communication tools which let multiple parties work together in real-time have become widespread on the Internet in the last several years. In an effort to keep a physically disjoint

Rémy Evard

1993-01-01

281

Effects of urban information and communication technology on sustainable development  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper examines the urban information and communication technology and its impacts on sustainable development. The findings are based on the views represented in literature and the relationship between information and communication technology and sustainability in urban development. Therefore, information and communication technology as the main component of the information society should be taken into consideration in sustainable development. In

M. Navabakhsh; M. Motlaq

2009-01-01

282

Highly survivable communications: Complementary media packet switched networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The requirement for highly survivable communications (HSC) for essential command functions in military operations does not need any justification. The ability to communicate under extreme jamming levels and adverse propagation conditions, including high altitude nuclear events, is a very important requirement. There are also many natural disaster related requirements that also need such highly survivable communications. The prevalent and in a sense classical, approach to provide highly assured connectivity can be summarized as follows: Take a particular propagation medium and try to obtain the ultimate performance from it. There are many examples of this philosophy some successful, most not. Our approach, on the other hand, is to use complementary multi-media or mixed-media where communication links utilizing essentially commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) equipment are integrated using packet radio (PR) techniques. There is also, in our view, an even more fundamental, recently discovered consideration why the expectation of continuous incremental refinement of a system using a given single media may be be achievable. This is derived from the theory of 'deterministic uncertainty' or more popularly known as 'theory of CHAOS', systems whose state space behavior has fractal characteristics. We will elaborate on this novel argument. Complementary multi-media approach has been the focus for all HSC communications activities at STC since 1982. The original STC studies and prototypes were in response to requirements of broadcasting (i.e., one-way transmission) information. A high frequency (HF)/meteorburst (MB) system was developed/prototyped/tested demonstrating the cost effectiveness of the approach. These results are reviewed. More recently, in 1992 STC has completed the development/test of an Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) HF packet radio protocol as no such open or non-proprietary protocol exists. This protocol has been fully tested, documented and made available to all NATO nations/industries. These extensive results show that significant improvements in throughput of up to many times are obtained. A similar development for an OSI MB protocol has also been completed and combined with the HF protocol to obtain an OSI HF/MB link layer protocol with unique properties for HSC networks. Description of these protocols and the relevant results are presented. networks using standard COTS transceivers/modems with OSI PRO protocols can provide highly survivable connectivity, by providing the most important ingredient of survivability, media diversity.

Yavuz, D.; Eken, F.; Karavassilis, N.

1994-07-01

283

Description of a method to support public health information management: organizational network analysis  

PubMed Central

In this case study we describe a method that has potential to provide systematic support for public health information management. Public health agencies depend on specialized information that travels throughout an organization via communication networks among employees. Interactions that occur within these networks are poorly understood and are generally unmanaged. We applied organizational network analysis, a method for studying communication networks, to assess the method’s utility to support decision making for public health managers, and to determine what links existed between information use and agency processes. Data on communication links among a health department’s staff was obtained via survey with a 93% response rate, and analyzed using Organizational Risk Analyzer (ORA) software. The findings described the structure of information flow in the department’s communication networks. The analysis succeeded in providing insights into organizational processes which informed public health managers’ strategies to address problems and to take advantage of network strengths.

Merrill, Jacqueline; Bakken, Suzanne; Rockoff, Maxine; Gebbie, Kristine; Carley, Kathleen

2007-01-01

284

Tracking State Deployments of Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks. 1998 National Report. Version 1.0.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Commercial Vehicle Information Systems and Networks (CVISN) is the collection of information systems and communication networks that support commercial vehicle operations (CVO.) The National ITS Architecture provides a technical framework that describes h...

2000-01-01

285

Communications: Hamiltonian regulated cell signaling network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Cell signaling is fundamental to cell survival and disease progression. Traditional approaches to study these networks have focused largely on probabilistic approaches, with a large number of ad hoc assumptions. In this paper, we develop a linear Hamiltonian model to study the integrin signaling network. The integrin signaling network is central to cell adhesion, migration, and differentiation, but has not been studied in the same detail as other cell cycle networks. In this study, the integrin signaling network with 16 nodes in thermal fluctuations is analyzed through ensemble averages on the linear Hamiltonian model. This new and analytically rigorous approach offers a quick method to find out the dominant nodes in the complex network, which operate in the thermal noise regime. The robust on/off transitions due to the different initial inputs also reflect the inherent structure in the network, providing new insights into structure and function of the network.

Wang, Ge; Zaman, Muhammad H.

2010-03-01

286

An information management and communications system for emergency operations  

SciTech Connect

In the mid 1980s the US Department of Energy (DOE) recognized the need to dramatically expand its Emergency Operations Centers to deal with the large variety of emergencies for which DOE has an obligation to manage, or provide technical support. This paper describes information management, display, and communications systems that have been implemented at the DOE Headquarters Forestall Operations Center (OC), DOE Operations Offices, and critical laboratory locations. Major elements of the system at the DOE Headquarters facility include computer control, information storage and retrieval, processing, Local Area Networks (LANs), videoconferencing, video display, and audio systems. These Headquarters systems are linked by Wide Area Networks (WANs) to similar systems at the Operations Office and critical Laboratory locations.

Gladden, C.A.; Doyle, J.F.

1995-09-01

287

Interference and Communications among Active Network Applications  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on active networks applications and in particular on the possible interactions among these applications.\\u000a Active networking is a very promising research field which has been developed recently, and which poses several interesting\\u000a challenges to network designers. A number of proposals for efficient active network architectures are already to be found\\u000a in the literature. However, how two or

Luca Delgrossi; Giuseppe Di Fatta; Domenico Ferrari; Giuseppe Lo Re

1999-01-01

288

Multihop Sensor Network Design for Wide-Band Communications.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This paper presents a master/slave cellular-based mobile ad hoc network architecture for multihop multimedia communications. The proposed network is based on a new paradigm for solving the problem of cluster-based ad hoc routing when utilizing existing wi...

H. Gharavi K. Ban

2003-01-01

289

Military secure communications over public cellular network infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

The availability of a tactical communication channel that could be everywhere accessible possibly via wireless devices and provide an adequate bandwidth is a constant matter for both military and law enforcement agencies. In particular, the public cellular network infrastructure can provide with such features. However, while conducting military operations, resorting to such a network is not a viable solution, usually,for

Roberto Di Pietro; Gianluigi Me

2002-01-01

290

Reliability Analysis of a Communication Network with Multimode Components  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a model to calculate the reliability of communication networks with multimode components. Previous research on network reliability has focused on models in which each component may be in one of two modes, namely, operative or failed. In reality, a component may undergo degradations in performance before a complete outage, and will therefore operate in more than two

SHEN-NENG CHIOU; V. Li

1986-01-01

291

Cellular neural network approach to a class of communication problems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we discuss the design of a cellular neural network (CNN) to solve a class of optimization problems of importance for communication networks. The CNN optimization capabilities are exploited to implement an efficient cell scheduling algorithm in a fast packet switching fabric. The neural-based switching fabric maximizes the cell throughput and, at the same time, it is able

Romano Fantacci; Mauro Forti; Mauro Marini; Luca Pancani

1999-01-01

292

Communicating on the Move: Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Mobile Ad-Hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless networks that continually re-organize themselves in response to their environment without the benefit of a pre-existing infrastructure. A MANET consists of a set of mobile participants who must communicate, col...

D. Nathans R. F. Dillingham

2007-01-01

293

A simulation study of adaptive voice communications on IP networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents simulation results outlining the behavior of rate-adaptive voice communications over IP netwol cs. In the consideredarchitecture, voice coders adapt their rate to the current state of the network so as to generate only the bandwidth that tl: network is capableof canTing. An algorithm is proposed for driving the transmission rate of voice sources on the basis of

A. Barberis; Claudio Casetti; J. C. De Martin; Michela Meo

2001-01-01

294

Communications performance of an undersea acoustic large-area network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The U.S. Navy is developing Seaweb acoustic networking capability for integrating undersea systems. Seaweb architectures generally involve a wide-area network of fixed nodes consistent with future distributed autonomous sensors on the seafloor. Mobile nodes including autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs) and submarines operate in the context of the grid by using the fixed nodes as both navigation reference points and communication

Hannah A. Kriewaldt; Joseph A. Rice

2005-01-01

295

Fault Detection of Computer Communication Networks Using an Expert System  

Microsoft Academic Search

The main objective of this study was to build an expert system for assisting the network administrator in his work of management and administration of the computer communication network. Theory of operation of the proposed expert system depends on using a time series model capable of forecasting the various performance parameters as: delay, utilization and collision frequency. When the expert

Ibrahiem M. M. El Emary

296

Mobile IP LAN for ARL Mobile Communications/Networking Testbed.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This report describes the protocol and implementation of a Mobile IP (Internet protocol) LAN (local area network) for the LAN of the U.S. Army Research Laboratory (ARL) Mobile Communications/Networking Testbed. Mobile IP LAN protocol is developed to allow...

B. B. Luu

2001-01-01

297

Mobility-based communication in wireless sensor networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless sensor networks are proposed to deliver in situ observations at low cost over long periods of time. Among numerous challenges faced while designing WSNs and protocols, maintaining connectivity and maximizing the network lifetime stand out as critical considerations. Mobile platforms equipped with communication devices can be leveraged to overcome these two problems. In this article existing proposals that use

Eylem Ekici; Yaoyao Gu; Doruk Bozdag

2006-01-01

298

Information and communication technology in cardiovascular disease prevention in developing countries: hype and hope  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information can be an important tool in promoting a prevention strategy to address the emerging epidemic of cardiovascular disease in developing countries. Advances in information and communication technology offer new promises for global access to information and for global mobilization to prevent and control cardiovascular disease. This is especially true for health professionals, whose needs in areas such as networking,

Samer Jabbour; Sania Nishtar; D. Prabhakaran; Arun Chockalingam; Aloyzio Achutti; Abha Agrawal; Max A. Luna; Florencio Garofalo; Andreas Wielgosz

2003-01-01

299

Privacy-triggered communications in pervasive social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pervasive social networks extend traditional social networking by enabling users to share information in a peer- to-peer fashion using their wireless mobile devices. Contrary to traditional online social networks, privacy protection in such networks depends heavily on users' context (time, location, activity, etc.) and their sensitivity to the shared data and context. Existing privacy-preserving mechanisms do not adapt well to

Murtuza Jadliwala; Julien Freudiger; Imad Aad; Jean-Pierre Hubaux; Valtteri Niemi

2011-01-01

300

Communication Bottlenecks in Scale-Free Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

We consider the effects of network topology on the optimality of packet routing quantified by c, the rate of packet insertion beyond which congestion and queue growth occurs. The key result of this paper is to show that for any network, there exists an absolute upper bound, expressed in terms of vertex separators, for the scaling of c with network

Sameet Sreenivasan; Reuven Cohen; Eduardo López; Zoltán Toroczkai; H. Eugene Stanley

2006-01-01

301

Methods and apparatus for planning and managing a communications network  

US Patent & Trademark Office Database

A method for automatically planning and managing the performance of a communications network comprising a propagation forecasting step where propagation forrecast algorithms form a propagation forecast from weather inputs and a traffic forecasting step where traffic forecast algorithms form a traffic forecast from traffic data inputs and a network planning step where planning algorithms display an automated network model. During a forecast updating step, meteorological measurements and radio traffic measurements are continuously provided, resulting in adjusted propagation and traffic forecasts, which are then followed by a network realignment step to adjust the network. During a model comparison step, an artificial intelligence program continuously compares the model, the model adjustments, the realigned network and the network performance parameters with each other. A coefficient adjustment step adjusts the propagation, traffic and planning algorithms. In a reconfiguration instructions step, taking into account the meteorological and radio traffic measurements, the adjusted propagation forecast, the adjusted traffic forecast and network performance parameters, reconfiguration instructions are developed and transmitted to network operators. Also provided is an automated communications network planning apparatus for converting meteorological data and traffic data into a network model, capable of adjustment and updating, shown on a network terminal display.

2000-05-02

302

Weight-Control Information Network  

MedlinePLUS

... Network provides the general public, health professionals, the media, and Congress with up-to-date, science-based information on weight control, obesity, physical activity, and related nutritional issues. What's Your Next Move? Help reduce childhood obesity Visit the infographic to find out more ...

303

Novel technology for enhanced security and trust in communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

A novel technology that significantly enhances security and trust in wireless and wired communication networks has been developed. It is based on integration of a novel encryption mechanism and novel data packet structure with enhanced security tools. This novel data packet structure results in an unprecedented level of security and trust, while at the same time reducing power consumption and computing/communication overhead in networks. As a result, networks are provided with protection against intrusion, exploitation, and cyber attacks and posses self-building, self-awareness, self-configuring, self-healing, and self-protecting intelligence.

Milovanov, Alexander; Bukshpun, Leonid; Pradhan, Ranjit; Jannson, Tomasz

2011-05-01

304

HIBI v.2 Communication Network for System-on-Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents a communication network targeted for complex system-on-chip (SoC) and network-on-chip (NoC) designs. The Heterogeneous IP Block Interconnection (HIBI) aims at maximum effi- ciency and minimum energy per transmitted bit combined with quality-of-service (QoS) in transfers. Other features include support for hierarchical topologies with several clock domains, flexible scalability, and runtime recon- figuration of network parameters. HIBI is

Erno Salminen; Vesa Lahtinen; Tero Kangas; Jouni Riihimäki; Kimmo Kuusilinna; Timo D. Hämäläinen

2004-01-01

305

Computer Communication Network Upgrade for Optimal Capacity Related Reliability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Capacity-related reliability (CRR) computes the probability that a computer communication network (CCN) has at least a bandwidth Wmin between a pair of nodes. The quality of service (QoS) metric extends the terminal-reliability and the network-flow measures to capture the effects of any required message bandwidth, channel capacity, and network connectivity in a CCN, where links (connection services) are subject to

Kok Yong Lim; Sieteng Soh; Suresh Rai

2005-01-01

306

CCN proteins: A centralized communication network.  

