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Sample records for infrared multispectral pancam

  1. Spectral Variability among Rocks in Visible and Near Infrared Multispectral Pancam Data Collected at Gusev Crater: Examinations using Spectral Mixture Analysis and Related Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Soderblom, J.; Ming, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rocks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit s Panoramic camera (Pancam) have been analysed using a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) methodology. Scenes have been examined from the Gusev crater plains into the Columbia Hills. Most scenes on the plains and in the Columbia Hills could be modeled as three endmember mixtures of a bright material, rock, and shade. Scenes of rocks disturbed by the rover s Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) required additional endmembers. In the Columbia Hills there were a number of scenes in which additional rock endmembers were required. The SMA methodology identified relatively dust-free areas on undisturbed rock surfaces, as well as spectrally unique areas on RAT abraded rocks. Spectral parameters from these areas were examined and six spectral classes were identified. These classes are named after a type rock or area and are: Adirondack, Lower West Spur, Clovis, Wishstone, Peace, and Watchtower. These classes are discriminable based, primarily, on near-infrared (NIR) spectral parameters. Clovis and Watchtower class rocks appear more oxidized than Wishstone class rocks and Adirondack basalts based on their having higher 535 nm band depths. Comparison of the spectral parameters of these Gusev crater rocks to parameters of glass-dominated basaltic tuffs indicates correspondence between measurements of Clovis and Watchtower classes, but divergence for the Wishstone class rocks which appear to have a higher fraction of crystalline ferrous iron bearing phases. Despite a high sulfur content, the rock Peace has NIR properties resembling plains basalts.

  2. Pancam: A Multispectral Imaging Investigation on the NASA 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Maki, J.; Schwochert, M.; Dingizian, A.; Brown, D.; Morris, R. V.; Arneson, H. M.; Johnson, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the six science payload elements carried on each of the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MER; Figure 1) is the Panoramic Camera System, or Pancam. Pancam consists of three major components: a pair of digital CCD cameras, the Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA), and a radiometric calibration target. The PMA provides the azimuth and elevation actuation for the cameras as well as a 1.5 meter high vantage point from which to image. The calibration target provides a set of reference color and grayscale standards for calibration validation, and a shadow post for quantification of the direct vs. diffuse illumination of the scene. Pancam is a multispectral, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging system, with a field of regard provided by the PMA that extends across 360 of azimuth and from zenith to nadir, providing a complete view of the scene around the rover in up to 12 unique wavelengths. The major characteristics of Pancam are summarized.

  3. Initial Pancam Visible/Near-infrared Observations of Materials near Endeavour Crater's Western Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Farrand, W. H.; Wang, A.; MER Athena Science Team

    2011-12-01

    The Pancam multispectral stereo camera on the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover began acquiring visible/near-infrared (443-1009 nm) images of materials along the western edge of Endeavour Crater in August, 2011. Preliminary observations documented changes in the color and textures of rocks and soils during the transition from typical Meridiani plains to the Endeavour rim area. As the rover approached Cape York and Spirit Point, Pancam observations (along with those from the Microscopic Imager) documented changes in size distributions of the ubiquitous hematite-rich spherules. For example, preliminary observations near the outcrop "Gibraltar" (north of the sand-filled 35 m diameter crater "Pathfinder") showed spherules embedded in the outcrop to be <1.5 mm, whereas those scattered about the surface were bimodal in distribution with size ranges typically <1.5 mm and >5 mm (Figure 1). At the time of this writing, not all Pancam images of the Gibraltar area had been transmitted to the ground, but reflectance spectra from these observations will be presented at the meeting. Comparison of Pancam reflectance spectra to CRISM observations of the region also demonstrate the utility of orbital imaging spectroscopy as a means to guide rover traverses around Spirit Point during investigations of phyllosilicates-bearing materials. While Fe-bearing oxides and oxyhydroxides can exhibit distinctive spectral features in the visible/near-infrared, most diagnostic spectral features of phyllosilicate minerals are outside the spectral range of Pancam. Nonetheless, the potential exists for using Pancam for phyllosilicate-bearing rock detections, although they will be non-unique. For example, different classes of phyllosilicates (e.g., nontronite, montmorillonite) can be grouped to first order based on spectral parameters such as 900 nm band depth or reflectance maximum position vs. 535 nm band depth. Pancam observations relevant to these detections will be presented at the meeting.

  4. Recent Multispectral Imaging Results from the Pancam Instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    As of early September 2006, the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments have acquired more than 57,000 and 52,000 multispectral images, respectively, from the rovers' landing sites and traverse paths within Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. These observations include more than 950 and 600 full multispectral imaging observations, respectively, in the 11 distinct near-UV to near-IR wavelengths sampled by the Pancams. Both rovers have faced challenges in their exploration activities during 2006 because of power restrictions imposed by the low-Sun, southern hemisphere winter conditions. Still, major science campaigns have been conducted at both landing sites. At Gusev, Pancam imaging documented major geomorphic and color units during the Spirit rover's traverse down the south side of Husband Hill and across the Southern Basin to the possible volcanic or impact feature known as Home Plate. More recently, at Spirit's "Winter Haven" stationary location in Gusev crater, a full-resolution, 360 degree, low-compression panorama (the "McMurdo" panorama) has been obtained using all of Pancam's filters. In Meridiani, the geology and color properties of the terrain during Opportunity's traverse south from Erebus crater to its current location at the rim of Victoria crater has been documented in detail by Pancam multispectral imaging, including a number of albedo measurements and other coordinated observations with orbiting NASA and ESA spacecraft designed to enhance surface-orbital "ground truth" connections. Panoramas, mosaics, and multispectral analysis results from these recent Pancam data sets will be summarized and discussed in terms of their geologic context and complimentarity to other MER remote sensing and in situ investigations and results obtained during this past year.

  5. The PanCam Calibration Target (PCT) and multispectral image processing for the ExoMars 2018 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D.; Wilding, M.; Gunn, M.; Tyler, L.; Pugh, S.; Coates, A.; Griffiths, A.; Cousins, C.; Schmitz, N.; Paar, G.

    2011-10-01

    The Panoramic Camera (PanCam) instrument for the ESA/NASA 2018 ExoMars mission is designed to be the 'eyes' of the Mars rover and is equipped with two wide angle multispectral cameras (WACs) from MSSL, and a focusable High Resolution Camera (HRC) from DLR. To achieve its science role within the ExoMars mission, the PanCam will generate terrain reflectance spectra to help identify the mineralogy of the Martian surface, and generate true-colour images of the Martian environment. The PanCam Calibration Target (PCT) is an essential component for the science operations of the PanCam instrument. Its purpose is to allow radiometric calibration and to support geometric calibration check-out of the PanCam instrument during the mission. Unlike other camera calibration targets flown to Mars, the PCT target regions are being made from stained glass. The paper describes the work undertaken during the early build and testing of the PCT, together with results from the baseline algorithms that have been designed and implemented to process the multispectral PanCam images.

  6. VNIR multispectral observations of rocks at Cape York, Endeavour crater, Mars by the Opportunity rover's Pancam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, William H.; Bell, James F.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Rice, Melissa S.; Hurowitz, Joel A.

    2013-07-01

    From its arrival at the portion of the rim of Endeavour crater known informally as Cape York, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has made numerous visible and near infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rock surfaces. This paper describes multispectral observations from Opportunity's arrival at Cape York to its winter-over location at Greeley Haven. Averages of pixels from the Pancam's left and right eyes were joined to form 11 point spectra from numerous observations and were examined via a number of techniques. These included principal components analysis, a sequential maximum angle convex cone approach, examination of spectral parameters, and a hierarchical clustering approach. The end result of these analyses was the determination of six primary spectral (PS) classes describing spectrally unique materials observed on Cape York. These classes consisted of a "standard" outcrop spectrum that was observed on the clasts and matrix comprising the upper unit of the Shoemaker formation, a class representing rock surfaces exposed around Odyssey crater and typified by the rocks of the Tisdale series, pebbles occurring in and weathered out of the upper unit of the Shoemaker formation that appear red in 1009, 904, 754 nm color composites, patches on Tisdale rocks exhibiting a 864 nm band minimum that were spectrally anomalous in root mean square error images derived from spectral mixture analyses, clasts with a high 904 nm band depth occurring in the Greeley Haven location, and gypsum veins typified by the vein Homestake. Comparisons of three of these classes that had well defined band minima between 800 and 1009 nm with spectral library spectra of ferrous silicates and ferric oxide, oxyhydroxide and ferric sulfate minerals indicated tentative matches of the "red" pebbles with orthopyroxenes, of the spectrally anomalous 864 nm band minimum material with hematite or ferric sulfates, and of the high 904 nm band depth material with an orthopyroxene

  7. Pancam Multispectral Observations of the Block Island meteorite, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Calvin, W. M.; Farrand, W. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Morris, R. V.; Ashley, J. W.; Lee, E. M.; Bell, J. F.; Weitz, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used the Pancam stereo camera to image the Fe-Ni meteorite “Block Island” extensively in 11 visible/near-infrared (434-1009 nm) bands to document variations in color and texture beginning on Sol 1961 (July 30, 2009). Pancam spectra of the meteorite suggest that a relatively thick coating of nanophase ferric-rich dust contaminated the surface of this rock, as well as nearby soil units. This resulted in positive 535 nm band depths on Block Island, compared to negative 535 nm bands observed on less dusty surfaces on Heat Shield rock (sol 352; Jan. 19, 2005), the other Fe-Ni meteorite measured by Opportunity. Despite the dust coating, distinct color variations were observed across the surface of Block Island, including intermittent to more contiguous occurrences of smooth materials with “purple” hues in Pancam false-color RGB representations using 434 nm, 535 nm, 753 nm bands (and distinct in decorrelation stretches using the same bands). These materials exhibited lobate margins that appeared to coat the underlying meteorite surface. Using Pancam images to colorize Microscopic Imager (MI) frames confirmed that the dark-toned, lobate, smooth surfaces observed in MI images were purple-colored in false-color composites. Although the surfaces underlying the purple materials exhibited a weak 535 nm band, they also exhibited a featureless, positive slope between 670 nm and 900 nm, consistent with laboratory spectra of Fe-Ni meteorites. By comparison, the purple coatings on Block Island exhibited stronger 535 nm band depths, and slightly stronger absorptions in the 860 nm region. These spectral features are consistent with a more oxidized surface, likely containing a mixture of nanophase ferric materials. Preliminary APXS data suggest that the purple coatings are enriched in Mg, Br, and Zn relative to the rest of the meteorite, while Mössbauer data are consistent with phases of nanophase ferric oxide (e.g., np-hematite). These

  8. Large Multispectral and Albedo Panoramas Acquired by the Pancam Instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Arneson, H. M.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Hayes, A. G.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, M. J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. The panoramic camera (Pancam) multispectral, stereoscopic imaging systems on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity [1] have acquired and downlinked more than 45,000 images (35 Gbits of data) over more than 700 combined sols of operation on Mars as of early January 2005. A large subset of these images were acquired as part of 26 large multispectral and/or broadband "albedo" panoramas (15 on Spirit, 11 on Opportunity) covering large ranges of azimuth (12 spanning 360 ) and designed to characterize major regional color and albedo characteristics of the landing sites and various points along both rover traverses.

  9. Mars Exploration Rover Pancam Multispectral Imaging of Rocks, Soils, and Dust at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Calvin, W. M.; Farrand, W.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Morris, R. V.; Sullivan, R. J.; Thompson, S.; Wang, A.; Weitz, C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2007-01-01

    Multispectral imaging from the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity has provided important new insights about the geology and geologic history of the rover landing sites and traverse locations in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. Pancam observations from near-UV to near-IR wavelengths provide limited compositional and mineralogic constraints on the presence abundance, and physical properties of ferric- and ferrous-iron bearing minerals in rocks, soils, and dust at both sites. High resolution and stereo morphologic observations have also helped to infer some aspects of the composition of these materials at both sites. Perhaps most importantly, Pancam observations were often efficiently and effectively used to discover and select the relatively small number of places where in situ measurements were performed by the rover instruments, thus supporting and enabling the much more quantitative mineralogic discoveries made using elemental chemistry and mineralogy data. This chapter summarizes the major compositionally- and mineralogically-relevant results at Gusev and Meridiani derived from Pancam observations. Classes of materials encountered in Gusev crater include outcrop rocks, float rocks, cobbles, clasts, soils, dust, rock grindings, rock coatings, windblown drift deposits, and exhumed whitish/yellowish salty soils. Materials studied in Meridiani Planum include sedimentary outcrop rocks, rock rinds, fracture fills, hematite spherules, cobbles, rock fragments, meteorites, soils, and windblown drift deposits. This chapter also previews the results of a number of coordinated observations between Pancam and other rover-based and Mars-orbital instruments that were designed to provide complementary new information and constraints on the mineralogy and physical properties of martian surface materials.

  10. Multispectral VNIR Observations by the Opportunity Rover Pancam of Multiple Episodes of Aqueous Alteration in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Ruff, Steven W.; Rice, Melissa S.

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2015, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring the break in the rim of Endeavour Crater dubbed Marathon Valley by the rover team. Marathon Valley was identified by orbital hyperspectral data from the MRO CRISM as having a relatively strong spectral feature in the 2.3 micrometer region indicative of an Mg or Fe-OH combination overtone absorption band indicative of smectite clay. Earlier in its mission, Opportunity examined the Matijevic Hill region on the more northerly Cape York crater rim segment and found evidence for smectite clays in a stratigraphically lower, pre-impact formed unit dubbed the Matijevic formation. However, the smectite exposures in Marathon Valley appear to be associated with the stratigraphically higher Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Evidence for alteration in this unit in Marathon Valley is provided by Pancam multispectral observations in the 430 to 1010 nm visible/near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Sinuous troughs ("red zones") contain fragmented cobbles and pebbles displaying higher blue-to-red slopes, moderately higher 535 nm band depths, elevated 754 to 934 nm, and negative 934 to 1009 nm slopes. The lack of an absorption at 864 to 904 nm indicates the lack of crystalline red hematite in these red zones, but likely an enrichment in nanophase ferric oxides. The negative 934 to 1009 nm slope is potentially indicative of the presence of adsorbed or structurally bound water. A scuff in a red zone near the southern wall of Marathon Valley uncovered light-toned soils and a pebble with an 803 to 864 nm absorption resembling that of light-toned Fe-sulfate bearing soils uncovered by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. APXS chemical measurements indicated enrichments of Mg and S in the scuff soils and the pebble, Joseph Field, with the strongest 803 nm band- consistent with Mg and Fe sulfates. The presence of Fe and Mg sulfates can be interpreted as evidence of a potentially later episode of

  11. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Calvin, W.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A. G.; Hubbard, M. Y. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, M. J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K. M.; Lemmon, M. T.; Li, R.; Madsen, M. B.; Maki, J. N.; Malin, M.; McCartney, E.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images from Meridiani Planum reveal a low-albedo, generally flat, and relatively rock-free surface. Within and around impact craters and fractures, laminated outcrop rocks with higher albedo are observed. Fine-grained materials include dark sand, bright ferric iron-rich dust, angular rock clasts, and millimeter-size spheroidal granules that are eroding out of the laminated rocks. Spectra of sand, clasts, and one dark plains rock are consistent with mafic silicates such as pyroxene and olivine. Spectra of both the spherules and the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence of crystalline ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission. Astronomical observations captured solar transits by Phobos and Deimos and time-lapse observations of sunsets.

  12. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, J.F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H.M.; Bass, D.; Calvin, W.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A.G.; Hubbard, M.Y.H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, M.J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K.M.; Lemmon, M.T.; Li, R.; Madsen, M.B.; Maki, J.N.; Malin, M.; McCartney, E.; McLennan, S.; McSween, H.Y., Jr.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Parker, T.J.; Proton, J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Seelos, F.; Soderblom, J.M.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weitz, C.M.; Wolff, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images from Meridiani Planum reveal a low-albedo, generally flat, and relatively rock-free surface. Within and around impact craters and fractures, laminated outcrop rocks with higher albedo are observed. Fine-grained materials include dark sand, bright ferric iron-rich dust, angular rock clasts, and millimeter-size spheroidal granules that are eroding out of the laminated rocks. Spectra of sand, clasts, and one dark plains rock are consistent with mafic silicates such as pyroxene and olivine. Spectra of both the spherules and the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence of crystalline ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission. Astronomical observations captured solar transits by Phobos and Deimos and time-lapse observations of sunsets.

  13. Radiative transfer modeling of dust-coated Pancam calibration target materials: Laboratory visible/near-infrared spectrogoniometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.; Grundy, W.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F., III; Christensen, P.R.; Graff, T.; Guinness, E.A.; Kinch, K.; Morris, R.; Shepard, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory visible/near-infrared multispectral observations of Mars Exploration Rover Pancam calibration target materials coated with different thicknesses of Mars spectral analog dust were acquired under variable illumination geometries using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer. The data were fit with a two-layer radiative transfer model that combines a Hapke formulation for the dust with measured values of the substrate interpolated using a He-Torrance approach. We first determined the single-scattering albedo, phase function, opposition effect width, and amplitude for the dust using the entire data set (six coating thicknesses, three substrates, four wavelengths, and phase angles 3??-117??). The dust exhibited single-scattering albedo values similar to other Mars analog soils and to Mars Pathfinder dust and a dominantly forward scattering behavior whose scattering lobe became narrower at longer wavelengths. Opacity values for each dust thickness corresponded well to those predicted from the particles sizes of the Mars analog dust. We then restricted the number of substrates, dust thicknesses, and incidence angles input to the model. The results suggest that the dust properties are best characterized when using substrates whose reflectances are brighter and darker than those of the deposited dust and data that span a wide range of dust thicknesses. The model also determined the dust photometric properties relatively well despite limitations placed on the range of incidence angles. The model presented here will help determine the photometric properties of dust deposited on the MER rovers and to track the multiple episodes of dust deposition and erosion that have occurred at both landing sites. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Spirit Rover at Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Calvin, W.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A. G.; Hubbard, M. Y. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, M. J.; Maki, J. N.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Parker, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera images at Gusev crater reveal a rock-strewn surface interspersed with high- to moderate-albedo fine-grained deposits occurring in part as drifts or in small circular swales or hollows. Optically thick coatings of fine-grained ferric iron-rich dust dominate most bright soil and rock surfaces. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces and rock regions exposed by brushing or grinding show near-infrared spectral signatures consistent with the presence of mafic silicates such as pyroxene or olivine. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission, and astronomical observations captured solar transits by the martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, as well as a view of Earth from the martian surface.

  15. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Spirit Rover at Gusev crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, J.F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H.M.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Calvin, W.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A.G.; Hubbard, M.Y.H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, M.J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K.M.; Lemmon, M.T.; Li, R.; Madsen, M.B.; Maki, J.N.; Malin, M.; McCartney, E.; McLennan, S.; McSween, H.Y., Jr.; Ming, D. W.; Moersch, J.E.; Morris, R.V.; Dobrea, E.Z.N.; Parker, T.J.; Proton, J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Seelos, F.; Soderblom, J.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Sullivan, R.J.; Wolff, M.J.; Wang, A.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera images at Gusev crater reveal a rock-strewn surface interspersed with high- to moderate-albedo fine-grained deposits occurring in part as drifts or in small circular swales or hollows. Optically thick coatings of fine-grained ferric iron-rich dust dominate most bright soil and rock surfaces. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces and rock regions exposed by brushing or grinding show near-infrared spectral signatures consistent with the presence of mafic silicates such as pyroxene or olivine. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission, and astronomical observations captured solar transits by the martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, as well as a view of Earth from the martian surface.

  16. Multispectral Evidence of Alteration from Murray Ridge to Marathon Valley Observed by the Opportunity Pancam on the Rim of Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been traversing the rim of the Noachian-aged, 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Circa sol 3390 of its mission, Opportunity reached the northern tip of the rim segment known as Solander Point and has since been traversing the rim to the south to its current location at the break in the rim known as Marathon Valley. The rocks making up the rim are dominated by impact breccias consisting of clasts and a finer-grained matrix. Several segments of the rim are transected by fractures as observed from orbital HiRISE imagery. Pancam multispectral observations of outcrop in these fracture regions, including part of the rim crest dubbed Murray Ridge, the Hueytown fracture, and Marathon Valley have been made. Over the range of 430 to 1010 nm there are changes in the multispectral reflectance signature of the breccia matrix with an increase in 535 nm and 904 nm band depth. This is attributed to oxidation and an increase in ferric oxides in these areas. In situ observations by the rover's APXS also indicate chemical differences associated with the matrix along these fractures, including increasing Fe/Mn southward from Solander Point to a region having an Al-OH signature in CRISM spectra, and generally higher SO3 in the Hueytown fracture region and the area around Spirit of St. Louis. Overturned rocks observed on Murray Ridge were determined by the APXS to have elevated Mn and Pancam spectra of the high Mn spots have a characteristic red, featureless slope. This spectrum was also observed in association with some coatings on blocks of the sulfate-rich Grasberg formation. Spectra resembling red hematite are observed in some zones in association with the craterform feature Spirit of St. Louis outside the mouth (to the west) of Marathon Valley. Marathon Valley itself has been observed from orbital hyperspectral observations by the CRISM sensor to host occurrences of Fe/Mg smectite minerals- indicating extensive aqueous alteration in this

  17. Pancam Visible/Near-Infrared Spectra of Large Fe-Ni Meteorites at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bell, J. F.; Farrand, W. H.; Ashley, J.; Weitz, C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2010-03-01

    The MER Opportunity rover imaged three large Fe-Ni meteorites in 2009. Pancam reflectance spectra of coatings on the rocks are consistent with ferric oxides (e.g., np-hematite), suggestive of chemical weathering on portions of the meteorite surfaces.

  18. Spectral variability among rocks in visible and near-infrared mustispectral Pancam data collected at Gusev crater: Examinations using spectral mixture analysis and related techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F.; Johnson, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Soderblom, J.; Ming, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rocks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Panoramic camera (Pancam) have been analyzed using a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) methodology. Scenes have been examined from the Gusev crater plains into the Columbia Hills. Most scenes on the plains and in the Columbia Hills could be modeled as three end-member mixtures of a bright material, rock, and shade. Scenes of rocks disturbed by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) required additional end-members. In the Columbia Hills, there were a number of scenes in which additional rock end-members were required. The SMA methodology identified relatively dust-free areas on undisturbed rock surfaces as well as spectrally unique areas on RAT abraded rocks. Spectral parameters from these areas were examined, and six spectral classes were identified. These classes are named after a type rock or area and are Adirondack, Lower West Spur, Clovis, Wishstone, Peace, and Watchtower. These classes are discriminable based, primarily, on near-infrared (NIR) spectral parameters. Clovis and Watchtower class rocks appear more oxidized than Wishstone class rocks and Adirondack basalts based on their having higher 535 nm band depths. Comparison of the spectral parameters of these Gusev crater rocks to parameters of glass-dominated basaltic tuffs indicates correspondence between measurements of Clovis and Watchtower classes but divergence for the Wishstone class rocks, which appear to have a higher fraction of crystalline ferrous iron-bearing phases. Despite a high sulfur content, the rock Peace has NIR properties resembling plains basalts. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Knoll, A. H.; McLennan, S. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Calvin, W. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Morris, R. V.; Soderblom, J.; Thompson, S. D.; Watters, W. A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-04-01

    Multispectral measurements in the visible and near infrared of rocks at Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Pancam are described. The Pancam multispectral data show that the outcrops of the Burns formation consist of two main spectral units which in stretched 673, 535, 432 nm color composites appear buff- and purple-colored. These units are referred to as the HFS and LFS spectral units based on higher and lower values of 482 to 535 nm slope. Spectral characteristics are consistent with the LFS outcrop consisting of less oxidized, and the HFS outcrop consisting of more oxidized, iron-bearing minerals. The LFS surfaces are not as common and appear, primarily, at the distal ends of outcrop layers and on steep, more massive surfaces, locations that are subject to greater eolian erosion. Consequently, the HFS surfaces are interpreted as a weathering rind. Further inherent spectral differences between layers and between different outcrop map units, both untouched and patches abraded by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool, are also described. Comparisons of the spectral parameters of the Meridiani outcrop with a set of laboratory reflectance measurements of Fe3+-bearing minerals show that the field of outcrop measurements plots near the fields of hematite, ferrihydrite, poorly crystalline goethite, and schwertmannite. Rind and fracture fill materials, observed intermittently at outcrop exposures, are intermediate in their spectral character between both the HFS and LFS spectral classes and other, less oxidized, surface materials (basaltic sands, spherules, and cobbles).

  20. Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knoll, A.H.; McLennan, S.M.; Squyres, S. W.; Calvin, W.M.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Morris, R.V.; Soderblom, J.; Thompson, S.D.; Watters, W.A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    Multispectral measurements in the visible and near infrared of rocks at Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Pancam are described. The Pancam multispectral data show that the outcrops of the Burns formation consist of two main spectral units which in stretched 673, 535, 432 nm color composites appear buff- and purple-colored. These units are referred to as the HFS and LFS spectral units based on higher and lower values of 482 to 535 nm slope. Spectral characteristics are consistent with the LFS outcrop consisting of less oxidized, and the HFS outcrop consisting of more oxidized, iron-bearing minerals. The LFS surfaces are not as common and appear, primarily, at the distal ends of outcrop layers and on steep, more massive surfaces, locations that are subject to greater eolian erosion. Consequently, the HFS surfaces are interpreted as a weathering rind. Further inherent spectral differences between layer's and between different outcrop map units, both untouched and patches abraded by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool, are also described. Comparisons of the spectral parameters of the Meridiani outcrop with a set of laboratory reflectance measurements of Fe3+-bearing minerals show that the field of outcrop measurements plots near the fields of hematite, ferrihydrite, poorly crystalline goethite, and schwertmannite. Rind and fracture fill materials, observed intermittently at outcrop exposures, are intermediate in their spectral character between both the HFS and LFS spectral classes and other, less oxidized, surface materials (basaltic sands, spherules, and cobbles). Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Pancam Visible/Near-Infrared Spectra of Fe-Ni Meteorite Oileán Ruaidh at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bell, J. F.; Farrand, W. H.; Gellert, R.; Ashley, J.; Schröder, C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-03-01

    Pancam imaged the Fe-Ni meteorite Oileán Ruaidh on Sols 2367-2371. The surface is similar to other meteorites, with discontinuous coatings that exhibit reflectance spectra consistent with ferric oxides, suggestive of chemical weathering.

  2. The Athena Pancam and Color Microscopic Imager (CMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Schwochert, M.; Morris, R. V.; Sullivan, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Athena Mars rover payload includes two primary science-grade imagers: Pancam, a multispectral, stereo, panoramic camera system, and the Color Microscopic Imager (CMI), a multispectral and variable depth-of-field microscope. Both of these instruments will help to achieve the primary Athena science goals by providing information on the geology, mineralogy, and climate history of the landing site. In addition, Pancam provides important support for rover navigation and target selection for Athena in situ investigations. Here we describe the science goals, instrument designs, and instrument performance of the Pancam and CMI investigations.

  3. VNIR Multispectral Observations of Rocks at Spirit of St. Louis Crater and Marathon Valley on Th Rim of Endeavour Crater Made by the Opportunity Rover Pancam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F., III; Mittlefehldt, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring the western rim of the 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since August, 2011. Recently, Opportunity has reached a break in the Endeavour rim that the rover team has named Mara-thon Valley. This is the site where orbital observations from the MRO CRISM imaging spectrometer indicated the presence of iron smectites. On the outer western portion of Marathon Valley, Opportunity explored the crater-form feature dubbed Spirit of St. Louis (SoSL) crater. This presentation describes the 430 to 1009 nm (VNIR) reflectance, measured by the rover's Pancam, of rock units present both at Spirit of St. Louis and within Marathon Valley.

