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Sample records for infrared multispectral pancam

  1. Spectral Variability among Rocks in Visible and Near Infrared Multispectral Pancam Data Collected at Gusev Crater: Examinations using Spectral Mixture Analysis and Related Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Soderblom, J.; Ming, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Visible and Near Infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rocks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit s Panoramic camera (Pancam) have been analysed using a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) methodology. Scenes have been examined from the Gusev crater plains into the Columbia Hills. Most scenes on the plains and in the Columbia Hills could be modeled as three endmember mixtures of a bright material, rock, and shade. Scenes of rocks disturbed by the rover s Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) required additional endmembers. In the Columbia Hills there were a number of scenes in which additional rock endmembers were required. The SMA methodology identified relatively dust-free areas on undisturbed rock surfaces, as well as spectrally unique areas on RAT abraded rocks. Spectral parameters from these areas were examined and six spectral classes were identified. These classes are named after a type rock or area and are: Adirondack, Lower West Spur, Clovis, Wishstone, Peace, and Watchtower. These classes are discriminable based, primarily, on near-infrared (NIR) spectral parameters. Clovis and Watchtower class rocks appear more oxidized than Wishstone class rocks and Adirondack basalts based on their having higher 535 nm band depths. Comparison of the spectral parameters of these Gusev crater rocks to parameters of glass-dominated basaltic tuffs indicates correspondence between measurements of Clovis and Watchtower classes, but divergence for the Wishstone class rocks which appear to have a higher fraction of crystalline ferrous iron bearing phases. Despite a high sulfur content, the rock Peace has NIR properties resembling plains basalts.

  2. Pancam: A Multispectral Imaging Investigation on the NASA 2003 Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Maki, J.; Schwochert, M.; Dingizian, A.; Brown, D.; Morris, R. V.; Arneson, H. M.; Johnson, M. J.

    2003-01-01

    One of the six science payload elements carried on each of the NASA Mars Exploration Rovers (MER; Figure 1) is the Panoramic Camera System, or Pancam. Pancam consists of three major components: a pair of digital CCD cameras, the Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA), and a radiometric calibration target. The PMA provides the azimuth and elevation actuation for the cameras as well as a 1.5 meter high vantage point from which to image. The calibration target provides a set of reference color and grayscale standards for calibration validation, and a shadow post for quantification of the direct vs. diffuse illumination of the scene. Pancam is a multispectral, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging system, with a field of regard provided by the PMA that extends across 360 of azimuth and from zenith to nadir, providing a complete view of the scene around the rover in up to 12 unique wavelengths. The major characteristics of Pancam are summarized.

  3. Initial Pancam Visible/Near-infrared Observations of Materials near Endeavour Crater's Western Rim

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Farrand, W. H.; Wang, A.; MER Athena Science Team

    2011-12-01

    The Pancam multispectral stereo camera on the Opportunity Mars Exploration Rover began acquiring visible/near-infrared (443-1009 nm) images of materials along the western edge of Endeavour Crater in August, 2011. Preliminary observations documented changes in the color and textures of rocks and soils during the transition from typical Meridiani plains to the Endeavour rim area. As the rover approached Cape York and Spirit Point, Pancam observations (along with those from the Microscopic Imager) documented changes in size distributions of the ubiquitous hematite-rich spherules. For example, preliminary observations near the outcrop "Gibraltar" (north of the sand-filled 35 m diameter crater "Pathfinder") showed spherules embedded in the outcrop to be <1.5 mm, whereas those scattered about the surface were bimodal in distribution with size ranges typically <1.5 mm and >5 mm (Figure 1). At the time of this writing, not all Pancam images of the Gibraltar area had been transmitted to the ground, but reflectance spectra from these observations will be presented at the meeting. Comparison of Pancam reflectance spectra to CRISM observations of the region also demonstrate the utility of orbital imaging spectroscopy as a means to guide rover traverses around Spirit Point during investigations of phyllosilicates-bearing materials. While Fe-bearing oxides and oxyhydroxides can exhibit distinctive spectral features in the visible/near-infrared, most diagnostic spectral features of phyllosilicate minerals are outside the spectral range of Pancam. Nonetheless, the potential exists for using Pancam for phyllosilicate-bearing rock detections, although they will be non-unique. For example, different classes of phyllosilicates (e.g., nontronite, montmorillonite) can be grouped to first order based on spectral parameters such as 900 nm band depth or reflectance maximum position vs. 535 nm band depth. Pancam observations relevant to these detections will be presented at the meeting.

  4. Recent Multispectral Imaging Results from the Pancam Instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, J. F.

    2006-12-01

    As of early September 2006, the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments have acquired more than 57,000 and 52,000 multispectral images, respectively, from the rovers' landing sites and traverse paths within Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. These observations include more than 950 and 600 full multispectral imaging observations, respectively, in the 11 distinct near-UV to near-IR wavelengths sampled by the Pancams. Both rovers have faced challenges in their exploration activities during 2006 because of power restrictions imposed by the low-Sun, southern hemisphere winter conditions. Still, major science campaigns have been conducted at both landing sites. At Gusev, Pancam imaging documented major geomorphic and color units during the Spirit rover's traverse down the south side of Husband Hill and across the Southern Basin to the possible volcanic or impact feature known as Home Plate. More recently, at Spirit's "Winter Haven" stationary location in Gusev crater, a full-resolution, 360 degree, low-compression panorama (the "McMurdo" panorama) has been obtained using all of Pancam's filters. In Meridiani, the geology and color properties of the terrain during Opportunity's traverse south from Erebus crater to its current location at the rim of Victoria crater has been documented in detail by Pancam multispectral imaging, including a number of albedo measurements and other coordinated observations with orbiting NASA and ESA spacecraft designed to enhance surface-orbital "ground truth" connections. Panoramas, mosaics, and multispectral analysis results from these recent Pancam data sets will be summarized and discussed in terms of their geologic context and complimentarity to other MER remote sensing and in situ investigations and results obtained during this past year.

  5. The PanCam Calibration Target (PCT) and multispectral image processing for the ExoMars 2018 mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnes, D.; Wilding, M.; Gunn, M.; Tyler, L.; Pugh, S.; Coates, A.; Griffiths, A.; Cousins, C.; Schmitz, N.; Paar, G.

    2011-10-01

    The Panoramic Camera (PanCam) instrument for the ESA/NASA 2018 ExoMars mission is designed to be the 'eyes' of the Mars rover and is equipped with two wide angle multispectral cameras (WACs) from MSSL, and a focusable High Resolution Camera (HRC) from DLR. To achieve its science role within the ExoMars mission, the PanCam will generate terrain reflectance spectra to help identify the mineralogy of the Martian surface, and generate true-colour images of the Martian environment. The PanCam Calibration Target (PCT) is an essential component for the science operations of the PanCam instrument. Its purpose is to allow radiometric calibration and to support geometric calibration check-out of the PanCam instrument during the mission. Unlike other camera calibration targets flown to Mars, the PCT target regions are being made from stained glass. The paper describes the work undertaken during the early build and testing of the PCT, together with results from the baseline algorithms that have been designed and implemented to process the multispectral PanCam images.

  6. VNIR multispectral observations of rocks at Cape York, Endeavour crater, Mars by the Opportunity rover's Pancam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, William H.; Bell, James F.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Rice, Melissa S.; Hurowitz, Joel A.

    2013-07-01

    From its arrival at the portion of the rim of Endeavour crater known informally as Cape York, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has made numerous visible and near infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rock surfaces. This paper describes multispectral observations from Opportunity's arrival at Cape York to its winter-over location at Greeley Haven. Averages of pixels from the Pancam's left and right eyes were joined to form 11 point spectra from numerous observations and were examined via a number of techniques. These included principal components analysis, a sequential maximum angle convex cone approach, examination of spectral parameters, and a hierarchical clustering approach. The end result of these analyses was the determination of six primary spectral (PS) classes describing spectrally unique materials observed on Cape York. These classes consisted of a "standard" outcrop spectrum that was observed on the clasts and matrix comprising the upper unit of the Shoemaker formation, a class representing rock surfaces exposed around Odyssey crater and typified by the rocks of the Tisdale series, pebbles occurring in and weathered out of the upper unit of the Shoemaker formation that appear red in 1009, 904, 754 nm color composites, patches on Tisdale rocks exhibiting a 864 nm band minimum that were spectrally anomalous in root mean square error images derived from spectral mixture analyses, clasts with a high 904 nm band depth occurring in the Greeley Haven location, and gypsum veins typified by the vein Homestake. Comparisons of three of these classes that had well defined band minima between 800 and 1009 nm with spectral library spectra of ferrous silicates and ferric oxide, oxyhydroxide and ferric sulfate minerals indicated tentative matches of the "red" pebbles with orthopyroxenes, of the spectrally anomalous 864 nm band minimum material with hematite or ferric sulfates, and of the high 904 nm band depth material with an orthopyroxene

  7. Pancam Multispectral Observations of the Block Island meteorite, Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Calvin, W. M.; Farrand, W. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Morris, R. V.; Ashley, J. W.; Lee, E. M.; Bell, J. F.; Weitz, C. M.

    2009-12-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity used the Pancam stereo camera to image the Fe-Ni meteorite “Block Island” extensively in 11 visible/near-infrared (434-1009 nm) bands to document variations in color and texture beginning on Sol 1961 (July 30, 2009). Pancam spectra of the meteorite suggest that a relatively thick coating of nanophase ferric-rich dust contaminated the surface of this rock, as well as nearby soil units. This resulted in positive 535 nm band depths on Block Island, compared to negative 535 nm bands observed on less dusty surfaces on Heat Shield rock (sol 352; Jan. 19, 2005), the other Fe-Ni meteorite measured by Opportunity. Despite the dust coating, distinct color variations were observed across the surface of Block Island, including intermittent to more contiguous occurrences of smooth materials with “purple” hues in Pancam false-color RGB representations using 434 nm, 535 nm, 753 nm bands (and distinct in decorrelation stretches using the same bands). These materials exhibited lobate margins that appeared to coat the underlying meteorite surface. Using Pancam images to colorize Microscopic Imager (MI) frames confirmed that the dark-toned, lobate, smooth surfaces observed in MI images were purple-colored in false-color composites. Although the surfaces underlying the purple materials exhibited a weak 535 nm band, they also exhibited a featureless, positive slope between 670 nm and 900 nm, consistent with laboratory spectra of Fe-Ni meteorites. By comparison, the purple coatings on Block Island exhibited stronger 535 nm band depths, and slightly stronger absorptions in the 860 nm region. These spectral features are consistent with a more oxidized surface, likely containing a mixture of nanophase ferric materials. Preliminary APXS data suggest that the purple coatings are enriched in Mg, Br, and Zn relative to the rest of the meteorite, while Mössbauer data are consistent with phases of nanophase ferric oxide (e.g., np-hematite). These

  8. Large Multispectral and Albedo Panoramas Acquired by the Pancam Instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Arneson, H. M.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Hayes, A. G.; Herkenhoff, K.; Johnson, M. J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K.

    2005-01-01

    Introduction. The panoramic camera (Pancam) multispectral, stereoscopic imaging systems on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity [1] have acquired and downlinked more than 45,000 images (35 Gbits of data) over more than 700 combined sols of operation on Mars as of early January 2005. A large subset of these images were acquired as part of 26 large multispectral and/or broadband "albedo" panoramas (15 on Spirit, 11 on Opportunity) covering large ranges of azimuth (12 spanning 360 ) and designed to characterize major regional color and albedo characteristics of the landing sites and various points along both rover traverses.

  9. Mars Exploration Rover Pancam Multispectral Imaging of Rocks, Soils, and Dust at Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum. Chapter 13

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Calvin, W. M.; Farrand, W.; Greeley, R.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.; Morris, R. V.; Sullivan, R. J.; Thompson, S.; Wang, A.; Weitz, C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2007-01-01

    Multispectral imaging from the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity has provided important new insights about the geology and geologic history of the rover landing sites and traverse locations in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. Pancam observations from near-UV to near-IR wavelengths provide limited compositional and mineralogic constraints on the presence abundance, and physical properties of ferric- and ferrous-iron bearing minerals in rocks, soils, and dust at both sites. High resolution and stereo morphologic observations have also helped to infer some aspects of the composition of these materials at both sites. Perhaps most importantly, Pancam observations were often efficiently and effectively used to discover and select the relatively small number of places where in situ measurements were performed by the rover instruments, thus supporting and enabling the much more quantitative mineralogic discoveries made using elemental chemistry and mineralogy data. This chapter summarizes the major compositionally- and mineralogically-relevant results at Gusev and Meridiani derived from Pancam observations. Classes of materials encountered in Gusev crater include outcrop rocks, float rocks, cobbles, clasts, soils, dust, rock grindings, rock coatings, windblown drift deposits, and exhumed whitish/yellowish salty soils. Materials studied in Meridiani Planum include sedimentary outcrop rocks, rock rinds, fracture fills, hematite spherules, cobbles, rock fragments, meteorites, soils, and windblown drift deposits. This chapter also previews the results of a number of coordinated observations between Pancam and other rover-based and Mars-orbital instruments that were designed to provide complementary new information and constraints on the mineralogy and physical properties of martian surface materials.

  10. Multispectral VNIR Observations by the Opportunity Rover Pancam of Multiple Episodes of Aqueous Alteration in Marathon Valley, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Mittlefehldt, David W.; Ruff, Steven W.; Rice, Melissa S.

    2016-01-01

    Since early 2015, the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring the break in the rim of Endeavour Crater dubbed Marathon Valley by the rover team. Marathon Valley was identified by orbital hyperspectral data from the MRO CRISM as having a relatively strong spectral feature in the 2.3 micrometer region indicative of an Mg or Fe-OH combination overtone absorption band indicative of smectite clay. Earlier in its mission, Opportunity examined the Matijevic Hill region on the more northerly Cape York crater rim segment and found evidence for smectite clays in a stratigraphically lower, pre-impact formed unit dubbed the Matijevic formation. However, the smectite exposures in Marathon Valley appear to be associated with the stratigraphically higher Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Evidence for alteration in this unit in Marathon Valley is provided by Pancam multispectral observations in the 430 to 1010 nm visible/near infrared (VNIR) spectral range. Sinuous troughs ("red zones") contain fragmented cobbles and pebbles displaying higher blue-to-red slopes, moderately higher 535 nm band depths, elevated 754 to 934 nm, and negative 934 to 1009 nm slopes. The lack of an absorption at 864 to 904 nm indicates the lack of crystalline red hematite in these red zones, but likely an enrichment in nanophase ferric oxides. The negative 934 to 1009 nm slope is potentially indicative of the presence of adsorbed or structurally bound water. A scuff in a red zone near the southern wall of Marathon Valley uncovered light-toned soils and a pebble with an 803 to 864 nm absorption resembling that of light-toned Fe-sulfate bearing soils uncovered by the Spirit rover in the Columbia Hills of Gusev crater. APXS chemical measurements indicated enrichments of Mg and S in the scuff soils and the pebble, Joseph Field, with the strongest 803 nm band- consistent with Mg and Fe sulfates. The presence of Fe and Mg sulfates can be interpreted as evidence of a potentially later episode of

  11. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Calvin, W.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A. G.; Hubbard, M. Y. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, M. J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K. M.; Lemmon, M. T.; Li, R.; Madsen, M. B.; Maki, J. N.; Malin, M.; McCartney, E.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images from Meridiani Planum reveal a low-albedo, generally flat, and relatively rock-free surface. Within and around impact craters and fractures, laminated outcrop rocks with higher albedo are observed. Fine-grained materials include dark sand, bright ferric iron-rich dust, angular rock clasts, and millimeter-size spheroidal granules that are eroding out of the laminated rocks. Spectra of sand, clasts, and one dark plains rock are consistent with mafic silicates such as pyroxene and olivine. Spectra of both the spherules and the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence of crystalline ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission. Astronomical observations captured solar transits by Phobos and Deimos and time-lapse observations of sunsets.

  12. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the opportunity Rover at Meridiani Planum

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, J.F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H.M.; Bass, D.; Calvin, W.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Greeley, R.; Grotzinger, J.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A.G.; Hubbard, M.Y.H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, M.J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K.M.; Lemmon, M.T.; Li, R.; Madsen, M.B.; Maki, J.N.; Malin, M.; McCartney, E.; McLennan, S.; McSween, H.Y., Jr.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R.V.; Noe Dobrea, E.Z.; Parker, T.J.; Proton, J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Seelos, F.; Soderblom, J.M.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Sullivan, R.J.; Weitz, C.M.; Wolff, M.J.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera (Pancam) images from Meridiani Planum reveal a low-albedo, generally flat, and relatively rock-free surface. Within and around impact craters and fractures, laminated outcrop rocks with higher albedo are observed. Fine-grained materials include dark sand, bright ferric iron-rich dust, angular rock clasts, and millimeter-size spheroidal granules that are eroding out of the laminated rocks. Spectra of sand, clasts, and one dark plains rock are consistent with mafic silicates such as pyroxene and olivine. Spectra of both the spherules and the laminated outcrop materials indicate the presence of crystalline ferric oxides or oxyhydroxides. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission. Astronomical observations captured solar transits by Phobos and Deimos and time-lapse observations of sunsets.

  13. Radiative transfer modeling of dust-coated Pancam calibration target materials: Laboratory visible/near-infrared spectrogoniometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.; Grundy, W.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F., III; Christensen, P.R.; Graff, T.; Guinness, E.A.; Kinch, K.; Morris, R.; Shepard, M.K.

    2006-01-01

    Laboratory visible/near-infrared multispectral observations of Mars Exploration Rover Pancam calibration target materials coated with different thicknesses of Mars spectral analog dust were acquired under variable illumination geometries using the Bloomsburg University Goniometer. The data were fit with a two-layer radiative transfer model that combines a Hapke formulation for the dust with measured values of the substrate interpolated using a He-Torrance approach. We first determined the single-scattering albedo, phase function, opposition effect width, and amplitude for the dust using the entire data set (six coating thicknesses, three substrates, four wavelengths, and phase angles 3??-117??). The dust exhibited single-scattering albedo values similar to other Mars analog soils and to Mars Pathfinder dust and a dominantly forward scattering behavior whose scattering lobe became narrower at longer wavelengths. Opacity values for each dust thickness corresponded well to those predicted from the particles sizes of the Mars analog dust. We then restricted the number of substrates, dust thicknesses, and incidence angles input to the model. The results suggest that the dust properties are best characterized when using substrates whose reflectances are brighter and darker than those of the deposited dust and data that span a wide range of dust thicknesses. The model also determined the dust photometric properties relatively well despite limitations placed on the range of incidence angles. The model presented here will help determine the photometric properties of dust deposited on the MER rovers and to track the multiple episodes of dust deposition and erosion that have occurred at both landing sites. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Spirit Rover at Gusev Crater

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Calvin, W.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A. G.; Hubbard, M. Y. H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, M. J.; Maki, J. N.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Parker, T. J.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera images at Gusev crater reveal a rock-strewn surface interspersed with high- to moderate-albedo fine-grained deposits occurring in part as drifts or in small circular swales or hollows. Optically thick coatings of fine-grained ferric iron-rich dust dominate most bright soil and rock surfaces. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces and rock regions exposed by brushing or grinding show near-infrared spectral signatures consistent with the presence of mafic silicates such as pyroxene or olivine. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission, and astronomical observations captured solar transits by the martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, as well as a view of Earth from the martian surface.

  15. Pancam multispectral imaging results from the Spirit Rover at Gusev crater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, J.F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H.M.; Bass, D.; Blaney, D.; Cabrol, N.; Calvin, W.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.; Goetz, W.; Golombek, M.; Grant, J. A.; Greeley, R.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A.G.; Hubbard, M.Y.H.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, M.J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K.M.; Lemmon, M.T.; Li, R.; Madsen, M.B.; Maki, J.N.; Malin, M.; McCartney, E.; McLennan, S.; McSween, H.Y., Jr.; Ming, D. W.; Moersch, J.E.; Morris, R.V.; Dobrea, E.Z.N.; Parker, T.J.; Proton, J.; Rice, J. W., Jr.; Seelos, F.; Soderblom, J.; Soderblom, L.A.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Sullivan, R.J.; Wolff, M.J.; Wang, A.

    2004-01-01

    Panoramic Camera images at Gusev crater reveal a rock-strewn surface interspersed with high- to moderate-albedo fine-grained deposits occurring in part as drifts or in small circular swales or hollows. Optically thick coatings of fine-grained ferric iron-rich dust dominate most bright soil and rock surfaces. Spectra of some darker rock surfaces and rock regions exposed by brushing or grinding show near-infrared spectral signatures consistent with the presence of mafic silicates such as pyroxene or olivine. Atmospheric observations show a steady decline in dust opacity during the mission, and astronomical observations captured solar transits by the martian moons, Phobos and Deimos, as well as a view of Earth from the martian surface.

  16. Multispectral Evidence of Alteration from Murray Ridge to Marathon Valley Observed by the Opportunity Pancam on the Rim of Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Mittlefehldt, D. W.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.

    2015-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been traversing the rim of the Noachian-aged, 22 km diameter Endeavour crater. Circa sol 3390 of its mission, Opportunity reached the northern tip of the rim segment known as Solander Point and has since been traversing the rim to the south to its current location at the break in the rim known as Marathon Valley. The rocks making up the rim are dominated by impact breccias consisting of clasts and a finer-grained matrix. Several segments of the rim are transected by fractures as observed from orbital HiRISE imagery. Pancam multispectral observations of outcrop in these fracture regions, including part of the rim crest dubbed Murray Ridge, the Hueytown fracture, and Marathon Valley have been made. Over the range of 430 to 1010 nm there are changes in the multispectral reflectance signature of the breccia matrix with an increase in 535 nm and 904 nm band depth. This is attributed to oxidation and an increase in ferric oxides in these areas. In situ observations by the rover's APXS also indicate chemical differences associated with the matrix along these fractures, including increasing Fe/Mn southward from Solander Point to a region having an Al-OH signature in CRISM spectra, and generally higher SO3 in the Hueytown fracture region and the area around Spirit of St. Louis. Overturned rocks observed on Murray Ridge were determined by the APXS to have elevated Mn and Pancam spectra of the high Mn spots have a characteristic red, featureless slope. This spectrum was also observed in association with some coatings on blocks of the sulfate-rich Grasberg formation. Spectra resembling red hematite are observed in some zones in association with the craterform feature Spirit of St. Louis outside the mouth (to the west) of Marathon Valley. Marathon Valley itself has been observed from orbital hyperspectral observations by the CRISM sensor to host occurrences of Fe/Mg smectite minerals- indicating extensive aqueous alteration in this

  17. Pancam Visible/Near-Infrared Spectra of Large Fe-Ni Meteorites at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bell, J. F.; Farrand, W. H.; Ashley, J.; Weitz, C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2010-03-01

    The MER Opportunity rover imaged three large Fe-Ni meteorites in 2009. Pancam reflectance spectra of coatings on the rocks are consistent with ferric oxides (e.g., np-hematite), suggestive of chemical weathering on portions of the meteorite surfaces.

  18. Spectral variability among rocks in visible and near-infrared mustispectral Pancam data collected at Gusev crater: Examinations using spectral mixture analysis and related techniques

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F.; Johnson, J. R.; Squyres, S. W.; Soderblom, J.; Ming, D. W.

    2006-01-01

    Visible and near-infrared (VNIR) multispectral observations of rocks made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Panoramic camera (Pancam) have been analyzed using a spectral mixture analysis (SMA) methodology. Scenes have been examined from the Gusev crater plains into the Columbia Hills. Most scenes on the plains and in the Columbia Hills could be modeled as three end-member mixtures of a bright material, rock, and shade. Scenes of rocks disturbed by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT) required additional end-members. In the Columbia Hills, there were a number of scenes in which additional rock end-members were required. The SMA methodology identified relatively dust-free areas on undisturbed rock surfaces as well as spectrally unique areas on RAT abraded rocks. Spectral parameters from these areas were examined, and six spectral classes were identified. These classes are named after a type rock or area and are Adirondack, Lower West Spur, Clovis, Wishstone, Peace, and Watchtower. These classes are discriminable based, primarily, on near-infrared (NIR) spectral parameters. Clovis and Watchtower class rocks appear more oxidized than Wishstone class rocks and Adirondack basalts based on their having higher 535 nm band depths. Comparison of the spectral parameters of these Gusev crater rocks to parameters of glass-dominated basaltic tuffs indicates correspondence between measurements of Clovis and Watchtower classes but divergence for the Wishstone class rocks, which appear to have a higher fraction of crystalline ferrous iron-bearing phases. Despite a high sulfur content, the rock Peace has NIR properties resembling plains basalts. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  19. Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B. L.; Knoll, A. H.; McLennan, S. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Calvin, W. M.; Grotzinger, J. P.; Morris, R. V.; Soderblom, J.; Thompson, S. D.; Watters, W. A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-04-01

    Multispectral measurements in the visible and near infrared of rocks at Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Pancam are described. The Pancam multispectral data show that the outcrops of the Burns formation consist of two main spectral units which in stretched 673, 535, 432 nm color composites appear buff- and purple-colored. These units are referred to as the HFS and LFS spectral units based on higher and lower values of 482 to 535 nm slope. Spectral characteristics are consistent with the LFS outcrop consisting of less oxidized, and the HFS outcrop consisting of more oxidized, iron-bearing minerals. The LFS surfaces are not as common and appear, primarily, at the distal ends of outcrop layers and on steep, more massive surfaces, locations that are subject to greater eolian erosion. Consequently, the HFS surfaces are interpreted as a weathering rind. Further inherent spectral differences between layers and between different outcrop map units, both untouched and patches abraded by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool, are also described. Comparisons of the spectral parameters of the Meridiani outcrop with a set of laboratory reflectance measurements of Fe3+-bearing minerals show that the field of outcrop measurements plots near the fields of hematite, ferrihydrite, poorly crystalline goethite, and schwertmannite. Rind and fracture fill materials, observed intermittently at outcrop exposures, are intermediate in their spectral character between both the HFS and LFS spectral classes and other, less oxidized, surface materials (basaltic sands, spherules, and cobbles).

  20. Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of rocks at Meridiani Planum, Mars, by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J.F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knoll, A.H.; McLennan, S.M.; Squyres, S. W.; Calvin, W.M.; Grotzinger, J.P.; Morris, R.V.; Soderblom, J.; Thompson, S.D.; Watters, W.A.; Yen, A. S.

    2007-01-01

    Multispectral measurements in the visible and near infrared of rocks at Meridiani Planum by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's Pancam are described. The Pancam multispectral data show that the outcrops of the Burns formation consist of two main spectral units which in stretched 673, 535, 432 nm color composites appear buff- and purple-colored. These units are referred to as the HFS and LFS spectral units based on higher and lower values of 482 to 535 nm slope. Spectral characteristics are consistent with the LFS outcrop consisting of less oxidized, and the HFS outcrop consisting of more oxidized, iron-bearing minerals. The LFS surfaces are not as common and appear, primarily, at the distal ends of outcrop layers and on steep, more massive surfaces, locations that are subject to greater eolian erosion. Consequently, the HFS surfaces are interpreted as a weathering rind. Further inherent spectral differences between layer's and between different outcrop map units, both untouched and patches abraded by the rover's Rock Abrasion Tool, are also described. Comparisons of the spectral parameters of the Meridiani outcrop with a set of laboratory reflectance measurements of Fe3+-bearing minerals show that the field of outcrop measurements plots near the fields of hematite, ferrihydrite, poorly crystalline goethite, and schwertmannite. Rind and fracture fill materials, observed intermittently at outcrop exposures, are intermediate in their spectral character between both the HFS and LFS spectral classes and other, less oxidized, surface materials (basaltic sands, spherules, and cobbles). Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  1. Pancam Visible/Near-Infrared Spectra of Fe-Ni Meteorite Oileán Ruaidh at Meridiani Planum, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Bell, J. F.; Farrand, W. H.; Gellert, R.; Ashley, J.; Schröder, C.; Squyres, S. W.

    2011-03-01

    Pancam imaged the Fe-Ni meteorite Oileán Ruaidh on Sols 2367-2371. The surface is similar to other meteorites, with discontinuous coatings that exhibit reflectance spectra consistent with ferric oxides, suggestive of chemical weathering.

  2. The Athena Pancam and Color Microscopic Imager (CMI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Schwochert, M.; Morris, R. V.; Sullivan, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Athena Mars rover payload includes two primary science-grade imagers: Pancam, a multispectral, stereo, panoramic camera system, and the Color Microscopic Imager (CMI), a multispectral and variable depth-of-field microscope. Both of these instruments will help to achieve the primary Athena science goals by providing information on the geology, mineralogy, and climate history of the landing site. In addition, Pancam provides important support for rover navigation and target selection for Athena in situ investigations. Here we describe the science goals, instrument designs, and instrument performance of the Pancam and CMI investigations.

  3. VNIR Multispectral Observations of Rocks at Spirit of St. Louis Crater and Marathon Valley on Th Rim of Endeavour Crater Made by the Opportunity Rover Pancam

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F., III; Mittlefehldt, D.W.

    2016-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been exploring the western rim of the 22 km diameter Endeavour crater since August, 2011. Recently, Opportunity has reached a break in the Endeavour rim that the rover team has named Mara-thon Valley. This is the site where orbital observations from the MRO CRISM imaging spectrometer indicated the presence of iron smectites. On the outer western portion of Marathon Valley, Opportunity explored the crater-form feature dubbed Spirit of St. Louis (SoSL) crater. This presentation describes the 430 to 1009 nm (VNIR) reflectance, measured by the rover's Pancam, of rock units present both at Spirit of St. Louis and within Marathon Valley.

  4. Visible and near-infrared multispectral analysis of geochemically measured rock fragments at the Opportunity landing site in Meridiani Planum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitz, Catherine M.; Farrand, William H.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Fleischer, Iris; Schröder, Christian; Yingst, Aileen; Jolliff, Brad; Gellert, Ralf; Bell, Jim; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Klingelhöfer, Göstar; Cohen, Barbara; Calvin, Wendy; Rutherford, Malcolm; Ashley, James

    2010-11-01

    We have used visible and near-infrared Panoramic Camera (Pancam) spectral data acquired by the Opportunity rover to analyze 15 rock fragments at the Meridiani Planum landing site. These spectral results were then compared to geochemistry measurements made by the in situ instruments Mössbauer (MB) and Alpha Particle X-ray Spectrometer (APXS) to determine the feasibility of mineralogic characterization from Pancam data. Our results suggest that dust and alteration rinds coat many rock fragments, which limits our ability to adequately measure the mineralogy of some rocks from Pancam spectra relative to the different field of view and penetration depths of MB and APXS. Viewing and lighting geometry, along with sampling size, also complicate the spectral characterization of the rocks. Rock fragments with the same geochemistry of sulfate-rich outcrops have similar spectra, although the sulfate-rich composition cannot be ascertained based upon Pancam spectra alone. FeNi meteorites have spectral characteristics, particularly ferric oxide coatings, that generally differentiate them from other rocks at the landing site. Stony meteorites and impact fragments with unknown compositions have a diverse range of spectral properties and are not well constrained nor diagnostic in Pancam data. Bounce Rock, with its unique basalt composition, is easily differentiated in the Pancam data from all other rock types at Meridiani Planum. Our Pancam analyses of small pebbles adjacent to these 15 rock fragments suggests that other rock types may exist at the landing site but have not yet been geochemically measured.

  5. Color coded data obtained by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Color coded data obtained from Baja California, Mexico to Texas by JPL's Shuttle Multispectral Infrared radiometer is pictured. The map shows where data was obtained on the 19th orbit of the mission. Yellow and green areas represent water. The first brown segment at left is Baja California, and the second begins at the coast of mainland Mexico and extends into Texas. The dark brown strips at the right are clouds.

  6. Spectral mixture analysis of multispectral thermal infrared images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Remote spectral measurements of light reflected or emitted from terrestrial scenes is commonly integrated over areas sufficiently large that the surface comprises more than one component. Techniques have been developed to analyze multispectral or imaging spectrometer data in terms of a wide range of mixtures of a limited number of components. Spectral mixture analysis has been used primarily for visible and near-infrared images, but it may also be applied to thermal infrared data. Two approaches are reviewed: binary mixing and a more general treatment for isothermal mixtures of a greater number of components.

  7. Multi-spectral infrared spectroscopy for robust plastic identification.

    PubMed

    Vázquez-Guardado, Abraham; Money, Mason; McKinney, Nathaniel; Chanda, Debashis

    2015-08-20

    The identification and classification of plastics plays an important role in waste management and recycling processes. Present electrical and optical sorting techniques lack the required resolution for accurate identification in a high throughput manner for a diverse set of plastics commonly found in municipal waste. In this work a multi-spectral infrared spectroscopic technique is employed to construct a unique fingerprint library of 12 plastic resin groups that are commonly encountered in municipal waste. We test the proposed method in a blind plastic identification experiment, which shows excellent unbiased identification accuracy. This simple optical technique in combination with the multi-spectral library will enable high throughput and accurate detection of various plastics from recovered solid waste. PMID:26368777

  8. Mars Exploration Rover Athena Panoramic Camera (Pancam) investigation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bell, J.F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Maki, J.N.; Arneson, H.M.; Brown, D.; Collins, S.A.; Dingizian, A.; Elliot, S.T.; Hagerott, E.C.; Hayes, A.G.; Johnson, M.J.; Johnson, J. R.; Joseph, J.; Kinch, K.; Lemmon, M.T.; Morris, R.V.; Scherr, L.; Schwochert, M.; Shepard, M.K.; Smith, G.H.; Sohl-Dickstein, J. N.; Sullivan, R.J.; Sullivan, W.T.; Wadsworth, M.

    2003-01-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) investigation is part of the Athena science payload launched to Mars in 2003 on NASA's twin Mars Exploration Rover (MER) missions. The scientific goals of the Pancam investigation are to assess the high-resolution morphology, topography, and geologic context of each MER landing site, to obtain color images to constrain the mineralogic, photometric, and physical properties of surface materials, and to determine dust and aerosol opacity and physical properties from direct imaging of the Sun and sky. Pancam also provides mission support measurements for the rovers, including Sun-finding for rover navigation, hazard identification and digital terrain modeling to help guide long-term rover traverse decisions, high-resolution imaging to help guide the selection of in situ sampling targets, and acquisition of education and public outreach products. The Pancam optical, mechanical, and electronics design were optimized to achieve these science and mission support goals. Pancam is a multispectral, stereoscopic, panoramic imaging system consisting of two digital cameras mounted on a mast 1.5 m above the Martian surface. The mast allows Pancam to image the full 360?? in azimuth and ??90?? in elevation. Each Pancam camera utilizes a 1024 ?? 1024 active imaging area frame transfer CCD detector array. The Pancam optics have an effective focal length of 43 mm and a focal ratio f/20, yielding an instantaneous field of view of 0.27 mrad/pixel and a field of view of 16?? ?? 16??. Each rover's two Pancam "eyes" are separated by 30 cm and have a 1?? toe-in to provide adequate stereo parallax. Each eye also includes a small eight position filter wheel to allow surface mineralogic studies, multispectral sky imaging, and direct Sun imaging in the 400-1100 nm wavelength region. Pancam was designed and calibrated to operate within specifications on Mars at temperatures from -55?? to +5??C. An onboard calibration target and fiducial marks provide the capability

  9. GRIN optics for multispectral infrared imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, Daniel; Bayya, Shyam; Nguyen, Vinh; Sanghera, Jas; Kotov, Mikhail; Drake, Gryphon

    2015-06-01

    Graded index (GRIN) optics offer potential for both weight savings and increased performance but have so far been limited to visible and NIR bands (wavelengths shorter than about 0.9 μm). NRL is developing a capability to extend GRIN optics to longer wavelengths in the infrared by exploiting diffused IR transmitting chalcogenide glasses. These IR-GRIN lenses are compatible with all IR wavebands (SWIR, MWIR and LWIR) and can be used alongside conventional wideband materials. Traditional multiband IR imagers require many elements for correction of chromatic aberrations, making them large and heavy and not well-suited for weight sensitive platforms. IR-GRIN optical elements designed with simultaneous optical power and chromatic correction can reduce the number of elements in wideband systems, making multi-band IR imaging practical for platforms including small UAVs and soldier handheld, helmet or weapon mounted cameras. The IR-GRIN lens technology, design space and anti-reflection considerations are presented in this paper.

  10. Polarization controllable multispectral symmetry-breaking absorberin mid-infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Nan; Pitchappa, Prakash; Ho, Chong Pei; Hasan, Dihan; Kropelnicki, Piotr; Alioto, Massimo; Lee, Chengkuo

    2016-08-01

    The versatility of mid-infrared metamaterial absorbers along with the ease of fabrication has been widely used in thermal imaging, molecule sensing, and many other applications. Controllable multispectral absorption is highly required for small footprint, multi-purpose, and real-time sensing applications. In this paper, we present the polarization control of interchangeable multispectral absorption based on the dual-band metamaterial absorber in split mode. Large modulation depth of absorption is obtained during multi-band transition through polarization control. We perform theoretical and numerical analysis to explain the results by formulating an equivalent circuit for the asymmetric cross resonator. Thermal controllability is also demonstrated to show the reversible and repeatable manipulation of absorption intensity at a given wavelength. Moreover, we characterized the limitation of this device under extreme high temperature. This work offers a design methodology for interchangeable multispectral metamaterial absorber from a new perspective by adopting polarization of incident light as a control mechanism, and this will open up possibilities for many valuable applications in the future.

  11. Enhancement of multispectral thermal infrared images - Decorrelation contrast stretching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gillespie, Alan R.

    1992-01-01

    Decorrelation contrast stretching is an effective method for displaying information from multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) images. The technique involves transformation of the data to principle components ('decorrelation'), independent contrast 'stretching' of data from the new 'decorrelated' image bands, and retransformation of the stretched data back to the approximate original axes, based on the inverse of the principle component rotation. The enhancement is robust in that colors of the same scene components are similar in enhanced images of similar scenes, or the same scene imaged at different times. Decorrelation contrast stretching is reviewed in the context of other enhancements applied to TIR images.

  12. Development of a portable multispectral thermal infrared camera

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Osterwisch, Frederick G.

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of this research and development effort was to design and build a prototype instrument designated the 'Thermal Infrared Multispectral Camera' (TIRC). The Phase 2 effort was a continuation of the Phase 1 feasibility study and preliminary design for such an instrument. The completed instrument designated AA465 has application in the field of geologic remote sensing and exploration. The AA465 Thermal Infrared Camera (TIRC) System is a field-portable multispectral thermal infrared camera operating over the 8.0 - 13.0 micron wavelength range. Its primary function is to acquire two-dimensional thermal infrared images of user-selected scenes. Thermal infrared energy emitted by the scene is collected, dispersed into ten 0.5 micron wide channels, and then measured and recorded by the AA465 System. This multispectral information is presented in real time on a color display to be used by the operator to identify spectral and spatial variations in the scenes emissivity and/or irradiance. This fundamental instrument capability has a wide variety of commercial and research applications. While ideally suited for two-man operation in the field, the AA465 System can be transported and operated effectively by a single user. Functionally, the instrument operates as if it were a single exposure camera. System measurement sensitivity requirements dictate relatively long (several minutes) instrument exposure times. As such, the instrument is not suited for recording time-variant information. The AA465 was fabricated, assembled, tested, and documented during this Phase 2 work period. The detailed design and fabrication of the instrument was performed during the period of June 1989 to July 1990. The software development effort and instrument integration/test extended from July 1990 to February 1991. Software development included an operator interface/menu structure, instrument internal control functions, DSP image processing code, and a display algorithm coding program. The

  13. Multispectral glass transparent from visible to thermal infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brehault, A.; Calvez, L.; Pain, T.; Adam, P.; Rollin, J.; Zhang, X. H.

    2014-06-01

    The thermal imaging market has experienced a strong growth during the recent years due to continued cost reduction of night vision devices. The development of uncooled focal plane detector arrays is the major reason for the cost reduction. Another reason is the continuous improvement of the optical solution. In this paper, we present a new multispectral material which responds to the increasing demand for optics operating simultaneously in the visible/SWIR (Short Wave InfraRed) and the thermal infrared region. The most important properties of some glasses from the GeS2-Ga2S3- CsCl system are highlighted in this study. A stable composition 15Ga2S3-75GeS2-10CsCl allowed the synthesis of a large glass without crystallization. The refractive index of this glass was precisely measured from 0.6 to 10.4μm by using the Littrow method. The chromatic dispersion was then calculated and compared with other multispectral materials.

  14. Deepwater Horizon oil spill monitoring using airborne multispectral infrared imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Sylvia S.; Lewis, Paul E.

    2011-06-01

    On April 28, 2010, the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Airborne Spectral Photometric Environmental Collection Technology (ASPECT) aircraft was deployed to Gulfport, Mississippi to provide airborne remotely sensed air monitoring and situational awareness data and products in response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill disaster. The ASPECT aircraft was released from service on August 9, 2010 after having flown over 85 missions that included over 325 hours of flight operation. This paper describes several advanced analysis capabilities specifically developed for the Deepwater Horizon mission to correctly locate, identify, characterize, and quantify surface oil using ASPECT's multispectral infrared data. The data products produced using these advanced analysis capabilities provided the Deepwater Horizon Incident Command with a capability that significantly increased the effectiveness of skimmer vessel oil recovery efforts directed by the U.S. Coast Guard, and were considered by the Incident Command as key situational awareness information.

  15. Infrared optical coatings for the EarthCARE Multispectral Imager.

    PubMed

    Hawkins, Gary; Woods, David; Sherwood, Richard; Djotni, Karim

    2014-10-20

    The Earth Cloud, Aerosol and Radiation Explorer mission (EarthCARE) Multispectral Imager (MSI) is a radiometric instrument designed to provide the imaging of the atmospheric cloud cover and the cloud top surface temperature from a sun-synchronous low Earth orbit. The MSI forms part of a suite of four instruments destined to support the European Space Agency Living Planet mission on-board the EarthCARE satellite payload to be launched in 2016, whose synergy will be used to construct three-dimensional scenes, textures, and temperatures of atmospheric clouds and aerosols. The MSI instrument contains seven channels: four solar channels to measure visible and short-wave infrared wavelengths, and three channels to measure infrared thermal emission. In this paper, we describe the optical layout of the infrared instrument channels, thin-film multilayer designs, the coating deposition method, and the spectral system throughput for the bandpass interference filters, dichroic beam splitters, lenses, and mirror coatings to discriminate wavelengths at 8.8, 10.8, and 12.0 μm. The rationale for the selection of thin-film materials, spectral measurement technique, and environmental testing performance are also presented. PMID:25402784

  16. Multispectral mid-infrared imaging using frequency upconversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Nicolai; Dam, Jeppe Seidelin; Jensen, Ole Bjarlin; Tidemand-Lichtenberg, Peter; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-03-01

    It has recently been shown that it is possible to upconvert infrared images to the near infrared region with high quantum efficiency and low noise by three-wave mixing with a laser field [1]. If the mixing laser is single-frequency, the upconverted image is simply a band-pass filtered version of the infrared object field, with a bandwidth corresponding given by the acceptance parameter of the conversion process, and a center frequency given by the phase-match condition. Tuning of the phase-matched wavelengths has previously been demonstrated by changing the temperature [2] or angle [3 Keywords: Infrared imaging, nonlinear frequency conversion, diode lasers, upconversion ] of the nonlinear material. Unfortunately, temperature tuning is slow, and angle tuning typically results in alignment issues. Here we present a novel approach where the wavelength of the mixing field is used as a tuning parameter, allowing for fast tuning and hence potentially fast image acquisition, paving the way for upconversion based real time multispectral imaging. In the present realization the upconversion module consists of an external cavity tapered diode laser in a Littrow configuration with a computer controlled feedback grating. The output from a tunable laser is used as seed for a fiber amplifier system, boosting the power to approx. 3 W over the tuning range from 1025 to 1085 nm. Using a periodically poled lithium niobate crystal, the infrared wavelength that can be phase-matched is tunable over more than 200 nm. Using a crystal with multiple poling periods allows for upconversion within the entire transparency range of the nonlinear material.

  17. Pancam Spectral Variations Across Home Plate: Bonestell Panorama, Gusev Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, J. R.; Bell, J. F.; Rice, M. S.; Farrand, W. H.; Schmidt, M. E.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Wang, A.

    2008-12-01

    Visible/near-infrared color variations across the surface of the Home Plate (HP) structure were first observed by the Spirit Pancam multispectral camera using images acquired from the top of Husband Hill on sol 595, ~700m away from HP. Orbital imaging by the HiRISE camera on sol 1325 showed consistent color trends with Pancam in which the western edge of HP was "redder" than the "bluer" eastern portion. This suggested the eastern rim materials of HP are not as contaminated by airfall dust and/or are less oxidized. Pancam spectra of brushed rock targets indicate that western dust-free rock surfaces have higher 535nm band depths (consistent with higher Fe3+/Fe measured by the Mossbauer spectrometer), potentially caused by finely crystalline red hematite. The western rocks also exhibited less negative 601nm band depths than in the east, which could result from lower pyroxene/olivine ratios or the presence of goethite. The spectral variations across HP combined with in situ geochemical data around the rim suggest that the volcanic and/or hydrothermal nature of the HP system resulted in localized, high temperature events on the eastern side, compared to lower temperature alteration on the western side that produced greater amounts of nanophase ferric oxides. This hypothesis is being investigated using 13 band scenes acquired from Spirit's winter location on the northern rim of HP. Pancam began imaging on sol 1477 as part of an extensive mosaic (the "Bonestell Panorama"). Preliminary analyses confirm higher red/blue ratios along the western rim, but also redder regions on the eastern rim not as obvious in Sol 595 images. HiRISE acquired a color image of HP on Sol 1591 that shows less color variability on HP than the sol 1325 image. Dust fallout from the 2007 dust storm (sols 1240 to 1330) may be the cause of these temporal color variations. Additional analysis is required to determine whether surficial dust deposits are the dominant cause of the original color dichotomy

  18. Interpretation of multispectral and infrared thermal surveys of the Suez Canal Zone, Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elshazly, E. M.; Hady, M. A. A. H.; Hafez, M. A. A.; Salman, A. B.; Morsy, M. A.; Elrakaiby, M. M.; Alaassy, I. E. E.; Kamel, A. F.

    1977-01-01

    Remote sensing airborne surveys were conducted, as part of the plan of rehabilitation, of the Suez Canal Zone using I2S multispectral camera and Bendix LN-3 infrared passive scanner. The multispectral camera gives four separate photographs for the same scene in the blue, green, red, and near infrared bands. The scanner was operated in the microwave bands of 8 to 14 microns and the thermal surveying was carried out both at night and in the day time. The surveys, coupled with intensive ground investigations, were utilized in the construction of new geological, structural lineation and drainage maps for the Suez Canal Zone on a scale of approximately 1:20,000, which are superior to the maps made by normal aerial photography. A considerable number of anomalies belonging to various types were revealed through the interpretation of the executed multispectral and infrared thermal surveys.

  19. Pancam Imaging of the Mars Exploration Rover Landing Sites in Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bell, J. F., III; Squyres, S. W.; Arvidson, R. E.; Arneson, H. M.; Bass, D.; Cabrol, N.; Calvin, W.; Farmer, J.; Farrand, W. H.

    2004-01-01

    The Mars Exploration Rovers carry four Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments (two per rover) that have obtained high resolution multispectral and stereoscopic images for studies of the geology, mineralogy, and surface and atmospheric physical properties at both rover landing sites. The Pancams are also providing significant mission support measurements for the rovers, including Sun-finding for rover navigation, hazard identification and digital terrain modeling to help guide long-term rover traverse decisions, high resolution imaging to help guide the selection of in situ sampling targets, and acquisition of education and public outreach imaging products.

  20. Multi-spectral imaging with mid-infrared semiconductor lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yang; Le, Han Q.

    2006-01-01

    Multi-spectral laser imaging can be a useful technology for target discrimination, classification, and identification based on object spectral signatures. The mid-IR region (~3-14 μm) is particularly rich of molecular spectroscopic fingerprints, but the technology has been under utilized. Compact, potentially inexpensive semiconductor lasers may allow more cost-effective applications. This paper describes a development of semiconductor-laser-based multi-spectral imaging for both near-IR and mid-IR, and demonstrates the potential of this technology. The near-IR study employed 7 wavelengths from 0.635-1.55 μm, and used for system engineering evaluation as well as for studying the fundamental aspects of multi-spectral laser imaging. These include issues of wavelength-dependence scattering as a function of incident and receiving angle and the polarization effects. Stokes vector imaging and degree-of-linear-polarization were shown to reveal significant information to characterize the targets. The mid-IR study employed 4 wavelengths from 3.3-9.6 μm, and was applied to diverse targets that consist of natural and man-made materials and household objects. It was shown capable to resolve and distinguish small spectral differences among various targets, thanks to the laser radiometric and spectral accuracy. Colorless objects in the visible were shown with "colorful" signatures in the mid-IR. An essential feature of the study is an advanced system architecture that employs wavelength-division-multiplexed laser beams for high spectral fidelity and resolution. In addition, unlike conventional one-transmitter and one receiver design, the system is based on a scalable CDMA network concept with multiple transmitters and receivers to allow efficient information acquisition. The results suggest that multi-spectral laser imaging in general can be a unique and powerful technology for wide ranging applications.

  1. Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS): An investigator's guide to TIMS data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Palluconi, F. D.; Meeks, G. R.

    1985-01-01

    The Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) is a NASA aircraft scanner providing six channel spectral capability in the thermal infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Operating in the atmospheric window region (8 to 12 micrometers) with a channel sensitivity of approximately 0.1 C, TIMS may be used whenever an accurate measure of the Earth's surface is needed. A description of this scanner is provided as well as a discussion of data acquisition and reduction.

  2. Mapping Hydrated Materials with MER Pancam and MSL Mastcam: Results from Gusev Crater and Meridiani Planum, and Plans for Gale Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, M. S.; Bell, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    We have developed a "hydration signature" for mapping H2O- and/or OH-bearing materials at Mars landing sites using multispectral visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) observations from the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Panoramic Camera (Pancam). Pancam's 13 narrowband geology filters cover 11 unique wavelengths in the visible and near infrared (434 to 1009 nm). The hydration signature is based on a strongly negative slope from 934 to 1009 nm that characterizes the spectra of hydrated silica-rich rocks and soils observed by MER Spirit; this feature is likely due to the 2ν1 + ν3 H2O combination band and/or the 3vOH overtone centered near ~1000 nm, whose positions vary slightly depending on bonding to nearest-neighbor atoms. Here we present the ways we have used this hydration signature, in combination with observations of morphology and texture, to remotely identify candidate hydrated materials in Pancam observations. At Gusev Crater, we find that the hydration signature is widespread along Spirit's traverse in the Columbia Hills, which adds to the growing body of evidence that aqueous alteration has played a significant role in the complex geologic history of this site. At Meridiani Planum, the hydration signature is associated with a specific stratigraphic layer ("Smith") exposed within the walls of Victoria Crater. We also discuss limitations to the use of the hydration signature, which can give false detections under specific viewing geometries. This hydration signature can similarly be used to map hydrated materials at the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) landing site, Gale Crater. The MSL Mast Camera (Mastcam) is a two-instrument suite of fixed-focal length (FFL) cameras, one with a 15-degree field of view (FOV) and the other with a 5.1-degree FOV. Mastcam's narrowband filters cover 9 unique wavelengths in the visible and near-infrared (band centers near 440, 525, 675, 750, 800, 865, 905, 935, and 1035 nm), and are distributed between the two FFL cameras. Full

  3. Land surface temperature retrieved from airborne multispectral scanner mid-infrared and thermal-infrared data.

    PubMed

    Qian, Yong-Gang; Wang, Ning; Ma, Ling-Ling; Liu, Yao-Kai; Wu, Hua; Tang, Bo-Hui; Tang, Ling-Li; Li, Chuan-Rong

    2016-01-25

    Land surface temperature (LST) is one of the key parameters in the physics of land surface processes at local/global scales. In this paper, a LST retrieval method was proposed from airborne multispectral scanner data comparing one mid-infrared (MIR) channel and one thermal infrared (TIR) channel with the land surface emissivity given as a priori knowledge. To remove the influence of the direct solar radiance efficiently, a relationship between the direct solar radiance and water vapor content and the view zenith angle and solar zenith angle was established. Then, LST could be retrieved with a split-window algorithm from MIR/TIR data. Finally, the proposed algorithm was applied to the actual airborne flight data and validated with in situ measurements of land surface types in the Baotou site in China on 17 October 2014. The results demonstrate that the difference between the retrieved and in situ LST was less than 1.5 K. The bais, RMSE, and standard deviation of the retrieved LST were 0.156 K, 0.883 K, and 0.869 K, respectively, for samples. PMID:26832579

  4. Spectrophotometric properties of materials observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 1. Spirit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Grundy, W.M.; Lemmon, M.T.; Bell, J.F., III; Johnson, M.J.; Deen, R.G.; Arvidson, R. E.; Farrand, W. H.; Guinness, E.A.; Hayes, A.G.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Seelos, F., IV; Soderblom, J.; Squyres, S.

    2006-01-01

    Multispectral observations of rocks and soils were acquired under varying illumination and viewing geometries in visible/near-infrared wavelengths by the Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Spirit Mars Exploration Rover to provide constraints on the physical and mineralogical nature of geologic materials in Gusev Crater. Data sets were acquired at six sites located near the landing site, in the surrounding plains, and in the West Spur and Husband Hill regions of the Columbia Hills. From these ???600 images, over 10,000 regions of interest were selected of rocks and soils over a wide range of phase angles (0-130??). Corrections for diffuse skylight incorporated sky models based on observations of atmospheric opacity throughout the mission. Disparity maps created from Pancam stereo images allowed inclusion of estimates of local facet orientations in the sky models. Single-term and two-term phase functions derived from Hapke scattering models exhibit a dominantly broad backscattering trend for soils and "Red" rocks inferred to be covered with variable amounts of dust and other coatings, consistent with the results from the Viking Lander and Imager for Mars Pathfinder cameras. Darker "Gray" rock surfaces (inferred to be relatively less dust covered) display more narrow, forward scattering behaviors, consistent with particles exhibiting little internal scattering. Gray and Red rocks are macroscopically rougher than most soil units, although a "dust-cleaning" event observed near the Paso Robles site caused an increase in soil surface roughness in addition to a substantial decrease in surface single scattering albedo. Gray rocks near the rim of Bonneville Crater exhibit the largest macroscopic roughness (????) among all units, as well as the greatest backscattering among Gray rocks. Photometric properties of coated Red rocks vary in the West Spur region, possibly as a result of weathering differences related to elevation-dependent aeolian regimes. Copyright 2006 by the

  5. Spectrophotometric properties of materials observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 2. Opportunity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, J. R.; Grundy, W.M.; Lemmon, M.T.; Bell, J.F., III; Johnson, M.J.; Deen, R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Farrand, W. H.; Guinness, E.; Hayes, A.G.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Seelos, F.; Soderblom, J.; Squyres, S.

    2006-01-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity acquired visible/near-infrared multispectral observations of soils and rocks under varying viewing and illumination geometries that were modeled using radiative transfer theory to improve interpretations of the microphysical and surface scattering nature of materials in Meridiani Planum. Nearly 25,000 individual measurements were collected of rock and soil units identified by their color and morphologic properties over a wide range of phase angles (0-150??) at Eagle crater, in the surrounding plains, in Endurance crater, and in the plains between Endurance and Erebus craters through Sol 492. Corrections for diffuse skylight incorporated sky models based on observations of atmospheric opacity throughout the mission. Disparity maps created from Pancam stereo images allowed inclusion of local facet orientation estimates. Outcrop rocks overall exhibited the highest single scattering albedos (???0.9 at 753 nm), and most spherule-rich soils exhibited the lowest (???0.6 at 753 nm). Macroscopic roughness among outcrop rocks varied but was typically larger than spherule-rich soils. Data sets with sufficient phase angle coverage (resulting in well-constrained Hapke parameters) suggested that models using single-term and two-term Henyey-Greenstein phase functions exhibit a dominantly broad backscattering trend for most undisturbed spherule-rich soils. Rover tracks and other compressed soils exhibited forward scattering, while outcrop rocks were intermediate in their scattering behaviors. Some phase functions exhibited wavelength-dependent trends that may result from variations in thin deposits of airfall dust that occurred during the mission. Copyright 2006 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode.

    PubMed

    Kim, Do Young; Lai, Tzung-Han; Lee, Jae Woong; Manders, Jesse R; So, Franky

    2014-01-01

    Commercially available near-infrared (IR) imagers are fabricated by integrating expensive epitaxial grown III-V compound semiconductor sensors with Si-based readout integrated circuits (ROIC) by indium bump bonding which significantly increases the fabrication costs of these image sensors. Furthermore, these typical III-V compound semiconductors are not sensitive to the visible region and thus cannot be used for multi-spectral (visible to near-IR) sensing. Here, a low cost infrared (IR) imaging camera is demonstrated with a commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IR sensitive organic light emitting diode (IR-OLED). With an IR-OLED, IR images at a wavelength of 1.2 µm are directly converted to visible images which are then recorded in a Si-CMOS DSLR camera. This multi-spectral imaging system is capable of capturing images at wavelengths in the near-infrared as well as visible regions. PMID:25091589

  7. Multi-spectral imaging with infrared sensitive organic light emitting diode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Do Young; Lai, Tzung-Han; Lee, Jae Woong; Manders, Jesse R.; So, Franky

    2014-08-01

    Commercially available near-infrared (IR) imagers are fabricated by integrating expensive epitaxial grown III-V compound semiconductor sensors with Si-based readout integrated circuits (ROIC) by indium bump bonding which significantly increases the fabrication costs of these image sensors. Furthermore, these typical III-V compound semiconductors are not sensitive to the visible region and thus cannot be used for multi-spectral (visible to near-IR) sensing. Here, a low cost infrared (IR) imaging camera is demonstrated with a commercially available digital single-lens reflex (DSLR) camera and an IR sensitive organic light emitting diode (IR-OLED). With an IR-OLED, IR images at a wavelength of 1.2 µm are directly converted to visible images which are then recorded in a Si-CMOS DSLR camera. This multi-spectral imaging system is capable of capturing images at wavelengths in the near-infrared as well as visible regions.

  8. Overhead Detection of Underground Nuclear Explosions by Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henderson, John R.; Smith, Milton O.; Zelinski, Michael E.

    2014-03-01

    The Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty allows for Multi-Spectral and Infrared Imaging from an aircraft and on the ground to help reduce the search area for an underground nuclear explosion from the initial 1,000 km2. Satellite data, primarily from Landsat, have been used as a surrogate for aircraft data to investigate whether there are any multi-spectral features associated with the nuclear tests in Pakistan, India or North Korea. It is shown that there are multi-spectral observables on the ground that can be associated with the nominal surface ground zero for at least some of these explosions, and that these are likely to be found by measurements allowed by the treaty.

  9. In-Flight Wavelength Calibration of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) Data Acquired from the ER-2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, S.; Okada, K.

    1994-01-01

    In 1991 one flightline of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data was acquired over Castaic Lake, California and in 1992 four flightlines of TIMS data were acquired over Death Valley, California.

  10. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Hon, Ken; Kahle, Anne B.; Abbott, Elsa A.; Pieri, David C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10 C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows.