PubMed

The CCN family of proteins includes six members presently known as CCN1, CCN2, CCN3, CCN4, CCN5 and CCN6. These proteins were originally designated CYR61, CTGF, NOV, and WISP-1, WISP-2, WISP-3. Although these proteins share a significant amount of structural features and a partial identity with other large families of regulatory proteins, they exhibit different biological functions. A critical examination of the progress made over the past two decades, since the first CCN proteins were discovered brings me to the conclusion that most of our present knowledge regarding the functions of these proteins was predicted very early after their discovery. In an effort to point out some of the gaps that prevent us to reach a comprehensive view of the functional interactions between CCN proteins, it is necessary to reconsider carefully data that was already published and put aside, either because the scientific community was not ready to accept them, or because they were not fitting with the « consensus » when they were published. This review article points to avenues that were not attracting the attention that they deserved. However, it is quite obvious that the six members of this unique family of tetra-modular proteins must act in concert, either simultaneously or sequentially, on the same sites or at different times in the life of living organisms. A better understanding of the spatio-temporal regulation of CCN proteins expression requires considering the family as such, not as a set of single proteins related only by their name. As proposed in this review, there is enough convincing pieces of evidence, at the present time, in favor of these proteins playing a role in the coordination of multiple signaling pathways, and constituting a Centralized Communication Network. Deciphering the hierarchy of regulatory circuits involved in this complex system is an important challenge for the near future. In this article, I would like to briefly review the concept of a CCN family of proteins and critically examine the progress made over the past 10 years in the understanding of their biological functions and involvement in both normal and pathological processes. PMID:23420091

Perbal, Bernard

2013-02-19

307

Information and Communication Technology in Higher Education  

Microsoft Academic Search

Various approaches can be identified to the development of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in Higher Education.\\u000a These approaches are related to the situation in a particular institution with respect to the growth of ICT. These approaches\\u000a are: Emerging, applying, integrating and transforming. A Higher Education institution may induce progress in various areas where the ICT-approach will have an impact.

Yvonne Buettner; Charles Duchâteau; Catherine P. Fulford; Pieter Hogenbirk; Mike Kendall; Raymond Morel; Tom J. Van Weert

2003-01-01

308

A correctness proof of a topology information maintenance protocol for a distributed computer network  

Microsoft Academic Search

In order for the nodes of a distributed computer network to communicate, each node must have information about the network's topology. Since nodes and links sometimes crash, a scheme is needed to update this information. One of the major constraints on such a topology information scheme is that it may not involve a central controller. The Topology Information Protocol that

William D. Tajibnapis; D. Siewiorek

1977-01-01

309

Communications Networks: Outcome-Based Measures Would Assist DHS in Assessing Effectiveness of Cybersecurity Efforts.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Ensuring the effectiveness and reliability of communications networks is essential to national security, the economy, and public health and safety. The communications networks (including core and access networks) can be threatened by both natural and huma...

2013-01-01

310

Communication Networks in Marine Recreational Fishing: Information-Seeking Behavior, Fishing Knowledge, and Diffusion of Fishing Innovations Among Marine Recreational Fisherman in North Carolina.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The project is an assessment and evaluation of the marine recreational fishing (MRF) information dissemination system in North Carolina. First, a content analysis and panel evaluation of MRF brochures was conducted to identify the primary informational co...

R. R. Perdue C. J. Betz

1991-01-01

311

Philippines Government Communications Network Proposal Review.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The objective of the proposed study is to translate a specific government communications requirement, a social and economic need and an educational need into a telecommunications system that will fulfill those requirements. Philippines telecommunications ...

J. Williamson

1991-01-01

312

Exploring the Potential of Social Network Sites in Relation to Intercultural Communication  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This article reports on the results of a project which used a social network site to support students on a year abroad and foster informal learning, particularly in the area of intercultural communication. The project employed a peer-mentoring structure to solve the problem of role conflict, in which users of these sites may feel some tension as…

Lang, Anouk

2012-01-01

313

Preserving and using context information in interprocess communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

When processes in a network communicate, the messages they exchange define a partial ordering of externally visible events. While the significance of this partial order in distributed computing is well understood, it has not been made an explicit part of the communication substrate upon which distributed programs are implemented. This paper describes a new interprocess communication mechanism, called Psync, that

Larry L. Peterson; Nick C. Buchholz; Richard D. Schlichting

1989-01-01

314

Social Networks: Rational Learning and Information Aggregation.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

This thesis studies the learning problem of a set of agents connected via a general social network. We address the question of how dispersed information spreads in social networks and whether the information is efficiently aggregated in large societies. T...

I. Lobel

2009-01-01

315

[Impact of the Internet on communication flow of scientific health information].  

PubMed

Communication flow of scientific information has been restructured with the development of new technologies and the Internet and their impact on social relations worldwide. The production of scientific knowledge has also been influenced by these cultural, social and economic changes and has contributed to new patterns of scientific communication. The objective of the study was to present the traditional scientific communication model and its evolution to electronic scientific communication stimulated by the use of electronic media and Internet and networking. While the traditional model is based on printed publications, the new one focuses on electronic publishing and open unlimited access to published literature. The challenges faced are in using all the potential of electronic media for improving traditional communication flow of scientific information and defining policies to support the new model of scientific communication to ensure quality, preservation and dissemination of information as a common good. PMID:16924304

Castro, Regina C Figueiredo

2006-08-01

316

Networked information resources: electronic opportunities for users and librarians  

Microsoft Academic Search

Many of the activities people perform with the Internet are new, and possibly could not have been conceived before the network became available. Describes innovative uses of the Internet by staff of two Australian universities. While the Internet provides opportunities for communication among its users, it poses challenges to the computing and information systems professionals who support them. It also

Jane E. Klobas

1996-01-01

317

Information exchange and the robustness of organizational networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The dynamics of information exchange is an important but understudied aspect of collective communication, coordination, and problem solving in a wide range of distributed systems, both physical (e.g., the Internet) and social (e.g., business rms). In this paper, we introduce a model of organizational networks according to which links are added incrementally to a hierarchical back- bone and we test

Peter Sheridan Dodds; Duncan J. Watts; Charles F. Sabel

2003-01-01

318

To Talk or Not to Talk: Exploring Culturally Diverse Patients' Health Information Communication Choices  

PubMed Central

As care shifts from institutional to home- and community-based settings, consumer health information technology (IT) must be designed to support patients’ new health information management responsibilities. We developed and piloted a new methodology grounded in social network analysis and human factors engineering to explore two often overlooked aspects of this phenomenon: the task of health information communication with members of the social network and the context of culture. Such knowledge is necessary to inform the appropriate design of consumer health IT. We asked a culturally diverse sample of participants to describe what, to whom, why, and how they communicate health information and to provide direct feedback about the methodology. The methodology was acceptable to all participants and able to capture similarities and differences in their health information communication practices. Prior to the main study we will need to refine the methodology to further explore patients’ cultural context and IT use.

Valdez, Rupa; Patton, Tim; Brennan, Patricia

2010-01-01

319

To talk or not to talk: exploring culturally diverse patients' health information communication choices.  

PubMed

As care shifts from institutional to home- and community-based settings, consumer health information technology (IT) must be designed to support patients' new health information management responsibilities. We developed and piloted a new methodology grounded in social network analysis and human factors engineering to explore two often overlooked aspects of this phenomenon: the task of health information communication with members of the social network and the context of culture. Such knowledge is necessary to inform the appropriate design of consumer health IT. We asked a culturally diverse sample of participants to describe what, to whom, why, and how they communicate health information and to provide direct feedback about the methodology. The methodology was acceptable to all participants and able to capture similarities and differences in their health information communication practices. Prior to the main study we will need to refine the methodology to further explore patients' cultural context and IT use. PMID:21347091

Valdez, Rupa; Patton, Tim; Brennan, Patricia

2010-11-13

320

Effective Dissemination of Presence Information in Highly Partitioned Mobile Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Presence technology enables users of an instant messaging (IM) system to determine if their contacts are online and ready to communicate. In this paper, we propose an effective approach for the proactive dissemination of frequently changing presence information in highly partitioned mobile, wireless networks with IEEE 802.11 technology. Although communication techniques for intermittently connected networks have been extensively studied in

Christoph Lindemann; Oliver P. Waldhorst

2006-01-01

321

Investigating accident causation through information network modelling.  

PubMed

Management of risk in complex domains such as aviation relies heavily on post-event investigations, requiring complex approaches to fully understand the integration of multi-causal, multi-agent and multi-linear accident sequences. The Event Analysis of Systemic Teamwork methodology (EAST; Stanton et al. 2008) offers such an approach based on network models. In this paper, we apply EAST to a well-known aviation accident case study, highlighting communication between agents as a central theme and investigating the potential for finding agents who were key to the accident. Ultimately, this work aims to develop a new model based on distributed situation awareness (DSA) to demonstrate that the risk inherent in a complex system is dependent on the information flowing within it. By identifying key agents and information elements, we can propose proactive design strategies to optimize the flow of information and help work towards avoiding aviation accidents. Statement of Relevance: This paper introduces a novel application of an holistic methodology for understanding aviation accidents. Furthermore, it introduces an ongoing project developing a nonlinear and prospective method that centralises distributed situation awareness and communication as themes. The relevance of findings are discussed in the context of current ergonomic and aviation issues of design, training and human-system interaction. PMID:20099174

Griffin, T G C; Young, M S; Stanton, N A

2010-02-01

322

Health care network communications infrastructure: an engineering design for the Military Health Service System.  

PubMed

The Military Health Service System (MHSS) provides health care for the Department of Defense (DOD). This system operates on an annual budget of $15 Billion, supports 127 medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and 500 clinics, and provides support to 8.7 million beneficiaries worldwide. To support these facilities and their patients, the MHSS uses more than 125 different networked automated medical systems. These systems rely on a heterogeneous telecommunications infrastructure for data communications. With the support of the Defense Medical Information Management (DMIM) Program Office, our goal was to identify the network requirements for DMIM migration and target systems and design a communications infrastructure to support all systems with an integrated network. This work used tools from Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and applied it to communications infrastructure design for the first time. The methodology and results are applicable to any health care enterprise, military or civilian. PMID:8563346

Hoffman, P; Kline, E; George, L; Price, K; Clark, M; Walasin, R

1995-01-01

323

Health care network communications infrastructure: an engineering design for the Military Health Service System.  

PubMed Central

The Military Health Service System (MHSS) provides health care for the Department of Defense (DOD). This system operates on an annual budget of $15 Billion, supports 127 medical treatment facilities (MTFs) and 500 clinics, and provides support to 8.7 million beneficiaries worldwide. To support these facilities and their patients, the MHSS uses more than 125 different networked automated medical systems. These systems rely on a heterogeneous telecommunications infrastructure for data communications. With the support of the Defense Medical Information Management (DMIM) Program Office, our goal was to identify the network requirements for DMIM migration and target systems and design a communications infrastructure to support all systems with an integrated network. This work used tools from Business Process Reengineering (BPR) and applied it to communications infrastructure design for the first time. The methodology and results are applicable to any health care enterprise, military or civilian.

Hoffman, P.; Kline, E.; George, L.; Price, K.; Clark, M.; Walasin, R.

1995-01-01

324

Information exchange and the robustness of organizational networks  

PubMed Central

The dynamics of information exchange is an important but understudied aspect of collective communication, coordination, and problem solving in a wide range of distributed systems, both physical (e.g., the Internet) and social (e.g., business firms). In this paper, we introduce a model of organizational networks according to which links are added incrementally to a hierarchical backbone and test the resulting networks under variable conditions of information exchange. Our main result is the identification of a class of multiscale networks that reduce, over a wide range of environments, the likelihood that individual nodes will suffer congestion-related failure and that the network as a whole will disintegrate when failures do occur. We call this dual robustness property of multiscale networks “ultrarobustness.” Furthermore, we find that multiscale networks attain most of their robustness with surprisingly few link additions, suggesting that ultrarobust organizational networks can be generated in an efficient and scalable manner. Our results are directly relevant to the relief of congestion in communication networks and also more broadly to activities, like distributed problem solving, that require individuals to exchange information in an unpredictable manner.

Dodds, Peter Sheridan; Watts, Duncan J.; Sabel, Charles F.

2003-01-01

325

Information aggregation and communication in committees  

PubMed Central

In this paper, we attempt to explain the underlying strategic incentives confronting individuals when they must make a collective decision over a set of alternatives and each has information that is decision-relevant for others. A significant literature has emerged in formal political theory over the past several years that focuses on such problems, paying particular attention, first, to the extent to which voting can be expected to aggregate committee members' information and, second, to the role of communication among committee members prior to voting. Inter alia, this literature reveals a surprisingly subtle interaction between the voting rules used to make decisions and the incentives for committee members to share information prior to voting.

Austen-Smith, David; Feddersen, Timothy J.

2008-01-01

326

The fundamentals of timing and synchronization for digital communication networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The telecommunications industry is evolving toward integrated end-to-end digital communications networks. To keep pace with this evolution the telecommunications professional must have a current understanding of digital communications technology. Fundamental to this understanding is the knowledge of timing and synchronization (T and S) for digital communications networks. This assemblage of studies is presented as a reference. It reviews the fundamentals of carrier, bit, and character synchronization. The concept of time as the basic unit for T and S is developed. Time scales, clocks, and frequency sources used in timing systems are discussed. Time and frequency distribution services are described, including LORAN-C and NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (GPS). An explanation of time division multiplexing (TDM) and line codes is given. Network synchronization techniques are examined and classified.