  4. Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of geochemically measured rock fragments at the Opportunity landing site in Meridiani Planum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Catherine M.; Farrand, William H.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Fleischer, Iris; Schröder, Christian; Yingst, Aileen; Jolliff, Brad; Gellert, Ralf; Bell, Jim; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Cohen, Barbara; Calvin, Wendy; Rutherford, Malcolm; Ashley, James

    2010-11-01

    We have used visible and near-infrared Panoramic Camera (Pancam) spectral data acquired by the Opportunity rover to analyze 15 rock fragments at the Meridiani Planum landing site. These spectral results were then compared to geochemistry measurements made by the in situ instruments Mössbauer (MB) and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) to determine the feasibility of mineralogic characterization from Pancam data. Our results suggest that dust and alteration rinds coat many rock fragments, which limits our ability to adequately measure the mineralogy of some rocks from Pancam spectra relative to the different field of view and penetration depths of MB and APXS. Viewing and lighting geometry, along with sampling size, also complicate the spectral characterization of the rocks. Rock fragments with the same geochemistry of sulfate-rich outcrops have similar spectra, although the sulfate-rich composition cannot be ascertained based upon Pancam spectra alone. FeNi meteorites have spectral characteristics, particularly ferric oxide coatings, that generally differentiate them from other rocks at the landing site. Stony meteorites and impact fragments with unknown compositions have a diverse range of spectral properties and are not well constrained nor diagnostic in Pancam data. Bounce Rock, with its unique basalt composition, is easily differentiated in the Pancam data from all other rock types at Meridiani Planum. Our Pancam analyses of small pebbles adjacent to these 15 rock fragments suggests that other rock types may exist at the landing site but have not yet been geochemically measured.

  5. Color coded data obtained by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Color coded data obtained from Baja California, Mexico to Texas by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer is pictured. The map shows where data was obtained on the 19th orbit of the mission. Yellow and green areas represent water. The first brown segment at left is Baja California, and the second begins at the coast of mainland Mexico and extends into Texas. The dark brown strips at the right are clouds.

  6. Spectral mixture analysis of multispectral thermal infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote spectral measurements of light reflected or emitted from terrestrial scenes is commonly integrated over areas sufficiently large that the surface comprises more than one component. Techniques have been developed to analyze multispectral or imaging spectrometer data in terms of a wide range of mixtures of a limited number of components. Spectral mixture analysis has been used primarily for visible and near-infrared images, but it may also be applied to thermal infrared data. Two approaches are reviewed: binary mixing and a more general treatment for isothermal mixtures of a greater number of components.

  7. Multi-spectral infrared spectroscopy for robust plastic identification.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Guardado, Abraham; Money, Mason; McKinney, Nathaniel; Chanda, Debashis

    2015-08-20

    The identification and classification of plastics plays an important role in waste management and recycling processes. Present electrical and optical sorting techniques lack the required resolution for accurate identification in a high throughput manner for a diverse set of plastics commonly found in municipal waste. In this work a multi-spectral infrared spectroscopic technique is employed to construct a unique fingerprint library of 12 plastic resin groups that are commonly encountered in municipal waste. We test the proposed method in a blind plastic identification experiment, which shows excellent unbiased identification accuracy. This simple optical technique in combination with the multi-spectral library will enable high throughput and accurate detection of various plastics from recovered solid waste. PMID:26368777

  8. Mars Exploration Rover Athena Panoramic Camera (Pancam) investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, J.F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Maki, J.N.; Arneson, H.M.; Brown, D.; Collins, S.A.; Dingizian, A.; Elliot, S.T.; Hagerott, E.C.; Hayes, A.G.; Johnson, M.J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K.; Lemmon, M.T.; Morris, R.V.; Scherr, L.; Schwochert, M.; Shepard, M.K.; Smith, G.H.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Sullivan, R.J.; Sullivan, W.T.; Wadsworth, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) investigation is part of the Athena science payload launched to Mars in 2003 on NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions. The scientific goals of the Pancam investigation are to assess the high-resolution morphology, topography, and geologic context of each MER landing site, to obtain color images to constrain the mineralogic, photometric, and physical properties of surface materials, and to determine dust and aerosol opacity and physical properties from direct imaging of the Sun and sky. Pancam also provides mission support measurements for the rovers, including Sun-finding for rover navigation, hazard identification and digital terrain modeling to help guide long-term rover traverse decisions, high-resolution imaging to help guide the selection of in situ sampling targets, and acquisition of education and public outreach products. The Pancam optical, mechanical, and electronics design were optimized to achieve these science and mission support goals. Pancam is a multispectral, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging system consisting of two digital cameras mounted on a mast 1.5 m above the Martian surface. The mast allows Pancam to image the full 360?? in azimuth and ??90?? in elevation. Each Pancam camera utilizes a 1024 ?? 1024 active imaging area frame transfer CCD detector array. The Pancam optics have an effective focal length of 43 mm and a focal ratio f/20, yielding an instantaneous field of view of 0.27 mrad/pixel and a field of view of 16?? ?? 16??. Each rover's two Pancam "eyes" are separated by 30 cm and have a 1?? toe-in to provide adequate stereo parallax. Each eye also includes a small eight position filter wheel to allow surface mineralogic studies, multispectral sky imaging, and direct Sun imaging in the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. Pancam was designed and calibrated to operate within specifications on Mars at temperatures from -55?? to +5??C. An onboard calibration target and fiducial marks provide the capability

  9. GRIN optics for multispectral infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Daniel; Bayya, Shyam; Nguyen, Vinh; Sanghera, Jas; Kotov, Mikhail; Drake, Gryphon

    2015-06-01

    Graded index (GRIN) optics offer potential for both weight savings and increased performance but have so far been limited to visible and NIR bands (wavelengths shorter than about 0.9 μm). NRL is developing a capability to extend GRIN optics to longer wavelengths in the infrared by exploiting diffused IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. These IR-GRIN lenses are compatible with all IR wavebands (SWIR, MWIR and LWIR) and can be used alongside conventional wideband materials. Traditional multiband IR imagers require many elements for correction of chromatic aberrations, making them large and heavy and not well-suited for weight sensitive platforms. IR-GRIN optical elements designed with simultaneous optical power and chromatic correction can reduce the number of elements in wideband systems, making multi-band IR imaging practical for platforms including small UAVs and soldier handheld, helmet or weapon mounted cameras. The IR-GRIN lens technology, design space and anti-reflection considerations are presented in this paper.

  10. Polarization controllable multispectral symmetry-breaking absorberin mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan; Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Hasan, Dihan; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Alioto, Massimo; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-08-01

    The versatility of mid-infrared metamaterial absorbers along with the ease of fabrication has been widely used in thermal imaging, molecule sensing, and many other applications. Controllable multispectral absorption is highly required for small footprint, multi-purpose, and real-time sensing applications. In this paper, we present the polarization control of interchangeable multispectral absorption based on the dual-band metamaterial absorber in split mode. Large modulation depth of absorption is obtained during multi-band transition through polarization control. We perform theoretical and numerical analysis to explain the results by formulating an equivalent circuit for the asymmetric cross resonator. Thermal controllability is also demonstrated to show the reversible and repeatable manipulation of absorption intensity at a given wavelength. Moreover, we characterized the limitation of this device under extreme high temperature. This work offers a design methodology for interchangeable multispectral metamaterial absorber from a new perspective by adopting polarization of incident light as a control mechanism, and this will open up possibilities for many valuable applications in the future.

  11. Enhancement of multispectral thermal infrared images - Decorrelation contrast stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Decorrelation contrast stretching is an effective method for displaying information from multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) images. The technique involves transformation of the data to principle components ('decorrelation'), independent contrast 'stretching' of data from the new 'decorrelated' image bands, and retransformation of the stretched data back to the approximate original axes, based on the inverse of the principle component rotation. The enhancement is robust in that colors of the same scene components are similar in enhanced images of similar scenes, or the same scene imaged at different times. Decorrelation contrast stretching is reviewed in the context of other enhancements applied to TIR images.

  12. Development of a portable multispectral thermal infrared camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterwisch, Frederick G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research and development effort was to design and build a prototype instrument designated the 'Thermal Infrared Multispectral Camera' (TIRC). The Phase 2 effort was a continuation of the Phase 1 feasibility study and preliminary design for such an instrument. The completed instrument designated AA465 has application in the field of geologic remote sensing and exploration. The AA465 Thermal Infrared Camera (TIRC) System is a field-portable multispectral thermal infrared camera operating over the 8.0 - 13.0 micron wavelength range. Its primary function is to acquire two-dimensional thermal infrared images of user-selected scenes. Thermal infrared energy emitted by the scene is collected, dispersed into ten 0.5 micron wide channels, and then measured and recorded by the AA465 System. This multispectral information is presented in real time on a color display to be used by the operator to identify spectral and spatial variations in the scenes emissivity and/or irradiance. This fundamental instrument capability has a wide variety of commercial and research applications. While ideally suited for two-man operation in the field, the AA465 System can be transported and operated effectively by a single user. Functionally, the instrument operates as if it were a single exposure camera. System measurement sensitivity requirements dictate relatively long (several minutes) instrument exposure times. As such, the instrument is not suited for recording time-variant information. The AA465 was fabricated, assembled, tested, and documented during this Phase 2 work period. The detailed design and fabrication of the instrument was performed during the period of June 1989 to July 1990. The software development effort and instrument integration/test extended from July 1990 to February 1991. Software development included an operator interface/menu structure, instrument internal control functions, DSP image processing code, and a display algorithm coding program. The

  13. Multispectral glass transparent from visible to thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehault, A.; Calvez, L.; Pain, T.; Adam, P.; Rollin, J.; Zhang, X. H.

    2014-06-01

    The thermal imaging market has experienced a strong growth during the recent years due to continued cost reduction of night vision devices. The development of uncooled focal plane detector arrays is the major reason for the cost reduction. Another reason is the continuous improvement of the optical solution. In this paper, we present a new multispectral material which responds to the increasing demand for optics operating simultaneously in the visible/SWIR (Short Wave InfraRed) and the thermal infrared region. The most important properties of some glasses from the GeS2-Ga2S3- CsCl system are highlighted in this study. A stable composition 15Ga2S3-75GeS2-10CsCl allowed the synthesis of a large glass without crystallization. The refractive index of this glass was precisely measured from 0.6 to 10.4μm by using the Littrow method. The chromatic dispersion was then calculated and compared with other multispectral materials.

  14. Deepwater Horizon oil spill monitoring using airborne multispectral infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.

    2011-06-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 85 missions that included over 325 hours of flight operation. This paper describes several advanced analysis capabilities specifically developed for the Deepwater Horizon mission to correctly locate, identify, characterize, and quantify surface oil using ASPECT's multispectral infrared data. The data products produced using these advanced analysis capabilities provided the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command with a capability that significantly increased the effectiveness of skimmer vessel oil recovery efforts directed by the U.S. Coast Guard, and were considered by the Incident Command as key situational awareness information.

  15. Infrared optical coatings for the EarthCARE Multispectral Imager.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Woods, David; Sherwood, Richard; Djotni, Karim

    2014-10-20

    The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented. PMID:25402784

  16. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-03-01

    It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version of the infrared object field, with a bandwidth corresponding given by the acceptance parameter of the conversion process, and a center frequency given by the phase-match condition. Tuning of the phase-matched wavelengths has previously been demonstrated by changing the temperature [2] or angle [3 Keywords: Infrared imaging, nonlinear frequency conversion, diode lasers, upconversion ] of the nonlinear material. Unfortunately, temperature tuning is slow, and angle tuning typically results in alignment issues. Here we present a novel approach where the wavelength of the mixing field is used as a tuning parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled feedback grating. The output from a tunable laser is used as seed for a fiber amplifier system, boosting the power to approx. 3 W over the tuning range from 1025 to 1085 nm. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, the infrared wavelength that can be phase-matched is tunable over more than 200 nm. Using a crystal with multiple poling periods allows for upconversion within the entire transparency range of the nonlinear material.

  17. Pancam Spectral Variations Across Home Plate: Bonestell Panorama, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Rice, M. S.; Farrand, W. H.; Schmidt, M. E.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Wang, A.

    2008-12-01

    Visible/near-infrared color variations across the surface of the Home Plate (HP) structure were first observed by the Spirit Pancam multispectral camera using images acquired from the top of Husband Hill on sol 595, ~700m away from HP. Orbital imaging by the HiRISE camera on sol 1325 showed consistent color trends with Pancam in which the western edge of HP was "redder" than the "bluer" eastern portion. This suggested the eastern rim materials of HP are not as contaminated by airfall dust and/or are less oxidized. Pancam spectra of brushed rock targets indicate that western dust-free rock surfaces have higher 535nm band depths (consistent with higher Fe3+/Fe measured by the Mossbauer spectrometer), potentially caused by finely crystalline red hematite. The western rocks also exhibited less negative 601nm band depths than in the east, which could result from lower pyroxene/olivine ratios or the presence of goethite. The spectral variations across HP combined with in situ geochemical data around the rim suggest that the volcanic and/or hydrothermal nature of the HP system resulted in localized, high temperature events on the eastern side, compared to lower temperature alteration on the western side that produced greater amounts of nanophase ferric oxides. This hypothesis is being investigated using 13 band scenes acquired from Spirit's winter location on the northern rim of HP. Pancam began imaging on sol 1477 as part of an extensive mosaic (the "Bonestell Panorama"). Preliminary analyses confirm higher red/blue ratios along the western rim, but also redder regions on the eastern rim not as obvious in Sol 595 images. HiRISE acquired a color image of HP on Sol 1591 that shows less color variability on HP than the sol 1325 image. Dust fallout from the 2007 dust storm (sols 1240 to 1330) may be the cause of these temporal color variations. Additional analysis is required to determine whether surficial dust deposits are the dominant cause of the original color dichotomy

  18. Interpretation of multispectral and infrared thermal surveys of the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Hady, M. A. A. H.; Hafez, M. A. A.; Salman, A. B.; Morsy, M. A.; Elrakaiby, M. M.; Alaassy, I. E. E.; Kamel, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing airborne surveys were conducted, as part of the plan of rehabilitation, of the Suez Canal Zone using I2S multispectral camera and Bendix LN-3 infrared passive scanner. The multispectral camera gives four separate photographs for the same scene in the blue, green, red, and near infrared bands. The scanner was operated in the microwave bands of 8 to 14 microns and the thermal surveying was carried out both at night and in the day time. The surveys, coupled with intensive ground investigations, were utilized in the construction of new geological, structural lineation and drainage maps for the Suez Canal Zone on a scale of approximately 1:20,000, which are superior to the maps made by normal aerial photography. A considerable number of anomalies belonging to various types were revealed through the interpretation of the executed multispectral and infrared thermal surveys.

  19. Pancam Imaging of the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites in Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Cabrol, N.; Calvin, W.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers carry four Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments (two per rover) that have obtained high resolution multispectral and stereoscopic images for studies of the geology, mineralogy, and surface and atmospheric physical properties at both rover landing sites. The Pancams are also providing significant mission support measurements for the rovers, including Sun-finding for rover navigation, hazard identification and digital terrain modeling to help guide long-term rover traverse decisions, high resolution imaging to help guide the selection of in situ sampling targets, and acquisition of education and public outreach imaging products.

  20. Multi-spectral imaging with mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yang; Le, Han Q.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-spectral laser imaging can be a useful technology for target discrimination, classification, and identification based on object spectral signatures. The mid-IR region (~3-14 μm) is particularly rich of molecular spectroscopic fingerprints, but the technology has been under utilized. Compact, potentially inexpensive semiconductor lasers may allow more cost-effective applications. This paper describes a development of semiconductor-laser-based multi-spectral imaging for both near-IR and mid-IR, and demonstrates the potential of this technology. The near-IR study employed 7 wavelengths from 0.635-1.55 μm, and used for system engineering evaluation as well as for studying the fundamental aspects of multi-spectral laser imaging. These include issues of wavelength-dependence scattering as a function of incident and receiving angle and the polarization effects. Stokes vector imaging and degree-of-linear-polarization were shown to reveal significant information to characterize the targets. The mid-IR study employed 4 wavelengths from 3.3-9.6 μm, and was applied to diverse targets that consist of natural and man-made materials and household objects. It was shown capable to resolve and distinguish small spectral differences among various targets, thanks to the laser radiometric and spectral accuracy. Colorless objects in the visible were shown with "colorful" signatures in the mid-IR. An essential feature of the study is an advanced system architecture that employs wavelength-division-multiplexed laser beams for high spectral fidelity and resolution. In addition, unlike conventional one-transmitter and one receiver design, the system is based on a scalable CDMA network concept with multiple transmitters and receivers to allow efficient information acquisition. The results suggest that multi-spectral laser imaging in general can be a unique and powerful technology for wide ranging applications.

  1. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS): An investigator's guide to TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.; Meeks, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) is a NASA aircraft scanner providing six channel spectral capability in the thermal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Operating in the atmospheric window region (8 to 12 micrometers) with a channel sensitivity of approximately 0.1 C, TIMS may be used whenever an accurate measure of the Earth's surface is needed. A description of this scanner is provided as well as a discussion of data acquisition and reduction.

  2. Mapping Hydrated Materials with MER Pancam and MSL Mastcam: Results from Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, and Plans for Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, M. S.; Bell, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a "hydration signature" for mapping H2O- and/or OH-bearing materials at Mars landing sites using multispectral visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) observations from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Panoramic Camera (Pancam). Pancam's 13 narrowband geology filters cover 11 unique wavelengths in the visible and near infrared (434 to 1009 nm). The hydration signature is based on a strongly negative slope from 934 to 1009 nm that characterizes the spectra of hydrated silica-rich rocks and soils observed by MER Spirit; this feature is likely due to the 2ν1 + ν3 H2O combination band and/or the 3vOH overtone centered near ~1000 nm, whose positions vary slightly depending on bonding to nearest-neighbor atoms. Here we present the ways we have used this hydration signature, in combination with observations of morphology and texture, to remotely identify candidate hydrated materials in Pancam observations. At Gusev Crater, we find that the hydration signature is widespread along Spirit's traverse in the Columbia Hills, which adds to the growing body of evidence that aqueous alteration has played a significant role in the complex geologic history of this site. At Meridiani Planum, the hydration signature is associated with a specific stratigraphic layer ("Smith") exposed within the walls of Victoria Crater. We also discuss limitations to the use of the hydration signature, which can give false detections under specific viewing geometries. This hydration signature can similarly be used to map hydrated materials at the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site, Gale Crater. The MSL Mast Camera (Mastcam) is a two-instrument suite of fixed-focal length (FFL) cameras, one with a 15-degree field of view (FOV) and the other with a 5.1-degree FOV. Mastcam's narrowband filters cover 9 unique wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared (band centers near 440, 525, 675, 750, 800, 865, 905, 935, and 1035 nm), and are distributed between the two FFL cameras. Full

  3. Land surface temperature retrieved from airborne multispectral scanner mid-infrared and thermal-infrared data.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yong-Gang; Wang, Ning; Ma, Ling-Ling; Liu, Yao-Kai; Wu, Hua; Tang, Bo-Hui; Tang, Ling-Li; Li, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-25

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land surface processes at local/global scales. In this paper, a LST retrieval method was proposed from airborne multispectral scanner data comparing one mid-infrared (MIR) channel and one thermal infrared (TIR) channel with the land surface emissivity given as a priori knowledge. To remove the influence of the direct solar radiance efficiently, a relationship between the direct solar radiance and water vapor content and the view zenith angle and solar zenith angle was established. Then, LST could be retrieved with a split-window algorithm from MIR/TIR data. Finally, the proposed algorithm was applied to the actual airborne flight data and validated with in situ measurements of land surface types in the Baotou site in China on 17 October 2014. The results demonstrate that the difference between the retrieved and in situ LST was less than 1.5 K. The bais, RMSE, and standard deviation of the retrieved LST were 0.156 K, 0.883 K, and 0.869 K, respectively, for samples. PMID:26832579

  4. Spectrophotometric properties of materials observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 1. Spirit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Grundy, W.M.; Lemmon, M.T.; Bell, J.F., III; Johnson, M.J.; Deen, R.G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Farrand, W. H.; Guinness, E.A.; Hayes, A.G.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Seelos, F., IV; Soderblom, J.; Squyres, S.

    2006-01-01

    Multispectral observations of rocks and soils were acquired under varying illumination and viewing geometries in visible/near-infrared wavelengths by the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover to provide constraints on the physical and mineralogical nature of geologic materials in Gusev Crater. Data sets were acquired at six sites located near the landing site, in the surrounding plains, and in the West Spur and Husband Hill regions of the Columbia Hills. From these ???600 images, over 10,000 regions of interest were selected of rocks and soils over a wide range of phase angles (0-130??). Corrections for diffuse skylight incorporated sky models based on observations of atmospheric opacity throughout the mission. Disparity maps created from Pancam stereo images allowed inclusion of estimates of local facet orientations in the sky models. Single-term and two-term phase functions derived from Hapke scattering models exhibit a dominantly broad backscattering trend for soils and "Red" rocks inferred to be covered with variable amounts of dust and other coatings, consistent with the results from the Viking Lander and Imager for Mars Pathfinder cameras. Darker "Gray" rock surfaces (inferred to be relatively less dust covered) display more narrow, forward scattering behaviors, consistent with particles exhibiting little internal scattering. Gray and Red rocks are macroscopically rougher than most soil units, although a "dust-cleaning" event observed near the Paso Robles site caused an increase in soil surface roughness in addition to a substantial decrease in surface single scattering albedo. Gray rocks near the rim of Bonneville Crater exhibit the largest macroscopic roughness (????) among all units, as well as the greatest backscattering among Gray rocks. Photometric properties of coated Red rocks vary in the West Spur region, possibly as a result of weathering differences related to elevation-dependent aeolian regimes. Copyright 2006 by the

  5. Spectrophotometric properties of materials observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 2. Opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Grundy, W.M.; Lemmon, M.T.; Bell, J.F., III; Johnson, M.J.; Deen, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Farrand, W. H.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A.G.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Seelos, F.; Soderblom, J.; Squyres, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired visible/near-infrared multispectral observations of soils and rocks under varying viewing and illumination geometries that were modeled using radiative transfer theory to improve interpretations of the microphysical and surface scattering nature of materials in Meridiani Planum. Nearly 25,000 individual measurements were collected of rock and soil units identified by their color and morphologic properties over a wide range of phase angles (0-150??) at Eagle crater, in the surrounding plains, in Endurance crater, and in the plains between Endurance and Erebus craters through Sol 492. Corrections for diffuse skylight incorporated sky models based on observations of atmospheric opacity throughout the mission. Disparity maps created from Pancam stereo images allowed inclusion of local facet orientation estimates. Outcrop rocks overall exhibited the highest single scattering albedos (???0.9 at 753 nm), and most spherule-rich soils exhibited the lowest (???0.6 at 753 nm). Macroscopic roughness among outcrop rocks varied but was typically larger than spherule-rich soils. Data sets with sufficient phase angle coverage (resulting in well-constrained Hapke parameters) suggested that models using single-term and two-term Henyey-Greenstein phase functions exhibit a dominantly broad backscattering trend for most undisturbed spherule-rich soils. Rover tracks and other compressed soils exhibited forward scattering, while outcrop rocks were intermediate in their scattering behaviors. Some phase functions exhibited wavelength-dependent trends that may result from variations in thin deposits of airfall dust that occurred during the mission. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Lai, Tzung-Han; Lee, Jae Woong; Manders, Jesse R; So, Franky

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available near-infrared (IR) imagers are fabricated by integrating expensive epitaxial grown III-V compound semiconductor sensors with Si-based readout integrated circuits (ROIC) by indium bump bonding which significantly increases the fabrication costs of these image sensors. Furthermore, these typical III-V compound semiconductors are not sensitive to the visible region and thus cannot be used for multi-spectral (visible to near-IR) sensing. Here, a low cost infrared (IR) imaging camera is demonstrated with a commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IR sensitive organic light emitting diode (IR-OLED). With an IR-OLED, IR images at a wavelength of 1.2 µm are directly converted to visible images which are then recorded in a Si-CMOS DSLR camera. This multi-spectral imaging system is capable of capturing images at wavelengths in the near-infrared as well as visible regions. PMID:25091589

  7. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Lai, Tzung-Han; Lee, Jae Woong; Manders, Jesse R.; So, Franky

    2014-08-01

    Commercially available near-infrared (IR) imagers are fabricated by integrating expensive epitaxial grown III-V compound semiconductor sensors with Si-based readout integrated circuits (ROIC) by indium bump bonding which significantly increases the fabrication costs of these image sensors. Furthermore, these typical III-V compound semiconductors are not sensitive to the visible region and thus cannot be used for multi-spectral (visible to near-IR) sensing. Here, a low cost infrared (IR) imaging camera is demonstrated with a commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IR sensitive organic light emitting diode (IR-OLED). With an IR-OLED, IR images at a wavelength of 1.2 µm are directly converted to visible images which are then recorded in a Si-CMOS DSLR camera. This multi-spectral imaging system is capable of capturing images at wavelengths in the near-infrared as well as visible regions.

  8. Overhead Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions by Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, John R.; Smith, Milton O.; Zelinski, Michael E.

    2014-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty allows for Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging from an aircraft and on the ground to help reduce the search area for an underground nuclear explosion from the initial 1,000 km2. Satellite data, primarily from Landsat, have been used as a surrogate for aircraft data to investigate whether there are any multi-spectral features associated with the nuclear tests in Pakistan, India or North Korea. It is shown that there are multi-spectral observables on the ground that can be associated with the nominal surface ground zero for at least some of these explosions, and that these are likely to be found by measurements allowed by the treaty.

  9. In-Flight Wavelength Calibration of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) Data Acquired from the ER-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, S.; Okada, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 one flightline of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data was acquired over Castaic Lake, California and in 1992 four flightlines of TIMS data were acquired over Death Valley, California.

  10. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Hon, Ken; Kahle, Anne B.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Pieri, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10 C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows.

  11. A Switchable Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Perfect Absorber with Multispectral Thermal Imaging Capability.

    PubMed

    Tittl, Andreas; Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Schäferling, Martin; Yin, Xinghui; Gholipour, Behrad; Cui, Long; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas; Neubrech, Frank; Giessen, Harald

    2015-08-19

    A switchable perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability is presented. Aluminum nanoantenna arrays above a germanium antimony telluride (GST) spacer layer and aluminum mirror provide efficient wavelength-tunable absorption in the mid-infrared. Utilizing the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition in GST, this device offers switchable absorption with strong reflectance contrast at resonance and large phase-change-induced spectral shifts. PMID:26173394

  12. Joint spatio-spectral based edge detection for multispectral infrared imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Bender, Steven C.; Sharma, Yagya D.; Jang, Woo-Yong; Paskalva, Biliana S.

    2010-06-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important and difficult tasks in digital image processing. It represents a key stage of automated image analysis and interpretation. Segmentation algorithms for gray-scale images utilize basic properties of intensity values such as discontinuity and similarity. However, it is possible to enhance edge-detection capability by means of using spectral information provided by multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) imagery. In this paper we consider image segmentation algorithms for multispectral images with particular emphasis on detection of multi-color or multispectral edges. More specifically, we report on an algorithm for joint spatio-spectral (JSS) edge detection. By joint we mean simultaneous utilization of spatial and spectral characteristics of a given MS or HS image. The JSS-based edge-detection approach, termed Spectral Ratio Contrast (SRC) edge-detection algorithm, utilizes the novel concept of matching edge signatures. The edge signature represents a combination of spectral ratios calculated using bands that enhance the spectral contrast between the two materials. In conjunction with a spatial mask, the edge signature give rise to a multispectral operator that can be viewed as a three-dimensional extension of the mask. In the extended mask, the third (spectral) dimension of each hyper-pixel can be chosen independently. The SRC is verified using MS and HS imagery from a quantum-dot in a well infrared (IR) focal plane array, and the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager.

  13. Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

  14. Multispectral uncooled infrared enhanced-vision system for flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiana, Carlo L.; Kerr, Richard; Harrah, Steven D.