  11. A Switchable Mid-Infrared Plasmonic Perfect Absorber with Multispectral Thermal Imaging Capability.

    PubMed

    Tittl, Andreas; Michel, Ann-Katrin U; Schäferling, Martin; Yin, Xinghui; Gholipour, Behrad; Cui, Long; Wuttig, Matthias; Taubner, Thomas; Neubrech, Frank; Giessen, Harald

    2015-08-19

    A switchable perfect absorber with multispectral thermal imaging capability is presented. Aluminum nanoantenna arrays above a germanium antimony telluride (GST) spacer layer and aluminum mirror provide efficient wavelength-tunable absorption in the mid-infrared. Utilizing the amorphous-to-crystalline phase transition in GST, this device offers switchable absorption with strong reflectance contrast at resonance and large phase-change-induced spectral shifts. PMID:26173394

  12. Joint spatio-spectral based edge detection for multispectral infrared imagery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krishna, Sanjay; Hayat, Majeed M.; Bender, Steven C.; Sharma, Yagya D.; Jang, Woo-Yong; Paskalva, Biliana S.

    2010-06-01

    Image segmentation is one of the most important and difficult tasks in digital image processing. It represents a key stage of automated image analysis and interpretation. Segmentation algorithms for gray-scale images utilize basic properties of intensity values such as discontinuity and similarity. However, it is possible to enhance edge-detection capability by means of using spectral information provided by multispectral (MS) or hyperspectral (HS) imagery. In this paper we consider image segmentation algorithms for multispectral images with particular emphasis on detection of multi-color or multispectral edges. More specifically, we report on an algorithm for joint spatio-spectral (JSS) edge detection. By joint we mean simultaneous utilization of spatial and spectral characteristics of a given MS or HS image. The JSS-based edge-detection approach, termed Spectral Ratio Contrast (SRC) edge-detection algorithm, utilizes the novel concept of matching edge signatures. The edge signature represents a combination of spectral ratios calculated using bands that enhance the spectral contrast between the two materials. In conjunction with a spatial mask, the edge signature give rise to a multispectral operator that can be viewed as a three-dimensional extension of the mask. In the extended mask, the third (spectral) dimension of each hyper-pixel can be chosen independently. The SRC is verified using MS and HS imagery from a quantum-dot in a well infrared (IR) focal plane array, and the Airborne Hyperspectral Imager.

  13. Design study for Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanich, C. G.; Osterwisch, F. G.; Szeles, D. M.; Houtman, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The feasibility of dividing the 8-12 micrometer thermal infrared wavelength region into six spectral bands by an airborne line scanner system was investigated. By combining an existing scanner design with a 6 band spectrometer, a system for the remote sensing of Earth resources was developed. The elements in the spectrometer include an off axis reflective collimator, a reflective diffraction grating, a triplet germanium imaging lens, a photoconductive mercury cadmium telluride sensor array, and the mechanical assembly to hold these parts and maintain their optical alignment across a broad temperature range. The existing scanner design was modified to accept the new spectrometer and two field filling thermal reference sources.

  14. Multispectral uncooled infrared enhanced-vision system for flight test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiana, Carlo L.; Kerr, Richard; Harrah, Steven D.

    2001-08-01

    The 1997 Final Report of the 'White House Commission on Aviation Safety and Security' challenged industrial and government concerns to reduce aviation accident rates by a factor of five within 10 years. In the report, the commission encourages NASA, FAA and others 'to expand their cooperative efforts in aviation safety research and development'. As a result of this publication, NASA has since undertaken a number of initiatives aimed at meeting the stated goal. Among these, the NASA Aviation Safety Program was initiated to encourage and assist in the development of technologies for the improvement of aviation safety. Among the technologies being considered are certain sensor technologies that may enable commercial and general aviation pilots to 'see to land' at night or in poor visibility conditions. Infrared sensors have potential applicability in this field, and this paper describes a system, based on such sensors, that is being deployed on the NASA Langley Research Center B757 ARIES research aircraft. The system includes two infrared sensors operating in different spectral bands, and a visible-band color CCD camera for documentation purposes. The sensors are mounted in an aerodynamic package in a forward position on the underside of the aircraft. Support equipment in the aircraft cabin collects and processes all relevant sensor data. Display of sensor images is achieved in real time on the aircraft's Head Up Display (HUD), or other display devices.

  15. Application of combined Landsat thematic mapper and airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner data to lithologic mapping in Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Podwysocki, M.H.; Ehmann, W.J.; Brickey, D.W.

    1987-01-01

    Future Landsat satellites are to include the Thematic Mapper (TM) and also may incorporate additional multispectral scanners. One such scanner being considered for geologic and other applications is a four-channel thermal-infrared multispectral scanner having 60-m spatial resolution. This paper discusses the results of studies using combined Landsat TM and airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for lithologic discrimination, identification, and geologic mapping in two areas within the Basin and Range province of Nevada. Field and laboratory reflectance spectra in the visible and reflective-infrared and laboratory spectra in the thermal-infrared parts of the spectrum were used to verify distinctions made between rock types in the image data sets.

  16. Patterning of visible/infrared dual-band microstrip filter arrays for multispectral imaging application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lai, Jian-Jun; Liang, Hua-Feng; Zhou, Zhi-Ping; Fang, Guo-Jia; Li, Li

    2009-08-01

    Visible/infrared dual-band microstrip filter arrays have been developed to be integrated with 512 × 512 PtSi CCD imaging sensor chips for multispectral imaging when it operates in the front-illumination mode. A high visible transmittance and high infrared reflectance ZAO (ZnO:Al) based coating for visible passband and an interference absorbing filter film for a mid-infrared passband have been designed and deposited on sapphire substrates. An effective double-layer lift-off technique that is compatible with high temperature deposition has been developed to create thick microstrip infrared film. The infrared passband film using germanium and yttrium fluoride as high and low refractive indices materials have been deposited by ion-beam-assisted electron beam evaporation. Tested optical performance results reveal that the visible and near-infrared transmittance of the infrared passband film is very low, which makes it ideal for mid-infrared imaging. Environmental durability testing shows that the microstrip arrays have good mechanical and thermal performances for practical applications.

  17. Mapping Hydration with the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam Instruments: Recent Results from Opportunity at Endeavour Crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Melissa S.; Bell, James F., III; Arvidson, Raymond E.; Farrand, William H.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Rice, James W.; Ruff, Steven W.; Squyres, Steven W.; Wang, Alian

    2013-04-01

    Using the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments, we have developed a "hydration signature" for mapping H2O- and/or OH-bearing materials at Mars landing sites with multispectral visible to near-infrared (Vis-NIR) images. Pancam's 13 narrowband geology filters cover 11 unique wavelengths in the visible and near infrared (434 to 1009 nm) [1-2]. The hydration signature is based on a negative slope from 934 to 1009 nm [3] that characterizes the spectra of hydrated silica-rich rocks and soils observed by MER Spirit; this feature is likely due to the 2ν1 + ν3 H2O combination band and/or the 3νOH overtone centered near ~1000 nm, whose positions vary slightly depending on bonding to nearest-neighbor atoms [4]. The hydration signature is sensitive to many - but not all - hydrated minerals, including silica, gypsum and water ice. At Gusev Crater, the hydration signature is widespread along Spirit's traverse in the Columbia Hills, which adds to the growing body of evidence that aqueous alteration has played a significant role in the complex geologic history of this site [4]. At Meridiani Planum, the hydration signature is associated with a specific stratigraphic layer ("Smith") exposed within the walls of Victoria Crater [5], in addition to light-toned veins composed of calcium sulfate at Cape York on the rim of Endeavour Crater [6]. Recently, Opportunity has completed a traverse loop at Matijevic Hill at the southern end of Cape York and has encountered numerous small, light-toned, fracture-filling veins that may be indicative of fluid flow. Spectra of these veins are also consistent with hydrated materials, as are spectra of "Whitewater Lake" outcrops at Matijevic Hill, which may contain phyllosilicate minerals [7-8]. Here we also discuss limitations to the use of the hydration signature, which can give false detections under specific viewing geometries. For example, the Pancam calibration model assumes that the calibration target behaves as a

  18. Visible and infrared multispectral illumination concept based on Galilean collimation systems: IACATS illumination source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Zapata, Gonzalo; Belenguer Dávila, Tomás; Pastor Santos, Carmen; Restrepo Gómez, René; González Alvarado, Concepción; Laguna Hernández, Hugo; Astolfi Carbonell, Antonio; Moreno Raso, Javier; Argelaguet, Heribert; Serrano, Javier

    2010-07-01

    A LED based illumination system in which five Galilean collimation systems have been used is reported on. It is part of a turbulence simulator for the evaluation of on ground telescopes instrumentation developed by INTA (optics) and LIDAX (opto-mechanics) for the IAC called IACATS. The illumination requirements (some visible and infrared lines) allow the use of five different LEDs (red, green, blue and two infrareds). In order to optimize the illumination level of each wavelength, a Galilean collimating optical configuration was constructed for each wavelength channel. The IACATS instrument simulates a scene consisting of a set of different binary stars simulating the required angular separation between them, ant their spectral characteristics. As a result, a visible and infrared multi-spectral illumination system has been integrated as a part of the turbulence simulator, and the features (opto-mechanical) and illumination characteristics are described in the following lines.

  19. Lunar PanCam: Adapting ExoMars PanCam for the ESA Lunar Lander

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coates, A. J.; Griffiths, A. D.; Leff, C. E.; Schmitz, N.; Barnes, D. P.; Josset, J.-L.; Hancock, B. K.; Cousins, C. R.; Jaumann, R.; Crawford, I. A.; Paar, G.; Bauer, A.; the PanCam Team

    2012-12-01

    A scientific camera system would provide valuable geological context from the surface for lunar lander missions. Here, we describe the PanCam instrument from the ESA ExoMars rover and its possible adaptation for the proposed ESA lunar lander. The scientific objectives of the ESA ExoMars rover are designed to answer several key questions in the search for life on Mars. The ExoMars PanCam instrument will set the geological and morphological context for that mission. We describe the PanCam scientific objectives in geology, and atmospheric science, and 3D vision objectives. We also describe the design of PanCam, which includes a stereo pair of Wide Angle Cameras (WACs), each of which has a filter wheel, and a High Resolution Camera for close up investigations. The cameras are housed in an optical bench (OB) and electrical interface is provided via the PanCam Interface Unit (PIU). Additional hardware items include a PanCam Calibration Target (PCT). We also briefly discuss some PanCam testing during field trials. In addition, we examine how such a 'Lunar PanCam' could be adapted for use on the Lunar surface on the proposed ESA lunar lander.

  20. The ExoMars PanCam Instrument

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffiths, Andrew; Coates, Andrew; Muller, Jan-Peter; Jaumann, Ralf; Josset, Jean-Luc; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, David

    2010-05-01

    The ExoMars mission has evolved into a joint European-US mission to deliver a trace gas orbiter and a pair of rovers to Mars in 2016 and 2018 respectively. The European rover will carry the Pasteur exobiology payload including the 1.56 kg Panoramic Camera. PanCam will provide multispectral stereo images with 34 deg horizontal field-of-view (580 microrad/pixel) Wide-Angle Cameras (WAC) and (83 microrad/pixel) colour monoscopic "zoom" images with 5 deg horizontal field-of-view High Resolution Camera (HRC). The stereo Wide Angle Cameras (WAC) are based on Beagle 2 Stereo Camera System heritage [1]. Integrated with the WACs and HRC into the PanCam optical bench (which helps the instrument meet its planetary protection requirements) is the PanCam interface unit (PIU); which provides image storage, a Spacewire interface to the rover and DC-DC power conversion. The Panoramic Camera instrument is designed to fulfil the digital terrain mapping requirements of the mission [2] as well as providing multispectral geological imaging, colour and stereo panoramic images and solar images for water vapour abundance and dust optical depth measurements. The High Resolution Camera (HRC) can be used for high resolution imaging of interesting targets detected in the WAC panoramas and of inaccessible locations on crater or valley walls. Additionally HRC will be used to observe retrieved subsurface samples before ingestion into the rest of the Pasteur payload. In short, PanCam provides the overview and context for the ExoMars experiment locations, required to enable the exobiology aims of the mission. In addition to these baseline capabilities further enhancements are possible to PanCam to enhance it's effectiveness for astrobiology and planetary exploration: 1. Rover Inspection Mirror (RIM) 2. Organics Detection by Fluorescence Excitation (ODFE) LEDs [3-6] 3. UVIS broadband UV Flux and Opacity Determination (UVFOD) photodiode This paper will discuss the scientific objectives and resource

  1. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of the 1 October 1988 Kupaianaha flow field, Kilauea volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Realmuto, V.J.; Hon, K.; Kahle, A.B.; Abbott, E.A.; Pieri, D.C.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral thermal infrared radiance measurements of the Kupaianaha flow field were acquired with the NASA airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) on the morning of 1 October 1988. The TIMS data were used to map both the temperature and emissivity of the surface of the flow field. The temperature map depicted the underground storage and transport of lava. The presence of molten lava in a tube or tumulus resulted in surface temperatures that were at least 10?? C above ambient. The temperature map also clearly defined the boundaries of hydrothermal plumes which resulted from the entry of lava into the ocean. The emissivity map revealed the boundaries between individual flow units within the Kupaianaha field. In general, the emissivity of the flows varied systematically with age but the relationship between age and emissivity was not unique. Distinct spectral anomalies, indicative of silica-rich surface materials, were mapped near fumaroles and ocean entry sites. This apparent enrichment in silica may have resulted from an acid-induced leaching of cations from the surfaces of glassy flows. Such incipient alteration may have been the cause for virtually all of the emissivity variations observed on the flow field, the spectral anomalies representing areas where the acid attack was most intense. ?? 1992 Springer-Verlag.

  2. A multispectral study of an extratropical cyclone with Nimbus 3 medium resolution infrared radiometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holub, R.; Shenk, W. E.

    1973-01-01

    Four registered channels (0.2 to 4, 6.5 to 7, 10 to 11, and 20 to 23 microns) of the Nimbus 3 Medium Resolution Infrared Radiometer (MRIR) were used to study 24-hr changes in the structure of an extratropical cyclone during a 6-day period in May 1969. Use of a stereographic-horizon map projection insured that the storm was mapped with a single perspective throughout the series and allowed the convenient preparation of 24-hr difference maps of the infrared radiation fields. Single-channel and multispectral analysis techniques were employed to establish the positions and vertical slopes of jetstreams, large cloud systems, and major features of middle and upper tropospheric circulation. Use of these techniques plus the difference maps and continuity of observation allowed the early detection of secondary cyclones developing within the circulation of the primary cyclone. An automated, multispectral cloud-type identification technique was developed, and comparisons that were made with conventional ship reports and with high-resolution visual data from the image dissector camera system showed good agreement.

  3. INTERPRETATION OF THERMAL-INFRARED MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER IMAGES OF THE OSGOOD MOUNTAINS, NEVADA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1984-01-01

    Data from the Thermal-Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) were collected over the Osgood Mountains in northern Nevada midmorning on 27 August 1983. The area includes gold-producing properties of the Getchell Mine, the Prinson Mine, and a prospect being developed near Preble, Nevada. Tungsten-bearing tactite deposits, barite deposits, and some minor lead-zinc deposits are also present. The area was surveyed to determine if multichannel, mid-infrared data could detect the effects of hydrothermal alteration in the sediment-hosted disseminated gold deposits. Because the gold in the deposits is generally microscopic and the effects of alteration are difficult to observe, the deposits present a difficult challenge for geological remote sensing.

  4. Monitoring vegetation cover changes over a semi-arid rangeland with multispectral ASTER thermal infrared emissivities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    French, A. N.; Schmugge, T.; Ritchie, J.; Hsu, A.; Jacob, F.; Ogawa, K.; Inamdar, A.

    2006-12-01

    Observations of land surface temperatures with thermal infrared are an important and crucial application of satellite remote sensing that the value of multispectral thermal infrared emissivities, a measurement component, may be overlooked. Spectral emissivities, retrievable from sensors such as ASTER and MODIS provide indispensable data for more accurate land surface temperature estimates and characterization of land surface cover. This study addresses the latter issue, whereby long-term changes in vegetation canopy densities can be detected in a way independent of more conventional vegetation indices such as NDVI. Thermal emissivities are dependent upon the surface geometry and are especially variable over sparse vegetation. When viewing such terrain, emissivities range in values from 0.8-0.9 represent dry soils and up to 0.98-0.99 represent vegetation. Using ASTER's 90 m multispectral thermal infrared capability, a sequence of 21 scenes were acquired for 2001-2003 over the New Mexico semi-arid rangeland, Jornada. These were calibrated, atmospherically corrected, georegistered, then converted to spectral and broadband emissivities. Analysis of the scenes reveals spatially coherent patches of grass and shrubland showing decreasing emissivities on the order of 1% per 3 years. The observed patterns could be due to long-term soil surface texture or moisture changes, but a more likely explanation is decreased vegetation density. A significant benefit of emissivity monitoring, particularly at 8-9.5 μm wavelengths, is its independence from vegetation greenness, which means thermal infrared assessments can be a useful canopy density estimator year-round. When used in conjunction with NDVI, thermal data can help discriminate soils from both green and senescent vegetation.

  5. Mapping playa evaporite minerals and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, with multispectral thermal infrared images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crowley, J.K.; Hook, S.J.

    1996-01-01

    Efflorescent salt crusts and associated sediments in Death Valley, California, were studied with remote-sensing data acquired by the NASA thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS). Nine spectral classes that represent a variety of surface materials were distinguished, including several classes that reflect important aspects of the playa groundwater chemistry and hydrology. Evaporite crusts containing abundant thenardite (sodium sulfate) were mapped along the northern and eastern margins of the Cottonball Basin, areas where the inflow waters are rich in sodium. Gypsum (calcium sulfate) crusts were more common in the Badwater Basin, particularly near springs associated with calcic groundwaters along the western basin margin. Evaporite-rich crusts generally marked areas where groundwater is periodically near the surface and thus able to replenish the crusts though capillary evaporation. Detrital silicate minerals were prevalent in other parts of the salt pan where shallow groundwater does not affect the surface composition. The surface features in Death Valley change in response to climatic variations on several different timescales. For example, salt crusts on low-lying mudflats form and redissolve during seasonal-to-interannual cycles of wetting and desiccation. In contrast, recent flooding and erosion of rough-salt surfaces in Death Valley probably reflect increased regional precipitation spanning several decades. Remote-sensing observations of playas can provide a means for monitoring changes in evaporite facies and for better understanding the associated climatic processes. At present, such studies are limited by the availability of suitable airborne scanner data. However, with the launch of the Earth Observing System (EOS) AM-1 Platform in 1998, multispectral visible/near-infrared and thermal infrared remote-sensing data will become globally available. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  6. Mineral Classification of the Martian Surface Using THEMIS Multi-Spectral Infrared Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterloo, M. M.; Brumby, S. P.; Funsten, H. O.; Feldman, W. C.

    2004-12-01

    Recent advancements in multi-spectral imaging and image analysis techniques have greatly enhanced our ability to do planetary research. Much has been discovered about Mars through recent missions such as Mars Global Surveyor, 2001 Mars Odyssey, and the Mars Exploration Rovers. The Thermal Emission Spectrometer on board the Mars Global Surveyor has allowed the mapping of surface mineralogies on Mars at several kilometers scale through hyperspectral imaging [1]. Here, we use the high resolution multi-spectral imagery of THEMIS (THermal Emission Imaging System) on board the 2001 Mars Odyssey to identify different mineral classes at spatial scales of hundreds of meters. THEMIS contains two independent multi-spectral imaging systems: a 10-band thermal infrared imager (IR) with a resolution of 100m/pixel, and a 5-band visible imager with a resolution of 10m/pixel. Here we will use the IR data. The 9 IR bands are centered from 6.8 microns to 14 .9 microns [2]. Using Arizona State University's online spectral library[3], we have been investigating the extent to which we can differentiate between different mineral classes. By identifying certain mineral classes we can better understand the geologic processes which created them and detect areas of interest for further study. Linear mixing of minerals and dust is investigated to estimate ratios of minerals and their resulting spectra. We then compare these spectra to observations of several regions on Mars. We compare these results with TES data and previous mineralogical maps. [1] Christensen et al, (2001) JGR 106, E10; [2] Christensen et al, (2002) Space Science Reviews 110, 1; [3] Christensen et al, (2000) JGR 105, E4

  7. Optical assembly of a visible through thermal infrared multispectral imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Henson, T.; Bender, S.; Byrd, D.; Rappoport, W.; Shen, G.Y.

    1998-06-01

    The Optical Assembly (OA) for the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI) program has been fabricated, assembled, and successfully tested for its performance. It represents a major milestone achieved towards completion of this earth observing E-O imaging sensor that is to be operated in low earth orbit. Along with its wide-field-of-view (WFOV), 1.82{degree} along-track and 1.38{degree} cross-track, and comprehensive on-board calibration system, the pushbroom imaging sensor employs a single mechanically cooled focal plane with 15 spectral bands covering a wavelength range from 0.45 to 10.7 {micro}m. The OA has an off-axis three-mirror anastigmatic (TMA) telescope with a 36-cm unobscured clear aperture. The two key performance criteria, 80% enpixeled energy in the visible and radiometric stability of 1% 1{sigma} in the visible/near-infrared (VNIR) and short wavelength infrared (SWIR), of 1.45% 1{sigma} in the medium wavelength infrared (MWIR), and of 0.53% 1{sigma} long wavelength infrared (LWIR), as well as its low weight (less than 49 kg) and volume constraint (89 cm x 44 cm x 127 cm) drive the overall design configuration of the OA and fabrication requirements.

  8. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Mapping of Sulfur Dioxide Plumes: A Case Study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, V. J.; Sutton, A. J.; Elias, T.

    1996-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well-suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS).

  9. Quantitative evaluation of water bodies dynamic by means of thermal infrared and multispectral surveys on the Venetian lagoon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberotanza, L.; Lechi, G. M.

    1977-01-01

    Surveys employing a two channel Daedalus infrared scanner and multispectral photography were performed. The spring waning tide, the velocity of the water mass, and the types of suspended matter were among the topics studied. Temperature, salinity, sediment transport, and ebb stream velocity were recorded. The bottom topography was correlated with the dynamic characteristics of the sea surface.

  10. Multi-spectral materials: hybridisation of optical plasmonic filters, a mid infrared metamaterial absorber and a terahertz metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, James; McCrindle, Iain J H; Cumming, David R S

    2016-02-22

    Multi-spectral imaging systems typically require the cumbersome integration of disparate filtering materials and detectors in order to operate simultaneously in multiple spectral regions. Each distinct waveband must be detected at different spatial locations on a single chip or by separate chips optimised for each band. Here, we report on a single component that optically multiplexes visible, Mid Infrared (4.5 μm) and Terahertz (126 μm) radiation thereby maximising the spectral information density. We hybridise plasmonic and metamaterial structures to form a device capable of simultaneously filtering 15 visible wavelengths and absorbing Mid Infrared and Terahertz. Our synthetic multi-spectral component could be integrated with silicon complementary metal-oxide semiconductor technology where Si photodiodes are available to detect the visible radiation and micro-bolometers available to detect the Infrared/Terahertz and render an inexpensive, mass-producible camera capable of forming coaxial visible, Infrared and Terahertz images. PMID:26907004

  11. Optical design of multi-spectral optical system for infrared camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Tianjin

    2015-08-01

    This paper studies about the multi-spectral imaging system and describes the design of dual-channel mirror-lens optical system with wide-field for multi-spectral sensor. Combined with the secondary imaging technology, it achieves the one hundred percent cold stop efficiency. Off-axis three-mirror reflective optics is adopted to provide an obstructive field of view and high spatial resolution over the wide-field, which is also shared by two channels. Independent relay lens are employed not only to extract the real exit-pupil matched with the cold shield, but also adjust the multiplication factors for infrared. The dichroic mirror and filters subdivide the wide spectral range into four bands, including mid-wavelength band and long-wavelength band. Each corresponds to respective field. The result shows that the Modulation Transfer Function of each band at respective fields is near the diffraction limit, which satisfies the needs of practical applications. The wavefront of the off-axis three-mirror reflective optics is also satisfactory, which is beneficial to the later alignment and measurement.

  12. Histological validation of near-infrared reflectance multispectral imaging technique for caries detection and quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salsone, Silvia; Taylor, Andrew; Gomez, Juliana; Pretty, Iain; Ellwood, Roger; Dickinson, Mark; Lombardo, Giuseppe; Zakian, Christian

    2012-07-01

    Near infrared (NIR) multispectral imaging is a novel noninvasive technique that maps and quantifies dental caries. The technique has the ability to reduce the confounding effect of stain present on teeth. The aim of this study was to develop and validate a quantitative NIR multispectral imaging system for caries detection and assessment against a histological reference standard. The proposed technique is based on spectral imaging at specific wavelengths in the range from 1000 to 1700 nm. A total of 112 extracted teeth (molars and premolars) were used and images of occlusal surfaces at different wavelengths were acquired. Three spectral reflectance images were combined to generate a quantitative lesion map of the tooth. The maximum value of the map at the corresponding histological section was used as the NIR caries score. The NIR caries score significantly correlated with the histological reference standard (Spearman's Coefficient=0.774, p<0.01). Caries detection sensitivities and specificities of 72% and 91% for sound areas, 36% and 79% for lesions on the enamel, and 82% and 69% for lesions in dentin were found. These results suggest that NIR spectral imaging is a novel and promising method for the detection, quantification, and mapping of dental caries.

  13. Quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral imaging with three wavelengths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagao, Ryo; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2014-03-01

    Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of critical ischemic disease. The risk of critical event is involved the content of lipid in unstable plaque. Near-infrared (NIR) range is effective for diagnosis of atherosclerotic plaque because of the absorption peaks of lipid. NIR multispectral imaging (NIR-MSI) is suitable for the evaluation of plaque because it can provide spectroscopic information and spatial image quickly with a simple measurement system. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the lipid concentrations in plaque phantoms quantitatively with a NIR-MSI system. A NIR-MSI system was constructed with a supercontinuum light, a grating spectrometer and a MCT camera. Plaque phantoms with different concentrations of lipid were prepared by mixing bovine fat and a biological soft tissue model to mimic the different stages of unstable plaque. We evaluated the phantoms by the NIR-MSI system with three wavelengths in the band at 1200 nm. Multispectral images were processed by spectral angle mapper method. As a result, the lipid areas of phantoms were effectively highlighted by using three wavelengths. In addition, the concentrations of lipid areas were classified according to the similarity between measured spectra and a reference spectrum. These results suggested the possibility of image enhancement and quantitative evaluation of lipid in unstable plaque with a NIR-MSI.

  14. Reciprocity testing of Kodak film type SO-289 multispectral infrared aerial film

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lockwood, H. E.

    1975-01-01

    Kodak multispectral infrared aerial film type SO-289 was tested for reciprocity characteristics because of the variance between the I-B sensitometer exposure times (8 seconds and 4 seconds) and the camera exposure time (1/500 second) used on the ASTP stratospheric aerosol measurement project. Test exposures were made on the flight emulsion using a Mead star system sensitometer, the films were processed to ASTP control standards, and the resulting densities read and reciprocity data calculated. It was found that less exposure was required to produce a typical density (1.3) at 1/500 second exposure time than at an 8 second exposure time. This exposure factor was 2.8.

  15. A scan-angle correction for thermal infrared multispectral data using side lapping images

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.

    1996-01-01

    Thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) images, acquired with side lapping flight lines, provide dual angle observations of the same area on the ground and can thus be used to estimate variations in the atmospheric transmission with scan angle. The method was tested using TIMS aircraft data for six flight lines with about 30% sidelap for an area within Joshua Tree National Park, California. Generally the results correspond to predictions for the transmission scan-angle coefficient based on a standard atmospheric model although some differences were observed at the longer wavelength channels. A change was detected for the last pair of lines that may indicate either spatial or temporal atmospheric variation. The results demonstrate that the method provides information for correcting regional survey data (requiring multiple adjacent flight lines) that can be important in detecting subtle changes in lithology.

  16. Mapping the Piute Mountains, CA with Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, S. J.; Karlstrom, K. E.; Miller, C. F.; McCaffrey, K. J. W.

    1993-01-01

    Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data were acquired in 1990 over the PiuteMountains, California to evaluate their usefulness for lithologic mapping in an area ofmetamorphosed, structurally complex, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The data were calibrated,atmospherically corrected, and emissivity variations extracted from them. There was an excellentvisual correlation between the units revealed in the TIMS data and the recent mapping in the easternside of the area. It was also possible to correct, improve and extend the recent map. For example,several areas of amphibolite were identified in the TIMS data that had been incorrectly mapped asgranodioritic gneiss, and the presence of a swarm of mafic dikes, of which only a few had previouslybeen identified, was revealed...

  17. Multispectral imaging in the extended near-infrared window based on endogenous chromophores

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Qian; Zhegalova, Natalia G.; Wang, Steven T.; Akers, Walter J.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract. To minimize the problem with scattering in deep tissues while increasing the penetration depth, we explored the feasibility of imaging in the relatively unexplored extended near infrared (exNIR) spectral region at 900 to 1400 nm with endogenous chromophores. This region, also known as the second NIR window, is weakly dominated by absorption from water and lipids and is free from other endogenous chromophores with virtually no autofluorescence. To demonstrate the applicability of the exNIR for bioimaging, we analyzed the optical properties of individual components and biological tissues using an InGaAs spectrophotometer and a multispectral InGaAs scanning imager featuring transmission geometry. Based on the differences in spectral properties of tissues, we utilized ratiometric approaches to extract spectral characteristics from the acquired three-dimensional “datacube”. The obtained images of an exNIR transmission through a mouse head revealed sufficient details consistent with anatomical structures. PMID:23933967

  18. A Near-Infrared (NIR) Global Multispectral Map of the Moon from Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, E. M.; Lee, E. M.; Becker, T. L.; Weller, L. A.; Isbell, C. E.; Staid, M. I.; Gaddis, L. R.; McEwen, A. S.; Robinson, M. S.; Duxbury, T.

    2003-01-01

    In May and June of 1994, the NASA/DoD Clementine Mission acquired global, 11- band, multispectral observations of the lunar surface using the ultraviolet-visible (UVVIS) and near-infrared (NIR) camera systems. The global 5-band UVVIS Digital Image Model (DIM) of the Moon at 100 m/pixel was released to the Planetary Data System (PDS) in 2000. The corresponding NIR DIM has been compiled by the U.S. Geological Survey for distribution to the lunar science community. The recently released NIR DIM has six spectral bands (1100, 1250, 1500, 2000, 2600, and 2780 nm) and is delivered in 996 quads at 100 m/pixel (303 pixels/degree). The NIR data were radiometrically corrected, geometrically controlled, and photometrically normalized to form seamless, uniformly illuminated mosaics of the lunar surface.

  19. Nighttime Monitoring of Volcanic Eruptions with Satellite-Based Multispectral Infrared Radiometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Trifonov, G.

    2015-12-01

    The Nightfire algorithm for detection of night-time infrared sources with multispectral radiometers from the Suomi NPP and Landsat 8 satellites can be used for global monitoring of volcanic activity. By searching the spatio-temporal database of the Nightfire detections in the vicinity of active volcanoes we can reconstruct the day-by-day history of recent eruptions, including the temperature and size of the lava flow. By correlation of the detections from different satellite zenith angles in some cases we can derive the 3D geometry of the lava lake. Potential application may be an early alert system to monitor remote volcanoes which are out of reach for permanent ground instrumentation network.

  20. Determination of water surface temperature based on the use of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1992-01-01

    A straightforward method for compensating Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital data for the influence of atmospheric path radiance and the attenuation of target energy by the atmosphere is presented. A band ratioing model useful for estimating water surface temperatures, which requires no ground truth measurements, is included. A study conducted to test the potential of the model and the magnitudes of the corrections for atmosphere encountered is presented. Results of the study, which was based on data collected during an engineering evaluation flight of TIMS, indicate errors in the estimate of the surface temperature of the water fall from +/- 1.0 C for uncorrected data to +/- 0.4 C when data have been corrected according to the model presented. This value approaches the noise-limited thermal resolution of the sensor at the time of the flight.

  1. Rock type mapping with indices defined for multispectral thermal infrared ASTER data: case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2003-03-01

    ASTER sensor aboard NASA's Terra satellite has the capability of measuring multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) emission from the earth's surface to space. The author proposed indices by the combination of ASTER-TIR bands for detecting quartz and carbonate minerals, and another index to estimate the abundance of bulk SiO2 content in the surface silicate rocks, applied them to the low level ASTER radiance at the sensor data without atmospheric corrections, and showed a potential ability of the indices in a rock type mapping. This paper tries to apply the proposed method into the practical case studies using ASTER-TIR data. The study sites include ophiolitic belt zones in Oman and along Yarlun Zangbo River in Tibet. The applied results are compared with the geology of the study areas. It indicates that the new remote sensing approach proposed here would improve the quality and the cost of the geological mapping in arid and semi-arid regions.

  2. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langran, K. J.

    1985-01-01

    The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. These zones represent a spectrum of disturbance types and intensities that can be indexed by temperature, impact force, and depth of subsequent deposition. This paper describes an application of NASA's Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) in monitoring vegetation recovery patterns in disturbed areas. Preliminary study results indicate a significant correlation between measured effective radiant temperature and vegetated/nonvegetated areas, percent vegetation cover, and vegetation type.

  3. Passive signatures concealed objects recorded by multispectral and hyperspectral systems in visible, infrared and terahertz range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kastek, Mariusz; Kowalski, Marcin; Polakowski, Henryk; Lagueux, Philippe; Gagnon, Marc-André

    2014-06-01

    Risks to the safety of public zones (generally available for people) are related mainly to the presence of hidden dangerous objects (such as knives, guns, bombs etc.) and their usage. Modern system for the monitoring of such zones attempt to detect dangerous tools using multispectral cameras working in different spectral ranges: the visible radiation, near, medium and long range infrared and recently also in terahertz range. In order to develop methods and algorithms to detect hidden objects it is necessary to determine the thermal signatures of such objects of interest. The laboratory measurements were conducted to determine the thermal signatures of dangerous tools hidden under various clothes in different ambient conditions. Cameras used for measurements were working in spectral range 0.6-12.5 µm. An infrared imaging Fourier transform spectroradiometer was also used, working in spectral range 7.7-11.7 µm. Analysis of registered thermograms and hyperspectral datacubes has yielded the thermal signatures for: two types of guns, two types of knives and home-made explosive bombs. The determined thermal signatures will be used in the development of method and algorithms of image analysis implemented in proposed monitoring systems.

  4. Quantitative short-wave infrared multispectral imaging of in vivo tissue optical properties

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Robert H.; Nadeau, Kyle P.; Jaworski, Frank B.; Rowland, Rebecca; Nguyen, John Q.; Crouzet, Christian; Saager, Rolf B.; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J.; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Extending the wavelength range of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) has the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity to chromophores such as water and lipids that have prominent absorption features in the SWIR region. Here, we present, for the first time, a method combining SFDI with unstructured (zero spatial frequency) illumination to extract tissue absorption and scattering properties over a wavelength range (850 to 1800 nm) largely unexplored by previous tissue optics techniques. To obtain images over this wavelength range, we employ a SWIR camera in conjunction with an SFDI system. We use SFDI to obtain in vivo tissue reduced scattering coefficients at the wavelengths from 850 to 1050 nm, and then use unstructured wide-field illumination and an extrapolated power-law fit to this scattering spectrum to extract the absorption spectrum from 850 to 1800 nm. Our proof-of-principle experiment in a rat burn model illustrates that the combination of multispectral SWIR imaging, SFDI, and unstructured illumination can characterize in vivo changes in skin optical properties over a greatly expanded wavelength range. In the rat burn experiment, these changes (relative to normal, unburned skin) included increased absorption and increased scattering amplitude and slope, consistent with changes that we previously reported in the near-infrared using SFDI. PMID:25120175

  5. Quantitative short-wave infrared multispectral imaging of in vivo tissue optical properties.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Robert H; Nadeau, Kyle P; Jaworski, Frank B; Rowland, Rebecca; Nguyen, John Q; Crouzet, Christian; Saager, Rolf B; Choi, Bernard; Tromberg, Bruce J; Durkin, Anthony J

    2014-08-01

    Extending the wavelength range of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) into the short-wave infrared (SWIR) has the potential to provide enhanced sensitivity to chromophores such as water and lipids that have prominent absorption features in the SWIR region. Here, we present, for the first time, a method combining SFDI with unstructured (zero spatial frequency) illumination to extract tissue absorption and scattering properties over a wavelength range (850 to 1800 nm) largely unexplored by previous tissue optics techniques. To obtain images over this wavelength range, we employ a SWIR camera in conjunction with an SFDI system. We use SFDI to obtain in vivo tissue reduced scattering coefficients at the wavelengths from 850 to 1050 nm, and then use unstructured wide-field illumination and an extrapolated power-law fit to this scattering spectrum to extract the absorption spectrum from 850 to 1800 nm. Our proof-of-principle experiment in a rat burn model illustrates that the combination of multispectral SWIR imaging, SFDI, and unstructured illumination can characterize in vivo changes in skin optical properties over a greatly expanded wavelength range. In the rat burn experiment, these changes (relative to normal, unburned skin) included increased absorption and increased scattering amplitude and slope, consistent with changes that we previously reported in the near-infrared using SFDI. PMID:25120175

  6. Analysis of multispectral and hyperspectral longwave infrared (LWIR) data for geologic mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; McDowell, Meryl

    2015-05-01

    Multispectral MODIS/ASTER Airborne Simulator (MASTER) data and Hyperspectral Thermal Emission Spectrometer (HyTES) data covering the 8 - 12 μm spectral range (longwave infrared or LWIR) were analyzed for an area near Mountain Pass, California. Decorrelation stretched images were initially used to highlight spectral differences between geologic materials. Both datasets were atmospherically corrected using the ISAC method, and the Normalized Emissivity approach was used to separate temperature and emissivity. The MASTER data had 10 LWIR spectral bands and approximately 35-meter spatial resolution and covered a larger area than the HyTES data, which were collected with 256 narrow (approximately 17nm-wide) spectral bands at approximately 2.3-meter spatial resolution. Spectra for key spatially-coherent, spectrally-determined geologic units for overlap areas were overlain and visually compared to determine similarities and differences. Endmember spectra were extracted from both datasets using n-dimensional scatterplotting and compared to emissivity spectral libraries for identification. Endmember distributions and abundances were then mapped using Mixture-Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial unmixing approach. Multispectral results demonstrate separation of silica-rich vs non-silicate materials, with distinct mapping of carbonate areas and general correspondence to the regional geology. Hyperspectral results illustrate refined mapping of silicates with distinction between similar units based on the position, character, and shape of high resolution emission minima near 9 μm. Calcite and dolomite were separated, identified, and mapped using HyTES based on a shift of the main carbonate emissivity minimum from approximately 11.3 to 11.2 μm respectively. Both datasets demonstrate the utility of LWIR spectral remote sensing for geologic mapping.

  7. Spectrophotometric properties of materials observed by Pancam on the Mars Exploration Rovers: 3. Sols 500-1525

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Grundy, William M.; Lemmon, Mark T.; Bell, James F.; Deen, R. G.

    2015-03-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity acquired visible/near-infrared (432-1009 nm) multispectral observations of soils and rocks under varying viewing and illumination geometries. Data retrieved from these images were modeled using radiative transfer theory to study the microphysical and surface scattering nature of materials at both sites. Nearly 57,000 individual measurements from 1900 images were collected of rock and soil units identified by their color and morphologic properties over a wide range of phase angles (0-150°). Images were acquired between Sols 500 and 1525 in the Columbia Hills and regions around Home Plate in Gusev Crater and in the plains and craters between Erebus and Victoria Craters in Meridiani Planum. Corrections for diffuse skylight incorporated sky models based on observations of atmospheric opacity throughout the mission. Disparity maps created from Pancam stereo images allowed estimates of local facet orientations. For Spirit, soils at lower elevations near Home Plate were modeled with lower single scattering albedo (w) values than those on the summit of Husband Hill, but otherwise soils exhibited similar scattering properties to previous Gusev soils. Dark ripple sands at the El Dorado dunes were among the most forward-scattering materials modeled. Silica-rich soils and nodules near Home Plate were analyzed for the first time, and exhibited increased forward scattering behavior with increasing wavelength, consistent with microporosity inferred from previous high resolution images and thermal infrared spectroscopy. For Opportunity, the opposition effect width parameter for sandstone outcrop rocks was modeled for the first time, and demonstrated average values consistent with surfaces of intermediate porosity and/or grain size distribution between those modeled for spherule-rich soils and darker, clast-poor soils. Soils outside a wind streak emanating from the northern rim of Victoria Crater

  8. Classifying convective and stratiform rain using multispectral infrared Meteosat Second Generation satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feidas, Haralambos; Giannakos, Apostolos

    2012-05-01

    This paper investigates the potential for developing schemes that classify convective and stratiform precipitation areas using the high infrared spectral resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation—Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (MSG-SEVIRI). Two different classification schemes were proposed that use the brightness temperature (BT) Τ 10.8 along with the brightness temperature differences (BTDs) Τ 10.8- Τ 12.1, Τ 8.7- Τ 10.8, and Τ 6.2- Τ 10.8 as spectral parameters, which provide information about cloud parameters. The first is a common multispectral thresholding scheme used to partition the space of the spectral cloud parameters and the second is an algorithm based on the probability of convective rain (PCR) for each pixel of the satellite data. Both schemes were calibrated using as a reference convectivestratiform rain classification fields derived from 87 stations in Greece for six rainy days with high convective activity. As a result, one single infrared technique (TB10) and two multidimensional techniques (BTDall and PCR) were constructed and evaluated against an independent sample of rain gauge data for four daily convective precipitation events. It was found that the introduction of BTDs as additional information to a technique works in improving the discrimination of convective from stratiform rainy pixels compared to the single infrared technique BT10. During the training phase, BTDall performed slightly better than BT10 while PCR technique outperformed both threshold techniques. All techniques clearly overestimate the convective rain occurrences detected by the rain gauge network. When evaluating against the independent dataset, both threshold techniques exhibited the same performance with that of the dependent dataset whereas the PCR technique showed a notable skill degradation. As a result, BTDall performed best followed at a short distance by PCR and BT10. These findings showed that it is possible to apply a convective

  9. Identifying precipitating clouds in Greece using multispectral infrared Meteosat Second Generation satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feidas, Haralambos; Giannakos, Apostolos

    2011-05-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the potential of possible rain area delineation schemes based on the enhanced infrared spectral resolution of the Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager. The proposed schemes use the brightness temperature (BT) Τ 10.8 along with the brightness temperature differences (BTDs) Τ 10.8 - Τ 12.1, Τ 8.7 - Τ 10.8, and Τ 6.2 - Τ 10.8 as spectral cloud parameters. Two different methods were used to develop the rain area delineation models. The first is a common threshold technique in the multispectral space of the spectral cloud parameters, and the second is an algorithm based on the probability of rain (PoR) for each pixel of the satellite data. Both schemes were trained using as rain information gauge data from 41 stations in Greece for 107 rainy days, covering a period of 1 year. As a result, one single-infrared model (TB10), three two-dimensional (BTD10-12, BTD8-10, and BTD6-10), and two multidimensional models (BTDall and PoR) were constructed and verified against an independent sample of rain gauge data for four daily precipitation events. It was found that the introduction of BTDs as additional information to a model works in improving the discrimination of rain from no-rain events compared with the single-infrared model BT10. During the training phase, BTDall exhibited the best performance among the threshold techniques, while the PoR model outperformed all the threshold techniques, producing scores slightly better than those of BTDall model. When verifying against the independent dataset, all models exhibited the same performance with that of the dependent dataset according to the ETS score but less skill according to the HK score. The proposed techniques, however, still perform better than the single-infrared technique but with different ranking; BTall performs best followed by PoR and BTD10-12. Finally, two case studies are presented to gain a visual impression of the performance of

  10. Automatic multispectral ultraviolet, visible and near-infrared capturing system for the study of artwork

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrera, Jorge; Vilaseca, Meritxell; Pujol, Jaume

    2011-03-01

    This paper shows the simulations of the usage of a LED cluster as the illumination source for a multispectral imaging system covering the range of wavelengths from 350 to 1650 nm. The system can be described as being composed of two modules determined by the spectral range of the imaging sensors responses, one of them covering the range from 350- 950nm (CCD camera) and the other one covering the wavelengths from 900-1650nm (InGaAs camera). A well known method of reflectance estimation, the pseudo-inverse method, jointly with the experimentally measured data of the spectral responses of the cameras and the spectral emission of the LED elements are used for the simulations. The performance of the system for spectral estimation under ideal conditions and realistic noise influence is evaluated through different spectral and colorimetric metrics like the GFC, RMS error and CIEDE2000 color difference formula. The results show that is expectable a rather good performance of the real setup. However, they also reveal a difference in the performances of the modules. The second module has poorer performance due to the less narrow spectral emission and less number of LED elements that covers the near-infrared spectral range.

  11. Remote detection of volatile organic compounds by passive multispectral infrared imaging measurements.

    PubMed

    Wabomba, Mukire J; Sulub, Yusuf; Small, Gary W

    2007-04-01

    Automated pattern recognition methodology is described for the detection of signatures of volatile organic compounds from passive multispectral infrared imaging data collected from an aircraft platform. Data are acquired in an across-track scanning mode with a downward-looking line scanner based on 8 to 16 spectral channels in the 8-14 and 3-5 microm spectral ranges. Two controlled release experiments are performed in which plumes of ethanol are generated and detected from aircraft overflights at altitudes of 2200 to 2800 ft (671 to 853 m). In addition, a methanol release from a chemical manufacturing facility is monitored. Automated classifiers are developed by application of piecewise linear discriminant analysis to the calibrated, registered, and preprocessed radiance data acquired by the line scanner. Preprocessing steps evaluated include contrast enhancement, temperature-emissivity separation, feature selection, and feature extraction/noise reduction by the minimum noise fraction (MNF) transform. Successful classifiers are developed for both compounds and are tested with data not used in the classifier development. Separation of temperature and emissivity by use of the alpha residual calculation is found to reduce false positive detections to a negligible level, and the MNF transform is shown to enhance detection sensitivity. PMID:17456252

  12. Estimation of absolute water surface temperature based on atmospherically corrected thermal infrared multispectral scanner digital data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, James E.

    1986-01-01

    Airborne remote sensing systems, as well as those on board Earth orbiting satellites, sample electromagnetic energy in discrete wavelength regions and convert the total energy sampled into data suitable for processing by digital computers. In general, however, the total amount of energy reaching a sensor system located at some distance from the target is composed not only of target related energy, but, in addition, contains a contribution originating from the atmosphere itself. Thus, some method must be devised for removing or at least minimizing the effects of the atmosphere. The LOWTRAN-6 Program was designed to estimate atmospheric transmittance and radiance for a given atmospheric path at moderate spectral resolution over an operational wavelength region from 0.25 to 28.5 microns. In order to compute the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) digital values which were recorded in the absence of the atmosphere, the parameters derived from LOWTRAN-6 are used in a correction equation. The TIMS data were collected at 1:00 a.m. local time on November 21, 1983, over a recirculating cooling pond for a power plant in southeastern Mississippi. The TIMS data were analyzed before and after atmospheric corrections were applied using a band ratioing model to compute the absolute surface temperature of various points on the power plant cooling pond. The summarized results clearly demonstrate the desirability of applying atmospheric corrections.

  13. Mapping the distribution of vesicular textures on silicic lavas using the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ondrusek, Jaime; Christensen, Philip R.; Fink, Jonathan H.

    1993-01-01

    To investigate the effect of vesicularity on TIMS (Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner) imagery independent of chemical variations, we studied a large rhyolitic flow of uniform composition but textural heterogeneity. The imagery was recalibrated so that the digital number values for a lake in the scene matched a calculated ideal spectrum for water. TIMS spectra for the lava show useful differences in coarsely and finely vesicular pumice data, particularly in TIMS bands 3 and 4. Images generated by ratioing these bands accurately map out those areas known from field studies to be coarsely vesicular pumice. These texture-related emissivity variations are probably due to the larger vesicles being relatively deeper and separated by smaller septa leaving less smooth glass available to give the characteristic emission of the lava. In studies of inaccessible lava flows (as on Mars) areas of coarsely vesicular pumice must be identified and avoided before chemical variations can be interpreted. Remotely determined distributions of vesicular and glassy textures can also be related to the volatile contents and potential hazards associated with the emplacement of silicic lava flows on Earth.

  14. Airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over disseminated gold deposits, Osgood Mountains, Humboldt County, Nevada

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krohn, M. Dennis

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) acquired airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) images over several disseminated gold deposits in northern Nevada in 1983. The aerial surveys were flown to determine whether TIMS data could depict jasperoids (siliceous replacement bodies) associated with the gold deposits. The TIMS data were collected over the Pinson and Getchell Mines in the Osgood Mountains, the Carlin, Maggie Creek, Bootstrap, and other mines in the Tuscarora Mountains, and the Jerritt Canyon Mine in the Independence Mountains. The TIMS data seem to be a useful supplement to conventional geochemical exploration for disseminated gold deposits in the western United States. Siliceous outcrops are readily separable in the TIMS image from other types of host rocks. Different forms of silicification are not readily separable, yet, due to limitations of spatial resolution and spectral dynamic range. Features associated with the disseminated gold deposits, such as the large intrusive bodies and fault structures, are also resolvable on TIMS data. Inclusion of high-resolution thermal inertia data would be a useful supplement to the TIMS data.

  15. A multiscale contrast direction adaptation approach for the fusion of multispectral and multifocus infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karali, A. O.; Cakir, Serdar; Aytaç, Tayfun

    2015-10-01

    Infrared (IR) cameras are widely used in latest surveillance systems because spectral characteristics of objects provide valuable information for object detection and identification. To assist the surveillance system operator and automatic image processing tasks, fusing images in IR band is proposed as a solution to increase situational awareness and different fusion techniques are developed for this purpose. Proposed techniques are generally developed for specific scenarios because image content may vary dramatically depending on the spectral range, the optical properties of the cameras, the spectral characteristics of the scene, and the spatial resolution of the interested targets in the scene. A general purpose IR image fusion technique that is suitable for real-time applications is proposed. The proposed technique can support different scenarios by applying a multiscale detail detection and can be applied to images captured from different spectral regions of the spectrum by adaptively adjusting the contrast direction through cross checking between the source images. The feasibility of the proposed algorithm is demonstrated on registered multi-spectral and multi-focus IR images. Fusion results are presented and the performance of the proposed technique is compared with the baseline fusion methods through objective and subjective tests. The technique outperforms baseline methods in the subjective tests and provide promising results in objective quality metrics with an acceptable computational load. Besides, the proposed technique preserves object details and prevents undesired artifacts better than the baseline techniques in the image fusion scenario that contains four source images.

  16. Lithologic analysis from multispectral thermal infrared data of the alkalic rock complex at Iron Hill, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Watson, K.; Rowan, L.C.; Bowers, T.L.; Anton-Pacheco, C.; Gumiel, P.; Miller, S.H.

    1996-01-01

    Airborne thermal-infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data of the Iron Hill carbonatite-alkalic igneous rock complex in south-central Colorado are analyzed using a new spectral emissivity ratio algorithm and confirmed by field examination using existing 1:24 000-scale geologic maps and petrographic studies. Color composite images show that the alkalic rocks could be clearly identified and that differences existed among alkalic rocks in several parts of the complex. An unsupervised classification algorithm defines four alkalic rock classes within the complex: biotitic pyroxenite, uncompahgrite, augitic pyroxenite, and fenite + nepheline syenite. Felsic rock classes defined in the surrounding country rock are an extensive class consisting of tuff, granite, and felsite, a less extensive class of granite and felsite, and quartzite. The general composition of the classes can be determined from comparisons of the TIMS spectra with laboratory spectra. Carbonatite rocks are not classified, and we attribute that to the fact that dolomite, the predominant carbonate mineral in the complex, has a spectral feature that falls between TIMS channels 5 and 6. Mineralogical variability in the fenitized granite contributed to the nonuniform pattern of the fenite-nepheline syenite class. The biotitic pyroxenite, which resulted from alteration of the pyroxenite, is spatially associated and appears to be related to narrow carbonatite dikes and sills. Results from a linear unmixing algorithm suggest that the detected spatial extent of the two mixed felsic rock classes was sensitive to the amount of vegetation cover. These results illustrate that spectral thermal infrared data can be processed to yield compositional information that can be a cost-effective tool to target mineral exploration, particularly in igneous terranes.

  17. High Spatial Resolution Airborne Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing Data for Analysis of Urban Landscape Characteristics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Quattrochi, Dale A.; Luvall, Jeffrey C.; Estes, Maurice G., Jr.; Arnold, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We have used airborne multispectral thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing data collected at a high spatial resolution (i.e., 10m) over several cities in the United States to study thermal energy characteristics of the urban landscape. These TIR data provide a unique opportunity to quantify thermal responses from discrete surfaces typical of the urban landscape and to identify both the spatial arrangement and patterns of thermal processes across the city. The information obtained from these data is critical to understanding how urban surfaces drive or force development of the Urban Heat Island (UHI) effect, which exists as a dome of elevated air temperatures that presides over cities in contrast to surrounding non-urbanized areas. The UHI is most pronounced in the summertime where urban surfaces, such as rooftops and pavement, store solar radiation throughout the day, and release this stored energy slowly after sunset creating air temperatures over the city that are in excess of 2-4'C warmer in contrast with non-urban or rural air temperatures. The UHI can also exist as a daytime phenomenon with surface temperatures in downtown areas of cities exceeding 38'C. The implications of the UHI are significant, particularly as an additive source of thermal energy input that exacerbates the overall production of ground level ozone over cities. We have used the Airborne Thermal and Land Applications Sensor (ATLAS), flown onboard a Lear 23 jet aircraft from the NASA Stennis Space Center, to acquire high spatial resolution multispectral TIR data (i.e., 6 bandwidths between 8.2-12.2 (um) over Huntsville, Alabama, Atlanta, Georgia, Baton Rouge, Louisiana, Salt Lake City, Utah, and Sacramento, California. These TIR data have been used to produce maps and other products, showing the spatial distribution of heating and cooling patterns over these cities to better understand how the morphology of the urban landscape affects development of the UHI. In turn, these data have been used

  18. Rock spectral classes observed by the Spirit Rover's Pancam on the Gusev Crater Plains and in the Columbia Hills

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Arvidson, R. E.; Crumpler, L. S.; Hurowitz, J. A.; Schröder, C.

    2008-12-01

    This paper examines the ferrous and ferric iron mineralogy of rocks inferred from 246 visible/near-infrared (430-1010 nm) multispectral observations made by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's Pancam on its traverse from its landing site to its second Winter Haven location. Principal component, correspondence analyses, and a sequential maximum angle convex cone technique were used to identify 14 candidate classes. Spectra from the West Spur of Husband Hill and the Watchtower area had the highest 535 and 601 nm band depths indicating that these areas were more oxidized. Differences in the depth and band center of a near infrared (NIR) absorption feature were observed using 904 nm band depth and 803:904 nm ratio and parameters gauging the 754-864 and 754-1009 nm slopes. Spectra of rocks from the southern flank of Husband Hill had negative 754-1009 nm slopes and a broad NIR absorption consistent with high olivine abundances. Rocks observed on the lower West Spur, at the Cumberland Ridge locale, at the Husband Hill summit, and at the Haskin Ridge locale had deep 904 nm band depths and steep 754-864 nm slopes consistent with greater pyroxene abundances. These observations are consistent with results on iron-bearing mineralogy from Spirit's Mössbauer spectrometer. Comparisons of these rock spectral classes with a set of terrestrial analog samples found similarities between the West Spur and Watchtower classes and red hematite-bearing impact melts. Fewer similarities were found in comparisons of the Columbia Hills classes with basaltic hydrovolcanic tephras.

  19. RIS4E at Kilauea's December 1974 Flow: Assessing the Integration of Portable Infrared Multispectral Imaging into Planetary Surface Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ito, G.; Rogers, D.; Bleacher, J. E.; Young, K. E.; Edwards, C. S.; Glotch, T. D.

    2015-12-01

    Portable, hand-held geochemical and mineralogical instruments are potentially valuable tools to be used in sample collection and site documentation activities during future human missions to planetary bodies. The main purpose of these instruments is to allow fast in situ analyses of rocks and soils so that astronauts can quickly document sample characteristics and context, and make strategic decisions on sample selection in the context of predefined scientific objectives. As part of the Remote, In Situ, and Synchrotron Studies for Science and Exploration (RIS4E) investigation, we test the performance of candidate instruments and operational procedures through fieldwork expeditions that simulate lunar and asteroid environments on Earth. Our field site, Kilauea Volcano in Hawaii, is a lava field with landscape and mineralogy that represent a reasonable analog to the Moon and some differentiated asteroids. In this paper, we focus on one of the candidate instruments, the infrared multispectral imager. During field expeditions in 2014 and 2015, we explored the applicability of the multispectral imager in manned surface operations. From these expeditions, our instrument calibration techniques and data collection procedures matured. Current work focuses on assessment of data product usefulness, through comparison with detailed laboratory chemical and spectral measurements, and field descriptions of surface textures. Our field expeditions will continue in other analog locations to obtain improved understanding of the multispectral imager and its role in sampling workflow so that science return can be maximized in future human missions.

  20. Satellite observation of lowermost tropospheric ozone by multispectral synergism of IASI thermal infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet measurements over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, J.; Eremenko, M.; Liu, X.; Dufour, G.; Cai, Z.; Hoepfner, M.; von Clarmann, T.; Sellitto, P.; Foret, G.; Gaubert, B.; Beekmann, M.; Orphal, J. J.; Chance, K.; Spurr, R. J.; Flaud, J.

    2013-12-01

    Lowermost tropospheric ozone is a major factor determining air quality, which directly affects human health in megacities and causes damages to ecosystems. Monitoring tropospheric ozone is a key societal issue which can be addressed at the regional scale by spaceborne observation. However, current satellite retrievals of tropospheric ozone using uncoupled either ultraviolet (UV) or thermal infrared (TIR) observations show limited sensitivity to ozone at the lowermost troposphere (LMT, up to 3 km asl of altitude above sea level), which is the major concern for air quality. In this framework, we have developed a new multispectral approach for observing lowermost tropospheric ozone from space by synergism of atmospheric TIR radiances observed by IASI and earth UV reflectances measured by GOME-2. Both instruments are onboard the series of MetOp satellites (in orbit since 2006 and expected until 2022) and their scanning capabilities offer global coverage every day, with a relatively fine ground pixel resolution (12-km-diameter pixels spaced by 25 km for IASI at nadir). Our technique uses altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Phillips-type constraints, which optimize sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone. It integrates the VLIDORT and KOPRA radiative transfer codes for simulating UV reflectance and TIR radiance, respectively. We have used our method to analyze real observations over Europe during an ozone pollution episode in the summer of 2009. The results show that the multispectral synergism of IASI (TIR) and GOME-2 (UV) enables the observation of the spatial distribution of ozone plumes in the LMT, in good agreement with the CHIMERE regional chemistry-transport model. In this case study, when high ozone concentrations extend vertically above 3 km asl, they are similarly observed over land by both the multispectral and IASI retrievals. On the other hand, ozone plumes located below 3 km asl are only clearly depicted by the multispectral retrieval (both over land and over ocean

  1. Multi-spectral mid-infrared laser stand-off imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yi; Wang, Yang; Le, Han Q.

    2005-08-01

    A multi-spectral mid-IR laser imaging study including system engineering, experiments, and image processing and analysis is described. A 4-λ scalable system was built with semiconductor lasers, covering from 3.3-9.6 μm. The X-Y scanning system was capable of 2-dimensional (2D) multi-spectral imaging at a stand-off distance from 13-40 m. The system was applied to diverse targets that consist of man-made and natural materials and objects, and shown capable to resolve and distinguish small spectral differences among the various targets. Colorless objects in the visible were shown with "colorful" signatures in the mid-IR. Image processing algorithm based on spectral contrast was shown most effective to exploit the laser sensitivity and accuracy, as opposed to algorithms that operate mainly on the image spatial intensity. The results also showed the complexity of laser imaging phenomenology, involving both spectroscopic and geometrical scattering effects. A demonstration of 3D multi-spectral imaging was also given. The system design is suitable for compact packages with semiconductor lasers, and the results suggest that laser-based multi-spectral imaging can be a unique and powerful technology for target discrimination.