Lorentsen, Robert N.; Maloney, Richard T.

1986-07-01

327

Collaboration and Information Sharing in NEC Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Within a network enabled environment, collaboration between humans is key for making decisions. Increasingly, decision makers have to rely on information provided by other actors within a highly dynamic and distributed battle-space. Social networks facilitate this information exchange between actors. At the same time, networks failing to provide necessary information in combination with a high level of trust can hinder

Rene Keller; Neil Carrigan; Simon R Atkinson; P John Clarkson; Peter Johnson

328

Streamlining communication in teaching and training in the information economy  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper addresses some key communication challenges in the information economy and offers simple solutions and their application to engineering education and training. A brief review of communication media and expressions is followed by essentials of their applications followed by a description of todaypsilas communication challenges. Clearly, contemporary communication is confusing, often misleading, and generally messy. The authorpsilas solutions include

Jan Jekielek

2008-01-01

329

Analyzing the Dynamics of Communication in Online Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a This chapter deals with the analysis of interpersonal communication dynamics in online social networks and social media. Communication\\u000a is central to the evolution of social systems. Today, the different online social sites feature variegated interactional affordances,\\u000a ranging from blogging, micro-blogging, sharing media elements (i.e., image, video) as well as a rich set of social actions\\u000a such as tagging, voting, commenting

Munmun De Choudhury; Hari Sundaram; Ajita John; Doree Duncan Seligmann

2010-01-01

330

By-product information can stabilize the reliability of communication.  

PubMed

Although communication underpins many biological processes, its function and basic definition remain contentious. In particular, researchers have debated whether information should be an integral part of a definition of communication and how it remains reliable. So far the handicap principle, assuming signal costs to stabilize reliable communication, has been the predominant paradigm in the study of animal communication. The role of by-product information produced by mechanisms other than the communicative interaction has been neglected in the debate on signal reliability. We argue that by-product information is common and that it provides the starting point for ritualization as the process of the evolution of communication. Second, by-product information remains unchanged during ritualization and enforces reliable communication by restricting the options for manipulation and cheating. Third, this perspective changes the focus of research on communication from studying signal costs to studying the costs of cheating. It can thus explain the reliability of signalling in many communication systems that do not rely on handicaps. We emphasize that communication can often be informative but that the evolution of communication does not cause the evolution of information because by-product information often predates and stimulates the evolution of communication. Communication is thus a consequence but not a cause of reliability. Communication is the interplay of inadvertent, informative traits and evolved traits that increase the stimulation and perception of perceivers. Viewing communication as a complex of inadvertent and derived traits facilitates understanding of the selective pressures shaping communication and those shaping information and its reliability. This viewpoint further contributes to resolving the current controversy on the role of information in communication. PMID:23116421

Schaefer, H Martin; Ruxton, G D

2012-11-01

331

Free-space optical communication satellite networks-vibration effects and possible solutions  

Microsoft Academic Search

A number of serious consortiums develop satellite communication networks. The objective of these communication projects is to service personal communication users almost everywhere on earth. The inter satellite links in those project use microwave radiation as the carrier. Free space optical communication between satellites networked together can make possible high speed communications between different places on earth. The advantages of

Shlomi Arnon; Norman S. Kopeika

1997-01-01

332

A survey of ring-building network protocols suitable for command and control group communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Multicasting is the enabling technology for group communication. However, network-layer multicasting (e.g., IP multicast) has not been widely adopted more than 10 years of its invention due to the concerns related to deployment, scalability and network management. Application-layer multicast (ALM) has been proposed as an alternative for IP multicast. In ALM, group communications take place on an overlay network in which each edge corresponds to a direct unicast path between two group members. ALM protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Ring-based ALM protocols have the advantages of providing a constant node degree, and enabling the implementation of reliable and totally-ordered message delivery through the use of a ring with a token that contains ordering and flow control information. In addition, a ring overlay network topology is inherently reliable to single node failures. In this paper, we provide a survey and a taxonomy of several ring-building group communication protocols. Investigating the major characteristics of ring-building network protocols is an important step towards understanding which of them are suitable for command and control group communications.

Sobeih, Ahmed; Yurcik, William

2005-05-01

333

Secure Communication among Cell Phones and Sensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Numerous applications, ranging from disaster management to smart buildings, have been proposed for sensor networks. The practicality of these applications depends on the ability of users to interact with these networks, in many cases in real time. In this paper we propose that cell phones interact with sensor networks and obtain the relevant information in real time. Cell phones can

Arjan Durresi; Vamsi Paruchuri

2009-01-01

334

Network Communication as a Service-Oriented Capability  

SciTech Connect

In widely distributed systems generally, and in science-oriented Grids in particular, software, CPU time, storage, etc., are treated as"services" -- they can be allocated and used with service guarantees that allows them to be integrated into systems that perform complex tasks. Network communication is currently not a service -- it is provided, in general, as a"best effort" capability with no guarantees and only statistical predictability. In order for Grids (and most types of systems with widely distributed components) to be successful in performing the sustained, complex tasks of large-scale science -- e.g., the multi-disciplinary simulation of next generation climate modeling and management and analysis of the petabytes of data that will come from the next generation of scientific instrument (which is very soon for the LHC at CERN) -- networks must provide communication capability that is service-oriented: That is it must be configurable, schedulable, predictable, and reliable. In order to accomplish this, the research and education network community is undertaking a strategy that involves changes in network architecture to support multiple classes of service; development and deployment of service-oriented communication services, and; monitoring and reporting in a form that is directly useful to the application-oriented system so that it may adapt to communications failures. In this paper we describe ESnet's approach to each of these -- an approach that is part of an international community effort to have intra-distributed system communication be based on a service-oriented capability.

Johnston, William; Johnston, William; Metzger, Joe; Collins, Michael; Burrescia, Joseph; Dart, Eli; Gagliardi, Jim; Guok, Chin; Oberman, Kevin; O'Conner, Mike

2008-01-08

335

The Correlation between Radiated Emissions and Power Line Network Components on Indoor Power Line Communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Residential power lines are one of the most attractive communication media for home networking, since every room in a house has multiple power outlets. In general, in-home power line networks have various network components which are not related to communications. The power line network includes many electrical appliances without communication facilities, switches, and so on. These components will cause electrical

Masahiro Ishihara; Daisuke Umehara; Yoshiteru Morihiro

2006-01-01

336

Deep Space Network information system architecture study  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The purpose of this article is to describe an architecture for the Deep Space Network (DSN) information system in the years 2000-2010 and to provide guidelines for its evolution during the 1990s. The study scope is defined to be from the front-end areas at the antennas to the end users (spacecraft teams, principal investigators, archival storage systems, and non-NASA partners). The architectural vision provides guidance for major DSN implementation efforts during the next decade. A strong motivation for the study is an expected dramatic improvement in information-systems technologies, such as the following: computer processing, automation technology (including knowledge-based systems), networking and data transport, software and hardware engineering, and human-interface technology. The proposed Ground Information System has the following major features: unified architecture from the front-end area to the end user; open-systems standards to achieve interoperability; DSN production of level 0 data; delivery of level 0 data from the Deep Space Communications Complex, if desired; dedicated telemetry processors for each receiver; security against unauthorized access and errors; and highly automated monitor and control.

Beswick, C. A.; Markley, R. W.; Atkinson, D. J.; Cooper, L. P.; Tausworthe, R. C.; Masline, R. C.; Jenkins, J. S.; Crowe, R. A.; Thomas, J. L.; Stoloff, M. J.

1992-05-01

337

A secure communication suite for underwater acoustic sensor networks.  

PubMed

In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead. PMID:23202204

Dini, Gianluca; Lo Duca, Angelica

2012-11-07

338

A Secure Communication Suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks  

PubMed Central

In this paper we describe a security suite for Underwater Acoustic Sensor Networks comprising both fixed and mobile nodes. The security suite is composed of a secure routing protocol and a set of cryptographic primitives aimed at protecting the confidentiality and the integrity of underwater communication while taking into account the unique characteristics and constraints of the acoustic channel. By means of experiments and simulations based on real data, we show that the suite is suitable for an underwater networking environment as it introduces limited, and sometimes negligible, communication and power consumption overhead.

Dini, Gianluca; Duca, Angelica Lo

2012-01-01

339

The Integration of the Information and Communication Functions, and the Marketing of the Resulting Products.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the theoretical basis for integration of information functions and communication functions, the relevance of this integration in the scientific information cycle, and its positive effect on commodity research networks. The application of this theory is described using three commodity programs of the Centro Internacional de Agricultura…

Harris, Susan C.

1985-01-01

340

Rate-distortion optimized multimedia communication in networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Large-scale, widespread distribution of high definition multimedia contents using IP networks is extremely resource intensive. Service providers have to employ an expensive network of servers, routers, link infrastructures and set-top boxes to accommodate the generated traffic. The goal in this paper is to develop network-aware media communication solutions that help service providers to efficiently utilize their deployed network infrastructures for media delivery. In particular, we investigate the following fundamental problem: given a fixed network infrastructure, what is the best strategy to multicast multiple multimedia contents from a set of server nodes to a set of clients, to realize the best reconstruction quality at the client nodes? We use rate-distortion to formalize the notion of media quality and to formulate the corresponding optimization problem. We show that current approaches in which multimedia compression and network delivery mechanisms are designed separately are inherently suboptimal. Thus, better utilization of network resources requires a joint consideration of media compression and network delivery. We develop one such approach based on optimized delivery of balanced Multiple Description Codes (MDC), in which the MDC itself is also optimized with respect to the optimized delivery strategy. Simulation results are reported, verifying that our solution can significantly outperform existing, layered, solutions. As a byproduct, our solutions introduces a fundamentally different use of MDC. Up until now, MDC has been adopted to combat losses, mostly in packet lossy networks. We show that MDC is an efficient tool for network communication, even in error-free networks. In particular MDC, when properly duplicated at routers, can exploit the rich topological structures in networks to maximize the utilization of the network resources, beyond conventional coding techniques.

Sarshar, Nima; Wu, Xiaolin

2008-01-01

341

Non-line-of-sight underwater optical wireless communication network.  

PubMed

The growing need for ocean observation systems has stimulated considerable interest within the research community in advancing the enabling technologies of underwater wireless communication and underwater sensor networks. Sensors and ad hoc sensor networks are the emerging tools for performing extensive data-gathering operations on land, and solutions in the subsea setting are being sought. Efficient communication from the sensors and within the network is critical, but the underwater environment is extremely challenging. Addressing the special features of underwater wireless communication in sensor networks, we propose a novel non-line-of-sight network concept in which the link is implemented by means of back-reflection of the propagating optic signal at the ocean-air interface and derive a mathematical model of the channel. Point-to-multipoint links can be achieved in an energy efficient manner and broadcast broadband communications, such as video transmissions, can be executed. We show achievable bit error rates as a function of sensor node separation and demonstrate the feasibility of this concept using state-of-the-art silicon photomultiplier detectors. PMID:19252651

Arnon, Shlomi; Kedar, Debbie

2009-03-01

342

Redesigning and revitalizing two networking courses in an undergraduate information technology degree program  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technology is a fast changing discipline and is being conceived as a practical discipline. Information technology graduates are expected to possess relevant, practical experience when dealing with many facets of computing systems, especially in the areas of data communication, network design and administration. An information technology program of a mid-sized state university redesigned and revitalized two networking courses. They

Kam Fui Lau

2010-01-01

343

Distributed Nonlinear Power Control in Cellular Mobile Networks With Each User Communicating With Several Base Stations  

Microsoft Academic Search

A simple distributed power control algorithm for communication networks with each user communicating with several base stations is proposed. We prove that the proposed algorithm is globally converging

Andrey V. Savkin

2007-01-01

344

Research Libraries Information Network: The Computerized Bibliographic Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Describes the goals and philosophy of the Research Libraries Group (RLG), and notes the services offered by the Research Libraries Information Network (RLIN), which uses Stanford University's BALLOTS program as the technological base of the bibliographic network. (CWM)|

Kershner, Lois M.

1979-01-01

345

Information-Seeking Behavior in Intercultural and Intergroup Communication.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Reviews the current state of information-seeking research and theory in the field of intercultural communication. Draws distinctions between different types of intercultural communication research. Discusses how information seeking might be relevant across types and different between types of intercultural communication. Recommends directions for…

Baldwin, John R.; Hunt, Stephen K.