    2001-08-01

    The 1997 Final Report of the 'White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security' challenged industrial and government concerns to reduce aviation accident rates by a factor of five within 10 years. In the report, the commission encourages NASA, FAA and others 'to expand their cooperative efforts in aviation safety research and development'. As a result of this publication, NASA has since undertaken a number of initiatives aimed at meeting the stated goal. Among these, the NASA Aviation Safety Program was initiated to encourage and assist in the development of technologies for the improvement of aviation safety. Among the technologies being considered are certain sensor technologies that may enable commercial and general aviation pilots to 'see to land' at night or in poor visibility conditions. Infrared sensors have potential applicability in this field, and this paper describes a system, based on such sensors, that is being deployed on the NASA Langley Research Center B757 ARIES research aircraft. The system includes two infrared sensors operating in different spectral bands, and a visible-band color CCD camera for documentation purposes. The sensors are mounted in an aerodynamic package in a forward position on the underside of the aircraft. Support equipment in the aircraft cabin collects and processes all relevant sensor data. Display of sensor images is achieved in real time on the aircraft's Head Up Display (HUD), or other display devices.

  15. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  16. Patterning of visible/infrared dual-band microstrip filter arrays for multispectral imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Jian-Jun; Liang, Hua-Feng; Zhou, Zhi-Ping; Fang, Guo-Jia; Li, Li

    2009-08-01

    Visible/infrared dual-band microstrip filter arrays have been developed to be integrated with 512 × 512 PtSi CCD imaging sensor chips for multispectral imaging when it operates in the front-illumination mode. A high visible transmittance and high infrared reflectance ZAO (ZnO:Al) based coating for visible passband and an interference absorbing filter film for a mid-infrared passband have been designed and deposited on sapphire substrates. An effective double-layer lift-off technique that is compatible with high temperature deposition has been developed to create thick microstrip infrared film. The infrared passband film using germanium and yttrium fluoride as high and low refractive indices materials have been deposited by ion-beam-assisted electron beam evaporation. Tested optical performance results reveal that the visible and near-infrared transmittance of the infrared passband film is very low, which makes it ideal for mid-infrared imaging. Environmental durability testing shows that the microstrip arrays have good mechanical and thermal performances for practical applications.

  17. Mapping Hydration with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam Instruments: Recent Results from Opportunity at Endeavour Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Melissa S.; Bell, James F., III; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Farrand, William H.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Rice, James W.; Ruff, Steven W.; Squyres, Steven W.; Wang, Alian

    2013-04-01

    Using the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments, we have developed a "hydration signature" for mapping H2O- and/or OH-bearing materials at Mars landing sites with multispectral visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) images. Pancam's 13 narrowband geology filters cover 11 unique wavelengths in the visible and near infrared (434 to 1009 nm) [1-2]. The hydration signature is based on a negative slope from 934 to 1009 nm [3] that characterizes the spectra of hydrated silica-rich rocks and soils observed by MER Spirit; this feature is likely due to the 2ν1 + ν3 H2O combination band and/or the 3νOH overtone centered near ~1000 nm, whose positions vary slightly depending on bonding to nearest-neighbor atoms [4]. The hydration signature is sensitive to many - but not all - hydrated minerals, including silica, gypsum and water ice. At Gusev Crater, the hydration signature is widespread along Spirit's traverse in the Columbia Hills, which adds to the growing body of evidence that aqueous alteration has played a significant role in the complex geologic history of this site [4]. At Meridiani Planum, the hydration signature is associated with a specific stratigraphic layer ("Smith") exposed within the walls of Victoria Crater [5], in addition to light-toned veins composed of calcium sulfate at Cape York on the rim of Endeavour Crater [6]. Recently, Opportunity has completed a traverse loop at Matijevic Hill at the southern end of Cape York and has encountered numerous small, light-toned, fracture-filling veins that may be indicative of fluid flow. Spectra of these veins are also consistent with hydrated materials, as are spectra of "Whitewater Lake" outcrops at Matijevic Hill, which may contain phyllosilicate minerals [7-8]. Here we also discuss limitations to the use of the hydration signature, which can give false detections under specific viewing geometries. For example, the Pancam calibration model assumes that the calibration target behaves as a

  18. Visible and infrared multispectral illumination concept based on Galilean collimation systems: IACATS illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Restrepo Gómez, René; González Alvarado, Concepción; Laguna Hernández, Hugo; Astolfi Carbonell, Antonio; Moreno Raso, Javier; Argelaguet, Heribert; Serrano, Javier

    2010-07-01

    A LED based illumination system in which five Galilean collimation systems have been used is reported on. It is part of a turbulence simulator for the evaluation of on ground telescopes instrumentation developed by INTA (optics) and LIDAX (opto-mechanics) for the IAC called IACATS. The illumination requirements (some visible and infrared lines) allow the use of five different LEDs (red, green, blue and two infrareds). In order to optimize the illumination level of each wavelength, a Galilean collimating optical configuration was constructed for each wavelength channel. The IACATS instrument simulates a scene consisting of a set of different binary stars simulating the required angular separation between them, ant their spectral characteristics. As a result, a visible and infrared multi-spectral illumination system has been integrated as a part of the turbulence simulator, and the features (opto-mechanical) and illumination characteristics are described in the following lines.

  19. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  20. The ExoMars PanCam Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Andrew; Coates, Andrew; Muller, Jan-Peter; Jaumann, Ralf; Josset, Jean-Luc; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, David

    2010-05-01

    The ExoMars mission has evolved into a joint European-US mission to deliver a trace gas orbiter and a pair of rovers to Mars in 2016 and 2018 respectively. The European rover will carry the Pasteur exobiology payload including the 1.56 kg Panoramic Camera. PanCam will provide multispectral stereo images with 34 deg horizontal field-of-view (580 microrad/pixel) Wide-Angle Cameras (WAC) and (83 microrad/pixel) colour monoscopic "zoom" images with 5 deg horizontal field-of-view High Resolution Camera (HRC). The stereo Wide Angle Cameras (WAC) are based on Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System heritage [1]. Integrated with the WACs and HRC into the PanCam optical bench (which helps the instrument meet its planetary protection requirements) is the PanCam interface unit (PIU); which provides image storage, a Spacewire interface to the rover and DC-DC power conversion. The Panoramic Camera instrument is designed to fulfil the digital terrain mapping requirements of the mission [2] as well as providing multispectral geological imaging, colour and stereo panoramic images and solar images for water vapour abundance and dust optical depth measurements. The High Resolution Camera (HRC) can be used for high resolution imaging of interesting targets detected in the WAC panoramas and of inaccessible locations on crater or valley walls. Additionally HRC will be used to observe retrieved subsurface samples before ingestion into the rest of the Pasteur payload. In short, PanCam provides the overview and context for the ExoMars experiment locations, required to enable the exobiology aims of the mission. In addition to these baseline capabilities further enhancements are possible to PanCam to enhance it's effectiveness for astrobiology and planetary exploration: 1. Rover Inspection Mirror (RIM) 2. Organics Detection by Fluorescence Excitation (ODFE) LEDs [3-6] 3. UVIS broadband UV Flux and Opacity Determination (UVFOD) photodiode This paper will discuss the scientific objectives and resource

  1. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Realmuto, V.J.; Hon, K.; Kahle, A.B.; Abbott, E.A.; Pieri, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10?? C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. In general, the emissivity of the flows varied systematically with age but the relationship between age and emissivity was not unique. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows. Such incipient alteration may have been the cause for virtually all of the emissivity variations observed on the flow field, the spectral anomalies representing areas where the acid attack was most intense. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  2. A multispectral study of an extratropical cyclone with Nimbus 3 medium resolution infrared radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holub, R.; Shenk, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    Four registered channels (0.2 to 4, 6.5 to 7, 10 to 11, and 20 to 23 microns) of the Nimbus 3 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) were used to study 24-hr changes in the structure of an extratropical cyclone during a 6-day period in May 1969. Use of a stereographic-horizon map projection insured that the storm was mapped with a single perspective throughout the series and allowed the convenient preparation of 24-hr difference maps of the infrared radiation fields. Single-channel and multispectral analysis techniques were employed to establish the positions and vertical slopes of jetstreams, large cloud systems, and major features of middle and upper tropospheric circulation. Use of these techniques plus the difference maps and continuity of observation allowed the early detection of secondary cyclones developing within the circulation of the primary cyclone. An automated, multispectral cloud-type identification technique was developed, and comparisons that were made with conventional ship reports and with high-resolution visual data from the image dissector camera system showed good agreement.

  3. INTERPRETATION OF THERMAL-INFRARED MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER IMAGES OF THE OSGOOD MOUNTAINS, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1984-01-01

    Data from the Thermal-Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) were collected over the Osgood Mountains in northern Nevada midmorning on 27 August 1983. The area includes gold-producing properties of the Getchell Mine, the Prinson Mine, and a prospect being developed near Preble, Nevada. Tungsten-bearing tactite deposits, barite deposits, and some minor lead-zinc deposits are also present. The area was surveyed to determine if multichannel, mid-infrared data could detect the effects of hydrothermal alteration in the sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits. Because the gold in the deposits is generally microscopic and the effects of alteration are difficult to observe, the deposits present a difficult challenge for geological remote sensing.

  4. Monitoring vegetation cover changes over a semi-arid rangeland with multispectral ASTER thermal infrared emissivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, A. N.; Schmugge, T.; Ritchie, J.; Hsu, A.; Jacob, F.; Ogawa, K.; Inamdar, A.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of land surface temperatures with thermal infrared are an important and crucial application of satellite remote sensing that the value of multispectral thermal infrared emissivities, a measurement component, may be overlooked. Spectral emissivities, retrievable from sensors such as ASTER and MODIS provide indispensable data for more accurate land surface temperature estimates and characterization of land surface cover. This study addresses the latter issue, whereby long-term changes in vegetation canopy densities can be detected in a way independent of more conventional vegetation indices such as NDVI. Thermal emissivities are dependent upon the surface geometry and are especially variable over sparse vegetation. When viewing such terrain, emissivities range in values from 0.8-0.9 represent dry soils and up to 0.98-0.99 represent vegetation. Using ASTER's 90 m multispectral thermal infrared capability, a sequence of 21 scenes were acquired for 2001-2003 over the New Mexico semi-arid rangeland, Jornada. These were calibrated, atmospherically corrected, georegistered, then converted to spectral and broadband emissivities. Analysis of the scenes reveals spatially coherent patches of grass and shrubland showing decreasing emissivities on the order of 1% per 3 years. The observed patterns could be due to long-term soil surface texture or moisture changes, but a more likely explanation is decreased vegetation density. A significant benefit of emissivity monitoring, particularly at 8-9.5 μm wavelengths, is its independence from vegetation greenness, which means thermal infrared assessments can be a useful canopy density estimator year-round. When used in conjunction with NDVI, thermal data can help discriminate soils from both green and senescent vegetation.

  5. Mapping playa evaporite minerals and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, with multispectral thermal infrared images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hook, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent salt crusts and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, were studied with remote-sensing data acquired by the NASA thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS). Nine spectral classes that represent a variety of surface materials were distinguished, including several classes that reflect important aspects of the playa groundwater chemistry and hydrology. Evaporite crusts containing abundant thenardite (sodium sulfate) were mapped along the northern and eastern margins of the Cottonball Basin, areas where the inflow waters are rich in sodium. Gypsum (calcium sulfate) crusts were more common in the Badwater Basin, particularly near springs associated with calcic groundwaters along the western basin margin. Evaporite-rich crusts generally marked areas where groundwater is periodically near the surface and thus able to replenish the crusts though capillary evaporation. Detrital silicate minerals were prevalent in other parts of the salt pan where shallow groundwater does not affect the surface composition. The surface features in Death Valley change in response to climatic variations on several different timescales. For example, salt crusts on low-lying mudflats form and redissolve during seasonal-to-interannual cycles of wetting and desiccation. In contrast, recent flooding and erosion of rough-salt surfaces in Death Valley probably reflect increased regional precipitation spanning several decades. Remote-sensing observations of playas can provide a means for monitoring changes in evaporite facies and for better understanding the associated climatic processes. At present, such studies are limited by the availability of suitable airborne scanner data. However, with the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Platform in 1998, multispectral visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared remote-sensing data will become globally available. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Mineral Classification of the Martian Surface Using THEMIS Multi-Spectral Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Brumby, S. P.; Funsten, H. O.; Feldman, W. C.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advancements in multi-spectral imaging and image analysis techniques have greatly enhanced our ability to do planetary research. Much has been discovered about Mars through recent missions such as Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Exploration Rovers. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor has allowed the mapping of surface mineralogies on Mars at several kilometers scale through hyperspectral imaging [1]. Here, we use the high resolution multi-spectral imagery of THEMIS (THermal Emission Imaging System) on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey to identify different mineral classes at spatial scales of hundreds of meters. THEMIS contains two independent multi-spectral imaging systems: a 10-band thermal infrared imager (IR) with a resolution of 100m/pixel, and a 5-band visible imager with a resolution of 10m/pixel. Here we will use the IR data. The 9 IR bands are centered from 6.8 microns to 14 .9 microns [2]. Using Arizona State University's online spectral library[3], we have been investigating the extent to which we can differentiate between different mineral classes. By identifying certain mineral classes we can better understand the geologic processes which created them and detect areas of interest for further study. Linear mixing of minerals and dust is investigated to estimate ratios of minerals and their resulting spectra. We then compare these spectra to observations of several regions on Mars. We compare these results with TES data and previous mineralogical maps. [1] Christensen et al, (2001) JGR 106, E10; [2] Christensen et al, (2002) Space Science Reviews 110, 1; [3] Christensen et al, (2000) JGR 105, E4

  7. Optical assembly of a visible through thermal infrared multispectral imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, T.; Bender, S.; Byrd, D.; Rappoport, W.; Shen, G.Y.

    1998-06-01

    The Optical Assembly (OA) for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) program has been fabricated, assembled, and successfully tested for its performance. It represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. Along with its wide-field-of-view (WFOV), 1.82{degree} along-track and 1.38{degree} cross-track, and comprehensive on-board calibration system, the pushbroom imaging sensor employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 {micro}m. The OA has an off-axis three-mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36-cm unobscured clear aperture. The two key performance criteria, 80% enpixeled energy in the visible and radiometric stability of 1% 1{sigma} in the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR), of 1.45% 1{sigma} in the medium wavelength infrared (MWIR), and of 0.53% 1{sigma} long wavelength infrared (LWIR), as well as its low weight (less than 49 kg) and volume constraint (89 cm x 44 cm x 127 cm) drive the overall design configuration of the OA and fabrication requirements.

  8. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Plumes: A Case Study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    1996-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well-suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS).

  9. Quantitative evaluation of water bodies dynamic by means of thermal infrared and multispectral surveys on the Venetian lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberotanza, L.; Lechi, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys employing a two channel Daedalus infrared scanner and multispectral photography were performed. The spring waning tide, the velocity of the water mass, and the types of suspended matter were among the topics studied. Temperature, salinity, sediment transport, and ebb stream velocity were recorded. The bottom topography was correlated with the dynamic characteristics of the sea surface.

  10. Multi-spectral materials: hybridisation of optical plasmonic filters, a mid infrared metamaterial absorber and a terahertz metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, James; McCrindle, Iain J H; Cumming, David R S

    2016-02-22

    Multi-spectral imaging systems typically require the cumbersome integration of disparate filtering materials and detectors in order to operate simultaneously in multiple spectral regions. Each distinct waveband must be detected at different spatial locations on a single chip or by separate chips optimised for each band. Here, we report on a single component that optically multiplexes visible, Mid Infrared (4.5 μm) and Terahertz (126 μm) radiation thereby maximising the spectral information density. We hybridise plasmonic and metamaterial structures to form a device capable of simultaneously filtering 15 visible wavelengths and absorbing Mid Infrared and Terahertz. Our synthetic multi-spectral component could be integrated with silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology where Si photodiodes are available to detect the visible radiation and micro-bolometers available to detect the Infrared/Terahertz and render an inexpensive, mass-producible camera capable of forming coaxial visible, Infrared and Terahertz images. PMID:26907004

  11. Optical design of multi-spectral optical system for infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tianjin

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies about the multi-spectral imaging system and describes the design of dual-channel mirror-lens optical system with wide-field for multi-spectral sensor. Combined with the secondary imaging technology, it achieves the one hundred percent cold stop efficiency. Off-axis three-mirror reflective optics is adopted to provide an obstructive field of view and high spatial resolution over the wide-field, which is also shared by two channels. Independent relay lens are employed not only to extract the real exit-pupil matched with the cold shield, but also adjust the multiplication factors for infrared. The dichroic mirror and filters subdivide the wide spectral range into four bands, including mid-wavelength band and long-wavelength band. Each corresponds to respective field. The result shows that the Modulation Transfer Function of each band at respective fields is near the diffraction limit, which satisfies the needs of practical applications. The wavefront of the off-axis three-mirror reflective optics is also satisfactory, which is beneficial to the later alignment and measurement.

  12. Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsone, Silvia; Taylor, Andrew; Gomez, Juliana; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger; Dickinson, Mark; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Zakian, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging is a novel noninvasive technique that maps and quantifies dental caries. The technique has the ability to reduce the confounding effect of stain present on teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative NIR multispectral imaging system for caries detection and assessment against a histological reference standard. The proposed technique is based on spectral imaging at specific wavelengths in the range from 1000 to 1700 nm. A total of 112 extracted teeth (molars and premolars) were used and images of occlusal surfaces at different wavelengths were acquired. Three spectral reflectance images were combined to generate a quantitative lesion map of the tooth. The maximum value of the map at the corresponding histological section was used as the NIR caries score. The NIR caries score significantly correlated with the histological reference standard (Spearman's Coefficient=0.774, p<0.01). Caries detection sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 91% for sound areas, 36% and 79% for lesions on the enamel, and 82% and 69% for lesions in dentin were found. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a novel and promising method for the detection, quantification, and mapping of dental caries.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral imaging with three wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ryo; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of critical ischemic disease. The risk of critical event is involved the content of lipid in unstable plaque. Near-infrared (NIR) range is effective for diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaque because of the absorption peaks of lipid. NIR multispectral imaging (NIR-MSI) is suitable for the evaluation of plaque because it can provide spectroscopic information and spatial image quickly with a simple measurement system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lipid concentrations in plaque phantoms quantitatively with a NIR-MSI system. A NIR-MSI system was constructed with a supercontinuum light, a grating spectrometer and a MCT camera. Plaque phantoms with different concentrations of lipid were prepared by mixing bovine fat and a biological soft tissue model to mimic the different stages of unstable plaque. We evaluated the phantoms by the NIR-MSI system with three wavelengths in the band at 1200 nm. Multispectral images were processed by spectral angle mapper method. As a result, the lipid areas of phantoms were effectively highlighted by using three wavelengths. In addition, the concentrations of lipid areas were classified according to the similarity between measured spectra and a reference spectrum. These results suggested the possibility of image enhancement and quantitative evaluation of lipid in unstable plaque with a NIR-MSI.

  14. A Near-Infrared (NIR) Global Multispectral Map of the Moon from Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, E. M.; Lee, E. M.; Becker, T. L.; Weller, L. A.; Isbell, C. E.; Staid, M. I.; Gaddis, L. R.; McEwen, A. S.; Robinson, M. S.; Duxbury, T.

    2003-01-01

    In May and June of 1994, the NASA/DoD Clementine Mission acquired global, 11- band, multispectral observations of the lunar surface using the ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) and near-infrared (NIR) camera systems. The global 5-band UVVIS Digital Image Model (DIM) of the Moon at 100 m/pixel was released to the Planetary Data System (PDS) in 2000. The corresponding NIR DIM has been compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for distribution to the lunar science community. The recently released NIR DIM has six spectral bands (1100, 1250, 1500, 2000, 2600, and 2780 nm) and is delivered in 996 quads at 100 m/pixel (303 pixels/degree). The NIR data were radiometrically corrected, geometrically controlled, and photometrically normalized to form seamless, uniformly illuminated mosaics of the lunar surface.

  15. Rock type mapping with indices defined for multispectral thermal infrared ASTER data: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2003-03-01

    ASTER sensor aboard NASA's Terra satellite has the capability of measuring multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) emission from the earth's surface to space. The author proposed indices by the combination of ASTER-TIR bands for detecting quartz and carbonate minerals, and another index to estimate the abundance of bulk SiO2 content in the surface silicate rocks, applied them to the low level ASTER radiance at the sensor data without atmospheric corrections, and showed a potential ability of the indices in a rock type mapping. This paper tries to apply the proposed method into the practical case studies using ASTER-TIR data. The study sites include ophiolitic belt zones in Oman and along Yarlun Zangbo River in Tibet. The applied results are compared with the geology of the study areas. It indicates that the new remote sensing approach proposed here would improve the quality and the cost of the geological mapping in arid and semi-arid regions.

  16. Reciprocity testing of Kodak film type SO-289 multispectral infrared aerial film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Kodak multispectral infrared aerial film type SO-289 was tested for reciprocity characteristics because of the variance between the I-B sensitometer exposure times (8 seconds and 4 seconds) and the camera exposure time (1/500 second) used on the ASTP stratospheric aerosol measurement project. Test exposures were made on the flight emulsion using a Mead star system sensitometer, the films were processed to ASTP control standards, and the resulting densities read and reciprocity data calculated. It was found that less exposure was required to produce a typical density (1.3) at 1/500 second exposure time than at an 8 second exposure time. This exposure factor was 2.8.

  17. A scan-angle correction for thermal infrared multispectral data using side lapping images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) images, acquired with side lapping flight lines, provide dual angle observations of the same area on the ground and can thus be used to estimate variations in the atmospheric transmission with scan angle. The method was tested using TIMS aircraft data for six flight lines with about 30% sidelap for an area within Joshua Tree National Park, California. Generally the results correspond to predictions for the transmission scan-angle coefficient based on a standard atmospheric model although some differences were observed at the longer wavelength channels. A change was detected for the last pair of lines that may indicate either spatial or temporal atmospheric variation. The results demonstrate that the method provides information for correcting regional survey data (requiring multiple adjacent flight lines) that can be important in detecting subtle changes in lithology.

  18. Mapping the Piute Mountains, CA with Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, S. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Miller, C. F.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired in 1990 over the PiuteMountains, California to evaluate their usefulness for lithologic mapping in an area ofmetamorphosed, structurally complex, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The data were calibrated,atmospherically corrected, and emissivity variations extracted from them. There was an excellentvisual correlation between the units revealed in the TIMS data and the recent mapping in the easternside of the area. It was also possible to correct, improve and extend the recent map. For example,several areas of amphibolite were identified in the TIMS data that had been incorrectly mapped asgranodioritic gneiss, and the presence of a swarm of mafic dikes, of which only a few had previouslybeen identified, was revealed...

  19. Multispectral imaging in the extended near-infrared window based on endogenous chromophores

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qian; Zhegalova, Natalia G.; Wang, Steven T.; Akers, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. To minimize the problem with scattering in deep tissues while increasing the penetration depth, we explored the feasibility of imaging in the relatively unexplored extended near infrared (exNIR) spectral region at 900 to 1400 nm with endogenous chromophores. This region, also known as the second NIR window, is weakly dominated by absorption from water and lipids and is free from other endogenous chromophores with virtually no autofluorescence. To demonstrate the applicability of the exNIR for bioimaging, we analyzed the optical properties of individual components and biological tissues using an InGaAs spectrophotometer and a multispectral InGaAs scanning imager featuring transmission geometry. Based on the differences in spectral properties of tissues, we utilized ratiometric approaches to extract spectral characteristics from the acquired three-dimensional “datacube”. The obtained images of an exNIR transmission through a mouse head revealed sufficient details consistent with anatomical structures. PMID:23933967

  20. Determination of water surface temperature based on the use of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1992-01-01

    A straightforward method for compensating Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for the influence of atmospheric path radiance and the attenuation of target energy by the atmosphere is presented. A band ratioing model useful for estimating water surface temperatures, which requires no ground truth measurements, is included. A study conducted to test the potential of the model and the magnitudes of the corrections for atmosphere encountered is presented. Results of the study, which was based on data collected during an engineering evaluation flight of TIMS, indicate errors in the estimate of the surface temperature of the water fall from +/- 1.0 C for uncorrected data to +/- 0.4 C when data have been corrected according to the model presented. This value approaches the noise-limited thermal resolution of the sensor at the time of the flight.

  1. Nighttime Monitoring of Volcanic Eruptions with Satellite-Based Multispectral Infrared Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Trifonov, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Nightfire algorithm for detection of night-time infrared sources with multispectral radiometers from the Suomi NPP and Landsat 8 satellites can be used for global monitoring of volcanic activity. By searching the spatio-temporal database of the Nightfire detections in the vicinity of active volcanoes we can reconstruct the day-by-day history of recent eruptions, including the temperature and size of the lava flow. By correlation of the detections from different satellite zenith angles in some cases we can derive the 3D geometry of the lava lake. Potential application may be an early alert system to monitor remote volcanoes which are out of reach for permanent ground instrumentation network.

  2. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langran, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. These zones represent a spectrum of disturbance types and intensities that can be indexed by temperature, impact force, and depth of subsequent deposition. This paper describes an application of NASA's Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) in monitoring vegetation recovery patterns in disturbed areas. Preliminary study results indicate a significant correlation between measured effective radiant temperature and vegetated/nonvegetated areas, percent vegetation cover, and vegetation type.

  3. Quantitative short-wave infrared multispectral imaging of in vivo tissue optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert H.; Nadeau, Kyle P.; Jaworski, Frank B.; Rowland, Rebecca; Nguyen, John Q.; Crouzet, Christian; Saager, Rolf B.; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Extending the wavelength range of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) has the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity to chromophores such as water and lipids that have prominent absorption features in the SWIR region. Here, we present, for the first time, a method combining SFDI with unstructured (zero spatial frequency) illumination to extract tissue absorption and scattering properties over a wavelength range (850 to 1800 nm) largely unexplored by previous tissue optics techniques. To obtain images over this wavelength range, we employ a SWIR camera in conjunction with an SFDI system. We use SFDI to obtain in vivo tissue reduced scattering coefficients at the wavelengths from 850 to 1050 nm, and then use unstructured wide-field illumination and an extrapolated power-law fit to this scattering spectrum to extract the absorption spectrum from 850 to 1800 nm. Our proof-of-principle experiment in a rat burn model illustrates that the combination of multispectral SWIR imaging, SFDI, and unstructured illumination can characterize in vivo changes in skin optical properties over a greatly expanded wavelength range. In the rat burn experiment, these changes (relative to normal, unburned skin) included increased absorption and increased scattering amplitude and slope, consistent with changes that we previously reported in the near-infrared using SFDI. PMID:25120175

  4. Quantitative short-wave infrared multispectral imaging of in vivo tissue optical properties.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert H; Nadeau, Kyle P; Jaworski, Frank B; Rowland, Rebecca; Nguyen, John Q; Crouzet, Christian; Saager, Rolf B; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J; Durkin, Anthony J

    2014-08-01

    Extending the wavelength range of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) has the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity to chromophores such as water and lipids that have prominent absorption features in the SWIR region. Here, we present, for the first time, a method combining SFDI with unstructured (zero spatial frequency) illumination to extract tissue absorption and scattering properties over a wavelength range (850 to 1800 nm) largely unexplored by previous tissue optics techniques. To obtain images over this wavelength range, we employ a SWIR camera in conjunction with an SFDI system. We use SFDI to obtain in vivo tissue reduced scattering coefficients at the wavelengths from 850 to 1050 nm, and then use unstructured wide-field illumination and an extrapolated power-law fit to this scattering spectrum to extract the absorption spectrum from 850 to 1800 nm. Our proof-of-principle experiment in a rat burn model illustrates that the combination of multispectral SWIR imaging, SFDI, and unstructured illumination can characterize in vivo changes in skin optical properties over a greatly expanded wavelength range. In the rat burn experiment, these changes (relative to normal, unburned skin) included increased absorption and increased scattering amplitude and slope, consistent with changes that we previously reported in the near-infrared using SFDI. PMID:25120175

  5. Passive signatures concealed objects recorded by multispectral and hyperspectral systems in visible, infrared and terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, Mariusz; Kowalski, Marcin; Polakowski, Henryk; Lagueux, Philippe; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-06-01

    Risks to the safety of public zones (generally available for people) are related mainly to the presence of hidden dangerous objects (such as knives, guns, bombs etc.) and their usage. Modern system for the monitoring of such zones attempt to detect dangerous tools using multispectral cameras working in different spectral ranges: the visible radiation, near, medium and long range infrared and recently also in terahertz range. In order to develop methods and algorithms to detect hidden objects it is necessary to determine the thermal signatures of such objects of interest. The laboratory measurements were conducted to determine the thermal signatures of dangerous tools hidden under various clothes in different ambient conditions. Cameras used for measurements were working in spectral range 0.6-12.5 µm. An infrared imaging Fourier transform spectroradiometer was also used, working in spectral range 7.7-11.7 µm. Analysis of registered thermograms and hyperspectral datacubes has yielded the thermal signatures for: two types of guns, two types of knives and home-made explosive bombs. The determined thermal signatures will be used in the development of method and algorithms of image analysis implemented in proposed monitoring systems.