  2. Pancam Mast Assembly on Mars Rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warden, Robert M.; Cross, Mike; Harvison, Doug

    2004-01-01

    The Pancam Mast Assembly (PMA) for the 2003 Mars Rover is a deployable structure that provides an elevated platform for several cameras. The PMA consists of several mechanisms that enable it to raise the cameras as well as point the cameras in all directions. This paper describes the function of the various mechanisms as well as a description of the mechanisms and some test parameters. Designing these mechanisms to operate on the surface of Mars presented several challenges. Typical spacecraft mechanisms must operate in zero-gravity and high vacuum. These mechanisms needed to be designed to operate in Martian gravity and atmosphere. Testing conditions were a little easier because the mechanisms are not required to operate in a vacuum. All of the materials are vacuum compatible, but the mechanisms were tested in a dry nitrogen atmosphere at various cold temperatures.

  3. Multispectral demosaicking considering out-of-focus problem for red-green-blue-near-infrared image sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ji Yong; Kang, Moon Gi

    2016-03-01

    A near-infrared (NIR) band provides information invisible to human eyes for discriminating and recognizing objects more clearly under low lighting conditions. To capture color and NIR images simultaneously, a multispectral filter array (MSFA) sensor is used. However, because lenses have different refractive indices for different wavelengths, lenses may fail to focus all rays to the same convergence. This is the reason an out-of-focus problem occurs and images are blurred. In this paper, a demosaicking algorithm that considers the out-of-focus problem is proposed. This algorithm is used by the MSFA of a red-green-blue-NIR image sensor to obtain color and NIR images. After the energies of the multispectral (MS) channels in the MSFA image are balanced to minimize aliasing, that image is filtered by the estimated low-pass kernel to generate a panchromatic (PAN) image. When an image is acquired, the out-of-focus problem and the formation process of the PAN image are modeled. The desired MS image is estimated by solving the least squares approach of the difference between the PAN and MS images based on the models. The experimental results show that the proposed algorithm performs well in estimating high-quality MS images and reduces the out-of-focus problem.

  4. Multispectral photography for earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wenderoth, S.; Yost, E.; Kalia, R.; Anderson, R.

    1972-01-01

    A guide for producing accurate multispectral results for earth resource applications is presented along with theoretical and analytical concepts of color and multispectral photography. Topics discussed include: capabilities and limitations of color and color infrared films; image color measurements; methods of relating ground phenomena to film density and color measurement; sensitometry; considerations in the selection of multispectral cameras and components; and mission planning.

  5. Mapping within-field variations of soil organic carbon content using UAV multispectral visible near-infrared images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliot, Jean-Marc; Vaudour, Emmanuelle; Michelin, Joël

    2016-04-01

    This study was carried out in the framework of the PROSTOCK-Gessol3 project supported by the French Environment and Energy Management Agency (ADEME), the TOSCA-PLEIADES-CO project of the French Space Agency (CNES) and the SOERE PRO network working on environmental impacts of Organic Waste Products recycling on field crops at long time scale. The organic matter is an important soil fertility parameter and previous studies have shown the potential of spectral information measured in the laboratory or directly in the field using field spectro-radiometer or satellite imagery to predict the soil organic carbon (SOC) content. This work proposes a method for a spatial prediction of bare cultivated topsoil SOC content, from Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) multispectral imagery. An agricultural plot of 13 ha, located in the western region of Paris France, was analysed in April 2013, shortly before sowing while it was still bare soil. Soils comprised haplic luvisols, rendzic cambisols and calcaric or colluvic cambisols. The UAV platform used was a fixed wing provided by Airinov® flying at an altitude of 150m and was equipped with a four channels multispectral visible near-infrared camera MultiSPEC 4C® (550nm, 660nm, 735 nm and 790 nm). Twenty three ground control points (GCP) were sampled within the plot according to soils descriptions. GCP positions were determined with a centimetric DGPS. Different observations and measurements were made synchronously with the drone flight: soil surface description, spectral measurements (with ASD FieldSpec 3® spectroradiometer), roughness measurements by a photogrammetric method. Each of these locations was sampled for both soil standard physico-chemical analysis and soil water content. A Structure From Motion (SFM) processing was done from the UAV imagery to produce a 15 cm resolution multispectral mosaic using the Agisoft Photoscan® software. The SOC content was modelled by partial least squares regression (PLSR) between the

  6. Satellite observation of lowermost tropospheric ozone by multispectral synergism of IASI thermal infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Eremenko, Maxim; Liu, Xiong; Dufour, Gaëlle; Cai, Zhaonan; Höpfner, Michael; von Clarmann, Thomas; Sellitto, Pasquale; Forêt, Gilles; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Orphal, Johannes; Chance, Kelly; Spurr, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2013-04-01

    Lowermost tropospheric ozone is a major factor determining air quality in densely populated megacities. During pollution events, knowledge on the 3D regional distribution of ozone in and around these urban areas is key for assessing its impact on health of population and ecosystems damages. Temporal and spatial coverage of spaceborne observations are particularly fitted for monitoring tropospheric ozone spatial distribution at the regional scale and offers a great potential for improving air quality forecasting with numerical regional models. However, current tropospheric ozone retrievals using uncoupled either ultraviolet (UV) or thermal infrared (TIR) spaceborne observations show limited sensitivity to lowermost troposphere ozone (up to 3 km of altitude), which is the major concern for air quality, and they are mainly sensitive to ozone at the free Troposphere (at lowest 3-4 km of altitude). In this framework, we have developed a new multispectral approach for observing lowermost tropospheric ozone from space by synergism of atmospheric TIR radiances observed by IASI and earth UV reflectances measured by GOME-2. Both instruments are onboard the series of MetOp satellites (in orbit since 2006 and expected until 2022) and their scanning capabilities offer global coverage every day, with a relatively fine ground pixel resolution (12-km-diameter pixels spaced by 25 km for IASI at nadir). Our technique uses altitude-dependent Tikhonov-Phillips-type constraints, which optimize sensitivity to lower tropospheric ozone. It integrates the VLIDORT and KOPRA radiative transfer codes for simulating UV reflectance and TIR radiance, respectively. We have used our method to analyse real observations over Europe during an ozone pollution episode in the summer of 2009. The results show that the multispectral synergism of IASI (TIR) and GOME-2 (UV) enables the observation of the spatial distribution of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, from the surface up to 3 km msl

  7. Quantitative estimation of granitoid composition from thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) data, Desolation Wilderness, northern Sierra Nevada, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sabine, Charles; Realmuto, Vincent J.; Taranik, James V.

    1994-01-01

    We have produced images that quantitatively depict modal and chemical parameters of granitoids using an image processing algorithm called MINMAP that fits Gaussian curves to normalized emittance spectra recovered from thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) radiance data. We applied the algorithm to TIMS data from the Desolation Wilderness, an extensively glaciated area near the northern end of the Sierra Nevada batholith that is underlain by Jurassic and Cretaceous plutons that range from diorite and anorthosite to leucogranite. The wavelength corresponding to the calculated emittance minimum lambda(sub min) varies linearly with quartz content, SiO2, and other modal and chemical parameters. Thematic maps of quartz and silica content derived from lambda(sub min) values distinguish bodies of diorite from surrounding granite, identify outcrops of anorthosite, and separate felsic, intermediate, and mafic rocks.

  8. Identification of hydrothermal mineralization in Baja California, Mexico from orbit using the Shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Crowley, J. K.; Kingston, M. J.; Goetz, A. F. H.

    1983-01-01

    Data from the Space Shuttle Multispectral IR Radiometer (SMIRR), which is a 10-channel remote sensor designed to record narrow band spectral data in the 0.5-2.4 micron wavelength range, were used to identify and study a previously unreported area of hydrothermal alteration on the Baja California peninsula. Absorption at 2.17 microns, which is diagnostic of the minerals pyrophyllite, dickite, and alunite, was observed in many spectra and the presence of pyrophyllite and dickite was confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis of field samples. Anomalously high Mo, B, Sn, Zr, and Ag were found in three samples.

  9. Detection of subpixel anomalies in multispectral infrared imagery using an adaptive Bayesian classifier

    SciTech Connect

    Ashton, E.A.

    1998-03-01

    The detection of subpixel targets with unknown spectral signatures and cluttered backgrounds in multispectral imagery is a topic of great interest for remote surveillance applications. Because no knowledge of the target is assumed, the only way to accomplish such a detection is through a search for anomalous pixels. Two approaches to this problem are examined in this paper. The first is to separate the image into a number of statistical clusters by using an extension of the well-known {kappa}-means algorithm. Each bin of resultant residual vectors is then decorrelated, and the results are thresholded to provide detection. The second approach requires the formation of a probabilistic background model by using an adaptive Bayesian classification algorithm. This allows the calculation of a probability for each pixel, with respect to the model. These probabilities are then thresholded to provide detection. Both algorithms are shown to provide significant improvement over current filtering techniques for anomaly detection in experiments using multispectral IR imagery with both simulated and actual subpixel targets.

  10. Simultaneous multispectral framing infrared camera using an embedded diffractive optical lenslet array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele

    2011-06-01

    Recent advances in micro-optical element fabrication using gray scale technology have opened up the opportunity to create simultaneous multi-spectral imaging with fine structure diffractive lenses. This paper will discuss an approach that uses diffractive optical lenses configured in an array (lenslet array) and placed in close proximity to the focal plane array which enables a small compact simultaneous multispectral imaging camera [1]. The lenslet array is designed so that all lenslets have a common focal length with each lenslet tuned for a different wavelength. The number of simultaneous spectral images is determined by the number of individually configured lenslets in the array. The number of spectral images can be increased by a factor of 2 when using it with a dual-band focal plane array (MWIR/LWIR) by exploiting multiple diffraction orders. In addition, modulation of the focal length of the lenslet array with piezoelectric actuation will enable spectral bin fill-in allowing additional spectral coverage while giving up simultaneity. Different lenslet array spectral imaging concept designs are presented in this paper along with a unique concept for prefiltering the radiation focused on the detector. This approach to spectral imaging has applications in the detection of chemical agents in both aerosolized form and as a liquid on a surface. It also can be applied to the detection of weaponized biological agent and IED detection in various forms from manufacturing to deployment and post detection during forensic analysis.

  11. Lipid volume fraction in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms classified under saline conditions by multispectral angioscopy at near-infrared wavelengths around 1200 nm.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2016-05-01

    To identify high-risk atherosclerotic lesions, we require detailed information on the stability of atherosclerotic plaques. In this study, we quantitatively classified the lipid volume fractions in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms by a novel angioscope combined with near-infrared multispectral imaging. The multispectral angioscope was operated at peak absorption wavelengths of lipid in vulnerable plaques (1150, 1200, and 1300 nm) and at lower absorption wavelengths of water. The potential of the multispectral angioscope was demonstrated in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms containing 10-60 vol.% lipid and immersed in saline solution. The acquired multispectral data were processed by a spectral angle mapper algorithm, which enhanced the simulated plaque areas. Consequently, we classified the lipid volume fractions into five categories (0-5, 5-15, 15-30, 30-50, and 50-60 vol.%). Multispectral angioscopy at wavelengths around 1200 nm is a powerful tool for quantitatively evaluating the stability of atherosclerotic plaques based on the lipid volume fractions. PMID:26861978

  12. Observations of rock spectral classes by the Opportunity rover's Pancam on northern Cape York and on Matijevic Hill, Endeavour Crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Bell, J. F.; Johnson, J. R.; Rice, M. S.; Jolliff, B. L.; Arvidson, R. E.

    2014-11-01

    The Opportunity rover's exploration of the portion of the rim of Endeavour crater known as Cape York included examination of the sulfate-bearing Grasberg formation and the Matijevic Hill region. Multispectral visible and near-infrared (VNIR) Pancam observations were used to characterize reflectance properties of rock units. Using spectral end-member detection and classification approaches including a principal components/n-dimensional visualization, automatic sequential maximum angle convex cone method, and classification through hierarchical clustering, six main spectral classes of rock surfaces were identified: light-toned veins, Grasberg fm., the smectite-bearing Matijevic formation, the hematitic "blueberry" spherules, resistant spherules within the Matijevic fm. dubbed "newberries," and the Shoemaker formation impact breccia. Some of these could be divided into spectral subclasses. There were three types of veins: veins in the bench unit of Cape York, thinner veins in the Matijevic fm., and boxwork pattern-forming veins. The bench unit veins had higher 535 nm band depths than the other two vein subclasses and a steeper 934 to 1009 nm slope. The Grasberg fm. has VNIR spectral features that are interpreted to indicate higher fractions of red hematite than in the sulfate-bearing Burns Fm. The Matijevic fm. includes both light-toned, fine-grained matrix, and dark-toned veneers. The latter has a weak near-infrared absorption band centered near 950 nm consistent with nontronite. Observations of Rock Abrasion Tool brushed and ground newberries indicated that cuttings from the RAT grind had a longer wavelength reflectance maximum and deeper 535 nm band depth, consistent with more oxidized materials. Greater oxidation of cementing materials in the newberries is consistent with a diagenetic concretion origin.

  13. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range

    PubMed Central

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution. PMID:27345517

  14. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; de Angelis, Francesco

    2016-06-01

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution.

  15. 3D coaxial out-of-plane metallic antennas for filtering and multi-spectral imaging in the infrared range.

    PubMed

    Jacassi, Andrea; Bozzola, Angelo; Zilio, Pierfrancesco; Tantussi, Francesco; De Angelis, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    We fabricated and investigated a new configuration of 3D coaxial metallic antennas working in the infrared which combines the strong lateral light scattering of vertical plasmonic structures with the selective spectral transmission of 2D arrays of coaxial apertures. The coaxial structures are fabricated with a top-down method based on a template of hollow 3D antennas. Each antenna has a multilayer radial structure consisting of dielectric and metallic materials not achievable in a 2D configuration. A planar metallic layer is inserted normally to the antennas. The outer dielectric shell of the antenna defines a nanometric gap between the horizontal plane and the vertical walls. Thanks to this aperture, light can tunnel to the other side of the plane, and be transmitted to the far field in a set of resonances. These are investigated with finite-elements electromagnetic calculations and with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy measurements. The spectral position of the resonances can be tuned by changing the lattice period and/or the antenna length. Thanks to the strong scattering provided by the 3D geometry, the transmission peaks possess a high signal-to-noise ratio even when the illuminated area is less than 2 × 2 times the operation wavelength. This opens new possibilities for multispectral imaging in the IR with wavelength-scale spatial resolution. PMID:27345517

  16. Mineral identification from orbit - Initial results from the Shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goetz, A. F. H.; Rowan, L. C.; Kingston, M. J.

    1982-01-01

    The Shuttle multispectral IR radiometer (SMIRR) was designed to obtain surface reflectance data in ten spectral bands in order to evaluate the usefulness of a future imaging system for remote mineral identification. Attention was given to the 2.0-2.4 micron region, which has a wealth of spectral absorption features and appeared to have potential for the identification of CO3- and OH-bearing minerals such as the kaolinite and montmorillonite clays. SMIRR radiances were normalized by using a spectrum for dune sand collected in the Kharga Depression in Egypt. Direct identifications have been made of kaolinite-containing and carbonate material, indicating an exceptional potential for future orbital platform narrowband spectral imaging systems for mineralogical mapping.

  17. Astrobiological considerations for the selection of the geological filters on the ExoMars PanCam instrument.

    PubMed

    Cousins, Claire R; Griffiths, Andrew D; Crawford, Ian A; Prosser, Bryan J; Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C; Davis, Lottie E; Gunn, Matthew; Coates, Andrew J; Jones, Adrian P; Ward, John M

    2010-11-01

    The Panoramic Camera (PanCam) instrument will provide visible-near IR multispectral imaging of the ExoMars rover's surroundings to identify regions of interest within the nearby terrain. This multispectral capability is dependant upon the 12 preselected "geological" filters that are integrated into two wide-angle cameras. First devised by the Imager for Mars Pathfinder team to detect iron oxides, this baseline filter set has remained largely unchanged for subsequent missions (Mars Exploration Rovers, Beagle 2, Phoenix) despite the advancing knowledge of the mineralogical diversity on Mars. Therefore, the geological filters for the ExoMars PanCam will be redesigned to accommodate the astrobiology focus of ExoMars, where hydrated mineral terrains (evidence of past liquid water) will be priority targets. Here, we conduct an initial investigation into new filter wavelengths for the ExoMars PanCam and present results from tests performed on Mars analog rocks. Two new filter sets were devised: one with filters spaced every 50 nm ("F1-12") and another that utilizes a novel filter selection method based upon hydrated mineral reflectance spectra ("F2-12"). These new filter sets, along with the Beagle 2 filter set (currently the baseline for the ExoMars PanCam), were tested on their ability to identify hydrated minerals and biosignatures present in Mars analog rocks. The filter sets, with varying degrees of ability, detected the spectral features of minerals jarosite, opaline silica, alunite, nontronite, and siderite present in these rock samples. None of the filter sets, however, were able to detect fossilized biomat structures and small (<2 mm) mineralogical heterogeneities present in silica sinters. Both new filter sets outperformed the Beagle 2 filters, with F2-12 detecting the most spectral features produced by hydrated minerals and providing the best discrimination between samples. Future work involving more extensive testing on Mars analog samples that exhibit a

  18. Mineral identification from orbit: Initial results from the shuttle multispectral infrared radiometer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, A.F.H.; Rowan, L.C.; Kingston, M.J.

    1982-01-01

    A shuttle-borne radiometer containing ten channels in the reflective infrared has demonstrated that direct identification of carbonates and hydroxyl-bearing minerals is possible by remote measurement from Earth orbit. Copyright ?? 1982 AAAS.

  19. Evaluation of multispectral middle infrared aircraft images for lithologic mapping the East Tintic Mountains, Utah( USA).

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kahle, A.B.; Rowan, L.C.

    1980-01-01

    Six channels of moultispectral middle infrared (8 to 14 micrometres) aircraft scanner data were acquired over the East Tintic mining district, Utah. The digital image data were computer processed to create a color-composite image based on principal component transformations. When combined with a visible and near infrared color-composite image from a previous flight, with limited field checking, it is possible to discriminate quartzite, carbonate rocks, quartz latitic and quartz monzonitic rocks, latitic and monzonitic rocks, silicified altered rocks, argillized altered rocks, and vegetation. -from Authors

  20. All-fiber-optic infrared multispectral radiometer for measurements of temperature and emissivity of graybodies at near-room temperature.

    PubMed

    Uman, Igor; Sade, Sharon; Gopal, Veena; Harrington, James A; Katzir, Abraham

    2004-04-01

    An all-fiber-optic infrared multispectral radiometer for measurements of temperature and emissivity of graybodies at near-room temperature was constructed. Different spectral regions in the radiometer were obtained by use of hollow glass waveguides (HGWs) as filters. Using HGWs instead of bulk filters was advantageous because each HGW can be used as two different spectral filters when a dual-band IR detector is used. In addition, HGWs are much cheaper than the bulk IR filters that are usually used in such applications. For one graybody with a mean emissivity of 0.71, the estimated mean errors obtained for sample temperature, ambient temperature, and sample emissivity for all measured temperatures were 0.50% (approximately 1.65 K), 0.48% (approximately 1.4 K), and 7.3% (approximately 0.052) respectively. For a second graybody with a mean emissivity of 0.8 the estimated mean errors were 0.35% (approximately 1.2 K), 0.48% (approximately 1.4 K), and 5.0% (approximately 0.04), respectively. PMID:15074410

  1. Multispectral thermal infrared mapping of sulfur dioxide plumes: A case study from the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Realmuto, V.J.; Sutton, A.J.; Elias, T.

    1997-01-01

    The synoptic perspective and rapid mode of data acquisition provided by remote sensing are well suited for the study of volcanic SO2 plumes. In this paper we describe a plume-mapping procedure that is based on image data acquired with NASA's airborne thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS) and apply the procedure to TIMS data collected over the East Rift Zone of Kilauea Volcano, Hawaii, on September 30, 1988. These image data covered the Pu'u 'O'o and Kupaianaha vents and a skylight in the lava tube that was draining the Kupaianaha lava pond. Our estimate of the SO2 emission rate from Pu'u 'O'o (17 - 20 kg s-1) is roughly twice the average of estimates derived from correlation spectrometer (COSPEC) measurements collected 10 days prior to the TIMS overflight (10 kg s-1). The agreement between the TIMS and COSPEC results improves when we compare SO2 burden estimates, which are relatively independent of wind speed. We demonstrate the feasibility of mapping Pu'u 'O'o - scale SO2 plumes from space in anticipation of the 1998 launch of the advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflectance radiometer (ASTER). Copyright 1997 by the American Geophysical Union.

  2. An infrared remote sensor with high integration and multi-spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lisha; Liu, Zhaojun; Ma, Wenpo; Tang, Shaofan; Hu, Bin

    2014-11-01

    Along with the further application of optical remote sensing, it becomes main trend to realize high spatial resolution, high time resolution, high spectrum resolution and high irradiance sensitivity simultaneously. We present a new satellite-based imaging system that will provide images with these high performances. The structure of the system is compact with small size and light weight. The IR imager, a new generation of high resolution optical remote sensing, is universally acknowledged as the most effective approach to surveil dynamic changes in the environment on the earth. Pushbroom imaging fashion with high efficiency and long-array focal plane detector with passive cooling are adopted to realize area imaging relevant to the flight direction of satellite. The instrument is a dual-optical-path system with long-wave infrared (LWIR) and mid-short-wave infrared (MW-SWIR) bands - which has 4 narrow spectrum bands respectively. An IR dichroic beam-splitter is use to divide wideband incident infrared into LWIR and MW-SWIR. Then two pieces of joint filters, which are integrated in front of detectors and then enveloped by IR Dewars, are used to divide the LWIR and MWIR into 4 spectral bands separately. The focal plane arrays (FPA) are fixed on the optical imaging plane of the lens. The LWIR and MW-SWIR FPA are cooled around 80K or even below. For cooled FPA, optical system must provide a real, accessible exit pupil coupled with a fast f/number refractive component in a Dewar and very close to the FPA. Compared to traditional infrared instruments, high spatial resolution and spectrum resolution can be obtained simultaneously within mass, volume and performance constraints.

  3. A near infrared vegetation index formed with airborne multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Elvidge, Christopher D.; Rock, Barrett N.

    1987-01-01

    A near infrared vegetation index (NIVI) has been formed with the 1.24 and 1.65 micron bands on the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator. The NIVI was compared to the more traditional Perpendicular Vegetation Index (PVI) formed with the 0.66 and 0.83 micron bands. The PVI was found to be less susceptible to problems with rock and soil spectral variations than the VIVI.

  4. Visible and near-infrared spectra of manganese oxides: Detecting high manganese phases in Curiosity Mastcam multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardgrove, C. J.; Lanza, N.; Bell, J. F., III; Wiens, R. C.; Johnson, J. R.; Morris, R. V.

    2014-12-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory Curiosity rover's Chemcam instrument has identified manganese in relatively high abundance on several rock surfaces. The manganese abundances are several orders of magnitude greater than has been previously identified on Mars, indicating the presence of a manganese-rich phase. Although the specific phase has yet to be identified, these results suggest that the martian surface may have been much more highly oxidizing than has previously been recognized. The presence of a manganese-rich phase could provide an additional indicator of habitable aqueous environments. Given the importance of manganese for understanding past habitability, and the high abundances identified with Chemcam, we investigate the utility of using Mastcam multispectral imaging surveys to identify areas for subsequent detailed analysis with Chemcam. Vempati et al. showed that Mn3+ affect the reflectance spectra of Mn-bearing minerals. Specifically, relatively weak features due to electronic transitions and crystal field effects are observed in Mn-enriched hematites and geothites at 454, 554, 596 and 700 nm. The Mastcam-34 medium angle camera has filter band-passes at 550, 675 and 750nm, and we will explore the utility of using these bands (or combinations thereof) to determine if there is a contribution of Mn-bearing phases on spectra, specifically those that have been identified as having elevated Mn with Chemcam. The most common Mn-bearing mineral phase in terrestrial varnishes, Birnessite, has charge-transfer features that are similar to Fe-oxides but are centered at slightly longer wavelength band positions. Longer wavelength features are also common for other Mn-oxides, and this could be used to distinguish these phases from other Fe-oxide components. In this study we will present visible to near-infrared (0.4 - 3 µm) reflectance spectra on a suite of Mn-oxide laboratory standards. The set of standards includes Mn-oxide abundances that vary from less than 1 up to

  5. Identification and tracking of ash clouds from recent explosive eruptions by using multispectral satellite infrared data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchese, F.; Falconieri, A.; Pergola, N.; Tramutoli, V.

    2012-04-01

    RSTASH is a specific algorithm, based on the general Robust Satellite Techniques (RST) approach, developed to identify and track ash clouds using satellite infrared data. An updated and optimized version of this algorithm, which analyzes even signal measured in the visible spectral band, has recently been developed and implemented on geostationary satellites data, for a better discrimination of ash and weather clouds in daytime. This advanced configuration was firstly tested during the Eyjafjallajökull (Iceland) eruption of April 2010 (by using Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager sensor aboard Meteosat Second Generation), showing further improvements in terms of false positives reduction in comparison with standard RSTASH technique. Another experimental configuration of this method, analyzing signal measured in the SEVIRI sulphur dioxide absorption band (at 8.6µm), was also successfully used to qualitatively characterize volcanic plumes emitted by the same volcano in May 2010 in terms of SO2 concentration. Results of these studies are presented and discussed here, together with main achievements obtained monitoring ash cloud emitted during Shinmoedake (Japan) explosive eruption of 26-27 January 2011, exploiting the high temporal resolution of MTSAT Japanese geostationary satellites. Moreover, for both test cases, plume height estimations, obtained by applying two different literature methods, are compared with indipendent both ground- and satellite-based observations. In this work, RSTASH performances in detecting, tracking and characterizing ash clouds are discussed, focusing on main open issues and future perspectives.

  6. Extracting lithologic information from ASTER multispectral thermal infrared data in the eastern Kunlun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Kai; Kong, Chunfang; Shuai, Yanmin; Cao, Chunxiang; Yan, Shouxun

    2007-11-01

    In this paper, mechanisms of mineral radiation transfer, atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve, method of minerals identification based on emissivity spectral features are studied. Mineral radiation transfer can model the mechanisms of spectral formation and variation, and is one of study methods of spectral mechanism. Along with the variation of mineral granularity, the shape and absorption depth of mineral emissivity spectral will all variate. However, the law of emissivity variation with emission angle of different minerals is identical. Along with the increasement of emission angle, emissivity decrease. The more emissivity is small, the more variation range and speed are large. The reflectance mixture of mineral is non-linear, and can be lineated using mineral radiative transfer model. After the mixture spectral is lineated, the precision of linear unmixing of spectral and mineral content extraction will be improved greatly. The atmospheric correction and surface temperature retrieve of thermal remote sensing data will affect extraction lithologic information greatly. In this paper, using the MODTRAN model to atmospheric correction, and using split-window algorithm for retrieving surface temperature from ASTER thermal infrared data. With the minerals emissivity spectral features and the index (QI, CI and SI), retrieving Si02 content of rock quantitatively using ASTER thermal infrared data. The method can be used to extract lithologic information.

  7. Dual-band absorber for multispectral plasmon-enhanced infrared photodetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Peng; Wu, Jiang; Ashalley, Eric; Govorov, Alexander; Wang, Zhiming

    2016-09-01

    For most of the reported metamaterial absorbers, the peak absorption only occurs at one single wavelength. Here, we investigated a dual-band absorber which is based on simple gold nano-rings. Two absorption peaks can be readily achieved in 3–5 µm and 8–14 µm via tuning the width and radius of gold nano-rings and dielectric constant. The average maximum absorption of two bands can be as high as 95.1% (‑0.22 dB). Based on the simulation results, the perfect absorber with nano-rings demonstrates great flexibility to create dual-band or triple-band absorption, and thus holds potential for further applications in thermophotovoltaics, multicolor infrared focal plane arrays, optical filters, and biological sensing applications.

  8. Monitoring vegetation recovery patterns on Mount St. Helens using thermal infrared multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Langran, Kenneth J.

    1986-01-01

    The Mount St. Helens 1980 eruption offers an opportunity to study vegetation recovery rates and patterns in a perturbed ecosystem. The eruptions of Mount St. Helens created new surfaces by stripping and implacing large volumes of eroded material and depositing tephra in the blast area and on the flanks of the mountain. Areas of major disturbance are those in the blast zone that were subject to debris avalanche, pyroclastic flows, mudflows, and blowdown and scorched timber; and those outside the blast zone that received extensive tephra deposits. It was observed that during maximum daytime solar heating, surface temperatures of vegetated areas are cooler than surrounding nonvegetated areas, and that surface temperature varies with percent vegetation cover. A method of measuring the relationship between effective radiant temperature (ERT) and percent vegetation cover in the thermal infrared (8 to 12 microns) region of the electromagnetic spectrum was investigated.

  9. 3D Multi-spectral Image-guided Near-infrared Spectroscopy using Boundary Element Method

    PubMed Central

    Srinivasan, Subhadra; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.

    2010-01-01

    Image guided (IG) Near-Infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) has the ability to provide high-resolution metabolic and vascular characterization of tissue, with clinical applications in diagnosis of breast cancer. This method is specific to multimodality imaging where tissue boundaries obtained from alternate modalities such as MRI/CT, are used for NIRS recovery. IG-NIRS is severely limited in 3D by challenges such as volumetric meshing of arbitrary anatomical shapes and computational burden encountered by existing models which use finite element method (FEM). We present an efficient and feasible alternative to FEM using boundary element method (BEM). The main advantage is the use of surface discretization which is reliable and more easily generated than volume grids in 3D and enables automation for large number of clinical data-sets. The BEM has been implemented for the diffusion equation to model light propagation in tissue. Image reconstruction based on BEM has been tested in a multi-threading environment using four processors which provides 60% improvement in computational time compared to a single processor. Spectral priors have been implemented in this framework and applied to a three-region problem with mean error of 6% in recovery of NIRS parameters. PMID:21179380

  10. Multispectral near-infrared imaging of composite restorations in extracted teeth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logan, Cooper M.; Co, Katrina U.; Fried, William A.; Simon, Jacob C.; Staninec, Michal; Fried, Daniel; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2014-02-01

    One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure.

  11. Multispectral Near-Infrared Imaging of Composite Restorations in Extracted Teeth.

    PubMed

    Logan, Cooper M; Co, Katrina U; Fried, William A; Simon, Jacob C; Staninec, Michal; And, Daniel Fried; Darling, Cynthia L

    2014-02-20

    One major advantage of composite restoration materials is that they can be color matched to the tooth. However, this presents a challenge when composites fail and they need to be replaced. Dentists typically spend more time repairing and replacing composites than placing new restorations. Previous studies have shown that near-infrared imaging can be used to distinguish between sound enamel and decay due to the differences in light scattering. The purpose of this study was to use a similar approach and exploit differences in light scattering to attain high contrast between composite and tooth structure. Extracted human teeth with composites (n=16) were imaged in occlusal transmission mode at wavelengths of 1300-nm, 1460-nm and 1550-nm using an InGaAs image sensor with a tungsten halogen light source with spectral filters. All samples were also imaged in the visible range using a high definition 3D digital microscope. Our results indicate that NIR wavelengths at 1460-nm and 1550-nm, coincident with higher water absorption yield the highest contrast between dental composites and tooth structure. PMID:25309098

  12. The PanCam instrument on the 2018 Exomars rover: Science Implementation Strategy and Integrated Surface Operations Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Jaumann, Ralf; Coates, Andrew; Griffiths, Andrew; Hauber, Ernst; Trauthan, Frank; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, Dave; Bauer, Arnold; Cousins, Claire

    2010-05-01

    Geologic context as a combination of orbital imaging and surface vision, including range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging, is commonly regarded as basic requirement for remote robotic geology and forms the first tier of any multi-instrument strategy for investigating and eventually understanding the geology of a region from a robotic platform. Missions with objectives beyond a pure geologic survey, e.g. exobiology objectives, require goal-oriented operational procedures, where the iterative process of scientific observation, hypothesis, testing, and synthesis, performed via a sol-by-sol data exchange with a remote robot, is supported by a powerful vision system. Beyond allowing a thorough geological mapping of the surface (soil, rocks and outcrops) in 3D, using wide angle stereo imagery, such a system needs to be able to provide detailed visual information on targets of interest in high resolution, thereby enabling the selection of science targets and samples for further analysis with a specialized in-situ instrument suite. Surface vision for ESA's upcoming ExoMars rover will come from a dedicated Panoramic Camera System (PanCam). As integral part of the Pasteur payload package, the PanCam is designed to support the search for evidence of biological processes by obtaining wide angle multispectral stereoscopic panoramic images and high resolution RGB images from the mast of the rover [1]. The camera system will consist of two identical wide-angle cameras (WACs), which are arranged on a common pan-tilt mechanism, with a fixed stereo base length of 50 cm. The WACs are being complemented by a High Resolution Camera (HRC), mounted between the WACs, which allows a magnification of selected targets by a factor of ~8 with respect to the wide-angle optics. The high-resolution images together with the multispectral and stereo capabilities of the camera will be of unprecedented quality for the identification of water-related surface features (such as sedimentary

  13. Hematite spherules at Meridiani: results from MI, Mini-TES, and Pancam

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvin, W.M.; Shoffner, J.D.; Johnson, J. R.; Knoll, A.H.; Pocock, J.M.; Squyres, S. W.; Weitz, C.M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J.F., III; Christensen, P.R.; de Souza, P. A., Jr.; Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T.D.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B.L.; Knudson, A.T.; McLennan, S.M.; Rogers, A.D.; Thompson, S.D.

    2008-01-01

    We report on observations of hematite-bearing spherules at Meridiani Planum made using the Microscopic Imager (MI), Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Spherules were observed on soil surfaces and in outcrop rocks, both on undisturbed surfaces and in abraded surfaces ground using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). Spherule size and shape change little along the 850 m eastward traverse from Eagle Crater to Endurance Crater, but spherules decrease and then slightly increase in size along the 6 km traverse from Endurance south to Victoria Crater. Local populations range from submillimeters to several millimeters in diameter. An additional small diameter (100 μm) size population is possible. An increase in irregular shapes is found near Victoria Crater. This, combined with the size decrease south of Endurance, suggests either a changing depositional environment, or variation in the duration and timing of diagenetic events. The dominant smaller size population observed early in the mission in aeolian areas and ripple crests is observed as the primary size population in abraded outcrop farther south. This suggests that successively younger beds are exposed at the surface along the southward traverse. Stratigraphically higher units removed by erosion could be recorded by the present surface lag deposit. Coordinated systematic observations are used to determine optical and infrared hematite indices of the surface soils in Pancam and Mini-TES. In spite of the systematic variation seen in MI, both Pancam and Mini-TES indices are highly variable based on the local surface, and neither show systematic trends south of Endurance. The lack of a 390 cm?1 feature in Mini-TES spectra suggests concentric or radial interior structure within the spherules at scales too fine for MI to observe. Mini-TES does not detect any silicate component in the spherules. A bound water component in soils or in

  14. Hematite spherules at Meridiani: Results from MI, Mini-TES, and Pancam

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvin, W. M.; Shoffner, J. D.; Johnson, J. R.; Knoll, A. H.; Pocock, J. M.; Squyres, S. W.; Weitz, C. M.; Arvidson, R. E.; Bell, J. F.; Christensen, P. R.; de Souza, P. A.; Farrand, W. H.; Glotch, T. D.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Jolliff, B. L.; Knudson, A. T.; McLennan, S. M.; Rogers, A. D.; Thompson, S. D.

    2008-12-01

    We report on observations of hematite-bearing spherules at Meridiani Planum made using the Microscopic Imager (MI), Mini-Thermal Emission Spectrometer (Mini-TES), and Panoramic Camera (Pancam) instruments on the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. Spherules were observed on soil surfaces and in outcrop rocks, both on undisturbed surfaces and in abraded surfaces ground using the Rock Abrasion Tool (RAT). Spherule size and shape change little along the 850 m eastward traverse from Eagle Crater to Endurance Crater, but spherules decrease and then slightly increase in size along the 6 km traverse from Endurance south to Victoria Crater. Local populations range from submillimeters to several millimeters in diameter. An additional small diameter (100 μm) size population is possible. An increase in irregular shapes is found near Victoria Crater. This, combined with the size decrease south of Endurance, suggests either a changing depositional environment, or variation in the duration and timing of diagenetic events. The dominant smaller size population observed early in the mission in aeolian areas and ripple crests is observed as the primary size population in abraded outcrop farther south. This suggests that successively younger beds are exposed at the surface along the southward traverse. Stratigraphically higher units removed by erosion could be recorded by the present surface lag deposit. Coordinated systematic observations are used to determine optical and infrared hematite indices of the surface soils in Pancam and Mini-TES. In spite of the systematic variation seen in MI, both Pancam and Mini-TES indices are highly variable based on the local surface, and neither show systematic trends south of Endurance. The lack of a 390 cm-1 feature in Mini-TES spectra suggests concentric or radial interior structure within the spherules at scales too fine for MI to observe. Mini-TES does not detect any silicate component in the spherules. A bound water component in soils or in

  15. Multispectral Thermal Infrared Remote Sensing of Volcanic SO2 Plumes with NASA’s Earth Observing System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Realmuto, V. J.

    2009-12-01

    The instruments aboard NASA’s series of Earth Observing System satellites provide a rich suite of measurements for the mapping of volcanic plumes and clouds. This presentation will focus on applications of thermal multispectral infrared (TIR) data acquired with the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER), Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS), and Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) to the recent eruptions of Augustine and Sarychev volcanoes in Alaska and the Russian Kuril Islands, respectively. ASTER, MODIS, and AIRS provide complimentary information on the quantity and distribution of sulfur dioxide (SO2), silicate ash, and sulfate (SO4) aerosols within plumes. In addition, data from the Multi-angle Imaging SpectroRadiometer (MISR) are used to derive estimates of aerosol loading, cloud-top altitude, wind direction, and wind speed. MODIS is our workhorse for plume mapping projects. There are MODIS instruments on the Terra and Aqua platforms, ensuring at least two MODIS passes per day over most volcanoes and four passes per day over many volcanoes. The spatial resolution of MODIS TIR radiance measurements is 1 km (at nadir) over a ground swath of 2330 km. MODIS can detect both the 7.3 and 8.5 μm bands of SO2, although the 7.3 μm band is often obscured by water vapor absorption when plumes are altitudes below ~ 4 km. ASTER has five channels in the TIR, and can detect the 8.5 μm SO2 band. The high spatial resolution (90 m) of ASTER TIR radiance measurements results in high sensitivity to SO2 within a narrow ground swath (60 km). AIRS has over 2700 spectral channels between 3.7 and 15.4 μm, allowing us to make unambiguous identifications of SO2, SO4 aerosols, and ash over a ground swath of ~2330 km. AIRS can detect the 7.3 μm SO2 band, and the strength of this band partially offsets the coarse spatial resolution of this instrument (~17 km at nadir). The key to multi-sensor mapping is the availability of a standard set

  16. The PanCam instrument on the 2018 Exomars rover: Science Implementation Strategy and Integrated Surface Operations Concept

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitz, Nicole; Jaumann, Ralf; Coates, Andrew; Griffiths, Andrew; Hauber, Ernst; Trauthan, Frank; Paar, Gerhard; Barnes, Dave; Bauer, Arnold; Cousins, Claire

    2010-05-01

    Geologic context as a combination of orbital imaging and surface vision, including range, resolution, stereo, and multispectral imaging, is commonly regarded as basic requirement for remote robotic geology and forms the first tier of any multi-instrument strategy for investigating and eventually understanding the geology of a region from a robotic platform. Missions with objectives beyond a pure geologic survey, e.g. exobiology objectives, require goal-oriented operational procedures, where the iterative process of scientific observation, hypothesis, testing, and synthesis, performed via a sol-by-sol data exchange with a remote robot, is supported by a powerful vision system. Beyond allowing a thorough geological mapping of the surface (soil, rocks and outcrops) in 3D, using wide angle stereo imagery, such a system needs to be able to provide detailed visual information on targets of interest in high resolution, thereby enabling the selection of science targets and samples for further analysis with a specialized in-situ instrument suite. Surface vision for ESA's upcoming ExoMars rover will come from a dedicated Panoramic Camera System (PanCam). As integral part of the Pasteur payload package, the PanCam is designed to support the search for evidence of biological processes by obtaining wide angle multispectral stereoscopic panoramic images and high resolution RGB images from the mast of the rover [1]. The camera system will consist of two identical wide-angle cameras (WACs), which are arranged on a common pan-tilt mechanism, with a fixed stereo base length of 50 cm. The WACs are being complemented by a High Resolution Camera (HRC), mounted between the WACs, which allows a magnification of selected targets by a factor of ~8 with respect to the wide-angle optics. The high-resolution images together with the multispectral and stereo capabilities of the camera will be of unprecedented quality for the identification of water-related surface features (such as sedimentary

  17. The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR): A High Speed, Multispectral, Thermal Instrument Development in Support of HyspIRI-TIR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hook, Simon

    2011-01-01

    The Prototype HyspIRI Thermal Infrared Radiometer (PHyTIR) is being developed as part of the risk reduction activities associated with the Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI). The HyspIRI mission was recommended by the National Research Council Decadal Survey and includes a visible shortwave infrared (SWIR) pushboom spectrometer and a multispectral whiskbroom thermal infrared (TIR) imager. Data from the HyspIRI mission will be used to address key science questions related to the Solid Earth and Carbon Cycle and Ecosystems focus areas of the NASA Science Mission Directorate. The HyspIRI TIR system will have 60m ground resolution, better than 200mK noise equivalent delta temperature (NEDT), 0.5C absolute temperature resolution with a 5-day repeat from LEO orbit. PHyTIR addresses the technology readiness level (TRL) of certain key subsystems of the TIR imager, primarily the detector assembly and scanning mechanism. PHyTIR will use Mercury Cadmium Telluride (MCT) technology at the focal plane and operate in time delay integration mode. A custom read out integrated circuit (ROIC) will provide the high speed readout hence allowing the high data rates needed for the 5 day repeat. PHyTIR will also demonstrate a newly developed interferometeric metrology system. This system will provide an absolute measurement of the scanning mirror to an order of magnitude better than conventional optical encoders. This will minimize the reliance on ground control points hence minimizing post-processing (e.g. geo-rectification computations).

  18. Quantitative evaluation of lipid concentration in atherosclerotic plaque phantom by near-infrared multispectral angioscope at wavelengths around 1200 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Daichi; Ishii, Katsunori; Awazu, Kunio

    2015-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is a primary cause of critical ischemic diseases like heart infarction or stroke. A method that can provide detailed information about the stability of atherosclerotic plaques is required. We focused on spectroscopic techniques that could evaluate the chemical composition of lipid in plaques. A novel angioscope using multispectral imaging at wavelengths around 1200 nm for quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaques was developed. The angioscope consists of a halogen lamp, an indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) camera, 3 optical band pass filters transmitting wavelengths of 1150, 1200, and 1300 nm, an image fiber having 0.7 mm outer diameter, and an irradiation fiber which consists of 7 multimode fibers. Atherosclerotic plaque phantoms with 100, 60, 20 vol.% of lipid were prepared and measured by the multispectral angioscope. The acquired datasets were processed by spectral angle mapper (SAM) method. As a result, simulated plaque areas in atherosclerotic plaque phantoms that could not be detected by an angioscopic visible image could be clearly enhanced. In addition, quantitative evaluation of atherosclerotic plaque phantoms based on the lipid volume fractions was performed up to 20 vol.%. These results show the potential of a multispectral angioscope at wavelengths around 1200 nm for quantitative evaluation of the stability of atherosclerotic plaques.

  19. Cloud characteristics over central Amazonia during GTE/ABLE 2B derived from multispectral visible and infrared spin scan radiometer atmospheric sounder observations

    SciTech Connect

    Menzel, W.P. ); Schmit, T.J.; Wylie, D.P. )

    1990-09-20

    Multispectral GOES/Visible and Infrared Spin Scan Radiometer Atmospheric Sounder (VAS) observations in the carbon dioxide absorption band at 15 {mu}m have been used to calculate diurnal cloud statistics over central Amazonia region for 4 days during the Global Tropospheric Experiment/Amazon Boundary Layer Experiment (GTE/ABLE IIB). The CO{sub 2} technique calculates both cloud top pressure and effective emissivity from radiative transfer principles. Transmissive clouds that are partially transparent to terrestrial radiation have been reliably separated from opaque clouds in the statistics of cloud cover. A high incidence of transmissive clouds (about 47%) was found on the average. Diurnal characteristics of cloud cover over Amazonia have been linked to convective activity over this region. On days with afternoon convection, an increase in low-altitude opaque clouds was followed by a subsequent increase in high-altitude transmissive clouds.

  20. The use of aircraft-based Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data to measure surface energy budgets on a landscape scale

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Luvall, Jeffrey C.

    1991-01-01

    A series of Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner Data (TIMS) was collected over the H. J. Andrews experimental forest in western Oregon and at the Coweeta Hydrologic Laboratory in North Carolina. Flight lines were overlapped with an 8 to 28 minute time difference between flight lines. Concurrent radiosonde measurements of atmospheric profiles of air and dew point temperatures provided inputs to LOWTRAN6 for atmospheric radiance corrections of the TIMS data. Surface temperature differences over time between flight lines allowed the development of thermal response numbers (TRN) which characterized the thermal response of the different surface types. The polygons containing mostly soil and bare rock had the lowest TRN whereas the forested polygons were the highest. Results indicate that forest canopy temperatures measured by the TIMS are comparable to needle thermocouples temperatures. ET models developed from the TIMS data obtained similar ET rates as those using energy balance techniques.

  1. The use of multispectral thermal infrared image data to estimate the sulfur dioxide flux from volcanoes: A case study from Mount Etna, Sicily, July 29, 1986

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Realmuto, Vincent J.; Abrams, Michael J.; Buongiorno, M. Fabrizia; Pieri, David C.

    1994-01-01

    We have found that image data acquired with NASA's airborne Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) can be used to make estimates of the SO2 content of volcanic plumes. TIMS image data are most applicable to the study of partially transparent SO2 plumes, such as those released during quiescent periods or nonexplosive eruptions. The estimation procedure is based on the LOWTRAN 7 radiative transfer code, which we use to model the radiance perceived by TIMS as it views the ground through an SO2 plume. The input to the procedure includes the altitudes of the aircraft and ground, the altitude and thickness of the SO2 plume, the emissivity of the ground, and altitude profiles of the atmospheric pressure, temperature, and relative humidity. We use the TIMS data to estimate both ground temperatures beneath a plume and SO2 concentrations within a plume. Applying our procedure to TIMS data acquired over Mount Etna, Sicily, on July 29, 1986, we estimate that the SO2 flux from the volcano was approximately 6700 t d(exp -1). The use of TIMS to study SO2 plumes represents a bridge between highly localized methods, such as correlation spectroscopy or direct sampling, and small-scale mapping techniques involving satellite instruments such as the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer or Microwave Limb Sounder. We require further airborne experiments to refine our estimation procedure. This refinement is a necessary preparation for the schedueled 1998 launch of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer, which will allow large-scale multispectral thermal infrared image data to be collected over virtually any volcano on Earth at least once every 16 days.

  2. Observing lowermost tropospheric ozone pollution with a new multispectral synergic approach of IASI infrared and GOME-2 ultraviolet satellite measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cuesta, Juan; Foret, Gilles; Dufour, Gaëlle; Eremenko, Maxim; Coman, Adriana; Gaubert, Benjamin; Beekmann, Matthias; Liu, Xiong; Cai, Zhaonan; Von Clarmann, Thomas; Spurr, Robert; Flaud, Jean-Marie

    2014-05-01

    Tropospheric ozone is currently one of the air pollutants posing greatest threats to human health and ecosystems. Monitoring ozone pollution at the regional, continental and global scale is a crucial societal issue. Only spaceborne remote sensing is capable of observing tropospheric ozone at such scales. The spatio-temporal coverage of new satellite-based instruments, such as IASI or GOME-2, offer a great potential for monitoring air quality by synergism with regional chemistry-transport models, for both inter-validation and full data assimilation. However, current spaceborne observations using single-band either UV or IR measurements show limited sensitivity to ozone in the atmospheric boundary layer, which is the major concern for air quality. Very recently, we have developed an innovative multispectral approach, so-called IASI+GOME-2, which combines IASI and GOME-2 observations, respectively in the IR and UV. This unique multispectral approach has allowed the observation of ozone plumes in the lowermost troposphere (LMT, below 3 km of altitude) over Europe, for the first time from space. Our first analyses are focused on typical ozone pollution events during the summer of 2009 over Europe. During these events, LMT ozone plumes at different regions are produced photo-chemically in the boundary layer, transported upwards to the free troposphere and also downwards from the stratosphere. We have analysed them using IASI+GOME-2 observations, in comparison with single-band methods (IASI, GOME-2 and OMI). Only IASI+GOME-2 depicts ozone plumes located below 3 km of altitude (both over land and ocean). Indeed, the multispectral sensitivity in the LMT is greater by 40% and it peaks at 2 to 2.5 km of altitude over land, thus at least 0.8 to 1 km below that for all single-band methods. Over Europe during the summer of 2009, IASI+GOME-2 shows 1% mean bias and 21% precision for direct comparisons with ozonesondes and also good agreement with CHIMERE model simulations

  3. A multispectral sorting device for wheat kernels

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A low-cost multispectral sorting device was constructed using three visible and three near-infrared light-emitting diodes (LED) with peak emission wavelengths of 470 nm (blue), 527 nm (green), 624 nm (red), 850 nm, 940 nm, and 1070 nm. The multispectral data were collected by rapidly (~12 kHz) blin...

  4. Gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method

    DOEpatents

    Brown, Kevin H.; Crollett, Seferino; Henson, Tammy D.; Napier, Matthew; Stromberg, Peter G.

    2016-01-26

    A gimbaled multispectral imaging system and method is described herein. In an general embodiment, the gimbaled multispectral imaging system has a cross support that defines a first gimbal axis and a second gimbal axis, wherein the cross support is rotatable about the first gimbal axis. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system comprises a telescope that fixed to an upper end of the cross support, such that rotation of the cross support about the first gimbal axis causes the tilt of the telescope to alter. The gimbaled multispectral imaging system includes optics that facilitate on-gimbal detection of visible light and off-gimbal detection of infrared light.

  5. Recent advances in airborne terrestrial remote sensing with the NASA airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), and thermal infrared multispectral scanner (TIMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vane, Gregg; Evans, Diane L.; Kahle, Anne B.

    1989-01-01

    Significant progress in terrestrial remote sensing from the air has been made with three NASA-developed sensors that collectively cover the solar-reflected, thermal infrared, and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. These sensors are the airborne visible/infrared imaging spectrometer (AVIRIS), the thermal infrared mapping spectrometer (TIMS) and the airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR), respectively. AVIRIS and SAR underwent extensive in-flight engineering testing in 1987 and 1988 and are scheduled to become operational in 1989. TIMS has been in operation for several years. These sensors are described.

  6. Multispectral Image Feature Points

    PubMed Central

    Aguilera, Cristhian; Barrera, Fernando; Lumbreras, Felipe; Sappa, Angel D.; Toledo, Ricardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a novel feature point descriptor for the multispectral image case Far-Infrared and Visible Spectrum images. It allows matching interest points on images of the same scene but acquired in different spectral bands. Initially, points of interest are detected on both images through a SIFT-like based scale space representation. Then, these points are characterized using an Edge Oriented Histogram (EOH) descriptor. Finally, points of interest from multispectral images are matched by finding nearest couples using the information from the descriptor. The provided experimental results and comparisons with similar methods show both the validity of the proposed approach as well as the improvements it offers with respect to the current state-of-the-art.

  7. Multispectral measurement of contrast in tissue-mimicking phantoms in near-infrared spectral range of 650 to 1600 nm

    PubMed Central

    Salo, Daniel; Zhang, Hairong; Kim, David M.; Berezin, Mikhail Y.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. In order to identify the optimal imaging conditions for the highest spatial contrast in biological tissue, we explored the properties of a tissue-mimicking phantom as a function of the wavelengths in a broad range of near-infrared spectra (650 to 1600 nm). Our customized multispectral hardware, which featured a scanning transmission microscope and imaging spectrographs equipped with silicon and InGaAs charge-coupled diode array detectors, allowed for direct comparison of the Michelson contrast obtained from a phantom composed of a honeycomb grid, Intralipid, and India ink. The measured contrast depended on the size of the grid, luminance, and the wavelength of measurements. We demonstrated that at low thickness of the phantom, a reasonable contrast of the objects can be achieved at any wavelength between 700 and 1400 nm and between 1500 and 1600 nm. At larger thicknesses, such contrast can be achieved mostly between 1200 and 1350 nm. These results suggest that distinguishing biological features in deep tissue and developing contrast agents for in vivo may benefit from imaging in this spectral range. PMID:25104414

  8. Infrared image processing devoted to thermal non-contact characterization-Applications to Non-Destructive Evaluation, Microfluidics and 2D source term distribution for multispectral tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batsale, Jean-Christophe; Pradere, Christophe

    2015-11-01

    The cost of IR cameras is more and more decreasing. Beyond the preliminary calibration step and the global instrumentation, the infrared image processing is then one of the key step for achieving in very broad domains. Generally the IR images are coming from the transient temperature field related to the emission of a black surface in response to an external or internal heating (active IR thermography). The first applications were devoted to the so called thermal Non-Destructive Evaluation methods by considering a thin sample and 1D transient heat diffusion through the sample (transverse diffusion). With simplified assumptions related to the transverse diffusion, the in-plane diffusion and transport phenomena can be also considered. A general equation can be applied in order to balance the heat transfer at the pixel scale or between groups of pixels in order to estimate several fields of thermophysical properties (heterogeneous field of in-plane diffusivity, flow distributions, source terms). There is a lot of possible strategies to process the space and time distributed big amount of data (previous integral transformation of the images, compression, elimination of the non useful areas...), generally based on the necessity to analyse the derivative versus space and time of the temperature field. Several illustrative examples related to the Non-Destructive Evaluation of heterogeneous solids, the thermal characterization of chemical reactions in microfluidic channels and the design of systems for multispectral tomography, will be presented.

  9. Remote detection of canopy water stress in coniferous forests using the NS001 Thematic Mapper Simulator and the thermal infrared multispectral scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pierce, Lars L.; Running, Steven W.; Riggs, George A.

    1990-01-01

    Water stress was induced in two coniferous forest stands in West Germany by severing tree sapwood. Leaf water potential, Psi(L), measurements indicated that maximum, naturally occurring levels of water stress developed in the stressed plots while control plots exhibited natural diurnal trends. Images of each site were obtained with the Thematic Mapper Simulator (NS001) and the Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) 12 to 15 days after stress induction. NS001 bands 2 to 6, NS001 indices combining bands 4 and 6, and NS001 and TIMS thermal bands showed significant radiance differences between stressed and control plots when large differences in Psi(L) and relative water content (RWC) existed during the morning overflights at Munich. However, the NS001 and TIMS sensors could not detect the slightly smaller differences in Psi(L) and RWC during the Munich afternoon and Frankfurt overflights. The results suggest that routine detection of canopy water stress under operational conditions is difficult utilizing current sensor technology.

  10. Multispectral scanner (MSS), ERTS-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arlauskas, J.

    1973-01-01

    The multispectral scanner onboard ERTS-A spacecraft provides simultaneous images in three visible bands and one near infrared band. The instrument employs fiber optics to transfer optical images to the detectors and photomultiplier tubes. Detector outputs are digitized and multiplexed for transmission from the spacecraft by analog to digital processor.

  11. Multispectral scanner optical system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stokes, R. C.; Koch, N. G. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    An optical system for use in a multispectral scanner of the type used in video imaging devices is disclosed. Electromagnetic radiation reflected by a rotating scan mirror is focused by a concave primary telescope mirror and collimated by a second concave mirror. The collimated beam is split by a dichroic filter which transmits radiant energy in the infrared spectrum and reflects visible and near infrared energy. The long wavelength beam is filtered and focused on an infrared detector positioned in a cryogenic environment. The short wavelength beam is dispersed by a pair of prisms, then projected on an array of detectors also mounted in a cryogenic environment and oriented at an angle relative to the optical path of the dispersed short wavelength beam.

  12. Multispectral Photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    Model II Multispectral Camera is an advanced aerial camera that provides optimum enhancement of a scene by recording spectral signatures of ground objects only in narrow, preselected bands of the electromagnetic spectrum. Its photos have applications in such areas as agriculture, forestry, water pollution investigations, soil analysis, geologic exploration, water depth studies and camouflage detection. The target scene is simultaneously photographed in four separate spectral bands. Using a multispectral viewer, such as their Model 75 Spectral Data creates a color image from the black and white positives taken by the camera. With this optical image analysis unit, all four bands are superimposed in accurate registration and illuminated with combinations of blue green, red, and white light. Best color combination for displaying the target object is selected and printed. Spectral Data Corporation produces several types of remote sensing equipment and also provides aerial survey, image processing and analysis and number of other remote sensing services.

  13. PtSi Schottky-barrier focal plane arrays for multispectral imaging in ultraviolet, visible, and infrared spectral bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Bor-Yeu; Chen, C. K.; Mattia, John-Paul

    1990-04-01

    PtSi Schottky-barrier detectors, which are conventionally used in the back-illumination mode for thermal imaging in the 3-5 micron infrared (IR) spectral band, are shown to exhibit excellent photoresponse in the near-ultraviolet and visible regions when operated in the front-illumination mode. For devices without antireflection coatings, external quantum efficiency in excess of 60 percent has been obtained for wavelengths between 400 and 800 nm. The efficiency decreases below 400 nm but is still about 35 percent at 290 nm. High-quality imaging has been demonstrated in both the visible and 3-5 micron spectral bands for front-illuminated 160- x 244-element PtSi focal plane arrays integrated with monolithic CCD readout circuitry.

  14. Estimating nocturnal opaque ice cloud optical depth from MODIS multispectral infrared radiances using a neural network method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnis, Patrick; Hong, Gang; Sun-Mack, Szedung; Smith, William L.; Chen, Yan; Miller, Steven D.

    2016-05-01

    Retrieval of ice cloud properties using IR measurements has a distinct advantage over the visible and near-IR techniques by providing consistent monitoring regardless of solar illumination conditions. Historically, the IR bands at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm have been used to infer ice cloud parameters by various methods, but the reliable retrieval of ice cloud optical depth τ is limited to nonopaque cirrus with τ < 8. The Ice Cloud Optical Depth from Infrared using a Neural network (ICODIN) method is developed in this paper by training Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) radiances at 3.7, 6.7, 11.0, and 12.0 µm against CloudSat-estimated τ during the nighttime using 2 months of matched global data from 2007. An independent data set comprising observations from the same 2 months of 2008 was used to validate the ICODIN. One 4-channel and three 3-channel versions of the ICODIN were tested. The training and validation results show that IR channels can be used to estimate ice cloud τ up to 150 with correlations above 78% and 69% for all clouds and only opaque ice clouds, respectively. However, τ for the deepest clouds is still underestimated in many instances. The corresponding RMS differences relative to CloudSat are ~100 and ~72%. If the opaque clouds are properly identified with the IR methods, the RMS differences in the retrieved optical depths are ~62%. The 3.7 µm channel appears to be most sensitive to optical depth changes but is constrained by poor precision at low temperatures. A method for estimating total optical depth is explored for estimation of cloud water path in the future. Factors affecting the uncertainties and potential improvements are discussed. With improved techniques for discriminating between opaque and semitransparent ice clouds, the method can ultimately improve cloud property monitoring over the entire diurnal cycle.