2002-01-01

346

A Dependable Communication Network for e-Textiles  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Due to high frequent wear and tear or other faults in use, it is important to implement a fault-tolerant communicating network\\u000a for e-textiles that can be easily woven into a fabric. In this paper, we introduce token buses to connect the nodes, instead\\u000a of the single rings in the original e-textile token grid. The topology of the new network is

Nenggan Zheng; Zhaohui Wu; Lei Chen; Yanmiao Zhou; Qijia Wang

2006-01-01

347

DISTRIBUTED DATA COMMUNICATION NETWORKS FOR REAL-TIME PROCESS CONTROL  

Microsoft Academic Search

The paper deals with the performance analysis of network access protocols for distributed data communication and control systems (DDCCS) in chemical and processing plants. The selection of an appropriate data highway protocol is an important step in the DDCCS network design for large-scale processes because the real-time feedback control loops are subject to time-varying delays resulting from data latencies and

ASOK RAY

1988-01-01

348

Performance of a global circuit-switched satellite communication network  

Microsoft Academic Search

A circuit-switched network consisting of multiple low Earth orbiting satellites and three geostationary satellites is considered. Crosslinks among low-orbit satellites are used as the major communication channels, while calls are routed via geostationary satellites only when low-orbit routes exceed or equal to a hop-count threshold. Simulation results are used to illustrate the network throughput under various traffic conditions and different

Zsehong Tsai; Chuan-Chen Chuang; Jin-Fu Chang; Chun-Ming Huang

1994-01-01

349

An Anonymous Authentication and Communication Protocol for Wireless Mesh Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Wireless mesh networks (WMNs) have emerged as a key technology for next generation wireless broadband networks showing rapid\\u000a progress and inspiring numerous compelling applications. A WMN comprises of a set of mesh routers (MRs) and mesh clients (MCs),\\u000a where MRs are connected to the Internet backbone through the Internet gateways (IGWs). The MCs are wireless devices and communicate\\u000a among themselves

Jaydip Sen

2011-01-01

350

A demand assignment control in international business satellite communications network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

An experimental system is being developed for use in an international business satellite (IBS) communications network based on demand-assignment (DA) and TDMA techniques. This paper discusses its system design, in particular from the viewpoints of a network configuration, a DA control, and a satellite channel-assignment algorithm. A satellite channel configuration is also presented along with a tradeoff study on transmission rate, HPA output power, satellite resource efficiency, service quality, and so on.

Nohara, Mitsuo; Takeuchi, Yoshio; Takahata, Fumio; Hirata, Yasuo

351

Optimal Multicast Communication in a Wormhole-Routed Torus Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents efficient algorithms that implement one-to-many, or multicast, communication in wormhole-routed torus networks. By exploiting the properties of the switching technology and the use of virtual channels, a minimum-time multicast algorithm is presented for n-dimensional torus networks that use deterministic, dimension-ordered routing of unicast messages. The algorithm can deliver a multicast message to m - 1 destinations in

David F. Robinson; Philip K. Mckinley; Betty H. C. Cheng

1994-01-01

352

Optimal Multicast Communication in Wormhole-Routed Torus Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper presents efficient algorithms that implement one-to-many, or multicast, communication in wormhole-routed torus networks. By exploiting the properties of the switching technology and the use of virtual channels, a minimum-time multicast algorithm is presented for n-dimensional torus networks that use deterministic, dimension-ordered routing of unicast messages. The algorithm can deliver a multicast message to m-1 destinations in [log2 m

David F. Robinson; Philip K. McKinley; Betty H. C. Cheng

1995-01-01

353

Automotive suspension control through a computer communication network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Closed-loop stability and performance-related studies performed on a multiplex communication network called Carlink, being considered for automotive applications, are discussed. Tests done on an automotive suspension control model, in which the active control signal is applied through the multiplex network as a real-time hybrid computer\\/hardware-in-the-loop experiment are outlined. The stability of the system is considered using analytical approaches developed by

U. Ozguner; H. Goktas; H. Chant; J. Winkelman; M. Liubakka; R. Krtolica

1992-01-01

354

Optical networking for quantum key distribution and quantum communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Modern optical networking techniques have the potential to greatly extend the applicability of quantum communications by moving beyond simple point-to-point optical links and by leveraging existing fibre infrastructures. We experimentally demonstrate many of the fundamental capabilities that are required. These include optical-layer multiplexing, switching and routing of quantum signals; quantum key distribution (QKD) in a dynamically reconfigured optical network; and

T. E. Chapuran; P. Toliver; N. A. Peters; J. Jackel; M. S. Goodman; R. J. Runser; S. R. McNown; N. Dallmann; R. J. Hughes; K. P. McCabe; J. E. Nordholt; C. G. Peterson; K. T. Tyagi; L. Mercer; H. Dardy

2009-01-01

355

Future Mobile Communication Networks: Challenges in the Design and Operation  

Microsoft Academic Search

In the past 20 years, mobile communications have evolved to the point where affordable broadband connectivity is widely available and plays a central role in today's information society. As mobile data rates are predicted to double annually in the next decade while the average revenue per user is likely to remain stagnate, the mobile communications industry is required to generate

Patrick Marsch; Bernhard Raaf; Agnieszka Szufarska; Preben Mogensen; Hao Guan; Michael Farber; Simone Redana; Klaus Pedersen; Troels Kolding

2012-01-01

356

Basics of perfect communication through quantum networks  

SciTech Connect

Perfect transfer of a quantum state through a one-dimensional chain is now well understood, allowing one not only to decide whether a fixed Hamiltonian achieves perfect transfer but to design a suitable one. We are particularly interested in being able to design, or understand the limitations imposed upon, Hamiltonians subject to various naturally arising constraints such as a limited coupling topology with low connectivity (specified by a graph) and type of interaction. In this paper, we characterize the necessary and sufficient conditions for transfer through a network and describe some natural consequences such as the impossibility of routing between many different recipients for a large class of Hamiltonians and the limitations on transfer rate. We also consider some of the trade-offs that arise in uniformly coupled networks (both Heisenberg and XX models) between transfer distance and the size of the network as a consequence of the derived conditions.

Kay, Alastair [Centre for Quantum Technologies, National University of Singapore, 3 Science Drive 2, Singapore 117543, and Keble College, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PG (United Kingdom)

2011-08-15

357

TRYPNET. New hemoparasite information network.  

PubMed

Although Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana share borders and climatic and geographic similarities, the countries have maintained little contact, due to language, political, and administrative differences. In 1993, two international organizations involved in the improvement of animal health, the Inter-American Institute for Cooperation on Agriculture (IICA) and CIRAD-EMVT (Centre de Cooperation Internationale en Recherche Agronomique pour le Developpement-Elevage et Medecine Veterinaire des Pays Tropicaux), jointly developed a collaborative project between the veterinary services of the three countries entitled "Hemoparasite Network for the Guianas." This project seeks to pool livestock, laboratory, and technical resources between the three countries in order to generate and exchange information on hemoparasites of livestock. A Hemoparasite Reference Laboratory for the Guianas has been created at the CIRAD-EMVT laboratory in Cayenne, French Guiana. Besides processing ruminant serum samples from the three countries, specialists from this organization conduct training in hemoparasite diagnostic techniques for laboratory personnel from Guyana and Suriname. A large-scale epidemiologic study of hemoparasites of cattle in the three countries is under way, to determine the prevalence, distribution, and clinical and economic significance of hemoparasites in the three countries, particularly Trypanosoma vivax and T. evansi. Preliminary results are presented and discussed. A Hemoparasite Information Network (TRYPNET) has been initiated, including a quarterly hemoparasite newsletter (TRYPNEWS), published in English and Spanish and disseminated to researchers in the Americas, Europe, and Africa. In 1995/96, it is proposed to expand the network's scope to include Venezuela and Brazil. PMID:8784498

Vokaty, S; Desquesnes, M; Applewhaite, L; Favre, J; Lieuw-A-Joe, R; Parris-Aaron, M; Bansse-Iisa, L

1996-07-23

358

Topology-aware overlay networks for group communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

We propose an application level multicast approach, Topology Aware Grouping (TAG), which exploits underlying network topology information to build efficient overlay networks among multicast group members. TAG uses information about path overlap among members to construct a tree that reduces the overlay relative delay penalty, and reduces the number of duplicate copies of a packet on the same link. We

Minseok Kwon; Sonia Fahmy

2002-01-01

359

Communicability and Communities in Complex Socio-Economic Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The concept of communicability is introduced for complex socio-economic networks. The communicability function expresses how an impact propagates from one place to another in the network. This function is used to define unambiguously the concept of socio-economic community. The concept of temperature in complex socio-economic networks is also introduced as a way of accounting for the external stresses to which such systems are submitted. This external stress can change dramatically the structure of the communities in a network. We analyze here a trade network of countries exporting `miscellaneous manufactures of metal.' We determine the community structure of this network showing that there are 27 communities with diverse degree of overlapping. When only communities with less than 80% of overlap are considered we found five communities which are well characterized in terms of geopolitical relationships. The analysis of external stress on these communities reveals the vulnerability of the trade network in critical situations, i.e., economical crisis. The current approach adds an important tool for the analysis of socio-economic networks in the real world.

Estrada, Ernesto; Hatano, Naomichi

360

Communicating cancer risk information: the challenges of uncertainty  

Microsoft Academic Search

Developments in predictive testing for inherited cancers have focused attention on the accurate and sensitive communication of risk information. Although sharing risk information is often equated with genetic testing, it is important to acknowledge that the need for risk information related to familial cancer is also relevant to those not eligible for, or interested in, testing. Communicating cancer risk information

Joan L Bottorff; Pamela A Ratner; Joy L Johnson; Chris Y Lovato; S. Amanda Joab

1998-01-01

361

The Networkers Network: A Study of the Impact of a New Communications Medium on Sociometric Structure.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Forty social scientists and mathematicians, all concerned with problems in the study of social networks, were linked together by means of a computer to facilitate their interpersonal communication. The present paper presents the early results of this expe...

S. C. Freeman L. C. Freeman

1981-01-01

362

Multicast Algorithms for Mobile Satellite Communication Networks.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

With the rise of mobile computing and an increasing need for ubiquitous high speed data connections, Internet-in-the-sky solutions are becoming increasingly viable. To reduce the network overhead of one-to-many transmissions, the multicast protocol has be...

R. W. Thomas

2001-01-01

363

Secure group communications for wireless networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we consider the problem of key management in a highly-mobile wireless networking environment, such as a dynamic, distributed setting in which command and control nodes move along with individual users. In this scenario, data must be securely multicast from one source to many users, requiring that users be properly keyed. Furthermore, because users move in and out

B. DeCleene; L. Dondeti; S. Griffin; T. Hardjono; D. Kiwior; J. Kurose; D. Towsley; S. Vasudevan; C. Zhang

2001-01-01

364

Time Allocation in Social Networks: Correlation Between Social Structure and Human Communication Dynamics  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Recent research has shown the deep impact of the dynamics of human interactions (or temporal social networks) on the spreading of information, opinion formation, etc. In general, the bursty nature of human interactions lowers the interaction between people to the extent that both the speed and reach of information diffusion are diminished. Using a large database of 20 million users of mobile phone calls we show evidence this effect is not homogeneous in the social network but in fact, there is a large correlation between this effect and the social topological structure around a given individual. In particular, we show that social relations of hubs in a network are relatively weaker from the dynamical point than those that are poorer connected in the information diffusion process. Our results show the importance of the temporal patterns of communication when analyzing and modeling dynamical process on social networks.

Miritello, Giovanna; Lara, Rubén; Moro, Esteban

365

Ethics of Clear Health Communication: applying the CLean Look approach to Communicate Biobanking Information for Cancer research  

PubMed Central

Cancer innovations, such as biobanking technologies, are continuously evolving to improve our understanding and knowledge about cancer prevention and treatment modalities. However, the public receives little communication about biobanking and is often unaware about this innovation until asked to donate biospecimens. It is the researchers’ ethical duty to provide clear communications about biobanking and biospecimen research. Such information allows the public to understand biobanking processes and facilitates informed decision making about biospecimen donation. The aims of this paper are 1) to examine the importance of clear communication as an ethical imperative when conveying information about cancer innovations and 2) to illustrate the use of an organizing framework, the CLEAN (Culture, Literacy, Education, Assessment, and Networking) Look approach for creating educational priming materials about the topic of biobanking.

Koskan, Alexis; Arevalo, Mariana; Gwede, Clement K.; Quinn, Gwendolyn P.; Noel-Thomas, Shalewa A.; Luque, John S.; Wells, Kristen J.; Meade, Cathy D.

2013-01-01

366

Communication networks as predictors of organizational members' media choices  

Microsoft Academic Search

This study relates Burt's social contagion theory to organizational members' perceptions of two models of media choice. The data (N = 83) were drawn from telephone mediated interpersonal communication within the Cancer Information Service (CIS), a government health information services agency that specializes in disseminating technical information. The results indicated, as hypothesized, that social contagion by structural equivalence was related

J. David Johnson

2001-01-01

367

Opportunistic information distribution in challenged networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile nodes in some challenging network scenarios suffer from intermittent connectivity and frequent partitions e.g. battlefield and disaster recovery scenarios. Disruption Tolerant Network (DTN) technologies are designed to enable nodes in such environments to communicate with one another. Several DTN routing schemes have been proposed. In order for the DTN technology to be useful, enhancements need to be made to

Ryan Metzger; Mooi Choo Chuah

2008-01-01

368

Information diffusion through online social networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The rapid development of online social networks has attracted much attention all over the world. Communications through online communities are becoming prevalent among people of all ages. Though online social networks provide us a platform to share opinions publicly, this mechanism will also lead to the generation of rumors especially in case of emergency. So it is urgent for researchers

Bo Xu; Lu Liu

2010-01-01

369

A study on the regulations concerning base stations for next-generation mobile communications networks in Korea  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mobile communications services, which offer one way to realize the informed society of the 21st century, have developed rapidly worldwide. With the commercialization of CDMA 2000-1× late in 2000, a high-speed wireless Internet, based on a mobile communication network, appeared in Korea. This will develop into the next-generation of mobile communications (4G) with faster transmission of increased volumes of data

2004-01-01

370

Canadian Libraries and the Emerging Information Network.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Describes research networks available in Canada and planning for a high-speed network called CANARIE (Canadian Network for the Advancement of Research, Industry, and Education). Potential library applications of research networks are discussed, including information retrieval, interlibrary loan, document delivery, shared cataloging, and…

Cleveland, Gary

1992-01-01

371

HIBI Communication Network for System-on-Chip  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract. This paper presents a communication,network,targeted for complex,system-on-chip (SoC) and network-on-chip (NoC) designs. The Heterogeneous IP Block Interconnection (HIBI) aims at maximum,effi- ciency and minimum,energy per transmitted bit combined,with quality-of-service (QoS) in transfers. Other features include support for hierarchical topologies with several clock domains, flexible scalability, and runtime recon- figuration of network,parameters. HIBI is intended for integrating coarse-grain components,such as