  6. Analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral longwave infrared (LWIR) data for geologic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; McDowell, Meryl

    2015-05-01

    Multispectral MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) data and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) data covering the 8 - 12 μm spectral range (longwave infrared or LWIR) were analyzed for an area near Mountain Pass, California. Decorrelation stretched images were initially used to highlight spectral differences between geologic materials. Both datasets were atmospherically corrected using the ISAC method, and the Normalized Emissivity approach was used to separate temperature and emissivity. The MASTER data had 10 LWIR spectral bands and approximately 35-meter spatial resolution and covered a larger area than the HyTES data, which were collected with 256 narrow (approximately 17nm-wide) spectral bands at approximately 2.3-meter spatial resolution. Spectra for key spatially-coherent, spectrally-determined geologic units for overlap areas were overlain and visually compared to determine similarities and differences. Endmember spectra were extracted from both datasets using n-dimensional scatterplotting and compared to emissivity spectral libraries for identification. Endmember distributions and abundances were then mapped using Mixture-Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial unmixing approach. Multispectral results demonstrate separation of silica-rich vs non-silicate materials, with distinct mapping of carbonate areas and general correspondence to the regional geology. Hyperspectral results illustrate refined mapping of silicates with distinction between similar units based on the position, character, and shape of high resolution emission minima near 9 μm. Calcite and dolomite were separated, identified, and mapped using HyTES based on a shift of the main carbonate emissivity minimum from approximately 11.3 to 11.2 μm respectively. Both datasets demonstrate the utility of LWIR spectral remote sensing for geologic mapping.

  7. Spectrophotometric properties of materials observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 3. Sols 500-1525

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Grundy, William M.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Bell, James F.; Deen, R. G.

    2015-03-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity acquired visible/near-infrared (432-1009 nm) multispectral observations of soils and rocks under varying viewing and illumination geometries. Data retrieved from these images were modeled using radiative transfer theory to study the microphysical and surface scattering nature of materials at both sites. Nearly 57,000 individual measurements from 1900 images were collected of rock and soil units identified by their color and morphologic properties over a wide range of phase angles (0-150°). Images were acquired between Sols 500 and 1525 in the Columbia Hills and regions around Home Plate in Gusev Crater and in the plains and craters between Erebus and Victoria Craters in Meridiani Planum. Corrections for diffuse skylight incorporated sky models based on observations of atmospheric opacity throughout the mission. Disparity maps created from Pancam stereo images allowed estimates of local facet orientations. For Spirit, soils at lower elevations near Home Plate were modeled with lower single scattering albedo (w) values than those on the summit of Husband Hill, but otherwise soils exhibited similar scattering properties to previous Gusev soils. Dark ripple sands at the El Dorado dunes were among the most forward-scattering materials modeled. Silica-rich soils and nodules near Home Plate were analyzed for the first time, and exhibited increased forward scattering behavior with increasing wavelength, consistent with microporosity inferred from previous high resolution images and thermal infrared spectroscopy. For Opportunity, the opposition effect width parameter for sandstone outcrop rocks was modeled for the first time, and demonstrated average values consistent with surfaces of intermediate porosity and/or grain size distribution between those modeled for spherule-rich soils and darker, clast-poor soils. Soils outside a wind streak emanating from the northern rim of Victoria Crater

  8. Classifying convective and stratiform rain using multispectral infrared Meteosat Second Generation satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feidas, Haralambos; Giannakos, Apostolos

    2012-05-01

    This paper investigates the potential for developing schemes that classify convective and stratiform precipitation areas using the high infrared spectral resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation—Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG-SEVIRI). Two different classification schemes were proposed that use the brightness temperature (BT) Τ 10.8 along with the brightness temperature differences (BTDs) Τ 10.8- Τ 12.1, Τ 8.7- Τ 10.8, and Τ 6.2- Τ 10.8 as spectral parameters, which provide information about cloud parameters. The first is a common multispectral thresholding scheme used to partition the space of the spectral cloud parameters and the second is an algorithm based on the probability of convective rain (PCR) for each pixel of the satellite data. Both schemes were calibrated using as a reference convectivestratiform rain classification fields derived from 87 stations in Greece for six rainy days with high convective activity. As a result, one single infrared technique (TB10) and two multidimensional techniques (BTDall and PCR) were constructed and evaluated against an independent sample of rain gauge data for four daily convective precipitation events. It was found that the introduction of BTDs as additional information to a technique works in improving the discrimination of convective from stratiform rainy pixels compared to the single infrared technique BT10. During the training phase, BTDall performed slightly better than BT10 while PCR technique outperformed both threshold techniques. All techniques clearly overestimate the convective rain occurrences detected by the rain gauge network. When evaluating against the independent dataset, both threshold techniques exhibited the same performance with that of the dependent dataset whereas the PCR technique showed a notable skill degradation. As a result, BTDall performed best followed at a short distance by PCR and BT10. These findings showed that it is possible to apply a convective

  9. Identifying precipitating clouds in Greece using multispectral infrared Meteosat Second Generation satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feidas, Haralambos; Giannakos, Apostolos

    2011-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential of possible rain area delineation schemes based on the enhanced infrared spectral resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The proposed schemes use the brightness temperature (BT) Τ 10.8 along with the brightness temperature differences (BTDs) Τ 10.8 - Τ 12.1, Τ 8.7 - Τ 10.8, and Τ 6.2 - Τ 10.8 as spectral cloud parameters. Two different methods were used to develop the rain area delineation models. The first is a common threshold technique in the multispectral space of the spectral cloud parameters, and the second is an algorithm based on the probability of rain (PoR) for each pixel of the satellite data. Both schemes were trained using as rain information gauge data from 41 stations in Greece for 107 rainy days, covering a period of 1 year. As a result, one single-infrared model (TB10), three two-dimensional (BTD10-12, BTD8-10, and BTD6-10), and two multidimensional models (BTDall and PoR) were constructed and verified against an independent sample of rain gauge data for four daily precipitation events. It was found that the introduction of BTDs as additional information to a model works in improving the discrimination of rain from no-rain events compared with the single-infrared model BT10. During the training phase, BTDall exhibited the best performance among the threshold techniques, while the PoR model outperformed all the threshold techniques, producing scores slightly better than those of BTDall model. When verifying against the independent dataset, all models exhibited the same performance with that of the dependent dataset according to the ETS score but less skill according to the HK score. The proposed techniques, however, still perform better than the single-infrared technique but with different ranking; BTall performs best followed by PoR and BTD10-12. Finally, two case studies are presented to gain a visual impression of the performance of

  10. Automatic multispectral ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared capturing system for the study of artwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume

    2011-03-01

    This paper shows the simulations of the usage of a LED cluster as the illumination source for a multispectral imaging system covering the range of wavelengths from 350 to 1650 nm. The system can be described as being composed of two modules determined by the spectral range of the imaging sensors responses, one of them covering the range from 350- 950nm (CCD camera) and the other one covering the wavelengths from 900-1650nm (InGaAs camera). A well known method of reflectance estimation, the pseudo-inverse method, jointly with the experimentally measured data of the spectral responses of the cameras and the spectral emission of the LED elements are used for the simulations. The performance of the system for spectral estimation under ideal conditions and realistic noise influence is evaluated through different spectral and colorimetric metrics like the GFC, RMS error and CIEDE2000 color difference formula. The results show that is expectable a rather good performance of the real setup. However, they also reveal a difference in the performances of the modules. The second module has poorer performance due to the less narrow spectral emission and less number of LED elements that covers the near-infrared spectral range.

  11. Remote detection of volatile organic compounds by passive multispectral infrared imaging measurements.

    PubMed

    Wabomba, Mukire J; Sulub, Yusuf; Small, Gary W

    2007-04-01

    Automated pattern recognition methodology is described for the detection of signatures of volatile organic compounds from passive multispectral infrared imaging data collected from an aircraft platform. Data are acquired in an across-track scanning mode with a downward-looking line scanner based on 8 to 16 spectral channels in the 8-14 and 3-5 microm spectral ranges. Two controlled release experiments are performed in which plumes of ethanol are generated and detected from aircraft overflights at altitudes of 2200 to 2800 ft (671 to 853 m). In addition, a methanol release from a chemical manufacturing facility is monitored. Automated classifiers are developed by application of piecewise linear discriminant analysis to the calibrated, registered, and preprocessed radiance data acquired by the line scanner. Preprocessing steps evaluated include contrast enhancement, temperature-emissivity separation, feature selection, and feature extraction/noise reduction by the minimum noise fraction (MNF) transform. Successful classifiers are developed for both compounds and are tested with data not used in the classifier development. Separation of temperature and emissivity by use of the alpha residual calculation is found to reduce false positive detections to a negligible level, and the MNF transform is shown to enhance detection sensitivity. PMID:17456252

  12. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  13. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  14. A multiscale contrast direction adaptation approach for the fusion of multispectral and multifocus infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karali, A. O.; Cakir, Serdar; Aytaç, Tayfun

    2015-10-01

    Infrared (IR) cameras are widely used in latest surveillance systems because spectral characteristics of objects provide valuable information for object detection and identification. To assist the surveillance system operator and automatic image processing tasks, fusing images in IR band is proposed as a solution to increase situational awareness and different fusion techniques are developed for this purpose. Proposed techniques are generally developed for specific scenarios because image content may vary dramatically depending on the spectral range, the optical properties of the cameras, the spectral characteristics of the scene, and the spatial resolution of the interested targets in the scene. A general purpose IR image fusion technique that is suitable for real-time applications is proposed. The proposed technique can support different scenarios by applying a multiscale detail detection and can be applied to images captured from different spectral regions of the spectrum by adaptively adjusting the contrast direction through cross checking between the source images. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on registered multi-spectral and multi-focus IR images. Fusion results are presented and the performance of the proposed technique is compared with the baseline fusion methods through objective and subjective tests. The technique outperforms baseline methods in the subjective tests and provide promising results in objective quality metrics with an acceptable computational load. Besides, the proposed technique preserves object details and prevents undesired artifacts better than the baseline techniques in the image fusion scenario that contains four source images.

  15. Mapping the distribution of vesicular textures on silicic lavas using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrusek, Jaime; Christensen, Philip R.; Fink, Jonathan H.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vesicularity on TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) imagery independent of chemical variations, we studied a large rhyolitic flow of uniform composition but textural heterogeneity. The imagery was recalibrated so that the digital number values for a lake in the scene matched a calculated ideal spectrum for water. TIMS spectra for the lava show useful differences in coarsely and finely vesicular pumice data, particularly in TIMS bands 3 and 4. Images generated by ratioing these bands accurately map out those areas known from field studies to be coarsely vesicular pumice. These texture-related emissivity variations are probably due to the larger vesicles being relatively deeper and separated by smaller septa leaving less smooth glass available to give the characteristic emission of the lava. In studies of inaccessible lava flows (as on Mars) areas of coarsely vesicular pumice must be identified and avoided before chemical variations can be interpreted. Remotely determined distributions of vesicular and glassy textures can also be related to the volatile contents and potential hazards associated with the emplacement of silicic lava flows on Earth.

  16. Lithologic analysis from multispectral thermal infrared data of the alkalic rock complex at Iron Hill, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.; Rowan, L.C.; Bowers, T.L.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Gumiel, P.; Miller, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Airborne thermal-infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data of the Iron Hill carbonatite-alkalic igneous rock complex in south-central Colorado are analyzed using a new spectral emissivity ratio algorithm and confirmed by field examination using existing 1:24 000-scale geologic maps and petrographic studies. Color composite images show that the alkalic rocks could be clearly identified and that differences existed among alkalic rocks in several parts of the complex. An unsupervised classification algorithm defines four alkalic rock classes within the complex: biotitic pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, augitic pyroxenite, and fenite + nepheline syenite. Felsic rock classes defined in the surrounding country rock are an extensive class consisting of tuff, granite, and felsite, a less extensive class of granite and felsite, and quartzite. The general composition of the classes can be determined from comparisons of the TIMS spectra with laboratory spectra. Carbonatite rocks are not classified, and we attribute that to the fact that dolomite, the predominant carbonate mineral in the complex, has a spectral feature that falls between TIMS channels 5 and 6. Mineralogical variability in the fenitized granite contributed to the nonuniform pattern of the fenite-nepheline syenite class. The biotitic pyroxenite, which resulted from alteration of the pyroxenite, is spatially associated and appears to be related to narrow carbonatite dikes and sills. Results from a linear unmixing algorithm suggest that the detected spatial extent of the two mixed felsic rock classes was sensitive to the amount of vegetation cover. These results illustrate that spectral thermal infrared data can be processed to yield compositional information that can be a cost-effective tool to target mineral exploration, particularly in igneous terranes.

  17. High Spatial Resolution Airborne Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of Urban Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have used airborne multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data collected at a high spatial resolution (i.e., 10m) over several cities in the United States to study thermal energy characteristics of the urban landscape. These TIR data provide a unique opportunity to quantify thermal responses from discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape and to identify both the spatial arrangement and patterns of thermal processes across the city. The information obtained from these data is critical to understanding how urban surfaces drive or force development of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which exists as a dome of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities in contrast to surrounding non-urbanized areas. The UHI is most pronounced in the summertime where urban surfaces, such as rooftops and pavement, store solar radiation throughout the day, and release this stored energy slowly after sunset creating air temperatures over the city that are in excess of 2-4'C warmer in contrast with non-urban or rural air temperatures. The UHI can also exist as a daytime phenomenon with surface temperatures in downtown areas of cities exceeding 38'C. The implications of the UHI are significant, particularly as an additive source of thermal energy input that exacerbates the overall production of ground level ozone over cities. We have used the Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), flown onboard a Lear 23 jet aircraft from the NASA Stennis Space Center, to acquire high spatial resolution multispectral TIR data (i.e., 6 bandwidths between 8.2-12.2 (um) over Huntsville, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Sacramento, California. These TIR data have been used to produce maps and other products, showing the spatial distribution of heating and cooling patterns over these cities to better understand how the morphology of the urban landscape affects development of the UHI. In turn, these data have been used

  18. Rock spectral classes observed by the Spirit Rover's Pancam on the Gusev Crater Plains and in the Columbia Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schröder, C.

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines the ferrous and ferric iron mineralogy of rocks inferred from 246 visible/near-infrared (430-1010 nm) multispectral observations made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Pancam on its traverse from its landing site to its second Winter Haven location. Principal component, correspondence analyses, and a sequential maximum angle convex cone technique were used to identify 14 candidate classes. Spectra from the West Spur of Husband Hill and the Watchtower area had the highest 535 and 601 nm band depths indicating that these areas were more oxidized. Differences in the depth and band center of a near infrared (NIR) absorption feature were observed using 904 nm band depth and 803:904 nm ratio and parameters gauging the 754-864 and 754-1009 nm slopes. Spectra of rocks from the southern flank of Husband Hill had negative 754-1009 nm slopes and a broad NIR absorption consistent with high olivine abundances. Rocks observed on the lower West Spur, at the Cumberland Ridge locale, at the Husband Hill summit, and at the Haskin Ridge locale had deep 904 nm band depths and steep 754-864 nm slopes consistent with greater pyroxene abundances. These observations are consistent with results on iron-bearing mineralogy from Spirit's Mössbauer spectrometer. Comparisons of these rock spectral classes with a set of terrestrial analog samples found similarities between the West Spur and Watchtower classes and red hematite-bearing impact melts. Fewer similarities were found in comparisons of the Columbia Hills classes with basaltic hydrovolcanic tephras.

  19. RIS4E at Kilauea's December 1974 Flow: Assessing the Integration of Portable Infrared Multispectral Imaging into Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, G.; Rogers, D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Young, K. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Glotch, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    Portable, hand-held geochemical and mineralogical instruments are potentially valuable tools to be used in sample collection and site documentation activities during future human missions to planetary bodies. The main purpose of these instruments is to allow fast in situ analyses of rocks and soils so that astronauts can quickly document sample characteristics and context, and make strategic decisions on sample selection in the context of predefined scientific objectives. As part of the Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration (RIS4E) investigation, we test the performance of candidate instruments and operational procedures through fieldwork expeditions that simulate lunar and asteroid environments on Earth. Our field site, Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii, is a lava field with landscape and mineralogy that represent a reasonable analog to the Moon and some differentiated asteroids. In this paper, we focus on one of the candidate instruments, the infrared multispectral imager. During field expeditions in 2014 and 2015, we explored the applicability of the multispectral imager in manned surface operations. From these expeditions, our instrument calibration techniques and data collection procedures matured. Current work focuses on assessment of data product usefulness, through comparison with detailed laboratory chemical and spectral measurements, and field descriptions of surface textures. Our field expeditions will continue in other analog locations to obtain improved understanding of the multispectral imager and its role in sampling workflow so that science return can be maximized in future human missions.

  20. Satellite observation of lowermost tropospheric ozone by multispectral synergism of IASI thermal infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet measurements over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, J.; Eremenko, M.; Liu, X.; Dufour, G.; Cai, Z.; Hoepfner, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Sellitto, P.; Foret, G.; Gaubert, B.; Beekmann, M.; Orphal, J. J.; Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J.; Flaud, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lowermost tropospheric ozone is a major factor determining air quality, which directly affects human health in megacities and causes damages to ecosystems. Monitoring tropospheric ozone is a key societal issue which can be addressed at the regional scale by spaceborne observation. However, current satellite retrievals of tropospheric ozone using uncoupled either ultraviolet (UV) or thermal infrared (TIR) observations show limited sensitivity to ozone at the lowermost troposphere (LMT, up to 3 km asl of altitude above sea level), which is the major concern for air quality. In this framework, we have developed a new multispectral approach for observing lowermost tropospheric ozone from space by synergism of atmospheric TIR radiances observed by IASI and earth UV reflectances measured by GOME-2. Both instruments are onboard the series of MetOp satellites (in orbit since 2006 and expected until 2022) and their scanning capabilities offer global coverage every day, with a relatively fine ground pixel resolution (12-km-diameter pixels spaced by 25 km for IASI at nadir). Our technique uses altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Phillips-type constraints, which optimize sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone. It integrates the VLIDORT and KOPRA radiative transfer codes for simulating UV reflectance and TIR radiance, respectively. We have used our method to analyze real observations over Europe during an ozone pollution episode in the summer of 2009. The results show that the multispectral synergism of IASI (TIR) and GOME-2 (UV) enables the observation of the spatial distribution of ozone plumes in the LMT, in good agreement with the CHIMERE regional chemistry-transport model. In this case study, when high ozone concentrations extend vertically above 3 km asl, they are similarly observed over land by both the multispectral and IASI retrievals. On the other hand, ozone plumes located below 3 km asl are only clearly depicted by the multispectral retrieval (both over land and over ocean

  1. Multi-spectral mid-infrared laser stand-off imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yang; Le, Han Q.

    2005-08-01

    A multi-spectral mid-IR laser imaging study including system engineering, experiments, and image processing and analysis is described. A 4-λ scalable system was built with semiconductor lasers, covering from 3.3-9.6 μm. The X-Y scanning system was capable of 2-dimensional (2D) multi-spectral imaging at a stand-off distance from 13-40 m. The system was applied to diverse targets that consist of man-made and natural materials and objects, and shown capable to resolve and distinguish small spectral differences among the various targets. Colorless objects in the visible were shown with "colorful" signatures in the mid-IR. Image processing algorithm based on spectral contrast was shown most effective to exploit the laser sensitivity and accuracy, as opposed to algorithms that operate mainly on the image spatial intensity. The results also showed the complexity of laser imaging phenomenology, involving both spectroscopic and geometrical scattering effects. A demonstration of 3D multi-spectral imaging was also given. The system design is suitable for compact packages with semiconductor lasers, and the results suggest that laser-based multi-spectral imaging can be a unique and powerful technology for target discrimination.

  2. Pancam Mast Assembly on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert M.; Cross, Mike; Harvison, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA) for the 2003 Mars Rover is a deployable structure that provides an elevated platform for several cameras. The PMA consists of several mechanisms that enable it to raise the cameras as well as point the cameras in all directions. This paper describes the function of the various mechanisms as well as a description of the mechanisms and some test parameters. Designing these mechanisms to operate on the surface of Mars presented several challenges. Typical spacecraft mechanisms must operate in zero-gravity and high vacuum. These mechanisms needed to be designed to operate in Martian gravity and atmosphere. Testing conditions were a little easier because the mechanisms are not required to operate in a vacuum. All of the materials are vacuum compatible, but the mechanisms were tested in a dry nitrogen atmosphere at various cold temperatures.

  3. Multispectral demosaicking considering out-of-focus problem for red-green-blue-near-infrared image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ji Yong; Kang, Moon Gi

    2016-03-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) band provides information invisible to human eyes for discriminating and recognizing objects more clearly under low lighting conditions. To capture color and NIR images simultaneously, a multispectral filter array (MSFA) sensor is used. However, because lenses have different refractive indices for different wavelengths, lenses may fail to focus all rays to the same convergence. This is the reason an out-of-focus problem occurs and images are blurred. In this paper, a demosaicking algorithm that considers the out-of-focus problem is proposed. This algorithm is used by the MSFA of a red-green-blue-NIR image sensor to obtain color and NIR images. After the energies of the multispectral (MS) channels in the MSFA image are balanced to minimize aliasing, that image is filtered by the estimated low-pass kernel to generate a panchromatic (PAN) image. When an image is acquired, the out-of-focus problem and the formation process of the PAN image are modeled. The desired MS image is estimated by solving the least squares approach of the difference between the PAN and MS images based on the models. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in estimating high-quality MS images and reduces the out-of-focus problem.

  4. Multispectral photography for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.

    1972-01-01

    A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.

  5. Mapping within-field variations of soil organic carbon content using UAV multispectral visible near-infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Michelin, Joël

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the PROSTOCK-Gessol3 project supported by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), the TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO project of the French Space Agency (CNES) and the SOERE PRO network working on environmental impacts of Organic Waste Products recycling on field crops at long time scale. The organic matter is an important soil fertility parameter and previous studies have shown the potential of spectral information measured in the laboratory or directly in the field using field spectro-radiometer or satellite imagery to predict the soil organic carbon (SOC) content. This work proposes a method for a spatial prediction of bare cultivated topsoil SOC content, from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) multispectral imagery. An agricultural plot of 13 ha, located in the western region of Paris France, was analysed in April 2013, shortly before sowing while it was still bare soil. Soils comprised haplic luvisols, rendzic cambisols and calcaric or colluvic cambisols. The UAV platform used was a fixed wing provided by Airinov® flying at an altitude of 150m and was equipped with a four channels multispectral visible near-infrared camera MultiSPEC 4C® (550nm, 660nm, 735 nm and 790 nm). Twenty three ground control points (GCP) were sampled within the plot according to soils descriptions. GCP positions were determined with a centimetric DGPS. Different observations and measurements were made synchronously with the drone flight: soil surface description, spectral measurements (with ASD FieldSpec 3® spectroradiometer), roughness measurements by a photogrammetric method. Each of these locations was sampled for both soil standard physico-chemical analysis and soil water content. A Structure From Motion (SFM) processing was done from the UAV imagery to produce a 15 cm resolution multispectral mosaic using the Agisoft Photoscan® software. The SOC content was modelled by partial least squares regression (PLSR) between the

  6. Satellite observation of lowermost tropospheric ozone by multispectral synergism of IASI thermal infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Eremenko, Maxim; Liu, Xiong; Dufour, Gaëlle; Cai, Zhaonan; Höpfner, Michael; von Clarmann, Thomas; Sellitto, Pasquale; Forêt, Gilles; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Orphal, Johannes; Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Lowermost tropospheric ozone is a major factor determining air quality in densely populated megacities. During pollution events, knowledge on the 3D regional distribution of ozone in and around these urban areas is key for assessing its impact on health of population and ecosystems damages. Temporal and spatial coverage of spaceborne observations are particularly fitted for monitoring tropospheric ozone spatial distribution at the regional scale and offers a great potential for improving air quality forecasting with numerical regional models. However, current tropospheric ozone retrievals using uncoupled either ultraviolet (UV) or thermal infrared (TIR) spaceborne observations show limited sensitivity to lowermost troposphere ozone (up to 3 km of altitude), which is the major concern for air quality, and they are mainly sensitive to ozone at the free Troposphere (at lowest 3-4 km of altitude). In this framework, we have developed a new multispectral approach for observing lowermost tropospheric ozone from space by synergism of atmospheric TIR radiances observed by IASI and earth UV reflectances measured by GOME-2. Both instruments are onboard the series of MetOp satellites (in orbit since 2006 and expected until 2022) and their scanning capabilities offer global coverage every day, with a relatively fine ground pixel resolution (12-km-diameter pixels spaced by 25 km for IASI at nadir). Our technique uses altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Phillips-type constraints, which optimize sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone. It integrates the VLIDORT and KOPRA radiative transfer codes for simulating UV reflectance and TIR radiance, respectively. We have used our method to analyse real observations over Europe during an ozone pollution episode in the summer of 2009. The results show that the multispectral synergism of IASI (TIR) and GOME-2 (UV) enables the observation of the spatial distribution of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, from the surface up to 3 km msl

  7. Quantitative estimation of granitoid composition from thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data, Desolation Wilderness, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabine, Charles; Realmuto, Vincent J.; Taranik, James V.

    1994-01-01

    We have produced images that quantitatively depict modal and chemical parameters of granitoids using an image processing algorithm called MINMAP that fits Gaussian curves to normalized emittance spectra recovered from thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) radiance data. We applied the algorithm to TIMS data from the Desolation Wilderness, an extensively glaciated area near the northern end of the Sierra Nevada batholith that is underlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous plutons that range from diorite and anorthosite to leucogranite. The wavelength corresponding to the calculated emittance minimum lambda(sub min) varies linearly with quartz content, SiO2, and other modal and chemical parameters. Thematic maps of quartz and silica content derived from lambda(sub min) values distinguish bodies of diorite from surrounding granite, identify outcrops of anorthosite, and separate felsic, intermediate, and mafic rocks.

  8. Identification of hydrothermal mineralization in Baja California, Mexico from orbit using the Shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Crowley, J. K.; Kingston, M. J.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the Space Shuttle Multispectral IR Radiometer (SMIRR), which is a 10-channel remote sensor designed to record narrow band spectral data in the 0.5-2.4 micron wavelength range, were used to identify and study a previously unreported area of hydrothermal alteration on the Baja California peninsula. Absorption at 2.17 microns, which is diagnostic of the minerals pyrophyllite, dickite, and alunite, was observed in many spectra and the presence of pyrophyllite and dickite was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis of field samples. Anomalously high Mo, B, Sn, Zr, and Ag were found in three samples.

  9. Detection of subpixel anomalies in multispectral infrared imagery using an adaptive Bayesian classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, E.A.

    1998-03-01

    The detection of subpixel targets with unknown spectral signatures and cluttered backgrounds in multispectral imagery is a topic of great interest for remote surveillance applications. Because no knowledge of the target is assumed, the only way to accomplish such a detection is through a search for anomalous pixels. Two approaches to this problem are examined in this paper. The first is to separate the image into a number of statistical clusters by using an extension of the well-known {kappa}-means algorithm. Each bin of resultant residual vectors is then decorrelated, and the results are thresholded to provide detection. The second approach requires the formation of a probabilistic background model by using an adaptive Bayesian classification algorithm. This allows the calculation of a probability for each pixel, with respect to the model. These probabilities are then thresholded to provide detection. Both algorithms are shown to provide significant improvement over current filtering techniques for anomaly detection in experiments using multispectral IR imagery with both simulated and actual subpixel targets.