  15. FireMapper 2.0: a multispectral uncooled infrared imaging system for airborne wildfire mapping and remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, James W.; Riggan, Philip J.; Griffin, Stephanie A.; Grush, Ronald C.; Grush, William H.; Pena, James

    2003-11-01

    FireMapper®2.0 is a second-generation airborne system developed specifically for wildfire mapping and remote sensing. Its design is based on lessons learned from two years of flight-testing of a research FireMapper® system by the Pacific uthwest Research Station of the USDA Forest Service. The new, operational design features greater coverage and improved performance with a rugged sensor that is less than one third the size and weight of the original research sensor. The sensor obtains thermal infrared images in two narrow spectral bands and one wide spectral band with the use of a single uncooled microbolometer detector array. The dynamic range of the sensor is designed to accurately measure scene temperatures from normal backgrounds, for remote sensing and disaster management applications, up to flaming fronts without saturating. All three channels are extremely linear and are calibrated in-flight with a highly accurate absolute calibration system. Airborne testing of the research system has led to improved displays and simplified operator interfaces. These features facilitate the operational use of the FireMapper®2.0 system on both fixed wing aircraft and helicopters with minimal operator inputs. The operating system features custom software to display and zoom in on the images in realtime as they are obtained. Selected images can also be saved and recalled for detailed study. All images are tagged with GPS date, time, latitude, longitude, altitude, and heading and can be recorded on a portable USB hard drive upon operator command. The operating system can also be used to replay previously recorded image sequences. The FireMapper® 2.0 was designed and fabricated by Space Instruments, Inc. as part of a Research Joint Venture with the USDA Forest Service.

  16. Mineralogic variability of the Kelso Dunes, Mojave Desert, California derived from Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS) data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramsey, Michael S.; Howard, Douglas A.; Christensen, Philip R.; Lancaster, Nicholas

    1993-01-01

    Mineral identification and mapping of alluvial material using thermal infrared (TIR) remote sensing is extremely useful for tracking sediment transport, assessing the degree of weathering and locating sediment sources. As a result of the linear relation between a mineral's percentage in a given area (image pixel) and the depth of its diagnostic spectral features, TIR spectra can be deconvolved in order to ascertain mineralogic percentages. Typical complications such as vegetation, particle size and thermal shadowing are minimized upon examination of dunes. Actively saltating dunes contain little to no vegetation, are very well sorted and lack the thermal shadows that arise from rocky terrain. The primary focus of this work was to use the Kelso Dunes as a test location for an accuracy analysis of temperature/emissivity separation and linear unmixing algorithms. Accurate determination of ground temperature and component discrimination will become key products of future ASTER data. A decorrelation stretch of the TIMS image showed clear color variations within the active dunes. Samples collected from these color units were analyzed for mineralogy, grain size, and separated into endmembers. This analysis not only revealed that the dunes contained significant mineralogic variation, but were more immature (low quartz percentage) than previously reported. Unmixing of the TIMS data using the primary mineral endmembers produced unique variations within the dunes and may indicate near, rather than far, source locales for the dunes. The Kelso Dunes lie in the eastern Mojave Desert, California, approximately 95 km west of the Colorado River. The primary dune field is contained within a topographic basin bounded by the Providence, Granite Mountains, with the active region marked by three northeast trending linear ridges. Although active, the dunes appear to lie at an opposing regional wind boundary which produces little net movement of the crests. Previous studies have estimated

  17. Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of dust on the Spirit Rover: Cleaning events, spectral properties, and aggregates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vaughan, Alicia F.; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Herkenhoff, Kenneth E.; Sullivan, Robert; Landis, Geoffrey A.; Goetz, Walter; Madsen, Morten B.

    2010-01-01

    This work describes dust deposits on the Spirit Rover over 2000 sols through examination of Pancam and Microscopic Imager observations of specific locations on the rover body, including portions of the solar array, Pancam and Mini-TES calibration targets, and the magnets. This data set reveals the three "cleaning events" experienced by Spirit to date, the spectral properties of dust, and the tendency of dust particles to form aggregates 100 um and larger.

  18. Multispectral imaging with vertical silicon nanowires

    PubMed Central

    Park, Hyunsung; Crozier, Kenneth B.

    2013-01-01

    Multispectral imaging is a powerful tool that extends the capabilities of the human eye. However, multispectral imaging systems generally are expensive and bulky, and multiple exposures are needed. Here, we report the demonstration of a compact multispectral imaging system that uses vertical silicon nanowires to realize a filter array. Multiple filter functions covering visible to near-infrared (NIR) wavelengths are simultaneously defined in a single lithography step using a single material (silicon). Nanowires are then etched and embedded into polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), thereby realizing a device with eight filter functions. By attaching it to a monochrome silicon image sensor, we successfully realize an all-silicon multispectral imaging system. We demonstrate visible and NIR imaging. We show that the latter is highly sensitive to vegetation and furthermore enables imaging through objects opaque to the eye. PMID:23955156

  19. Infrared

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vollmer, M.

    2013-11-01

    underlying physics. There are now at least six different disciplines that deal with infrared radiation in one form or another, and in one or several different spectral portions of the whole IR range. These are spectroscopy, astronomy, thermal imaging, detector and source development and metrology, as well the field of optical data transmission. Scientists working in these fields range from chemists and astronomers through to physicists and even photographers. This issue presents examples from some of these fields. All the papers—though some of them deal with fundamental or applied research—include interesting elements that make them directly applicable to university-level teaching at the graduate or postgraduate level. Source (e.g. quantum cascade lasers) and detector development (e.g. multispectral sensors), as well as metrology issues and optical data transmission, are omitted since they belong to fundamental research journals. Using a more-or-less arbitrary order according to wavelength range, the issue starts with a paper on the physics of near-infrared photography using consumer product cameras in the spectral range from 800 nm to 1.1 µm [1]. It is followed by a series of three papers dealing with IR imaging in spectral ranges from 3 to 14 µm [2-4]. One of them deals with laboratory courses that may help to characterize the IR camera response [2], the second discusses potential applications for nondestructive testing techniques [3] and the third gives an example of how IR thermal imaging may be used to understand cloud cover of the Earth [4], which is the prerequisite for successful climate modelling. The next two papers cover the vast field of IR spectroscopy [5, 6]. The first of these deals with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy in the spectral range from 2.5 to 25 µm, studying e.g. ro-vibrational excitations in gases or optical phonon interactions within solids [5]. The second deals mostly with the spectroscopy of liquids such as biofuels and special

  20. Seasonal Variation of Aerosol Particle Size Using MER/Pancam Sky Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, M. D.; Wolff, M. J.

    2013-12-01

    Imaging of the sky taken by the Pancam cameras on-board the Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) provide a useful tool for determining the optical depth and physcial properties of aerosols above the rover. Specifically, the brightness of the sky as a function of angle away from the Sun provides a powerful constraint on the size distribution and shape of dust and water ice aerosols. More than 100 Pancam "sky surveys" were taken by each of the two MER rovers covering a time span of several Mars years and a wide range of dust loading conditions including the planet-encirclind dust storm during Mars Year 28 (Earth year 2007). These sky surveys enable the time evolution of aerosol particle size to be determined including its relation to dust loading. Radiative transfer modeling is used to model the observations. Synthetic Pancam sky brightness is computed using a discrete-ordinates radiative transfer code that accounts for multiple scattering from aerosols and spherical geometry by integrating the source functions along curved paths in that coordinate system. We find that Mie scattering from spheres is not a good approximation for describing the angular variation of sky brightness far from the Sun (at scattering angles greater than 45 degrees). Significant seasonal variations are seen in the retrieved effective radius of the aerosols with higher optical depth strongly correlated with larger particle size.

  1. Seeing the Soils of Meridiani Planum Through the Eyes of Pancam and Microscopic Imager

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weitz, C. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Bell, J. F., III; Cabrol, N. A.; Calvin, W. M.; Ehlmann, B. L.; Farrand, W. H.; Greeley, R.; Herkenhoff, K. E.; Johnson, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    We are using data from the Pancam and Microscopic Imager (MI) on the Opportunity rover to characterize the soil grains at Meridiani Planum. We have traced individual grains in all MI images of the soils using the software application ImageJ distributed by NIH, and subsequently derived size and shape properties about the grains. The resolution of the MI is 31 microns per pixel [1] so we limit our measurements to those grains larger than about 0.3 mm in size. In cases where the grain is partially or substantially buried by other grains or finer soil particles, we do not make a measurement. False-color composites from Pancam images that cover the same location imaged by MI are made from the Left 2,5,6 (753, 535, 482 nm) filters or Right 2,7,1 (753, 1009, 430 nm) filters [2] in the Red, Green, and Blue channels, respectively. These color images are then merged with the MI images to illustrate color properties of particular grains. Pancam spectra are also extracted from grains when there is sufficient spatial coverage. in diameter. Figure 2 illustrates the dominance of these small grains at this particular location, which happens to be on the southern wall of Eagle crater. The Pancam color merge with this MI image suggests that the small spherules are more consistent with the basalt grains than the blueberries (spherulitic concretions derived from outcrop rocks [7]). The resolution of Pancam images of this location is on the order of 0.5 mm so the grains are only barely resolved. A Mossbauer measurement taken on an adjacent soil (Sol 53 Vanilla) that is composed solely of these smaller spherules (Fig 1) is consistent with a basaltic composition for the grains. Their concentration at this particular location in a brighter, elongate patch along the southeastern wall compared to elsewhere inside Eagle crater suggests wind activity favored their transport and subsequent deposition here. Their spherical shape is also possibly the result of wind action rounding them during

  2. Mapping variations in weight percent silica measured from multispectral thermal infrared imagery - Examples from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hook, S.J.; Dmochowski, J.E.; Howard, K.A.; Rowan, L.C.; Karlstrom, K.E.; Stock, J.M.

    2005-01-01

    Remotely sensed multispectral thermal infrared (8-13 ??m) images are increasingly being used to map variations in surface silicate mineralogy. These studies utilize the shift to longer wavelengths in the main spectral feature in minerals in this wavelength region (reststrahlen band) as the mineralogy changes from felsic to mafic. An approach is described for determining the amount of this shift and then using the shift with a reference curve, derived from laboratory data, to remotely determine the weight percent SiO2 of the surface. The approach has broad applicability to many study areas and can also be fine-tuned to give greater accuracy in a particular study area if field samples are available. The approach was assessed using airborne multispectral thermal infrared images from the Hiller Mountains, Nevada, USA and the Tres Virgenes-La Reforma, Baja California Sur, Mexico. Results indicate the general approach slightly overestimates the weight percent SiO2 of low silica rocks (e.g. basalt) and underestimates the weight percent SiO2 of high silica rocks (e.g. granite). Fine tuning the general approach with measurements from field samples provided good results for both areas with errors in the recovered weight percent SiO2 of a few percent. The map units identified by these techniques and traditional mapping at the Hiller Mountains demonstrate the continuity of the crystalline rocks from the Hiller Mountains southward to the White Hills supporting the idea that these ranges represent an essentially continuous footwall block below a regional detachment. Results from the Baja California data verify the most recent volcanism to be basaltic-andesite. ?? 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Multispectral Microimager for Astrobiology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sellar, R. Glenn; Farmer, Jack D.; Kieta, Andrew; Huang, Julie

    2006-01-01

    A primary goal of the astrobiology program is the search for fossil records. The astrobiology exploration strategy calls for the location and return of samples indicative of environments conducive to life, and that best capture and preserve biomarkers. Successfully returning samples from environments conducive to life requires two primary capabilities: (1) in situ mapping of the mineralogy in order to determine whether the desired minerals are present; and (2) nondestructive screening of samples for additional in-situ testing and/or selection for return to laboratories for more in-depth examination. Two of the most powerful identification techniques are micro-imaging and visible/infrared spectroscopy. The design and test results are presented from a compact rugged instrument that combines micro-imaging and spectroscopic capability to provide in-situ analysis, mapping, and sample screening capabilities. Accurate reflectance spectra should be a measure of reflectance as a function of wavelength only. Other compact multispectral microimagers use separate LEDs (light-emitting diodes) for each wavelength and therefore vary the angles of illumination when changing wavelengths. When observing a specularly-reflecting sample, this produces grossly inaccurate spectra due to the variation in the angle of illumination. An advanced design and test results are presented for a multispectral microimager which demonstrates two key advances relative to previous LED-based microimagers: (i) acquisition of actual reflectance spectra in which the flux is a function of wavelength only, rather than a function of both wavelength and illumination geometry; and (ii) increase in the number of spectral bands to eight bands covering a spectral range of 468 to 975 nm.

  4. Multispectral Palmprint Recognition Using a Quaternion Matrix

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xingpeng; Guo, Zhenhua; Song, Changjiang; Li, Yafeng

    2012-01-01

    Palmprints have been widely studied for biometric recognition for many years. Traditionally, a white light source is used for illumination. Recently, multispectral imaging has drawn attention because of its high recognition accuracy. Multispectral palmprint systems can provide more discriminant information under different illuminations in a short time, thus they can achieve better recognition accuracy. Previously, multispectral palmprint images were taken as a kind of multi-modal biometrics, and the fusion scheme on the image level or matching score level was used. However, some spectral information will be lost during image level or matching score level fusion. In this study, we propose a new method for multispectral images based on a quaternion model which could fully utilize the multispectral information. Firstly, multispectral palmprint images captured under red, green, blue and near-infrared (NIR) illuminations were represented by a quaternion matrix, then principal component analysis (PCA) and discrete wavelet transform (DWT) were applied respectively on the matrix to extract palmprint features. After that, Euclidean distance was used to measure the dissimilarity between different features. Finally, the sum of two distances and the nearest neighborhood classifier were employed for recognition decision. Experimental results showed that using the quaternion matrix can achieve a higher recognition rate. Given 3000 test samples from 500 palms, the recognition rate can be as high as 98.83%. PMID:22666049

  5. D Land Cover Classification Based on Multispectral LIDAR Point Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zou, Xiaoliang; Zhao, Guihua; Li, Jonathan; Yang, Yuanxi; Fang, Yong

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Lidar System can emit simultaneous laser pulses at the different wavelengths. The reflected multispectral energy is captured through a receiver of the sensor, and the return signal together with the position and orientation information of sensor is recorded. These recorded data are solved with GNSS/IMU data for further post-processing, forming high density multispectral 3D point clouds. As the first commercial multispectral airborne Lidar sensor, Optech Titan system is capable of collecting point clouds data from all three channels at 532nm visible (Green), at 1064 nm near infrared (NIR) and at 1550nm intermediate infrared (IR). It has become a new source of data for 3D land cover classification. The paper presents an Object Based Image Analysis (OBIA) approach to only use multispectral Lidar point clouds datasets for 3D land cover classification. The approach consists of three steps. Firstly, multispectral intensity images are segmented into image objects on the basis of multi-resolution segmentation integrating different scale parameters. Secondly, intensity objects are classified into nine categories by using the customized features of classification indexes and a combination the multispectral reflectance with the vertical distribution of object features. Finally, accuracy assessment is conducted via comparing random reference samples points from google imagery tiles with the classification results. The classification results show higher overall accuracy for most of the land cover types. Over 90% of overall accuracy is achieved via using multispectral Lidar point clouds for 3D land cover classification.

  6. [Cucumber diseases diagnosis using multispectral imaging technique].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ning-Fang; Zhao, Bo; Luo, Yong-Dao; Li, Bao-Ju

    2009-02-01

    For a reliable diagnosis of plant diseases and insect pests, spectroscopy analysis technique and mutispectral imaging technique are proposed to diagnose five cucumber diseases, namely Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola and Pseudoperonospora cubensis. In the experiment, the cucumbers' multispectral images of 14 visible lights channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation environment. And the 5 cucumber diseases, healthy leaves and reference white were classified using their multispectral information, the distance, angle and relativity. The discrimination of Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, and reference white was 100%, and that of Pseudoperonospora cubensis and healthy leaves was 80% and 93.33% respectively. The mean correct discrimination of diseases was 81.90% when the distance and relativity were used together. The result shows that the method realized good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis. PMID:19445229

  7. Multispectral observations of marine mammals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon; Dirbas, Joseph; Podobna, Yuliya; Wells, Tami; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel

    2008-10-01

    Multispectral visible and infrared observations of various species of whales were made in the St. Lawrence Seaway near Quebec, Canada and Papawai Point in Maui, Hawaii. The Multi-mission Adaptable Narrowband Imaging System (MANTIS) was deployed in two configurations: airborne looking down, and bluff mounted looking at low-grazing angles. An Infrared (IR) sensor was also deployed in the bluff mounted configuration. Detections of marine mammals were made with these systems of submerged mammals and surface mammals at ranges up to 8 miles. Automatic detection algorithms are being explored to detect, track and monitor the behavior of individuals and pods of whales. This effort is part of a United States Navy effort to insure that marine mammals are not injured during the testing of the US Navy's acoustic Anti-submarine Warfare (ASW) systems.

  8. Multispectral Filter Arrays: Recent Advances and Practical Implementation

    PubMed Central

    Lapray, Pierre-Jean; Wang, Xingbo; Thomas, Jean-Baptiste; Gouton, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Thanks to some technical progress in interferencefilter design based on different technologies, we can finally successfully implement the concept of multispectral filter array-based sensors. This article provides the relevant state-of-the-art for multispectral imaging systems and presents the characteristics of the elements of our multispectral sensor as a case study. The spectral characteristics are based on two different spatial arrangements that distribute eight different bandpass filters in the visible and near-infrared area of the spectrum. We demonstrate that the system is viable and evaluate its performance through sensor spectral simulation. PMID:25407904

  9. Processing Of Multispectral Data For Identification Of Rocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, Diane L.

    1990-01-01

    Linear discriminant analysis and supervised classification evaluated. Report discusses processing of multispectral remote-sensing imagery to identify kinds of sedimentary rocks by spectral signatures in geological and geographical contexts. Raw image data are spectra of picture elements in images of seven sedimentary rock units exposed on margin of Wind River Basin in Wyoming. Data acquired by Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM), Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner (TIMS), and NASA/JPL airborne synthetic-aperture radar (SAR).

  10. Digital computer processing of peach orchard multispectral aerial photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Atkinson, R. J.

    1976-01-01

    Several methods of analysis using digital computers applicable to digitized multispectral aerial photography, are described, with particular application to peach orchard test sites. This effort was stimulated by the recent premature death of peach trees in the Southeastern United States. The techniques discussed are: (1) correction of intensity variations by digital filtering, (2) automatic detection and enumeration of trees in five size categories, (3) determination of unhealthy foliage by infrared reflectances, and (4) four band multispectral classification into healthy and declining categories.

  11. ESTIMATION OF LAND SURFACE WINDOW (8-12 MICROMETER) EMISSIVITY FROM MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL INFRARED REMOTE SENSING - A CASE STUDY IN A PART OF SAHARA DESERT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Land surface window emissivity is an important parameter for estimating the longwave radiative budget. This study focuses on estimating the window (8-12 micrometer) emissivity from the waveband emissivities of the five thermal infrared channels of the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflect...

  12. Dust deposition on the Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (Pancam) calibration targets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kinch, K.M.; Sohl-Dickstein, J.; Bell, J.F., III; Johnson, J. R.; Goetz, W.; Landis, G.A.

    2007-01-01

    The Panoramic Camera (Pancam) on the Mars Exploration Rover mission has acquired in excess of 20,000 images of the Pancam calibration targets on the rovers. Analysis of this data set allows estimates of the rate of deposition and removal of aeolian dust on both rovers. During the first 150-170 sols there was gradual dust accumulation on the rovers but no evidence for dust removal. After that time there is ample evidence for both dust removal and dust deposition on both rover decks. We analyze data from early in both rover missions using a diffusive reflectance mixing model. Assuming a dust settling rate proportional to the atmospheric optical depth, we derive spectra of optically thick layers of airfall dust that are consistent with spectra from dusty regions on the Martian surface. Airfall dust reflectance at the Opportunity site appears greater than at the Spirit site, consistent with other observations. We estimate the optical depth of dust deposited on the Spirit calibration target by sol 150 to be 0.44 ?? 0.13. For Opportunity the value was 0.39 ?? 0.12. Assuming 80% pore space, we estimate that the dust layer grew at a rate of one grain diameter per ???100 sols on the Spirit calibration target. On Opportunity the rate was one grain diameter per ???125 sols. These numbers are consistent with dust deposition rates observed by Mars Pathfinder taking into account the lower atmospheric dust optical depth during the Mars Pathfinder mission. Copyright 2007 by the American Geophysical Union.

  13. Automated Recognition of Geologically Significant Shapes in MER PANCAM and MI Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, Robert; Shipman, Mark; Roush, Ted L.

    2004-01-01

    Autonomous recognition of scientifically important information provides the capability of: 1) Prioritizing data return; 2) Intelligent data compression; 3) Reactive behavior onboard robotic vehicles. Such capabilities are desirable as mission scenarios include longer durations with decreasing interaction from mission control. To address such issues, we have implemented several computer algorithms, intended to autonomously recognize morphological shapes of scientific interest within a software architecture envisioned for future rover missions. Mars Exploration Rovers (MER) instrument payloads include a Panoramic Camera (PANCAM) and Microscopic Imager (MI). These provide a unique opportunity to evaluate our algorithms when applied to data obtained from the surface of Mars. Early in the mission we applied our algorithms to images available at the mission web site (http://marsrovers.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/images.html), even though these are not at full resolution. Some algorithms would normally use ancillary information, e.g. camera pointing and position of the sun, but these data were not readily available. The initial results of applying our algorithms to the PANCAM and MI images are encouraging. The horizon is recognized in all images containing it; such information could be used to eliminate unwanted areas from the image prior to data transmission to Earth. Additionally, several rocks were identified that represent targets for the mini-thermal emission spectrometer. Our algorithms also recognize the layers, identified by mission scientists. Such information could be used to prioritize data return or in a decision-making process regarding future rover activities. The spherules seen in MI images were also autonomously recognized. Our results indicate that reliable recognition of scientifically relevant morphologies in images is feasible.

  14. VNIR Spectral Differences on Natural and Brushed/Wind-abraded Surfaces on Home Plate, Gusev Crater, Mars: Spirit Pancam and HiRISE Color Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farrand, W. H.; Johnson, J. R.; Schmidt, M. E.; Bell, J. F.

    2008-03-01

    Color differences between the eastern and western rims of Home Plate are examined using Spirit Pancam and HiRISE color observations. Differences between near-field and remote observations are considered.

  15. Multispectral Scanner for Monitoring Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gat, Nahum

    2004-01-01

    A multispectral scanner has been adapted to capture spectral images of living plants under various types of illumination for purposes of monitoring the health of, or monitoring the transfer of genes into, the plants. In a health-monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with full-spectrum visible and near infrared light and the scanner is used to acquire a reflected-light spectral signature known to be indicative of the health of the plants. In a gene-transfer- monitoring application, the plants are illuminated with blue or ultraviolet light and the scanner is used to capture fluorescence images from a green fluorescent protein (GFP) that is expressed as result of the gene transfer. The choice of wavelength of the illumination and the wavelength of the fluorescence to be monitored depends on the specific GFP.

  16. Commercial Applications Multispectral Sensor System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birk, Ronald J.; Spiering, Bruce

    1993-01-01

    NASA's Office of Commercial Programs is funding a multispectral sensor system to be used in the development of remote sensing applications. The Airborne Terrestrial Applications Sensor (ATLAS) is designed to provide versatility in acquiring spectral and spatial information. The ATLAS system will be a test bed for the development of specifications for airborne and spaceborne remote sensing instrumentation for dedicated applications. This objective requires spectral coverage from the visible through thermal infrared wavelengths, variable spatial resolution from 2-25 meters; high geometric and geo-location accuracy; on-board radiometric calibration; digital recording; and optimized performance for minimized cost, size, and weight. ATLAS is scheduled to be available in 3rd quarter 1992 for acquisition of data for applications such as environmental monitoring, facilities management, geographic information systems data base development, and mineral exploration.

  17. Study on airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Na; Gao, Jiaobo; Wang, Jun; Cheng, Juan; Gao, Meng; Gao, Fei; Fan, Zhe; Sun, Kefeng; Wu, Jun; Li, Junna; Gao, Zedong; Cheng, Gang

    2014-11-01

    The airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology is proposed in this paper. In this design scheme, the airborne multispectral imaging system consists of the multispectral camera, the image processing unit, and the stabilized platform. The multispectral camera can operate in the spectral region from visible to near infrared waveband (0.4-1.0um), it has four same and independent imaging channels, and sixteen different typical wavelengths to be selected based on the different typical targets and background. The related experiments were tested by the airborne multispectral imaging system. In particularly, the camouflage targets were fused and detected in the different complex environment, such as the land vegetation background, the desert hot background and underwater. In the spectral region from 0.4 um to 1.0um, the three different characteristic wave from sixteen typical spectral are selected and combined according to different backgrounds and targets. The spectral image corresponding to the three characteristic wavelengths is resisted and fused by the image processing technology in real time, and the fusion video with typical target property is outputted. In these fusion images, the contrast of target and background is greatly increased. Experimental results confirm that the airborne multispectral imaging fusion detection technology can acquire multispectral fusion image with high contrast in real time, and has the ability of detecting and identification camouflage objects from complex background to targets underwater.

  18. Galileo multispectral imaging of Earth.

    PubMed

    Geissler, P; Thompson, W R; Greenberg, R; Moersch, J; McEwen, A; Sagan, C

    1995-08-25

    Nearly 6000 multispectral images of Earth were acquired by the Galileo spacecraft during its two flybys. The Galileo images offer a unique perspective on our home planet through the spectral capability made possible by four narrowband near-infrared filters, intended for observations of methane in Jupiter's atmosphere, which are not incorporated in any of the currently operating Earth orbital remote sensing systems. Spectral variations due to mineralogy, vegetative cover, and condensed water are effectively mapped by the visible and near-infrared multispectral imagery, showing a wide variety of biological, meteorological, and geological phenomena. Global tectonic and volcanic processes are clearly illustrated by these images, providing a useful basis for comparative planetary geology. Differences between plant species are detected through the narrowband IR filters on Galileo, allowing regional measurements of variation in the "red edge" of chlorophyll and the depth of the 1-micrometer water band, which is diagnostic of leaf moisture content. Although evidence of life is widespread in the Galileo data set, only a single image (at approximately 2 km/pixel) shows geometrization plausibly attributable to our technical civilization. Water vapor can be uniquely imaged in the Galileo 0.73-micrometer band, permitting spectral discrimination of moist and dry clouds with otherwise similar albedo. Surface snow and ice can be readily distinguished from cloud cover by narrowband imaging within the sensitivity range of Galileo's silicon CCD camera. Ice grain size variations can be mapped using the weak H2O absorption at 1 micrometer, a technique which may find important applications in the exploration of the moons of Jupiter. The Galileo images have the potential to make unique contributions to Earth science in the areas of geological, meteorological and biological remote sensing, due to the inclusion of previously untried narrowband IR filters. The vast scale and near global

  19. Multispectral imaging probe

    SciTech Connect

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Descour, Michael R.; Armour, David L.; Craig, Marcus J.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector.

  20. Multispectral imaging probe

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Descour, M.R.; Armour, D.L.; Craig, M.J.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-27

    A multispectral imaging probe delivers a range of wavelengths of excitation light to a target and collects a range of expressed light wavelengths. The multispectral imaging probe is adapted for mobile use and use in confined spaces, and is sealed against the effects of hostile environments. The multispectral imaging probe comprises a housing that defines a sealed volume that is substantially sealed from the surrounding environment. A beam splitting device mounts within the sealed volume. Excitation light is directed to the beam splitting device, which directs the excitation light to a target. Expressed light from the target reaches the beam splitting device along a path coaxial with the path traveled by the excitation light from the beam splitting device to the target. The beam splitting device directs expressed light to a collection subsystem for delivery to a detector. 8 figs.

  1. Spectral unmixing for mineral identification in pancam images of soils in Gusev crater, Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parente, M.; Bishop, J. L.; Bell, J. F.

    2009-10-01

    The objective of this work is to propose an automated unmixing technique for the analysis of 11-channel Mars Exploration Rover Panoramic Camera (MER/Pancam) spectra. Our approach is to provide a screening tool for identifying unique/distinct reflectance spectra. We demonstrate the utility of this unmixing technique in a study of the mineralogy of the bright salty soils exposed by the rover wheels in images of Gusev crater regions known as Paso Robles (Sols 400,426), Arad (Sol 721), and Tyrone (Sol 790). The unmixing algorithm is based on a novel derivation of the Nonnegative Matrix Factorization technique and includes added features that preclude the adverse effects of low abundance materials that would otherwise skew the unmixing. In order to create a full 11-channel spectrum out of the left and right eye stereo pairs, we also developed a new registration procedure that includes rectification and disparity calculation of the images. We identified two classes of endmember spectra for the bright soils imaged on Sols 426 and 790. One of these endmember classes is also observed for soils imaged on Sols 400 and 721 and has a unique spectral shape that is distinct from most iron oxide, sulfate and silicate spectra and differs from typical martian surface spectra. Instead, its unique spectral character resembles the spectral shape of the ferric sulfate minerals fibroferrite (Fe 3+(SO 4)(OH) · 5H 2O) and ferricopiapite ((Fe,Al,Mg)Fe53+(SO)6(OH)2·20HO) and the phosphate mineral ferristrunzite ((Mn,Fe23+)2(PO)2(OH)2·6HO). The other endmember class is less consistent with specific minerals and is likely a mixture of altered volcanic material and some bright salts. Further analyses of data from Sols 400 and 790 using an anomaly detection algorithm as a tool for detecting low abundance materials additionally suggests the identification of the sulfate mineral paracoquimbite (Fe 2(SO 4) 3 · 9H 2O). This spectral study of Pancam images of the bright S- and P-enriched soils of

  2. A multispectral scanner survey of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site and surrounding area, Golden, Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Brickey, D.W.; Ross, S.L.; Shines, J.E.

    1997-04-01

    Aerial multispectral scanner imagery was collected of the Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site in Golden, Colorado, on June 3, 5, 6, and 7, 1994, using a Daedalus AADS1268 multispectral scanner and coincident aerial color and color infrared photography. Flight altitudes were 4,500 feet (1372 meters) above ground level to match prior 1989 survey data; 2,000 feet (609 meters) above ground level for sitewide vegetation mapping; and 1,000 feet (304 meters) above ground level for selected areas of special interest. A multispectral survey was initiated to improve the existing vegetation classification map, to identify seeps and springs, and to generate ARC/INFO Geographic Information System compatible coverages of the vegetation and wetlands for the entire site including the buffer zone. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of vegetation and wetlands. The multispectral scanner data were processed digitally while the color and color infrared photography were manually photo-interpreted to define vegetation and wetlands. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the multispectral scanner data to assist image interpretation. A seep enhancement was applied and a color composite consisting of multispectral scanner channels 11, 7, and 5 (thermal infrared, mid-infrared, and red bands, respectively) proved most useful for detecting seeps, seep zones, and springs. The predawn thermal infrared data were also useful in identifying and locating seeps. The remote sensing data, mapped wetlands, and ancillary Geographic Information System compatible data sets were spatially analyzed for seeps.

  3. A near infrared angioscope visualizing lipid within arterial vessel wall based on multi-spectral image in 1.7 μm wavelength band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasegawa, Takemi; Sogawa, Ichiro; Suganuma, Hiroshi

    2013-03-01

    We have developed a near infrared (NIR) angioscope that takes multi-wavelength images in 1.7μm band for visualizing lipid-rich coronary plaques. The angioscope comprises light source, camera, and angioscopic catheter. The light source, containing a supercontinuum source and a switching optical filter, emits 1.60, 1.65, 1.73 and 1.76μm wavelengths sequentially in synchronization to the camera frame. The supercontinuum is seeded by 1.55μm wavelength pulses, whose spectrum is spread by an optical fiber with ring loops for reducing peak power so that light in 1.7μm band is generated efficiently. The switching filter contains 1×4 fiber-optic path switches and interferometric band-pass filters. The camera detects NIR images by an InGaAs/GaAsSb type-II quantum well sensor at 100 frames/s. The source wavelength and the camera frame are synchronized with each other by an FPGA. The angioscopic catheter, based on a silica-based image-guide designed for 1.7 μm wavelength, transmits 1300-pixel NIR images and has 0.73 mm outer diameter, which is compatible with the conventional angioscope and suited for continuous flushing to displace blood. We have also developed image processing software that calculates spectral contribution of lipid as lipid score at each pixel and create lipid-enhanced color images at 12 frames/s. The system also includes conventional visible light source and camera, and takes visible light images synchronously with the lipid-enhanced images. The performance of the angioscope for detecting lipid-rich plaque has been verified in bench tests using a plaque model made by injecting lard into excised swine carotid arterial vessel. The plaque models are imaged in water at working distances of 0 to 2 mm, and significantly distinguished from normal vessels.

  4. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF ALKYL AND CHLOROALKYL PHOSPHATES FROM AN INDUSTRIAL EFFLUENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Multispectral techniques (gas chromatography combined with low and high resolution electron-impact mass spectrometry, low and high resolution chemical ionization mass spectrometry, and Fourier transform infrared mass spectroscopy) were used to identify 13 alkyl and chloralkyl pho...

  5. [Horticultural plant diseases multispectral classification using combined classified methods].

    PubMed

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hong-Ning; Yang, Wei-Ping; Hou, De-Dong; Liao, Ning-Fang

    2010-02-01

    The research on multispectral data disposal is getting more and more attention with the development of multispectral technique, capturing data ability and application of multispectral technique in agriculture practice. In the present paper, a cultivated plant cucumber' familiar disease (Trichothecium roseum, Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Cladosporium cucumerinum, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis) is the research objects. The cucumber leaves multispectral images of 14 visible light channels, near infrared channel and panchromatic channel were captured using narrow-band multispectral imaging system under standard observation and illumination environment, and 210 multispectral data samples which are the 16 bands spectral reflectance of different cucumber disease were obtained. The 210 samples were classified by distance, relativity and BP neural network to discuss effective combination of classified methods for making a diagnosis. The result shows that the classified effective combination of distance and BP neural network classified methods has superior performance than each method, and the advantage of each method is fully used. And the flow of recognizing horticultural plant diseases using combined classified methods is presented. PMID:20384138

  6. Improving multispectral mapping by spectral modeling with hyperspectral signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruse, Fred A.; Perry, Sandra L.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperspectral imaging (HSI) data in the 0.4 - 2.5 micrometer spectral range allow direct identification of materials using their spectral signatures, however, spatial coverage is limited. Multispectral Imaging (MSI) data are spectrally undersampled and may not allow unique identification, but they do provide synoptic spatial coverage. We have developed an approach that uses coincident HSI/MSI data to extend mineral mapping to larger areas. Hyperspectral data are used to model and extend signatures to multispectral Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emmission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) data. Analysis consists of 1. Atmospheric correction of both the hyperspectral and multispectral data, 2. Analysis of the hyperspectral data to determine spectral endmembers and their spatial distributions, 3. Spectral modeling to convert the hyperspectral signatures to the multispectral response, and 4. Analysis of the MSI data to extend mapping to the larger spatial coverage of the multispectral data. Comparing overlapping area with extensive field verification shows that ASTER mineral mapping using these methods approaches 70% accuracy compared to HSI for selected minerals. Spot checking of extended ASTER mapping results also shows good correspondence. While examples shown are specific to ASTER Short Wave Infrared (SWIR) data, the approach could also be used for other multispectral sensors and spectral ranges.

  7. Evaluating SPOT 5 Multispectral Imagery for Crop Yield Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High resolution satellite imagery has the potential for mapping within-field variability in crop growth and yield. This study examined SPOT 5 multispectral imagery for estimating grain sorghum yield. A SPOT 5 image with 10-m spatial resolution and four spectral bands (green, red, near-infrared and m...

  8. Multispectral metamaterial absorber.

    PubMed

    Grant, J; McCrindle, I J H; Li, C; Cumming, D R S

    2014-03-01

    We present the simulation, implementation, and measurement of a multispectral metamaterial absorber (MSMMA) and show that we can realize a simple absorber structure that operates in the mid-IR and terahertz (THz) bands. By embedding an IR metamaterial absorber layer into a standard THz metamaterial absorber stack, a narrowband resonance is induced at a wavelength of 4.3 μm. This resonance is in addition to the THz metamaterial absorption resonance at 109 μm (2.75 THz). We demonstrate the inherent scalability and versatility of our MSMMA by describing a second device whereby the MM-induced IR absorption peak frequency is tuned by varying the IR absorber geometry. Such a MSMMA could be coupled with a suitable sensor and formed into a focal plane array, enabling multispectral imaging. PMID:24690713

  9. Polarimetric Multispectral Imaging Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheng, L.-J.; Chao, T.-H.; Dowdy, M.; Mahoney, C.; Reyes, G.

    1993-01-01

    The Jet Propulsion Laboratory is developing a remote sensing technology on which a new generation of compact, lightweight, high-resolution, low-power, reliable, versatile, programmable scientific polarimetric multispectral imaging instruments can be built to meet the challenge of future planetary exploration missions. The instrument is based on the fast programmable acousto-optic tunable filter (AOTF) of tellurium dioxide (TeO2) that operates in the wavelength range of 0.4-5 microns. Basically, the AOTF multispectral imaging instrument measures incoming light intensity as a function of spatial coordinates, wavelength, and polarization. Its operation can be in either sequential, random access, or multiwavelength mode as required. This provides observation flexibility, allowing real-time alternation among desired observations, collecting needed data only, minimizing data transmission, and permitting implementation of new experiments. These will result in optimization of the mission performance with minimal resources. Recently we completed a polarimetric multispectral imaging prototype instrument and performed outdoor field experiments for evaluating application potentials of the technology. We also investigated potential improvements on AOTF performance to strengthen technology readiness for applications. This paper will give a status report on the technology and a prospect toward future planetary exploration.

  10. Multispectral Imaging from Mars PATHFINDER

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrand, William H.; Bell, James F., III; Johnson, Jeffrey R.; Bishop, Janice L.; Morris, Richard V.

    2007-01-01

    The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was a mast-mounted instrument on the Mars Pathfinder lander which landed on Mars Ares Vallis floodplain on July 4, 1997. During the 83 sols of Mars Pathfinders landed operations, the IMP collected over 16,600 images. Multispectral images were collected using twelve narrowband filters at wavelengths between 400 and 1000 nm in the visible and near infrared (VNIR) range. The IMP provided VNIR spectra of the materials surrounding the lander including rocks, bright soils, dark soils, and atmospheric observations. During the primary mission, only a single primary rock spectral class, Gray Rock, was recognized; since then, Black Rock, has been identified. The Black Rock spectra have a stronger absorption at longer wavelengths than do Gray Rock spectra. A number of coated rocks have also been described, the Red and Maroon Rock classes, and perhaps indurated soils in the form of the Pink Rock class. A number of different soil types were also recognized with the primary ones being Bright Red Drift, Dark Soil, Brown Soil, and Disturbed Soil. Examination of spectral parameter plots indicated two trends which were interpreted as representing alteration products formed in at least two different environmental epochs of the Ares Vallis area. Subsequent analysis of the data and comparison with terrestrial analogs have supported the interpretation that the rock coatings provide evidence of earlier martian environments. However, the presence of relatively uncoated examples of the Gray and Black rock classes indicate that relatively unweathered materials can persist on the martian surface.

  11. Scene/object classification using multispectral data fusion algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzma, Thomas J.; Lazofson, Laurence E.; Choe, Howard C.; Chovan, John D.

    1994-06-01

    Near-simultaneous, multispectral, coregistered imagery of ground target and background signatures were collected over a full diurnal cycle in visible, infrared, and ultraviolet spectrally filtered wavebands using Battelle's portable sensor suite. The imagery data were processed using classical statistical algorithms, artificial neural networks and data clustering techniques to classify objects in the imaged scenes. Imagery collected at different times throughout the day were employed to verify algorithm robustness with respect to temporal variations of spectral signatures. In addition, several multispectral sensor fusion medical imaging applications were explored including imaging of subcutaneous vasculature, retinal angiography, and endoscopic cholecystectomy. Work is also being performed to advance the state of the art using differential absorption lidar as an active remote sensing technique for spectrally detecting, identifying, and tracking hazardous emissions. These investigations support a wide variety of multispectral signature discrimination applications including the concepts of automated target search, landing zone detection, enhanced medical imaging, and chemical/biological agent tracking.

  12. Changes of multispectral soil patterns with increasing crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kristof, S. J.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Multispectral data and automatic data processing were used to map surface soil patterns and to follow the changes in multispectral radiation from a field of maize (Zea mays L.) during a period from seeding to maturity. Panchromatic aerial photography was obtained in early May 1970 and multispectral scanner missions were flown on May 6, June 30, August 11 and September 5, 1970 to obtain energy measurements in 13 wavelength bands. The orange portion of the visible spectrum was used in analyzing the May and June data to cluster relative radiance of the soils into eight different radiance levels. The reflective infrared spectral band was used in analyzing the August and September data to cluster maize into different spectral categories. The computer-produced soil patterns had a striking similarity to the soil pattern of the aerial photograph. These patterns became less distinct as the maize canopy increased.

  13. Multispectral photoacoustic microscopy based on an optical–acoustic objective

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Rui; Kilroy, Joseph P.; Ning, Bo; Wang, Tianxiong; Hossack, John A.; Hu, Song

    2015-01-01

    We have developed reflection-mode multispectral photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) based on a novel optical–acoustic objective that integrates a customized ultrasonic transducer and a commercial reflective microscope objective into one solid piece. This technical innovation provides zero chromatic aberration and convenient confocal alignment of the optical excitation and acoustic detection. With a wavelength-tunable optical-parametric-oscillator laser, we have demonstrated multispectral PAM over an ultrabroad spectral range of 270–1300 nm. A near-constant lateral resolution of ∼2.8 μm is achieved experimentally. Capitalizing on the consistent performance over the ultraviolet, visible, and near-infrared range, multispectral PAM enables label-free concurrent imaging of cell nucleus (DNA/RNA contrast at 270 nm), blood vessel (hemoglobin contrast at 532 nm), and sebaceous gland (lipid contrast at 1260 nm) at the same spatial scale in a living mouse ear. PMID:26236641

  14. Integrated ExoMars PanCam, Raman, and close-up imaging field tests on AMASE 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foss Amundsen, Hans Erik; Westall, Frances; Steele, Andrew; Vago, Jorge; Schmitz, Nicole; Bauer, Arnold; Cousins, Claire; Rull, Fernando; Sansano, Antonio; Midtkandal, Ivar

    2010-05-01

    Arctic Mars Analog Svalbard Expedition (AMASE) uses Mars analog field sites on the Arctic islands of Svalbard (Norway) for research within astrobiology and for testing of payload instruments onboard Mars missions Mars Science Laboratory, ExoMars and Mars Sample Return. AMASE 2009 marked the seventh consecutive year of field testing. Instrument shakedowns were arranged to mimic rover operations on Mars and included the panoramic camera (PanCam), mineral- and organic chemistry sensors (Raman-LIBS) and ground penetrating radar (Wisdom) onboard ExoMars together with CheMin and SAM instruments onboard MSL and testing of sampling and caching protocols using JPĹs Fido rover. Test sites included volcanic rocks within the Bockfjord Volcanic Complex (BVC) with carbonate deposits identical to those in ALH84001 and Carboniferous sandstones and paleosols at Ismåsestranda. In view of the 2018 ExoMars mission, field models of the PanCam and Raman instruments, as well as an Olympus E410 camera having similar technical specifications to the ExoMars Close-Up Imager (CLUPI) were used in an integrated exercise to characterise the geology and habitability of the different field sites. The BVC locality consisted of volcanclastic sediments deposited on the flanks of the 1 Ma old Sverrefjell volcano. This volcano is constructed of primitive alkaline basalt with abundant mantle xenoliths. The sediments were a mixture of hyaloclastite, ash, volcanic bombs, lava detritus, and xenoliths (peridotites, granulites) deposited in a roughly laminated fashion on the slopes of the volcano. Late stage carbonate deposits were also present. The Ismåsestranda locality consisted of fine-grained sandstone deposited in a littoral environment. The sandstones were characterised by a variety of sedimentary structures reflecting a marginal marine depositional environment. They were highly variegated in colour due to diagenetic remobilisation of trace elements. PanCam made general context observations using

  15. MULTISPECTRAL THERMAL IMAGER - OVERVIEW

    SciTech Connect

    P. WEBER

    2001-03-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager satellite fills a new and important role in advancing the state of the art in remote sensing sciences. Initial results with the full calibration system operating indicate that the system was already close to achieving the very ambitious goals which we laid out in 1993, and we are confident of reaching all of these goals as we continue our research and improve our analyses. In addition to the DOE interests, the satellite is tasked about one-third of the time with requests from other users supporting research ranging from volcanology to atmospheric sciences.

  16. Multispectral thermal imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Weber, P.G.; Bender, S.C.; Borel, C.C.; Clodius, W.B.; Smith, B.W.; Garrett, A.; Pendergast, M.M.; Kay, R.R.

    1998-12-01

    Many remote sensing applications rely on imaging spectrometry. Here the authors use imaging spectrometry for thermal and multispectral signatures measured from a satellite platform enhanced with a combination of accurate calibrations and on-board data for correcting atmospheric distortions. The approach is supported by physics-based end-to-end modeling and analysis, which permits a cost-effective balance between various hardware and software aspects. The goal is to develop and demonstrate advanced technologies and analysis tools toward meeting the needs of the customer; at the same time, the attributes of this system can address other applications in such areas as environmental change, agriculture, and volcanology.

  17. Multispectral imaging for digital painting analysis: a Gauguin case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cornelis, Bruno; Dooms, Ann; Leen, Frederik; Munteanu, Adrian; Schelkens, Peter

    2010-08-01

    This paper is an introduction into the analysis of multispectral recordings of paintings. First, we will give an overview of the advantages of multispectral image analysis over more traditional techniques: first of all, the bands residing in the visible domain provide an accurate measurement of the color information which can be used for analysis but also for conservational and archival purposes (i.e. preserving the art patrimonial by making a digital library). Secondly, inspection of the multispectral imagery by art experts and art conservators has shown that combining the information present in the spectral bands residing in- and outside the visible domain can lead to a richer analysis of paintings. In the remainder of the paper, practical applications of multispectral analysis are demonstrated, where we consider the acquisition of thirteen different, high resolution spectral bands. Nine of these reside in the visible domain, one in the near ultraviolet and three in the infrared. The paper will illustrate the promising future of multispectral analysis as a non-invasive tool for acquiring data which cannot be acquired by visual inspection alone and which is highly relevant to art preservation, authentication and restoration. The demonstrated applications include detection of restored areas and detection of aging cracks.

  18. [Nitrogen stress measurement of canola based on multi-spectral charged coupled device imaging sensor].

    PubMed

    Feng, Lei; Fang, Hui; Zhou, Wei-Jun; Huang, Min; He, Yong

    2006-09-01

    Site-specific variable nitrogen application is one of the major precision crop production management operations. Obtaining sufficient crop nitrogen stress information is essential for achieving effective site-specific nitrogen applications. The present paper describes the development of a multi-spectral nitrogen deficiency sensor, which uses three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of crop images to determine the nitrogen level of canola. This sensor assesses the nitrogen stress by means of estimated SPAD value of the canola based on canola canopy reflectance sensed using three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of the multi-spectral camera. The core of this investigation is the calibration methods between the multi-spectral references and the nitrogen levels in crops measured using a SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter. Based on the results obtained from this study, it can be concluded that a multi-spectral CCD camera can provide sufficient information to perform reasonable SPAD values estimation during field operations. PMID:17112062

  19. Detection of IR target by fusing multispectral IR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Liya; Qi, Meng; Gao, Xuhui

    2011-08-01

    Detection of the small target in clutter, usually regarded as singular points in the infrared image, is an important issue in infrared searching and tracking (IRST) system. Because of the far range of the target to the sensor, the stealth technology, the effects of inherent sensor noise and the phenomena of nature, the target is more difficult to be detected. Multispectral sensor system has been proved it could greatly improve detection of the small, hard-to-find targets by multispectral processing techniques (such as sensor or image fusion). Aiming at the problem of multispectral IR Target Detection, a kind method of the multispectral IR target detection is proposed, based on the existed detection systems. In this method, the image registration is done firstly to make the different sensors have a same scene. Then, a fusion rule, named as adaptive weighted voting theory, is developed to combine the target detection results from the different spectral sensors. The adaptive weighted voting theory can give the different weights, based on the different spectral IR characteristics, and these weights decide the detected target is identified as real target or background. The experimental results show that the proposed method can reduce the detection uncertainty and improve the detection performance. Compared with the single spectral detection results and the others fusion detection methods, it can decrease the lost alarm rate and the false alarm rate effectively. The proposed method has been employed in our IR surveillance system, and it is easy to be used in the various circumstances.

  20. Time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Alexandrine; Gagnon, Marc-André; Jahjah, Karl-Alexandre; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Lagueux, Philippe; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Fréderick

    2015-05-01

    Thermal infrared imaging is a field of science that evolves rapidly. Scientists have used for years the simplest tool: thermal broadband cameras. This allows to perform target characterization in both the longwave (LWIR) and midwave (MWIR) infrared spectral range. Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. For example, it can be used to follow combustion reactions, in order to characterize the injection and the ignition in a combustion chamber or even to observe gases produced by a flare or smokestack. Most combustion gases such as carbon dioxide (CO2) selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e. over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperatures derived from broadband imaging are not reliable without prior knowledge about spectral emissivity. This information is not directly available from broadband images. However, spectral information is available using spectral filters. In this work, combustion analysis was carried out using Telops MS-IR MW camera which allows multispectral imaging at a high frame rate. A motorized filter wheel allowing synchronized acquisitions on eight (8) different channels was used to provide time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion products of a candle in which black powder has been burnt to create a burst. It was then possible to estimate the temperature by modeling spectral profile derived from information obtained with the different spectral filters. Comparison with temperatures obtained using conventional broadband imaging illustrates the benefits of time-resolved multispectral imaging for the characterization of combustion processes.

  1. Time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, Alexandrine; Gagnon, Marc-André; Jahjah, Karl-Alexandre; Tremblay, Pierre; Savary, Simon; Farley, Vincent; Lagueux, Philippe; Guyot, Éric; Chamberland, Martin; Marcotte, Frédérick

    2015-10-01

    Thermal infrared imaging is a field of science that evolves rapidly. Scientists have used for years the simplest tool: thermal broadband cameras. These allow to perform target characterization in both the longwave (LWIR) and midwave (MWIR) infrared spectral range. Infrared thermal imaging is used for a wide range of applications, especially in the combustion domain. For example, it can be used to follow combustion reactions, in order to characterize the injection and the ignition in a combustion chamber or even to observe gases produced by a flare or smokestack. Most combustion gases, such as carbon dioxide (CO2), selectively absorb/emit infrared radiation at discrete energies, i.e. over a very narrow spectral range. Therefore, temperatures derived from broadband imaging are not reliable without prior knowledge of spectral emissivity. This information is not directly available from broadband images. However, spectral information is available using spectral filters. In this work, combustion analysis was carried out using a Telops MS-IR MW camera, which allows multispectral imaging at a high frame rate. A motorized filter wheel allowing synchronized acquisitions on eight (8) different channels was used to provide time-resolved multispectral imaging of combustion products of a candle in which black powder has been burnt to create a burst. It was then possible to estimate the temperature by modeling spectral profiles derived from information obtained with the different spectral filters. Comparison with temperatures obtained using conventional broadband imaging illustrates the benefits of time-resolved multispectral imaging for the characterization of combustion processes.

  2. Simultaneous multispectral imaging using lenslet arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinnrichs, Michele; Jensen, James

    2013-03-01

    There is a need for small compact multispectral and hyperspectral imaging systems that simultaneously images in many spectral bands across the infrared spectral region from short to long-wave infrared. This is a challenge for conventional optics and usually requires large, costly and complex optical systems. However, with the advances in materials and photolithographic technology, Micro-Optical-Electrical-Machine-Systems (MOEMS) can meet these goals. In this paper Pacific Advanced Technology and ECBC will present the work that we are doing under a SBIR contract to the US Army using a MOEMS based diffractive optical lenslet array to perform simultaneous multispectral and hyperspectral imaging with relatively high spatial resolution. Under this program we will develop a proof of concept system that demonstrates how a diffractive optical (DO) lenslet array can image 1024 x 1024 pixels in 16 colors every frame of the camera. Each color image has a spatial resolution of 256 x 256 pixels with an IFOV of 1.7 mrads and FOV of 25 degrees. The purpose of this work is to simultaneously image multiple colors each frame and reduce the temporal changes between colors that are apparent in sequential multispectral imaging. Translating the lenslet array will collect hyperspectral image data cubes as will be explained later in this paper. Because the optics is integrated with the detector the entire multispectral/hyperspectral system can be contained in a miniature package. The spectral images are collected simultaneously allowing high resolution spectral-spatial-temporal information each frame of the camera. Thus enabling the implementation of spectral-temporal-spatial algorithms in real-time with high sensitivity for the detection of weak signals in a high background clutter environment with low sensitivity to camera motion. Using MOEMS actuation the DO lenslet array is translated along the optical axis to complete the full hyperspectral data cube in just a few frames of the

  3. Land use classification utilizing remote multispectral scanner data and computer analysis techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leblanc, P. N.; Johannsen, C. J.; Yanner, J. E.

    1973-01-01

    An airborne multispectral scanner was used to collect the visible and reflective infrared data. A small subdivision near Lafayette, Indiana was selected as the test site for the urban land use study. Multispectral scanner data were collected over the subdivision on May 1, 1970 from an altitude of 915 meters. The data were collected in twelve wavelength bands from 0.40 to 1.00 micrometers by the scanner. The results indicated that computer analysis of multispectral data can be very accurate in classifying and estimating the natural and man-made materials that characterize land uses in an urban scene.

  4. Study on nitrogen stress characterization of rape based on ground multi-spectral imaging sensor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lei; He, Yong; Zhu, Zeyan; Huang, Min

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the development of a multi-spectral nitrogen deficiency sensor, which uses three channels (green, red, near-infrared) of crop images to determine nitrogen level of the rape. The core of this investigation is the calibration methods between the multi-spectral references and the nitrogen levels in crops measured using a SPAD 502 chlorophyll meter which may be used to measure N (g)/leaf area (m2). Some noticeable relationships between the multi-spectral reflectance and SPAD readings were found from this study.

  5. Development and integration of the Army's Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSueur, Kenneth G.; Lowry, William; Morris, Joe

    2006-05-01

    The Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) is a suite of state-of-the-art hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) simulation / test capabilities designed to meet the life-cycle testing needs of multi-spectral systems. This paper presents the major AMSTAR facility design concepts and each of the Millimeter Wave (MMW), Infrared (IR), and Semi-Active Laser (SAL) in-band scene generation and projection system designs. The emergence of Multispectral sensors in missile systems necessitates capabilities such as AMSTAR to simultaneous project MMW, IR, and SAL wave bands into a common sensor aperture.

  6. Development and integration of the Army's advanced multispectral simulation test acceptance resource (AMSTAR) HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSueur, Kenneth G.; Lowry, William; Morris, Joe

    2005-05-01

    The Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) is a suite of state-of-the-art Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation / test capabilities designed to meet the life-cycle testing needs of multi-spectral systems. This paper presents the major AMSTAR facility design concepts and each of the Millimeter Wave (MMW), Infrared (IR), and Semi-Active Laser (SAL) in-band scene generation and projection system designs. The emergence of Multispectral sensors in missile systems necessitates capabilities such as AMSTAR to simultaneous project MMW, IR, and SAL wave bands into a common sensor aperture.

  7. Employing airborne multispectral digital imagery to map Brazilian pepper infestation in south Texas.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted in south Texas to determine the feasibility of using airborne multispectral digital imagery for differentiating the invasive plant Brazilian pepper (Schinus terebinthifolius) from other cover types. Imagery obtained in the visible, near infrared, and mid infrared regions of th...

  8. Multispectral imaging and image processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, Julie

    2014-02-01

    The color accuracy of conventional RGB cameras is not sufficient for many color-critical applications. One of these applications, namely the measurement of color defects in yarns, is why Prof. Til Aach and the Institute of Image Processing and Computer Vision (RWTH Aachen University, Germany) started off with multispectral imaging. The first acquisition device was a camera using a monochrome sensor and seven bandpass color filters positioned sequentially in front of it. The camera allowed sampling the visible wavelength range more accurately and reconstructing the spectra for each acquired image position. An overview will be given over several optical and imaging aspects of the multispectral camera that have been investigated. For instance, optical aberrations caused by filters and camera lens deteriorate the quality of captured multispectral images. The different aberrations were analyzed thoroughly and compensated based on models for the optical elements and the imaging chain by utilizing image processing. With this compensation, geometrical distortions disappear and sharpness is enhanced, without reducing the color accuracy of multispectral images. Strong foundations in multispectral imaging were laid and a fruitful cooperation was initiated with Prof. Bernhard Hill. Current research topics like stereo multispectral imaging and goniometric multispectral measure- ments that are further explored with his expertise will also be presented in this work.

  9. Multispectral Resource Sampler Workshop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The utility of the multispectral resource sampler (MRS) was examined by users in the following disciplines: agriculture, atmospheric studies, engineering, forestry, geology, hydrology/oceanography, land use, and rangelands/soils. Modifications to the sensor design were recommended and the desired types of products and number of scenes required per month were indicated. The history, design, capabilities, and limitations of the MRS are discussed as well as the multilinear spectral array technology which it uses. Designed for small area inventory, the MRS can provide increased temporal, spectral, and spatial resolution, facilitate polarization measurement and atmospheric correction, and test onboard data compression techniques. The advantages of using it along with the thematic mapper are considered.

  10. Multispectral imaging axicons.

    PubMed

    Bialic, Emilie; de la Tocnaye, Jean-Louis de Bougrenet

    2011-07-10

    Large-aperture linear diffractive axicons are optical devices providing achromatic nondiffracting beams with an extended depth of focus when illuminated by white light sources. Annular apertures introduce chromatic foci separation, making chromatic imaging possible despite important radiometric losses. Recently, a new type of diffractive axicon has been introduced, by multiplexing concentric annular axicons with appropriate sizes and periods, called a multiple annular linear diffractive axicon (MALDA). This new family of conical optics combines multiple annular axicons in different ways to optimize color foci recombination, separation, or interleaving. We present different types of MALDA, give an experimental illustration of the use of these devices, and describe the manufacturing issues related to their fabrication to provide color imaging systems with long focal depths and good diffraction efficiency. Application to multispectral image analysis is discussed. PMID:21743576

  11. Multispectral remote sensing contribution to land surface evaporation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, B. J.

    1990-01-01

    The global water cycle is perhaps the most important of all the biogeochemical cycles and evaporation, which is a significant component of the water cycle, is also linked with the energy and carbon cycles. Long-term evaporation over large areas has generally been computed as the difference of precipitation and river runoff. Analysis of short-term evaporation rate and its spatial pattern, however, is extremely complex, and multispectral remotely sensed data could aid in such analysis. Multispectral data considered here are visible and near-infrared reflectances, infrared surface temperature and the 37 GHz brightness temperatures. These observations are found to be not totally independent of each other. A few of their relationships are established and discussed considering physically-based models.