Erno Salminen; Tero Kangas; Timo D. Hämäläinen; Jouni Riihimäki; Vesa Lahtinen; Kimmo Kuusilinna

2006-01-01

372

The next frontier for communications networks: power management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Abstract Storage, memory, processor, and communications bandwidth are all relatively plentiful and inexpensive. However, a growing expense in the operation of computer networks is electricity usage. Estimates place devices connected to the Internet as consuming about 2%, and growing, of the total electricity produced in the USA—much of this power consumption is unnecessary. Power management is needed to reduce this

Kenneth J. Christensen; Chamara Gunaratne; Bruce Nordman; Alan D. George

2004-01-01

373

The next frontier for communications networks: power management  

Microsoft Academic Search

Storage, memory, processor, and communications bandwidth are all relatively plentiful and inexpensive. However, a growing expense in the operation of computer networks is electricity usage. Estimates place devices connected to the Internet as consuming about 2%, and growing, of the total electricity produced in the USA—much of this power consumption is unnecessary. Power management is needed to reduce this large

Kenneth J. Christensen; Chamara Gunaratne; Bruce Nordman; Alan D. George

374

Data communication requirements for the advanced NAS network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The goal of the Numerical Aerodynamic Simulation (NAS) Program is to provide a powerful computational environment for advanced research and development in aeronautics and related disciplines. The present NAS system consists of a Cray 2 supercomputer connected by a data network to a large mass storage system, to sophisticated local graphics workstations, and by remote communications to researchers throughout the

Eugene Levin; C. K. Eaton; Bruce Young

1986-01-01

375

Overview of networking protocols for underwater wireless communications  

Microsoft Academic Search

Underwater wireless communications can enable many scientific, environmental, commercial, safety, and military applications. Wireless signal transmission is also crucial to remotely control instruments in ocean observatories and to enable coordination of swarms of autonomous underwater vehicles and robots, which will play the role of mobile nodes in future ocean observation networks by virtue of their flexibility and reconfigurability. To make

Dario Pompili; Ian F. Akyildiz

2009-01-01

376

Middleware for Synchronous Group Communication in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we propose a Java-based middleware for group communication in wireless ad hoc networks. The pro- posed middleware provides facilities for establishing multi- way synchronization channels among multiple agents (pro- cesses executed in mobile hosts) based on their locations. Through multi-way synchronization channels, agents can ex- ecute events on the same channel synchronously to exchange data. Through some

Takaaki Umedu; Keiichi Yasumoto; Akio Nakata; Hirozumi Yamaguchi; Teruo Higashino

2002-01-01

377

Energy-Efficient Communication Protocol for Wireless Microsensor Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Wireless distributed microsensor systems will enable the reliable monitoring of a variety of environments for both civil and military applications. In this paper, we look at communication protocols, which can have significant im- pact on the overall energy dissipation of these networks. Based on our findings that the conventional protocols of direct transmission, minimum-transmission-energy, multi- hop routing, and static clustering

Wendi Rabiner Heinzelman; Anantha Chandrakasan; Hari Balakrishnan

2000-01-01

378

Parameter optimization of wireless communication system in video surveillance network  

Microsoft Academic Search

Aiming at the more and more serious traffic problem in large cities, this paper proposes a new architecture of urban traffic surveillance system based on the concept of sensor network. Since the speed and quality of communication system has a critical effect on the performance of the overall system, the optimal combination of duty cycle, one of the most important

Xi Shi; Jianming Hu; Jingyan Song; Yangsheng Xu

2005-01-01

379

Digital Storytelling For Cross-Cultural Communication In Global Networking  

Microsoft Academic Search

In global networking the human-computer interface is the crucial communication link between the author and the user. In website design it is important to r ecognize cultural differences and understand how the design of the computer interface can reflect the culture of a particular audience. Digital storytelling is a design technique that can reflect cultural differences and engage the user.

380

Economics of logarithmic Quality-of-Experience in communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Utility functions, describing the value of a good or a resource from an end user's point of view, are widely used as an important ingredient for all sorts of microeconomic models. In the context of resource allocation in communication networks, a logarithmic form of utility usually serves as the standard example due to its simplicity and mathematical tractability, with the

Peter Reichl; Bruno Tuffin; Raimund Schatz

2010-01-01

381

A novel data communication network architecture for integrated modular avionics  

Microsoft Academic Search

With advanced avionics developing, the tendency of modularization, flexibility, interoperability, high bandwidth, and hard real time is much more obvious. Integrated Modular Avionics (IMA) need an available network interconnection architecture to integrate the distributed and disordered modular elements of IMA systems. Avionics Full Duplex Switched Ethernet (AFDX), as a communication protocol, specifies a certain time-deterministic method applicable to real-time and

Haotian Wang; Huagang Xiong

2009-01-01

382

Discovering Implicit Redundancies in Network Communications for Detecting Inconsistent Values  

Microsoft Academic Search

Detecting inconsistent values received in a communication is a challenging problem faced in networked systems. Inconsistent values occur when a message contains incorrect data, even though the syntax is correct and there is no corruption due to transmission errors. In many cases, traditional schemes based on voting protocols or error detection codes cannot be used. An alternative is discovering implicit

Bogdan Tomoyuki Nassu; Takashi Nanya; Hiroshi Nakamura

2008-01-01

383

Social networking for anonymous communication systems: A survey  

Microsoft Academic Search

Anonymous communication systems have been around for sometime, providing anonymity, enhanced privacy, and censorship circumvention. A lot has been done, since Chaum's seminal paper on mix networks, in preventing attacks able to undermine the anonymity provided by these systems. This, however, is goal difficult to achieve due to the de-centralized nature of these systems. In the end it boils down

Rodolphe Marques; Andre Zuquete

2011-01-01

384

Using recurrent neural networks for adaptive communication channel equalization  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nonlinear adaptive filters based on a variety of neural network models have been used successfully for system identification and noise-cancellation in a wide class of applications. An important problem in data communications is that of channel equalization, i.e., the removal of interferences introduced by linear or nonlinear message corrupting mechanisms, so that the originally transmitted symbols can be recovered correctly

G. Kechriotis; E. Zervas; E. S. Manolakos

1994-01-01

385

Modeling Communication Networks with Hybrid Systems: Extended Version  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces a general hybrid systems framework to model the flow of traffic in communication networks. The proposed models use averaging to continuously approximate discrete variables such as congestion window and queue size. Because averaging occurs over short time intervals, discrete events such as the occurrence of a drop and the consequent reaction by congestion control can still be

Junsoo Lee; Stephan Bohacek; P. Hespanha; Katia Obraczka

386

Scaling Behaviors of Traffic in Computer Communication Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper, we present an empirical study on the scaling behaviors of traffic in computer communication networks. It is shown that the data shipped by the web server have a symmetry heavy-tailed distribution, with the corresponding cumulative distributions of both negative and positive tails can be well fitted by a Levy regime or an extendedly asymptotic power-law form. We

Pei-Ling Zhou; Shi-Min Cai; Tao Zhou; Zhong-Qian Fu

2006-01-01

387

Evolutionarily conserved networks of residues mediate allosteric communication in proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

A fundamental goal in cellular signaling is to understand allosteric communication, the process by which signals originating at one site in a protein propagate reliably to affect distant functional sites. The general principles of protein structure that underlie this process remain unknown. Here, we describe a sequence-based statistical method for quantitatively mapping the global network of amino acid interactions in

Gürol M. Süel; Steve W. Lockless; Mark A. Wall; Rama Ranganathan

2002-01-01

388

WANCE: A wide area network communication emulation system  

Microsoft Academic Search

Experimentation in wide area computer networks such as the Internet is difficult. One difficulty is the lack of experimental hosts for individual researches or research groups. The authors have developed a new approach to overcome this problem. The approach is to emulate a remote site using one local machine, and to emulate a true Internet communication environment in a local

Yongguang Zhang; B. Bhargava

1993-01-01

389

Locating Strategies for Personal Communication Networks: A Novel Tracking Strategy  

Microsoft Academic Search

The partition of location areas is designed to mini- mize the total costs of finding users' location and tracking their movement in personal communication networks (PCN's). A new scheme to partition and track mobile users and its implementa- tion based on cellular architecture are proposed. According to the tracking strategy, the mobile station (MS) transmits only update messages at specific

Anna Hac; Xian Zhou

1997-01-01

390

Next generation information communication infrastructure and case studies for future power systems  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

As power industry enters the new century, powerful driving forces, uncertainties and new functions are compelling electric utilities to make dramatic changes in their information communication infrastructure. Expanding network services such as real time measurement and monitoring are also driving the need for more bandwidth in the communication network. These needs will grow further as new remote real-time protection and control applications become more feasible and pervasive. This dissertation addresses two main issues for the future power system information infrastructure: communication network infrastructure and associated power system applications. Optical networks no doubt will become the predominant data transmission media for next generation power system communication. The rapid development of fiber optic network technology poses new challenges in the areas of topology design, network management and real time applications. Based on advanced fiber optic technologies, an all-fiber network is investigated and proposed. The study will cover the system architecture and data exchange protocol aspects. High bandwidth, robust optical networks could provide great opportunities to the power system for better service and efficient operation. In the dissertation, different applications are investigated. One of the typical applications is the SCADA information accessing system. An Internet-based application for the substation automation system will be presented. VLSI (Very Large Scale Integration) technology is also used for one-line diagrams auto-generation. High transition rate and low latency optical network is especially suitable for power system real time control. In the dissertation, a new local area network based Load Shedding Controller (LSC) for isolated power system will be presented. By using PMU (Phasor Measurement Unit) and fiber optic network, an AGE (Area Generation Error) based accurate wide area load shedding scheme will also be proposed. The objective is to shed the load in the limited area with minimum disturbance.

Qiu, Bin

391

roceedings of the Federal Library Committee Meetings, December 16, 1970 and April 28, 1971 on Implications to the Federal Library Community of the Airlie Conference on Interlibrary Communications and Information Networks, Sep. 28-Oct. 2, 1970.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The Federal library community has felt an increasing concern about the role that Federal libraries will play in library and information network systems. Because of this concern, the Federal Library Committee (FLC) called a meeting at the Library of Congre...

1971-01-01

392

Local Area Networks for Information Retrieval.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This examination of the use of local area networks (LANs) by libraries summarizes the findings of a nationwide survey of 600 libraries and information centers and 200 microcomputer networking system manufacturers and vendors, which was conducted to determine the relevance of currently available networking systems for library and information center…

Kibirige, Harry M.

393

Computer-Based Information Networks: Selected Examples.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|The history, purpose, and operation of six computer-based information networks are described in general and nontechnical terms. In the introduction the many definitions of an information network are explored. Ohio College Library Center's network (OCLC) is the first example. OCLC began in 1963, and since early 1973 has been extending its services…

Hardesty, Larry

394

Multielectrode Arrays for Communicating with Neural Networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Neuron networks grown in culture provide models for understanding the basic principles which govern how neurons connect during development, and how connections change as a result of imposed activity, which is believed to be the substrate for learning and memory. To study the connectivity of cultured networks and their response to stimuli, it is essential to record simultaneously, and noninvasively, from many neurons. It is also important to be able to selectively stimulate neurons in order to observe the effects of imposed activity. Our laboratory has led in the development of culture dishes which incorporate large numbers of electrodes which can be used for doing both of these. The basic principles which are involved, extracellular recording and stimulation, will be described, as well as the technologies. Results from a variety of experiments using arrays will be presented, including use of arrays for multi-site recordings from brain slices and from explants such as intact retinas and invertebrate ganglia.

Pine, Jerome

2001-03-01

395

Tuning computer communications networks and protocols  

SciTech Connect

Current computer network protocols are very robust and capable of being used in a variety of different environments. Typically, the implementations of these protocols come to the user with preset parameters that provide reasonable performance for low delay- bandwidth product environments with low error rates, but these defaults do not necessarily provide optimal performance for high delay-bandwidth, high error rate environments. To provide optimal performance from the user's perspective, which is application to application, all equivalent layers of the protocol must be tuned. The key to tuning protocols is reducing idle time on the links caused by various protocol layers waiting for acknowledgments. The circuit bandwidth, propagation delay, error rate, number of outstanding packets, buffer length, number of buffers, and buffer size can all affect the observed idle time. Experiments have been conducted on test bed systems, and on live satellite and terrestrial circuits. Observations from these experiments led the authors to draw conclusions about the locations of common bottlenecks. Various aspects of network tuning and certain specific issues relating to the tuning of three protocols (DECnet, TCP/IP, NETEX) over various media types (point-to-point and broadcast) under several different conditions (terrestrial and satellite) are examined in this paper. Also described are the lessons learned about protocol and network tuning. 3 refs., 2 tabs.

Witzke, E.L. (Proteus Corp., Albuquerque, NM (USA)); Pierson, L.G. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (USA))

1991-01-01

396

Extensions of Stochastic Network Theory to Facilitate the Development of MOE's for Communication Systems.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Recent advances in computer-communications technology have given rise to the development of large, complex data communication networks. The high cost of developing and operating these networks have prompted researchers to search for appropriate measures o...

G. E. Whitehouse J. J. Fagan

1977-01-01

397

77 FR 21996 - Certain Equipment for Communications Networks, Including Switches, Routers, Gateways, Bridges...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

...Communications Networks, Including Switches, Routers, Gateways, Bridges...communications networks, including switches, routers, gateways, bridges...following as respondents: Cisco Systems, Inc. of San Jose, California; Cisco Consumer Products LLC...