  10. Simultaneous multispectral framing infrared camera using an embedded diffractive optical lenslet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in micro-optical element fabrication using gray scale technology have opened up the opportunity to create simultaneous multi-spectral imaging with fine structure diffractive lenses. This paper will discuss an approach that uses diffractive optical lenses configured in an array (lenslet array) and placed in close proximity to the focal plane array which enables a small compact simultaneous multispectral imaging camera [1]. The lenslet array is designed so that all lenslets have a common focal length with each lenslet tuned for a different wavelength. The number of simultaneous spectral images is determined by the number of individually configured lenslets in the array. The number of spectral images can be increased by a factor of 2 when using it with a dual-band focal plane array (MWIR/LWIR) by exploiting multiple diffraction orders. In addition, modulation of the focal length of the lenslet array with piezoelectric actuation will enable spectral bin fill-in allowing additional spectral coverage while giving up simultaneity. Different lenslet array spectral imaging concept designs are presented in this paper along with a unique concept for prefiltering the radiation focused on the detector. This approach to spectral imaging has applications in the detection of chemical agents in both aerosolized form and as a liquid on a surface. It also can be applied to the detection of weaponized biological agent and IED detection in various forms from manufacturing to deployment and post detection during forensic analysis.

  11. Lipid volume fraction in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms classified under saline conditions by multispectral angioscopy at near-infrared wavelengths around 1200 nm.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-05-01

    To identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions, we require detailed information on the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we quantitatively classified the lipid volume fractions in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms by a novel angioscope combined with near-infrared multispectral imaging. The multispectral angioscope was operated at peak absorption wavelengths of lipid in vulnerable plaques (1150, 1200, and 1300 nm) and at lower absorption wavelengths of water. The potential of the multispectral angioscope was demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms containing 10-60 vol.% lipid and immersed in saline solution. The acquired multispectral data were processed by a spectral angle mapper algorithm, which enhanced the simulated plaque areas. Consequently, we classified the lipid volume fractions into five categories (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, and 50-60 vol.%). Multispectral angioscopy at wavelengths around 1200 nm is a powerful tool for quantitatively evaluating the stability of atherosclerotic plaques based on the lipid volume fractions. PMID:26861978

  12. Observations of rock spectral classes by the Opportunity rover's Pancam on northern Cape York and on Matijevic Hill, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Rice, M. S.; Jolliff, B. L.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2014-11-01

    The Opportunity rover's exploration of the portion of the rim of Endeavour crater known as Cape York included examination of the sulfate-bearing Grasberg formation and the Matijevic Hill region. Multispectral visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Pancam observations were used to characterize reflectance properties of rock units. Using spectral end-member detection and classification approaches including a principal components/n-dimensional visualization, automatic sequential maximum angle convex cone method, and classification through hierarchical clustering, six main spectral classes of rock surfaces were identified: light-toned veins, Grasberg fm., the smectite-bearing Matijevic formation, the hematitic "blueberry" spherules, resistant spherules within the Matijevic fm. dubbed "newberries," and the Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Some of these could be divided into spectral subclasses. There were three types of veins: veins in the bench unit of Cape York, thinner veins in the Matijevic fm., and boxwork pattern-forming veins. The bench unit veins had higher 535 nm band depths than the other two vein subclasses and a steeper 934 to 1009 nm slope. The Grasberg fm. has VNIR spectral features that are interpreted to indicate higher fractions of red hematite than in the sulfate-bearing Burns Fm. The Matijevic fm. includes both light-toned, fine-grained matrix, and dark-toned veneers. The latter has a weak near-infrared absorption band centered near 950 nm consistent with nontronite. Observations of Rock Abrasion Tool brushed and ground newberries indicated that cuttings from the RAT grind had a longer wavelength reflectance maximum and deeper 535 nm band depth, consistent with more oxidized materials. Greater oxidation of cementing materials in the newberries is consistent with a diagenetic concretion origin.

  13. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range

    PubMed Central

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution. PMID:27345517

  14. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; de Angelis, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution.

  15. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range.

    PubMed

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution. PMID:27345517

  16. Mineral identification from orbit - Initial results from the Shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Rowan, L. C.; Kingston, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle multispectral IR radiometer (SMIRR) was designed to obtain surface reflectance data in ten spectral bands in order to evaluate the usefulness of a future imaging system for remote mineral identification. Attention was given to the 2.0-2.4 micron region, which has a wealth of spectral absorption features and appeared to have potential for the identification of CO3- and OH-bearing minerals such as the kaolinite and montmorillonite clays. SMIRR radiances were normalized by using a spectrum for dune sand collected in the Kharga Depression in Egypt. Direct identifications have been made of kaolinite-containing and carbonate material, indicating an exceptional potential for future orbital platform narrowband spectral imaging systems for mineralogical mapping.

  17. Astrobiological considerations for the selection of the geological filters on the ExoMars PanCam instrument.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Claire R; Griffiths, Andrew D; Crawford, Ian A; Prosser, Bryan J; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C; Davis, Lottie E; Gunn, Matthew; Coates, Andrew J; Jones, Adrian P; Ward, John M

    2010-11-01

    The Panoramic Camera (PanCam) instrument will provide visible-near IR multispectral imaging of the ExoMars rover's surroundings to identify regions of interest within the nearby terrain. This multispectral capability is dependant upon the 12 preselected "geological" filters that are integrated into two wide-angle cameras. First devised by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder team to detect iron oxides, this baseline filter set has remained largely unchanged for subsequent missions (Mars Exploration Rovers, Beagle 2, Phoenix) despite the advancing knowledge of the mineralogical diversity on Mars. Therefore, the geological filters for the ExoMars PanCam will be redesigned to accommodate the astrobiology focus of ExoMars, where hydrated mineral terrains (evidence of past liquid water) will be priority targets. Here, we conduct an initial investigation into new filter wavelengths for the ExoMars PanCam and present results from tests performed on Mars analog rocks. Two new filter sets were devised: one with filters spaced every 50 nm ("F1-12") and another that utilizes a novel filter selection method based upon hydrated mineral reflectance spectra ("F2-12"). These new filter sets, along with the Beagle 2 filter set (currently the baseline for the ExoMars PanCam), were tested on their ability to identify hydrated minerals and biosignatures present in Mars analog rocks. The filter sets, with varying degrees of ability, detected the spectral features of minerals jarosite, opaline silica, alunite, nontronite, and siderite present in these rock samples. None of the filter sets, however, were able to detect fossilized biomat structures and small (<2 mm) mineralogical heterogeneities present in silica sinters. Both new filter sets outperformed the Beagle 2 filters, with F2-12 detecting the most spectral features produced by hydrated minerals and providing the best discrimination between samples. Future work involving more extensive testing on Mars analog samples that exhibit a

  18. Mineral identification from orbit: Initial results from the shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.; Kingston, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A shuttle-borne radiometer containing ten channels in the reflective infrared has demonstrated that direct identification of carbonates and hydroxyl-bearing minerals is possible by remote measurement from Earth orbit. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  19. Evaluation of multispectral middle infrared aircraft images for lithologic mapping the East Tintic Mountains, Utah( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, A.B.; Rowan, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Six channels of moultispectral middle infrared (8 to 14 micrometres) aircraft scanner data were acquired over the East Tintic mining district, Utah. The digital image data were computer processed to create a color-composite image based on principal component transformations. When combined with a visible and near infrared color-composite image from a previous flight, with limited field checking, it is possible to discriminate quartzite, carbonate rocks, quartz latitic and quartz monzonitic rocks, latitic and monzonitic rocks, silicified altered rocks, argillized altered rocks, and vegetation. -from Authors

  20. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of sulfur dioxide plumes: A case study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Realmuto, V.J.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1997-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) and apply the procedure to TIMS data collected over the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, on September 30, 1988. These image data covered the Pu'u 'O'o and Kupaianaha vents and a skylight in the lava tube that was draining the Kupaianaha lava pond. Our estimate of the SO2 emission rate from Pu'u 'O'o (17 - 20 kg s-1) is roughly twice the average of estimates derived from correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements collected 10 days prior to the TIMS overflight (10 kg s-1). The agreement between the TIMS and COSPEC results improves when we compare SO2 burden estimates, which are relatively independent of wind speed. We demonstrate the feasibility of mapping Pu'u 'O'o - scale SO2 plumes from space in anticipation of the 1998 launch of the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflectance radiometer (ASTER). Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. All-fiber-optic infrared multispectral radiometer for measurements of temperature and emissivity of graybodies at near-room temperature.

    PubMed

    Uman, Igor; Sade, Sharon; Gopal, Veena; Harrington, James A; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-04-01

    An all-fiber-optic infrared multispectral radiometer for measurements of temperature and emissivity of graybodies at near-room temperature was constructed. Different spectral regions in the radiometer were obtained by use of hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) as filters. Using HGWs instead of bulk filters was advantageous because each HGW can be used as two different spectral filters when a dual-band IR detector is used. In addition, HGWs are much cheaper than the bulk IR filters that are usually used in such applications. For one graybody with a mean emissivity of 0.71, the estimated mean errors obtained for sample temperature, ambient temperature, and sample emissivity for all measured temperatures were 0.50% (approximately 1.65 K), 0.48% (approximately 1.4 K), and 7.3% (approximately 0.052) respectively. For a second graybody with a mean emissivity of 0.8 the estimated mean errors were 0.35% (approximately 1.2 K), 0.48% (approximately 1.4 K), and 5.0% (approximately 0.04), respectively. PMID:15074410

  2. An infrared remote sensor with high integration and multi-spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lisha; Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Wenpo; Tang, Shaofan; Hu, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Along with the further application of optical remote sensing, it becomes main trend to realize high spatial resolution, high time resolution, high spectrum resolution and high irradiance sensitivity simultaneously. We present a new satellite-based imaging system that will provide images with these high performances. The structure of the system is compact with small size and light weight. The IR imager, a new generation of high resolution optical remote sensing, is universally acknowledged as the most effective approach to surveil dynamic changes in the environment on the earth. Pushbroom imaging fashion with high efficiency and long-array focal plane detector with passive cooling are adopted to realize area imaging relevant to the flight direction of satellite. The instrument is a dual-optical-path system with long-wave infrared (LWIR) and mid-short-wave infrared (MW-SWIR) bands - which has 4 narrow spectrum bands respectively. An IR dichroic beam-splitter is use to divide wideband incident infrared into LWIR and MW-SWIR. Then two pieces of joint filters, which are integrated in front of detectors and then enveloped by IR Dewars, are used to divide the LWIR and MWIR into 4 spectral bands separately. The focal plane arrays (FPA) are fixed on the optical imaging plane of the lens. The LWIR and MW-SWIR FPA are cooled around 80K or even below. For cooled FPA, optical system must provide a real, accessible exit pupil coupled with a fast f/number refractive component in a Dewar and very close to the FPA. Compared to traditional infrared instruments, high spatial resolution and spectrum resolution can be obtained simultaneously within mass, volume and performance constraints.

  3. A near infrared vegetation index formed with airborne multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1987-01-01

    A near infrared vegetation index (NIVI) has been formed with the 1.24 and 1.65 micron bands on the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator. The NIVI was compared to the more traditional Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) formed with the 0.66 and 0.83 micron bands. The PVI was found to be less susceptible to problems with rock and soil spectral variations than the VIVI.

  4. Visible and near-infrared spectra of manganese oxides: Detecting high manganese phases in Curiosity Mastcam multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardgrove, C. J.; Lanza, N.; Bell, J. F., III; Wiens, R. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Morris, R. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover's Chemcam instrument has identified manganese in relatively high abundance on several rock surfaces. The manganese abundances are several orders of magnitude greater than has been previously identified on Mars, indicating the presence of a manganese-rich phase. Although the specific phase has yet to be identified, these results suggest that the martian surface may have been much more highly oxidizing than has previously been recognized. The presence of a manganese-rich phase could provide an additional indicator of habitable aqueous environments. Given the importance of manganese for understanding past habitability, and the high abundances identified with Chemcam, we investigate the utility of using Mastcam multispectral imaging surveys to identify areas for subsequent detailed analysis with Chemcam. Vempati et al. showed that Mn3+ affect the reflectance spectra of Mn-bearing minerals. Specifically, relatively weak features due to electronic transitions and crystal field effects are observed in Mn-enriched hematites and geothites at 454, 554, 596 and 700 nm. The Mastcam-34 medium angle camera has filter band-passes at 550, 675 and 750nm, and we will explore the utility of using these bands (or combinations thereof) to determine if there is a contribution of Mn-bearing phases on spectra, specifically those that have been identified as having elevated Mn with Chemcam. The most common Mn-bearing mineral phase in terrestrial varnishes, Birnessite, has charge-transfer features that are similar to Fe-oxides but are centered at slightly longer wavelength band positions. Longer wavelength features are also common for other Mn-oxides, and this could be used to distinguish these phases from other Fe-oxide components. In this study we will present visible to near-infrared (0.4 - 3 µm) reflectance spectra on a suite of Mn-oxide laboratory standards. The set of standards includes Mn-oxide abundances that vary from less than 1 up to

  5. Extracting lithologic information from ASTER multispectral thermal infrared data in the eastern Kunlun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Kong, Chunfang; Shuai, Yanmin; Cao, Chunxiang; Yan, Shouxun

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, mechanisms of mineral radiation transfer, atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve, method of minerals identification based on emissivity spectral features are studied. Mineral radiation transfer can model the mechanisms of spectral formation and variation, and is one of study methods of spectral mechanism. Along with the variation of mineral granularity, the shape and absorption depth of mineral emissivity spectral will all variate. However, the law of emissivity variation with emission angle of different minerals is identical. Along with the increasement of emission angle, emissivity decrease. The more emissivity is small, the more variation range and speed are large. The reflectance mixture of mineral is non-linear, and can be lineated using mineral radiative transfer model. After the mixture spectral is lineated, the precision of linear unmixing of spectral and mineral content extraction will be improved greatly. The atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve of thermal remote sensing data will affect extraction lithologic information greatly. In this paper, using the MODTRAN model to atmospheric correction, and using split-window algorithm for retrieving surface temperature from ASTER thermal infrared data. With the minerals emissivity spectral features and the index (QI, CI and SI), retrieving Si02 content of rock quantitatively using ASTER thermal infrared data. The method can be used to extract lithologic information.

  6. Identification and tracking of ash clouds from recent explosive eruptions by using multispectral satellite infrared data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, F.; Falconieri, A.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2012-04-01

    RSTASH is a specific algorithm, based on the general Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach, developed to identify and track ash clouds using satellite infrared data. An updated and optimized version of this algorithm, which analyzes even signal measured in the visible spectral band, has recently been developed and implemented on geostationary satellites data, for a better discrimination of ash and weather clouds in daytime. This advanced configuration was firstly tested during the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) eruption of April 2010 (by using Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager sensor aboard Meteosat Second Generation), showing further improvements in terms of false positives reduction in comparison with standard RSTASH technique. Another experimental configuration of this method, analyzing signal measured in the SEVIRI sulphur dioxide absorption band (at 8.6µm), was also successfully used to qualitatively characterize volcanic plumes emitted by the same volcano in May 2010 in terms of SO2 concentration. Results of these studies are presented and discussed here, together with main achievements obtained monitoring ash cloud emitted during Shinmoedake (Japan) explosive eruption of 26-27 January 2011, exploiting the high temporal resolution of MTSAT Japanese geostationary satellites. Moreover, for both test cases, plume height estimations, obtained by applying two different literature methods, are compared with indipendent both ground- and satellite-based observations. In this work, RSTASH performances in detecting, tracking and characterizing ash clouds are discussed, focusing on main open issues and future perspectives.

  7. Dual-band absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peng; Wu, Jiang; Ashalley, Eric; Govorov, Alexander; Wang, Zhiming

    2016-09-01

    For most of the reported metamaterial absorbers, the peak absorption only occurs at one single wavelength. Here, we investigated a dual-band absorber which is based on simple gold nano-rings. Two absorption peaks can be readily achieved in 3–5 µm and 8–14 µm via tuning the width and radius of gold nano-rings and dielectric constant. The average maximum absorption of two bands can be as high as 95.1% (‑0.22 dB). Based on the simulation results, the perfect absorber with nano-rings demonstrates great flexibility to create dual-band or triple-band absorption, and thus holds potential for further applications in thermophotovoltaics, multicolor infrared focal plane arrays, optical filters, and biological sensing applications.

  8. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langran, Kenneth J.

    1986-01-01

    The Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption offers an opportunity to study vegetation recovery rates and patterns in a perturbed ecosystem. The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. It was observed that during maximum daytime solar heating, surface temperatures of vegetated areas are cooler than surrounding nonvegetated areas, and that surface temperature varies with percent vegetation cover. A method of measuring the relationship between effective radiant temperature (ERT) and percent vegetation cover in the thermal infrared (8 to 12 microns) region of the electromagnetic spectrum was investigated.

  9. 3D Multi-spectral Image-guided Near-infrared Spectroscopy using Boundary Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Image guided (IG) Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the ability to provide high-resolution metabolic and vascular characterization of tissue, with clinical applications in diagnosis of breast cancer. This method is specific to multimodality imaging where tissue boundaries obtained from alternate modalities such as MRI/CT, are used for NIRS recovery. IG-NIRS is severely limited in 3D by challenges such as volumetric meshing of arbitrary anatomical shapes and computational burden encountered by existing models which use finite element method (FEM). We present an efficient and feasible alternative to FEM using boundary element method (BEM). The main advantage is the use of surface discretization which is reliable and more easily generated than volume grids in 3D and enables automation for large number of clinical data-sets. The BEM has been implemented for the diffusion equation to model light propagation in tissue. Image reconstruction based on BEM has been tested in a multi-threading environment using four processors which provides 60% improvement in computational time compared to a single processor. Spectral priors have been implemented in this framework and applied to a three-region problem with mean error of 6% in recovery of NIRS parameters. PMID:21179380

  10. Multispectral near-infrared imaging of composite restorations in extracted teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Cooper M.; Co, Katrina U.; Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2014-02-01

    One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure.

  11. Multispectral Near-Infrared Imaging of Composite Restorations in Extracted Teeth.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cooper M; Co, Katrina U; Fried, William A; Simon, Jacob C; Staninec, Michal; And, Daniel Fried; Darling, Cynthia L

    2014-02-20

    One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure. PMID:25309098

  12. The PanCam instrument on the 2018 Exomars rover: Science Implementation Strategy and Integrated Surface Operations Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Jaumann, Ralf; Coates, Andrew; Griffiths, Andrew; Hauber, Ernst; Trauthan, Frank; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, Dave; Bauer, Arnold; Cousins, Claire

    2010-05-01

    Geologic context as a combination of orbital imaging and surface vision, including range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging, is commonly regarded as basic requirement for remote robotic geology and forms the first tier of any multi-instrument strategy for investigating and eventually understanding the geology of a region from a robotic platform. Missions with objectives beyond a pure geologic survey, e.g. exobiology objectives, require goal-oriented operational procedures, where the iterative process of scientific observation, hypothesis, testing, and synthesis, performed via a sol-by-sol data exchange with a remote robot, is supported by a powerful vision system. Beyond allowing a thorough geological mapping of the surface (soil, rocks and outcrops) in 3D, using wide angle stereo imagery, such a system needs to be able to provide detailed visual information on targets of interest in high resolution, thereby enabling the selection of science targets and samples for further analysis with a specialized in-situ instrument suite. Surface vision for ESA's upcoming ExoMars rover will come from a dedicated Panoramic Camera System (PanCam). As integral part of the Pasteur payload package, the PanCam is designed to support the search for evidence of biological processes by obtaining wide angle multispectral stereoscopic panoramic images and high resolution RGB images from the mast of the rover [1]. The camera system will consist of two identical wide-angle cameras (WACs), which are arranged on a common pan-tilt mechanism, with a fixed stereo base length of 50 cm. The WACs are being complemented by a High Resolution Camera (HRC), mounted between the WACs, which allows a magnification of selected targets by a factor of ~8 with respect to the wide-angle optics. The high-resolution images together with the multispectral and stereo capabilities of the camera will be of unprecedented quality for the identification of water-related surface features (such as sedimentary

  13. Hematite spherules at Meridiani: Results from MI, Mini-TES, and Pancam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. M.; Shoffner, J. D.; Johnson, J. R.; Knoll, A. H.; Pocock, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Weitz, C. M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.; de Souza, P. A.; Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T. D.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Knudson, A. T.; McLennan, S. M.; Rogers, A. D.; Thompson, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    We report on observations of hematite-bearing spherules at Meridiani Planum made using the Microscopic Imager (MI), Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Spherules were observed on soil surfaces and in outcrop rocks, both on undisturbed surfaces and in abraded surfaces ground using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). Spherule size and shape change little along the 850 m eastward traverse from Eagle Crater to Endurance Crater, but spherules decrease and then slightly increase in size along the 6 km traverse from Endurance south to Victoria Crater. Local populations range from submillimeters to several millimeters in diameter. An additional small diameter (100 μm) size population is possible. An increase in irregular shapes is found near Victoria Crater. This, combined with the size decrease south of Endurance, suggests either a changing depositional environment, or variation in the duration and timing of diagenetic events. The dominant smaller size population observed early in the mission in aeolian areas and ripple crests is observed as the primary size population in abraded outcrop farther south. This suggests that successively younger beds are exposed at the surface along the southward traverse. Stratigraphically higher units removed by erosion could be recorded by the present surface lag deposit. Coordinated systematic observations are used to determine optical and infrared hematite indices of the surface soils in Pancam and Mini-TES. In spite of the systematic variation seen in MI, both Pancam and Mini-TES indices are highly variable based on the local surface, and neither show systematic trends south of Endurance. The lack of a 390 cm-1 feature in Mini-TES spectra suggests concentric or radial interior structure within the spherules at scales too fine for MI to observe. Mini-TES does not detect any silicate component in the spherules. A bound water component in soils or in

  14. Hematite spherules at Meridiani: results from MI, Mini-TES, and Pancam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, W.M.; Shoffner, J.D.; Johnson, J. R.; Knoll, A.H.; Pocock, J.M.; Squyres, S. W.; Weitz, C.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F., III; Christensen, P.R.; de Souza, P. A., Jr.; Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T.D.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.M.; Rogers, A.D.; Thompson, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    We report on observations of hematite-bearing spherules at Meridiani Planum made using the Microscopic Imager (MI), Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Spherules were observed on soil surfaces and in outcrop rocks, both on undisturbed surfaces and in abraded surfaces ground using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). Spherule size and shape change little along the 850 m eastward traverse from Eagle Crater to Endurance Crater, but spherules decrease and then slightly increase in size along the 6 km traverse from Endurance south to Victoria Crater. Local populations range from submillimeters to several millimeters in diameter. An additional small diameter (100 μm) size population is possible. An increase in irregular shapes is found near Victoria Crater. This, combined with the size decrease south of Endurance, suggests either a changing depositional environment, or variation in the duration and timing of diagenetic events. The dominant smaller size population observed early in the mission in aeolian areas and ripple crests is observed as the primary size population in abraded outcrop farther south. This suggests that successively younger beds are exposed at the surface along the southward traverse. Stratigraphically higher units removed by erosion could be recorded by the present surface lag deposit. Coordinated systematic observations are used to determine optical and infrared hematite indices of the surface soils in Pancam and Mini-TES. In spite of the systematic variation seen in MI, both Pancam and Mini-TES indices are highly variable based on the local surface, and neither show systematic trends south of Endurance. The lack of a 390 cm?1 feature in Mini-TES spectra suggests concentric or radial interior structure within the spherules at scales too fine for MI to observe. Mini-TES does not detect any silicate component in the spherules. A bound water component in soils or in

  15. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of Volcanic SO2 Plumes with NASA’s Earth Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realmuto, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    The instruments aboard NASA’s series of Earth Observing System satellites provide a rich suite of measurements for the mapping of volcanic plumes and clouds. This presentation will focus on applications of thermal multispectral infrared (TIR) data acquired with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to the recent eruptions of Augustine and Sarychev volcanoes in Alaska and the Russian Kuril Islands, respectively. ASTER, MODIS, and AIRS provide complimentary information on the quantity and distribution of sulfur dioxide (SO2), silicate ash, and sulfate (SO4) aerosols within plumes. In addition, data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are used to derive estimates of aerosol loading, cloud-top altitude, wind direction, and wind speed. MODIS is our workhorse for plume mapping projects. There are MODIS instruments on the Terra and Aqua platforms, ensuring at least two MODIS passes per day over most volcanoes and four passes per day over many volcanoes. The spatial resolution of MODIS TIR radiance measurements is 1 km (at nadir) over a ground swath of 2330 km. MODIS can detect both the 7.3 and 8.5 μm bands of SO2, although the 7.3 μm band is often obscured by water vapor absorption when plumes are altitudes below ~ 4 km. ASTER has five channels in the TIR, and can detect the 8.5 μm SO2 band. The high spatial resolution (90 m) of ASTER TIR radiance measurements results in high sensitivity to SO2 within a narrow ground swath (60 km). AIRS has over 2700 spectral channels between 3.7 and 15.4 μm, allowing us to make unambiguous identifications of SO2, SO4 aerosols, and ash over a ground swath of ~2330 km. AIRS can detect the 7.3 μm SO2 band, and the strength of this band partially offsets the coarse spatial resolution of this instrument (~17 km at nadir). The key to multi-sensor mapping is the availability of a standard set

  16. The PanCam instrument on the 2018 Exomars rover: Science Implementation Strategy and Integrated Surface Operations Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Jaumann, Ralf; Coates, Andrew; Griffiths, Andrew; Hauber, Ernst; Trauthan, Frank; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, Dave; Bauer, Arnold; Cousins, Claire

    2010-05-01

    Geologic context as a combination of orbital imaging and surface vision, including range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging, is commonly regarded as basic requirement for remote robotic geology and forms the first tier of any multi-instrument strategy for investigating and eventually understanding the geology of a region from a robotic platform. Missions with objectives beyond a pure geologic survey, e.g. exobiology objectives, require goal-oriented operational procedures, where the iterative process of scientific observation, hypothesis, testing, and synthesis, performed via a sol-by-sol data exchange with a remote robot, is supported by a powerful vision system. Beyond allowing a thorough geological mapping of the surface (soil, rocks and outcrops) in 3D, using wide angle stereo imagery, such a system needs to be able to provide detailed visual information on targets of interest in high resolution, thereby enabling the selection of science targets and samples for further analysis with a specialized in-situ instrument suite. Surface vision for ESA's upcoming ExoMars rover will come from a dedicated Panoramic Camera System (PanCam). As integral part of the Pasteur payload package, the PanCam is designed to support the search for evidence of biological processes by obtaining wide angle multispectral stereoscopic panoramic images and high resolution RGB images from the mast of the rover [1]. The camera system will consist of two identical wide-angle cameras (WACs), which are arranged on a common pan-tilt mechanism, with a fixed stereo base length of 50 cm. The WACs are being complemented by a High Resolution Camera (HRC), mounted between the WACs, which allows a magnification of selected targets by a factor of ~8 with respect to the wide-angle optics. The high-resolution images together with the multispectral and stereo capabilities of the camera will be of unprecedented quality for the identification of water-related surface features (such as sedimentary

  17. The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR): A High Speed, Multispectral, Thermal Instrument Development in Support of HyspIRI-TIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR) is being developed as part of the risk reduction activities associated with the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). The HyspIRI mission was recommended by the National Research Council Decadal Survey and includes a visible shortwave infrared (SWIR) pushboom spectrometer and a multispectral whiskbroom thermal infrared (TIR) imager. Data from the HyspIRI mission will be used to address key science questions related to the Solid Earth and Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems focus areas of the NASA Science Mission Directorate. The HyspIRI TIR system will have 60m ground resolution, better than 200mK noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT), 0.5C absolute temperature resolution with a 5-day repeat from LEO orbit. PHyTIR addresses the technology readiness level (TRL) of certain key subsystems of the TIR imager, primarily the detector assembly and scanning mechanism. PHyTIR will use Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) technology at the focal plane and operate in time delay integration mode. A custom read out integrated circuit (ROIC) will provide the high speed readout hence allowing the high data rates needed for the 5 day repeat. PHyTIR will also demonstrate a newly developed interferometeric metrology system. This system will provide an absolute measurement of the scanning mirror to an order of magnitude better than conventional optical encoders. This will minimize the reliance on ground control points hence minimizing post-processing (e.g. geo-rectification computations).