  12. Multispectral Joint Image Restoration via Optimizing a Scale Map.

    PubMed

    Shen, Xiaoyong; Yan, Qiong; Xu, Li; Ma, Lizhuang; Jia, Jiaya

    2015-12-01

    Color, infrared and flash images captured in different fields can be employed to effectively eliminate noise and other visual artifacts. We propose a two-image restoration framework considering input images from different fields, for example, one noisy color image and one dark-flashed near-infrared image. The major issue in such a framework is to handle all structure divergence and find commonly usable edges and smooth transitions for visually plausible image reconstruction. We introduce a novel scale map as a competent representation to explicitly model derivative-level confidence and propose new functions and a numerical solver to effectively infer it following our important structural observations. Multispectral shadow detection is also used to make our system more robust. Our method is general and shows a principled way to solve multispectral restoration problems. PMID:26539855

  13. VIIRS Nightfire: multispectral satellite pyrometry at night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M. N.; Elvidge, C.; Baugh, K.; Hsu, F.

    2013-12-01

    The Nightfire algorithm detects and characterizes sub-pixel hot sources using multispectral data collected globally each night by the Suomi NPP Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS). The spectral bands utilized span visible, near-infrared (NIR), short-wave infrared (SWIR) and mid-wave infrared (MWIR). The primary detection band is in the SWIR, centered at 1.6 μm. Without solar input, the SWIR spectral band records sensor noise, punctuated by high radiant emissions associated with gas flares, biomass burning, volcanoes, and industrial sites like steel mills. Planck curve fitting of the hot source radiances yields temperature (K) and emission scaling factor (ESF). Additional calculations are done to estimate source size (m2), radiant heat intensity (W/m2) and radiant heat (MW). Nightfire retrieved temperature estimates for sub-pixel hot sources ranging from 600 to 6000 K. The IR sources can be ranked worldwide to reveal a list of top 100 largest gas flaring sites. An intercomparison study of biomass burning in Sumatra from June 2013 found Nightfire radiant heat (MW) to be highly correlated to MODIS Fire Radiative Power (MW).

  14. Versatile multispectral microscope based on light emitting diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brydegaard, Mikkel; Merdasa, Aboma; Jayaweera, Hiran; Ålebring, Jens; Svanberg, Sune

    2011-12-01

    We describe the development of a novel multispectral microscope, based on light-emitting diodes, capable of acquiring megapixel images in thirteen spectral bands from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The system captures images and spectra in transmittance, reflectance, and scattering modes. We present as examples of applications ground truth measurements for remote sensing and parasitology diagnostics. The system is a general purpose scientific instrument that could be used to develop dedicated simplified instruments with optimal bands and mode selection.

  15. MSS D Multispectral Scanner System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauletta, A. M.; Johnson, R. L.; Brinkman, K. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The development and acceptance testing of the 4-band Multispectral Scanners to be flown on LANDSAT D and LANDSAT D Earth resources satellites are summarized. Emphasis is placed on the acceptance test phase of the program. Test history and acceptance test algorithms are discussed. Trend data of all the key performance parameters are included and discussed separately for each of the two multispectral scanner instruments. Anomalies encountered and their resolutions are included.

  16. Multispectral multisensor image fusion using wavelet transforms

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lemeshewsky, George P.

    1999-01-01

    Fusion techniques can be applied to multispectral and higher spatial resolution panchromatic images to create a composite image that is easier to interpret than the individual images. Wavelet transform-based multisensor, multiresolution fusion (a type of band sharpening) was applied to Landsat thematic mapper (TM) multispectral and coregistered higher resolution SPOT panchromatic images. The objective was to obtain increased spatial resolution, false color composite products to support the interpretation of land cover types wherein the spectral characteristics of the imagery are preserved to provide the spectral clues needed for interpretation. Since the fusion process should not introduce artifacts, a shift invariant implementation of the discrete wavelet transform (SIDWT) was used. These results were compared with those using the shift variant, discrete wavelet transform (DWT). Overall, the process includes a hue, saturation, and value color space transform to minimize color changes, and a reported point-wise maximum selection rule to combine transform coefficients. The performance of fusion based on the SIDWT and DWT was evaluated with a simulated TM 30-m spatial resolution test image and a higher resolution reference. Simulated imagery was made by blurring higher resolution color-infrared photography with the TM sensors' point spread function. The SIDWT based technique produced imagery with fewer artifacts and lower error between fused images and the full resolution reference. Image examples with TM and SPOT 10-m panchromatic illustrate the reduction in artifacts due to the SIDWT based fusion.

  17. Classroom multispectral imaging using inexpensive digital cameras.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fortes, A. D.

    2007-12-01

    The proliferation of increasingly cheap digital cameras in recent years means that it has become easier to exploit the broad wavelength sensitivity of their CCDs (360 - 1100 nm) for classroom-based teaching. With the right tools, it is possible to open children's eyes to the invisible world of UVA and near-IR radiation either side of our narrow visual band. The camera-filter combinations I describe can be used to explore the world of animal vision, looking for invisible markings on flowers, or in bird plumage, for example. In combination with a basic spectroscope (such as the Project-STAR handheld plastic spectrometer, 25), it is possible to investigate the range of human vision and camera sensitivity, and to explore the atomic and molecular absorption lines from the solar and terrestrial atmospheres. My principal use of the cameras has been to teach multispectral imaging of the kind used to determine remotely the composition of planetary surfaces. A range of camera options, from 50 circuit-board mounted CCDs up to $900 semi-pro infrared camera kits (including mobile phones along the way), and various UV-vis-IR filter options will be presented. Examples of multispectral images taken with these systems are used to illustrate the range of classroom topics that can be covered. Particular attention is given to learning about spectral reflectance curves and comparing images from Earth and Mars taken using the same filter combination that it used on the Mars Rovers.

  18. Multispectral imaging with type II superlattice detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ariyawansa, Gamini; Duran, Joshua M.; Grupen, Matt; Scheihing, John E.; Nelson, Thomas R.; Eismann, Michael T.

    2012-06-01

    Infrared (IR) focal plane arrays (FPAs) with multispectral detector elements promise significant advantages for airborne threat warning, surveillance, and targeting applications. At present, the use of type II superlattice (T2SL) structures based on the 6.1Å-family materials (InAs, GaSb, and AlSb) has become an area of interest for developing IR detectors and their FPAs. The ability to vary the bandgap in the IR range, suppression of Auger processes, prospective reduction of Shockley-Read-Hall centers by improved material growth capabilities, and the material stability are a few reasons for the predicted dominance of the T2SL technology over presently leading HgCdTe and quantum well technologies. The focus of the work reported here is on the development of T2SL based dual-band IR detectors and their applicability for multispectral imaging. A new NpBPN detector designed for the detection of IR in the 3-5 and 8-12 μm atmospheric windows is presented; comparing its advantages over other T2SL based approaches. One of the key challenges of the T2SL dual-band detectors is the spectral crosstalk associated with the LWIR band. The properties of the state-of-the-art T2SLs (i.e., absorption coefficient, minority carrier lifetime and mobility, etc.) and the present growth limitations that impact spectral crosstalk are discussed.

  19. Multispectral and hyperspectral advanced characterization of soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Kastek, Mariusz; Chamberland, Martin; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Farley, Vincent; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2013-10-01

    The requirements for soldier camouflage in the context of modern warfare are becoming more complex and challenging given the emergence of novel infrared sensors. There is a pressing need for the development of adapted fabrics and soldier camouflage devices to provide efficient camouflage in both the visible and infrared spectral ranges. The Military University of Technology has conducted an intensive project to develop new materials and fabrics to further improve the camouflage efficiency of soldiers. The developed materials shall feature visible and infrared properties that make these unique and adapted to various military context needs. This paper presents the details of an advanced measurement campaign of those unique materials where the correlation between multispectral and hyperspectral infrared measurements is performed.

  20. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, D.R.; Platzbecker, M.R.; Vargo, T.D.; Lockhart, R.R.; Descour, M.R.; Richards-Kortum, R.

    1999-07-06

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus are described which are adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging. 5 figs.

  1. Multispectral imaging method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Sandison, David R.; Platzbecker, Mark R.; Vargo, Timothy D.; Lockhart, Randal R.; Descour, Michael R.; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    1999-01-01

    A multispectral imaging method and apparatus adapted for use in determining material properties, especially properties characteristic of abnormal non-dermal cells. A target is illuminated with a narrow band light beam. The target expresses light in response to the excitation. The expressed light is collected and the target's response at specific response wavelengths to specific excitation wavelengths is measured. From the measured multispectral response the target's properties can be determined. A sealed, remote probe and robust components can be used for cervical imaging

  2. Wavelength band selection method for multispectral target detection.

    PubMed

    Karlholm, Jörgen; Renhorn, Ingmar

    2002-11-10

    A framework is proposed for the selection of wavelength bands for multispectral sensors by use of hyperspectral reference data. Using the results from the detection theory we derive a cost function that is minimized by a set of spectral bands optimal in terms of detection performance for discrimination between a class of small rare targets and clutter with known spectral distribution. The method may be used, e.g., in the design of multispectral infrared search and track and electro-optical missile warning sensors, where a low false-alarm rate and a high-detection probability for detection of small targets against a clutter background are of critical importance, but the required high frame rate prevents the use of hyperspectral sensors. PMID:12440532

  3. [In-flight absolute radiometric calibration of UAV multispectral sensor].

    PubMed

    Chen, Wei; Yan, Lei; Gou, Zhi-Yang; Zhao, Hong-Ying; Liu, Da-Ping; Duan, Yi-Ni

    2012-12-01

    Based on the data of the scientific experiment in Urad Front Banner for UAV Remote Sensing Load Calibration Field project, with the help of 6 hyperspectral radiometric targets with good Lambertian property, the wide-view multispectral camera in UAV was calibrated adopting reflectance-based method. The result reveals that for green, red and infrared channel, whose images were successfully captured, the linear correlation coefficients between the DN and radiance are all larger than 99%. In final analysis, the comprehensive error is no more than 6%. The calibration results demonstrate that the hyperspectral targets equipped by the calibration field are well suitable for air-borne multispectral load in-flight calibration. The calibration result is reliable and could be used in the retrieval of geophysical parameters. PMID:23427528

  4. Multispectral Remote Sensing at the Savannah River Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Shines, J.E.; Tinney, L.R.; Hawley, D.L.

    1984-01-01

    Aerial Mesurements Operations (AMO) is the remote sensing arm of the Department of Energy (DOE). The purpose of AMO is to provide timely, accurate, and cost-effective remote sensing data on a non-interference basis over DOE facilities located around the country. One of the programs administered by AMO is the Comprehensive Integrated Remote Sensing (CIRS) program, which involves the use of a wide range of data acquisition systems - aerial cameras, multispectral and infrared scanners, and nuclear detectors - to acquire data at DOE sites. The data are then processed, analyzed and interpreted to provide useful information, which is then catalogued into a data base for future use. This report describes some of the data acquisition and analysis capabilities of the Multispectral Remote Sensing Department (MRSD) as they relate to the CIRS program. 3 tables.

  5. A new method of multispectral image processing with camouflage effect detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Jianghua; Cui, Guangzhen; Qin, Lei

    2015-10-01

    In order to enhance the observability of multispectral image and improve the accuracy of camouflage effect evaluation based on multispectral photographic. A new method for multispectral image processing has been put forward. In the visible band, more spectral images for image fusion which are based on wavelet transformation respectively are chosen. The image information is enhanced. The visible light and near infrared band images are fused and introduced in three-channel of red, green and blue. The true color image is synthetized. While the detail of visible light image is enhanced, near infrared image information which is more interesting in camouflage evaluation is kept. Finally the fusion image are processed through histogram stretching and correlation method. The image color and luminance difference of each part is enhanced. The target recognition and camouflage effect evaluation is more advantageous. The experimental results proved that the method has a good effect.

  6. Target detection in desert backgrounds: infrared hyperspectral measurements and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eismann, Michael T.; Seldin, John H.; Schwartz, Craig R.; Maxwell, James R.; Ellis, Kenneth K.; Cederquist, Jack N.; Stocker, Alan D.; Oshagan, Ara; Johnson, Ray O.; Shaffer, William A.; Surette, Marc R.; McHugh, Martin J.; Schaum, Alan P.; Stotts, Larry B.

    1995-09-01

    Infrared multispectral sensors are being investigated as a means for day and night target detection. Infrared multispectral sensors would exploit high spectral band-to-band correlation to reject high background clutter. An infrared Fourier transform spectrometer-based field measurement system was used to collect spectral signature data of targets and desert scrub and sand backgrounds from a 100 foot tower at White Sands Missile Range. The measurements include target-to-background spectral contrast, subpixel targets, background spectral correlation, and background spatial power spectra. The measurements have been analyzed to determine multispectral signal-to-clutter ratios versus target, background, diurnal, and weather variations, background correlation versus temperature clutter variations, and spectral correlation versus spatial scale. These measurements contribute to the expanding target and background infrared hyperspectral signature database. The results of the analysis demonstrate the utility and robustness of infrared multispectral techniques for target detection.

  7. Multispectral Landsat images of Antartica

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchitta, B.K.; Bowell, J.A.; Edwards, K.L.; Eliason, E.M.; Fergurson, H.M.

    1988-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey has a program to map Antarctica by using colored, digitally enhanced Landsat multispectral scanner images to increase existing map coverage and to improve upon previously published Landsat maps. This report is a compilation of images and image mosaic that covers four complete and two partial 1:250,000-scale quadrangles of the McMurdo Sound region.

  8. Surface Emissivity Derived From Multispectral Satellite Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minnis, P.; Smith, W. L., Jr.; Young, D. F.

    1998-01-01

    Surface emissivity is critical for remote sensing of surface skin temperature and infrared cloud properties when the observed radiance is influenced by the surface radiation. It is also necessary to correctly compute the longwave flux from a surface at a given skin temperature. Surface emissivity is difficult to determine because skin temperature is an ill-defined parameter. The surface-emitted radiation may arise from a range of surface depths depending on many factors including soil moisture, vegetation, surface porosity, and heat capacity. Emissivity can be measured in the laboratory for pure surfaces. Transfer of laboratory measurements to actual Earth surfaces, however, is fraught with uncertainties because of their complex nature. This paper describes a new empirical approach for estimating surface skin temperature from a combination of brightness temperatures measured at different infrared wavelengths with satellite imagers. The method uses data from the new Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) imager to determine multispectral emissivities from the skin temperatures derived over the ARM Southern Great Plains domain.

  9. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography of myocardial infarction

    PubMed Central

    Taruttis, Adrian; Wildgruber, Moritz; Kosanke, Katja; Beziere, Nicolas; Licha, Kai; Haag, Rainer; Aichler, Michaela; Walch, Axel; Rummeny, Ernst; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the feasibility of a high resolution optical imaging strategy for myocardial infarction. Background Near-infrared approaches to imaging cardiovascular disease enable visualization of disease-associated biological processes in vivo. However, even at the scale of small animals, the strong scattering of light prevents high resolution imaging after the first 1–2 mm of tissue, leading to degraded signal localization. Methods Multispectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) was used to non-invasively image myocardial infarction (MI) in a murine model of coronary artery ligation at resolutions not possible with current deep-tissue optical imaging methods. Post-MI imaging was based on resolving the spectral absorption signature of a dendritic polyglycerol sulfate-based (dPGS) near-infrared imaging agent targeted to P- and L-selectin. Results In vivo imaging succeeded in detection of the agent in the injured myocardium after intravenous injection. The high anatomic resolution (<200 μm) achieved by the described method allowed signals originating in the infarcted heart to be distinguished from uptake in adjacent regions. Histological analysis found dPGS signal in infarcted areas, originating from leukocytes and endothelial cells. Conclusions MSOT imaging of myocardial infarction provides non-invasive visualization of optical contrast with a high spatial resolution that is not degraded by the scattering of light. PMID:25327410

  10. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data.

    PubMed

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively. PMID:27376088

  11. A Comparative Study of Land Cover Classification by Using Multispectral and Texture Data

    PubMed Central

    Qadri, Salman; Khan, Dost Muhammad; Ahmad, Farooq; Qadri, Syed Furqan; Babar, Masroor Ellahi; Shahid, Muhammad; Ul-Rehman, Muzammil; Razzaq, Abdul; Shah Muhammad, Syed; Fahad, Muhammad; Ahmad, Sarfraz; Pervez, Muhammad Tariq; Naveed, Nasir; Aslam, Naeem; Jamil, Mutiullah; Rehmani, Ejaz Ahmad; Ahmad, Nazir; Akhtar Khan, Naeem

    2016-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to find out the importance of machine vision approach for the classification of five types of land cover data such as bare land, desert rangeland, green pasture, fertile cultivated land, and Sutlej river land. A novel spectra-statistical framework is designed to classify the subjective land cover data types accurately. Multispectral data of these land covers were acquired by using a handheld device named multispectral radiometer in the form of five spectral bands (blue, green, red, near infrared, and shortwave infrared) while texture data were acquired with a digital camera by the transformation of acquired images into 229 texture features for each image. The most discriminant 30 features of each image were obtained by integrating the three statistical features selection techniques such as Fisher, Probability of Error plus Average Correlation, and Mutual Information (F + PA + MI). Selected texture data clustering was verified by nonlinear discriminant analysis while linear discriminant analysis approach was applied for multispectral data. For classification, the texture and multispectral data were deployed to artificial neural network (ANN: n-class). By implementing a cross validation method (80-20), we received an accuracy of 91.332% for texture data and 96.40% for multispectral data, respectively. PMID:27376088

  12. Multispectral determination of vegetative cover in corn crop canopy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stoner, E. R.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    The relationship between different amounts of vegetative ground cover and the energy reflected by corn canopies was investigated. Low altitude photography and an airborne multispectral scanner were used to measure this reflected energy. Field plots were laid out, representing four growth stages of corn. Two plot locations were chosen-on a very dark and a very light surface soil. Color and color infrared photographs were taken from a vertical distance of 10 m. Estimates of ground cover were made from these photographs and were related to field measurements of leaf area index. Ground cover could be predicted from leaf area index measurements by a second order equation. Microdensitometry and digitzation of the three separated dye layers of color infrared film showed that the near infrared dye layer is most valuable in ground cover determinations. Computer analysis of the digitized photography provided an accurate method of determining precent ground cover.

  13. Multispectral and polarimetric imaging in the LWIR: Intersubband detectors as a versatile solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedelcu, Alexandru; Guériaux, Vincent; Berurier, Arnaud; Brière de l'Isle, Nadia; Huet, Odile

    2013-07-01

    GaAs-based intersubband infrared detectors, such as Quantum Well Infrared Photodetectors and Quantum Cascade Detectors have proven their ability to address not only conventional thermal imaging applications, but also advanced functionalities such as multispectral and polarimetric imaging. This paper illustrates this potential through the results achieved at III-V Lab in the frame of several ambitious projects, ranging from military applications to Earth observation and exo-planet detection. The advantages of these technologies at the system level are evidenced.

  14. Multispectral and hyperspectral measurements of smoke candles and soldier's camouflage equipment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lagueux, Philippe; Gagnon, Marc-André; Kastek, Mariusz; PiÄ tkowski, Tadeusz; Dulski, Rafał; Trzaskawka, Piotr

    2012-09-01

    The emergence of new infrared camouflage and countermeasure technologies in the context of military operations has paved the way to enhanced detection capabilities. Camouflage devices such as candles (or smoke bombs) and flares are developed to generate either large area or localized screens with very high absorption in the infrared. Similarly, soldier's camouflage devices such as clothing have evolved in design to dissolve their infrared characteristics with that of the background. In all cases, the analysis of the targets infrared images needs to be conducted in both multispectral and hyperspectral domains to assess their capability to efficiently provide visible and infrared camouflage. The Military University of Technology has conducted several intensive field campaigns where various types of smoke candles and camouflage uniforms were deployed in different conditions and were measured both in the multispectral and hyperspectral domains. Cooled broadband infrared cameras were used for the multispectral analysis whereas the high spectral, spatial and temporal resolution acquisition of these thermodynamic events was recorded with the Telops Hyper-Cam sensor. This paper presents the test campaign concept and the analysis of the recorded measurements.

  15. Oil slick studies using photographic and multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, J. C., Jr.; Macintyre, W. G.; Penney, M. E.; Oberholtzer, J. D.

    1971-01-01

    Field studies of spills of Nos. 6 (Bunker C), 4, and 2 fuel oils and menhaden fish oil in the southern Chesapeake Bay have been supplemented with aerial photographic and multispectral scanner data. Thin films showed best in ultraviolet and blue bands and thick films in the green. Color film was effective for all thicknesses. Thermal infrared imagery provided clear detection, but required field temperature and thickness data to distinguish thickness/emissivity variations from temperature variations. Slick spreading rates agree with the theory of Fay (1969); further study of spreading is in progress.

  16. Michigan experimental multispectral scanner system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1972-01-01

    A functional description of a multispectral airborne scanner system that provides spectral bands along a single optical line of sight is reported. The airborne scanner consists of an optical telescope for scanning plane perpendicular to the longitudinal axis of the aircraft and radiation detectors for converting radiation to electrical signals. The system makes a linear transformation of input radiation to voltage recorded on analog magnetic tape.

  17. Multispectral Analysis of NMR Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butterfield, R. L.; Vannier, M. W. And Associates; Jordan, D.

    1985-01-01

    Conference paper discusses initial efforts to adapt multispectral satellite-image analysis to nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) scans of human body. Flexibility of these techniques makes it possible to present NMR data in variety of formats, including pseudocolor composite images of pathological internal features. Techniques do not have to be greatly modified from form in which used to produce satellite maps of such Earth features as water, rock, or foliage.

  18. Laser-Induced Fluorescence Emission (L.I.F.E.): searching for Mars organics with a UV-enhanced PanCam.

    PubMed

    Storrie-Lombardi, Michael C; Muller, Jan-Peter; Fisk, Martin R; Cousins, Claire; Sattler, Birgit; Griffiths, Andrew D; Coates, Andrew J

    2009-12-01

    The European Space Agency will launch the ExoMars mission in 2016 with a primary goal of surveying the martian subsurface for evidence of organic material. We have recently investigated the utility of including either a 365 nm light-emitting diode or a 375 nm laser light source in the ExoMars rover panoramic camera (PanCam). Such a modification would make it feasible to monitor rover drill cuttings optically for the fluorescence signatures of aromatic organic molecules and map the distribution of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as a function of depth to the 2 m limit of the ExoMars drill. The technique described requires no sample preparation, does not consume irreplaceable resources, and would allow mission control to prioritize deployment of organic detection experiments that require sample destruction, expenditure of non-replaceable consumables, or both. We report here for the first time laser-induced fluorescence emission (L.I.F.E.) imaging detection limits for anthracene, pyrene, and perylene targets doped onto a Mars analog granular peridotite with a 375 nm Nichia laser diode in optically uncorrected wide-angle mode. Data were collected via the Beagle 2 PanCam backup filter wheel fitted with original blue (440 nm), green (530 nm), and red (670 nm) filters. All three PAH species can be detected with the PanCam green (530 nm) filter. Detection limits in the green band for signal-to-noise ratios (S/N) > 10 are 49 parts per million (ppm) for anthracene, 145 ppm for pyrene, and 20 ppm for perylene. The anthracene detection limit improves to 7 ppm with use of the PanCam blue filter. We discuss soil-dependent detection limit constraints; use of UV excitation with other rover cameras, which provides higher spatial resolution; and the advantages of focused and wide-angle laser modes. Finally, we discuss application of L.I.F.E. techniques at multiple wavelengths for exploration of Mars analog extreme environments on Earth, including Icelandic hydrothermally

  19. Multispectral Detector Array Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jokerst, Nan M.

    1999-12-01

    A sensor is a device used to sense or measure physical phenomena. Thus, sensors may detect electrical, mechanical, optical, chemical, tactile, or acoustic signatures of an object or scene. Objects that may be difficult to discriminate using a single sensor are often differentiated with a multiple sensor system that exploits several signature phenomena. The application of multiple sensors (and the fusion of their data) offers numerous potential performance benefits over traditional single sensor approaches. In our application, which is infrared target discrimination, employing multiple sensors, which respond to different signatures, increases the probability that a target signature will be found against a given set of weather, clutter or background noise sources. A multiple sensor system, in other words, diminishes ambiguity and uncertainty in the measured information by reducing the set of hypotheses about the target or event. Multiple sensors may also be used to reduce the vulnerability to false conclusions drawn from data of a single sensor. For instance, missiles may carry multiple sensors to better guarantee a hit or a radar can use multiple sensors to counter-jam incoming missiles.

  20. Michigan experimental multispectral mapping system: A description of the M7 airborne sensor and its performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasell, P. G., Jr.

    1974-01-01

    The development and characteristics of a multispectral band scanner for an airborne mapping system are discussed. The sensor operates in the ultraviolet, visual, and infrared frequencies. Any twelve of the bands may be selected for simultaneous, optically registered recording on a 14-track analog tape recorder. Multispectral imagery recorded on magnetic tape in the aircraft can be laboratory reproduced on film strips for visual analysis or optionally machine processed in analog and/or digital computers before display. The airborne system performance is analyzed.

  1. New Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Tsay, Si-Chee; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.; Li, Jason Y.; Arnold, G. Thomas

    2001-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999. It achieved its final orbit and began Earth observations on February 24, 2000. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from a polar-orbiting, sun- synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (two bands), 500 m (five bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

  2. An application of LANDSAT multispectral imagery for the classification of hydrobiological systems, Shark River Slough, Everglades National Park, Florida

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rose, P. W.; Rosendahl, P. C. (Principal Investigator)

    1979-01-01

    Multivariant hydrologic parameters over the Shark River Slough were investigated. Ground truth was established utilizing U-2 infrared photography and comprehensive field data to define a control network which represented all hydrobiological systems in the slough. These data were then applied to LANDSAT imagery utilizing an interactive multispectral processor which generated hydrographic maps through classification of the slough and defined the multispectral surface radiance characteristics of the wetlands areas in the park. The spectral response of each hydrobiological zone was determined and plotted to formulate multispectral relationships between the emittent energy from the slough in order to determine the best possible multispectral wavelength combinations to enhance classification results. The extent of each hydrobiological zone in slough was determined and flow vectors for water movement throughout the slough established.

  3. A Multispectral Image Creating Method for a New Airborne Four-Camera System with Different Bandpass Filters

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hanlun; Zhang, Aiwu; Hu, Shaoxing

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes an airborne high resolution four-camera multispectral system which mainly consists of four identical monochrome cameras equipped with four interchangeable bandpass filters. For this multispectral system, an automatic multispectral data composing method was proposed. The homography registration model was chosen, and the scale-invariant feature transform (SIFT) and random sample consensus (RANSAC) were used to generate matching points. For the difficult registration problem between visible band images and near-infrared band images in cases lacking manmade objects, we presented an effective method based on the structural characteristics of the system. Experiments show that our method can acquire high quality multispectral images and the band-to-band alignment error of the composed multiple spectral images is less than 2.5 pixels. PMID:26205264

  4. Correlating multispectral imaging and compositional data from the Mars Exploration Rovers and implications for Mars Science Laboratory

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Anderson, Ryan B.; Bell, James F., III

    2013-01-01

    In an effort to infer compositional information about distant targets based on multispectral imaging data, we investigated methods of relating Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Pancam multispectral remote sensing observations to in situ alpha particle X-ray spectrometer (APXS)-derived elemental abundances and Mössbauer (MB)-derived abundances of Fe-bearing phases at the MER field sites in Gusev crater and Meridiani Planum. The majority of the partial correlation coefficients between these data sets were not statistically significant. Restricting the targets to those that were abraded by the rock abrasion tool (RAT) led to improved Pearson’s correlations, most notably between the red–blue ratio (673 nm/434 nm) and Fe3+-bearing phases, but partial correlations were not statistically significant. Partial Least Squares (PLS) calculations relating Pancam 11-color visible to near-IR (VNIR; ∼400–1000 nm) “spectra” to APXS and Mössbauer element or mineral abundances showed generally poor performance, although the presence of compositional outliers led to improved PLS results for data from Meridiani. When the Meridiani PLS model for pyroxene was tested by predicting the pyroxene content of Gusev targets, the results were poor, indicating that the PLS models for Meridiani are not applicable to data from other sites. Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) classification of Gusev crater data showed mixed results. Of the 24 Gusev test regions of interest (ROIs) with known classes, 11 had >30% of the pixels in the ROI classified correctly, while others were mis-classified or unclassified. k-Means clustering of APXS and Mössbauer data was used to assign Meridiani targets to compositional classes. The clustering-derived classes corresponded to meaningful geologic and/or color unit differences, and SIMCA classification using these classes was somewhat successful, with >30% of pixels correctly classified in 9 of the 11 ROIs with known classes. This work shows

  5. PORTABLE MULTISPECTRAL IMAGING INSTRUMENT FOR FOOD INDUSTRY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this paper is to design and fabricate a hand-held multispectral instrument for real-time contaminant detection. Specifically, the protocol to develop a portable multispectral instrument including optical sensor design, fabrication, calibration, data collection, analysis and algorith...

  6. Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI): Multispectral Imaging of Geological Materials at a Handlens Scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farmer, J. D.; Nunez, J. I.; Sellar, R. G.; Gardner, P. B.; Manatt, K. S.; Dingizian, A.; Dudik, M. J.; McDonnell, G.; Le, T.; Thomas, J. A.; Chu, K.

    2011-12-01

    The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) is a prototype instrument presently under development for future astrobiological missions to Mars. The MMI is designed to be a arm-mounted rover instrument for use in characterizing the microtexture and mineralogy of materials along geological traverses [1,2,3]. Such geological information is regarded as essential for interpreting petrogenesis and geological history, and when acquired in near real-time, can support hypothesis-driven exploration and optimize science return. Correlated microtexure and mineralogy also provides essential data for selecting samples for analysis with onboard lab instruments, and for prioritizing samples for potential Earth return. The MMI design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and an uncooled focal plane array to achieve the low-mass (<1kg), low-cost, and high reliability (no moving parts) required for an arm-mounted instrument on a planetary rover [2,3]. The MMI acquires multispectral, reflectance images at 62 μm/pixel, in which each image pixel is comprised of a 21-band VNIR spectrum (0.46 to 1.73 μm). This capability enables the MMI to discriminate and resolve the spatial distribution of minerals and textures at the microscale [2, 3]. By extending the spectral range into the infrared, and increasing the number of spectral bands, the MMI exceeds the capabilities of current microimagers, including the MER Microscopic Imager (MI); 4, the Phoenix mission Robotic Arm Camera (RAC; 5) and the Mars Science Laboratory's Mars Hand Lens Imager (MAHLI; 6). In this report we will review the capabilities of the MMI by highlighting recent lab and field applications, including: 1) glove box deployments in the Astromaterials lab at Johnson Space Center to analyze Apollo lunar samples; 2) GeoLab glove box deployments during the 2011 Desert RATS field trials in northern AZ to characterize analog materials collected by astronauts during simulated EVAs; 3) field deployments on Mauna Kea

  7. Multispectral Image Processing for Plants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miles, Gaines E.

    1991-01-01

    The development of a machine vision system to monitor plant growth and health is one of three essential steps towards establishing an intelligent system capable of accurately assessing the state of a controlled ecological life support system for long-term space travel. Besides a network of sensors, simulators are needed to predict plant features, and artificial intelligence algorithms are needed to determine the state of a plant based life support system. Multispectral machine vision and image processing can be used to sense plant features, including health and nutritional status.

  8. Classification Metrics for Improved Atmospheric Correction of Multispectral VNIR Imagery

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Rudolf

    2008-01-01

    Multispectral visible/near-infrared (VNIR) earth observation satellites, e.g., Ikonos, Quickbird, ALOS AVNIR-2, and DMC, usually acquire imagery in a few (3 – 5) spectral bands. Atmospheric correction is a challenging task for these images because the standard methods require at least one shortwave infrared band (around 1.6 or 2.2 μm) or hyperspectral instruments to derive the aerosol optical thickness. New classification metrics for defining cloud, cloud over water, haze, water, and saturation are presented to achieve improvements for an automatic processing system. The background is an ESA contract for the development of a prototype atmospheric processor for the optical payload AVNIR-2 on the ALOS platform.

  9. An ERTS multispectral scanner experiment for mapping iron compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, R. K. (Principal Investigator)

    1972-01-01

    There are no author-identified significant results in this report. An experimental plan for enhancing spectral features related to the chemical composition of geological targets in ERTS multispectral scanner data is described. The experiment is designed to produce visible-reflective infrared ratio images from ERTS-1 data. Iron compounds are promising remote sensing targets because they display prominent spectral features in the visible-reflective infrared wavelength region and are geologically significant. The region selected for this ERTS experiment is the southern end of the Wind River Range in Wyoming. If this method proves successful it should prove useful for regional geologic mapping, mineralogical exploration, and soil mapping. It may also be helpful to ERTS users in scientific disciplines other than geology, especially to those concerned with targets composed of mixtures of live vegetation and soil or rock.

  10. Detection of melanoma metastases in resected human lymph nodes by noninvasive multispectral photoacoustic imaging.

    PubMed

    Langhout, Gerrit Cornelis; Grootendorst, Diederik Johannes; Nieweg, Omgo Edo; Wouters, Michel Wilhelmus Jacobus Maria; van der Hage, Jos Alexander; Jose, Jithin; van Boven, Hester; Steenbergen, Wiendelt; Manohar, Srirang; Ruers, Theodoor Jacques Marie

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Sentinel node biopsy in patients with cutaneous melanoma improves staging, provides prognostic information, and leads to an increased survival in node-positive patients. However, frozen section analysis of the sentinel node is not reliable and definitive histopathology evaluation requires days, preventing intraoperative decision-making and immediate therapy. Photoacoustic imaging can evaluate intact lymph nodes, but specificity can be hampered by other absorbers such as hemoglobin. Near infrared multispectral photoacoustic imaging is a new approach that has the potential to selectively detect melanin. The purpose of the present study is to examine the potential of multispectral photoacoustic imaging to identify melanoma metastasis in human lymph nodes. Methods. Three metastatic and nine benign lymph nodes from eight melanoma patients were scanned ex vivo using a Vevo LAZR(©) multispectral photoacoustic imager and were spectrally analyzed per pixel. The results were compared to histopathology as gold standard. Results. The nodal volume could be scanned within 20 minutes. An unmixing procedure was proposed to identify melanoma metastases with multispectral photoacoustic imaging. Ultrasound overlay enabled anatomical correlation. The penetration depth of the photoacoustic signal was up to 2 cm. Conclusion. Multispectral three-dimensional photoacoustic imaging allowed for selective identification of melanoma metastases in human lymph nodes. PMID:25028587

  11. High resolution multispectral photogrammetric imagery: enhancement, interpretation and evaluations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roberts, Arthur; Haefele, Martin; Bostater, Charles; Becker, Thomas

    2007-10-01

    A variety of aerial mapping cameras were adapted and developed into simulated multiband digital photogrammetric mapping systems. Direct digital multispectral, two multiband cameras (IIS 4 band and Itek 9 band) and paired mapping and reconnaissance cameras were evaluated for digital spectral performance and photogrammetric mapping accuracy in an aquatic environment. Aerial films (24cm X 24cm format) tested were: Agfa color negative and extended red (visible and near infrared) panchromatic, and; Kodak color infrared and B&W (visible and near infrared) infrared. All films were negative processed to published standards and digitally converted at either 16 (color) or 10 (B&W) microns. Excellent precision in the digital conversions was obtained with scanning errors of less than one micron. Radiometric data conversion was undertaken using linear density conversion and centered 8 bit histogram exposure. This resulted in multiple 8 bit spectral image bands that were unaltered (not radiometrically enhanced) "optical count" conversions of film density. This provided the best film density conversion to a digital product while retaining the original film density characteristics. Data covering water depth, water quality, surface roughness, and bottom substrate were acquired using different measurement techniques as well as different techniques to locate sampling points on the imagery. Despite extensive efforts to obtain accurate ground truth data location errors, measurement errors, and variations in the correlation between water depth and remotely sensed signal persisted. These errors must be considered endemic and may not be removed through even the most elaborate sampling set up. Results indicate that multispectral photogrammetric systems offer improved feature mapping capability.

  12. A multispectral scanner survey of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. Date of survey: August 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, S.B. Jr.; Howard, M.E.; Shines, J.E.

    1994-08-01

    The Multispectral Remote Sensing Department of the Remote Sensing Laboratory conducted an airborne multispectral scanner survey of a portion of the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada. The survey was conducted on August 21 and 22, 1993, using a Daedalus AADS1268 scanner and coincident aerial color photography. Flight altitudes were 5,000 feet (1,524 meters) above ground level for systematic coverage and 1,000 feet (304 meters) for selected areas of special interest. The multispectral scanner survey was initiated as part of an interim and limited investigation conducted to gather preliminary information regarding historical hazardous material release sites which could have environmental impacts. The overall investigation also includes an inventory of environmental restoration sites, a ground-based geophysical survey, and an aerial radiological survey. The multispectral scanner imagery and coincident aerial photography were analyzed for the detection, identification, and mapping of man-made soil disturbances. Several standard image enhancement techniques were applied to the data to assist image interpretation. A geologic ratio enhancement and a color composite consisting of AADS1268 channels 10, 7, and 9 (mid-infrared, red, and near-infrared spectral bands) proved most useful for detecting soil disturbances. A total of 358 disturbance sites were identified on the imagery and mapped using a geographic information system. Of these sites, 326 were located within the Tonopah Test Range while the remaining sites were present on the imagery but outside the site boundary. The mapped site locations are being used to support ongoing field investigations.

  13. A multispectral scanner survey of the United States Department of Energy's Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-06-01

    Airborne multispectral scanner data of the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant (PGDP) and surrounding area were acquired during late spring 1990. This survey was conducted by the Remote Sensing Laboratory (RSL) which is operated by EG G Energy Measurements (EG G/EM) for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Nevada Operations Office. It was requested by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Audit Team which was reviewing environmental conditions at the facility. The objectives of this survey were to: (1) Acquire 12-channel, multispectral scanner data of the PGDP from an altitude of 3000 feet above ground level (AGL); (2) Acquire predawn, digital thermal infrared (TIR) data of the site from the same altitude; (3) Collect color and color-infrared (CIR) aerial photographs over the facilities; and (4) Illustrate how the analyses of these data could benefit environmental monitoring at the PGDP. This report summarizes the two multispectral scanner and aerial photographic missions at the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant. Selected examples of the multispectral data are presented to illustrate its potential for aiding environmental management at the site. 4 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  14. Cucumber disease diagnosis using multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Li, Hongning; Shi, Junsheng; Yang, Weiping; Liao, Ningfang

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, multispectral imaging technique for plant diseases diagnosis is presented. Firstly, multispectral imaging system is designed. This system utilizes 15 narrow-band filters, a panchromatic band, a monochrome CCD camera, and standard illumination observing environment. The spectral reflectance and color of 8 Macbeth color patches are reproduced between 400nm and 700nm in the process. In addition, spectral reflectance angle and color difference is obtained through measurements and analysis of color patches using spectrometer and multispectral imaging system. The result shows that 16 narrow-bands multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in spectral reflectance and color reproduction. Secondly, a horticultural plant, cucumber' familiar disease are the researching objects. 210 multispectral samples are obtained by multispectral and are classified by BP artificial neural network. The classification accuracies of Sphaerotheca fuliginea, Corynespora cassiicola, Pseudoperonospora cubensis are 100%. Trichothecium roseum and Cladosporium cucumerinum are 96.67% and 90.00%. It is confirmed that the multispectral imaging system realizes good accuracy in the cucumber diseases diagnosis.

  15. On-board multispectral classification study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ewalt, D.

    1979-01-01

    The factors relating to onboard multispectral classification were investigated. The functions implemented in ground-based processing systems for current Earth observation sensors were reviewed. The Multispectral Scanner, Thematic Mapper, Return Beam Vidicon, and Heat Capacity Mapper were studied. The concept of classification was reviewed and extended from the ground-based image processing functions to an onboard system capable of multispectral classification. Eight different onboard configurations, each with varying amounts of ground-spacecraft interaction, were evaluated. Each configuration was evaluated in terms of turnaround time, onboard processing and storage requirements, geometric and classification accuracy, onboard complexity, and ancillary data required from the ground.

  16. Multispectral sensing of moisture stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, C. E., Jr.

    1970-01-01

    Laboratory reflectance data, and field tests with multispectral remote sensors provide support for this hypotheses that differences in moisture content and water deficits are closely related to foliar reflectance from woody plants. When these relationships are taken into account, automatic recognition techniques become more powerful than when they are ignored. Evidence is increasing that moisture relationships inside plant foliage are much more closely related to foliar reflectance characteristics than are external variables such as soil moisture, wind, and air temperature. Short term changes in water deficits seem to have little influence on foliar reflectance, however. This is in distinct contrast to significant short-term changes in foliar emittance from the same plants with changing wind, air temperature, incident radiation, or water deficit conditions.

  17. Monitoring of maize chlorophyll content based on multispectral vegetation indices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Li, Minzan; Zheng, Lihua; Zhang, Yane; Zhang, Yajing

    2012-11-01

    In order to estimate the nutrient status of maize, the multi-spectral image was used to monitor the chlorophyll content in the field. The experiments were conducted under three different fertilizer treatments (High, Normal and Low). A multispectral CCD camera was used to collect ground-based images of maize canopy in green (G, 520~600nm), red (R, 630~690nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 760~900nm) band. Leaves of maize were randomly sampled to detect the chlorophyll content by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The images were processed following image preprocessing, canopy segmentation and parameter calculation: Firstly, the median filtering was used to improve the visual contrast of image. Secondly, the leaves of maize canopy were segmented in NIR image. Thirdly, the average gray value (GIA, RIA and NIRIA) and the vegetation indices (DVI, RVI, NDVI, et al.) widely used in remote sensing were calculated. A new vegetation index, combination of normalized difference vegetation index (CNDVI), was developed. After the correlation analysis between image parameter and chlorophyll content, six parameters (GIA, RIA, NIRIA, GRVI, GNDVI and CNDVI) were selected to estimate chlorophyll content at shooting and trumpet stages respectively. The results of MLR predicting models showed that the R2 was 0.88 and the adjust R2 was 0.64 at shooting stage; the R2 was 0.77 and the adjust R2 was 0.31 at trumpet stage. It was indicated that vegetation indices derived from multispectral image could be used to monitor the chlorophyll content. It provided a feasible method for the chlorophyll content detection.

  18. Single sensor that outputs narrowband multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kong, Linghua; Yi, Dingrong; Sprigle, Stephen; Wang, Fengtao; Wang, Chao; Liu, Fuhan; Adibi, Ali; Tummala, Rao

    2010-01-01

    We report the work of developing a hand-held (or miniaturized), low-cost, stand-alone, real-time-operation, narrow bandwidth multispectral imaging device for the detection of early stage pressure ulcers.

  19. Study on multispectral imaging detection and recognition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jun, Wang; Na, Ding; Gao, Jiaobo; Yu, Hu; Jun, Wu; Li, Junna; Zheng, Yawei; Fei, Gao; Sun, Kefeng

    2009-07-01

    Multispectral imaging detecting technology use target radiation character in spectral spatial distribution and relation between spectral and image to detect target and remote sensing measure. Its speciality is multi channel, narrow bandwidth, large amount of information, high accuracy. The ability of detecting target in environment of clutter, camouflage, concealment and beguilement is improved. At present, spectral imaging technology in the range of multispectral and hyperspectral develop greatly. The multispectral imaging equipment of unmanned aerial vehicle can be used in mine detection, information, surveillance and reconnaissance. Spectral imaging spectrometer operating in MWIR and LWIR has already been applied in the field of remote sensing and military in the advanced country. The paper presents the technology of multispectral imaging. It can enhance the reflectance, scatter and radiation character of the artificial targets among nature background. The targets among complex background and camouflage/stealth targets can be effectively identified. The experiment results and the data of spectral imaging is obtained.

  20. Evaluation of new spectral bands for multi-spectral imaging: SMIRR aircraft test results

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goetz, Alexander F.H.; Rowan, Lawrence C.

    1980-01-01

    A 10-channel radiometer called the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) is scheduled to take data from orbit on the second shuttle orbital light test. As part of the instrument test sequence, a series of aircraft flights was carried out over 10 test areas in Utah and Nevada. Apart from vegetation, the materials exposed at the surface were volcanic sequences ranging from tuffs to basalts, areas of hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks, sedimentary sequences of sandstone and carbonate rocks, and alluvial cover.

  1. Simultaneous denoising and compression of multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hagag, Ahmed; Amin, Mohamed; Abd El-Samie, Fathi E.

    2013-01-01

    A new technique for denoising and compression of multispectral satellite images to remove the effect of noise on the compression process is presented. One type of multispectral images has been considered: Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus. The discrete wavelet transform (DWT), the dual-tree DWT, and a simple Huffman coder are used in the compression process. Simulation results show that the proposed technique is more effective than other traditional compression-only techniques.

  2. Viability Prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. Seeds Using Multispectral Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Nikneshan, Pejman; Shrestha, Santosh; Tadayyon, Ali; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the use of multispectral imaging in seed quality testing of castor seeds. Visually, 120 seeds were divided into three classes: yellow, grey and black seeds. Thereafter, images at 19 different wavelengths ranging from 375–970 nm were captured of all the seeds. Mean intensity for each single seed was extracted from the images, and a significant difference between the three colour classes was observed, with the best separation in the near-infrared wavelengths. A specified feature (RegionMSI mean) based on normalized canonical discriminant analysis, were employed and viable seeds were distinguished from dead seeds with 92% accuracy. The same model was tested on a validation set of seeds. These seeds were divided into two groups depending on germination ability, 241 were predicted as viable and expected to germinate and 59 were predicted as dead or non-germinated seeds. This validation of the model resulted in 96% correct classification of the seeds. The results illustrate how multispectral imaging technology can be employed for prediction of viable castor seeds, based on seed coat colour. PMID:25690554

  3. Viability prediction of Ricinus cummunis L. seeds using multispectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Olesen, Merete Halkjær; Nikneshan, Pejman; Shrestha, Santosh; Tadayyon, Ali; Deleuran, Lise Christina; Boelt, Birte; Gislum, René

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to highlight the use of multispectral imaging in seed quality testing of castor seeds. Visually, 120 seeds were divided into three classes: yellow, grey and black seeds. Thereafter, images at 19 different wavelengths ranging from 375-970 nm were captured of all the seeds. Mean intensity for each single seed was extracted from the images, and a significant difference between the three colour classes was observed, with the best separation in the near-infrared wavelengths. A specified feature (RegionMSI mean) based on normalized canonical discriminant analysis, were employed and viable seeds were distinguished from dead seeds with 92% accuracy. The same model was tested on a validation set of seeds. These seeds were divided into two groups depending on germination ability, 241 were predicted as viable and expected to germinate and 59 were predicted as dead or non-germinated seeds. This validation of the model resulted in 96% correct classification of the seeds. The results illustrate how multispectral imaging technology can be employed for prediction of viable castor seeds, based on seed coat colour. PMID:25690554

  4. UAV-based multi-spectral environmental monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arnold, Thomas; De Biasio, Martin; Fritz, Andreas; Frank, Albert; Leitner, Raimund

    2012-06-01

    This paper describes an airborne multi-spectral imaging system which is able to simultaneously capture three visible (400-670nm at 50% FWHM) and three near infrared channels (670-1000nm at 50% FWHM). The rst prototype was integrated in a Schiebel CAMCOPTER®S-100 VTOL (Vertical Take-O and Landing) UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle) for initial test ights in spring 2010. The UAV was own over land containing various types of vegetation. A miniaturized version of the initial multi-spectral imaging system was developed in 2011 to t into a more compact UAV. The imaging system captured six bands with a minimal spatial resolution of approx. 10cm x 10cm (depending on altitude). Results show that the system is able to resist the high vibration level during ight and that the actively stabilized camera gimbal compensates for rapid roll/tilt movements of the UAV. After image registration the acquired images are stitched together for land cover mapping and ight path validation. Moreover the system is able to distinguish between dierent types of vegetation and soil. Future work will include the use of spectral imaging techniques to identify spectral features that are related to water stress, nutrient deciency and pest infestation. Once these bands have been identied, narrowband lters will be incorporated into the airborne system.

  5. Calibrated and geocoded clutter from an airborne multispectral scanner

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heuer, Markus; Bruehlmann, Ralph; John, Marc-Andre; Schmid, Konrad J.; Hueppi, Rudolph; Koenig, Reto

    1999-07-01

    Robustness of automatic target recognition (ATR) to varying observation conditions and countermeasures is substantially increased by use of multispectral sensors. Assessment of such ATR systems is performed by captive flight tests and simulations (HWIL or complete modeling). Although the clutter components of a scene can be generated with specified statistics, clutter maps directly obtained from measurement are required for validation of a simulation. In addition, urban scenes have non-stationary characteristics and are difficult to simulate. The present paper describes a scanner, data acquisition and processing system used for the generation of realistic clutter maps incorporating infrared, passive and active millimeter wave channels. The sensors are mounted on a helicopter with coincident line-of-sight, enabling us to measure consistent clutter signatures under varying observation conditions. Position and attitude data from GPS and an inertial measurement unit, respectively, are used to geometrically correct the raw scanner data. After sensor calibration the original voltage signals are converted to physical units, i.e. temperatures and reflectivities, describing the clutter independently of the scanning sensor, thus allowing us the use of the clutter maps in tests of a priori unknown multispectral sensors. The data correction procedures are described and results are presented.

  6. Technologies for the multispectral mapping of earth resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wellman, J. B.

    1981-01-01

    The application of solid-state detector array imaging to the remote sensing of the earth as a follow-on to currently planned Landsat missions provides the opportunity to achieve significantly increased performance. First-order advantages to be anticipated are higher sensitivity resulting in greater radiometric accuracies and improved geometric fidelity. The Multispectral Mapper design concept is responsive to a broad range of user needs by incorporating in-flight selection of spectral bands, instantaneous fields of view, and swath width. This versatility is achieved by the use of an imaging spectrometer which permits both spatial and spectral sampling in the image plane using area array detectors. Other improvements over the current Landsat multispectral scanner and Thematic Mapper include higher spatial resolution and inherently precise registration of the spectral bands. The key technologies required in order to realize these improvements include short-wavelength infrared detectors, wide field of view, broad spectral coverage optics, focal plane cooling, and high-speed onboard signal processing. Significant development activities will be required if an advanced remote sensing capability is to be implemented.

  7. Estimating atmospheric parameters and reducing noise for multispectral imaging

    DOEpatents

    Conger, James Lynn

    2014-02-25

    A method and system for estimating atmospheric radiance and transmittance. An atmospheric estimation system is divided into a first phase and a second phase. The first phase inputs an observed multispectral image and an initial estimate of the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band and calculates the atmospheric radiance and transmittance for each spectral band, which can be used to generate a "corrected" multispectral image that is an estimate of the surface multispectral image. The second phase inputs the observed multispectral image and the surface multispectral image that was generated by the first phase and removes noise from the surface multispectral image by smoothing out change in average deviations of temperatures.

  8. Analysis of Shuttle Multispecral Infrared Radiometer measurements of the western Saudi Arabian shield.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Abbott, E.

    1987-01-01

    During the November 12-14, 1981 mission of the space shuttle Columbia, the Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) recorded radiances in 10 channels along a 100m wide groundtrack across the western Saudi Arabian shield.-from Authors

  9. Application of multispectral reflectance for early detection of tomato disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Huirong; Zhu, Shengpan; Ying, Yibin; Jiang, Huanyu

    2006-10-01

    Automatic diagnosis of plant disease is important for plant management and environmental preservation in the future. The objective of this study is to use multispectral reflectance measurements to make an early discrimination between the healthy and infected plants by the strain of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV-U1) infection. There were reflectance changes in the visible (VIS) and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) between the healthy and infected plants. Discriminant models were developed using discriminant partial least squares (DPLS) and Mahalanobis distance (MD). The DPLS models had a root mean square error of calibration (RMSEC) of 0.397 and correlation coefficient (r) of 0.59 and the MD model correctly classified 86.7% healthy plants and up to 91.7% infected plants.

  10. Preliminary analysis of Shuttle multispectral radiometer data for southern Egypt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Kingston, M. J.; Goetz, F. H.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) is a spectroradiometer covering the region from 0.5 to 2.5 microns in 10 channels that acquired data from spots 100 m in diameter along the subspacecraft ground track. It was flown aboard the second flight of the Space Shuttle Columbia, November 12-14, 1981. Data collected during orbit 16 over southern Egypt show that carbonate rocks, kaolinite, and possibly montmorillonite can be identified by their SMIRR spectral signatures and limited knowledge of the lithologic units present. Detailed analysis of SMIRR data for this area indicates that calcite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite rocks give rise to absorption features that result in characteristic 10 channel spectra.

  11. Preliminary analysis of shuttle multispectral radiometer data for Southern Egypt

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rowan, L.C.; Goetz, A.F.H.; Kingston, M.J.

    1983-01-01

    The Shuttle Multispectral Infrared Radiometer (SMIRR) is a spectroradiometer covering the region from 0.5 to 2.5 ??m in 10 channels that acquired data from spots 100 m in diameter along the subspacecraft ground track. It was flown aboard the second flight of the space shuttle Columbia, November 12-14, 1981. Data collected during orbit 16 over southern Egypt show that carbonate rocks, kaolinite, and possibly montmorillonite can be identified by their SMIRR spectral signatures and limited knowledge of the lithologic units present. Detailed analysis of SMIRR data for this area indicates that calcite, kaolinite, and montmorillonite rocks give rise to absorption features that result in characteristic 10 channel spectra. ?? 1983.

  12. Sub-pixel resolution with the Multispectral Thermal Imager (MTI).

    SciTech Connect

    Decker, Max Louis; Smith, Jody Lynn; Nandy, Prabal

    2003-06-01

    The Multispectral Thermal Imager Satellite (MTI) has been used to test a sub-pixel sampling technique in an effort to obtain higher spatial frequency imagery than that of its original design. The MTI instrument is of particular interest because of its infrared detectors. In this spectral region, the detector size is traditionally the limiting factor in determining the satellite's ground sampling distance (GSD). Additionally, many over-sampling techniques require flexible command and control of the sensor and spacecraft. The MTI sensor is well suited for this task, as it is the only imaging system on the MTI satellite bus. In this super-sampling technique, MTI is maneuvered such that the data are collected at sub-pixel intervals on the ground. The data are then processed using a deconvolution algorithm using in-scene measured point spread functions (PSF) to produce an image with synthetically-boosted GSD.

  13. Spectral stratigraphy: multispectral remote sensing as a stratigraphic tool, Wind River/Big Horn basin, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Lang, H.R.; Paylor, E.D.

    1987-05-01

    Stratigraphic and structural analyses of the Wind River and Big Horn basins areas of central Wyoming are in progress. One result has been the development of a new approach to stratigraphic and structural analysis that uses photogeologic and spectral interpretation of multispectral image data to remotely characterize the attitude, thickness, and lithology of strata. New multispectral systems that have only been available since 1982 are used with topographic data to map upper paleozoic and Mesozoic strata exposed on the southern margin of the Bighorn Mountains. Thematic Mapper (TM) satellite data together with topographic data are used to map lithologic contacts, measure dip and strike, and develop a stratigraphic column that is correlated with conventional surface and subsurface sections. Aircraft-acquired Airborne Imaging Spectrometer and Thermal Infrared Multispectral Scanner data add mineralogical information to the TM column, including the stratigraphic distribution of quartz, calcite, dolomite, montmorillonite, and gypsum. Results illustrate an approach that has general applicability in other geologic investigations that could benefit from remotely acquired information about areal variations in attitude, sequence, thickness, and lithology of strata exposed at the Earth's surface. Application of their methods elsewhere is limited primarily by availability of multispectral and topographic data and quality of bedrock exposures.

  14. Pedestrian detection by multispectral fusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yunqian; Wang, Zheng; Bazakos, Mike

    2006-04-01

    Security systems increasingly rely on the use of Automated Video Surveillance (AVS) technology. In particular the use of digital video renders itself to internet and local communications, remote monitoring, and to computer processing. AVS systems can perform many tedious and repetitive tasks currently performed by trained security personnel. AVS technology has already made some significant steps towards automating some basic security functions such as: motion detection, object tracking and event-based video recording. However, there are still many problems associated with just these automated functions, which need to be addressed further. Some examples of these problems are: the high "false alarm rate" and the "loss of track" under total or partial occlusion, when used under a wide range of operational parameters (day, night, sunshine, cloudy, foggy, range, viewing angle, clutter, etc.). Current surveillance systems work well only under a narrow range of operational parameters. Therefore, they need be hardened against a wide range of operational conditions. In this paper, we present a Multi-spectral fusion approach to perform accurate pedestrian segmentation under varying operational parameters. Our fusion method combines the "best" detection results from the visible images and the "best" from the thermal images. Commonly, the motion detection results in the visible images are easily affected by noise and shadows. The objects in the thermal image are relatively stable, but they may be missing some parts of the objects, because they thermally blend with the background. Our method makes use of the "best" object components and de-emphasize the "not best".

  15. Lens assemblies for multispectral camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lepretre, Francois

    1994-09-01

    In the framework of a contract with the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), MATRA DEFENSE - DOD/UAO have developed, produced and tested 36 types LISS 1 - LISS 2 lenses and 12 LISS 3 lenses equipped with their interferential filters. These lenses are intended to form the optical systems of multispectral imaging sensors aboard Indian earth observation satellites IRS 1A, 1B, 1C, and 1D. It should be noted that the multispectrum cameras of the IRS 1A - 1B satellite have been in operation for two years and have given very satisfactory results according to ISRO. Each of these multispectrum LISS 3 cameras consists of lenses, each working in a different spectral bandwidth (B2: 520 - 590 nm; B3: 620 - 680 nm; B4: 770 - 860 nm; B5: 1550 - 1700 nm). In order to superimpose the images of each spectral band without digital processing, the image formats (60 mm) of the lenses are registered better that 2 micrometers and remain as such throughout all the environmental tests. Similarly, due to the absence of precise thermal control aboard the satellite, the lenses are as athermal as possible.

  16. Current and Future Applications of Multispectral (RGB) Satellite Imagery for Weather Analysis and Forecasting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; LaFontaine, Frank; McGrath, Kevin; Smith, Matt

    2013-01-01

    Current and future satellite sensors provide remotely sensed quantities from a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to the passive microwave, from both geostationary and low ]Earth orbits. The NASA Short ]term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a long history of providing multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA fs Terra and Aqua satellites in support of NWS forecast office activities. Products from MODIS have recently been extended to include a broader suite of multispectral imagery similar to those developed by EUMETSAT, based upon the spectral channels available from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI) aboard METEOSAT ]9. This broader suite includes products that discriminate between air mass types associated with synoptic ]scale features, assists in the identification of dust, and improves upon paired channel difference detection of fog and low cloud events. Future instruments will continue the availability of these products and also expand upon current capabilities. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES ]R will improve the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution of our current geostationary capabilities, and the recent launch of the Suomi National Polar ]Orbiting Partnership (S ]NPP) carries instruments such as the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross ]track Infrared Sounder (CrIS), and the Advanced Technology Microwave Sounder (ATMS), which have unrivaled spectral and spatial resolution, as precursors to the JPSS era (i.e., the next generation of polar orbiting satellites. New applications from VIIRS extend multispectral composites available from MODIS and SEVIRI while adding new capabilities through incorporation of additional CrIS channels or information from the Near Constant Contrast or gDay ]Night Band h, which provides moonlit reflectance from clouds and detection of fires or city lights. This presentation will

  17. Shortwave infrared detection of vegetation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goward, Samuel N.

    Shortwave infrared sensors were included on Thematic Mapper to observe vegetation reflected radiance patterns that are related to leaf water content. However, there was some uncertainty whether these measurements would increase the information content of multispectral measurements beyond that provided by visible and near infrared measurements. Analysis of field measurements for corn and soybeans observed throughout the growing season shows that shortwave infrared measurements enhance discrimination between these species, particularly in mid-season. Modeling the canopy reflectances shows that differential leaf absorptance can produce the observed pattern. Analysis of coincident aerial photography suggests that within canopy shadowing is also important. Too few studies of leaf optical properties have been conducted to permit generalization of the results to other vegetation species but the results do show that shortwave infrared measurements contribute new information about vegetation not previously available in visible and near infrared measurements.