2012-04-12

398

Closed-Loop Drilling System Using a High-Speed Communications Network.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

A closed-loop downhole drilling system is disclosed that includes a high-speed communications network, comprising multiple nodes, integrated into a downhole drilling string. The high-speed communications network supports data transmission rates far exceed...

D. R. Hall

2004-01-01

399

Communications performance of an undersea acoustic large-area network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The U.S. Navy is developing Seaweb acoustic networking capability for integrating undersea systems. Seaweb architectures generally involve a wide-area network of fixed nodes consistent with future distributed autonomous sensors on the seafloor. Mobile nodes including autonomous undersea vehicles (AUVs) and submarines operate in the context of the grid by using the fixed nodes as both navigation reference points and communication access points. In October and November 2004, Theater Anti-Submarine Warfare Exercise (TASWEX04) showcased Seaweb in its first fleet appearance. This paper evaluates the TASWEX04 Seaweb performance in support of networked communications between a submarine and a surface ship. Considerations include physical-layer dependencies on the 9-14 kHz acoustic channel, such as refraction, wind-induced ambient noise, and submarine aspect angle. [Work supported by SSC San Diego.

Kriewaldt, Hannah A.; Rice, Joseph A.

2005-04-01

400

Sensor network and information interoperability integrating IEEE 1451 with MIMOSA and OSA-CBM  

Microsoft Academic Search

The IEEE 1451 smart transducer interface for sensors and actuators standard was developed to facilitate sensor to network interoperability. It has defined a set of common communication interfaces for connecting transducers (sensors or actuators) to control networks and instruments in a network-independent environment. Concurrently, the Machinery Information Management Open Systems Alliance (MIMOSA) has established an open architecture and a set

Kang Lee; Robert X. Gao; Rick Schneeman

2002-01-01

401

A Queueing Network Analysis of Computer Communication Networks with Window Flow Control  

Microsoft Academic Search

A computer communication network with window flow control is modeled by a closed multichain queueing network. The severe computational limitation of previous solution algorithms is overcome with a heuristic derived from the recently found mean value analysis. A large numerical example is given.

MARTIN REISER

1979-01-01

402

Reducing Total ICT Power Consumption with Collaboration Among End Systems, Communication Network and Power Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The widespread use of ICT equipment is expected to increase the power consumed by ICT rapidly and it is recognized that the energy consumption of ICT equipment themselves (Green of ICT) should be one of key issues. This paper first identifies the need of the collaboration among end systems, the communication network and the power network, in order to reduce

Shin-ichi Kuribayashi; Yasunori Osana

2011-01-01

403

Networks, Netwar, and Information-Age Terrorism.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

The rise of network forms of organization is a key consequence of the ongoing information revolution. Business organizations are being newly energized by networking, and many professional militaries are experimenting with flatter forms of organization. In...

D. Ronfeldt J. Arquilla M. Zanini

1999-01-01

404

The Multi-Ring Topology - High-Performance Group Communication in Peer-to-Peer Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Emerging peer-to-peer applications require efficient group communication. However, current techniques for group communication are not optimal for peer-to-peer networks, which do not have group communication methods themselves. This paper presents the novel multi- ring topology, which is designed to meet requirements of high performance group communication in peer-to-peer networks. It improves data communication by applying several concepts: building overlay networks

Markus Junginger; Yugyung Lee

2002-01-01

405

Duality Quantum Information and Duality Quantum Communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Quantum mechanical systems exhibit particle wave duality property. This duality property has been exploited for information processing. A duality quantum computer is a quantum computer on the move and passing through a multi-slits. It offers quantum wave divider and quantum wave combiner operations in addition to those allowed in an ordinary quantum computer. It has been shown that all linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and a duality quantum computer with n qubits and d-slits can be realized in an ordinary quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit in the so-called duality quantum computing mode. The quantum particle-wave duality can be used in providing secure communication. In this paper, we will review duality quantum computing and duality quantum key distribution.

Li, C. Y.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, C.; Song, S. Y.; Long, G. L.

2011-03-01

406

Duality Quantum Information and Duality Quantum Communication  

SciTech Connect

Quantum mechanical systems exhibit particle wave duality property. This duality property has been exploited for information processing. A duality quantum computer is a quantum computer on the move and passing through a multi-slits. It offers quantum wave divider and quantum wave combiner operations in addition to those allowed in an ordinary quantum computer. It has been shown that all linear bounded operators can be realized in a duality quantum computer, and a duality quantum computer with n qubits and d-slits can be realized in an ordinary quantum computer with n qubits and a qudit in the so-called duality quantum computing mode. The quantum particle-wave duality can be used in providing secure communication. In this paper, we will review duality quantum computing and duality quantum key distribution.

Li, C. Y.; Wang, W. Y.; Wang, C.; Song, S. Y.; Long, G. L. [Key Laboratory for Atomic and Molecular Nanosciences and Department of Physics, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 and Tsinghua National Laboratory for Information Science and Technology, Beijing 100084 (China)

2011-03-28

407

On the integration of the Internet into informal science communication  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present analysis looks at how scientists use the Internet for informal scientific communication. It investigates the relationship between several explanatory variables and Internet use for social communication, information retrieval and information dissemination in a cross-section of scientists from seven European countries and five academic disciplines (astronomy, chemistry, computer science, economics, and psychology). The analysis confirmed some of the results

Franz Barjak

2004-01-01

408

Recovering Social Networks from Contagion Information  

Microsoft Academic Search

\\u000a Many algorithms for analyzing social networks assume that the structure of the network is known, but this is not always a\\u000a reasonable assumption. We wish to reconstruct an underlying network given data about how some property, such as disease, has\\u000a spread through the network. Properties may spread through a network in different ways: for instance, an individual may learn\\u000a information

Sucheta Soundarajanand; John E. Hopcroft

2010-01-01

409

"I'll See You on IM, Text, or Call You": A Social Network Approach of Adolescents' Use of Communication Media  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|This study explores some possibilities of social network analysis for studying adolescents' communication patterns. A full network analysis was conducted on third-grade high school students (15 year olds, 137 students) in Belgium. The results pointed out that face-to-face communication was still the most prominent way for information to flow…

Van Cleemput, Katrien

2010-01-01

410

Network-adaptive low-latency video communication over best-effort networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The quality of service limitation of today's best-effort networks poses major challenge for low-latency video communi- cation. To combat network losses for real-time and on-demand video communication, which exhibits stronger dependency across packets, a network-adaptive coding scheme is employed to dy- namically manage the packet dependency using optimal reference picture selection. The selection of the reference is achieved within a

Yi J. Liang; Bernd Girod

2006-01-01

411

Compiler Techniques for Efficient Communications in Circuit Switched Networks for Multiprocessor Systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we explore compiler techniques for achieving efficient communications on circuit switching interconnection networks. We propose a compilation framework for identifying communication patterns and compiling these patterns as network configuration directives. This has the potential of providing significant performance benefits when connections can be established in the network prior to the actual communications. The framework includes a flexible

Shuyi Shao; Alex K. Jones; Rami G. Melhem

2009-01-01

412

Distributed Average Consensus in Sensor Networks with Random Link Failures and Communication Channel Noise  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this paper we study distributed average consensus type algorithms in sensor networks with random network link failures and communication channel. Specifically, the network links fail randomly across iterations, and communication through an active link incurs additive stochastic noise. We consider the A - ND algorithm for distributed average consensus under such imperfect communication scenario. Using results from the theory

S. Kar; J. M. F. Moura

2007-01-01

413

Network management approaches in 3G tactical wireless communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Considering that management constitutes one of the most important pieces of the overall military puzzle, this paper discusses various management approaches applied in tactical military networks. Specifically, the paper refers to 3G wireless military management systems, presenting management\\/control operations, tasks and schemes that can guarantee battlefield supremacy. Also, the paper discusses several issues concerning the migration of current tactical management

D. D. Vergados; G. Kormentzas; C. Lykou; C. Anagnostopoulos; N. Protopsaltis; F. Lazarakis; G. I. Stassinopoulos

2001-01-01

414

The red light VCSEL for network communication  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Compared with the edge emission laser, the vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) with better beam quality can be performed more efficiently coupling with optical fiber. The 650nm~670nm wavelength VCSEL can be widely used in plastic optical fiber (POF) network source. This paper introduces a new kind VCSEL with new structure, of which the thermal characteristic is better than tradition device. In the special structure of the laser, the thickness of the substrate under the active region is lower, the heat generated by the laser can be faster transferred to the heat sink and the cooling effect is enhanced. In addition, the series resistance of the device is smaller and the heat produced by the device is further reduced. Through comparative test with the traditional VCSEL, the light output power of the device with new structure is increased by more than 20%.

Deng, Yun; Yan, Changling; Shi, Jianwei; Xu, Li; Feng, Yuan; Hao, Yongqin; Zhao, Yingjie

2013-08-01

415

Multimedia Information Networks in Social Media  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

The popularity of personal digital cameras and online photo/video sharing community has lead to an explosion of multimedia information. Unlike traditional multimedia data, many new multimedia datasets are organized in a structural way, incorporating rich information such as semantic ontology, social interaction, community media, geographical maps, in addition to the multimedia contents by themselves. Studies of such structured multimedia data have resulted in a new research area, which is referred to as Multimedia Information Networks. Multimedia information networks are closely related to social networks, but especially focus on understanding the topics and semantics of the multimedia files in the context of network structure. This chapter reviews different categories of recent systems related to multimedia information networks, summarizes the popular inference methods used in recent works, and discusses the applications related to multimedia information networks. We also discuss a wide range of topics including public datasets, related industrial systems, and potential future research directions in this field.

Cao, Liangliang; Qi, Guojun; Tsai, Shen-Fu; Tsai, Min-Hsuan; Pozo, Andrey Del; Huang, Thomas S.; Zhang, Xuemei; Lim, Suk Hwan

416

Distributed Cluster-Based Fault-Tolerant Topology Control for Space Information Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Space information networks are a new type of self-organizing networks constituted by communication and information systems of land, sea, air and space. The performances of space information networks are closely related to their distinguishing characteristics such as large scale, high component complexity and high link redundancy. The paper proposed a distributed cluster-based and fault-tolerant topology control algorithm to construct a

Ning Ye; Zhiliang Zhu; Jun Liu; Jiping Shi

2010-01-01

417

Development of the quantitative generalized information network analysis (GINA) methodology for satellite systems  

Microsoft Academic Search

A generalized analysis methodology for satellite systems has been developed, and it can be used for the analysis of any space system architecture addressing any mission in communications, sensing or navigation. The generalized information network analysis (GINA) methodology is a hybrid of information network flow analysis, signal and antenna theory, space systems engineering and econometrics, and specifies measurable, unambiguous metrics

Graeme B. Shaw; D. Miller; D. E. Hastingsf

1999-01-01

418

Communicating science: The use of information technology  

Microsoft Academic Search

New communications technology offers a number of opportunities for teachers to enhance the quality of the learning of students, particularly in distance education settings. This paper uses as a case study the development of a distance learning course at the Open University designed to develop skills in science communication and the study of science communication. The course makes use of

Eileen Scanlon

419

Research on New Connection Scheme in Optical Communication Network  

Microsoft Academic Search

The popularity of the Internet and its related services continues to be one of the main reasons for the explosive growth of traffic volume in global information and telecommunications networks. This trend of data-centric traffic growth, emerging new requirements and the need of network operators to reduce investments and operational costs (capital expenditure and operational expenditure) represent some of the

Ning Zhang; Hong Bao

2010-01-01

420

Good Communication: The Other Social Network for Successful IT Organizations  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Social networks of the electronic variety have become thoroughly embedded in contemporary culture. People have woven these networks into their daily routines, using Facebook, Twitter, LinkedIn, online gaming environments, and other tools to build and maintain complex webs of professional and personal relationships. Chief Information Officers…

Trubitt, Lisa; Overholtzer, Jeff

2009-01-01

421

Information and Communication Technologies in Social Work  

PubMed Central

Information and communication technologies (ICTs) are electronic tools used to convey, manipulate and store information. The exponential growth of Internet access and ICTs greatly influenced social, political, and economic processes in the United States, and worldwide. Regardless of the level of practice, ICTs will continue influencing the careers of social workers and the clients they serve. ICTs have received some attention in the social work literature and curriculum, but we argue that this level of attention is not adequate given their ubiquity, growth and influence, specifically as it relates to upholding social work ethics. Significant attention is needed to help ensure social workers are responsive to the technological changes in the health care system, including the health care infrastructure and use of technology among clients. Social workers also need ICT competencies in order to effectively lead different types of social change initiatives or collaborate with professionals of other disciplines who are using ICTs as part of existing strategies. This paper also identifies potential pitfalls and challenges with respect to the adoption of ICTs, with recommendations for advancing their use in practice, education, and research.

Perron, Brian E.; Taylor, Harry O.; Glass, Joseph E.; Margerum-Leys, Jon

2011-01-01

422

Information sharing in quantum complex networks  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity, thus breaking down the usual hierarchical picture of classical networks. We show both numerically and analytically that the mutual information characterizes the network topology. As a by-product, our results point out that the amount of information available for an external node connecting to a quantum network allows one to determine the network topology.

Cardillo, Alessio; Galve, Fernando; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

2013-05-01

423

ECS: efficient communication scheduling for underwater sensor networks.  