  18. Quantitative evaluation of lipid concentration in atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral angioscope at wavelengths around 1200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of critical ischemic diseases like heart infarction or stroke. A method that can provide detailed information about the stability of atherosclerotic plaques is required. We focused on spectroscopic techniques that could evaluate the chemical composition of lipid in plaques. A novel angioscope using multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm for quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques was developed. The angioscope consists of a halogen lamp, an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera, 3 optical band pass filters transmitting wavelengths of 1150, 1200, and 1300 nm, an image fiber having 0.7 mm outer diameter, and an irradiation fiber which consists of 7 multimode fibers. Atherosclerotic plaque phantoms with 100, 60, 20 vol.% of lipid were prepared and measured by the multispectral angioscope. The acquired datasets were processed by spectral angle mapper (SAM) method. As a result, simulated plaque areas in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms that could not be detected by an angioscopic visible image could be clearly enhanced. In addition, quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque phantoms based on the lipid volume fractions was performed up to 20 vol.%. These results show the potential of a multispectral angioscope at wavelengths around 1200 nm for quantitative evaluation of the stability of atherosclerotic plaques.

  19. Cloud characteristics over central Amazonia during GTE/ABLE 2B derived from multispectral visible and infrared spin scan radiometer atmospheric sounder observations

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, W.P. ); Schmit, T.J.; Wylie, D.P. )

    1990-09-20

    Multispectral GOES/Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) observations in the carbon dioxide absorption band at 15 {mu}m have been used to calculate diurnal cloud statistics over central Amazonia region for 4 days during the Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (GTE/ABLE IIB). The CO{sub 2} technique calculates both cloud top pressure and effective emissivity from radiative transfer principles. Transmissive clouds that are partially transparent to terrestrial radiation have been reliably separated from opaque clouds in the statistics of cloud cover. A high incidence of transmissive clouds (about 47%) was found on the average. Diurnal characteristics of cloud cover over Amazonia have been linked to convective activity over this region. On days with afternoon convection, an increase in low-altitude opaque clouds was followed by a subsequent increase in high-altitude transmissive clouds.

  20. The use of aircraft-based Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data to measure surface energy budgets on a landscape scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    A series of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner Data (TIMS) was collected over the H. J. Andrews experimental forest in western Oregon and at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina. Flight lines were overlapped with an 8 to 28 minute time difference between flight lines. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air and dew point temperatures provided inputs to LOWTRAN6 for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Surface temperature differences over time between flight lines allowed the development of thermal response numbers (TRN) which characterized the thermal response of the different surface types. The polygons containing mostly soil and bare rock had the lowest TRN whereas the forested polygons were the highest. Results indicate that forest canopy temperatures measured by the TIMS are comparable to needle thermocouples temperatures. ET models developed from the TIMS data obtained similar ET rates as those using energy balance techniques.

  1. The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Abrams, Michael J.; Buongiorno, M. Fabrizia; Pieri, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO2 content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO2 plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which we use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO2 plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO2 plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. We use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO2 concentrations within a plume. Applying our procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, we estimate that the SO2 flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d(exp -1). The use of TIMS to study SO2 plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. We require further airborne experiments to refine our estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the schedueled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

  2. Observing lowermost tropospheric ozone pollution with a new multispectral synergic approach of IASI infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Coman, Adriana; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Liu, Xiong; Cai, Zhaonan; Von Clarmann, Thomas; Spurr, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is currently one of the air pollutants posing greatest threats to human health and ecosystems. Monitoring ozone pollution at the regional, continental and global scale is a crucial societal issue. Only spaceborne remote sensing is capable of observing tropospheric ozone at such scales. The spatio-temporal coverage of new satellite-based instruments, such as IASI or GOME-2, offer a great potential for monitoring air quality by synergism with regional chemistry-transport models, for both inter-validation and full data assimilation. However, current spaceborne observations using single-band either UV or IR measurements show limited sensitivity to ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is the major concern for air quality. Very recently, we have developed an innovative multispectral approach, so-called IASI+GOME-2, which combines IASI and GOME-2 observations, respectively in the IR and UV. This unique multispectral approach has allowed the observation of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) over Europe, for the first time from space. Our first analyses are focused on typical ozone pollution events during the summer of 2009 over Europe. During these events, LMT ozone plumes at different regions are produced photo-chemically in the boundary layer, transported upwards to the free troposphere and also downwards from the stratosphere. We have analysed them using IASI+GOME-2 observations, in comparison with single-band methods (IASI, GOME-2 and OMI). Only IASI+GOME-2 depicts ozone plumes located below 3 km of altitude (both over land and ocean). Indeed, the multispectral sensitivity in the LMT is greater by 40% and it peaks at 2 to 2.5 km of altitude over land, thus at least 0.8 to 1 km below that for all single-band methods. Over Europe during the summer of 2009, IASI+GOME-2 shows 1% mean bias and 21% precision for direct comparisons with ozonesondes and also good agreement with CHIMERE model simulations

  3. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  4. Gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kevin H.; Crollett, Seferino; Henson, Tammy D.; Napier, Matthew; Stromberg, Peter G.

    2016-01-26

    A gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method is described herein. In an general embodiment, the gimbaled multispectral imaging system has a cross support that defines a first gimbal axis and a second gimbal axis, wherein the cross support is rotatable about the first gimbal axis. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system comprises a telescope that fixed to an upper end of the cross support, such that rotation of the cross support about the first gimbal axis causes the tilt of the telescope to alter. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system includes optics that facilitate on-gimbal detection of visible light and off-gimbal detection of infrared light.

  5. Recent advances in airborne terrestrial remote sensing with the NASA airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Evans, Diane L.; Kahle, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress in terrestrial remote sensing from the air has been made with three NASA-developed sensors that collectively cover the solar-reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These sensors are the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), the thermal infrared mapping spectrometer (TIMS) and the airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), respectively. AVIRIS and SAR underwent extensive in-flight engineering testing in 1987 and 1988 and are scheduled to become operational in 1989. TIMS has been in operation for several years. These sensors are described.

  6. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Cristhian; Barrera, Fernando; Lumbreras, Felipe; Sappa, Angel D.; Toledo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH) descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  7. Infrared image processing devoted to thermal non-contact characterization-Applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation, Microfluidics and 2D source term distribution for multispectral tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batsale, Jean-Christophe; Pradere, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The cost of IR cameras is more and more decreasing. Beyond the preliminary calibration step and the global instrumentation, the infrared image processing is then one of the key step for achieving in very broad domains. Generally the IR images are coming from the transient temperature field related to the emission of a black surface in response to an external or internal heating (active IR thermography). The first applications were devoted to the so called thermal Non-Destructive Evaluation methods by considering a thin sample and 1D transient heat diffusion through the sample (transverse diffusion). With simplified assumptions related to the transverse diffusion, the in-plane diffusion and transport phenomena can be also considered. A general equation can be applied in order to balance the heat transfer at the pixel scale or between groups of pixels in order to estimate several fields of thermophysical properties (heterogeneous field of in-plane diffusivity, flow distributions, source terms). There is a lot of possible strategies to process the space and time distributed big amount of data (previous integral transformation of the images, compression, elimination of the non useful areas...), generally based on the necessity to analyse the derivative versus space and time of the temperature field. Several illustrative examples related to the Non-Destructive Evaluation of heterogeneous solids, the thermal characterization of chemical reactions in microfluidic channels and the design of systems for multispectral tomography, will be presented.

  8. Multispectral measurement of contrast in tissue-mimicking phantoms in near-infrared spectral range of 650 to 1600 nm

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Daniel; Zhang, Hairong; Kim, David M.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In order to identify the optimal imaging conditions for the highest spatial contrast in biological tissue, we explored the properties of a tissue-mimicking phantom as a function of the wavelengths in a broad range of near-infrared spectra (650 to 1600 nm). Our customized multispectral hardware, which featured a scanning transmission microscope and imaging spectrographs equipped with silicon and InGaAs charge-coupled diode array detectors, allowed for direct comparison of the Michelson contrast obtained from a phantom composed of a honeycomb grid, Intralipid, and India ink. The measured contrast depended on the size of the grid, luminance, and the wavelength of measurements. We demonstrated that at low thickness of the phantom, a reasonable contrast of the objects can be achieved at any wavelength between 700 and 1400 nm and between 1500 and 1600 nm. At larger thicknesses, such contrast can be achieved mostly between 1200 and 1350 nm. These results suggest that distinguishing biological features in deep tissue and developing contrast agents for in vivo may benefit from imaging in this spectral range. PMID:25104414

  9. Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

    1990-01-01

    Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

  10. Multispectral scanner (MSS), ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arlauskas, J.

    1973-01-01

    The multispectral scanner onboard ERTS-A spacecraft provides simultaneous images in three visible bands and one near infrared band. The instrument employs fiber optics to transfer optical images to the detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Detector outputs are digitized and multiplexed for transmission from the spacecraft by analog to digital processor.

  11. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  12. Multispectral Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Model II Multispectral Camera is an advanced aerial camera that provides optimum enhancement of a scene by recording spectral signatures of ground objects only in narrow, preselected bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its photos have applications in such areas as agriculture, forestry, water pollution investigations, soil analysis, geologic exploration, water depth studies and camouflage detection. The target scene is simultaneously photographed in four separate spectral bands. Using a multispectral viewer, such as their Model 75 Spectral Data creates a color image from the black and white positives taken by the camera. With this optical image analysis unit, all four bands are superimposed in accurate registration and illuminated with combinations of blue green, red, and white light. Best color combination for displaying the target object is selected and printed. Spectral Data Corporation produces several types of remote sensing equipment and also provides aerial survey, image processing and analysis and number of other remote sensing services.

  13. PtSi Schottky-barrier focal plane arrays for multispectral imaging in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Bor-Yeu; Chen, C. K.; Mattia, John-Paul

    1990-04-01

    PtSi Schottky-barrier detectors, which are conventionally used in the back-illumination mode for thermal imaging in the 3-5 micron infrared (IR) spectral band, are shown to exhibit excellent photoresponse in the near-ultraviolet and visible regions when operated in the front-illumination mode. For devices without antireflection coatings, external quantum efficiency in excess of 60 percent has been obtained for wavelengths between 400 and 800 nm. The efficiency decreases below 400 nm but is still about 35 percent at 290 nm. High-quality imaging has been demonstrated in both the visible and 3-5 micron spectral bands for front-illuminated 160- x 244-element PtSi focal plane arrays integrated with monolithic CCD readout circuitry.

  14. Estimating nocturnal opaque ice cloud optical depth from MODIS multispectral infrared radiances using a neural network method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Hong, Gang; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Smith, William L.; Chen, Yan; Miller, Steven D.

    2016-05-01

    Retrieval of ice cloud properties using IR measurements has a distinct advantage over the visible and near-IR techniques by providing consistent monitoring regardless of solar illumination conditions. Historically, the IR bands at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm have been used to infer ice cloud parameters by various methods, but the reliable retrieval of ice cloud optical depth τ is limited to nonopaque cirrus with τ < 8. The Ice Cloud Optical Depth from Infrared using a Neural network (ICODIN) method is developed in this paper by training Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiances at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm against CloudSat-estimated τ during the nighttime using 2 months of matched global data from 2007. An independent data set comprising observations from the same 2 months of 2008 was used to validate the ICODIN. One 4-channel and three 3-channel versions of the ICODIN were tested. The training and validation results show that IR channels can be used to estimate ice cloud τ up to 150 with correlations above 78% and 69% for all clouds and only opaque ice clouds, respectively. However, τ for the deepest clouds is still underestimated in many instances. The corresponding RMS differences relative to CloudSat are ~100 and ~72%. If the opaque clouds are properly identified with the IR methods, the RMS differences in the retrieved optical depths are ~62%. The 3.7 µm channel appears to be most sensitive to optical depth changes but is constrained by poor precision at low temperatures. A method for estimating total optical depth is explored for estimation of cloud water path in the future. Factors affecting the uncertainties and potential improvements are discussed. With improved techniques for discriminating between opaque and semitransparent ice clouds, the method can ultimately improve cloud property monitoring over the entire diurnal cycle.

  15. FireMapper 2.0: a multispectral uncooled infrared imaging system for airborne wildfire mapping and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Riggan, Philip J.; Griffin, Stephanie A.; Grush, Ronald C.; Grush, William H.; Pena, James

    2003-11-01

    FireMapper®2.0 is a second-generation airborne system developed specifically for wildfire mapping and remote sensing. Its design is based on lessons learned from two years of flight-testing of a research FireMapper® system by the Pacific uthwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service. The new, operational design features greater coverage and improved performance with a rugged sensor that is less than one third the size and weight of the original research sensor. The sensor obtains thermal infrared images in two narrow spectral bands and one wide spectral band with the use of a single uncooled microbolometer detector array. The dynamic range of the sensor is designed to accurately measure scene temperatures from normal backgrounds, for remote sensing and disaster management applications, up to flaming fronts without saturating. All three channels are extremely linear and are calibrated in-flight with a highly accurate absolute calibration system. Airborne testing of the research system has led to improved displays and simplified operator interfaces. These features facilitate the operational use of the FireMapper®2.0 system on both fixed wing aircraft and helicopters with minimal operator inputs. The operating system features custom software to display and zoom in on the images in realtime as they are obtained. Selected images can also be saved and recalled for detailed study. All images are tagged with GPS date, time, latitude, longitude, altitude, and heading and can be recorded on a portable USB hard drive upon operator command. The operating system can also be used to replay previously recorded image sequences. The FireMapper® 2.0 was designed and fabricated by Space Instruments, Inc. as part of a Research Joint Venture with the USDA Forest Service.

  16. Mineralogic variability of the Kelso Dunes, Mojave Desert, California derived from Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Michael S.; Howard, Douglas A.; Christensen, Philip R.; Lancaster, Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Mineral identification and mapping of alluvial material using thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is extremely useful for tracking sediment transport, assessing the degree of weathering and locating sediment sources. As a result of the linear relation between a mineral's percentage in a given area (image pixel) and the depth of its diagnostic spectral features, TIR spectra can be deconvolved in order to ascertain mineralogic percentages. Typical complications such as vegetation, particle size and thermal shadowing are minimized upon examination of dunes. Actively saltating dunes contain little to no vegetation, are very well sorted and lack the thermal shadows that arise from rocky terrain. The primary focus of this work was to use the Kelso Dunes as a test location for an accuracy analysis of temperature/emissivity separation and linear unmixing algorithms. Accurate determination of ground temperature and component discrimination will become key products of future ASTER data. A decorrelation stretch of the TIMS image showed clear color variations within the active dunes. Samples collected from these color units were analyzed for mineralogy, grain size, and separated into endmembers. This analysis not only revealed that the dunes contained significant mineralogic variation, but were more immature (low quartz percentage) than previously reported. Unmixing of the TIMS data using the primary mineral endmembers produced unique variations within the dunes and may indicate near, rather than far, source locales for the dunes. The Kelso Dunes lie in the eastern Mojave Desert, California, approximately 95 km west of the Colorado River. The primary dune field is contained within a topographic basin bounded by the Providence, Granite Mountains, with the active region marked by three northeast trending linear ridges. Although active, the dunes appear to lie at an opposing regional wind boundary which produces little net movement of the crests. Previous studies have estimated

  17. Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of dust on the Spirit Rover: Cleaning events, spectral properties, and aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, Alicia F.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Sullivan, Robert; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Goetz, Walter; Madsen, Morten B.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes dust deposits on the Spirit Rover over 2000 sols through examination of Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of specific locations on the rover body, including portions of the solar array, Pancam and Mini-TES calibration targets, and the magnets. This data set reveals the three "cleaning events" experienced by Spirit to date, the spectral properties of dust, and the tendency of dust particles to form aggregates 100 um and larger.

  18. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  19. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    underlying physics. There are now at least six different disciplines that deal with infrared radiation in one form or another, and in one or several different spectral portions of the whole IR range. These are spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal imaging, detector and source development and metrology, as well the field of optical data transmission. Scientists working in these fields range from chemists and astronomers through to physicists and even photographers. This issue presents examples from some of these fields. All the papers—though some of them deal with fundamental or applied research—include interesting elements that make them directly applicable to university-level teaching at the graduate or postgraduate level. Source (e.g. quantum cascade lasers) and detector development (e.g. multispectral sensors), as well as metrology issues and optical data transmission, are omitted since they belong to fundamental research journals. Using a more-or-less arbitrary order according to wavelength range, the issue starts with a paper on the physics of near-infrared photography using consumer product cameras in the spectral range from 800 nm to 1.1 µm [1]. It is followed by a series of three papers dealing with IR imaging in spectral ranges from 3 to 14 µm [2-4]. One of them deals with laboratory courses that may help to characterize the IR camera response [2], the second discusses potential applications for nondestructive testing techniques [3] and the third gives an example of how IR thermal imaging may be used to understand cloud cover of the Earth [4], which is the prerequisite for successful climate modelling. The next two papers cover the vast field of IR spectroscopy [5, 6]. The first of these deals with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range from 2.5 to 25 µm, studying e.g. ro-vibrational excitations in gases or optical phonon interactions within solids [5]. The second deals mostly with the spectroscopy of liquids such as biofuels and special

  20. Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Particle Size Using MER/Pancam Sky Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging of the sky taken by the Pancam cameras on-board the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) provide a useful tool for determining the optical depth and physcial properties of aerosols above the rover. Specifically, the brightness of the sky as a function of angle away from the Sun provides a powerful constraint on the size distribution and shape of dust and water ice aerosols. More than 100 Pancam "sky surveys" were taken by each of the two MER rovers covering a time span of several Mars years and a wide range of dust loading conditions including the planet-encirclind dust storm during Mars Year 28 (Earth year 2007). These sky surveys enable the time evolution of aerosol particle size to be determined including its relation to dust loading. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the observations. Synthetic Pancam sky brightness is computed using a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer code that accounts for multiple scattering from aerosols and spherical geometry by integrating the source functions along curved paths in that coordinate system. We find that Mie scattering from spheres is not a good approximation for describing the angular variation of sky brightness far from the Sun (at scattering angles greater than 45 degrees). Significant seasonal variations are seen in the retrieved effective radius of the aerosols with higher optical depth strongly correlated with larger particle size.

  1. Seeing the Soils of Meridiani Planum Through the Eyes of Pancam and Microscopic Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Bell, J. F., III; Cabrol, N. A.; Calvin, W. M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farrand, W. H.; Greeley, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    We are using data from the Pancam and Microscopic Imager (MI) on the Opportunity rover to characterize the soil grains at Meridiani Planum. We have traced individual grains in all MI images of the soils using the software application ImageJ distributed by NIH, and subsequently derived size and shape properties about the grains. The resolution of the MI is 31 microns per pixel [1] so we limit our measurements to those grains larger than about 0.3 mm in size. In cases where the grain is partially or substantially buried by other grains or finer soil particles, we do not make a measurement. False-color composites from Pancam images that cover the same location imaged by MI are made from the Left 2,5,6 (753, 535, 482 nm) filters or Right 2,7,1 (753, 1009, 430 nm) filters [2] in the Red, Green, and Blue channels, respectively. These color images are then merged with the MI images to illustrate color properties of particular grains. Pancam spectra are also extracted from grains when there is sufficient spatial coverage. in diameter. Figure 2 illustrates the dominance of these small grains at this particular location, which happens to be on the southern wall of Eagle crater. The Pancam color merge with this MI image suggests that the small spherules are more consistent with the basalt grains than the blueberries (spherulitic concretions derived from outcrop rocks [7]). The resolution of Pancam images of this location is on the order of 0.5 mm so the grains are only barely resolved. A Mossbauer measurement taken on an adjacent soil (Sol 53 Vanilla) that is composed solely of these smaller spherules (Fig 1) is consistent with a basaltic composition for the grains. Their concentration at this particular location in a brighter, elongate patch along the southeastern wall compared to elsewhere inside Eagle crater suggests wind activity favored their transport and subsequent deposition here. Their spherical shape is also possibly the result of wind action rounding them during

  2. Mapping variations in weight percent silica measured from multispectral thermal infrared imagery - Examples from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, S.J.; Dmochowski, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Rowan, L.C.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Stock, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Remotely sensed multispectral thermal infrared (8-13 ??m) images are increasingly being used to map variations in surface silicate mineralogy. These studies utilize the shift to longer wavelengths in the main spectral feature in minerals in this wavelength region (reststrahlen band) as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic. An approach is described for determining the amount of this shift and then using the shift with a reference curve, derived from laboratory data, to remotely determine the weight percent SiO2 of the surface. The approach has broad applicability to many study areas and can also be fine-tuned to give greater accuracy in a particular study area if field samples are available. The approach was assessed using airborne multispectral thermal infrared images from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Results indicate the general approach slightly overestimates the weight percent SiO2 of low silica rocks (e.g. basalt) and underestimates the weight percent SiO2 of high silica rocks (e.g. granite). Fine tuning the general approach with measurements from field samples provided good results for both areas with errors in the recovered weight percent SiO2 of a few percent. The map units identified by these techniques and traditional mapping at the Hiller Mountains demonstrate the continuity of the crystalline rocks from the Hiller Mountains southward to the White Hills supporting the idea that these ranges represent an essentially continuous footwall block below a regional detachment. Results from the Baja California data verify the most recent volcanism to be basaltic-andesite. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellar, R. Glenn; Farmer, Jack D.; Kieta, Andrew; Huang, Julie

    2006-01-01

    A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to determine whether the desired minerals are present; and (2) nondestructive screening of samples for additional in-situ testing and/or selection for return to laboratories for more in-depth examination. Two of the most powerful identification techniques are micro-imaging and visible/infrared spectroscopy. The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths. When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: (i) acquisition of actual reflectance spectra in which the flux is a function of wavelength only, rather than a function of both wavelength and illumination geometry; and (ii) increase in the number of spectral bands to eight bands covering a spectral range of 468 to 975 nm.

  4. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

  5. D Land Cover Classification Based on Multispectral LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Lidar System can emit simultaneous laser pulses at the different wavelengths. The reflected multispectral energy is captured through a receiver of the sensor, and the return signal together with the position and orientation information of sensor is recorded. These recorded data are solved with GNSS/IMU data for further post-processing, forming high density multispectral 3D point clouds. As the first commercial multispectral airborne Lidar sensor, Optech Titan system is capable of collecting point clouds data from all three channels at 532nm visible (Green), at 1064 nm near infrared (NIR) and at 1550nm intermediate infrared (IR). It has become a new source of data for 3D land cover classification. The paper presents an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to only use multispectral Lidar point clouds datasets for 3D land cover classification. The approach consists of three steps. Firstly, multispectral intensity images are segmented into image objects on the basis of multi-resolution segmentation integrating different scale parameters. Secondly, intensity objects are classified into nine categories by using the customized features of classification indexes and a combination the multispectral reflectance with the vertical distribution of object features. Finally, accuracy assessment is conducted via comparing random reference samples points from google imagery tiles with the classification results. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most of the land cover types. Over 90% of overall accuracy is achieved via using multispectral Lidar point clouds for 3D land cover classification.

  6. [Cucumber diseases diagnosis using multispectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ning-Fang; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yong-Dao; Li, Bao-Ju

    2009-02-01

    For a reliable diagnosis of plant diseases and insect pests, spectroscopy analysis technique and mutispectral imaging technique are proposed to diagnose five cucumber diseases, namely Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola and Pseudoperonospora cubensis. In the experiment, the cucumbers' multispectral images of 14 visible lights channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation environment. And the 5 cucumber diseases, healthy leaves and reference white were classified using their multispectral information, the distance, angle and relativity. The discrimination of Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, and reference white was 100%, and that of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and healthy leaves was 80% and 93.33% respectively. The mean correct discrimination of diseases was 81.90% when the distance and relativity were used together. The result shows that the method realized good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis. PMID:19445229

  7. Multispectral observations of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joseph; Podobna, Yuliya; Wells, Tami; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Multispectral visible and infrared observations of various species of whales were made in the St. Lawrence Seaway near Quebec, Canada and Papawai Point in Maui, Hawaii. The Multi-mission Adaptable Narrowband Imaging System (MANTIS) was deployed in two configurations: airborne looking down, and bluff mounted looking at low-grazing angles. An Infrared (IR) sensor was also deployed in the bluff mounted configuration. Detections of marine mammals were made with these systems of submerged mammals and surface mammals at ranges up to 8 miles. Automatic detection algorithms are being explored to detect, track and monitor the behavior of individuals and pods of whales. This effort is part of a United States Navy effort to insure that marine mammals are not injured during the testing of the US Navy's acoustic Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) systems.

  8. Multispectral Filter Arrays: Recent Advances and Practical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Gouton, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to some technical progress in interferencefilter design based on different technologies, we can finally successfully implement the concept of multispectral filter array-based sensors. This article provides the relevant state-of-the-art for multispectral imaging systems and presents the characteristics of the elements of our multispectral sensor as a case study. The spectral characteristics are based on two different spatial arrangements that distribute eight different bandpass filters in the visible and near-infrared area of the spectrum. We demonstrate that the system is viable and evaluate its performance through sensor spectral simulation. PMID:25407904

  9. Processing Of Multispectral Data For Identification Of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.

    1990-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification evaluated. Report discusses processing of multispectral remote-sensing imagery to identify kinds of sedimentary rocks by spectral signatures in geological and geographical contexts. Raw image data are spectra of picture elements in images of seven sedimentary rock units exposed on margin of Wind River Basin in Wyoming. Data acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and NASA/JPL airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR).

  10. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  11. ESTIMATION OF LAND SURFACE WINDOW (8-12 MICROMETER) EMISSIVITY FROM MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL INFRARED REMOTE SENSING - A CASE STUDY IN A PART OF SAHARA DESERT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface window emissivity is an important parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. This study focuses on estimating the window (8-12 micrometer) emissivity from the waveband emissivities of the five thermal infrared channels of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflect...

  12. Automated Recognition of Geologically Significant Shapes in MER PANCAM and MI Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert; Shipman, Mark; Roush, Ted L.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous recognition of scientifically important information provides the capability of: 1) Prioritizing data return; 2) Intelligent data compression; 3) Reactive behavior onboard robotic vehicles. Such capabilities are desirable as mission scenarios include longer durations with decreasing interaction from mission control. To address such issues, we have implemented several computer algorithms, intended to autonomously recognize morphological shapes of scientific interest within a software architecture envisioned for future rover missions. Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) instrument payloads include a Panoramic Camera (PANCAM) and Microscopic Imager (MI). These provide a unique opportunity to evaluate our algorithms when applied to data obtained from the surface of Mars. Early in the mission we applied our algorithms to images available at the mission web site (http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/images.html), even though these are not at full resolution. Some algorithms would normally use ancillary information, e.g. camera pointing and position of the sun, but these data were not readily available. The initial results of applying our algorithms to the PANCAM and MI images are encouraging. The horizon is recognized in all images containing it; such information could be used to eliminate unwanted areas from the image prior to data transmission to Earth. Additionally, several rocks were identified that represent targets for the mini-thermal emission spectrometer. Our algorithms also recognize the layers, identified by mission scientists. Such information could be used to prioritize data return or in a decision-making process regarding future rover activities. The spherules seen in MI images were also autonomously recognized. Our results indicate that reliable recognition of scientifically relevant morphologies in images is feasible.