  18. Multispectral satellite observations for arid land studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1992-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data when properly calibrated and standardized can be used synergistically for a quantitative analysis of processes and surface characteristics, and for quantifying land surface change. Relationships among multispectral satellite data (visible reflectance, surface temperature and polarization difference of microwave emission at 37 GHz frequency) have been used to develop hypotheses concerning the relative sensitivity of these data to varied land surface characteristics, which needs to be verified by field observations. Radiative transfer models have also been developed to understand these multispectral data. Interannual variations of visible reflectance and polarization difference for the period 1982-1986 over the Sahel and the Sudan zones of Africa show a lagged response with respect to the rainfall deficit during recovery from drought, which needs to be understood in terms of biophysical parameters.

  19. Unsupervised classification of remote multispectral sensing data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, M. Y.

    1972-01-01

    The new unsupervised classification technique for classifying multispectral remote sensing data which can be either from the multispectral scanner or digitized color-separation aerial photographs consists of two parts: (a) a sequential statistical clustering which is a one-pass sequential variance analysis and (b) a generalized K-means clustering. In this composite clustering technique, the output of (a) is a set of initial clusters which are input to (b) for further improvement by an iterative scheme. Applications of the technique using an IBM-7094 computer on multispectral data sets over Purdue's Flight Line C-1 and the Yellowstone National Park test site have been accomplished. Comparisons between the classification maps by the unsupervised technique and the supervised maximum liklihood technique indicate that the classification accuracies are in agreement.

  20. High-speed multispectral confocal biomedical imaging

    PubMed Central

    Carver, Gary E.; Locknar, Sarah A.; Morrison, William A.; Krishnan Ramanujan, V.; Farkas, Daniel L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. A new approach for generating high-speed multispectral confocal images has been developed. The central concept is that spectra can be acquired for each pixel in a confocal spatial scan by using a fast spectrometer based on optical fiber delay lines. This approach merges fast spectroscopy with standard spatial scanning to create datacubes in real time. The spectrometer is based on a serial array of reflecting spectral elements, delay lines between these elements, and a single element detector. The spatial, spectral, and temporal resolution of the instrument is described and illustrated by multispectral images of laser-induced autofluorescence in biological tissues. PMID:24658777

  1. Narrowband multispectral liquid crystal tunable filter.

    PubMed

    Abuleil, Marwan; Abdulhalim, Ibrahim

    2016-05-01

    Multispectral tunable filters with high performance are desirable components in various biomedical and industrial applications. In this Letter, we present a new narrowband multispectral tunable filter with high throughput over a wide dynamic range. It is composed from a wideband large dynamic range liquid crystal tunable filter combined with a multiple narrowbands spectral filter made of two stacks of photonic crystals and cavity layer in between. The filter tunes between nine spectral bands covering the range 450-1000 nm with bandwidth <10  nm and throughput >80%. PMID:27128048

  2. Coastal and estuarine applications of multispectral photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yost, E.; Wenderoth, S.

    1972-01-01

    An evaluation of multispectral photographic techniques for optical penetration of water in the northeastern United States and the Gulf of Mexico coastal waters is presented. The spectral band (493 to 543 nanom), when exposed to place the water mass at about unit density on the photographic emulsion, was found to provide the best water penetration, independent of altitude or time of day, as long as solar glitter from the surface of the water is avoided. An isoluminous color technique was perfected, which eliminates the dimension of brightness from a multispectral color presentation.

  3. Second-harmonic illumination to enhance multispectral digital lensless holographic microscopy.

    PubMed

    Mendoza-Yero, Omel; Carbonell-Leal, Miguel; Lancis, Jesús; Garcia-Sucerquia, Jorge

    2016-03-01

    Multispectral digital lensless holographic microscopy (MDLHM) operating with second-harmonic illumination is shown. Added to the improvement of the spatial resolution of the previously reported MDLHM operating with near-infrared illumination, this second-harmonic MDLHM shows promise as a tool to study the behavior of biological samples under a broad spectral illumination. This illumination is generated by focusing a highly spatially coherent ultrashort pulsed radiation into an uncoated Type 1 β-BaB2O4 (BBO) nonlinear crystal. The second-harmonic MDLHM allows achieving multispectral images of biological samples with enhanced micrometer spatial resolution. The illumination wavelength of the second-harmonic MDLHM can be tuned by displacing a focusing optics with respect to a pinhole; spatially resolved information at different wavelengths of the sample can then be retrieved. PMID:26974116

  4. Workshop on the Use of Future Multispectral Imaging Capabilities for Lithologic Mapping: Workshop summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Settle, M.; Adams, J.

    1982-01-01

    Improved orbital imaging capabilities from the standpoint of different scientific disciplines, such as geology, botany, hydrology, and geography were evaluated. A discussion on how geologists might exploit the anticipated measurement capabilities of future orbital imaging systems to discriminate and characterize different types of geologic materials exposed at the Earth's surface is presented. Principle objectives are to summarize past accomplishments in the use of multispectral imaging techniques for lithologic mapping; to identify critical gaps in earlier research efforts that currently limit the ability to extract useful information about the physical and chemical characteristics of geological materials from orbital multispectral surveys; and to define major thresholds, resolution and sensitivity within the visible and infrared portions of the electromagnetic spectrum which, if achieved would result in significant improvement in our ability to discriminate and characterize different geological materials exposed at the Earth's surface.

  5. In vivo imaging of cancer cells with electroporation of quantum dots and multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, Jung Sun; Won, Nayoun; Kim, Hong Bae; Bang, Jiwon; Kim, Sungjee; Ahn, Saeyoung; Soh, Kwang-Sup

    2010-06-01

    Our understanding of dissemination and growth of cancer cells is limited by our inability for long-term followup of this process in vivo. Fluorescence molecular imaging has the potential to track cancer cells with high contrast and sensitivity in living animals. For this purpose, intracellular delivery of near-infrared fluorescence quantum dots (QDs) by electroporation offers considerable advantages over organic fluorophores and other cell tagging methods. In this research we developed a multispectral imaging system that could eliminate two major parameters compromising in vivo fluorescence imaging performance, i.e., variations in the tissue optical properties and tissue autofluorescence. We demonstrated that electroporation of QDs and multispectral imaging allowed in vivo assessment of cancer development and progression in the xenograft mouse tumor model for more than 1 month, providing a powerful means to learn more about the biology of cancer and metastasis.

  6. Lithologic mapping with multispectral ASTER TIR and SWIR data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ninomiya, Yoshiki

    2004-02-01

    ASTER, launched in December, 1999, composed of three subsystems, each of which multispectrally observes the reflected or emitted radiation from the surface of the earth to space in VNIR (visible and near infrared), SWIR (shortwave infrared) and TIR (thermal infrared) wavelength regions, respectively. ASTER-VNIR has three spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 15m, and the one of which in near infrared has an along track stereo observation capability to produce high quality Digital Elevation Model (DEM). ASTER-SWIR has six spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 30m, which are mainly designed for discriminating altered minerals bearing hydroxyl group. ASTER-TIR has five spectral bands with a spatial resolution of 90m, which presents us a powerful tool for identifying quartz and carbonate minerals as well as discriminating types of silicate rocks. The author have successfully developed a robust method for detecting quartzite and carbonate rocks as well as classifying type of igneous rocks with ASTER TIR data without atmospheric corrections (Level-1B data). Here in this paper, reflectance spectra of minerals in SWIR region measured in the laboratory are analyzed to define calcite index, OH-bearing silicate index, kaolinite index and alunite index for discriminating each mineral by ASTER-SWIR. The defined indices are applied to SWIR data of ASTER Level-1B radiance at the sensor data observing Cuprite area in Nevada, USA, and the discussions are made on the results by comparing the well-known geology of the area. Also, the result of calcite index is compared with the result of applying well-characterized carbonate index defined for ASTER-TIR to clarify the strong point of each index.

  7. Science Applications of a Multispectral Microscopic Imager for the Astrobiological Exploration of Mars

    PubMed Central

    Farmer, Jack D.; Sellar, R. Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A.; Blaney, Diana L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. Key Words: Mars—Microscopic imager—Multispectral imaging

  8. Observations of near-surface carbon monoxide from space using MOPITT multispectral retrievals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Worden, H. M.; Deeter, M. N.; Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Drummond, J. R.; NéDéLec, P.

    2010-09-01

    Using both thermal infrared (TIR) and near infrared (NIR) channels of MOPITT (Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere) on EOS-Terra, we demonstrate the first coincident multispectral retrievals of carbon monoxide (CO) from space. Exploiting both TIR and NIR channels has been possible due to recent progress in characterizing NIR channel radiance errors. This has allowed us to trade off sensitivity to near surface CO for larger random errors in the combined retrieval. By examining retrieval diagnostics such as DFS (degrees of freedom for signal) and averaging kernels for the multispectral retrieval (TIR + NIR) as compared to the TIR-only retrieval, we find that adding the NIR channel to the retrieval significantly increases sensitivity to CO, especially near the surface, but with high spatial variability due to surface albedo variations. The cases with the largest increases in DFS are over regions with low thermal contrast between the surface and lower atmosphere. In the tropics (23.4°S-23.4°N), the fraction of daytime land cases with at least 0.4 DFS in the surface layer (surface to 800 hPa) is 20% for TIR-only retrievals compared to 59% for multispectral retrievals. Vertical resolution for the surface layer is also improved, in some cases from around 6 km for TIR-only to roughly 1 km for TIR + NIR. Since we apply a single a priori CO profile (unlike MOPITT V4) and error covariance in all the retrievals reported here, these increases are due solely to the addition of the NIR channel. Enhanced sensitivity to near surface CO is especially evident in a case study for central/east Asia where source regions for urban areas with high population density are clearly identifiable. Although these retrievals are still a research product and require further validation and scientific evaluation, they demonstrate the increased sensitivity to CO in the lowermost troposphere that can be obtained from multispectral MOPITT data.

  9. Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector

    PubMed Central

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Li, Ziwei; Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    Existing multispectral imagers mostly use available array sensors to separately measure 2D data slices in a 3D spatial-spectral data cube. Thus they suffer from low photon efficiency, limited spectrum range and high cost. To address these issues, we propose to conduct multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector, to take full advantage of its high sensitivity, wide spectrum range, low cost, small size and light weight. Technically, utilizing the detector’s fast response, a scene’s 3D spatial-spectral information is multiplexed into a dense 1D measurement sequence and then demultiplexed computationally under the single pixel imaging scheme. A proof-of-concept setup is built to capture multispectral data of 64 pixels × 64 pixels × 10 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 650 nm, with the acquisition time being 1 minute. The imaging scheme holds great potentials for various low light and airborne applications, and can be easily manufactured as production-volume portable multispectral imagers. PMID:27103168

  10. Multispectral Dual-Aperture Schmidt Objective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minott, P. O.

    1983-01-01

    Off-axis focal planes make room for beam splitters. System includes two off-axis primary spherical reflectors, each concentric with refractive corrector at aperature. Off-axis design assures large aperture required for adequate spatial resolution. Separate images have precise registration, used for multispectral resource mapping or remote sensing.

  11. Multispectral Photography: the obscure becomes the obvious

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polgrean, John

    1974-01-01

    Commonly used in map making, real estate zoning, and highway route location, aerial photography planes equipped with multispectral cameras may, among many environmental applications, now be used to locate mineral deposits, define marshland boundaries, study water pollution, and detect diseases in crops and forests. (KM)

  12. Estimating noise and information for multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiazzi, Bruno; Alparone, Luciano; Barducci, Alessandro; Baronti, Stefano; Pippi, Ivan

    2002-03-01

    We focus on reliably estimating the information conveyed to a user by multispectral image data. The goal is establishing the extent to which an increase in spectral resolution can increase the amount of usable information. As a matter of fact, a trade- off exists between spatial and spectral resolution, due to physical constraints of sensors imaging with a prefixed SNR. After describing some methods developed for automatically estimating the variance of the noise introduced by multispectral imagers, lossless data compression is exploited to measure the useful information content of the multispectral data. In fact, the bit rate achieved by the reversible compression process takes into account both the contribution of the 'observation' noise, i.e., information regarded as statistical uncertainty, whose relevance is null to a user, and the intrinsic information of hypothetically noise free multispectral data. An entropic model of the image source is defined and, once the standard deviation of the noise, assumed to be white and Gaussian, has been preliminarily estimated, such a model is inverted to yield an estimate of the information content of the noise-free source from the code rate. Results of both noise and information assessment are reported and discussed on synthetic noisy images and on Landsat thematic mapper (TM) data.

  13. Multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector.

    PubMed

    Bian, Liheng; Suo, Jinli; Situ, Guohai; Li, Ziwei; Fan, Jingtao; Chen, Feng; Dai, Qionghai

    2016-01-01

    Existing multispectral imagers mostly use available array sensors to separately measure 2D data slices in a 3D spatial-spectral data cube. Thus they suffer from low photon efficiency, limited spectrum range and high cost. To address these issues, we propose to conduct multispectral imaging using a single bucket detector, to take full advantage of its high sensitivity, wide spectrum range, low cost, small size and light weight. Technically, utilizing the detector's fast response, a scene's 3D spatial-spectral information is multiplexed into a dense 1D measurement sequence and then demultiplexed computationally under the single pixel imaging scheme. A proof-of-concept setup is built to capture multispectral data of 64 pixels × 64 pixels × 10 wavelength bands ranging from 450 nm to 650 nm, with the acquisition time being 1 minute. The imaging scheme holds great potentials for various low light and airborne applications, and can be easily manufactured as production-volume portable multispectral imagers. PMID:27103168

  14. Multispectral laser imaging for advanced food analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senni, L.; Burrascano, P.; Ricci, M.

    2016-07-01

    A hardware-software apparatus for food inspection capable of realizing multispectral NIR laser imaging at four different wavelengths is herein discussed. The system was designed to operate in a through-transmission configuration to detect the presence of unwanted foreign bodies inside samples, whether packed or unpacked. A modified Lock-In technique was employed to counterbalance the significant signal intensity attenuation due to transmission across the sample and to extract the multispectral information more efficiently. The NIR laser wavelengths used to acquire the multispectral images can be varied to deal with different materials and to focus on specific aspects. In the present work the wavelengths were selected after a preliminary analysis to enhance the image contrast between foreign bodies and food in the sample, thus identifying the location and nature of the defects. Experimental results obtained from several specimens, with and without packaging, are presented and the multispectral image processing as well as the achievable spatial resolution of the system are discussed.

  15. Demonstration of clutter reduction and aircraft detection in multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoff, Lawrence E.; Winter, Edwin M.

    1992-08-01

    The DARPA multi-spectral infrared camera (MUSIC) was used for a series of experiments in Australia and Maui, Hawaii in 1991. The Maui experiments, conducted from a high mountain, concentrated on the detection of aircraft. The detection of air vehicles without the use of temporal motion (such as the case of a head-on approaching air vehicle) is a challenging problem when background clutter is present. The technique investigated was not dependent upon either the angular motion or the spectral signature of the aircraft. This approach exploits the differential transmission of the atmosphere in neighboring long wave infrared bands. This differential transmission between the target and background `colors' the background relative to the target and allows its removal. This technique was demonstrated on many examples of MUSIC data collected in Maui, Hawaii. Targets approaching the sensor head-on were successfully detected against clouds and other backgrounds using spectral along with spatial techniques. Several different algorithms were investigated and results are compared.

  16. Multispectral analysis of limestone, dolomite, and granite, Mill Creek, Oklahoma

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowan, L. C.; Watson, K.

    1970-01-01

    Spectral reflectance and thermal emission data were collected at the Mill Creek, Oklahoma test site during NASA missions 132 and 133 in June 1970. The data were collected by three aircraft flown several times during the diurnal cycle at altitudes of 150 to 17,000 m above mean terrain. Reflectance of the main rock types (limestone, dolomite, and granite) was determined from the data collected using a 12-channel multispectral scanner during mission 133 and from thermal infrared images recorded during mission 132 on an RS-7 scanner from 17,000 m above terrain. A preliminary rock recognition map was generated automatically using data collected from 900 m above terrain. The discrimination provided by the map is reasonably accurate. Misidentification occurred in areas of unusually high dolomite reflectivity. High altitude thermal infrared (10 to 12 micrometers) images show regional folds and faults distinguished by the presence of thermally contrasting materials. Linear and curvilinear structural features two to three times smaller than the nominal 17 m resolution could be detected.

  17. Multispectral detection and tracking of multiple moving targets in cluttered urban environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Demars, Casey D.; Roggemann, Michael C.; Havens, Timothy C.

    2015-12-01

    This paper presents an algorithm for target detection and tracking by fusion of multispectral imagery. In all spectral bands, we build a background model of the pixel intensities using a Gaussian mixture model, and pixels not belonging to the model are classified as foreground pixels. Foreground pixels from the spectral bands are weighted and summed into a single foreground map and filtered to give the fused foreground map. Foreground pixels are grouped into target candidates and associated with targets from a tracking database by matching features from the scale-invariant feature transform. The performance of our algorithm was evaluated with a synthetically generated data set of visible, near-infrared, midwave infrared, and long-wave infrared video sequences. With a fused combination of the spectral bands, the proposed algorithm lowers the false alarm rate while maintaining high detection rates. All 12 vehicles were tracked throughout the sequence, with one instance of a lost track that was later recovered.

  18. Nondestructive multispectral reflectoscopy between 800 and 1900 nm: An instrument for the investigation of the stratigraphy in paintings.

    PubMed

    Karagiannis, G; Salpistis, Chr; Sergiadis, G; Chryssoulakis, Y

    2007-06-01

    In the present work, a powerful tool for the investigation of paintings is presented. This permits the tuneable multispectral real time imaging between 200 and 5000 nm and the simultaneous multispectral acquisition of spectroscopic data from the same region. We propose the term infrared reflectoscopy for tuneable infrared imaging in paintings (Chryssonlakis and Chassery, The Application of Physicochemical Methods of Analysis and Image Processing Techniques to Painted Works of Art, Erasmus Project ICP-88-006-6, Athens, June, 1989) for a technique that is effective especially when the spectroscopic data acquisition is performed between 800 and 1900 nm. Elements such as underdrawings, old damage that is not visible to the naked eye, later interventions or overpaintings, hidden signatures, nonvisible inscriptions, and authenticity features can thus be detected with the overlying paint layers becoming successively "transparent" due to the deep infrared penetration. The spectroscopic data are collected from each point of the studied area with a 5 nm step through grey level measurement, after adequate infrared reflectance (%R) and curve calibration. The detection limits of the infrared detector as well as the power distribution of the radiation coming out through the micrometer slit assembly of the monochromator in use are also taken into account. Inorganic pigments can thus be identified and their physicochemical properties directly compared to the corresponding infrared images at each wavelength within the optimum region. In order to check its effectiveness, this method was applied on an experimental portable icon of a known stratigraphy. PMID:17614643

  19. Multi-spectral optical simulation system applied in hardware-in-the-loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hong; Lei, Jie; Gao, Yang; Liu, Yang

    2009-07-01

    The Multi-spectral simulation system has been constructed at Beijing Simulation Center (BSC) for hardware-in-the-loop (HWIL) testing of optical and infrared seekers, in single-band and dual-band, or even multi-band. This multi-spectral simulation facility consists primarily of several projectors and a wide-angular simulation mechanism, the projector technologies utilized at BSC include a broadband point source collimator, a laser echo simulator and a visible scene projection system. These projectors can be used individually with the wide-angular simulation mechanism, or any combination of both or all of three can be used according to different needs. The configuration and performance of each technology are reviewed in the paper. Future plans include two IR imaging projectors which run at high frame frequency. The multi-spectral optical simulation system has been successfully applied for visible and IR imaging seekers testing in HWIL simulation. The laser echo simulator hardware will be applied soon.

  20. Hemodynamic and morphologic responses in mouse brain during acute head injury imaged by multispectral structured illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, Boris; Mathews, Marlon S.; Abookasis, David

    2015-03-01

    Multispectral imaging has received significant attention over the last decade as it integrates spectroscopy, imaging, tomography analysis concurrently to acquire both spatial and spectral information from biological tissue. In the present study, a multispectral setup based on projection of structured illumination at several near-infrared wavelengths and at different spatial frequencies is applied to quantitatively assess brain function before, during, and after the onset of traumatic brain injury in an intact mouse brain (n=5). For the production of head injury, we used the weight drop method where weight of a cylindrical metallic rod falling along a metal tube strikes the mouse's head. Structured light was projected onto the scalp surface and diffuse reflected light was recorded by a CCD camera positioned perpendicular to the mouse head. Following data analysis, we were able to concurrently show a series of hemodynamic and morphologic changes over time including higher deoxyhemoglobin, reduction in oxygen saturation, cell swelling, etc., in comparison with baseline measurements. Overall, results demonstrates the capability of multispectral imaging based structured illumination to detect and map of brain tissue optical and physiological properties following brain injury in a simple noninvasive and noncontact manner.

  1. Improved Ozone Profile Retrievals Using Multispectral Measurements from S-NPP and NASA "A Train" Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, D.; Bowman, K. W.; Worden, J.; Livesey, N. J.; Kulawik, S. S.; Flynn, L. E.; Han, Y.; Liu, X.; Pawson, S.; Wargan, K.; Huang, M.; Luo, M.; Neu, J. L.; Irion, F. W.; Herman, R. L.; Schwartz, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Our prototype studies showed that a new ozone column and profile products can be obtained by combining multi-spectral radiances from the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) Ozone Mapping Profiler Suite (OMPS) and the Cross-track Infrared Sounder (CrIS). The product offers a unique combination of vertical resolution (enabled by the multi-spectral approach), and wide-swath horizontal coverage
and resolution. This product continues the EOS ozone records from the Aura platform that is based on the combination of the ozone profile product from Aura Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) and the Aura Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES). The unprecedented horizontal and vertical resolution and coverage of this product will enable new much-needed studies such as stratospheric chemistry and ozone loss, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone exchange, ozone climate forcing as well as long range transport of air pollution. The proposed joint CrIS/OMPS-TC/OMPS-NP global ozone record will have spatial sampling equivalent to OMPS Nadir Profiler measurements and similar to that of TES global survey record. The retrievals of using OMPS/CrIS radiances, TES/OMI and MLS/AIRS/OMI retrievals are presented. The comparisons among the multi-spectral retrievals, Aura operation ozone products, and in-situ measurements are shown.

  2. Evaluation of eelgrass beds mapping using a high-resolution airborne multispectral scanner

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Su, H.; Karna, D.; Fraim, E.; Fitzgerald, M.; Dominguez, R.; Myers, J.S.; Coffland, B.; Handley, L.R.; Mace, T.

    2006-01-01

    Eelgrass (Zostera marina) can provide vital ecological functions in stabilizing sediments, influencing current dynamics, and contributing significant amounts of biomass to numerous food webs in coastal ecosystems. Mapping eelgrass beds is important for coastal water and nearshore estuarine monitoring, management, and planning. This study demonstrated the possible use of high spatial (approximately 5 m) and temporal (maximum low tide) resolution airborne multispectral scanner on mapping eelgrass beds in Northern Puget Sound, Washington. A combination of supervised and unsupervised classification approaches were performed on the multispectral scanner imagery. A normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the red and near-infrared bands and ancillary spatial information, were used to extract and mask eelgrass beds and other submerged aquatic vegetation (SAV) in the study area. We evaluated the resulting thematic map (geocoded, classified image) against a conventional aerial photograph interpretation using 260 point locations randomly stratified over five defined classes from the thematic map. We achieved an overall accuracy of 92 percent with 0.92 Kappa Coefficient in the study area. This study demonstrates that the airborne multispectral scanner can be useful for mapping eelgrass beds in a local or regional scale, especially in regions for which optical remote sensing from space is constrained by climatic and tidal conditions. ?? 2006 American Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing.

  3. The design and the development of a hyperspectral and multispectral airborne mapping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorsevski, Pece V.; Gessler, Paul E.

    Flexible and cost-effective tools for rapid image acquisition and natural resource mapping are needed by land managers. This paper describes the hardware and software architecture of a low-cost system that can be deployed on a light aircraft for rapid data acquisition. The Hyperspectral and Multispectral Cameras for Airborne Mapping (HAMCAM) was designed and developed in the Geospatial Laboratory for Environmental Dynamics at the University of Idaho as a student-learning tool, and to enhance the existing curriculum currently offered. The system integrates a hyperspectral sensor with four multispectral cameras, an Inertial Navigation System (INS), a Wide Area Augmentation System (WAAS)-capable Global Positioning System (GPS), a data acquisition computer, and custom software for running the sensors in a variety of different modes. The outputs include very high resolution imagery obtained in four adjustable visible and near-infrared bands from the multispectral imager. The hyperspectral sensor acquires 240 spectral bands along 2.7 nm intervals within the 445-900 nm range. The INS provides aircraft pitch, roll and yaw information for rapid geo-registration of the imagery. This paper will discuss the challenges associated with the development of the system and the integration of components and software for implementation of this system for natural resource management applications. In addition, sample imagery acquired by the sensor will be presented.

  4. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef. PMID:26213059

  5. Atmospheric effects in multispectral remote sensor data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E.

    1975-01-01

    The problem of radiometric variations in multispectral remote sensing data which occur as a result of a change in geometric and environmental factors is studied. The case of spatially varying atmospheres is considered and the effect of atmospheric scattering is analyzed for realistic conditions. Emphasis is placed upon a simulation of LANDSAT spectral data for agricultural investigations over the United States. The effect of the target-background interaction is thoroughly analyzed in terms of various atmospheric states, geometric parameters, and target-background materials. Results clearly demonstrate that variable atmospheres can alter the classification accuracy and that the presence of various backgrounds can change the effective target radiance by a significant amount. A failure to include these effects in multispectral data analysis will result in a decrease in the classification accuracy.

  6. Information extraction techniques for multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malila, W. A.; Crane, R. B.; Turner, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The applicability of recognition-processing procedures for multispectral scanner data from areas and conditions used for programming the recognition computers to other data from different areas viewed under different measurement conditions was studied. The reflective spectral region approximately 0.3 to 3.0 micrometers is considered. A potential application of such techniques is in conducting area surveys. Work in three general areas is reported: (1) Nature of sources of systematic variation in multispectral scanner radiation signals, (2) An investigation of various techniques for overcoming systematic variations in scanner data; (3) The use of decision rules based upon empirical distributions of scanner signals rather than upon the usually assumed multivariate normal (Gaussian) signal distributions.

  7. Multispectral device for help in diagnosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delporte, Céline; Ben Chouikha, Mohamed; Sautrot, Sylvie; Viénot, Françoise; Alquié, Georges

    2012-03-01

    In order to build biological tissues spectral characteristics database to be used in a multispectral imaging system a tissues optical characterization bench is developed and validated. Several biological tissue types have been characterized in vitro and ex vivo with our device such as beef, turkey and pork muscle and beef liver. Multispectral images obtained have been analyzed in order to study the dispersion of biological tissues spectral luminance factor. Tissue internal structure inhomogeneity was identified as a phenomenon contributing to the dispersion of spectral luminance factor. This dispersion of spectral luminance factor could be a characteristic of the tissue. A method based on envelope technique has been developed to identify and differentiate biological tissues in the same scene. This method applied to pork tissues containing muscle and fat gives detection rates of 59% for pork muscle and 14% for pork fat.

  8. Investigation related to multispectral imaging systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nalepka, R. F.; Erickson, J. D.

    1974-01-01

    A summary of technical progress made during a five year research program directed toward the development of operational information systems based on multispectral sensing and the use of these systems in earth-resource survey applications is presented. Efforts were undertaken during this program to: (1) improve the basic understanding of the many facets of multispectral remote sensing, (2) develop methods for improving the accuracy of information generated by remote sensing systems, (3) improve the efficiency of data processing and information extraction techniques to enhance the cost-effectiveness of remote sensing systems, (4) investigate additional problems having potential remote sensing solutions, and (5) apply the existing and developing technology for specific users and document and transfer that technology to the remote sensing community.

  9. Two-stage algorithm for cloud detection with ZY-1 02C multi-spectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ye-Yao; Wang, Wei-Min; Yang, Lijun; Liang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    Optical remote sensing observations often are the primary data source for many studies and applications in large scale, even in tropical regions. Frequent clouds over moist tropical regions often cause difficulty in obtaining good-quality high-resolution images. Different cloud styles and shadows make it hard to be masked on the images. The ZY-1 02C satellite, where multi-spectral and panchromatic imagers were on-boarded, was launched on 22 Nov. 2011. The objective of this satellite is to acquire data contributing for earth resources and environmental monitoring, as well as for other applications such as land use and disaster reduction. The multi-spectral imager has three wavebands, centered at 0.55 micrometer (green), 0.66 micrometer (red) and 0.83 micrometer (near infrared), at a spatial resolution of 10 meters. Panchromatic band, centered at 0.68 micrometer, has a spatial resolution of 5 m and is not used in this study. A twostage algorithm is presented to detect cloud and cloud shadow for ZY-1 02C multi-spectral measurements in this study. First, maximum and minimum filters with a moving window size of 5 by 5 pixels are operated on ZY-1 02C multispectral measurements. Optimal thresholds are selected by spatial statistics and visual examination. Pixels in maximumfiltered images with a grey level higher than the given thresholds (Tc) are labeled as potential cloud. In contrast, pixels in minimum-filtered images with a grey value lower than the given thresholds (Ts) are considered as potential shadow. Second, the contextual are used to mask out errors with potential cloud and shadow (e.g. vegetation canopy-cast shadow, road and bare soil) in previous stage. A window size of 9 by 9 centered at each potential cloud position is searched. If no potential shadow is found the potential cloud is rejected. Meanwhile, each potential shadow also is tested to get the final cloud and cloud shadow mask. Two ZY-1 02C multi-spectral images acquired over Pearl River Delta, a

  10. A multispectral analysis of algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, W. R.; Norris, D. R.

    1977-01-01

    Skylab multispectral scanner data acquired on January 21, 1974, were used to study the spectral characteristics of an algal bloom in the Gulf of Mexico west of Fort Myers, Florida. Radiance profiles of the water and algae were prepared with data from ten bands of the S192 scanner covering the spectral range from .42 to 2.35 micrometers. The high spectral response in the near-infrared spectral bands implies a possible classification and discrimination parameter for detection of blooms of phytoplankton concentrations such as the so-called red tides of Florida.

  11. Synergistic use of multispectral satellite data for monitoring land surface change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Choudhury, Bhaskar J.

    1991-01-01

    Observations by the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) onboard the NOAA satellites were used to compute visible and near infrared reflectances and surface temperature, while passive microwave observations at 37 GHz frequency by the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) and Special Sensor Microwave Imager (SSM/I) on board, respectively, the Nimbus-7 and DMSP-F8 satellites were used to compute polarization difference. These observations were analyzed along transects from rainforest to desert over northern Africa for the period 1979-1987, which included an unprecedented drought during 1984 over the Sahel zone. Model simulations were made to understand the interrelationship among multispectral data.

  12. Design tradeoffs in the development of the advanced multispectral simulation test acceptance resource (AMSTAR) HWIL facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LeSueur, Kenneth G.; Almendinger, Frank J.

    2007-04-01

    The Army's Advanced Multispectral Simulation Test Acceptance Resource (AMSTAR) is a suite of missile Hardware-In-the-Loop (HWIL) simulation / test capabilities designed to support testing from concept through production. This paper presents the design tradeoffs that were conducted in the development of the AMSTAR sensor stimulators and the flight motion simulators. The AMSTAR facility design includes systems to stimulate each of the Millimeter Wave (MMW), Infrared (IR), and Semi-Active Laser (SAL) sensors. The flight motion simulator (FMS) performance was key to the success of the simulation but required many concessions to accommodate the design considerations for the tri-mode stimulation systems.

  13. Investigations in adaptive processing of multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kriegler, F. J.; Horwitz, H. M.

    1973-01-01

    Adaptive data processing procedures are applied to the problem of classifying objects in a scene scanned by multispectral sensor. These procedures show a performance improvement over standard nonadaptive techniques. Some sources of error in classification are identified and those correctable by adaptive processing are discussed. Experiments in adaptation of signature means by decision-directed methods are described. Some of these methods assume correlation between the trajectories of different signature means; for others this assumption is not made.

  14. Multispectral imaging of aircraft exhaust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkson, Emily E.; Messinger, David W.

    2016-05-01

    Aircraft pollutants emitted during the landing-takeoff (LTO) cycle have significant effects on the local air quality surrounding airports. There are currently no inexpensive, portable, and unobtrusive sensors to quantify the amount of pollutants emitted from aircraft engines throughout the LTO cycle or to monitor the spatial-temporal extent of the exhaust plume. We seek to thoroughly characterize the unburned hydrocarbon (UHC) emissions from jet engine plumes and to design a portable imaging system to remotely quantify the emitted UHCs and temporally track the distribution of the plume. This paper shows results from the radiometric modeling of a jet engine exhaust plume and describes a prototype long-wave infrared imaging system capable of meeting the above requirements. The plume was modeled with vegetation and sky backgrounds, and filters were selected to maximize the detectivity of the plume. Initial calculations yield a look-up chart, which relates the minimum amount of emitted UHCs required to detect the presence of a plume to the noise-equivalent radiance of a system. Future work will aim to deploy the prototype imaging system at the Greater Rochester International Airport to assess the applicability of the system on a national scale. This project will help monitor the local pollution surrounding airports and allow better-informed decision-making regarding emission caps and pollution bylaws.

  15. Prediction of apple fruit firmness and soluble solids content using characteristics of multispectral scattering images

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral scattering is a promising technique for nondestructive sensing of multiple quality attributes of apple fruit. This research developed new, improved methods for processing and analyzing multispectral scattering profiles in order to design and build a better multispectral imaging system ...

  16. A multispectral imaging approach for diagnostics of skin pathologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lihacova, Ilze; Derjabo, Aleksandrs; Spigulis, Janis

    2013-06-01

    Noninvasive multispectral imaging method was applied for different skin pathology such as nevus, basal cell carcinoma, and melanoma diagnostics. Developed melanoma diagnostic parameter, using three spectral bands (540 nm, 650 nm and 950 nm), was calculated for nevus, melanoma and basal cell carcinoma. Simple multispectral diagnostic device was established and applied for skin assessment. Development and application of multispectral diagnostics method described further in this article.

  17. Airborne multispectral detection of regrowth cotton fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbrook, John K.; Suh, Charles P.-C.; Yang, Chenghai; Lan, Yubin; Eyster, Ritchie S.

    2015-01-01

    Effective methods are needed for timely areawide detection of regrowth cotton plants because boll weevils (a quarantine pest) can feed and reproduce on these plants beyond the cotton production season. Airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots were acquired on several dates after three shredding (i.e., stalk destruction) dates. Linear spectral unmixing (LSU) classification was applied to high-resolution airborne multispectral images of regrowth cotton plots to estimate the minimum detectable size and subsequent growth of plants. We found that regrowth cotton fields can be identified when the mean plant width is ˜0.2 m for an image resolution of 0.1 m. LSU estimates of canopy cover of regrowth cotton plots correlated well (r2=0.81) with the ratio of mean plant width to row spacing, a surrogate measure of plant canopy cover. The height and width of regrowth plants were both well correlated (r2=0.94) with accumulated degree-days after shredding. The results will help boll weevil eradication program managers use airborne multispectral images to detect and monitor the regrowth of cotton plants after stalk destruction, and identify fields that may require further inspection and mitigation of boll weevil infestations.

  18. Image processing of underwater multispectral imagery

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Zawada, D.G.

    2003-01-01

    Capturing in situ fluorescence images of marine organisms presents many technical challenges. The effects of the medium, as well as the particles and organisms within it, are intermixed with the desired signal. Methods for extracting and preparing the imagery for analysis are discussed in reference to a novel underwater imaging system called the low-light-level underwater multispectral imaging system (LUMIS). The instrument supports both uni- and multispectral collections, each of which is discussed in the context of an experimental application. In unispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the spatial distribution of phytoplankton. A thin sheet of laser light (532 nm) induced chlorophyll fluorescence in the phytoplankton, which was recorded by LUMIS. Inhomogeneities in the light sheet led to the development of a beam-pattern-correction algorithm. Separating individual phytoplankton cells from a weak background fluorescence field required a two-step procedure consisting of edge detection followed by a series of binary morphological operations. In multispectral mode, LUMIS was used to investigate the bio-assay potential of fluorescent pigments in corals. Problems with the commercial optical-splitting device produced nonlinear distortions in the imagery. A tessellation algorithm, including an automated tie-point-selection procedure, was developed to correct the distortions. Only pixels corresponding to coral polyps were of interest for further analysis. Extraction of these pixels was performed by a dynamic global-thresholding algorithm.

  19. Development of a multispectral camera system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugiura, Hiroaki; Kuno, Tetsuya; Watanabe, Norihiro; Matoba, Narihiro; Hayashi, Junichiro; Miyake, Yoichi

    2000-05-01

    A highly accurate multispectral camera and the application software have been developed as a practical system to capture digital images of the artworks stored in galleries and museums. Instead of recording color data in the conventional three RGB primary colors, the newly developed camera and the software carry out a pixel-wise estimation of spectral reflectance, the color data specific to the object, to enable the practical multispectral imaging. In order to realize the accurate multispectral imaging, the dynamic range of the camera is set to 14 bits or over and the output bits to 14 bits so as to allow capturing even when the difference in light quantity between the each channel is large. Further, a small-size rotary color filter was simultaneously developed to keep the camera to a practical size. We have developed software capable of selecting the optimum combination of color filters available in the market. Using this software, n types of color filter can be selected from m types of color filter giving a minimum Euclidean distance or minimum color difference in CIELAB color space between actual and estimated spectral reflectance as to 147 types of oil paint samples.

  20. Hyperspectral and multispectral sensors for remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, James; Kullar, Sukhbir; Cochrane, David; O, Nixon; Lomako, Andrey; Draijer, Cees

    2010-11-01

    Remote Hyperspectral and Multispectral sensors have been developed using modern CCD and CMOS fabrication techniques combined with advanced dichroic filters. The resulting sensors are more cost effective while maintaining the high performance needed in remote sensing applications. A single device can contain multiple imaging areas tailored to different multispectral bandwidths in a highly cost effective and reliable package. This paper discusses a five band visible to near IR scanning sensor. By bonding advanced dichroic filters onto the cover glass and directly in the imaging path a highly efficient multispectral sensor is achieved. Up to 12,000 linear pixel arrays are possible1 with this advanced filter technology approach. Individual imaging areas on the device are designed to have unique pixel sizes and clocking to enable tailored imaging performance for the individual spectral bands. Individual elements are also based on high resolution Time Delay and Integration technology2,3 (TDI) to maximize sensitivity and throughput. Additionally for hyperspectral imagers, a split frame CCD design is discussed using high sensitivity back side illuminated (BSI) processes that can achieve high quantum efficiency. As these sensors are used in remote sensing applications, device robustness and radiation tolerance was required.

  1. [Research on maize multispectral image accurate segmentation and chlorophyll index estimation].

    PubMed

    Wu, Qian; Sun, Hong; Li, Min-zan; Song, Yuan-yuan; Zhang, Yan-e

    2015-01-01

    In order to rapidly acquire maize growing information in the field, a non-destructive method of maize chlorophyll content index measurement was conducted based on multi-spectral imaging technique and imaging processing technology. The experiment was conducted at Yangling in Shaanxi province of China and the crop was Zheng-dan 958 planted in about 1 000 m X 600 m experiment field. Firstly, a 2-CCD multi-spectral image monitoring system was available to acquire the canopy images. The system was based on a dichroic prism, allowing precise separation of the visible (Blue (B), Green (G), Red (R): 400-700 nm) and near-infrared (NIR, 760-1 000 nm) band. The multispectral images were output as RGB and NIR images via the system vertically fixed to the ground with vertical distance of 2 m and angular field of 50°. SPAD index of each sample was'measured synchronously to show the chlorophyll content index. Secondly, after the image smoothing using adaptive smooth filtering algorithm, the NIR maize image was selected to segment the maize leaves from background, because there was a big difference showed in gray histogram between plant and soil background. The NIR image segmentation algorithm was conducted following steps of preliminary and accuracy segmentation: (1) The results of OTSU image segmentation method and the variable threshold algorithm were discussed. It was revealed that the latter was better one in corn plant and weed segmentation. As a result, the variable threshold algorithm based on local statistics was selected for the preliminary image segmentation. The expansion and corrosion were used to optimize the segmented image. (2) The region labeling algorithm was used to segment corn plants from soil and weed background with an accuracy of 95. 59 %. And then, the multi-spectral image of maize canopy was accurately segmented in R, G and B band separately. Thirdly, the image parameters were abstracted based on the segmented visible and NIR images. The average gray

  2. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 3: Appendices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    The status and technology requirements for using multispectral sensor imagery in geographic, hydrologic, and geologic applications are examined. Critical issues in image and information science are identified.

  3. Vein visualization using a smart phone with multispectral Wiener estimation for point-of-care applications.

    PubMed

    Song, Jae Hee; Kim, Choye; Yoo, Yangmo

    2015-03-01

    Effective vein visualization is clinically important for various point-of-care applications, such as needle insertion. It can be achieved by utilizing ultrasound imaging or by applying infrared laser excitation and monitoring its absorption. However, while these approaches can be used for vein visualization, they are not suitable for point-of-care applications because of their cost, time, and accessibility. In this paper, a new vein visualization method based on multispectral Wiener estimation is proposed and its real-time implementation on a smart phone is presented. In the proposed method, a conventional RGB camera on a commercial smart phone (i.e., Galaxy Note 2, Samsung Electronics Inc., Suwon, Korea) is used to acquire reflectance information from veins. Wiener estimation is then applied to extract the multispectral information from the veins. To evaluate the performance of the proposed method, an experiment was conducted using a color calibration chart (ColorChecker Classic, X-rite, Grand Rapids, MI, USA) and an average root-mean-square error of 12.0% was obtained. In addition, an in vivo subcutaneous vein imaging experiment was performed to explore the clinical performance of the smart phone-based Wiener estimation. From the in vivo experiment, the veins at various sites were successfully localized using the reconstructed multispectral images and these results were confirmed by ultrasound B-mode and color Doppler images. These results indicate that the presented multispectral Wiener estimation method can be used for visualizing veins using a commercial smart phone for point-of-care applications (e.g., vein puncture guidance). PMID:24691170

  4. Applying Neural Networks to Hyperspectral and Multispectral Field Data for Discrimination of Cruciferous Weeds in Winter Crops

    PubMed Central

    de Castro, Ana-Isabel; Jurado-Expósito, Montserrat; Gómez-Casero, María-Teresa; López-Granados, Francisca

    2012-01-01

    In the context of detection of weeds in crops for site-specific weed control, on-ground spectral reflectance measurements are the first step to determine the potential of remote spectral data to classify weeds and crops. Field studies were conducted for four years at different locations in Spain. We aimed to distinguish cruciferous weeds in wheat and broad bean crops, using hyperspectral and multispectral readings in the visible and near-infrared spectrum. To identify differences in reflectance between cruciferous weeds, we applied three classification methods: stepwise discriminant (STEPDISC) analysis and two neural networks, specifically, multilayer perceptron (MLP) and radial basis function (RBF). Hyperspectral and multispectral signatures of cruciferous weeds, and wheat and broad bean crops can be classified using STEPDISC analysis, and MLP and RBF neural networks with different success, being the MLP model the most accurate with 100%, or higher than 98.1%, of classification performance for all the years. Classification accuracy from hyperspectral signatures was similar to that from multispectral and spectral indices, suggesting that little advantage would be obtained by using more expensive airborne hyperspectral imagery. Therefore, for next investigations, we recommend using multispectral remote imagery to explore whether they can potentially discriminate these weeds and crops. PMID:22629171

  5. Airborne multispectral and thermal remote sensing for detecting the onset of crop stress caused by multiple factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yanbo; Thomson, Steven J.

    2010-10-01

    Remote sensing technology has been developed and applied to provide spatiotemporal information on crop stress for precision management. A series of multispectral images over a field planted cotton, corn and soybean were obtained by a Geospatial Systems MS4100 camera mounted on an Air Tractor 402B airplane equipped with Camera Link in a Magma converter box triggered by Terraverde Dragonfly® flight navigation and imaging control software. The field crops were intentionally stressed by applying glyphosate herbicide via aircraft and allowing it to drift near-field. Aerial multispectral images in the visible and near-infrared bands were manipulated to produce vegetation indices, which were used to quantify the onset of herbicide induced crop stress. The vegetation indices normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) and soil adjusted vegetation index (SAVI) showed the ability to monitor crop response to herbicide-induced injury by revealing stress at different phenological stages. Two other fields were managed with irrigated versus nonirrigated treatments, and those fields were imaged with both the multispectral system and an Electrophysics PV-320T thermal imaging camera on board an Air Tractor 402B aircraft. Thermal imagery indicated water stress due to deficits in soil moisture, and a proposed method of determining crop cover percentage using thermal imagery was compared with a multispectral imaging method. Development of an image fusion scheme may be necessary to provide synergy and improve overall water stress detection ability.

  6. Land Cover Characterization for Hydrological Modeling Using Thermal Infrared Emissivities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Remote sensing with multispectral thermal infrared observations has the potential to improve regional scale estimation of evapotranspiration (ET) by constraining the land surface energy balance in a way that is not possible using more conventional remote sensing techniques. Current models use data f...

  7. Multispectral (IR and MMW) processing for automatic target detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corbett, Francis J.; Swistak, Joseph E.

    1990-10-01

    Automatic Target Recognition algorithms have been developed with limited success over the last few years. The processing to extract military targets from background clutter has difficulty under noisy, real-world conditions. Fusion of data from different wavelength sensors has been one approach to improve performance. The underlying theory is that signature data from different areas of the electro-magnetic spectrum will be complementary and clutter is frequency dependent. Recent work based on both statistical classification, and feature analysis in the thermal infrared and millimeter wave spectra, has shown interesting trends. We will provide a description of the IR/MMW target classification algorithms, the fusion architecture we employed, and processes used to search for the optimum features. Two distinct search and detect schemes were tested with different results. Data acquisition and reduction issues which affect algorithm experiments will also be discussed. A software based algorithm development test-bed was built at Textron to implement the multispectral targeting experiments. The effect of a modular, programmable test-bed on such experiments is to increase productivity and allow multivariate evaluatio ns.

  8. Evolving forest fire burn severity classification algorithms for multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brumby, Steven P.; Harvey, Neal R.; Bloch, Jeffrey J.; Theiler, James P.; Perkins, Simon J.; Young, Aaron C.; Szymanski, John J.

    2001-08-01

    Between May 6 and May 18, 2000, the Cerro Grande/Los Alamos wildfire burned approximately 43,000 acres (17,500 ha) and 235 residences in the town of Los Alamos, NM. Initial estimates of forest damage included 17,000 acres (6,900 ha) of 70-100% tree mortality. Restoration efforts following the fire were complicated by the large scale of the fire, and by the presence of extensive natural and man-made hazards. These conditions forced a reliance on remote sensing techniques for mapping and classifying the burn region. During and after the fire, remote-sensing data was acquired from a variety of aircraft-based and satellite-based sensors, including Landsat 7. We now report on the application of a machine learning technique, implemented in a software package called GENIE, to the classification of forest fire burn severity using Landsat 7 ETM+ multispectral imagery. The details of this automatic classification are compared to the manually produced burn classification, which was derived from field observations and manual interpretation of high-resolution aerial color/infrared photography.

  9. Multispectral Cloud Retrievals from MODIS on Terra and Aqua

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, Michael D.; Platnick, Steven; Ackerman, Steven A.; Menzel, W. Paul; Gray, Mark A.; Moody, Eric G.

    2002-01-01

    The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) was developed by NASA and launched onboard the Terra spacecraft on December 18, 1999 and the Aqua spacecraft on April 26, 2002. MODIS scans a swath width sufficient to provide nearly complete global coverage every two days from each polar-orbiting, sun-synchronous, platform at an altitude of 705 km, and provides images in 36 spectral bands between 0.415 and 14.235 microns with spatial resolutions of 250 m (2 bands), 500 m (5 bands) and 1000 m (29 bands). In this paper we will describe the various methods being used for the remote sensing of cloud properties using MODIS data, focusing primarily on the MODIS cloud mask used to distinguish clouds, clear sky, heavy aerosol, and shadows on the ground, and on the remote sensing of cloud optical properties, especially cloud optical thickness and effective radius of water drops and ice crystals. Additional properties of clouds derived from multispectral thermal infrared measurements, especially cloud top pressure and emissivity, will also be described. Results will be presented of MODIS cloud properties both over the land and over the ocean, showing the consistency in cloud retrievals over various ecosystems used in the retrievals. The implications of this new observing system on global analysis of the Earth's environment will be discussed.

  10. Multispectral digital holographic microscopy with applications in water quality assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazemzadeh, Farnoud; Jin, Chao; Yu, Mei; Amelard, Robert; Haider, Shahid; Saini, Simarjeet; Emelko, Monica; Clausi, David A.; Wong, Alexander

    2015-09-01

    Safe drinking water is essential for human health, yet over a billion people worldwide do not have access to safe drinking water. Due to the presence and accumulation of biological contaminants in natural waters (e.g., pathogens and neuro-, hepato-, and cytotoxins associated with algal blooms) remain a critical challenge in the provision of safe drinking water globally. It is not financially feasible and practical to monitor and quantify water quality frequently enough to identify the potential health risk due to contamination, especially in developing countries. We propose a low-cost, small-profile multispectral (MS) system based on Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM) and investigate methods for rapidly capturing holographic data of natural water samples. We have developed a test-bed for an MSDHM instrument to produce and capture holographic data of the sample at different wavelengths in the visible and the near Infra-red spectral region, allowing for resolution improvement in the reconstructed images. Additionally, we have developed high-speed statistical signal processing and analysis techniques to facilitate rapid reconstruction and assessment of the MS holographic data being captured by the MSDHM instrument. The proposed system is used to examine cyanobacteria as well as Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts which remain important and difficult to treat microbiological contaminants that must be addressed for the provision of safe drinking water globally.

  11. Bandpass filter arrays patterned by photolithography for multispectral remote sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer, T.; Thome, Heidi; Eisenhammer, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Optical remote sensing of the earth from air and space typically utilizes several channels from visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR) up to the short wave infrared (SWIR) spectral region. Thin-film optical filters are applied to select these channels. Filter wheels and arrays of discrete stripe filters are standard configurations. To achieve compact and light weight camera designs multi-channel filter plates or assemblies can be mounted close to the electronic detectors. Optics Balzers has implemented a micro-structuring process based on a sequence of multiple coatings and photolithography on the same substrate. High-performance band pass filters are applied by plasma assisted evaporation (plasma IAD) with advance plasma source (APS) technology and optical broad-band monitoring (BBM). This technology has already proven for various multi spectral imager (MSI) configurations on fused silica, sapphire and other substrates for remote sensing application. The optical filter design and performance is limited by the maximum coating thickness micro-structurable by photolithographic lift-off processes and by thermal and radiation load on the photoresist mask during the process Recent progress in image resolution and sensor selectivity requires improvements of optical filter performance. Blocking in the UV and NIR and in between the spectral cannels, in-band transmission and filter edge steepness are subject of current development. Technological limits of the IAD coating accuracy can be overcome by more precise coating technologies like plasma assisted reactive magnetron sputtering (PARMS) and combination with optical broadband monitoring (BBM). We present an overview about concepts and technologies for band-pass filter arrays for multi-spectral imaging at Optics Balzers. Recent performance improvements of filter arrays made by micro-structuring will be presented.

  12. Comparison of Hyperspectral and Multispectral Satellites for Discriminating Land Cover in Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, M. L.; Kilham, N. E.

    2015-12-01

    Land-cover maps are important science products needed for natural resource and ecosystem service management, biodiversity conservation planning, and assessing human-induced and natural drivers of land change. Most land-cover maps at regional to global scales are produced with remote sensing techniques applied to multispectral satellite imagery with 30-500 m pixel sizes (e.g., Landsat, MODIS). Hyperspectral, or imaging spectrometer, imagery measuring the visible to shortwave infrared regions (VSWIR) of the spectrum have shown impressive capacity to map plant species and coarser land-cover associations, yet techniques have not been widely tested at regional and greater spatial scales. The Hyperspectral Infrared Imager (HyspIRI) mission is a VSWIR hyperspectral and thermal satellite being considered for development by NASA. The goal of this study was to assess multi-temporal, HyspIRI-like satellite imagery for improved land cover mapping relative to multispectral satellites. We mapped FAO Land Cover Classification System (LCCS) classes over 22,500 km2 in the San Francisco Bay Area, California using 30-m HyspIRI, Landsat 8 and Sentinel-2 imagery simulated from data acquired by NASA's AVIRIS airborne sensor. Random Forests (RF) and Multiple-Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) classifiers were applied to the simulated images and accuracies were compared to those from real Landsat 8 images. The RF classifier was superior to MESMA, and multi-temporal data yielded higher accuracy than summer-only data. With RF, hyperspectral data had overall accuracy of 72.2% and 85.1% with full 20-class and reduced 12-class schemes, respectively. Multispectral imagery had lower accuracy. For example, simulated and real Landsat data had 7.5% and 4.6% lower accuracy than HyspIRI data with 12 classes, respectively. In summary, our results indicate increased mapping accuracy using HyspIRI multi-temporal imagery, particularly in discriminating different natural vegetation types, such as

  13. Science applications of a multispectral microscopic imager for the astrobiological exploration of Mars.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Jorge I; Farmer, Jack D; Sellar, R Glenn; Swayze, Gregg A; Blaney, Diana L

    2014-02-01

    Future astrobiological missions to Mars are likely to emphasize the use of rovers with in situ petrologic capabilities for selecting the best samples at a site for in situ analysis with onboard lab instruments or for caching for potential return to Earth. Such observations are central to an understanding of the potential for past habitable conditions at a site and for identifying samples most likely to harbor fossil biosignatures. The Multispectral Microscopic Imager (MMI) provides multispectral reflectance images of geological samples at the microscale, where each image pixel is composed of a visible/shortwave infrared spectrum ranging from 0.46 to 1.73 μm. This spectral range enables the discrimination of a wide variety of rock-forming minerals, especially Fe-bearing phases, and the detection of hydrated minerals. The MMI advances beyond the capabilities of current microimagers on Mars by extending the spectral range into the infrared and increasing the number of spectral bands. The design employs multispectral light-emitting diodes and an uncooled indium gallium arsenide focal plane array to achieve a very low mass and high reliability. To better understand and demonstrate the capabilities of the MMI for future surface missions to Mars, we analyzed samples from Mars-relevant analog environments with the MMI. Results indicate that the MMI images faithfully resolve the fine-scale microtextural features of samples and provide important information to help constrain mineral composition. The use of spectral endmember mapping reveals the distribution of Fe-bearing minerals (including silicates and oxides) with high fidelity, along with the presence of hydrated minerals. MMI-based petrogenetic interpretations compare favorably with laboratory-based analyses, revealing the value of the MMI for future in situ rover-mediated astrobiological exploration of Mars. PMID:24552233

  14. Testing of Land Cover Classification from Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.; Kupidura, P.; Jełowicki, Ł.

    2016-06-01

    Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning provides a new opportunity for airborne data collection. It provides high-density topographic surveying and is also a useful tool for land cover mapping. Use of a minimum of three intensity images from a multiwavelength laser scanner and 3D information included in the digital surface model has the potential for land cover/use classification and a discussion about the application of this type of data in land cover/use mapping has recently begun. In the test study, three laser reflectance intensity images (orthogonalized point cloud) acquired in green, near-infrared and short-wave infrared bands, together with a digital surface model, were used in land cover/use classification where six classes were distinguished: water, sand and gravel, concrete and asphalt, low vegetation, trees and buildings. In the tested methods, different approaches for classification were applied: spectral (based only on laser reflectance intensity images), spectral with elevation data as additional input data, and spectro-textural, using morphological granulometry as a method of texture analysis of both types of data: spectral images and the digital surface model. The method of generating the intensity raster was also tested in the experiment. Reference data were created based on visual interpretation of ALS data and traditional optical aerial and satellite images. The results have shown that multispectral ALS data are unlike typical multispectral optical images, and they have a major potential for land cover/use classification. An overall accuracy of classification over 90% was achieved. The fusion of multi-wavelength laser intensity images and elevation data, with the additional use of textural information derived from granulometric analysis of images, helped to improve the accuracy of classification significantly. The method of interpolation for the intensity raster was not very helpful, and using intensity rasters with both first and last return

  15. Reproducible high-resolution multispectral image acquisition in dermatology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duliu, Alexandru; Gardiazabal, José; Lasser, Tobias; Navab, Nassir

    2015-07-01

    Multispectral image acquisitions are increasingly popular in dermatology, due to their improved spectral resolution which enables better tissue discrimination. Most applications however focus on restricted regions of interest, imaging only small lesions. In this work we present and discuss an imaging framework for high-resolution multispectral imaging on large regions of interest.

  16. A multispectral method of determining sea surface temperatures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenk, W. E.

    1972-01-01

    A multispectral method for determining sea surface temperatures is discussed. The specifications of the equipment and the atmospheric conditions required for successful multispectral data acquisition are described. Examples of data obtained in the North Atlantic Ocean are presented. The differences between the actual sea surface temperatures and the equivalent blackbody temperatures as determined by a radiometer are plotted.

  17. Multispectral data compression through transform coding and block quantization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ready, P. J.; Wintz, P. A.

    1972-01-01

    Transform coding and block quantization techniques are applied to multispectral aircraft scanner data, and digitized satellite imagery. The multispectral source is defined and an appropriate mathematical model proposed. The Karhunen-Loeve, Fourier, and Hadamard encoders are considered and are compared to the rate distortion function for the equivalent Gaussian source and to the performance of the single sample PCM encoder.

  18. Multispectral Airborne Laser Scanning for Automated Map Updating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matikainen, Leena; Hyyppä, Juha; Litkey, Paula

    2016-06-01

    During the last 20 years, airborne laser scanning (ALS), often combined with multispectral information from aerial images, has shown its high feasibility for automated mapping processes. Recently, the first multispectral airborne laser scanners have been launched, and multispectral information is for the first time directly available for 3D ALS point clouds. This article discusses the potential of this new single-sensor technology in map updating, especially in automated object detection and change detection. For our study, Optech Titan multispectral ALS data over a suburban area in Finland were acquired. Results from a random forests analysis suggest that the multispectral intensity information is useful for land cover classification, also when considering ground surface objects and classes, such as roads. An out-of-bag estimate for classification error was about 3% for separating classes asphalt, gravel, rocky areas and low vegetation from each other. For buildings and trees, it was under 1%. According to feature importance analyses, multispectral features based on several channels were more useful that those based on one channel. Automatic change detection utilizing the new multispectral ALS data, an old digital surface model (DSM) and old building vectors was also demonstrated. Overall, our first analyses suggest that the new data are very promising for further increasing the automation level in mapping. The multispectral ALS technology is independent of external illumination conditions, and intensity images produced from the data do not include shadows. These are significant advantages when the development of automated classification and change detection procedures is considered.

  19. Two mirror objective design for multispectral remote sensing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, P. P.

    1982-01-01

    A two mirror flat field anastigmatic telescope was designed for multispectral sensing. The design was adapted to prism-type beamsplitting arrangements without loss of multispectral image quality by the addition of one refractive element. In addition to being relatively simple and mechanically insensitive, the design is immune to focus shift caused by index of refraction variation with temperature.