PubMed

TDMA protocols have attracted a lot of attention for underwater acoustic sensor networks (UWSNs), because of the unique characteristics of acoustic signal propagation such as great energy consumption in transmission, long propagation delay and long communication range. Previous TDMA protocols all allocated transmission time to nodes based on discrete time slots. This paper proposes an efficient continuous time scheduling TDMA protocol (ECS) for UWSNs, including the continuous time based and sender oriented conflict analysis model, the transmission moment allocation algorithm and the distributed topology maintenance algorithm. Simulation results confirm that ECS improves network throughput by 20% on average, compared to existing MAC protocols. PMID:22163775

Hong, Lu; Hong, Feng; Guo, Zhongwen; Li, Zhengbao

2011-03-04

424

Real-Time Communication for Smart Sensor Networks: A CAN Based Solution  

Microsoft Academic Search

Due to the increased availability of low cost network technology, the use of networks to interconnect sensors, actuators and controllers is now widely accepted. Such increased availability is one of the driving factors for the implementation of smart sensor networks. To ensure the correctness of the supported applications, the communication network must provide a reliable and timely communication service. Aside

A. J. Pires; E. M. Leao; J. P. Sousa; L. A. Guedes; F. Vasques

2007-01-01

425

Challenges of Information and Communication Technology in Energy Efficient Smart Homes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Energy saving is an important issue in the times of increasing energy prices. Products and services provided by the information and communication technology (ICT) can support energy efficiency and emissions reductions. The synergy of ICT and a residential area gives rise to the smart home environment. Ecological and smart home network applications should not only improve the peoples life satisfaction

Dragan Markovic; Dragan Cvetkovic; Dejan Zivkovic; Ranko Popovic

2012-01-01

426

Measuring the Diffusion of Information and Communication Technology in Society and its Effects: Canadian Experience  

Microsoft Academic Search

Statistics Canada has measured the use of information and communication technologies (ICTs) for close to 15 years in industry and more recently in households and it has developed a body on knowledge on the effects of the use off these technologies. While ICTs have long been used in manufacturing processes, the use of computers and networks, and a growing number

G. PETERSON

2007-01-01

427

A Professional Development Project for Improving the Use of Information and Communication Technologies in Science Teaching  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

This article describes a professional development project aiming to develop practical approaches for the integration of information and communication technologies (ICT) into science education. Altogether, 13 two-day face-to-face seminars and numerous computer network conferences were held during a three-year period. The goals for the project were…

Lavonen, Jari; Juuti, Kalle; Aksela, Maija; Meisalo, Veijo

2006-01-01

428

Mapping Institutional Impacts of Lean Communication in Lean AgenciesInformation Technology Illiteracy and Leadership Failure  

Microsoft Academic Search

Information technology’s (IT) influence on formative contexts and on requisite leadership roles is conceptualized both as an enabling force for organizational networking and a reducing force for diversity in leadership functions and cultural contexts. The contemporary “New Age” leadership literature calls for personal and ideological leadership unencumbered by issues of cultural context, communicative complexities and the need for more comprehensive

Alexander Kouzmin; Nada Korac-Kakabadse

2000-01-01

429

Needs for developing culturally oriented supportive learning with the aid of Information and Communication Technologies  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article demonstrates the inadequacy of access and use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICTs) and networked learning for many people in non?Western societies and for those who belong to ethno?cultural minority groups. Especially, immigrants have great needs in the domain of learning the language of the host country as a foreign or second language. In addition, another important issue

Nektaria Palaiologou

2009-01-01

430

Asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. Here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. Five species (great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit Poecile palustris, nuthatch Sitta europaea and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs) responded to each other's playbacks of mobbing calls. Commitment to mob was measured by minimum distance, response latency and uttering of calls. Commitment was higher when conspecific calls were broadcast. Yet, responses to heterospecific calls were significantly different between the five species. Chaffinches had the lowest commitment, and blue tits tended to have the highest. The communication network is asymmetric. Some species invest more than they receive from other species. As mobbing might incur costs, these are unequally distributed across the community.

Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian

2013-02-01

431

Asymmetries in commitment in an avian communication network.  

PubMed

Mobbing of predators occurs within a conspecific and heterospecific context but has not been quantified within the framework of a communication network and analysed with respect to heterospecific reciprocity. Here, we used playbacks of mobbing calls to show that mobbing is unequally distributed within a community of deciduous forest birds. Five species (great tit Parus major, blue tit Cyanistes caeruleus, marsh tit Poecile palustris, nuthatch Sitta europaea and chaffinch Fringilla coelebs) responded to each other's playbacks of mobbing calls. Commitment to mob was measured by minimum distance, response latency and uttering of calls. Commitment was higher when conspecific calls were broadcast. Yet, responses to heterospecific calls were significantly different between the five species. Chaffinches had the lowest commitment, and blue tits tended to have the highest. The communication network is asymmetric. Some species invest more than they receive from other species. As mobbing might incur costs, these are unequally distributed across the community. PMID:23325292

Randler, Christoph; Vollmer, Christian

2013-01-17

432

Predicting Information Flows in Network Traffic.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Discusses information flow in networks and predicting network traffic and describes a study that uses time series analysis on a day's worth of Internet log data. Examines nonlinearity and traffic invariants, and suggests that prediction of network traffic may not be possible with current techniques. (Author/LRW)|

Hinich, Melvin J.; Molyneux, Robert E.

2003-01-01

433

TeCFlow - A Temporal Communication Flow Visualizer for Social Network Analysis  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper introduces an approach for organizational redesign and optimization of communication flows based on temporal analysis of communication patterns in groups of people. Our Temporal Communication Flow Visualizer automatically generates interactive movies of communication flows among individuals by mining e- mail log files and other communication archives. Combining those movies with measures of social network analysis such as the

Peter A. Gloor; Yan Zhao

434

Meta-Information Structures for Networked Information Resources  

Microsoft Academic Search

This article develops a model of meta-information architectures (header, local index, and directory) and presents three current or proposed meta-information structures for networked information resources with applicability to organization and access in libraries and networked information environments. Special emphasis is given to the Text Encoding Initiative's TEI Header and Independent Header as a model for meta-information for academic and library

Casey Palowitch; Lisa Horowitz

1996-01-01

435

Freshmen Engagement Through Communication: Predicting Friendship Formation Strategies and Perceived Availability of Network Resources From Communication Skills  

Microsoft Academic Search

First-time freshmen completed communication skills questionnaires at the beginning of a fall semester. Approximately 6 weeks later they completed another questionnaire regarding friendship formation strategies and the perceived availability of resources from their new social network. Results suggest that different profiles of communication skills predicted how much freshmen reported using group involvement, online social networking, disclosure, responsiveness, and invitations as

Bree McEwan; Laura K. Guerrero

2010-01-01

436

Computing, information, and communications: Technologies for the 21. Century.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

To meet the challenges of a radically new and technologically demanding century, the Federal Computing, Information, and Communications (CIC) programs are investing in long-term research and development (R and D) to advance computing, information, and com...

1998-01-01

437

Resource allocation in communication networks using market-based agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a system that allocates end-to-end bandwidth, in a switched meshed communications network. The solution makes use of market-based software agents that compete in a number of decentralised marketplaces to buy and sell bandwidth resources. Agents perform a distributed depth first search with decentralised markets in order to al- locate routes for calls. The approach relies on a

Nadim Haque; Nicholas R. Jennings; Luc Moreau

2005-01-01

438

Resource Allocation in Communication Networks Using Market-Based Agents  

Microsoft Academic Search

This work describes a system that allocates end-to-end bandwidth, in a switched meshed communications network. The solution\\u000a makes use of market-based software agents that compete in a number of decentralised marketplaces to buy and sell bandwidth\\u000a resources. Agents perform a distributed depth first search with decentralised markets in order to allocate routes for calls.\\u000a The approach relies on a resource

Nadim Haque; Nicholas R. Jennings; Luc Moreau

439

Towards communication network development (structural systems issues, combinatorial models)  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper focuses on systems development issues (i.e., improvement, extension) for composite (modular) systems. First, systems approaches are considered: (a) improvement of systems components and\\/or their interconnections, (b) improvement\\/extension of a system structure, (c) “space” (e.g., geographical) extension of a system as designing an additional system part, and (d) combined system improvement\\/extension. Communication networks are examined as a basic applied

M. S. Levin; Russian Acad

2010-01-01

440

Content-Based Networking: A New Communication Infrastructure  

Microsoft Academic Search

We argue that the needs of many classes of modern applica- tions, especially those targeted at mobile or wireless computing, demand the services of content-based publish\\/subscribe middleware, and that this middleware in turn demands a new kind of communication infras- tructure for its proper implementation. We refer to this new communi- cation infrastructure as content-based networking .T he service model

Antonio Carzaniga; Alexander L. Wolf

2001-01-01

441

A redial model for personal communications services networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper studies the effect of re-dial in a personal communications services (PCS) network. The re-dialing problem for PCS is different from the plain old telephone service (POTS). When using POTS, if a customer receives a busy signal in making a call, or the call does not connect in a timely manner, the customer may make a re-dial call in

Christopher D. Carothers; Richard M. Fujimoto; Yi-Bing Lin

1995-01-01

442

IEEE CAS Workshop on Wireless Communications and Networking  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

In September 2002, researchers from universities and technical companies from around the world met for a Workshop on Wireless Communications and Networking. The documents that can be downloaded from this Web page consist of over twenty full papers presented at the event and several more one-page research summaries. Many of the papers address low-power design and issues, while others discuss applications of ultra-wideband technology.

2005-12-06

443

Practical Quantum Communication and Cryptography for WDM Optical Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Keeping in mind the ubiquitous standard optical fiber for long-distance transmission and the widespread availability of efficient active and passive fiber devices, we have been developing telecom-band resources for practical quantum communication and cryptography in wave-division-multiplexed (WDM) optical networks. In this talk I present our recent results on two fronts: i) telecom-band in-fiber entanglement generation, storage, and long-distance distribution and

Prem Kumar

2004-01-01

444

Influence of a network structure on the network effect in the communication service market  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

In this study, we analyze the network effect in a model of a personal communication market, by using a multi-agent based simulation approach. We introduce into the simulation model complex network structures as the interaction patterns of agents. With complex network models, we investigate the dynamics of a market in which two providers are competing. We also examine the structure of networks that affect the complex behavior of the market. By a series of simulations, we show that the structural properties of complex networks, such as the clustering coefficient and degree correlation, have a major influence on the dynamics of the market. We find that the network effect is increased if the interaction pattern of agents is characterized by a high clustering coefficient, or a positive degree correlation. We also discuss a suitable model of the interaction pattern for reproducing market dynamics in the real world, by performing simulations using real data of a social network.

Uchida, Makoto; Shirayama, Susumu

2008-09-01

445

Sailor: Maryland's Online Public Information Network  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

Sailor - Maryland's Information Network - provides general Maryland government information and a wide variety of Internet jump-points. The gopher is run by the Pratt Free Library and also has local dialup numbers in Maryland.

1999-01-01

446

Museum Information Networks. Museum Data Bank.  

National Technical Information Service (NTIS)

Several museum information processing systems are discussed in relation to their underlying assumptions regarding museum information and networking needs that have resulted in inadequate service to some kinds of museums, particularly historically museums....

R. G. Chenhall

1975-01-01

447

The Social Side of Information Networking.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Explores the social issues, including manners, security, crime (fraud), and social control associated with information networking, with emphasis on the Internet. Also addresses the influence of cellular phones, the Internet and other information technologies on society. (GR)|

Katz, James E.

1997-01-01

448

Information and Communications Technologies Center (ICT) YouTube Channel  

NSDL National Science Digital Library

This page presents the YouTube channel of the National Center for Information and Communications Technologies (ICT Center). There is a growing collection of videos - focusing on information and communication technologies - on topics such as Second Life, the oscilloscope, digital media production, games and gaming, as well as a number of interviews with others in the telecommunications technology field.

2008-09-08

449

A network model for wide area access to structural information.  

PubMed Central

Structural information in medicine is information about the physical body. Recent advances in medical imaging and biotechnology have greatly increased the amount and importance of structural information, and advances in networking envisioned by the High Performance Computing and Communication Initiative (HPCC) will allow this kind of information to be delivered to remote clients over wide area networks. One of the most important factors determining the usability of such a client-server configuration is the time delay between the request for information from the server, and its presentation to the user at the client. In this paper we present a model for predicting the performance of a structural information client based on the ping time, a simple, unobtrusive network measurement. Preliminary results suggest that the relationship between ping time and transfer time for large files is linear, which if borne out by more data, will allow the performance of structural information clients at remote sites to be predicted without the expense of installing them first. At the same time, such a model will be useful for planning improvements to the network in those sites which could most benefit by wide area access to structural information.

Dailey, D. J.; Eno, K.; Zick, G. L.; Brinkley, J. F.

1993-01-01

450

A network model for wide area access to structural information.  