  13. Dust deposition on the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) calibration targets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinch, K.M.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.; Bell, J.F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Goetz, W.; Landis, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Mars Exploration Rover mission has acquired in excess of 20,000 images of the Pancam calibration targets on the rovers. Analysis of this data set allows estimates of the rate of deposition and removal of aeolian dust on both rovers. During the first 150-170 sols there was gradual dust accumulation on the rovers but no evidence for dust removal. After that time there is ample evidence for both dust removal and dust deposition on both rover decks. We analyze data from early in both rover missions using a diffusive reflectance mixing model. Assuming a dust settling rate proportional to the atmospheric optical depth, we derive spectra of optically thick layers of airfall dust that are consistent with spectra from dusty regions on the Martian surface. Airfall dust reflectance at the Opportunity site appears greater than at the Spirit site, consistent with other observations. We estimate the optical depth of dust deposited on the Spirit calibration target by sol 150 to be 0.44 ?? 0.13. For Opportunity the value was 0.39 ?? 0.12. Assuming 80% pore space, we estimate that the dust layer grew at a rate of one grain diameter per ???100 sols on the Spirit calibration target. On Opportunity the rate was one grain diameter per ???125 sols. These numbers are consistent with dust deposition rates observed by Mars Pathfinder taking into account the lower atmospheric dust optical depth during the Mars Pathfinder mission. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. VNIR Spectral Differences on Natural and Brushed/Wind-abraded Surfaces on Home Plate, Gusev Crater, Mars: Spirit Pancam and HiRISE Color Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Schmidt, M. E.; Bell, J. F.

    2008-03-01

    Color differences between the eastern and western rims of Home Plate are examined using Spirit Pancam and HiRISE color observations. Differences between near-field and remote observations are considered.

  15. Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

  16. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  17. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  18. Galileo multispectral imaging of Earth.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P; Thompson, W R; Greenberg, R; Moersch, J; McEwen, A; Sagan, C

    1995-08-25

    Nearly 6000 multispectral images of Earth were acquired by the Galileo spacecraft during its two flybys. The Galileo images offer a unique perspective on our home planet through the spectral capability made possible by four narrowband near-infrared filters, intended for observations of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere, which are not incorporated in any of the currently operating Earth orbital remote sensing systems. Spectral variations due to mineralogy, vegetative cover, and condensed water are effectively mapped by the visible and near-infrared multispectral imagery, showing a wide variety of biological, meteorological, and geological phenomena. Global tectonic and volcanic processes are clearly illustrated by these images, providing a useful basis for comparative planetary geology. Differences between plant species are detected through the narrowband IR filters on Galileo, allowing regional measurements of variation in the "red edge" of chlorophyll and the depth of the 1-micrometer water band, which is diagnostic of leaf moisture content. Although evidence of life is widespread in the Galileo data set, only a single image (at approximately 2 km/pixel) shows geometrization plausibly attributable to our technical civilization. Water vapor can be uniquely imaged in the Galileo 0.73-micrometer band, permitting spectral discrimination of moist and dry clouds with otherwise similar albedo. Surface snow and ice can be readily distinguished from cloud cover by narrowband imaging within the sensitivity range of Galileo's silicon CCD camera. Ice grain size variations can be mapped using the weak H2O absorption at 1 micrometer, a technique which may find important applications in the exploration of the moons of Jupiter. The Galileo images have the potential to make unique contributions to Earth science in the areas of geological, meteorological and biological remote sensing, due to the inclusion of previously untried narrowband IR filters. The vast scale and near global

  19. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  20. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  1. Spectral unmixing for mineral identification in pancam images of soils in Gusev crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Bell, J. F.

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an automated unmixing technique for the analysis of 11-channel Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (MER/Pancam) spectra. Our approach is to provide a screening tool for identifying unique/distinct reflectance spectra. We demonstrate the utility of this unmixing technique in a study of the mineralogy of the bright salty soils exposed by the rover wheels in images of Gusev crater regions known as Paso Robles (Sols 400,426), Arad (Sol 721), and Tyrone (Sol 790). The unmixing algorithm is based on a novel derivation of the Nonnegative Matrix Factorization technique and includes added features that preclude the adverse effects of low abundance materials that would otherwise skew the unmixing. In order to create a full 11-channel spectrum out of the left and right eye stereo pairs, we also developed a new registration procedure that includes rectification and disparity calculation of the images. We identified two classes of endmember spectra for the bright soils imaged on Sols 426 and 790. One of these endmember classes is also observed for soils imaged on Sols 400 and 721 and has a unique spectral shape that is distinct from most iron oxide, sulfate and silicate spectra and differs from typical martian surface spectra. Instead, its unique spectral character resembles the spectral shape of the ferric sulfate minerals fibroferrite (Fe 3+(SO 4)(OH) · 5H 2O) and ferricopiapite ((Fe,Al,Mg)Fe53+(SO)6(OH)2·20HO) and the phosphate mineral ferristrunzite ((Mn,Fe23+)2(PO)2(OH)2·6HO). The other endmember class is less consistent with specific minerals and is likely a mixture of altered volcanic material and some bright salts. Further analyses of data from Sols 400 and 790 using an anomaly detection algorithm as a tool for detecting low abundance materials additionally suggests the identification of the sulfate mineral paracoquimbite (Fe 2(SO 4) 3 · 9H 2O). This spectral study of Pancam images of the bright S- and P-enriched soils of

  2. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

  3. A near infrared angioscope visualizing lipid within arterial vessel wall based on multi-spectral image in 1.7 μm wavelength band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takemi; Sogawa, Ichiro; Suganuma, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a near infrared (NIR) angioscope that takes multi-wavelength images in 1.7μm band for visualizing lipid-rich coronary plaques. The angioscope comprises light source, camera, and angioscopic catheter. The light source, containing a supercontinuum source and a switching optical filter, emits 1.60, 1.65, 1.73 and 1.76μm wavelengths sequentially in synchronization to the camera frame. The supercontinuum is seeded by 1.55μm wavelength pulses, whose spectrum is spread by an optical fiber with ring loops for reducing peak power so that light in 1.7μm band is generated efficiently. The switching filter contains 1×4 fiber-optic path switches and interferometric band-pass filters. The camera detects NIR images by an InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well sensor at 100 frames/s. The source wavelength and the camera frame are synchronized with each other by an FPGA. The angioscopic catheter, based on a silica-based image-guide designed for 1.7 μm wavelength, transmits 1300-pixel NIR images and has 0.73 mm outer diameter, which is compatible with the conventional angioscope and suited for continuous flushing to displace blood. We have also developed image processing software that calculates spectral contribution of lipid as lipid score at each pixel and create lipid-enhanced color images at 12 frames/s. The system also includes conventional visible light source and camera, and takes visible light images synchronously with the lipid-enhanced images. The performance of the angioscope for detecting lipid-rich plaque has been verified in bench tests using a plaque model made by injecting lard into excised swine carotid arterial vessel. The plaque models are imaged in water at working distances of 0 to 2 mm, and significantly distinguished from normal vessels.

  4. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF ALKYL AND CHLOROALKYL PHOSPHATES FROM AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multispectral techniques (gas chromatography combined with low and high resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry, low and high resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared mass spectroscopy) were used to identify 13 alkyl and chloralkyl pho...

  5. Improving multispectral mapping by spectral modeling with hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Perry, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data in the 0.4 - 2.5 micrometer spectral range allow direct identification of materials using their spectral signatures, however, spatial coverage is limited. Multispectral Imaging (MSI) data are spectrally undersampled and may not allow unique identification, but they do provide synoptic spatial coverage. We have developed an approach that uses coincident HSI/MSI data to extend mineral mapping to larger areas. Hyperspectral data are used to model and extend signatures to multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emmission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. Analysis consists of 1. Atmospheric correction of both the hyperspectral and multispectral data, 2. Analysis of the hyperspectral data to determine spectral endmembers and their spatial distributions, 3. Spectral modeling to convert the hyperspectral signatures to the multispectral response, and 4. Analysis of the MSI data to extend mapping to the larger spatial coverage of the multispectral data. Comparing overlapping area with extensive field verification shows that ASTER mineral mapping using these methods approaches 70% accuracy compared to HSI for selected minerals. Spot checking of extended ASTER mapping results also shows good correspondence. While examples shown are specific to ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) data, the approach could also be used for other multispectral sensors and spectral ranges.

  6. [Horticultural plant diseases multispectral classification using combined classified methods].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-Ning; Yang, Wei-Ping; Hou, De-Dong; Liao, Ning-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The research on multispectral data disposal is getting more and more attention with the development of multispectral technique, capturing data ability and application of multispectral technique in agriculture practice. In the present paper, a cultivated plant cucumber' familiar disease (Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is the research objects. The cucumber leaves multispectral images of 14 visible light channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation and illumination environment, and 210 multispectral data samples which are the 16 bands spectral reflectance of different cucumber disease were obtained. The 210 samples were classified by distance, relativity and BP neural network to discuss effective combination of classified methods for making a diagnosis. The result shows that the classified effective combination of distance and BP neural network classified methods has superior performance than each method, and the advantage of each method is fully used. And the flow of recognizing horticultural plant diseases using combined classified methods is presented. PMID:20384138

  7. Evaluating SPOT 5 Multispectral Imagery for Crop Yield Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High resolution satellite imagery has the potential for mapping within-field variability in crop growth and yield. This study examined SPOT 5 multispectral imagery for estimating grain sorghum yield. A SPOT 5 image with 10-m spatial resolution and four spectral bands (green, red, near-infrared and m...

  8. Multispectral metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; McCrindle, I J H; Li, C; Cumming, D R S

    2014-03-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a multispectral metamaterial absorber (MSMMA) and show that we can realize a simple absorber structure that operates in the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) bands. By embedding an IR metamaterial absorber layer into a standard THz metamaterial absorber stack, a narrowband resonance is induced at a wavelength of 4.3 μm. This resonance is in addition to the THz metamaterial absorption resonance at 109 μm (2.75 THz). We demonstrate the inherent scalability and versatility of our MSMMA by describing a second device whereby the MM-induced IR absorption peak frequency is tuned by varying the IR absorber geometry. Such a MSMMA could be coupled with a suitable sensor and formed into a focal plane array, enabling multispectral imaging. PMID:24690713

  9. Polarimetric Multispectral Imaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L.-J.; Chao, T.-H.; Dowdy, M.; Mahoney, C.; Reyes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a remote sensing technology on which a new generation of compact, lightweight, high-resolution, low-power, reliable, versatile, programmable scientific polarimetric multispectral imaging instruments can be built to meet the challenge of future planetary exploration missions. The instrument is based on the fast programmable acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) that operates in the wavelength range of 0.4-5 microns. Basically, the AOTF multispectral imaging instrument measures incoming light intensity as a function of spatial coordinates, wavelength, and polarization. Its operation can be in either sequential, random access, or multiwavelength mode as required. This provides observation flexibility, allowing real-time alternation among desired observations, collecting needed data only, minimizing data transmission, and permitting implementation of new experiments. These will result in optimization of the mission performance with minimal resources. Recently we completed a polarimetric multispectral imaging prototype instrument and performed outdoor field experiments for evaluating application potentials of the technology. We also investigated potential improvements on AOTF performance to strengthen technology readiness for applications. This paper will give a status report on the technology and a prospect toward future planetary exploration.

  10. Multispectral Imaging from Mars PATHFINDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bishop, Janice L.; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was a mast-mounted instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander which landed on Mars Ares Vallis floodplain on July 4, 1997. During the 83 sols of Mars Pathfinders landed operations, the IMP collected over 16,600 images. Multispectral images were collected using twelve narrowband filters at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) range. The IMP provided VNIR spectra of the materials surrounding the lander including rocks, bright soils, dark soils, and atmospheric observations. During the primary mission, only a single primary rock spectral class, Gray Rock, was recognized; since then, Black Rock, has been identified. The Black Rock spectra have a stronger absorption at longer wavelengths than do Gray Rock spectra. A number of coated rocks have also been described, the Red and Maroon Rock classes, and perhaps indurated soils in the form of the Pink Rock class. A number of different soil types were also recognized with the primary ones being Bright Red Drift, Dark Soil, Brown Soil, and Disturbed Soil. Examination of spectral parameter plots indicated two trends which were interpreted as representing alteration products formed in at least two different environmental epochs of the Ares Vallis area. Subsequent analysis of the data and comparison with terrestrial analogs have supported the interpretation that the rock coatings provide evidence of earlier martian environments. However, the presence of relatively uncoated examples of the Gray and Black rock classes indicate that relatively unweathered materials can persist on the martian surface.

  11. Scene/object classification using multispectral data fusion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, Thomas J.; Lazofson, Laurence E.; Choe, Howard C.; Chovan, John D.

    1994-06-01

    Near-simultaneous, multispectral, coregistered imagery of ground target and background signatures were collected over a full diurnal cycle in visible, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrally filtered wavebands using Battelle's portable sensor suite. The imagery data were processed using classical statistical algorithms, artificial neural networks and data clustering techniques to classify objects in the imaged scenes. Imagery collected at different times throughout the day were employed to verify algorithm robustness with respect to temporal variations of spectral signatures. In addition, several multispectral sensor fusion medical imaging applications were explored including imaging of subcutaneous vasculature, retinal angiography, and endoscopic cholecystectomy. Work is also being performed to advance the state of the art using differential absorption lidar as an active remote sensing technique for spectrally detecting, identifying, and tracking hazardous emissions. These investigations support a wide variety of multispectral signature discrimination applications including the concepts of automated target search, landing zone detection, enhanced medical imaging, and chemical/biological agent tracking.

  12. Changes of multispectral soil patterns with increasing crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data and automatic data processing were used to map surface soil patterns and to follow the changes in multispectral radiation from a field of maize (Zea mays L.) during a period from seeding to maturity. Panchromatic aerial photography was obtained in early May 1970 and multispectral scanner missions were flown on May 6, June 30, August 11 and September 5, 1970 to obtain energy measurements in 13 wavelength bands. The orange portion of the visible spectrum was used in analyzing the May and June data to cluster relative radiance of the soils into eight different radiance levels. The reflective infrared spectral band was used in analyzing the August and September data to cluster maize into different spectral categories. The computer-produced soil patterns had a striking similarity to the soil pattern of the aerial photograph. These patterns became less distinct as the maize canopy increased.

  13. Multispectral photoacoustic microscopy based on an optical–acoustic objective

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Kilroy, Joseph P.; Ning, Bo; Wang, Tianxiong; Hossack, John A.; Hu, Song

    2015-01-01

    We have developed reflection-mode multispectral photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) based on a novel optical–acoustic objective that integrates a customized ultrasonic transducer and a commercial reflective microscope objective into one solid piece. This technical innovation provides zero chromatic aberration and convenient confocal alignment of the optical excitation and acoustic detection. With a wavelength-tunable optical-parametric-oscillator laser, we have demonstrated multispectral PAM over an ultrabroad spectral range of 270–1300 nm. A near-constant lateral resolution of ∼2.8 μm is achieved experimentally. Capitalizing on the consistent performance over the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared range, multispectral PAM enables label-free concurrent imaging of cell nucleus (DNA/RNA contrast at 270 nm), blood vessel (hemoglobin contrast at 532 nm), and sebaceous gland (lipid contrast at 1260 nm) at the same spatial scale in a living mouse ear. PMID:26236641

  14. Integrated ExoMars PanCam, Raman, and close-up imaging field tests on AMASE 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss Amundsen, Hans Erik; Westall, Frances; Steele, Andrew; Vago, Jorge; Schmitz, Nicole; Bauer, Arnold; Cousins, Claire; Rull, Fernando; Sansano, Antonio; Midtkandal, Ivar

    2010-05-01

    Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE) uses Mars analog field sites on the Arctic islands of Svalbard (Norway) for research within astrobiology and for testing of payload instruments onboard Mars missions Mars Science Laboratory, ExoMars and Mars Sample Return. AMASE 2009 marked the seventh consecutive year of field testing. Instrument shakedowns were arranged to mimic rover operations on Mars and included the panoramic camera (PanCam), mineral- and organic chemistry sensors (Raman-LIBS) and ground penetrating radar (Wisdom) onboard ExoMars together with CheMin and SAM instruments onboard MSL and testing of sampling and caching protocols using JPĹs Fido rover. Test sites included volcanic rocks within the Bockfjord Volcanic Complex (BVC) with carbonate deposits identical to those in ALH84001 and Carboniferous sandstones and paleosols at Ismåsestranda. In view of the 2018 ExoMars mission, field models of the PanCam and Raman instruments, as well as an Olympus E410 camera having similar technical specifications to the ExoMars Close-Up Imager (CLUPI) were used in an integrated exercise to characterise the geology and habitability of the different field sites. The BVC locality consisted of volcanclastic sediments deposited on the flanks of the 1 Ma old Sverrefjell volcano. This volcano is constructed of primitive alkaline basalt with abundant mantle xenoliths. The sediments were a mixture of hyaloclastite, ash, volcanic bombs, lava detritus, and xenoliths (peridotites, granulites) deposited in a roughly laminated fashion on the slopes of the volcano. Late stage carbonate deposits were also present. The Ismåsestranda locality consisted of fine-grained sandstone deposited in a littoral environment. The sandstones were characterised by a variety of sedimentary structures reflecting a marginal marine depositional environment. They were highly variegated in colour due to diagenetic remobilisation of trace elements. PanCam made general context observations using

  15. Multispectral thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Smith, B.W.; Garrett, A.; Pendergast, M.M.; Kay, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    Many remote sensing applications rely on imaging spectrometry. Here the authors use imaging spectrometry for thermal and multispectral signatures measured from a satellite platform enhanced with a combination of accurate calibrations and on-board data for correcting atmospheric distortions. The approach is supported by physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis, which permits a cost-effective balance between various hardware and software aspects. The goal is to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies and analysis tools toward meeting the needs of the customer; at the same time, the attributes of this system can address other applications in such areas as environmental change, agriculture, and volcanology.

  16. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER - OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    P. WEBER

    2001-03-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite fills a new and important role in advancing the state of the art in remote sensing sciences. Initial results with the full calibration system operating indicate that the system was already close to achieving the very ambitious goals which we laid out in 1993, and we are confident of reaching all of these goals as we continue our research and improve our analyses. In addition to the DOE interests, the satellite is tasked about one-third of the time with requests from other users supporting research ranging from volcanology to atmospheric sciences.

  17. Multispectral imaging for digital painting analysis: a Gauguin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Dooms, Ann; Leen, Frederik; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This paper is an introduction into the analysis of multispectral recordings of paintings. First, we will give an overview of the advantages of multispectral image analysis over more traditional techniques: first of all, the bands residing in the visible domain provide an accurate measurement of the color information which can be used for analysis but also for conservational and archival purposes (i.e. preserving the art patrimonial by making a digital library). Secondly, inspection of the multispectral imagery by art experts and art conservators has shown that combining the information present in the spectral bands residing in- and outside the visible domain can lead to a richer analysis of paintings. In the remainder of the paper, practical applications of multispectral analysis are demonstrated, where we consider the acquisition of thirteen different, high resolution spectral bands. Nine of these reside in the visible domain, one in the near ultraviolet and three in the infrared. The paper will illustrate the promising future of multispectral analysis as a non-invasive tool for acquiring data which cannot be acquired by visual inspection alone and which is highly relevant to art preservation, authentication and restoration. The demonstrated applications include detection of restored areas and detection of aging cracks.

  18. [Nitrogen stress measurement of canola based on multi-spectral charged coupled device imaging sensor].

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Huang, Min; He, Yong

    2006-09-01

    Site-specific variable nitrogen application is one of the major precision crop production management operations. Obtaining sufficient crop nitrogen stress information is essential for achieving effective site-specific nitrogen applications. The present paper describes the development of a multi-spectral nitrogen deficiency sensor, which uses three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of crop images to determine the nitrogen level of canola. This sensor assesses the nitrogen stress by means of estimated SPAD value of the canola based on canola canopy reflectance sensed using three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of the multi-spectral camera. The core of this investigation is the calibration methods between the multi-spectral references and the nitrogen levels in crops measured using a SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter. Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be concluded that a multi-spectral CCD camera can provide sufficient information to perform reasonable SPAD values estimation during field operations. PMID:17112062

  19. Detection of IR target by fusing multispectral IR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liya; Qi, Meng; Gao, Xuhui

    2011-08-01

    Detection of the small target in clutter, usually regarded as singular points in the infrared image, is an important issue in infrared searching and tracking (IRST) system. Because of the far range of the target to the sensor, the stealth technology, the effects of inherent sensor noise and the phenomena of nature, the target is more difficult to be detected. Multispectral sensor system has been proved it could greatly improve detection of the small, hard-to-find targets by multispectral processing techniques (such as sensor or image fusion). Aiming at the problem of multispectral IR Target Detection, a kind method of the multispectral IR target detection is proposed, based on the existed detection systems. In this method, the image registration is done firstly to make the different sensors have a same scene. Then, a fusion rule, named as adaptive weighted voting theory, is developed to combine the target detection results from the different spectral sensors. The adaptive weighted voting theory can give the different weights, based on the different spectral IR characteristics, and these weights decide the detected target is identified as real target or background. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the detection uncertainty and improve the detection performance. Compared with the single spectral detection results and the others fusion detection methods, it can decrease the lost alarm rate and the false alarm rate effectively. The proposed method has been employed in our IR surveillance system, and it is easy to be used in the various circumstances.

  20. Time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Alexandrine; Gagnon, Marc-André; Jahjah, Karl-Alexandre; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Lagueux, Philippe; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Frédérick

    2015-10-01

    Thermal infrared imaging is a field of science that evolves rapidly. Scientists have used for years the simplest tool: thermal broadband cameras. These allow to perform target characterization in both the longwave (LWIR) and midwave (MWIR) infrared spectral range. Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. For example, it can be used to follow combustion reactions, in order to characterize the injection and the ignition in a combustion chamber or even to observe gases produced by a flare or smokestack. Most combustion gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e. over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperatures derived from broadband imaging are not reliable without prior knowledge of spectral emissivity. This information is not directly available from broadband images. However, spectral information is available using spectral filters. In this work, combustion analysis was carried out using a Telops MS-IR MW camera, which allows multispectral imaging at a high frame rate. A motorized filter wheel allowing synchronized acquisitions on eight (8) different channels was used to provide time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion products of a candle in which black powder has been burnt to create a burst. It was then possible to estimate the temperature by modeling spectral profiles derived from information obtained with the different spectral filters. Comparison with temperatures obtained using conventional broadband imaging illustrates the benefits of time-resolved multispectral imaging for the characterization of combustion processes.

  1. Time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Alexandrine; Gagnon, Marc-André; Jahjah, Karl-Alexandre; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Lagueux, Philippe; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Fréderick

    2015-05-01

    Thermal infrared imaging is a field of science that evolves rapidly. Scientists have used for years the simplest tool: thermal broadband cameras. This allows to perform target characterization in both the longwave (LWIR) and midwave (MWIR) infrared spectral range. Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. For example, it can be used to follow combustion reactions, in order to characterize the injection and the ignition in a combustion chamber or even to observe gases produced by a flare or smokestack. Most combustion gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e. over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperatures derived from broadband imaging are not reliable without prior knowledge about spectral emissivity. This information is not directly available from broadband images. However, spectral information is available using spectral filters. In this work, combustion analysis was carried out using Telops MS-IR MW camera which allows multispectral imaging at a high frame rate. A motorized filter wheel allowing synchronized acquisitions on eight (8) different channels was used to provide time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion products of a candle in which black powder has been burnt to create a burst. It was then possible to estimate the temperature by modeling spectral profile derived from information obtained with the different spectral filters. Comparison with temperatures obtained using conventional broadband imaging illustrates the benefits of time-resolved multispectral imaging for the characterization of combustion processes.

  2. Simultaneous multispectral imaging using lenslet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Jensen, James

    2013-03-01

    There is a need for small compact multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems that simultaneously images in many spectral bands across the infrared spectral region from short to long-wave infrared. This is a challenge for conventional optics and usually requires large, costly and complex optical systems. However, with the advances in materials and photolithographic technology, Micro-Optical-Electrical-Machine-Systems (MOEMS) can meet these goals. In this paper Pacific Advanced Technology and ECBC will present the work that we are doing under a SBIR contract to the US Army using a MOEMS based diffractive optical lenslet array to perform simultaneous multispectral and hyperspectral imaging with relatively high spatial resolution. Under this program we will develop a proof of concept system that demonstrates how a diffractive optical (DO) lenslet array can image 1024 x 1024 pixels in 16 colors every frame of the camera. Each color image has a spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixels with an IFOV of 1.7 mrads and FOV of 25 degrees. The purpose of this work is to simultaneously image multiple colors each frame and reduce the temporal changes between colors that are apparent in sequential multispectral imaging. Translating the lenslet array will collect hyperspectral image data cubes as will be explained later in this paper. Because the optics is integrated with the detector the entire multispectral/hyperspectral system can be contained in a miniature package. The spectral images are collected simultaneously allowing high resolution spectral-spatial-temporal information each frame of the camera. Thus enabling the implementation of spectral-temporal-spatial algorithms in real-time with high sensitivity for the detection of weak signals in a high background clutter environment with low sensitivity to camera motion. Using MOEMS actuation the DO lenslet array is translated along the optical axis to complete the full hyperspectral data cube in just a few frames of the

  3. Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

  4. Development and integration of the Army's Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSueur, Kenneth G.; Lowry, William; Morris, Joe

    2006-05-01

    The Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) is a suite of state-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation / test capabilities designed to meet the life-cycle testing needs of multi-spectral systems. This paper presents the major AMSTAR facility design concepts and each of the Millimeter Wave (MMW), Infrared (IR), and Semi-Active Laser (SAL) in-band scene generation and projection system designs. The emergence of Multispectral sensors in missile systems necessitates capabilities such as AMSTAR to simultaneous project MMW, IR, and SAL wave bands into a common sensor aperture.

  5. Development and integration of the Army's advanced multispectral simulation test acceptance resource (AMSTAR) HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSueur, Kenneth G.; Lowry, William; Morris, Joe

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) is a suite of state-of-the-art Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation / test capabilities designed to meet the life-cycle testing needs of multi-spectral systems. This paper presents the major AMSTAR facility design concepts and each of the Millimeter Wave (MMW), Infrared (IR), and Semi-Active Laser (SAL) in-band scene generation and projection system designs. The emergence of Multispectral sensors in missile systems necessitates capabilities such as AMSTAR to simultaneous project MMW, IR, and SAL wave bands into a common sensor aperture.

  6. Study on nitrogen stress characterization of rape based on ground multi-spectral imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; He, Yong; Zhu, Zeyan; Huang, Min

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a multi-spectral nitrogen deficiency sensor, which uses three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of crop images to determine nitrogen level of the rape. The core of this investigation is the calibration methods between the multi-spectral references and the nitrogen levels in crops measured using a SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter which may be used to measure N (g)/leaf area (m2). Some noticeable relationships between the multi-spectral reflectance and SPAD readings were found from this study.

  7. Employing airborne multispectral digital imagery to map Brazilian pepper infestation in south Texas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in south Texas to determine the feasibility of using airborne multispectral digital imagery for differentiating the invasive plant Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) from other cover types. Imagery obtained in the visible, near infrared, and mid infrared regions of th...

  8. Multispectral imaging and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    The color accuracy of conventional RGB cameras is not sufficient for many color-critical applications. One of these applications, namely the measurement of color defects in yarns, is why Prof. Til Aach and the Institute of Image Processing and Computer Vision (RWTH Aachen University, Germany) started off with multispectral imaging. The first acquisition device was a camera using a monochrome sensor and seven bandpass color filters positioned sequentially in front of it. The camera allowed sampling the visible wavelength range more accurately and reconstructing the spectra for each acquired image position. An overview will be given over several optical and imaging aspects of the multispectral camera that have been investigated. For instance, optical aberrations caused by filters and camera lens deteriorate the quality of captured multispectral images. The different aberrations were analyzed thoroughly and compensated based on models for the optical elements and the imaging chain by utilizing image processing. With this compensation, geometrical distortions disappear and sharpness is enhanced, without reducing the color accuracy of multispectral images. Strong foundations in multispectral imaging were laid and a fruitful cooperation was initiated with Prof. Bernhard Hill. Current research topics like stereo multispectral imaging and goniometric multispectral measure- ments that are further explored with his expertise will also be presented in this work.