  20. Astronaut Jack Lousma works at Multispectral camera experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Astronaut Jack R. Lousma, Skylab 3 pilot, works at the S190A multispectral camera experiment in the Multiple Docking Adapter (MDA), seen from a color television transmission made by a TV camera aboard the Skylab space station cluster in Earth orbit. Lousma later used a small brush to clean the six lenses of the multispectral camera.

  1. Extraction of topographic and spectral albedo information from multispectral images.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eliason, P.T.; Soderblom, L.A.; Chavez, P.A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A technique has been developed to separate and extract spectral-reflectivity variations and topographic informaiton from multispectral images. The process is a completely closed system employing only the image data and can be applied to any digital multispectral data set. -from Authors

  2. Supporting Mars exploration: BIOMEX in Low Earth Orbit and further astrobiological studies on the Moon using Raman and PanCam technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vera, Jean-Pierre; Boettger, Ute; Noetzel, Rosa de la Torre; Sánchez, Francisco J.; Grunow, Dana; Schmitz, Nicole; Lange, Caroline; Hübers, Heinz-Wilhelm; Billi, Daniela; Baqué, Mickael; Rettberg, Petra; Rabbow, Elke; Reitz, Günther; Berger, Thomas; Möller, Ralf; Bohmeier, Maria; Horneck, Gerda; Westall, Frances; Jänchen, Jochen; Fritz, Jörg; Meyer, Cornelia; Onofri, Silvano; Selbmann, Laura; Zucconi, Laura; Kozyrovska, Natalia; Leya, Thomas; Foing, Bernard; Demets, René; Cockell, Charles S.; Bryce, Casey; Wagner, Dirk; Serrano, Paloma; Edwards, Howell G. M.; Joshi, Jasmin; Huwe, Björn; Ehrenfreund, Pascale; Elsaesser, Andreas; Ott, Sieglinde; Meessen, Joachim; Feyh, Nina; Szewzyk, Ulrich; Jaumann, Ralf; Spohn, Tilman

    2012-12-01

    The Low Earth Orbit (LEO) experiment Biology and Mars Experiment (BIOMEX) is an interdisciplinary and international space research project selected by ESA. The experiment will be accommodated on the space exposure facility EXPOSE-R2 on the International Space Station (ISS) and is foreseen to be launched in 2013. The prime objective of BIOMEX is to measure to what extent biomolecules, such as pigments and cellular components, are resistant to and able to maintain their stability under space and Mars-like conditions. The results of BIOMEX will be relevant for space proven biosignature definition and for building a biosignature data base (e.g. the proposed creation of an international Raman library). The library will be highly relevant for future space missions such as the search for life on Mars. The secondary scientific objective is to analyze to what extent terrestrial extremophiles are able to survive in space and to determine which interactions between biological samples and selected minerals (including terrestrial, Moon- and Mars analogs) can be observed under space and Mars-like conditions. In this context, the Moon will be an additional platform for performing similar experiments with negligible magnetic shielding and higher solar and galactic irradiation compared to LEO. Using the Moon as an additional astrobiological exposure platform to complement ongoing astrobiological LEO investigations could thus enhance the chances of detecting organic traces of life on Mars. We present a lunar lander mission with two related objectives: a lunar lander equipped with Raman and PanCam instruments which can analyze the lunar surface and survey an astrobiological exposure platform. This dual use of testing mission technology together with geo- and astrobiological analyses will significantly increase the science return, and support the human preparation objectives. It will provide knowledge about the Moon's surface itself and, in addition, monitor the stability of life

  3. Multispectral rock-type separation and classification.

    SciTech Connect

    Moya, Mary M.; Fogler, Robert Joseph; Paskaleva, Biliana; Hayat, Majeed M.

    2004-06-01

    This paper explores the possibility of separating and classifying remotely-sensed multispectral data from rocks and minerals onto seven geological rock-type groups. These groups are extracted from the general categories of metamorphic, igneous and sedimentary rocks. The study is performed under ideal conditions for which the data is generated according to laboratory hyperspectral data for the members, which are, in turn, passed through the Multi-spectral Thermal Imager (MTI) filters yielding 15 bands. The main challenge in separability is the small size of the training data sets, which initially did not permit direct application of Bayesian decision theory. To enable Bayseian classification, the original training data is linearly perturbed with the addition minerals, vegetation, soil, water and other valid impurities. As a result, the size of the training data is significantly increased and accurate estimates of the covariance matrices are achieved. In addition, a set of reduced (five) linearly-extracted canonical features that are optimal in providing the most important information about the data is determined. An alternative nonlinear feature-selection method is also employed based on spectral indices comprising a small subset of all possible ratios between bands. By applying three optimization strategies, combinations of two and three ratios are found that provide reliable separability and classification between all seven groups according to the Bhattacharyya distance. To set a benchmark to which the MTI capability in rock classification can be compared, an optimization strategy is performed for the selection of optimal multispectral filters, other than the MTI filters, and an improvement in classification is predicted.

  4. Multispectral fingerprint imaging for spoof detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nixon, Kristin A.; Rowe, Robert K.

    2005-03-01

    Fingerprint systems are the most widespread form of biometric authentication. Used in locations such as airports and in PDA's and laptops, fingerprint readers are becoming more common in everyday use. As they become more familiar, the security weaknesses of fingerprint sensors are becoming better known. Numerous websites now exist describing in detail how to create a fake fingerprint usable for spoofing a biometric system from both a cooperative user and from latent prints. While many commercial fingerprint readers claim to have some degree of spoof detection incorporated, they are still generally susceptible to spoof attempts using various artificial fingerprint samples made from gelatin or silicone or other materials and methods commonly available on the web. This paper describes a multispectral sensor that has been developed to collect data for spoof detection. The sensor has been designed to work in conjunction with a conventional optical fingerprint reader such that all images are collected during a single placement of the finger on the sensor. The multispectral imaging device captures sub-surface information about the finger that makes it very difficult to spoof. Four attributes of the finger that are collected with the multispectral imager will be described and demonstrated in this paper: spectral qualities of live skin, chromatic texture of skin, sub-surface image of live skin, and blanching on contact. Each of these attributes is well suited to discriminating against particular kinds of spoofing samples. A series of experiments was conducted to demonstrate the capabilities of the individual attributes as well as the collective spoof detection performance.

  5. Semi-supervised classification tool for DubaiSat-2 multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Mansoori, Saeed

    2015-10-01

    This paper addresses a semi-supervised classification tool based on a pixel-based approach of the multi-spectral satellite imagery. There are not many studies demonstrating such algorithm for the multispectral images, especially when the image consists of 4 bands (Red, Green, Blue and Near Infrared) as in DubaiSat-2 satellite images. The proposed approach utilizes both unsupervised and supervised classification schemes sequentially to identify four classes in the image, namely, water bodies, vegetation, land (developed and undeveloped areas) and paved areas (i.e. roads). The unsupervised classification concept is applied to identify two classes; water bodies and vegetation, based on a well-known index that uses the distinct wavelengths of visible and near-infrared sunlight that is absorbed and reflected by the plants to identify the classes; this index parameter is called "Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI)". Afterward, the supervised classification is performed by selecting training homogenous samples for roads and land areas. Here, a precise selection of training samples plays a vital role in the classification accuracy. Post classification is finally performed to enhance the classification accuracy, where the classified image is sieved, clumped and filtered before producing final output. Overall, the supervised classification approach produced higher accuracy than the unsupervised method. This paper shows some current preliminary research results which point out the effectiveness of the proposed technique in a virtual perspective.

  6. Multispectral airborne laser scanning - a new trend in the development of LiDAR technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakuła, K.

    2015-12-01

    Airborne laser scanning (ALS) is the one of the most accurate remote sensing techniques for data acquisition where the terrain and its coverage is concerned. Modern scanners have been able to scan in two or more channels (frequencies of the laser) recently. This gives the rise to the possibility of obtaining diverse information about an area with the different spectral properties of objects. The paper presents an example of a multispectral ALS system - Titan by Optech - with the possibility of data including the analysis of digital elevation models accuracy and data density. As a result of the study, the high relative accuracy of LiDAR acquisition in three spectral bands was proven. The mean differences between digital terrain models (DTMs) were less than 0.03 m. The data density analysis showed the influence of the laser wavelength. The points clouds that were tested had average densities of 25, 23 and 20 points per square metre respectively for green (G), near-infrared (NIR) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR) lasers. In this paper, the possibility of the generation of colour composites using orthoimages of laser intensity reflectance and its classification capabilities using data from airborne multispectral laser scanning for land cover mapping are also discussed and compared with conventional photogrammetric techniques.

  7. Highly Protable Airborne Multispectral Imaging System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehnemann, Robert; Mcnamee, Todd

    2001-01-01

    A portable instrumentation system is described that includes and airborne and a ground-based subsytem. It can acquire multispectral image data over swaths of terrain ranging in width from about 1.5 to 1 km. The system was developed especially for use in coastal environments and is well suited for performing remote sensing and general environmental monitoring. It includes a small,munpilotaed, remotely controlled airplance that carries a forward-looking camera for navigation, three downward-looking monochrome video cameras for imaging terrain in three spectral bands, a video transmitter, and a Global Positioning System (GPS) reciever.

  8. Multispectral analysis of ocean dumped materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Remotely sensed data were collected in conjunction with sea-truth measurements in three experiments in the New York Bight. Pollution features of primary interest were ocean dumped materials, such as sewage sludge and acid waste. Sewage-sludge and acid-waste plumes, including plumes from sewage sludge dumped by the 'line-dump' and 'spot-dump' methods, were located, identified, and mapped. Previously developed quantitative analysis techniques for determining quantitative distributions of materials in sewage sludge dumps were evaluated, along with multispectral analysis techniques developed to identify ocean dumped materials. Results of these experiments and the associated data analysis investigations are presented and discussed.

  9. Multispectral analysis of ocean dumped materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, R. W.

    1977-01-01

    Experiments conducted in the Atlantic coastal zone indicated that plumes resulting from ocean dumping of acid wastes and sewage sludge have unique spectral characteristics. Remotely sensed wide area synoptic coverage provided information on these pollution features that was not readily available from other sources. Aircraft remotely sensed photographic and multispectral scanner data were interpreted by two methods. First, qualitative analyses in which pollution features were located, mapped, and identified without concurrent sea truth and, second, quantitative analyses in which concurrently collected sea truth was used to calibrate the remotely sensed data and to determine quantitative distributions of one or more parameters in a plume.

  10. Vector anisotropic filter for multispectral image denoising

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Said, Ahmed; Foufou, Sebti; Hadjidj, Rachid

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, we propose an approach to extend the application of anisotropic Gaussian filtering for multi- spectral image denoising. We study the case of images corrupted with additive Gaussian noise and use sparse matrix transform for noise covariance matrix estimation. Specifically we show that if an image has a low local variability, we can make the assumption that in the noisy image, the local variability originates from the noise variance only. We apply the proposed approach for the denoising of multispectral images corrupted by noise and compare the proposed method with some existing methods. Results demonstrate an improvement in the denoising performance.

  11. Remote Multispectral Imaging of Wildland Fires (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodacek, A.; Kremens, R.

    2010-12-01

    Wildland fires produce a variety of signal phenomenology that are remotely observable. These signals span a large portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and can be related to a variety of properties of wildland fires as they propagate. The deployment of multispectral sensors from aircraft provides a unique perspective on the fire and its interactions in the environment by repeated imaging over time. We describe a set of airborne imaging experiments, image processing methodologies and a workflow system for near real-time extraction of information on the fire and the immediate environment.

  12. Multispectral imaging system for contaminant detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poole, Gavin H. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    An automated inspection system for detecting digestive contaminants on food items as they are being processed for consumption includes a conveyor for transporting the food items, a light sealed enclosure which surrounds a portion of the conveyor, with a light source and a multispectral or hyperspectral digital imaging camera disposed within the enclosure. Operation of the conveyor, light source and camera are controlled by a central computer unit. Light reflected by the food items within the enclosure is detected in predetermined wavelength bands, and detected intensity values are analyzed to detect the presence of digestive contamination.

  13. Multispectral scanner imagery for plant community classification.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Driscoll, R. S.; Spencer, M. M.

    1973-01-01

    Optimum channel selection among 12 channels of multispectral scanner imagery identified six as providing the best information for computerized classification of 11 plant communities and two nonvegetation classes. Intensive preprocessing of the spectral data was required to eliminate bidirectional reflectance effects of the spectral imagery caused by scanner view angle and varying geometry of the plant canopy. Generalized plant community types - forest, grassland, and hydrophytic systems - were acceptably classified based on ecological analysis. Serious, but soluble, errors occurred with attempts to classify specific community types within the grassland system. However, special clustering analyses provided for improved classification of specific grassland communities.

  14. SWNT Imaging Using Multispectral Image Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blades, Michael; Pirbhai, Massooma; Rotkin, Slava V.

    2012-02-01

    A flexible optical system was developed to image carbon single-wall nanotube (SWNT) photoluminescence using the multispectral capabilities of a typical CCD camcorder. The built in Bayer filter of the CCD camera was utilized, using OpenCV C++ libraries for image processing, to decompose the image generated in a high magnification epifluorescence microscope setup into three pseudo-color channels. By carefully calibrating the filter beforehand, it was possible to extract spectral data from these channels, and effectively isolate the SWNT signals from the background.

  15. Multi-Spectral Solar Telescope Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Arthur B. C., Jr.; Lindblom, Joakim F.; O'Neal, Ray H.; Allen, Maxwell J.; Barbee, Troy W., Jr.; Hoover, Richard B.

    1990-01-01

    This paper descibes the design and the characteristics of the Multispectral Solar Telescope Array (MSSTA), a new rocket spectroheliograph to be launched in August 1990. The MSSTA includes five multilayer Ritchey-Chretien telescopes covering the spectral range 150-300 A and eight multilayer Herschelian telescopes covering the spectral range 40-1550 A, making it possible to obtain spectrohelipgrams over the soft X-ray/extreme UV/FUV spectral range. The MSSTA is expected to obtain information regarding the structure and dynamics of the solar atmosphere in the temperature range 10 to the 4th-10 to the 7th K.

  16. Multispectral-image fusion using neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kagel, Joseph H.; Platt, C. A.; Donaven, T. W.; Samstad, Eric A.

    1990-08-01

    A prototype system is being developed to demonstrate the use of neural network hardware to fuse multispectral imagery. This system consists of a neural network IC on a motherboard a circuit card assembly and a set of software routines hosted by a PC-class computer. Research in support of this consists of neural network simulations fusing 4 to 7 bands of Landsat imagery and fusing (separately) multiple bands of synthetic imagery. The simulations results and a description of the prototype system are presented. 1.

  17. Multispectral image fusion using neural networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kagel, J. H.; Platt, C. A.; Donaven, T. W.; Samstad, E. A.

    1990-01-01

    A prototype system is being developed to demonstrate the use of neural network hardware to fuse multispectral imagery. This system consists of a neural network IC on a motherboard, a circuit card assembly, and a set of software routines hosted by a PC-class computer. Research in support of this consists of neural network simulations fusing 4 to 7 bands of Landsat imagery and fusing (separately) multiple bands of synthetic imagery. The simulations, results, and a description of the prototype system are presented.

  18. Fusion of multisensor, multispectral, and defocused images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahida, Mohd.; Guptab, Sumana

    2005-10-01

    Fusion is basically extraction of best of inputs and conveying it to the output. In this paper, we present an image fusion technique using the concept of perceptual information across the bands. This algorithm is relevant to visual sensitivity and tested by merging multisensor, multispectral and Defoucused images. Fusion is achieved through the formation of one fused pyramid using the DWT coefficients from the decomposed pyramids of the source images. The fused image is obtained through conventional discrete wavelet transform (DWT) reconstruction process. Results obtained using the proposed method show a significant reduction of distortion artifacts and a large preservation of spectral information.

  19. Interpretation of Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper and Multispectral Scanner data for forest surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benson, A. S.; Degloria, S. D.

    1985-01-01

    Landsat-4 Thematic Mapper (TM) and Multispectral Scanner (MSS) data were evaluated by interpreting film and digital products and statistical data for selected forest cover types in California. Significant results were: (1) TM color image products should contain a spectral band in the visible (bands 1, 2, or 3), near infrared (band 4), and middle infrared (band 5) regions for maximizing the interpretability of vegetation types; (2) TM color composites should contain band 4 in all cases even at the expense of excluding band 5; and (3) MSS color composites were more interpretable than all TM color composites for certain cover types and for all cover types when band 4 was excluded from the TM composite.

  20. Visible charge-coupled device (CCD) focal plane design considerations for multispectral applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadowski, H.

    1982-01-01

    The typical Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) Instrument mission would be to gather high-resolution, radiometrically accurate earth resources data in several spectral bands over a prolonged period of time. These bands would include the visible (VIS), near infrared (NIR) and short wavelength infrared. Silicon charge-coupled imaging devices (CCDs) can be assembled into contiguous pixel focal planes which will cover the VIS/NIR region and operate reliably for several years in a space environment. A typical MLA focal plane would have approximately 12,000 pixels, with a pixel-to-pixel registration requirement on the order of + or - 0.1 pixel. The technology to assemble such focal planes has been developed and is described. The problem of polarization sensitivity associated with certain types of focal plane assemblies is addressed. Radiation effects on CCDs are also discussed, and a practical solution to the problem through the use of shielding is described.

  1. Multispectral interference filter arrays with compensation of angular dependence or extended spectral range.

    PubMed

    Frey, Laurent; Masarotto, Lilian; Armand, Marilyn; Charles, Marie-Lyne; Lartigue, Olivier

    2015-05-01

    Thin film Fabry-Perot filter arrays with high selectivity can be realized with a single patterning step, generating a spatial modulation of the effective refractive index in the optical cavity. In this paper, we investigate the ability of this technology to address two applications in the field of image sensors. First, the spectral tuning may be used to compensate the blue-shift of the filters in oblique incidence, provided the filter array is located in an image plane of an optical system with higher field of view than aperture angle. The technique is analyzed for various types of filters and experimental evidence is shown with copper-dielectric infrared filters. Then, we propose a design of a multispectral filter array with an extended spectral range spanning the visible and near-infrared range, using a single set of materials and realizable on a single substrate. PMID:25969271

  2. Spectra-view: A high performance, low-cost multispectral airborne imaging system

    SciTech Connect

    Helder, D.

    1996-11-01

    Although a variety of airborne platforms are available for collecting remote sensing data, a niche exists for a low cost, compact systemd capable of collecting accurate visible and infrared multispectral data in a digital format. To fill this void, an instrument known as Spectra-View was developed by Airborne Data Systems. Multispectral data is collected in the visible and near-infrared using an array of CCD cameras with appropriate spectral filtering. Infrared imaging is accomplished using commercially available cameras. Although the current system images in five spectral bands, a modular design approach allows various configurations for imaging in the visible and infrared regions with up to 10 or more channels. It was built entirely through integration of readily available commercial components, is compact enough to fly in an aircraft as small as a Cessna 172, and can record imagery at airspeeds in excess of 150 knots. A GPS-based navigation system provides a course deviation indicator for the pilot to follow and allows for georeferencing of the data. To maintain precise pointing knowledge, and at the same time keep system cost low, attitude sensors are mounted directly with the cameras rather than using a stabilized mounting system. Information is collect during camera firing of aircraft/camera attitude along the yaw, pitch, and roll axes. All data is collected in a digital format on a hard disk that is removable during flight so that virtually unlimited amounts of data may be recorded. Following collection, imagery is readily available for viewing and incorporation into computer-based systems for analysis and reduction. Ground processing software has been developed to perform radiometric calibration and georeference the imagery. Since June, 1995, the system has been collecting high-quality data in a variety of applications for numerous customers including applications in agriculture, forestry, and global change research. Several examples will be presented.

  3. Scanning multispectral IR reflectography SMIRR: an advanced tool for art diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Daffara, Claudia; Pampaloni, Enrico; Pezzati, Luca; Barucci, Marco; Fontana, Raffaella

    2010-06-15

    Spectral imaging technology, widely used in remote sensing applications, such as satellite or radar imaging, has recently gained importance in the field of artwork conservation. In particular, multispectral imaging in the near-infrared region (NIR) has proved useful in analyzing ancient paintings because of the transparency of most pigments and their varied reflectance changes over this spectral region. A variety of systems, with different detectors and filtering or dispersing technologies, have been implemented. Despite the recognized potential of multispectral NIR imaging, which provides information on both spectral and spatial domains (thus extending the capabilities of conventional imaging and spectroscopy), most of the systems currently used in art diagnostics have limitations. The technology is still in its early stages of development in this field. In this Account, we present the scanning multispectral IR reflectography (SMIRR) technique for artwork analysis, together with an integrated device for the acquisition of imaging data. The instrument prototype is a no-contact optical scanner with a single-point measurement of the reflectance, capable of simultaneously collecting a set of 14 spatially registered images at different wavelengths in the NIR range of 800-2300 nm. The data can be analyzed as a spectral cube, both as a stack of wavelength resolved images (multi-NIR reflectography) and as a series of point reflectance spectra, one for each sampled pixel on the surface (NIR spectrometry). We explore the potential of SMIRR in the analysis of ancient paintings and show its advantages over the wide-band conventional method. The multispectral option allows the choice of the most effective NIR bands and improves the ability to detect hidden features. The interband comparison aids in localizing areas of different pictorial materials with particular NIR reflectance. In addition to the analysis of single monochromatic images, enhancement procedures involving the

  4. Integrated visible to near infrared, short wave infrared, and long wave infrared spectral analysis for surface composition mapping near Mountain Pass, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McDowell, Meryl L.; Kruse, Fred A.

    2015-05-01

    We have developed new methods for enhanced surface material identification and mapping that integrate visible to near infrared (VNIR, ~0.4 - 1 μm), short wave infrared (SWIR, ~1 - 2.5 μm), and long wave infrared (LWIR, ~8 - 12 μm) multispectral and hyperspectral imagery. This approach produces a single map of surface composition derived from the full spectral range. We applied these methods to a spectrally diverse region around Mountain Pass, CA. A comparison of the integrated results with those obtained from analyzing the spectral ranges individually reveals compositional information not exhibited by the VNIR, SWIR or LWIR data alone. We also evaluate the benefit of hyperspectral rather than multispectral LWIR data for this integrated approach.

  5. Multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savelieva, Tatiana A.; Stratonnikov, Aleksander A.; Loschenov, Victor B.

    2008-06-01

    The system of multi-spectral imaging of oxygen saturation is an instrument that can record both spectral and spatial information about a sample. In this project, the spectral imaging technique is used for monitoring of oxygen saturation of hemoglobin in human tissues. This system can be used for monitoring spatial distribution of oxygen saturation in photodynamic therapy, surgery or sports medicine. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy in the visible range is an effective and extensively used technique for the non-invasive study and characterization of various biological tissues. In this article, a short review of modeling techniques being currently in use for diffuse reflection from semi-infinite turbid media is presented. A simple and practical model for use with a real-time imaging system is proposed. This model is based on linear approximation of the dependence of the diffuse reflectance coefficient on relation between absorbance and reduced scattering coefficient. This dependence was obtained with the Monte Carlo simulation of photon propagation in turbid media. Spectra of the oxygenated and deoxygenated forms of hemoglobin differ mostly in the red area (520 - 600 nm) and have several characteristic points there. Thus four band-pass filters were used for multi-spectral imaging. After having measured the reflectance, the data obtained are used for fitting the concentration of oxygenated and free hemoglobin, and hemoglobin oxygen saturation.

  6. Radiometric Characterization of IKONOS Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Ryan, Robert E.; Kelly, Michelle; Holekamp, Kara; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Schiller, Stephen

    2002-01-01

    A radiometric characterization of Space Imaging's IKONOS 4-m multispectral imagery has been performed by a NASA funded team from the John C. Stennis Space Center (SSC), the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group (UARSG), and South Dakota State University (SDSU). Both intrinsic radiometry and the effects of Space Imaging processing on radiometry were investigated. Relative radiometry was examined with uniform Antarctic and Saharan sites. Absolute radiometric calibration was performed using reflectance-based vicarious calibration methods on several uniform sites imaged by IKONOS, coincident with ground-based surface and atmospheric measurements. Ground-based data and the IKONOS spectral response function served as input to radiative transfer codes to generate a Top-of-Atmosphere radiance estimate. Calibration coefficients derived from each vicarious calibration were combined to generate an IKONOS radiometric gain coefficient for each multispectral band assuming a linear response over the full dynamic range of the instrument. These calibration coefficients were made available to Space Imaging, which subsequently adopted them by updating its initial set of calibration coefficients. IKONOS imagery procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program is processed with or without a Modulation Transfer Function Compensation kernel. The radiometric effects of this kernel on various scene types was also investigated. All imagery characterized was procured through the NASA Scientific Data Purchase program.

  7. Multispectral observations of the surf zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schoonmaker, Jon S.; Dirbas, Joseph; Gilbert, Gary

    2003-09-01

    Airborne multispectral imagery was collected over various targets on the beach and in the water in an attempt to characterize the surf zone environment with respect to electro-optical system capabilities and to assess the utility of very low cost, small multispectral systems in mine counter measures (MCM) and intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance applications. The data was collected by PAR Government Systems Corporation (PGSC) at the Army Corps of Engineers Field Research Facility at Duck North Carolina and on the beaches of Camp Pendleton Marine Corps Base in Southern California. PGSC flew the first two of its MANTIS (Mission Adaptable Narrowband Tunable Imaging Sensor) systems. Both MANTIS systems were flown in an IR - red - green - blue (700, 600, 550, 480 nm) configuration from altitudes ranging from 200 to 700 meters. Data collected has been lightly analyzed and a surf zone index (SZI) defined and calculated. This index allows mine hunting system performance measurements in the surf zone to be normalized by environmental conditions. The SZI takes into account water clarity, wave energy, and foam persistence.

  8. Airborne system for testing multispectral reconnaissance technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Dirk-Roger; Doergeloh, Heinrich; Keil, Heiko; Wetjen, Wilfried

    1999-07-01

    There is an increasing demand for future airborne reconnaissance systems to obtain aerial images for tactical or peacekeeping operations. Especially Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) equipped with multispectral sensor system and with real time jam resistant data transmission capabilities are of high interest. An airborne experimental platform has been developed as testbed to investigate different concepts of reconnaissance systems before their application in UAVs. It is based on a Dornier DO 228 aircraft, which is used as flying platform. Great care has been taken to achieve the possibility to test different kinds of multispectral sensors. Hence basically it is capable to be equipped with an IR sensor head, high resolution aerial cameras of the whole optical spectrum and radar systems. The onboard equipment further includes system for digital image processing, compression, coding, and storage. The data are RF transmitted to the ground station using technologies with high jam resistance. The images, after merging with enhanced vision components, are delivered to the observer who has an uplink data channel available to control flight and imaging parameters.

  9. Multispectral fluorescence imaging device for malignancy detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bocher, Thomas; Luhmann, Till; Baier, S.; Dierolf, Marc; Naumann, M.; Beuthan, Juergen; Berlien, Hans-Peter; Mueller, Gerhard J.

    1997-12-01

    In medical diagnosis of superficial lesions at inner or outer surfaces of the human body fluorescence imaging techniques are able to deliver additional information on the metabolic and structural state of the observed tissue. To subtract background fluorescence and to achieve a differential diagnosis a multispectral analysis in several wavelength windows is needed. Additionally, special image algorithms have to be applied which depend on the examined malignancy. For this purpose a multispectral fluorescence imaging device was developed. It can be used both endoscopically and in combination with a standard operational microscope from Carl Zeiss, Germany. In this paper, the device and first clinical results are presented. The device was built to detect superficial lesions like tumors, inflammations, etc. Target chromophores are NADH, Protoporphyrin IX, collagen and other. The measured optical bands are (405 plus or minus 5) nm, (442 plus or minus 5) nm, (458 plus or minus 5) nm, (550 plus or minus 5) nm, (630 plus or minus 5) nm and (690 plus or minus 5) nm. A special UV-source with a liquid light guide is used as the illumination source in two excitation bands of (365 plus or minus 10) nm and (420 plus or minus 20) nm. First clinical investigations of superficial malignancies like squamous cell carcinoma and basalioma are presented.

  10. Automated oil spill detection with multispectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Brian N.; Sanchez-Reyes, Pedro J.

    2011-06-01

    In this publication we present an automated detection method for ocean surface oil, like that which existed in the Gulf of Mexico as a result of the April 20, 2010 Deepwater Horizon drilling rig explosion. Regions of surface oil in airborne imagery are isolated using red, green, and blue bands from multispectral data sets. The oil shape isolation procedure involves a series of image processing functions to draw out the visual phenomenological features of the surface oil. These functions include selective color band combinations, contrast enhancement and histogram warping. An image segmentation process then separates out contiguous regions of oil to provide a raster mask to an analyst. We automate the detection algorithm to allow large volumes of data to be processed in a short time period, which can provide timely oil coverage statistics to response crews. Geo-referenced and mosaicked data sets enable the largest identified oil regions to be mapped to exact geographic coordinates. In our simulation, multispectral imagery came from multiple sources including first-hand data collected from the Gulf. Results of the simulation show the oil spill coverage area as a raster mask, along with histogram statistics of the oil pixels. A rough square footage estimate of the coverage is reported if the image ground sample distance is available.

  11. Combining multi-spectral proximal sensors and digital cameras for monitoring grazed tropical pastures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Handcock, R. N.; Gobbett, D. L.; González, L. A.; Bishop-Hurley, G. J.; McGavin, S. L.

    2015-11-01

    Timely and accurate monitoring of pasture biomass and ground-cover is necessary in livestock production systems to ensure productive and sustainable management of forage for livestock. Interest in the use of proximal sensors for monitoring pasture status in grazing systems has increased, since such sensors can return data in near real-time, and have the potential to be deployed on large properties where remote sensing may not be suitable due to issues such as spatial scale or cloud cover. However, there are unresolved challenges in developing calibrations to convert raw sensor data to quantitative biophysical values, such as pasture biomass or vegetation ground-cover, to allow meaningful interpretation of sensor data by livestock producers. We assessed the use of multiple proximal sensors for monitoring tropical pastures with a pilot deployment of sensors at two sites on Lansdown Research Station near Townsville, Australia. Each site was monitored by a Skye SKR-four-band multi-spectral sensor (every 1 min), a digital camera (every 30 min), and a soil moisture sensor (every 1 min), each operated over 18 months. Raw data from each sensor were processed to calculate a number of multispectral vegetation indices. Visual observations of pasture characteristics, including above-ground standing biomass and ground cover, were made every 2 weeks. A methodology was developed to manage the sensor deployment and the quality control of the data collected. The data capture from the digital cameras was more reliable than the multi-spectral sensors, which had up to 63 % of data discarded after data cleaning and quality control. We found a strong relationship between sensor and pasture measurements during the wet season period of maximum pasture growth (January to April), especially when data from the multi-spectral sensors were combined with weather data. RatioNS34 (a simple band ratio between the near infrared (NIR) and lower shortwave infrared (SWIR) bands) and rainfall since 1

  12. Lattice algebra approach to multispectral analysis of ancient documents.

    PubMed

    Valdiviezo-N, Juan C; Urcid, Gonzalo

    2013-02-01

    This paper introduces a lattice algebra procedure that can be used for the multispectral analysis of historical documents and artworks. Assuming the presence of linearly mixed spectral pixels captured in a multispectral scene, the proposed method computes the scaled min- and max-lattice associative memories to determine the purest pixels that best represent the spectra of single pigments. The estimation of fractional proportions of pure spectra at each image pixel is used to build pigment abundance maps that can be used for subsequent restoration of damaged parts. Application examples include multispectral images acquired from the Archimedes Palimpsest and a Mexican pre-Hispanic codex. PMID:23385905

  13. Eliminate background interference from latent fingerprints using ultraviolet multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei; Xu, Xiaojing; Wang, Guiqiang

    2014-02-01

    Fingerprints are the most important evidence in crime scene. The technology of developing latent fingerprints is one of the hottest research areas in forensic science. Recently, multispectral imaging which has shown great capability in fingerprints development, questioned document detection and trace evidence examination is used in detecting material evidence. This paper studied how to eliminate background interference from non-porous and porous surface latent fingerprints by rotating filter wheel ultraviolet multispectral imaging. The results approved that background interference could be removed clearly from latent fingerprints by using multispectral imaging in ultraviolet bandwidth.

  14. Spatial frequency analysis of multispectral data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramapriyan, H. K.

    1972-01-01

    This paper presents the definitions of texture dependent features which can be obtained in terms of the spatial frequencies of small sections of remotely sensed multispectral data. The features are made independent of the direction of view by defining them as symmetric functions of the spatial frequencies sensed with various viewing directions. Several textural features are defined and experimental results indicating existence of signatures in these features are presented. Preliminary experiments have been performed on the classification of 60 samples, 10 from each of the following 6 categories - grass, trees, water, staked tomatoes, treated ground tomatoes, and untreated ground tomatoes. Classifications of the training samples using only one feature at a time indicate that several of the features yield classification efficiencies higher than 65%. The efficiency increases considerably when combinations of these features are used.

  15. Multispectral Mapping of the Moon by Clementine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eliason, Eric M.; McEwen, Alfred S.; Robinson, M.; Lucey, Paul G.; Duxbury, T.; Malaret, E.; Pieters, Carle; Becker, T.; Isbell, C.; Lee, E.

    1998-01-01

    One of the chief scientific objectives of the Clementine mission at the Moon was to acquire global multispectral mapping. A global digital map of the Moon in 11 spectral bandpasses and at a scale of 100 m/pixel is being produced at the U.S. Geological Survey in Flagstaff Arizona Near-global coverage was acquired with the UVVIS camera (central wavelengths of 415, 750, 900, 950, and 1000 nm) and the NIR camera (1102, 1248, 1499, 1996, 2620, and 2792 nary). We expect to complete processing of the UVVIS mosaics before the fall of 1998, and to complete the NIR mosaics a year later. The purpose of this poster is to provide an update on the processing and to show examples of the products or perhaps even a wall-sized display of color products from the UVVIS mosaics.

  16. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization.

    PubMed

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N D; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C W; Kang, Jin U; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement. PMID:26440616

  17. Temporal analysis of multispectral scanner data.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richardson, A. J.; Wiegand, C. L.; Torline, R. J.

    1973-01-01

    Multispectral scanner reflectance data were sampled for bare soil, cotton, sorghum, corn, and citrus at four dates during a growing season (April, May, June, and July 1969) to develop a time-dependent signature for crop and soil discrimination. Discrimination tests were conducted for single-date and multidate formats using training and test data sets. For classifications containing several crops, the multidate or temporal approach improved discrimination compared with the single-date approach. The multidate approach also preserved recognition accuracy better in going from training fields to test fields than the single-date analysis. The spectral distinctiveness of bare soil versus vegetation resulted in essentially equal discrimination using single-date versus multidate data for those two categories.

  18. Wetlands mapping with spot multispectral scanner data

    SciTech Connect

    Mackey, H.E. Jr. ); Jensen, J.R. . Dept. of Geography)

    1989-01-01

    Government facilities such as the US Department of Energy's Savannah River Plant (SRP) near Aiken, South Carolina, often use remote sensing data to assist in environmental management. Airborne multispectral scanner (MSS) data have been acquired at SRP since 1981. Various types of remote sensing data have been used to map and characterize wetlands. Regional Landsat MSS and TM satellite data have been used for wetlands mapping by various government agencies and private organizations. Furthermore, SPOT MSS data are becoming available and provide opportunities for increased spacial resolution and temporal coverage for wetlands mapping. This paper summarizes the initial results from using five dates of SPOT MSS data from April through October, 1987, as a means to monitor seasonal wetland changes in freshwater wetlands of the SRP. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Multispectral image analysis for algal biomass quantification.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Thomas E; Macon, Keith; Berberoglu, Halil

    2013-01-01

    This article reports a novel multispectral image processing technique for rapid, noninvasive quantification of biomass concentration in attached and suspended algae cultures. Monitoring the biomass concentration is critical for efficient production of biofuel feedstocks, food supplements, and bioactive chemicals. Particularly, noninvasive and rapid detection techniques can significantly aid in providing delay-free process control feedback in large-scale cultivation platforms. In this technique, three-band spectral images of Anabaena variabilis cultures were acquired and separated into their red, green, and blue components. A correlation between the magnitude of the green component and the areal biomass concentration was generated. The correlation predicted the biomass concentrations of independently prepared attached and suspended cultures with errors of 7 and 15%, respectively, and the effect of varying lighting conditions and background color were investigated. This method can provide necessary feedback for dilution and harvesting strategies to maximize photosynthetic conversion efficiency in large-scale operation. PMID:23554374

  20. Multispectral tissue characterization for intestinal anastomosis optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cha, Jaepyeong; Shademan, Azad; Le, Hanh N. D.; Decker, Ryan; Kim, Peter C. W.; Kang, Jin U.; Krieger, Axel

    2015-10-01

    Intestinal anastomosis is a surgical procedure that restores bowel continuity after surgical resection to treat intestinal malignancy, inflammation, or obstruction. Despite the routine nature of intestinal anastomosis procedures, the rate of complications is high. Standard visual inspection cannot distinguish the tissue subsurface and small changes in spectral characteristics of the tissue, so existing tissue anastomosis techniques that rely on human vision to guide suturing could lead to problems such as bleeding and leakage from suturing sites. We present a proof-of-concept study using a portable multispectral imaging (MSI) platform for tissue characterization and preoperative surgical planning in intestinal anastomosis. The platform is composed of a fiber ring light-guided MSI system coupled with polarizers and image analysis software. The system is tested on ex vivo porcine intestine tissue, and we demonstrate the feasibility of identifying optimal regions for suture placement.

  1. JACIE Radiometric Assessment of QuickBird Multispectral Imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pagnutti, Mary; Carver, David; Holekamp, Kara; Knowlton, Kelly; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki; Thome, Kurtis; Aaron, David

    2004-01-01

    Radiometric calibration of commercial imaging satellite products is required to ensure that science and application communities can place confidence in the imagery they use and can fully understand its properties. Inaccurate radiometric calibrations can lead to erroneous decisions and invalid conclusions and can limit intercomparisons with other systems. To address this calibration need, the NASA Stennis Space Center (SSC) Earth Science Applications (ESA) directorate,through the Joint Agency for Commercial Imagery Evaluation (JACIE) framework, established a commercial imaging satellite radiometric calibration team consisting of two groups: 1) NASA SSC ESA, supported by South Dakota State University, and 2) the University of Arizona Remote Sensing Group. The two groups determined the absolute radiometric calibration coefficients of the Digital Globe 4-band, 2.4-m QuickBird multispectral product covering the visible through near-infrared spectral region. For a 2-year period beginning in 2002, both groups employed some variant of a reflectance-based vicarious calibration approach, which required ground-based measurements coincident with QuickBird image acquisitions and radiative transfer calculations. The groups chose several study sites throughout the United States that covered nearly the entire dynamic range of the QuickBird sensor. QuickBird at-sensor radiance values were compared with those estimated by the two independent groups to determine the QuickBird sensor's radiometric accuracy. Approximately 20 at-sensor radiance estimates were vicariously determined each year. The estimates were combined to provide a high-precision radiometric gain calibration coefficient. The results of this evaluation provide the user community with an independent assessment of the QuickBird sensor's absolute calibration and stability over the 2-year period. While the techniques and method described reflect those developed at the NASA SSC, the results of both JACIE team groups are

  2. Multispectral photoacoustic imaging of nerves with a clinical ultrasound system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mari, Jean Martial; West, Simeon; Beard, Paul C.; Desjardins, Adrien E.

    2014-03-01

    Accurate and efficient identification of nerves is of great importance during many ultrasound-guided clinical procedures, including nerve blocks and prostate biopsies. It can be challenging to visualise nerves with conventional ultrasound imaging, however. One of the challenges is that nerves can have very similar appearances to nearby structures such as tendons. Several recent studies have highlighted the potential of near-infrared optical spectroscopy for differentiating nerves and adjacent tissues, as this modality can be sensitive to optical absorption of lipids that are present in intra- and extra-neural adipose tissue and in the myelin sheaths. These studies were limited to point measurements, however. In this pilot study, a custom photoacoustic system with a clinical ultrasound imaging probe was used to acquire multi-spectral photoacoustic images of nerves and tendons from swine ex vivo, across the wavelength range of 1100 to 1300 nm. Photoacoustic images were processed and overlaid in colour onto co-registered conventional ultrasound images that were acquired with the same imaging probe. A pronounced optical absorption peak centred at 1210 nm was observed in the photoacoustic signals obtained from nerves, and it was absent in those obtained from tendons. This absorption peak, which is consistent with the presence of lipids, provides a novel image contrast mechanism to significantly enhance the visualization of nerves. In particular, image contrast for nerves was up to 5.5 times greater with photoacoustic imaging (0.82 +/- 0.15) than with conventional ultrasound imaging (0.148 +/- 0.002), with a maximum contrast of 0.95 +/- 0.02 obtained in photoacoustic mode. This pilot study demonstrates the potential of photoacoustic imaging to improve clinical outcomes in ultrasound-guided interventions in regional anaesthesia and interventional oncology.

  3. Remote online processing of multispectral image data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groh, Christine; Rothe, Hendrik

    2005-10-01

    Within the scope of this paper a both compact and economical data acquisition system for multispecral images is described. It consists of a CCD camera, a liquid crystal tunable filter in combination with an associated concept for data processing. Despite of their limited functionality (e.g.regarding calibration) in comparison with commercial systems such as AVIRIS the use of these upcoming compact multispectral camera systems can be advantageous in many applications. Additional benefit can be derived adding online data processing. In order to maintain the systems low weight and price this work proposes to separate data acquisition and processing modules, and transmit pre-processed camera data online to a stationary high performance computer for further processing. The inevitable data transmission has to be optimised because of bandwidth limitations. All mentioned considerations hold especially for applications involving mini-unmanned-aerial-vehicles (mini-UAVs). Due to their limited internal payload the use of a lightweight, compact camera system is of particular importance. This work emphasises on the optimal software interface in between pre-processed data (from the camera system), transmitted data (regarding small bandwidth) and post-processed data (based on high performance computer). Discussed parameters are pre-processing algorithms, channel bandwidth, and resulting accuracy in the classification of multispectral image data. The benchmarked pre-processing algorithms include diagnostic statistics, test of internal determination coefficients as well as loss-free and lossy data compression methods. The resulting classification precision is computed in comparison to a classification performed with the original image dataset.

  4. Using remotely-sensed multispectral imagery to build age models for alluvial fan surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Arcy, Mitch; Mason, Philippa J.; Roda Boluda, Duna C.; Whittaker, Alexander C.; Lewis, James

    2016-04-01

    Accurate exposure age models are essential for much geomorphological field research, and generally depend on laboratory analyses such as radiocarbon, cosmogenic nuclide, or luminescence techniques. These approaches continue to revolutionise geomorphology, however they cannot be deployed remotely or in situ in the field. Therefore other methods are still needed for producing preliminary age models, performing relative dating of surfaces, or selecting sampling sites for the laboratory analyses above. With the widespread availability of detailed multispectral imagery, a promising approach is to use remotely-sensed data to discriminate surfaces with different ages. Here, we use new Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) multispectral imagery to characterise the reflectance of 35 alluvial fan surfaces in the semi-arid Owens Valley, California. Alluvial fans are useful landforms to date, as they are widely used to study the effects of tectonics, climate and sediment transport processes on source-to-sink sedimentation. Our target fan surfaces have all been mapped in detail in the field, and have well-constrained exposure ages ranging from modern to ~ 125 ka measured using a high density of 10Be cosmogenic nuclide samples. Despite all having similar granitic compositions, the spectral properties of these surfaces vary systematically with their exposure ages. Older surfaces demonstrate a predictable shift in reflectance across the visible and short-wave infrared spectrum. Simple calculations, such as the brightness ratios of different wavelengths, generate sensitive power law relationships with exposure age that depend on post-depositional alteration processes affecting these surfaces. We investigate what these processes might be in this dryland location, and evaluate the potential for using remotely-sensed multispectral imagery for developing surface age models. The ability to remotely sense relative exposure ages has useful implications for preliminary mapping, selecting

  5. Use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, S. J.; Wensel, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys using a computer software package is described. The system allows evaluation of a number of alternative sampling systems and, with appropriate cost data, estimates the implementation cost for each.

  6. Multispectral Imaging for Determination of Astaxanthin Concentration in Salmonids

    PubMed Central

    Dissing, Bjørn S.; Nielsen, Michael E.; Ersbøll, Bjarne K.; Frosch, Stina

    2011-01-01

    Multispectral imaging has been evaluated for characterization of the concentration of a specific cartenoid pigment; astaxanthin. 59 fillets of rainbow trout, Oncorhynchus mykiss, were filleted and imaged using a rapid multispectral imaging device for quantitative analysis. The multispectral imaging device captures reflection properties in 19 distinct wavelength bands, prior to determination of the true concentration of astaxanthin. The samples ranged from 0.20 to 4.34 g per g fish. A PLSR model was calibrated to predict astaxanthin concentration from novel images, and showed good results with a RMSEP of 0.27. For comparison a similar model were built for normal color images, which yielded a RMSEP of 0.45. The acquisition speed of the multispectral imaging system and the accuracy of the PLSR model obtained suggest this method as a promising technique for rapid in-line estimation of astaxanthin concentration in rainbow trout fillets. PMID:21573000

  7. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfectant byproducts (DNPS) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, that uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. nconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low-resolu...

  8. Hyperspectral and multispectral imaging for evaluating food safety and quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spectral imaging technologies have been developed rapidly during the past decade. This paper presents hyperspectral and multispectral imaging technologies in the area of food safety and quality evaluation, with an introduction, demonstration, and summarization of the spectral imaging techniques avai...

  9. Pre-Processor for Compression of Multispectral Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew; Kiely, Aaron

    2006-01-01

    A computer program that preprocesses multispectral image data has been developed to provide the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission with a means of exploiting the additional correlation present in such data without appreciably increasing the complexity of compressing the data.

  10. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, which uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. Unconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low reso...

  11. Realization of video electronics system in the space-borne multispectral imager

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, Peng; Lei, Ning; Cheng, Ganglin; Huang, Jing

    2015-08-01

    In this paper, a new multispectral imager video electronics system is introduced. The system has an imaging function of visible spectrum (VIS), near infrared spectrum (NIR), short wave infrared spectrum (SWIR), medium wave infrared spectrum (MWIR) and long wave infrared spectrum (LWIR). It is comprised of three video processors and an information processor. Three video processors are VIS-NIR processor, SWIR-MWIR processor and LWIR processor. The VIS-NIR processor uses time delay and integration charge coupled devices (TDICCD) as detector, samples and quantifies CCD signal under the mode of correlated double sampling (CDS), corrects image data by using large-scale field programmable gate array (FPGA). The application methods of SWIR-MWIR processor and LWIR processor are similar. Information processor is the most important part of the video electronics systems. It is responsible for receiving remote control command from other equipments, transmitting telemetric data, controlling the three video processors working synchronously, encoding and transmitting the image data from the video processor. Besides the introduction of system's functions and system composition framework, detailed implementation methods of some important components will be described in this paper as well. The experimental result shows that all main technical indexes meet the design requirement.

  12. Retrieval of Temperature and Species Distributions from Multispectral Image Data of Surface Flame Spread in Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Annen, K. D.; Conant, John A.; Weiland, Karen J.

    2001-01-01

    Weight, size, and power constraints severely limit the ability of researchers to fully characterize temperature and species distributions in microgravity combustion experiments. A powerful diagnostic technique, infrared imaging spectrometry, has the potential to address the need for temperature and species distribution measurements in microgravity experiments. An infrared spectrum imaged along a line-of-sight contains information on the temperature and species distribution in the imaged path. With multiple lines-of-sight and approximate knowledge of the geometry of the combustion flowfield, a three-dimensional distribution of temperature and species can be obtained from one hyperspectral image of a flame. While infrared imaging spectrometers exist for collecting hyperspectral imagery, the remaining challenge is retrieving the temperature and species information from this data. An initial version of an infrared analysis software package, called CAMEO (Combustion Analysis Model et Optimizer), has been developed for retrieving temperature and species distributions from hyperspectral imaging data of combustion flowfields. CAMEO has been applied to the analysis of multispectral imaging data of flame spread over a PMMA surface in microgravity that was acquired in the DARTFire program. In the next section of this paper, a description of CAMEO and its operation is presented, followed by the results of the analysis of microgravity flame spread data.

  13. Infrared Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lascours, Jean; Albe, Virginie

    2001-01-01

    Describes a series of simple and nontraditional experiments that enable students to discover the properties of infrared radiation by studying the propagation, reflection, diffusion, and refraction of infrared. The experiments rely on two modules, an infrared transmitter and an infrared receiver. (SAH)

  14. Fast Lossless Compression of Multispectral-Image Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew

    2006-01-01

    An algorithm that effects fast lossless compression of multispectral-image data is based on low-complexity, proven adaptive-filtering algorithms. This algorithm is intended for use in compressing multispectral-image data aboard spacecraft for transmission to Earth stations. Variants of this algorithm could be useful for lossless compression of three-dimensional medical imagery and, perhaps, for compressing image data in general.

  15. Application of multispectral systems for the diagnosis of plant diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Jie; Liao, Ningfang; Wang, Guolong; Luo, Yongdao; Liang, Minyong

    2008-03-01

    Multispectral imaging technique combines space imaging and spectral detecting. It can obtain the spectral information and image information of object at the same time. Base on this concept, A new method proposed multispectral camera system to demonstrated plant diseases. In this paper, multispectral camera was used as image capturing device. It consists of a monochrome CCD camera and 16 narrow-band filters. The multispectral images of Macbeth 24 color patches are captured under the illumination of incandescent lamp in this experiment The 64 spectral reflectances of each color patches are calculated using Spline interpolation from 400 to 700nm in the process. And the color of the object is reproduced from the estimated spectral reflectance. The result for reproduction is contrast with the color signal using X-rite PULSE spectrophotometer. The average and maximum ΔΕ * ab are 9.23 and 12.81. It is confirmed that the multispectral system realizes the color reproduction of plant diseases from narrow-band multispectral image.

  16. Novel instrumentation of multispectral imaging technology for detecting tissue abnormity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Dingrong; Kong, Linghua

    2012-10-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming a powerful tool in a wide range of biological and clinical studies by adding spectral, spatial and temporal dimensions to visualize tissue abnormity and the underlying biological processes. A conventional spectral imaging system includes two physically separated major components: a band-passing selection device (such as liquid crystal tunable filter and diffraction grating) and a scientific-grade monochromatic camera, and is expensive and bulky. Recently micro-arrayed narrow-band optical mosaic filter was invented and successfully fabricated to reduce the size and cost of multispectral imaging devices in order to meet the clinical requirement for medical diagnostic imaging applications. However the challenging issue of how to integrate and place the micro filter mosaic chip to the targeting focal plane, i.e., the imaging sensor, of an off-shelf CMOS/CCD camera is not reported anywhere. This paper presents the methods and results of integrating such a miniaturized filter with off-shelf CMOS imaging sensors to produce handheld real-time multispectral imaging devices for the application of early stage pressure ulcer (ESPU) detection. Unlike conventional multispectral imaging devices which are bulky and expensive, the resulting handheld real-time multispectral ESPU detector can produce multiple images at different center wavelengths with a single shot, therefore eliminates the image registration procedure required by traditional multispectral imaging technologies.

  17. Skin Parameter Map Retrieval from a Dedicated Multispectral Imaging System Applied to Dermatology/Cosmetology

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In vivo quantitative assessment of skin lesions is an important step in the evaluation of skin condition. An objective measurement device can help as a valuable tool for skin analysis. We propose an explorative new multispectral camera specifically developed for dermatology/cosmetology applications. The multispectral imaging system provides images of skin reflectance at different wavebands covering visible and near-infrared domain. It is coupled with a neural network-based algorithm for the reconstruction of reflectance cube of cutaneous data. This cube contains only skin optical reflectance spectrum in each pixel of the bidimensional spatial information. The reflectance cube is analyzed by an algorithm based on a Kubelka-Munk model combined with evolutionary algorithm. The technique allows quantitative measure of cutaneous tissue and retrieves five skin parameter maps: melanin concentration, epidermis/dermis thickness, haemoglobin concentration, and the oxygenated hemoglobin. The results retrieved on healthy participants by the algorithm are in good accordance with the data from the literature. The usefulness of the developed technique was proved during two experiments: a clinical study based on vitiligo and melasma skin lesions and a skin oxygenation experiment (induced ischemia) with healthy participant where normal tissues are recorded at normal state and when temporary ischemia is induced. PMID:24159326

  18. Multi-spectral Imaging of Vegetation for CO2 Leak Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hogan, J. A.; Shaw, J. A.; Dobeck, L.; Spangler, L.; Lawrence, R. L.

    2009-12-01

    Practical use of geologic carbon sequestration for reducing carbon dioxide emissions into the atmosphere requires reliable monitoring techniques. Multispectral imaging of vegetation growing over the storage site is one possible technique for detecting carbon dioxide leakage. To demonstrate and quantitatively assess the monitoring capabilities of this approach, a multi-spectral imaging system has been deployed at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology (ZERT) field site in Bozeman, Montana. The Normalized-Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) is calculated from visible and near-infrared images to detect the effects on vegetation caused by CO2 released from a buried pipe in a controlled experiment. The images are processed to examine time-series trends of the NDVI as the plants are exposed to CO2. Data from a summer 2009 experiment show that with a CO2 release rate of 0.2 tons per day, the NDVI values near the release pipe and at a control point away from the release pipe diverged significantly. These values remained different throughout the one-month release duration. The NDVI values near and away from the pipe both increase similarly after significant rain events, but maintain a trend indicating increasing plant stress throughout the experiment.

  19. Physically-based parameterization of spatially variable soil and vegetation using satellite multispectral data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jasinski, Michael F.; Eagleson, Peter S.

    1989-01-01

    A stochastic-geometric landsurface reflectance model is formulated and tested for the parameterization of spatially variable vegetation and soil at subpixel scales using satellite multispectral images without ground truth. Landscapes are conceptualized as 3-D Lambertian reflecting surfaces consisting of plant canopies, represented by solid geometric figures, superposed on a flat soil background. A computer simulation program is developed to investigate image characteristics at various spatial aggregations representative of satellite observational scales, or pixels. The evolution of the shape and structure of the red-infrared space, or scattergram, of typical semivegetated scenes is investigated by sequentially introducing model variables into the simulation. The analytical moments of the total pixel reflectance, including the mean, variance, spatial covariance, and cross-spectral covariance, are derived in terms of the moments of the individual fractional cover and reflectance components. The moments are applied to the solution of the inverse problem: The estimation of subpixel landscape properties on a pixel-by-pixel basis, given only one multispectral image and limited assumptions on the structure of the landscape. The landsurface reflectance model and inversion technique are tested using actual aerial radiometric data collected over regularly spaced pecan trees, and using both aerial and LANDSAT Thematic Mapper data obtained over discontinuous, randomly spaced conifer canopies in a natural forested watershed. Different amounts of solar backscattered diffuse radiation are assumed and the sensitivity of the estimated landsurface parameters to those amounts is examined.

  20. Using Non-Invasive Multi-Spectral Imaging to Quantitatively Assess Tissue Vasculature

    SciTech Connect

    Vogel, A; Chernomordik, V; Riley, J; Hassan, M; Amyot, F; Dasgeb, B; Demos, S G; Pursley, R; Little, R; Yarchoan, R; Tao, Y; Gandjbakhche, A H

    2007-10-04

    This research describes a non-invasive, non-contact method used to quantitatively analyze the functional characteristics of tissue. Multi-spectral images collected at several near-infrared wavelengths are input into a mathematical optical skin model that considers the contributions from different analytes in the epidermis and dermis skin layers. Through a reconstruction algorithm, we can quantify the percent of blood in a given area of tissue and the fraction of that blood that is oxygenated. Imaging normal tissue confirms previously reported values for the percent of blood in tissue and the percent of blood that is oxygenated in tissue and surrounding vasculature, for the normal state and when ischemia is induced. This methodology has been applied to assess vascular Kaposi's sarcoma lesions and the surrounding tissue before and during experimental therapies. The multi-spectral imaging technique has been combined with laser Doppler imaging to gain additional information. Results indicate that these techniques are able to provide quantitative and functional information about tissue changes during experimental drug therapy and investigate progression of disease before changes are visibly apparent, suggesting a potential for them to be used as complementary imaging techniques to clinical assessment.

  1. Multi-Spectral imaging of vegetation for detecting CO2 leaking from underground

    SciTech Connect

    Rouse, J.H.; Shaw, J.A.; Lawrence, R.L.; Lewicki, J.L.; Dobeck, L.M.; Repasky, K.S.; Spangler, L.H.

    2010-06-01

    Practical geologic CO{sub 2} sequestration will require long-term monitoring for detection of possible leakage back into the atmosphere. One potential monitoring method is multi-spectral imaging of vegetation reflectance to detect leakage through CO{sub 2}-induced plant stress. A multi-spectral imaging system was used to simultaneously record green, red, and near-infrared (NIR) images with a real-time reflectance calibration from a 3-m tall platform, viewing vegetation near shallow subsurface CO{sub 2} releases during summers 2007 and 2008 at the Zero Emissions Research and Technology field site in Bozeman, Montana. Regression analysis of the band reflectances and the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index with time shows significant correlation with distance from the CO{sub 2} well, indicating the viability of this method to monitor for CO{sub 2} leakage. The 2007 data show rapid plant vigor degradation at high CO{sub 2} levels next to the well and slight nourishment at lower, but above-background CO{sub 2} concentrations. Results from the second year also show that the stress response of vegetation is strongly linked to the CO{sub 2} sink-source relationship and vegetation density. The data also show short-term effects of rain and hail. The real-time calibrated imaging system successfully obtained data in an autonomous mode during all sky and daytime illumination conditions.

  2. Assessment of satellite and aircraft multispectral scanner data for strip-mine monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Spisz, E. W.; Dooley, J. T.

    1980-01-01

    The application of LANDSAT multispectral scanner data to describe the mining and reclamation changes of a hilltop surface coal mine in the rugged, mountainous area of eastern Kentucky is presented. Original single band satellite imagery, computer enhanced single band imagery, and computer classified imagery are presented for four different data sets in order to demonstrate the land cover changes that can be detected. Data obtained with an 11 band multispectral scanner on board a C-47 aircraft at an altitude of 3000 meters are also presented. Comparing the satellite data with color, infrared aerial photography, and ground survey data shows that significant changes in the disrupted area can be detected from LANDSAT band 5 satellite imagery for mines with more than 100 acres of disturbed area. However, band-ratio (bands 5/6) imagery provides greater contrast than single band imagery and can provide a qualitative level 1 classification of the land cover that may be useful for monitoring either the disturbed mining area or the revegetation progress. However, if a quantitative, accurate classification of the barren or revegetated classes is required, it is necessary to perform a detailed, four band computer classification of the data.

  3. Multispectral mapping of the Apollo 15-Apennine region - The identification and distribution of regional pyroclastic deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hawke, B. R.; Maclaskey, D.; Mccord, T. B.; Adams, J. B.; Head, J. W., III; Pieters, C. M.; Zisk, S. H.

    1979-01-01

    Multispectral mapping of the Apollo 15-Apennine region has allowed the identification of numerous dark mantle deposits of probable pyroclastic origin. The deposits display a low albedo, appear to mantle and slightly subdue subjacent terrain, are spectrally distinct on the multispectral maps (high in the infrared but low in the ultraviolet) and generally exhibit a weak depolarized 3.8 cm radar echo. These characteristics are consistent with an origin by pyroclastic eruption. The regional dark mantle deposits are commonly associated with vents along marginal fractures and faults near the base of the Apennines, thereby emphasizing the role of basin-controlled weaknesses in providing channels for the upward migration of magma generated at depth. The spectral properties of the pyroclastic deposits are incompatible with those of Apollo 15 green glass but the deposits may be composed of material similar to the Apollo 15 brown or yellow glass. If so, the widespread distribution of the deposits suggest that mare basalts genetically related to the brown or yellow glass may occur in the Apollo 15 region. Moreover, pyroclastic volcanic activity has apparently been a more important and widespread process in the Apollo 15-Apennine region than has previously been thought.