PubMed

Structural information in medicine is information about the physical body. Recent advances in medical imaging and biotechnology have greatly increased the amount and importance of structural information, and advances in networking envisioned by the High Performance Computing and Communication Initiative (HPCC) will allow this kind of information to be delivered to remote clients over wide area networks. One of the most important factors determining the usability of such a client-server configuration is the time delay between the request for information from the server, and its presentation to the user at the client. In this paper we present a model for predicting the performance of a structural information client based on the ping time, a simple, unobtrusive network measurement. Preliminary results suggest that the relationship between ping time and transfer time for large files is linear, which if borne out by more data, will allow the performance of structural information clients at remote sites to be predicted without the expense of installing them first. At the same time, such a model will be useful for planning improvements to the network in those sites which could most benefit by wide area access to structural information. PMID:8130523

Dailey, D J; Eno, K; Zick, G L; Brinkley, J F

1993-01-01

451

The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network: Scenarios  

Microsoft Academic Search

SAFER and EDIM working groups, the Department of Computer Science, Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Berlin, Germany, and Section 2.1 Earthquake Risk and Early Warning, GFZ German Research Centre for Geosciences, Germany Contact: Frank Kühnlenz, kuehnlenz@informatik.hu-berlin.de The Self-Organising Seismic Early Warning Information Network (SOSEWIN) represents a new approach for Earthquake Early Warning Systems (EEWS), consisting in taking advantage of novel wireless communications

F. Kühnlenz; J. Fischer; I. Eveslage

2009-01-01

452

Medical Education and Information and Communication Technology  

PubMed Central

Background: Information and communication technology (ICT) has brought many changes in medical education and practice in the last couple of decades. Teaching and learning medicine particularly has gone under profound changes due to computer technologies, and medical schools around the world have invested heavily either in new computer technologies or in the process of adapting to this technological revolution. In order to catch up with the rest of the world, developing countries need to research their options in adapting to new computer technologies. Materials and Methods: This descriptive survey study was designed to assess medical students’ computer and Internet skills and their attitude toward ICT. Results: Research findings showed that the mean score of self-perceived computer knowledge for male students in general was greater than for female students. Also, students who had participated in various prior computer workshops, had access to computer, Internet, and e-mail, and frequently checked their e-mail had higher mean of self-perceived knowledge and skill score. Finally, students with positive attitude toward ICT scored their computer knowledge higher than those who had no opinion. Conclusions: The results have confirmed that the medical schools, particularly in developing countries, need to bring fundamental changes such as curriculum modification in order to integrate ICT into medical education, creating essential infrastructure for ICT use in medical education and practice, and structured computer training for faculty and students.

Houshyari, Asefeh Badiey; Bahadorani, Mahnaz; Tootoonchi, Mina; Gardiner, John Jacob Zucker; Pena, Roberto A; Adibi, Peyman

2012-01-01

453

Federal Information in the Networked Environment: A Perspective from the Coalition for Networked Information.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Discusses the development of strategies for providing access to and services for U.S. federal government information in higher education using the global information infrastructure, from the perspective of the Coalition for Networked Information (CNI). Discusses the preservation of electronic information and networked information discovery and…

Cheverie, Joan F.

1999-01-01

454

Protecting Private Information in Online Social Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

Because personal information can be inferred from associations with friends, privacy becomes increasingly important as online\\u000a social network services gain more popularity. Our recent study showed that the causal relations among friends in social networks\\u000a can be modeled by a Bayesian network, and personal attribute values can be inferred with high accuracy from close friends\\u000a in the social network. Based

Jianming He; Wesley W. Chu

2008-01-01

455

A network approach to probabilistic information retrieval  

Microsoft Academic Search

In this article we show how probabilistic information retrieval based on document components may be implemented as a feedforward (feedbackward) artificial neural network. The network supports adaptation of connection weights as well as the growing of new edges between queries and terms based on user relevance feedback data for training, and it reflects query modification and expansion in information retrieval.

K. L. Kwok

1995-01-01

456

Informational Networks, Entrepreneurial Action and Performance  

Microsoft Academic Search

This paper develops a model that incorporates personal and business networks, firm action, and performance based on the existing literature. It explores the links between information and entrepreneurial-type action, and action and performance. Survey data was collected from a sample of 100 manufacturing firms in Thailand. Results show that entrepreneurs value the information they receive from their networks. However, there

John E. Butler; Brad Brown; Wai Chamornmarn

2003-01-01

457

Informational Benefits via Knowledge Networks among Farmers  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

|Purpose: This research aimed to obtain insights into how farmers on small and medium-sized farms perceived the benefits of the information they receive from their interpersonal networks and other sources. Design/methodology/approach: Farmers' information environments were explored using socio-spatial knowledge networks, diaries and in-depth…

Sligo, F. X.; Massey, Claire; Lewis, Kate

2005-01-01

458

Virtualizing intimacy: information communication technologies and transnational families in therapy.  

PubMed

Information communication technologies (ICTs) are a ubiquitous feature of immigrant family life. Affordable, widely accessible, and highly adaptable ICTs have transformed the immigrant experience into a transnational process with family networks redesigned but not lost. Being a transnational family is not a new phenomenon. Transnationalism, however, has historically been reserved for the wealthier professional and political immigrant class who were able to freely travel and use expensive forms of communication before the emergence of accessible technologies. This paper systematically reviews the research literature to investigate the potential impact of ICTs on the lives of transnational families and how these families utilize them. The wide penetration of ICTs also puts into question some of the ways in which scholars have conceptualized the immigrant experience. The appropriate use of technology in family therapy should strengthen culturally competent and equity-based approaches to address the needs of these families. A family therapy with a transnational family illuminates some of the potential that these technologies introduce in the practice of relational clinicians. PMID:21361921

Bacigalupe, Gonzalo; Lambe, Susan

2011-03-01

459

Changing communications regulations in the information age  

Microsoft Academic Search

In response to significant technological changes that continue to impact the Canadian (and global) communications industry, this paper considers new models for the jurisdiction and structure of a communications regulator. It considers the state of the current regulatory framework, and how it may be improved to ensure that the Commission can accomplish its public policy goals. It identifies emerging telecommunications

Sheridan Scott; David Elder

2002-01-01

460

GGOS Working Group on Ground Networks and Communications  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Properly designed and structured ground-based geodetic networks materialize the reference systems to support sub-mm global change measurements over space, time and evolving technologies. Over this past year, the Ground Networks and Communications Working Group (GN&C WG) has been organized under the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) to work with the IAG measurement services (the IGS, ILRS, IVS, IDS and IGFS) to develop a strategy for building, integrating, and maintaining the fundamental network of instruments and sup-porting infrastructure in a sustainable way to sat-isfy the long-term (10-20 year) requirements identified by the GGOS Science Council. Activities of this Working Group include the investigation of the status quo and the develop-ment of a plan for full network integration to sup-port improvements in terrestrial reference frame establishment and maintenance, Earth orientation and gravity field monitoring, precision orbit de-termination, and other geodetic and gravimetric applications required for the long-term observa-tion of global change. This integration process includes the development of a network of funda-mental stations with as many co-located tech-niques as possible, with precisely determined intersystem vectors. This network would exploit the strengths of each technique and minimize the weaknesses where possible.

Pearlman, M.; Altamimi, Z.; Beck, N.; Forsberg, R.; Gurtner, W.; Kenyon, S.; Behrend, D.; Lemoine, F. G.; Ma, C.; Noll, C. E.; Pavlis, E. C.; Malkin, Z.; Moore, A. W.; Webb, F. H.; Neilan, R. E.; Ries, J. C.; Rothacher, M.; Willis, P.

461

Fabric area network - a new wireless communications infrastructure to enable ubiquitous networking and sensing on intelligent clothing  

Microsoft Academic Search

Pieces of clothing and accessories can now communicate wirelessly with each other to form a data communication and sensing network for ubiquitous mobile-services. The architecture and technology of the fabric area network (FAN) will be described, and how a network of emission-safe, low-power and low-cost wireless links can be easily implemented on clothing. Because the range of the RF communications

Alex P. J. Hum

2001-01-01

462

Family health history communication networks of older adults: importance of social relationships and disease perceptions.  

PubMed

Older individuals play a critical role in disseminating family health history (FHH) information that can facilitate disease prevention among younger family members. This study evaluated the characteristics of older adults and their familial networks associated with two types of communication (have shared and intend to share new FHH information with family members) to inform public health efforts to facilitate FHH dissemination. Information on 970 social network members enumerated by 99 seniors (aged 57 years and older) at 3 senior centers in Memphis, Tennessee, through face-to-face interviews was analyzed. Participants shared FHH information with 27.5% of the network members; 54.7% of children and 24.4% of siblings. Two-level logistic regression models showed that participants had shared FHH with those to whom they provided emotional support (odds ratio [OR] = 1.836) and felt close to (OR = 1.757). Network-members were more likely to have received FHH from participants with a cancer diagnosis (OR = 2.617) and higher familiarity with (OR = 1.380) and importance of sharing FHH with family (OR = 1.474). Participants intended to share new FHH with those who provide tangible support to (OR = 1.804) and were very close to them (OR = 2.112). Members with whom participants intend to share new FHH were more likely to belong to the network of participants with higher perceived severity if family members encountered heart disease (OR = 1.329). Many first-degree relatives were not informed of FHH. Perceptions about FHH and disease risk as well as quality of social relationships may play roles in whether seniors communicate FHH with their families. Future studies may consider influencing these perceptions and relationships. PMID:23345335

Ashida, Sato; Kaphingst, Kimberly A; Goodman, Melody; Schafer, Ellen J

2013-01-23

463

A Mathematical Model of the Effects of Internal Group Pressures, of Group Communication, and of Out-Group Communication on Attitude Change in Human Communication Networks.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

A mathematical model that describes attitude change in human communication networks is developed in this paper. The parameters of the model are drawn from a review of the literature related to network analysis, small group influence, mass communication, and attitude change. The literature review identifies key variables that influence attitude…

Johnson, J. David

464

A NIIE-BLP model for network isolation and information exchange system  

Microsoft Academic Search

For solving information confidentiality problems in the network isolation and information exchange system, a NIIE-BLP model is proposed based on the BLP model. This model incorporated the new concept of the planar-classification function, which combined the classification of the sub-network and the classification of object. The security level of the sub-network was divided in the system and the communication between

Hong-gang Lin

2010-01-01

465

Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks.  

PubMed

We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor. PMID:23390574

Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A; Sloot, Peter M A

2013-02-06

466

Noise enhances information transfer in hierarchical networks  

PubMed Central

We study the influence of noise on information transmission in the form of packages shipped between nodes of hierarchical networks. Numerical simulations are performed for artificial tree networks, scale-free Ravasz-Barabási networks as well for a real network formed by email addresses of former Enron employees. Two types of noise are considered. One is related to packet dynamics and is responsible for a random part of packets paths. The second one originates from random changes in initial network topology. We find that the information transfer can be enhanced by the noise. The system possesses optimal performance when both kinds of noise are tuned to specific values, this corresponds to the Stochastic Resonance phenomenon. There is a non-trivial synergy present for both noisy components. We found also that hierarchical networks built of nodes of various degrees are more efficient in information transfer than trees with a fixed branching factor.

Czaplicka, Agnieszka; Holyst, Janusz A.; Sloot, Peter M. A.

2013-01-01

467

77 FR 24490 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...  

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2012-04-24

468

76 FR 68184 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission for Extension...  

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2011-11-03

469

75 FR 75464 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...  

Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013

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2010-12-03

470

75 FR 63473 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...  

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2010-10-15

471

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2011-12-22

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2011-10-31

473

77 FR 34948 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...  

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2012-06-12

474

78 FR 2993 - Information Collections Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...  

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2013-01-15

475

77 FR 75432 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...  

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2012-12-20

476

75 FR 11534 - Notice of Public Information Collections Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commissions...  

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2010-03-11

477

76 FR 15980 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...  

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2011-03-22

478

76 FR 3630 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...  

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2011-01-20

479

75 FR 67363 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...  

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2010-11-02

480

75 FR 67361 - Notice of Public Information Collection(s) Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications...  

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2010-11-02

481

77 FR 8255 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...  

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2012-02-14

482

76 FR 47585 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...  

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2011-08-05

483

77 FR 28384 - Information Collections Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission for Extension...  

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2012-05-14

484

76 FR 63617 - Information Collection Being Reviewed by the Federal Communications Commission Under Delegated...  

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2011-10-13

485

Secure End-to-End Communication over GSM and PSTN Networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

GSM (Global System for Mobiles) is the most widely spread mobile communication system in the world. An important objective in mobile communication systems is secure speech communication. GSM suffers from various security weaknesses. The GSM voice traffic is secure outside the core network but it has no security over the core network. This system can be made thoroughly secure by

Saad Islam; Fatima Ajmal; Salman Ali; Jawad Zahid; Adnan Rashdi

2009-01-01

486

Communicability and multipartite structures in complex networks at negative absolute temperatures  

Microsoft Academic Search

We here present a method of clearly identifying multipartite subgraphs in a network. The method is based on a recently introduced concept of the communicability, which very clearly identifies communities in a complex network. We here show that, while the communicability at a positive temperature is useful in identifying communities, the communicability at a negative temperature is useful in identifying

Ernesto Estrada; Desmond J. Higham; Naomichi Hatano

2008-01-01

487

On the electromagnetic compatibility in construction of microcellular mobile communication networks  

Microsoft Academic Search

The microcellular mobile radio systems are widely utilized in the third generation of digital mobile communication networks, and will certainly be applied in the forthcoming personal communication networks as well. However, we still have no strict definition so far for the so-called “microcell area” in the urban wireless communication environment. Roughly speaking, the microcell implies such a region in which

Zhu Hongbo; Cao Wei

1998-01-01

488

Informational benefits via knowledge networks among farmers  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose – This research aimed to obtain insights into how farmers on small and medium-sized farms perceived the benefits of the information they receive from their interpersonal networks and other sources. Design\\/methodology\\/approach – Farmers' information environments were explored using socio-spatial knowledge networks, diaries and in-depth interviews (to draw out participants' interpretations of significance). This enabled the perceived benefits of information

F. X. Sligo; Claire Massey; Kate Lewis

2005-01-01

489

Informational benefits via knowledge networks among  

Microsoft Academic Search

Purpose - This research aimed to obtain insights into how farmers on small and medium-sized farms perceived the benefits of the information they receive from their interpersonal networks and other sources. Design\\/methodology\\/approach - Farmers' information environments were explored using socio-spatial knowledge networks, diaries and in-depth interviews (to draw out participants' interpretations of significance). This enabled the perceived benefits of information

Claire Massey; Kate Lewis

490

FDA Drug Safety Communication: Updated information about ...  

Center for Drug Evaluation (CDER)

... is in follow-up to the FDA Drug Safety Communication posted on 7 ... in patients receiving other psychiatric drugs with lesser degrees of serotonergic ... More results from