  9. Multispectral imaging axicons.

    PubMed

    Bialic, Emilie; de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis de Bougrenet

    2011-07-10

    Large-aperture linear diffractive axicons are optical devices providing achromatic nondiffracting beams with an extended depth of focus when illuminated by white light sources. Annular apertures introduce chromatic foci separation, making chromatic imaging possible despite important radiometric losses. Recently, a new type of diffractive axicon has been introduced, by multiplexing concentric annular axicons with appropriate sizes and periods, called a multiple annular linear diffractive axicon (MALDA). This new family of conical optics combines multiple annular axicons in different ways to optimize color foci recombination, separation, or interleaving. We present different types of MALDA, give an experimental illustration of the use of these devices, and describe the manufacturing issues related to their fabrication to provide color imaging systems with long focal depths and good diffraction efficiency. Application to multispectral image analysis is discussed. PMID:21743576

  10. Multispectral Resource Sampler Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the multispectral resource sampler (MRS) was examined by users in the following disciplines: agriculture, atmospheric studies, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology/oceanography, land use, and rangelands/soils. Modifications to the sensor design were recommended and the desired types of products and number of scenes required per month were indicated. The history, design, capabilities, and limitations of the MRS are discussed as well as the multilinear spectral array technology which it uses. Designed for small area inventory, the MRS can provide increased temporal, spectral, and spatial resolution, facilitate polarization measurement and atmospheric correction, and test onboard data compression techniques. The advantages of using it along with the thematic mapper are considered.

  11. Multispectral remote sensing contribution to land surface evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    The global water cycle is perhaps the most important of all the biogeochemical cycles and evaporation, which is a significant component of the water cycle, is also linked with the energy and carbon cycles. Long-term evaporation over large areas has generally been computed as the difference of precipitation and river runoff. Analysis of short-term evaporation rate and its spatial pattern, however, is extremely complex, and multispectral remotely sensed data could aid in such analysis. Multispectral data considered here are visible and near-infrared reflectances, infrared surface temperature and the 37 GHz brightness temperatures. These observations are found to be not totally independent of each other. A few of their relationships are established and discussed considering physically-based models.

  12. Multispectral Joint Image Restoration via Optimizing a Scale Map.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoyong; Yan, Qiong; Xu, Li; Ma, Lizhuang; Jia, Jiaya

    2015-12-01

    Color, infrared and flash images captured in different fields can be employed to effectively eliminate noise and other visual artifacts. We propose a two-image restoration framework considering input images from different fields, for example, one noisy color image and one dark-flashed near-infrared image. The major issue in such a framework is to handle all structure divergence and find commonly usable edges and smooth transitions for visually plausible image reconstruction. We introduce a novel scale map as a competent representation to explicitly model derivative-level confidence and propose new functions and a numerical solver to effectively infer it following our important structural observations. Multispectral shadow detection is also used to make our system more robust. Our method is general and shows a principled way to solve multispectral restoration problems. PMID:26539855

  13. VIIRS Nightfire: multispectral satellite pyrometry at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally each night by the Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites like steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2) and radiant heat (MW). Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6000 K. The IR sources can be ranked worldwide to reveal a list of top 100 largest gas flaring sites. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to MODIS Fire Radiative Power (MW).

  14. Versatile multispectral microscope based on light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Jayaweera, Hiran; Ålebring, Jens; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of a novel multispectral microscope, based on light-emitting diodes, capable of acquiring megapixel images in thirteen spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The system captures images and spectra in transmittance, reflectance, and scattering modes. We present as examples of applications ground truth measurements for remote sensing and parasitology diagnostics. The system is a general purpose scientific instrument that could be used to develop dedicated simplified instruments with optimal bands and mode selection.

  15. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  16. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  17. Multispectral multisensor image fusion using wavelet transforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, George P.

    1999-01-01

    Fusion techniques can be applied to multispectral and higher spatial resolution panchromatic images to create a composite image that is easier to interpret than the individual images. Wavelet transform-based multisensor, multiresolution fusion (a type of band sharpening) was applied to Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral and coregistered higher resolution SPOT panchromatic images. The objective was to obtain increased spatial resolution, false color composite products to support the interpretation of land cover types wherein the spectral characteristics of the imagery are preserved to provide the spectral clues needed for interpretation. Since the fusion process should not introduce artifacts, a shift invariant implementation of the discrete wavelet transform (SIDWT) was used. These results were compared with those using the shift variant, discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Overall, the process includes a hue, saturation, and value color space transform to minimize color changes, and a reported point-wise maximum selection rule to combine transform coefficients. The performance of fusion based on the SIDWT and DWT was evaluated with a simulated TM 30-m spatial resolution test image and a higher resolution reference. Simulated imagery was made by blurring higher resolution color-infrared photography with the TM sensors' point spread function. The SIDWT based technique produced imagery with fewer artifacts and lower error between fused images and the full resolution reference. Image examples with TM and SPOT 10-m panchromatic illustrate the reduction in artifacts due to the SIDWT based fusion.

  18. Classroom multispectral imaging using inexpensive digital cameras.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. D.

    2007-12-01

    The proliferation of increasingly cheap digital cameras in recent years means that it has become easier to exploit the broad wavelength sensitivity of their CCDs (360 - 1100 nm) for classroom-based teaching. With the right tools, it is possible to open children's eyes to the invisible world of UVA and near-IR radiation either side of our narrow visual band. The camera-filter combinations I describe can be used to explore the world of animal vision, looking for invisible markings on flowers, or in bird plumage, for example. In combination with a basic spectroscope (such as the Project-STAR handheld plastic spectrometer, 25), it is possible to investigate the range of human vision and camera sensitivity, and to explore the atomic and molecular absorption lines from the solar and terrestrial atmospheres. My principal use of the cameras has been to teach multispectral imaging of the kind used to determine remotely the composition of planetary surfaces. A range of camera options, from 50 circuit-board mounted CCDs up to $900 semi-pro infrared camera kits (including mobile phones along the way), and various UV-vis-IR filter options will be presented. Examples of multispectral images taken with these systems are used to illustrate the range of classroom topics that can be covered. Particular attention is given to learning about spectral reflectance curves and comparing images from Earth and Mars taken using the same filter combination that it used on the Mars Rovers.

  19. Multispectral and hyperspectral advanced characterization of soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Kastek, Mariusz; Chamberland, Martin; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Farley, Vincent; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    The requirements for soldier camouflage in the context of modern warfare are becoming more complex and challenging given the emergence of novel infrared sensors. There is a pressing need for the development of adapted fabrics and soldier camouflage devices to provide efficient camouflage in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive project to develop new materials and fabrics to further improve the camouflage efficiency of soldiers. The developed materials shall feature visible and infrared properties that make these unique and adapted to various military context needs. This paper presents the details of an advanced measurement campaign of those unique materials where the correlation between multispectral and hyperspectral infrared measurements is performed.

  20. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Vargo, T.D.; Lockhart, R.R.; Descour, M.R.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-06

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus are described which are adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging. 5 figs.

  1. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Vargo, Timothy D.; Lockhart, Randal R.; Descour, Michael R.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

  2. Multispectral Remote Sensing at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shines, J.E.; Tinney, L.R.; Hawley, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Aerial Mesurements Operations (AMO) is the remote sensing arm of the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of AMO is to provide timely, accurate, and cost-effective remote sensing data on a non-interference basis over DOE facilities located around the country. One of the programs administered by AMO is the Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which involves the use of a wide range of data acquisition systems - aerial cameras, multispectral and infrared scanners, and nuclear detectors - to acquire data at DOE sites. The data are then processed, analyzed and interpreted to provide useful information, which is then catalogued into a data base for future use. This report describes some of the data acquisition and analysis capabilities of the Multispectral Remote Sensing Department (MRSD) as they relate to the CIRS program. 3 tables.

  3. Wavelength band selection method for multispectral target detection.

    PubMed

    Karlholm, Jörgen; Renhorn, Ingmar

    2002-11-10

    A framework is proposed for the selection of wavelength bands for multispectral sensors by use of hyperspectral reference data. Using the results from the detection theory we derive a cost function that is minimized by a set of spectral bands optimal in terms of detection performance for discrimination between a class of small rare targets and clutter with known spectral distribution. The method may be used, e.g., in the design of multispectral infrared search and track and electro-optical missile warning sensors, where a low false-alarm rate and a high-detection probability for detection of small targets against a clutter background are of critical importance, but the required high frame rate prevents the use of hyperspectral sensors. PMID:12440532

  4. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters. PMID:23427528

  5. A new method of multispectral image processing with camouflage effect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianghua; Cui, Guangzhen; Qin, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In order to enhance the observability of multispectral image and improve the accuracy of camouflage effect evaluation based on multispectral photographic. A new method for multispectral image processing has been put forward. In the visible band, more spectral images for image fusion which are based on wavelet transformation respectively are chosen. The image information is enhanced. The visible light and near infrared band images are fused and introduced in three-channel of red, green and blue. The true color image is synthetized. While the detail of visible light image is enhanced, near infrared image information which is more interesting in camouflage evaluation is kept. Finally the fusion image are processed through histogram stretching and correlation method. The image color and luminance difference of each part is enhanced. The target recognition and camouflage effect evaluation is more advantageous. The experimental results proved that the method has a good effect.

  6. Target detection in desert backgrounds: infrared hyperspectral measurements and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eismann, Michael T.; Seldin, John H.; Schwartz, Craig R.; Maxwell, James R.; Ellis, Kenneth K.; Cederquist, Jack N.; Stocker, Alan D.; Oshagan, Ara; Johnson, Ray O.; Shaffer, William A.; Surette, Marc R.; McHugh, Martin J.; Schaum, Alan P.; Stotts, Larry B.

    1995-09-01

    Infrared multispectral sensors are being investigated as a means for day and night target detection. Infrared multispectral sensors would exploit high spectral band-to-band correlation to reject high background clutter. An infrared Fourier transform spectrometer-based field measurement system was used to collect spectral signature data of targets and desert scrub and sand backgrounds from a 100 foot tower at White Sands Missile Range. The measurements include target-to-background spectral contrast, subpixel targets, background spectral correlation, and background spatial power spectra. The measurements have been analyzed to determine multispectral signal-to-clutter ratios versus target, background, diurnal, and weather variations, background correlation versus temperature clutter variations, and spectral correlation versus spatial scale. These measurements contribute to the expanding target and background infrared hyperspectral signature database. The results of the analysis demonstrate the utility and robustness of infrared multispectral techniques for target detection.

  7. Multispectral Landsat images of Antartica

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Bowell, J.A.; Edwards, K.L.; Eliason, E.M.; Fergurson, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a program to map Antarctica by using colored, digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner images to increase existing map coverage and to improve upon previously published Landsat maps. This report is a compilation of images and image mosaic that covers four complete and two partial 1:250,000-scale quadrangles of the McMurdo Sound region.

  8. Surface Emissivity Derived From Multispectral Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Young, D. F.

    1998-01-01

    Surface emissivity is critical for remote sensing of surface skin temperature and infrared cloud properties when the observed radiance is influenced by the surface radiation. It is also necessary to correctly compute the longwave flux from a surface at a given skin temperature. Surface emissivity is difficult to determine because skin temperature is an ill-defined parameter. The surface-emitted radiation may arise from a range of surface depths depending on many factors including soil moisture, vegetation, surface porosity, and heat capacity. Emissivity can be measured in the laboratory for pure surfaces. Transfer of laboratory measurements to actual Earth surfaces, however, is fraught with uncertainties because of their complex nature. This paper describes a new empirical approach for estimating surface skin temperature from a combination of brightness temperatures measured at different infrared wavelengths with satellite imagers. The method uses data from the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager to determine multispectral emissivities from the skin temperatures derived over the ARM Southern Great Plains domain.

  9. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Taruttis, Adrian; Wildgruber, Moritz; Kosanke, Katja; Beziere, Nicolas; Licha, Kai; Haag, Rainer; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Rummeny, Ernst; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility of a high resolution optical imaging strategy for myocardial infarction. Background Near-infrared approaches to imaging cardiovascular disease enable visualization of disease-associated biological processes in vivo. However, even at the scale of small animals, the strong scattering of light prevents high resolution imaging after the first 1–2 mm of tissue, leading to degraded signal localization. Methods Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) was used to non-invasively image myocardial infarction (MI) in a murine model of coronary artery ligation at resolutions not possible with current deep-tissue optical imaging methods. Post-MI imaging was based on resolving the spectral absorption signature of a dendritic polyglycerol sulfate-based (dPGS) near-infrared imaging agent targeted to P- and L-selectin. Results In vivo imaging succeeded in detection of the agent in the injured myocardium after intravenous injection. The high anatomic resolution (<200 μm) achieved by the described method allowed signals originating in the infarcted heart to be distinguished from uptake in adjacent regions. Histological analysis found dPGS signal in infarcted areas, originating from leukocytes and endothelial cells. Conclusions MSOT imaging of myocardial infarction provides non-invasive visualization of optical contrast with a high spatial resolution that is not degraded by the scattering of light. PMID:25327410

  10. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively. PMID:27376088

  11. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively. PMID:27376088

  12. Multispectral determination of vegetative cover in corn crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between different amounts of vegetative ground cover and the energy reflected by corn canopies was investigated. Low altitude photography and an airborne multispectral scanner were used to measure this reflected energy. Field plots were laid out, representing four growth stages of corn. Two plot locations were chosen-on a very dark and a very light surface soil. Color and color infrared photographs were taken from a vertical distance of 10 m. Estimates of ground cover were made from these photographs and were related to field measurements of leaf area index. Ground cover could be predicted from leaf area index measurements by a second order equation. Microdensitometry and digitzation of the three separated dye layers of color infrared film showed that the near infrared dye layer is most valuable in ground cover determinations. Computer analysis of the digitized photography provided an accurate method of determining precent ground cover.

  13. Multispectral and polarimetric imaging in the LWIR: Intersubband detectors as a versatile solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, Alexandru; Guériaux, Vincent; Berurier, Arnaud; Brière de l'Isle, Nadia; Huet, Odile

    2013-07-01

    GaAs-based intersubband infrared detectors, such as Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors and Quantum Cascade Detectors have proven their ability to address not only conventional thermal imaging applications, but also advanced functionalities such as multispectral and polarimetric imaging. This paper illustrates this potential through the results achieved at III-V Lab in the frame of several ambitious projects, ranging from military applications to Earth observation and exo-planet detection. The advantages of these technologies at the system level are evidenced.

  14. Multispectral and hyperspectral measurements of smoke candles and soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Gagnon, Marc-André; Kastek, Mariusz; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2012-09-01

    The emergence of new infrared camouflage and countermeasure technologies in the context of military operations has paved the way to enhanced detection capabilities. Camouflage devices such as candles (or smoke bombs) and flares are developed to generate either large area or localized screens with very high absorption in the infrared. Similarly, soldier's camouflage devices such as clothing have evolved in design to dissolve their infrared characteristics with that of the background. In all cases, the analysis of the targets infrared images needs to be conducted in both multispectral and hyperspectral domains to assess their capability to efficiently provide visible and infrared camouflage. The Military University of Technology has conducted several intensive field campaigns where various types of smoke candles and camouflage uniforms were deployed in different conditions and were measured both in the multispectral and hyperspectral domains. Cooled broadband infrared cameras were used for the multispectral analysis whereas the high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution acquisition of these thermodynamic events was recorded with the Telops Hyper-Cam sensor. This paper presents the test campaign concept and the analysis of the recorded measurements.

  15. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  16. Michigan experimental multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A functional description of a multispectral airborne scanner system that provides spectral bands along a single optical line of sight is reported. The airborne scanner consists of an optical telescope for scanning plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and radiation detectors for converting radiation to electrical signals. The system makes a linear transformation of input radiation to voltage recorded on analog magnetic tape.

  17. Multispectral Analysis of NMR Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, R. L.; Vannier, M. W. And Associates; Jordan, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conference paper discusses initial efforts to adapt multispectral satellite-image analysis to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scans of human body. Flexibility of these techniques makes it possible to present NMR data in variety of formats, including pseudocolor composite images of pathological internal features. Techniques do not have to be greatly modified from form in which used to produce satellite maps of such Earth features as water, rock, or foliage.

  18. Multispectral Detector Array Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokerst, Nan M.

    1999-12-01

    A sensor is a device used to sense or measure physical phenomena. Thus, sensors may detect electrical, mechanical, optical, chemical, tactile, or acoustic signatures of an object or scene. Objects that may be difficult to discriminate using a single sensor are often differentiated with a multiple sensor system that exploits several signature phenomena. The application of multiple sensors (and the fusion of their data) offers numerous potential performance benefits over traditional single sensor approaches. In our application, which is infrared target discrimination, employing multiple sensors, which respond to different signatures, increases the probability that a target signature will be found against a given set of weather, clutter or background noise sources. A multiple sensor system, in other words, diminishes ambiguity and uncertainty in the measured information by reducing the set of hypotheses about the target or event. Multiple sensors may also be used to reduce the vulnerability to false conclusions drawn from data of a single sensor. For instance, missiles may carry multiple sensors to better guarantee a hit or a radar can use multiple sensors to counter-jam incoming missiles.

  19. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Emission (L.I.F.E.): searching for Mars organics with a UV-enhanced PanCam.

    PubMed

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C; Muller, Jan-Peter; Fisk, Martin R; Cousins, Claire; Sattler, Birgit; Griffiths, Andrew D; Coates, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars mission in 2016 with a primary goal of surveying the martian subsurface for evidence of organic material. We have recently investigated the utility of including either a 365 nm light-emitting diode or a 375 nm laser light source in the ExoMars rover panoramic camera (PanCam). Such a modification would make it feasible to monitor rover drill cuttings optically for the fluorescence signatures of aromatic organic molecules and map the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of depth to the 2 m limit of the ExoMars drill. The technique described requires no sample preparation, does not consume irreplaceable resources, and would allow mission control to prioritize deployment of organic detection experiments that require sample destruction, expenditure of non-replaceable consumables, or both. We report here for the first time laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) imaging detection limits for anthracene, pyrene, and perylene targets doped onto a Mars analog granular peridotite with a 375 nm Nichia laser diode in optically uncorrected wide-angle mode. Data were collected via the Beagle 2 PanCam backup filter wheel fitted with original blue (440 nm), green (530 nm), and red (670 nm) filters. All three PAH species can be detected with the PanCam green (530 nm) filter. Detection limits in the green band for signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) > 10 are 49 parts per million (ppm) for anthracene, 145 ppm for pyrene, and 20 ppm for perylene. The anthracene detection limit improves to 7 ppm with use of the PanCam blue filter. We discuss soil-dependent detection limit constraints; use of UV excitation with other rover cameras, which provides higher spatial resolution; and the advantages of focused and wide-angle laser modes. Finally, we discuss application of L.I.F.E. techniques at multiple wavelengths for exploration of Mars analog extreme environments on Earth, including Icelandic hydrothermally

  20. Michigan experimental multispectral mapping system: A description of the M7 airborne sensor and its performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a multispectral band scanner for an airborne mapping system are discussed. The sensor operates in the ultraviolet, visual, and infrared frequencies. Any twelve of the bands may be selected for simultaneous, optically registered recording on a 14-track analog tape recorder. Multispectral imagery recorded on magnetic tape in the aircraft can be laboratory reproduced on film strips for visual analysis or optionally machine processed in analog and/or digital computers before display. The airborne system performance is analyzed.

  1. New Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Tsay, Si-Chee; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.; Li, Jason Y.; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun- synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (two bands), 500 m (five bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

  2. An application of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for the classification of hydrobiological systems, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, P. W.; Rosendahl, P. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Multivariant hydrologic parameters over the Shark River Slough were investigated. Ground truth was established utilizing U-2 infrared photography and comprehensive field data to define a control network which represented all hydrobiological systems in the slough. These data were then applied to LANDSAT imagery utilizing an interactive multispectral processor which generated hydrographic maps through classification of the slough and defined the multispectral surface radiance characteristics of the wetlands areas in the park. The spectral response of each hydrobiological zone was determined and plotted to formulate multispectral relationships between the emittent energy from the slough in order to determine the best possible multispectral wavelength combinations to enhance classification results. The extent of each hydrobiological zone in slough was determined and flow vectors for water movement throughout the slough established.

  3. A Multispectral Image Creating Method for a New Airborne Four-Camera System with Different Bandpass Filters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanlun; Zhang, Aiwu; Hu, Shaoxing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an airborne high resolution four-camera multispectral system which mainly consists of four identical monochrome cameras equipped with four interchangeable bandpass filters. For this multispectral system, an automatic multispectral data composing method was proposed. The homography registration model was chosen, and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and random sample consensus (RANSAC) were used to generate matching points. For the difficult registration problem between visible band images and near-infrared band images in cases lacking manmade objects, we presented an effective method based on the structural characteristics of the system. Experiments show that our method can acquire high quality multispectral images and the band-to-band alignment error of the composed multiple spectral images is less than 2.5 pixels. PMID:26205264

  4. Correlating multispectral imaging and compositional data from the Mars Exploration Rovers and implications for Mars Science Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Bell, James F., III

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to infer compositional information about distant targets based on multispectral imaging data, we investigated methods of relating Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam multispectral remote sensing observations to in situ alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS)-derived elemental abundances and Mössbauer (MB)-derived abundances of Fe-bearing phases at the MER field sites in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. The majority of the partial correlation coefficients between these data sets were not statistically significant. Restricting the targets to those that were abraded by the rock abrasion tool (RAT) led to improved Pearson’s correlations, most notably between the red–blue ratio (673 nm/434 nm) and Fe3+-bearing phases, but partial correlations were not statistically significant. Partial Least Squares (PLS) calculations relating Pancam 11-color visible to near-IR (VNIR; ∼400–1000 nm) “spectra” to APXS and Mössbauer element or mineral abundances showed generally poor performance, although the presence of compositional outliers led to improved PLS results for data from Meridiani. When the Meridiani PLS model for pyroxene was tested by predicting the pyroxene content of Gusev targets, the results were poor, indicating that the PLS models for Meridiani are not applicable to data from other sites. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification of Gusev crater data showed mixed results. Of the 24 Gusev test regions of interest (ROIs) with known classes, 11 had >30% of the pixels in the ROI classified correctly, while others were mis-classified or unclassified. k-Means clustering of APXS and Mössbauer data was used to assign Meridiani targets to compositional classes. The clustering-derived classes corresponded to meaningful geologic and/or color unit differences, and SIMCA classification using these classes was somewhat successful, with >30% of pixels correctly classified in 9 of the 11 ROIs with known classes. This work shows

  5. PORTABLE MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING INSTRUMENT FOR FOOD INDUSTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to design and fabricate a hand-held multispectral instrument for real-time contaminant detection. Specifically, the protocol to develop a portable multispectral instrument including optical sensor design, fabrication, calibration, data collection, analysis and algorith...

  6. Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI): Multispectral Imaging of Geological Materials at a Handlens Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. D.; Nunez, J. I.; Sellar, R. G.; Gardner, P. B.; Manatt, K. S.; Dingizian, A.; Dudik, M. J.; McDonnell, G.; Le, T.; Thomas, J. A.; Chu, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) is a prototype instrument presently under development for future astrobiological missions to Mars. The MMI is designed to be a arm-mounted rover instrument for use in characterizing the microtexture and mineralogy of materials along geological traverses [1,2,3]. Such geological information is regarded as essential for interpreting petrogenesis and geological history, and when acquired in near real-time, can support hypothesis-driven exploration and optimize science return. Correlated microtexure and mineralogy also provides essential data for selecting samples for analysis with onboard lab instruments, and for prioritizing samples for potential Earth return. The MMI design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and an uncooled focal plane array to achieve the low-mass (<1kg), low-cost, and high reliability (no moving parts) required for an arm-mounted instrument on a planetary rover [2,3]. The MMI acquires multispectral, reflectance images at 62 μm/pixel, in which each image pixel is comprised of a 21-band VNIR spectrum (0.46 to 1.73 μm). This capability enables the MMI to discriminate and resolve the spatial distribution of minerals and textures at the microscale [2, 3]. By extending the spectral range into the infrared, and increasing the number of spectral bands, the MMI exceeds the capabilities of current microimagers, including the MER Microscopic Imager (MI); 4, the Phoenix mission Robotic Arm Camera (RAC; 5) and the Mars Science Laboratory's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI; 6). In this report we will review the capabilities of the MMI by highlighting recent lab and field applications, including: 1) glove box deployments in the Astromaterials lab at Johnson Space Center to analyze Apollo lunar samples; 2) GeoLab glove box deployments during the 2011 Desert RATS field trials in northern AZ to characterize analog materials collected by astronauts during simulated EVAs; 3) field deployments on Mauna Kea

  7. Multispectral Image Processing for Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Gaines E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a machine vision system to monitor plant growth and health is one of three essential steps towards establishing an intelligent system capable of accurately assessing the state of a controlled ecological life support system for long-term space travel. Besides a network of sensors, simulators are needed to predict plant features, and artificial intelligence algorithms are needed to determine the state of a plant based life support system. Multispectral machine vision and image processing can be used to sense plant features, including health and nutritional status.

  8. Classification Metrics for Improved Atmospheric Correction of Multispectral VNIR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Multispectral visible/near-infrared (VNIR) earth observation satellites, e.g., Ikonos, Quickbird, ALOS AVNIR-2, and DMC, usually acquire imagery in a few (3 – 5) spectral bands. Atmospheric correction is a challenging task for these images because the standard methods require at least one shortwave infrared band (around 1.6 or 2.2 μm) or hyperspectral instruments to derive the aerosol optical thickness. New classification metrics for defining cloud, cloud over water, haze, water, and saturation are presented to achieve improvements for an automatic processing system. The background is an ESA contract for the development of a prototype atmospheric processor for the optical payload AVNIR-2 on the ALOS platform.

  9. An ERTS multispectral scanner experiment for mapping iron compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An experimental plan for enhancing spectral features related to the chemical composition of geological targets in ERTS multispectral scanner data is described. The experiment is designed to produce visible-reflective infrared ratio images from ERTS-1 data. Iron compounds are promising remote sensing targets because they display prominent spectral features in the visible-reflective infrared wavelength region and are geologically significant. The region selected for this ERTS experiment is the southern end of the Wind River Range in Wyoming. If this method proves successful it should prove useful for regional geologic mapping, mineralogical exploration, and soil mapping. It may also be helpful to ERTS users in scientific disciplines other than geology, especially to those concerned with targets composed of mixtures of live vegetation and soil or rock.

  10. Detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes by noninvasive multispectral photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Langhout, Gerrit Cornelis; Grootendorst, Diederik Johannes; Nieweg, Omgo Edo; Wouters, Michel Wilhelmus Jacobus Maria; van der Hage, Jos Alexander; Jose, Jithin; van Boven, Hester; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theodoor Jacques Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma improves staging, provides prognostic information, and leads to an increased survival in node-positive patients. However, frozen section analysis of the sentinel node is not reliable and definitive histopathology evaluation requires days, preventing intraoperative decision-making and immediate therapy. Photoacoustic imaging can evaluate intact lymph nodes, but specificity can be hampered by other absorbers such as hemoglobin. Near infrared multispectral photoacoustic imaging is a new approach that has the potential to selectively detect melanin. The purpose of the present study is to examine the potential of multispectral photoacoustic imaging to identify melanoma metastasis in human lymph nodes. Methods. Three metastatic and nine benign lymph nodes from eight melanoma patients were scanned ex vivo using a Vevo LAZR(©) multispectral photoacoustic imager and were spectrally analyzed per pixel. The results were compared to histopathology as gold standard. Results. The nodal volume could be scanned within 20 minutes. An unmixing procedure was proposed to identify melanoma metastases with multispectral photoacoustic imaging. Ultrasound overlay enabled anatomical correlation. The penetration depth of the photoacoustic signal was up to 2 cm. Conclusion. Multispectral three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging allowed for selective identification of melanoma metastases in human lymph nodes. PMID:25028587