  4. Studies of optical and biological properties of terrestrial land cover using multispectral linear array technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, W. L.; Salomonson, V. V.

    1984-01-01

    A series of experiments to study the optical and biological properties of terrestrial land cover are planned for late 1987 using a six-channel imaging spectroradiometer based on newly developed multispectral linear array (MLA) detector technology. Data from selected portions of the Sahel and rain forests of Africa and South America will be used to delineate biomass classes and estimate spherical albedos. A spatial resolution of 15 meters in the four visible-near IR channels and 30 meters in two shortwave IR channels, including a 'new' channel centered at 1.24 micrometers when combined with a spectral width of 20 nm for all channels, will be used to investigate possible improvements in land cover classification. Technology demonstrations include a test of data compression on data quality, the first spaceborne utilization of short wave infrared Schottky barrier Pd2Si detector arrays, and the use of close-butted, multi-array modules with attached spectral filters.

  5. Charon's Color: A view from New Horizon Ralph/Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olkin, C.; Howett, C.; Grundy, W. M.; Parker, A. H.; Ennico Smith, K.; Stern, S. A.; Binzel, R. P.; Cook, J. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C.; Earle, A. M.; Jennings, D. E.; Linscott, I.; Lunsford, A.; Parker, J. W.; Protopapa, S.; Reuter, D.; Singer, K. N.; Spencer, J. R.; Tsang, C.; Verbiscer, A.; Weaver, H. A., Jr.; Young, L. A.

    2015-12-01

    The Multispectral Visible Imaging Camera (MVIC; Reuter et al., 2008) is part of Ralph, an instrument on NASA's New Horizons spacecraft. MVIC is the color 'eyes' of New Horizons, observing objects using five bands from blue to infrared wavelengths. MVIC's images of Charon show it to be an intriguing place, a far cry from the grey heavily cratered world once postulated. Rather Charon is observed to have large surface areas free of craters, and a northern polar region that is much redder than its surroundings. This talk will describe these initial results in more detail, along with Charon's global geological color variations to put these results into their wider context. Finally possible surface coloration mechanisms due to global processes and/or seasonal cycles will be discussed.

  6. Semi-quantitative Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) for volumetric PK imaging of gastric emptying

    PubMed Central

    Morscher, Stefan; Driessen, Wouter H.P.; Claussen, Jing; Burton, Neal C.

    2014-01-01

    A common side effect of medication is gastrointestinal intolerance. Symptoms can include reduced appetite, diarrhea, constipation, GI inflammation, nausea and vomiting. Such effects often have a dramatic impact on compliance with a treatment regimen. Therefore, characterization of GI tolerance is an important step when establishing a novel therapeutic approach. In this study, Multispectral Optoacoustic Tomography (MSOT) is used to monitor gastrointestinal motility by in vivo whole body imaging in mice. MSOT combines high spatial and temporal resolution based on ultrasound detection with strong optical contrast in the near infrared. Animals were given Indocyanine Green (ICG) by oral gavage and imaged by MSOT to observe the fate of ICG in the gastrointestinal tract. Exponential decay of ICG signal was observed in the stomach in good correlation with ex vivo validation. We discuss how kinetic imaging in MSOT allows visualization of parameters unavailable to other imaging methods, both in 2D and 3D. PMID:25431754

  7. The fabrication of a multi-spectral lens array and its application in assisting color blindness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di, Si; Jin, Jian; Tang, Guanrong; Chen, Xianshuai; Du, Ruxu

    2016-01-01

    This article presents a compact multi-spectral lens array and describes its application in assisting color-blindness. The lens array consists of 9 microlens, and each microlens is coated with a different color filter. Thus, it can capture different light bands, including red, orange, yellow, green, cyan, blue, violet, near-infrared, and the entire visible band. First, the fabrication process is described in detail. Second, an imaging system is setup and a color blindness testing card is selected as the sample. By the system, the vision results of normal people and color blindness can be captured simultaneously. Based on the imaging results, it is possible to be used for helping color-blindness to recover normal vision.

  8. Watershed image segmentation and cloud classification from multispectral MSG-SEVIRI imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González, Albano; Pérez, Juan C.; Muñoz, Jonathan; Méndez, Zebensui; Armas, Montserrat

    2012-01-01

    In this work a technique for cloud detection and classification from MSG-SEVIRI (Meteosat Second Generation-Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infra-red Imager) imagery is presented. It is based on the segmentation of the multispectral images using order-invariant watershed algorithms, which are applied to the corresponding gradient images, computed by a multi-dimensional morphological operator. To reduce the over-segmentation produced by the watershed method, a RAG (Region Adjacency Graph) based region merging technique is applied, using region dissimilarity functions. Once the objects present in the image have been segmented, they are classified using a multi-threshold method based on physical considerations that takes into account the statistical parameters inside each region.

  9. Analysis of the multi-spectral inhomogeneous metasurfaces consisting of different arrays of components.

    PubMed

    Danaeifar, Mohammad; Granpayeh, Nosrat

    2015-12-01

    The analytical method to study the multi-spectral inhomogeneous metasurfaces with various components is presented. Because of symmetrical distribution of different components, we can find the effective polarizability of the inhomogeneous metasurfaces. This polarizability provides equivalent conductivity of each metasurface with two and three different nanodisk arrays. Full-wave simulations confirm the analysis of inhomogeneous metasurfaces. In a metasurface, symmetrical distribution of components with a unique periodicity is limited to three types in a hexagonal combination. Then we extend the proposed approach to partly symmetric inhomogeneous metasurfaces in subwavelength scale for four different nanodisks. Also, monolayer and multi-layer absorbers consisting of inhomogeneous metasurfaces with graphene nanodisks are designed as the examples of wideband applications of this method in infrared regime. PMID:26625077

  10. Comparison of multispectral remote-sensing techniques for monitoring subsurface drain conditions. [Imperial Valley, California

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goettelman, R. C.; Grass, L. B.; Millard, J. P.; Nixon, P. R.

    1983-01-01

    The following multispectral remote-sensing techniques were compared to determine the most suitable method for routinely monitoring agricultural subsurface drain conditions: airborne scanning, covering the visible through thermal-infrared (IR) portions of the spectrum; color-IR photography; and natural-color photography. Color-IR photography was determined to be the best approach, from the standpoint of both cost and information content. Aerial monitoring of drain conditions for early warning of tile malfunction appears practical. With careful selection of season and rain-induced soil-moisture conditions, extensive regional surveys are possible. Certain locations, such as the Imperial Valley, Calif., are precluded from regional monitoring because of year-round crop rotations and soil stratification conditions. Here, farms with similar crops could time local coverage for bare-field and saturated-soil conditions.

  11. Depth-Resolved Multispectral Sub-Surface Imaging Using Multifunctional Upconversion Phosphors with Paramagnetic Properties.

    PubMed

    Ovanesyan, Zaven; Mimun, L Christopher; Kumar, Gangadharan Ajith; Yust, Brian G; Dannangoda, Chamath; Martirosyan, Karen S; Sardar, Dhiraj K

    2015-09-30

    Molecular imaging is very promising technique used for surgical guidance, which requires advancements related to properties of imaging agents and subsequent data retrieval methods from measured multispectral images. In this article, an upconversion material is introduced for subsurface near-infrared imaging and for the depth recovery of the material embedded below the biological tissue. The results confirm significant correlation between the analytical depth estimate of the material under the tissue and the measured ratio of emitted light from the material at two different wavelengths. Experiments with biological tissue samples demonstrate depth resolved imaging using the rare earth doped multifunctional phosphors. In vitro tests reveal no significant toxicity, whereas the magnetic measurements of the phosphors show that the particles are suitable as magnetic resonance imaging agents. The confocal imaging of fibroblast cells with these phosphors reveals their potential for in vivo imaging. The depth-resolved imaging technique with such phosphors has broad implications for real-time intraoperative surgical guidance. PMID:26322519

  12. Two-inch Return Beam Vidicon (RBV) multispectral three camera subsystem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weinstein, O.

    1973-01-01

    A return beam vidicon multispectral three camera subsystem was developed and built as one of the two principal sensor payloads for the ERTS-A and -B missions. The performance of the cameras on ERTS-1 has been excellent, meeting or exceeding all expectations, especially in the area of geometric fidelity and stability. The three cameras are coaligned in the spacecraft to view the same square ground scene but in different spectral bands. When the separate images are processed and superimposed in their respective colors, they provide a single false color image containing the radiometric and cartographic information required for the ERTS system. The three spectral regions covered by the RBV subsystem are the blue-green red, and the near infrared. The three cameras are exposed simultaneously to facilitate registration of the three separate images into the final color composite.

  13. Theoretical analysis of multispectral image segmentation criteria.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, I B; Bresler, Y

    1999-01-01

    Markov random field (MRF) image segmentation algorithms have been extensively studied, and have gained wide acceptance. However, almost all of the work on them has been experimental. This provides a good understanding of the performance of existing algorithms, but not a unified explanation of the significance of each component. To address this issue, we present a theoretical analysis of several MRF image segmentation criteria. Standard methods of signal detection and estimation are used in the theoretical analysis, which quantitatively predicts the performance at realistic noise levels. The analysis is decoupled into the problems of false alarm rate, parameter selection (Neyman-Pearson and receiver operating characteristics), detection threshold, expected a priori boundary roughness, and supervision. Only the performance inherent to a criterion, with perfect global optimization, is considered. The analysis indicates that boundary and region penalties are very useful, while distinct-mean penalties are of questionable merit. Region penalties are far more important for multispectral segmentation than for greyscale. This observation also holds for Gauss-Markov random fields, and for many separable within-class PDFs. To validate the analysis, we present optimization algorithms for several criteria. Theoretical and experimental results agree fairly well. PMID:18267494

  14. Multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A multispectral glancing incidence X-ray telescope is illustrated capable of broadband, high-resolution imaging of solar and stellar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet radiation sources which includes a primary optical system preferably of the Wolter I type having a primary mirror system (20, 22). The primary optical system further includes an optical axis (24) having a primary focus (F1) at which the incoming radiation is focused by the primary mirrors. A plurality of ellipsoidal mirrors (30a, 30b, 30cand 30d) are carried at an inclination to the optical axis behind the primary focus (F1). A rotating carrier (32) is provided on which the ellipsoidal mirrors are carried so that a desired one of the ellipsoidal mirrors may be selectively positioned in front of the incoming radiation beam (26). In the preferred embodiment, each of the ellipsoidal mirrors has an identical concave surface carrying a layered synthetic microstructure coating tailored to reflect a desired wavelength of 1.5 .ANG. or longer. Each of the identical ellipsoidal mirrors has a second focus (F2) at which a detector (16) is carried. Thus the different wavelength image is focused upon the detector irregardless of which mirror is positioned in front of the radiation beam. In this manner, a plurality of low wavelengths in a wavelength band generally less than 30 angstroms can be imaged with a high resolution.

  15. Cell metabolism, tumour diagnosis and multispectral FLIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rück, A.; Hauser, C.; Lorenz, S.; Mosch, S.; Rotte, S.; Kessler, M.; Kalinina, S.

    2013-02-01

    Fluorescence guided diagnosis of tumour tissue is in many cases insufficient, because false positive results are interfering with the outcome. Discrimination between tumour and inflammation could be therefore difficult. Improvement of fluorescence diagnosis through observation of cell metabolism could be the solution, which needs a detailed understanding of the origin of autofluorescence. However, a complex combination of fluorophores give rise to the emission signal. Also in PDD (photodynamic diagnosis) different photosensitizer metabolites contribute to the fluorescence signal. Therefore, the fluorescence decay in many cases does not show a simple monoexponential profile. In those cases a considerable improvement could be achieved when time-resolved and spectral-resolved techniques are simultaneously incorporated. The discussion will focus on the detection of NADH, FAD and 5-ALA induced porphyrins. With respect to NADH and FAD the discrimination between protein bound and free coenzyme was investigated with multispectral FLIM in normal oral keratinocytes and squamous carcinoma cells from different origin. The redox ratio, which can be correlated with the fluorescence lifetimes of NADH and FAD changed depending on the state of the cells. Most of the investigations were done in monolayer cell cultures. However, in order to get information from a more realistic in vivo situation additionally the chorioallantoismembrane (CAM) of fertilized eggs was used where tumour cells or biopsies were allowed to grow. The results of theses measurements will be discussed as well.

  16. Multispectral Stokes polarimetry for dermatoscopic imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillejos, Y.; Martínez-Ponce, Geminiano; Mora-Nuñez, Azael; Castro-Sanchez, R.

    2015-12-01

    Most of skin pathologies, including melanoma and basal/squamous cell carcinoma, are related to alterations in external and internal order. Usually, physicians rely on their empirical expertise to diagnose these ills normally assisted with dermatoscopes. When there exists skin cancer suspicion, a cytology or biopsy is made, but both laboratory tests imply an invasive procedure. In this regard, a number of non-invasive optical techniques have been proposed recently to improve the diagnostic certainty and assist in the early detection of cutaneous cancer. Herein, skin optical properties are derived with a multispectral polarimetric dermatoscope using three different illumination wavelength intervals centered at 470, 530 and 635nm. The optical device consist of two polarizing elements, a quarter-wave plate and a linear polarizer, rotating at a different angular velocity and a CCD array as the photoreceiver. The modulated signal provided by a single pixel in the acquired image sequence is analyzed with the aim of computing the Stokes parameters. Changes in polarization state of selected wavelengths provide information about the presence of skin pigments such as melanin and hemoglobin species as well as collagen structure, among other components. These skin attributes determine the local physiology or pathology. From the results, it is concluded that optical polarimetry will provide additional elements to dermatologists in their diagnostic task.

  17. Multispectral inspection station detects defects on apples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throop, James A.; Aneshansley, Daniel J.; Anger, Bill

    2000-12-01

    The performance of a multi-spectral apple inspection station capable of orienting some cultivars, conveying, and presenting apples to a camera at five apples per second is described. Apples are pre-sized and hand placed on the conveying devices to rotate about an axis passing through both the stem and calyx of each apple. An image of each apple is captured at four different wavelengths through a common aperture. Special optics and filters allow simultaneous image capture of apple reflectance for wavelength bands of 540 nm, 650 nm, 750 nm, and 950 nm, each with a bandwidth of approximately 60 nm. As each apple is conveyed laterally and rotated through the camera's field of view, 6 regions of interest representing most of the apple's surface at each wavelength band are captured. The images are processed to segment each defect from the surrounding undamaged tissue and the area of each defect is recorded. Typical defects such as new bruises, bruises on stored apples, scab, sooty blotch, corking, rot, russet, and insect damage are detected. Data is shown quantifying the ability of the inspection station to sort damaged apples into appropriate grades for correct pricing in the processing industry.

  18. CCD image acquisition for multispectral teledetection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peralta-Fabi, R.; Peralta, A.; Prado, Jorge M.; Vicente, Esau; Navarette, M.

    1992-08-01

    A low cost high-reliability multispectral video system has been developed for airborne remote sensing. Three low weight CCD cameras are mounted together with a photographic camera in a keviar composite self-contained structure. The CCD cameras are remotely controlled have spectral filters (80 nm at 50 T) placed in front of their optical system and all cameras are aligned to capture the same image field. Filters may be changed so as to adjust spectral bands according to the object s reflectance properties but a set of bands common to most remote sensing aircraft and satellites are usually placed covering visible and near JR. This paper presents results obtained with this system and some comparisons as to the cost resolution and atmospheric correction advantages with respect to other more costly devices. Also a brief description of the Remotely Piloted Vehicle (RPV) project where the camera system will be mounted is given. The images so obtained replace the costlier ones obtained by satellites in severai specific applications. Other applications under development include fire monitoring identification of vegetation in the field and in the laboratory discrimination of objects by color for industrial applications and for geological and engineering surveys. 1.

  19. Airborne system for multispectral, multiangle polarimetric imaging.

    PubMed

    Bowles, Jeffrey H; Korwan, Daniel R; Montes, Marcos J; Gray, Deric J; Gillis, David B; Lamela, Gia M; Miller, W David

    2015-11-01

    In this paper, we describe the design, fabrication, calibration, and deployment of an airborne multispectral polarimetric imager. The motivation for the development of this instrument was to explore its ability to provide information about water constituents, such as particle size and type. The instrument is based on four 16 MP cameras and uses wire grid polarizers (aligned at 0°, 45°, 90°, and 135°) to provide the separation of the polarization states. A five-position filter wheel provides for four narrow-band spectral filters (435, 550, 625, and 750 nm) and one blocked position for dark-level measurements. When flown, the instrument is mounted on a programmable stage that provides control of the view angles. View angles that range to ±65° from the nadir have been used. Data processing provides a measure of the polarimetric signature as a function of both the view zenith and view azimuth angles. As a validation of our initial results, we compare our measurements, over water, with the output of a Monte Carlo code, both of which show neutral points off the principle plane. The locations of the calculated and measured neutral points are compared. The random error level in the measured degree of linear polarization (8% at 435) is shown to be better than 0.25%. PMID:26560615

  20. Study of a hybrid multispectral processor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marshall, R. E.; Kriegler, F. J.

    1973-01-01

    A hybrid processor is described offering enough handling capacity and speed to process efficiently the large quantities of multispectral data that can be gathered by scanner systems such as MSDS, SKYLAB, ERTS, and ERIM M-7. Combinations of general-purpose and special-purpose hybrid computers were examined to include both analog and digital types as well as all-digital configurations. The current trend toward lower costs for medium-scale digital circuitry suggests that the all-digital approach may offer the better solution within the time frame of the next few years. The study recommends and defines such a hybrid digital computing system in which both special-purpose and general-purpose digital computers would be employed. The tasks of recognizing surface objects would be performed in a parallel, pipeline digital system while the tasks of control and monitoring would be handled by a medium-scale minicomputer system. A program to design and construct a small, prototype, all-digital system has been started.

  1. Improved global high resolution precipitation estimation using multi-satellite multi-spectral information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Behrangi, Ali

    In respond to the community demands, combining microwave (MW) and infrared (IR) estimates of precipitation has been an active area of research since past two decades. The anticipated launching of NASA's Global Precipitation Measurement (GPM) mission and the increasing number of spectral bands in recently launched geostationary platforms will provide greater opportunities for investigating new approaches to combine multi-source information towards improved global high resolution precipitation retrievals. After years of the communities' efforts the limitations of the existing techniques are: (1) Drawbacks of IR-only techniques to capture warm rainfall and screen out no-rain thin cirrus clouds; (2) Grid-box- only dependency of many algorithms with not much effort to capture the cloud textures whether in local or cloud patch scale; (3) Assumption of indirect relationship between rain rate and cloud-top temperature that force high intensity precipitation to any cold cloud; (4) Neglecting the dynamics and evolution of cloud in time; (5) Inconsistent combination of MW and IR-based precipitation estimations due to the combination strategies and as a result of above described shortcomings. This PhD dissertation attempts to improve the combination of data from Geostationary Earth Orbit (GEO) and Low-Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites in manners that will allow consistent high resolution integration of the more accurate precipitation estimates, directly observed through LEO's PMW sensors, into the short-term cloud evolution process, which can be inferred from GEO images. A set of novel approaches are introduced to cope with the listed limitations and is consist of the following four consecutive components: (1) starting with the GEO part and by using an artificial-neural network based method it is demonstrated that inclusion of multi-spectral data can ameliorate existing problems associated with IR-only precipitating retrievals; (2) through development of Precipitation Estimation

  2. Multispectral signature analysis measurements of selected sniper rifles and small arms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, David B.; Carapezza, Edward M.; Csanadi, Christina J.; Edwards, Gerald D.; Hintz, Todd M.; Tong, Ronald M.

    1997-02-01

    During October 1995 - June 1996, the Naval Command, Control and Ocean Surveillance Center RDT&E Division (NRaD), under sponsorship from Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), conducted an intensive series of multi-spectral signature analyses of typical sniper weapons. Multi-spectral signatures of the muzzle flashes from rifles and pistols and some imagery of the bullets in flight were collected. Multi- spectral signatures of the muzzle flash were collected in the infrared (2.5 - 14.5 microns), visible -- near-IR (400 - 1200 nanometers), and the ultra-violet (185 - 400 nanometers) wavelength regions. These measurements consisted of high spectral resolution (0.0159 micron) measurements of the spectral radiance of the muzzle flash. A time history plot of the muzzle flash as it evolves just forward of the end of the muzzle is provided. These measurements were performed with a CI Systems Model SR5000 IR/Visible spectroradiometer and an Ocean Optics Model PC1000 UV spectroradiometer. Muzzle flash infrared imagery is provided to show the effect that specific muzzle breaks have on the resulting muzzle flash. The following set of sniper weapons were included in this test: AK-47, SKS, M16A2, M-14, FN-FAL, SMLE IIa, 03 Springfield, SVD Dragunov, 50 caliber McMillan, and a 45 caliber ACP pistol. The results of this signature analysis show that important measurable electro-optical differences do exist between all these weapons in terms of spectral radiance of the flash, spectral content of the gun powders, and spectral shapes/geometries of the muzzle flashes. These differences were sufficient such that, after a more complete data base is collected, it will be possible to develop a passive electro-optical weapon and ammunition identifier.

  3. Relation of agronomic and multispectral reflectance characteristics of spring wheat canopies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, M. E. (Principal Investigator); Ahlrichs, J. S.

    1982-01-01

    The relationships between crop canopy variables such as leaf area index (LAI) and their multispectral reflectance properties were investigated along with the potential for estimating canopy variables from remotely sensed reflectance measurements. Reflectance spectra over the 0.4 to 2.5 micron wavelength range were acquired during each of the major development stages of spring wheat canopies at Williston, North Dakota, during three seasons. Treatments included planting date, N fertilization, cultivar, and soil moisture. Agronomic measurements included development stage, biomass, LAI, and percent soil cover. High correlations were found between reflectance and percent cover, LAI, and biomass. A near infrared wavelength band, 0.76 to 0.90 microns, was most important in explaining variation in LAI and percent cover, while a middle infrared band, 2.08 to 2.35 microns, explained the most variation in biomass and plant water content. Transformations, including the near infrared/red reflectance ratio and greenness index, were also highly correlated to canopy variables. The relationship of canopy variables to reflectance decreased as the crop began to ripen. the canopy variables could be accurately predicted using measurements from three to five wavelength bands. The wavelength bands proposed for the thematic mapper sensor were more strongly related to the canopy variables than the LANDSAT MSS bands.

  4. Coastal and estuarine habitat mapping, using LIDAR height and intensity and multi-spectral imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chust, Guillem; Galparsoro, Ibon; Borja, Ángel; Franco, Javier; Uriarte, Adolfo

    2008-07-01

    The airborne laser scanning LIDAR (LIght Detection And Ranging) provides high-resolution Digital Terrain Models (DTM) that have been applied recently to the characterization, quantification and monitoring of coastal environments. This study assesses the contribution of LIDAR altimetry and intensity data, topographically-derived features (slope and aspect), and multi-spectral imagery (three visible and a near-infrared band), to map coastal habitats in the Bidasoa estuary and its adjacent coastal area (Basque Country, northern Spain). The performance of high-resolution data sources was individually and jointly tested, with the maximum likelihood algorithm classifier in a rocky shore and a wetland zone; thus, including some of the most extended Cantabrian Sea littoral habitats, within the Bay of Biscay. The results show that reliability of coastal habitat classification was more enhanced with LIDAR-based DTM, compared with the other data sources: slope, aspect, intensity or near-infrared band. The addition of the DTM, to the three visible bands, produced gains of between 10% and 27% in the agreement measures, between the mapped and validation data (i.e. mean producer's and user's accuracy) for the two test sites. Raw LIDAR intensity images are only of limited value here, since they appeared heterogeneous and speckled. However, the enhanced Lee smoothing filter, applied to the LIDAR intensity, improved the overall accuracy measurements of the habitat classification, especially in the wetland zone; here, there were gains up to 7.9% in mean producer's and 11.6% in mean user's accuracy. This suggests that LIDAR can be useful for habitat mapping, when few data sources are available. The synergy between the LIDAR data, with multi-spectral bands, produced high accurate classifications (mean producer's accuracy: 92% for the 16 rocky habitats and 88% for the 11 wetland habitats). Fusion of the data enabled discrimination of intertidal communities, such as Corallina elongata

  5. Lossless, Multi-Spectral Data Compressor for Improved Compression for Pushbroom-Type Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimesh, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    A low-complexity lossless algorithm for compression of multispectral data has been developed that takes into account pushbroom-type multispectral imagers properties in order to make the file compression more effective.

  6. The Multispectral Imaging Science Working Group. Volume 2: Working group reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, S. C. (Editor)

    1982-01-01

    Summaries of the various multispectral imaging science working groups are presented. Current knowledge of the spectral and spatial characteristics of the Earth's surface is outlined and the present and future capabilities of multispectral imaging systems are discussed.

  7. Personal Authentication Using Multifeatures Multispectral Palm Print Traits

    PubMed Central

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Manoharan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authentication is an effective method for automatically recognizing a person's identity with high confidence. Multispectral palm print biometric system is relatively new biometric technology and is in the progression of being endlessly refined and developed. Multispectral palm print biometric system is a promising biometric technology for use in various applications including banking solutions, access control, hospital, construction, and forensic applications. This paper proposes a multispectral palm print recognition method with extraction of multiple features using kernel principal component analysis and modified finite radon transform. Finally, the images are classified using Local Mean K-Nearest Centroid Neighbor algorithm. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, potential deformations and translational changes by encoding the orientation conserving features. The proposed system analyses the hand vascular authentication using two databases acquired with touch-based and contactless imaging setup collected from multispectral Poly U palm print database and CASIA database. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed multispectral palm print authentication obtained better result compared to other methods discussed in the literature. PMID:26221628

  8. Low SWaP multispectral sensors using dichroic filter arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dougherty, John; Varghese, Ron

    2015-06-01

    The benefits of multispectral imaging are well established in a variety of applications including remote sensing, authentication, satellite and aerial surveillance, machine vision, biomedical, and other scientific and industrial uses. However, many of the potential solutions require more compact, robust, and cost-effective cameras to realize these benefits. The next generation of multispectral sensors and cameras needs to deliver improvements in size, weight, power, portability, and spectral band customization to support widespread deployment for a variety of purpose-built aerial, unmanned, and scientific applications. A novel implementation uses micro-patterning of dichroic filters1 into Bayer and custom mosaics, enabling true real-time multispectral imaging with simultaneous multi-band image acquisition. Consistent with color image processing, individual spectral channels are de-mosaiced with each channel providing an image of the field of view. This approach can be implemented across a variety of wavelength ranges and on a variety of detector types including linear, area, silicon, and InGaAs. This dichroic filter array approach can also reduce payloads and increase range for unmanned systems, with the capability to support both handheld and autonomous systems. Recent examples and results of 4 band RGB + NIR dichroic filter arrays in multispectral cameras are discussed. Benefits and tradeoffs of multispectral sensors using dichroic filter arrays are compared with alternative approaches - including their passivity, spectral range, customization options, and scalable production.

  9. Color enhancement in multispectral image of human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitsui, Masanori; Murakami, Yuri; Obi, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Ohyama, Nagaaki

    2003-07-01

    Multispectral imaging is receiving attention in medical color imaging, as high-fidelity color information can be acquired by the multispectral image capturing. On the other hand, as color enhancement in medical color image is effective for distinguishing lesion from normal part, we apply a new technique for color enhancement using multispectral image to enhance the features contained in a certain spectral band, without changing the average color distribution of original image. In this method, to keep the average color distribution, KL transform is applied to spectral data, and only high-order KL coefficients are amplified in the enhancement. Multispectral images of human skin of bruised arm are captured by 16-band multispectral camera, and the proposed color enhancement is applied. The resultant images are compared with the color images reproduced assuming CIE D65 illuminant (obtained by natural color reproduction technique). As a result, the proposed technique successfully visualizes unclear bruised lesions, which are almost invisible in natural color images. The proposed technique will provide support tool for the diagnosis in dermatology, visual examination in internal medicine, nursing care for preventing bedsore, and so on.

  10. Nondestructive prediction of pork freshness parameters using multispectral scattering images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Xiuying; Li, Cuiling; Peng, Yankun; Chao, Kuanglin; Wang, Mingwu

    2012-05-01

    Optical technology is an important and immerging technology for non-destructive and rapid detection of pork freshness. This paper studied on the possibility of using multispectral imaging technique and scattering characteristics to predict the freshness parameters of pork meat. The pork freshness parameters selected for prediction included total volatile basic nitrogen (TVB-N), color parameters (L *, a *, b *), and pH value. Multispectral scattering images were obtained from pork sample surface by a multispectral imaging system developed by ourselves; they were acquired at the selected narrow wavebands whose center wavelengths were 517,550, 560, 580, 600, 760, 810 and 910nm. In order to extract scattering characteristics from multispectral images at multiple wavelengths, a Lorentzian distribution (LD) function with four parameters (a: scattering asymptotic value; b: scattering peak; c: scattering width; d: scattering slope) was used to fit the scattering curves at the selected wavelengths. The results show that the multispectral imaging technique combined with scattering characteristics is promising for predicting the freshness parameters of pork meat.

  11. Personal Authentication Using Multifeatures Multispectral Palm Print Traits.

    PubMed

    Rajagopal, Gayathri; Manoharan, Senthil Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Biometrics authentication is an effective method for automatically recognizing a person's identity with high confidence. Multispectral palm print biometric system is relatively new biometric technology and is in the progression of being endlessly refined and developed. Multispectral palm print biometric system is a promising biometric technology for use in various applications including banking solutions, access control, hospital, construction, and forensic applications. This paper proposes a multispectral palm print recognition method with extraction of multiple features using kernel principal component analysis and modified finite radon transform. Finally, the images are classified using Local Mean K-Nearest Centroid Neighbor algorithm. The proposed method efficiently accommodates the rotational, potential deformations and translational changes by encoding the orientation conserving features. The proposed system analyses the hand vascular authentication using two databases acquired with touch-based and contactless imaging setup collected from multispectral Poly U palm print database and CASIA database. The experimental results clearly demonstrate that the proposed multispectral palm print authentication obtained better result compared to other methods discussed in the literature. PMID:26221628

  12. Multispectral confocal microendoscope for in vivo and in situ imaging

    PubMed Central

    Makhlouf, Houssine; Gmitro, Arthur F.; Tanbakuchi, Anthony A.; Udovich, Josh A.; Rouse, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the design and operation of a multispectral confocal microendoscope. This fiber-based fluorescence imaging system consists of a slit-scan confocal microscope coupled to an imaging catheter that is designed to be minimally invasive and allow for cellular level imaging in vivo. The system can operate in two imaging modes. The grayscale mode of operation provides high resolution real-time in vivo images showing the intensity of fluorescent signal from the specimen. The multispectral mode of operation uses a prism as a dispersive element to collect a full multispectral image of the fluorescence emission. The instrument can switch back and forth nearly instantaneously between the two imaging modes (less than half a second). In the current configuration, the multispectral confocal microendoscope achieves 3-μm lateral resolution and 30-μm axial resolution. The system records light from 500 to 750 nm, and the minimum resolvable wavelength difference varies from 2.9 to 8.3 nm over this spectral range. Grayscale and multispectral imaging results from ex-vivo human tissues and small animal tissues are presented. PMID:19021344

  13. Current Usage and Future Prospects of Multispectral (RGB) Satellite Imagery in Support of NWS Forecast Offices and National Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molthan, Andrew L.; Fuell, Kevin K.; Knaff, John; Lee, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Current and future satellite sensors provide remotely sensed quantities from a variety of wavelengths ranging from the visible to the passive microwave, from both geostationary and low-Earth orbits. The NASA Short-term Prediction Research and Transition (SPoRT) Center has a long history of providing multispectral imagery from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites in support of NWS forecast office activities. Products from MODIS have recently been extended to include a broader suite of multispectral imagery similar to those developed by EUMETSAT, based upon the spectral channel s available from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and InfraRed Imager (SEVIRI) aboard METEOSAT-9. This broader suite includes products that discriminate between air mass types associated with synoptic-scale features, assists in the identification of dust, and improves upon paired channel difference detection of fog and low cloud events. Similarly, researchers at NOAA/NESDIS and CIRA have developed air mass discrimination capabilities using channels available from the current GOES Sounders. Other applications of multispectral composites include combinations of high and low frequency, horizontal and vertically polarized passive microwave brightness temperatures to discriminate tropical cyclone structures and other synoptic-scale features. Many of these capabilities have been transitioned for evaluation and operational use at NWS Weather Forecast Offices and National Centers through collaborations with SPoRT and CIRA. Future instruments will continue the availability of these products and also expand upon current capabilities. The Advanced Baseline Imager (ABI) on GOES-R will improve the spectral, spatial, and temporal resolution of our current geostationary capabilities, and the recent launch of the Suomi National Polar-Orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) carries instruments such as the Visible Infrared Imager Radiometer Suite (VIIRS), the Cross

  14. Infrared thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Roberts, C.C. Jr.

    1982-12-01

    Infrared thermography is a useful tool for the diagnosis of problems in building systems. In instances where a building owner has several large buildings, an investment in a typical $30,000 infrared system may be cost effective. In most instances, however, the rental of an infrared system or the hiring of an infrared consulting service is a cost effective alternative. As can be seen from the several applications presented here, any mechanical problem manifesting itself in an atypical temperature pattern can usually be detected. The two primary savings generated from infrared analysis of building systems are maintenance and energy.

  15. Galileo infrared imaging spectroscopy measurements at venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carlson, R.W.; Baines, K.H.; Encrenaz, Th.; Taylor, F.W.; Drossart, P.; Kamp, L.W.; Pollack, James B.; Lellouch, E.; Collard, A.D.; Calcutt, S.B.; Grinspoon, D.; Weissman, P.R.; Smythe, W.D.; Ocampo, A.C.; Danielson, G.E.; Fanale, F.P.; Johnson, T.V.; Kieffer, H.H.; Matson, D.L.; McCord, T.B.; Soderblom, L.A.

    1991-01-01

    During the 1990 Galileo Venus flyby, the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer investigated the night-side atmosphere of Venus in the spectral range 0.7 to 5.2 micrometers. Multispectral images at high spatial resolution indicate substantial cloud opacity variations in the lower cloud levels, centered at 50 kilometers altitude. Zonal and meridional winds were derived for this level and are consistent with motion of the upper branch of a Hadley cell. Northern and southern hemisphere clouds appear to be markedly different. Spectral profiles were used to derive lower atmosphere abundances of water vapor and other species.

  16. Multispectral light metering system for cultural heritage diagnosis and conservation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miccoli, Matteo; Melis, Marcello

    2013-05-01

    In the world of Cultural Heritage the first concern is all about Conservation of the works of art. A piece of art in bad shape is meant to deteriorate to an irreversible stage. To avoid this, quite often it's needed to go through one or more cycles of restoration to clean and consolidate the various elements of the piece. The very second concern, once the work of art is restored and in good and stable shape, is its fruition. At the end of the day why one should do all that restoration work if nobody then can access and view? Yet viewing and enjoying an artwork means that a visitor would be able to see it at its best, and this means, almost always, to have a good lighting system. Today, both restoration and fruition can greatly benefit of all the available technologies, and achieve very high level quality. The goal of this paper is the development of an exposimetric system suitable to be extremely useful as a tool for the the non invasive analysis, as well as for the lighting design and lighting systems monitoring. Many diagnosis techniques that are used before the restoration stage, require a suitable lighting system to allow to extract from the painting the maximum amount of information through the acquisition of images in the range of visible as well as UV and IR light. A standard exposimeter is for its own nature, sensitive only to the visible light, constrained by the standard photometric sensitivity curve V(lambda). A wide band exposimeter would be, on the other hand, an invaluable tool to get higher precision and to speed up multispectral wide band images acquisition, avoiding time wasting fail and try cycles to record the subject under wide spectrum conditions. The same equipment can be used to monitor the quality of the light in a expo lighting system at, for example, a museum or a gallery. The light hitting a piece of art has to allow the visitor to see and appreciate all the color shades, and to appreciate the contrast of dark and bright areas due only to

  17. Characteristics of the Landsat Multispectral Data System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taranik, James V.

    1978-01-01

    Landsat satellites were launched into orbit in 1972 and 1975. Additional Landsat satellites are planned for launch in 1978 and 1981. The satellites orbit the Earth at an altitude of approximately 900 km and each can obtain repetitive coverage of cloud-free areas every 18 days. A sun-synchronous orbit is used to insure repeatable illumination conditions. Repetitive satellite coverage allows optimal cover conditions for geologic applications to be identified. Seasonal variations in solar illumination must be analyzed to select the best Landsat data for geologic applications. Landsat data may be viewed in stereo where there is sufficient sidelap and sufficient topographic relief. Landsat-1 ceased operation on January 10, 1978. Landsat-2 detects, only solar radiation that is reflected from the Earth's surface in visible and near-visible wavelengths. The third Landsat will also detect emitted thermal radiation. The multispectral scanner (MSS) was the only sensing instrument used on the first two satellites. The MSS on Landsats-1 and -2 detect radiation which is reflected from a 79 m by 79 m area, and the data are formatted as if the measurement was made from a 56 m by 79 m area. The MSS integrates spectral response from all cover types within the 79 m by 79 m area. The integrated spectral signature often does not resemble the spectral signature from individual cover types, and the integrated signature is also modified by the atmosphere. Landsat-1 and -2 data are converted to 70 mm film and computer compatible tapes (CCT's) at Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC); these are shipped to the EROS Data Center (EDC) for duplication and distribution to users. Landsat-C data will be converted to 241 mm-wide film and CCT's at EDC. Landsat-D data will be relayed from the satellite directly to geosynchronous satellites and then to the United States from any location on Earth.

  18. Development of a Multispectral Imaging Prototype for Real-Time Detection of Apple Fruit Firmness

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral scattering is a promising nondestructive technique for assessing the firmness of fruit. This paper reports on the development of a laser-based multispectral imaging prototype for real-time detection of apple fruit firmness. The prototype consisted of a common aperture multispectral ima...

  19. An Approach to Application Validation of Multispectral Sensors Using AVIRIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warner, Amanda; Blonski, Slawomir; Gasser, Gerald; Ryan, Robert; Zanoni, Vicki

    2001-01-01

    High-resolution multispectral data are becoming widely available for commercial and scientific use. For specific applications, such as agriculture studies, there is a need to quantify the performance of such systems. In many cases, parameters such as GSD and SNR can be optimized. Data sets with varying GSD's for the Landsat ETM+ bands were produced to evaluate the effects of GSD on various algorithms and transformations, such as NDVI, principal component analysis, unsupervised classification, and mixture analysis. By showing that AVIRIS data can be used to simulate spaceborne and airborne multispectral platforms over a wide range of GSD, this research can be used to assist in band selection and spatial resolution specifications for new sensors and in optimization of acquisition strategies for existing multispectral systems.

  20. Intravascular multispectral optoacoustic tomography of atherosclerosis: prospects and challenges

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Amir; Jaffer, Farouc A; Ntziachristos, Vasilis

    2012-01-01

    The progression of atherosclerosis involves complex changes in the structure, composition and biology of the artery wall. Currently, only anatomical plaque burden is routinely characterized in living patients, whereas compositional and biological changes are mostly inaccessible. However, anatomical imaging alone has proven to be insufficient for accurate diagnostics of the disease. Multispectral optoacoustic tomography offers complementary data to anatomical methods and is capable of imaging both tissue composition and, via the use of molecular markers, the biological activity therein. In this paper we review recent progress in multispectral optoacoustic tomography imaging of atherosclerosis with specific emphasis on intravascular applications. The potential capabilities of multispectral optoacoustic tomography are compared with those of established intravascular imaging techniques and current challenges on the road towards a clinically viable imaging modality are discussed. PMID:23144663

  1. Predicting beef tenderness using color and multispectral image texture features.

    PubMed

    Sun, X; Chen, K J; Maddock-Carlin, K R; Anderson, V L; Lepper, A N; Schwartz, C A; Keller, W L; Ilse, B R; Magolski, J D; Berg, E P

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the usefulness of raw meat surface characteristics (texture) in predicting cooked beef tenderness. Color and multispectral texture features, including 4 different wavelengths and 217 image texture features, were extracted from 2 laboratory-based multispectral camera imaging systems. Steaks were segregated into tough and tender classification groups based on Warner-Bratzler shear force. The texture features were submitted to STEPWISE multiple regression and support vector machine (SVM) analyses to establish prediction models for beef tenderness. A subsample (80%) of tender or tough classified steaks were used to train models which were then validated on the remaining (20%) test steaks. For color images, the SVM model correctly identified tender steaks with 100% accurately while the STEPWISE equation identified 94.9% of the tender steaks correctly. For multispectral images, the SVM model predicted 91% and STEPWISE predicted 87% average accuracy of beef tender. PMID:22647652

  2. Robustly building keypoint mappings with global information on multispectral images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yong; Jin, Hongbin; Qiao, Wei; Jing, Jing; Yu, Hang

    2015-12-01

    This paper proposes an approach to robustly build keypoint mappings on multispectral images. The distinctiveness and repeatability of descriptors often decrease significantly on multispectral images and thus give unreliable keypoint mappings. To complement this decrease, global information over entire images is induced in this work to evaluate keypoint mappings. Initial keypoint mappings are established by utilizing descriptors. A pair of keypoint mappings determines a similarity transformation T, and then it is evaluated with the induced global information that is defined to be the similarity metric between the reference image and the transformed image by T. A process is utilized that iteratively considers the pairs of keypoint mappings and searches the best reference matched keypoint for every test keypoint. Experimental results show that the proposed approach can provide more reliable keypoint mappings than SIFT, ORB, FREAK, and ISS on multispectral images.

  3. Characteristic variogram for land use in Multispectral Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mera, E.; Condal, A.; Rios, C.; Da Silva, L.

    2016-05-01

    In remote sensing is the concept of spectral signature in multispectral imagery to recognize different land uses in the area; This study proposes the existence of a characteristic variogram for land use in multispectral images. To test this idea we proceeded to work with a sector of a scene image of multispectral Landsat 7 ETM +, in 6 of their bands (1- 450nm to 520nm, 2 - 520nm to 600nm, 3 - 630nm to 690nm, 4 - 760nm to 900nm 5 - over 1550nm to 1.750nm and 7 - 2.080nm to 2.350nm), corresponding to two uses of urban land and agricultural, the omnidirectional variogram for each band was analyzed and modal variogram for each land use was established in the stripe set. Of the analyzed claims data for each land use is a model characteristic and modal cross variogram how their wavelengths.

  4. Filter selection based on light source for multispectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Peng; Xu, Haisong

    2016-07-01

    In multispectral imaging, it is necessary to select a reduced number of filters to balance the imaging efficiency and spectral reflectance recovery accuracy. Due to the combined effect of filters and light source on reflectance recovery, the optimal filters are influenced by the employed light source in the multispectral imaging system. By casting the filter selection as an optimization issue, the selection of optimal filters corresponding to the employed light source proceeds with respect to a set of target samples utilizing one kind of genetic algorithms, regardless of the detailed spectral characteristics of the light source, filters, and sensor. Under three light sources with distinct spectral power distributions, the proposed filter selection method was evaluated on a filter-wheel based multispectral device with a set of interference filters. It was verified that the filters derived by the proposed method achieve better spectral and colorimetric accuracy of reflectance recovery than the conventional one under different light sources.

  5. Compact multispectral photodiode arrays using micropatterned dichroic filters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandler, Eric V.; Fish, David E.

    2014-05-01

    The next generation of multispectral instruments requires significant improvements in both spectral band customization and portability to support the widespread deployment of application-specific optical sensors. The benefits of spectroscopy are well established for numerous applications including biomedical instrumentation, industrial sorting and sensing, chemical detection, and environmental monitoring. In this paper, spectroscopic (and by extension hyperspectral) and multispectral measurements are considered. The technology, tradeoffs, and application fits of each are evaluated. In the majority of applications, monitoring 4-8 targeted spectral bands of optimized wavelength and bandwidth provides the necessary spectral contrast and correlation. An innovative approach integrates precision spectral filters at the photodetector level to enable smaller sensors, simplify optical designs, and reduce device integration costs. This method supports user-defined spectral bands to create application-specific sensors in a small footprint with scalable cost efficiencies. A range of design configurations, filter options and combinations are presented together with typical applications ranging from basic multi-band detection to stringent multi-channel fluorescence measurement. An example implementation packages 8 narrowband silicon photodiodes into a 9x9mm ceramic LCC (leadless chip carrier) footprint. This package is designed for multispectral applications ranging from portable color monitors to purpose- built OEM industrial and scientific instruments. Use of an eight-channel multispectral photodiode array typically eliminates 10-20 components from a device bill-of-materials (BOM), streamlining the optical path and shrinking the footprint by 50% or more. A stepwise design approach for multispectral sensors is discussed - including spectral band definition, optical design tradeoffs and constraints, and device integration from prototype through scalable volume production

  6. The application of UV multispectral technology in extract trace evdidence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Jingjing; Xu, Xiaojing; Li, Zhihui; Xu, Lei; Xie, Lanchi

    2015-11-01

    Multispectral imaging is becoming more and more important in the field of examination of material evidence, especially the ultraviolet spectral imaging. Fingerprints development, questioned document detection, trace evidence examination-all can used of it. This paper introduce a UV multispectral equipment which was developed by BITU & IFSC, it can extract trace evidence-extract fingerprints. The result showed that this technology can develop latent sweat-sebum mixed fingerprint on photo and ID card blood fingerprint on steel hold. We used the UV spectrum data analysis system to make the UV spectral image clear to identify and analyse.

  7. Foreign fiber detecting system based on multispectral technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qi; Han, Shaokun; Wang, Ping; Wang, Liang; Xia, Wenze

    2015-08-01

    This paper presents a foreign fiber detecting system based on multi-spectral technique. The absorption rate and the reflectivity of foreign fibers differently under different wavelengths of light so that the characteristics of the image has difference in the different light irradiation. Contrast pyramid image fusion algorithm and adaptive enhancement is improved to extracted the foreign fiber from the cotton background. The experimental results show that the single light source can detect 6 kinds of foreign fiber in cotton and multi-spectral detection can detect eight kinds.

  8. Fourier Spectral Filter Array for Optimal Multispectral Imaging.

    PubMed

    Jia, Jie; Barnard, Kenneth J; Hirakawa, Keigo

    2016-04-01

    Limitations to existing multispectral imaging modalities include speed, cost, range, spatial resolution, and application-specific system designs that lack versatility of the hyperspectral imaging modalities. In this paper, we propose a novel general-purpose single-shot passive multispectral imaging modality. Central to this design is a new type of spectral filter array (SFA) based not on the notion of spatially multiplexing narrowband filters, but instead aimed at enabling single-shot Fourier transform spectroscopy. We refer to this new SFA pattern as Fourier SFA, and we prove that this design solves the problem of optimally sampling the hyperspectral image data. PMID:26849867

  9. Airborne multispectral detecting system for marine mammals survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Podobna, Yuliya; Sofianos, James; Schoonmaker, Jon; Medeiros, Dustin; Boucher, Cynthia; Oakley, Daniel; Saggese, Steve

    2010-04-01

    This work presents an electro-optical multispectral capability that detects and monitors marine mammals. It is a continuance of Whale Search Radar SBIR program funded by PMA-264 through NAVAIR. A lightweight, multispectral, turreted imaging system is designed for airborne and ship based platforms to detect and monitor marine mammals. The system tests were conducted over the Humpback whale breeding and calving area in Maui, Hawaii. The results of the tests and the system description are presented. The development of an automatic whale detection algorithm is discussed as well as methodology used to turn raw survey data into quantifiable data products.

  10. Multispectral Video-Microscope Modified for Skin Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubins, U.; Zaharans, J.; Ļihačova, I.; Spigulis, J.

    2014-12-01

    Commercial DinoLite AD413 digital microscope was modified for skin diagnostics purposes. The original LED ring (4 white and 4 ultraviolet light emitters) of microscope was replaced by a custom-designed 16-LED ring module consisting of four LED groups (450, 545, 660 and 940 nm), and an onboard LED controller with USB hub was added. The video acquisition and LED switching are performed using custom-designed Matlab software which provides real-time spectral analysis of multi-spectral images and calculation of skin chromophore optical density. The developed multispectral video-microscope is mainly meant for diagnostics of skin malformations, e.g. skin cancerous lesions.

  11. Multi-spectral band selection for satellite-based systems

    SciTech Connect

    Clodius, W.B.; Weber, P.G.; Borel, C.C.; Smith, B.W.

    1998-09-01

    The design of satellite based multispectral imaging systems requires the consideration of a number of tradeoffs between cost and performance. The authors have recently been involved in the design and evaluation of a satellite based multispectral sensor operating from the visible through the long wavelength IR. The criteria that led to some of the proposed designs and the modeling used to evaluate and fine tune the designs will both be discussed. These criteria emphasized the use of bands for surface temperature retrieval and the correction of atmospheric effects. The impact of cost estimate changes on the final design will also be discussed.

  12. Expanded IR glass map for multispectral optics designs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayya, Shyam; Gibson, Daniel; Nguyen, Vinh; Beadie, Guy; Sanghera, Jasbinder; Kotov, Mikhail

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents new multispectral IR glasses with transmission from 0.9 to > 14 μm in wavelength and refractive index from 2.38 to 2.17. These new glasses are designed to have comparable glass softening temperatures and compatible coefficients of thermal expansion to allow bonding and co-molding of multilayer optics. With large variation in their Abbe numbers and negative to near-zero dn/dT, optics made from these new glasses can significantly reduce the size/weight or complexity of the multispectral imaging systems for weight sensitive platforms.

  13. The logic of multispectral classification and mapping of land

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robinove, Charles J.

    1981-01-01

    The use of multispectral reflectance data as surrogates for land attributes must be done within strict rules of logic and with a recognition of judgmental factors such as the use of a priori or a posteriori classification schemes. The naming and describing of spectral classes as surrogates of information classes is a critical element in the logic of mapping and must be complete and logically consistent. Maps of information classes derived from multispectral data should be portrayed without class boundaries so as to indicate the degree of homogeneity or heterogeneity of classes on maps in which these characteristics are of major importance. 

  14. Atmospheric transformation of multispectral remote sensor data. [Great Lakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, R. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1977-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. The effects of earth's atmosphere were accounted for, and a simple algorithm, based upon a radiative transfer model, was developed to determine the radiance at earth's surface free of atmospheric effects. Acutal multispectral remote sensor data for Lake Erie and associated optical thickness data were used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the atmospheric transformation algorithm. The basic transformation was general in nature and could be applied to the large scale processing of multispectral aircraft or satellite remote sensor data.

  15. Passive UHF RFID Tag for Multispectral Assessment.

    PubMed

    Escobedo, Pablo; Carvajal, Miguel A; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis F; Fernández-Salmerón, José; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Palma, Alberto J

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a passive printed radiofrequency identification tag in the ultra-high-frequency band with multiple optical sensing capabilities. This tag includes five photodiodes to cover a wide spectral range from near-infrared to visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. The tag antenna and circuit connections have been screen-printed on a flexible polymeric substrate. An ultra-low-power microcontroller-based switch has been included to measure the five magnitudes issuing from the optical sensors, providing a spectral fingerprint of the incident electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared, without requiring energy from a battery. The normalization procedure has been designed applying illuminants, and the entire system was tested by measuring cards from a colour chart and sensing fruit ripening. PMID:27428973

  16. Passive UHF RFID Tag for Multispectral Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Escobedo, Pablo; Carvajal, Miguel A.; Capitán-Vallvey, Luis F.; Fernández-Salmerón, José; Martínez-Olmos, Antonio; Palma, Alberto J.

    2016-01-01

    This work presents the design, fabrication, and characterization of a passive printed radiofrequency identification tag in the ultra-high-frequency band with multiple optical sensing capabilities. This tag includes five photodiodes to cover a wide spectral range from near-infrared to visible and ultraviolet spectral regions. The tag antenna and circuit connections have been screen-printed on a flexible polymeric substrate. An ultra-low-power microcontroller-based switch has been included to measure the five magnitudes issuing from the optical sensors, providing a spectral fingerprint of the incident electromagnetic radiation from ultraviolet to infrared, without requiring energy from a battery. The normalization procedure has been designed applying illuminants, and the entire system was tested by measuring cards from a colour chart and sensing fruit ripening. PMID:27428973

  17. In vivo simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging with spectral multiplexed volume holographic imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lv, Yanlu; Zhang, Jiulou; Zhang, Dong; Cai, Wenjuan; Chen, Nanguang; Luo, Jianwen

    2016-06-01

    A simultaneous multispectral fluorescence imaging system incorporating multiplexed volume holographic grating (VHG) is developed to acquire multispectral images of an object in one shot. With the multiplexed VHG, the imaging system can provide the distribution and spectral characteristics of multiple fluorophores in the scene. The implementation and performance of the simultaneous multispectral imaging system are presented. Further, the system's capability in simultaneously obtaining multispectral fluorescence measurements is demonstrated with in vivo experiments on a mouse. The demonstrated imaging system has the potential to obtain multispectral images fluorescence simultaneously.

  18. New, Flexible Applications with the Multi-Spectral Titan Airborne Lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swirski, A.; LaRocque, D. P.; Shaker, A.; Smith, B.

    2015-12-01

    Traditional lidar designs have been restricted to using a single laser channel operating at one particular wavelength. Single-channel systems excel at collecting high-precision spatial (XYZ) data, with accuracies down to a few centimeters. However, target classification is difficult with spatial data alone, and single-wavelength systems are limited to the strengths and weaknesses of the wavelength they use. To resolve these limitations in lidar design, Teledyne Optech developed the Titan, the world's first multispectral lidar system, which uses three independent laser channels operating at 532, 1064, and 1550 nm. Since Titan collects 12 bit intensity returns for each wavelength separately, users can compare how strongly targets in the survey area reflect each wavelength. Materials such as soil, rock and foliage all reflect the wavelengths differently, enabling post-processing algorithms to identify the material of targets easily and automatically. Based on field tests in Canada, automated classification algorithms have combined this with elevation data to classify targets into six basic types with 78% accuracy. Even greater accuracy is possible with further algorithm enhancement and the use of an in-sensor passive imager such as a thermal, multispectral, CIR or RGB camera. Titan therefore presents an important new tool for applications such as land-cover classification and environmental modeling while maintaining lidar's traditional strengths: high 3D accuracy and day/night operation. Multispectral channels also enable a single lidar to handle both topographic and bathymetric surveying efficiently, which previously required separate specialized lidar systems operating at different wavelengths. On land, Titan can survey efficiently from 2000 m AGL with a 900 kHz PRF (300 kHz per channel), or up to 2500 m if only the infrared 1064 and 1550 nm channels are used. Over water, the 532 nm green channel penetrates water to collect seafloor returns while the infrared

  19. Tools for interpretation of multispectral data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speckert, Glen; Carpenter, Loren C.; Russell, Mike; Bradstreet, John; Waite, Tom; Conklin, Charlie

    1990-08-01

    P operations can be thus chained. A videotape showing the use of ELT and ChapIP with multispectral data will be presented.

  20. MESSENGER multispectral observations of Mercury (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denevi, B. W.; Robinson, M. S.; Solomon, S. C.; Murchie, S. L.; Blewett, D. T.; Domingue, D. L.; McCoy, T. J.; Ernst, C. M.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Chabot, N. L.

    2009-12-01

    MESSENGER’s first two flybys of Mercury provide new insights into Mercury’s dynamic past and reveal a planet rich in color and compositional diversity. Including images from Mariner 10, over 90% of Mercury has now been observed at resolutions >2 km/pixel, and 80% of the planet has been observed in the 11 colors of the Mercury Dual Imaging System’s wide-angle camera (WAC). The multispectral WAC images confirm the existence of color variations correlated to geologic terrains such as smooth plains deposits and crater and basin ejecta, as well as more diffuse variations that, in some cases, have not yet been linked to particular geologic features. Smooth plains, many of which have been interpreted to be of volcanic origin, cover nearly 40% of the mapped surface. What fraction of the smooth plains formed through volcanism, as opposed to originating during impact events (as impact melt or basin ejecta), is not yet known. Globally, smooth plains do not appear to have a single color signature but instead show a range of color and reflectance nearly as large as that observed on Mercury as a whole, and on par with the contrast variations observed among the lunar maria. This observation suggests that the smooth plains have a range of compositions. Reflectance spectra are consistent with the presence of low-FeO silicates, as well as a spectrally neutral opaque component in varying abundances. Intercrater plains are similar in color and reflectance to the intermediate- to low-reflectance smooth plains, perhaps indicating a similar composition and/or origin. Color, and likely compositional, end-members include pyroclastic deposits (relatively high in reflectance with a steeper spectral slope) and low-reflectance material (LRM, with a shallower spectral slope). Pyroclastic materials, which on other bodies can originate in the mantle, provide insight into the composition of the source regions. LRM is typically concentrated in crater and basin ejecta excavated from depths as

  1. Non-invasive skin oxygenation imaging using a multi-spectral camera system: effectiveness of various concentration algorithms applied on human skin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Noordmans, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2009-02-01

    This study describes noninvasive noncontact methods to acquire and analyze functional information from the skin. Multispectral images at several selected wavelengths in the visible and near infrared region are collected and used in mathematical methods to calculate concentrations of different chromophores in the epidermis and dermis of the skin. This is based on the continuous wave Near Infrared Spectroscopy method, which is a well known non-invasive technique for measuring oxygenation changes in the brain and in muscle tissue. Concentration changes of hemoglobin (dO2Hb, dHHb and dtHb) can be calculated from light attenuations using the modified Lambert Beer equation. We applied this technique on multi-spectral images taken from the skin surface using different algorithms for calculating changes in O2Hb, HHb and tHb. In clinical settings, the imaging of local oxygenation variations and/or blood perfusion in the skin can be useful for e.g. detection of skin cancer, detection of early inflammation, checking the level of peripheral nerve block anesthesia, study of wound healing and tissue viability by skin flap transplantations. Images from the skin are obtained with a multi-spectral imaging system consisting of a 12-bit CCD camera in combination with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter. The skin is illuminated with either a broad band light source or a tunable multi wavelength LED light source. A polarization filter is used to block the direct reflected light. The collected multi-spectral imaging data are images of the skin surface radiance; each pixel contains either the full spectrum (420 - 730 nm) or a set of selected wavelengths. These images were converted to reflectance spectra. The algorithms were validated during skin oxygen saturation changes induced by temporary arm clamping and applied to some clinical examples. The initial results with the multi-spectral skin imaging system show good results for detecting dynamic changes in oxygen concentration. However, the

  2. Multispectral linear array (MLA) focal plane mechanical and thermal design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mitchell, A. S.; Kaminski, E. F.

    1982-01-01

    The mechanical and thermal design of an integrated focal plane subsystem of a Multispectral Linear Array (MLA) instrument is discussed in terms of focal-plane alignment, thermoelastic performance, and thermal requirements. The modular construction and thermal control of the focal plane array are discussed.

  3. Skylab multispectral scanner /S-192/ - Optical design and operational imagery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I. R.; Reynolds, B. R.

    1974-01-01

    Description of the design and performance of a multispectral scanner that makes possible photographic reproductions of actual flight recordings at an 80-meter resolution for an altitude of 440 km. Maximum scan pattern stability and instrument compactness have been achieved in the design.

  4. Development and application of multispectral algorithms for defect apple inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This research developed and evaluated the multispectral algorithm derived from hyperspectral line-scan imaging system which equipped with an electron-multiplying-charge-coupled-device camera and an imaging spectrograph for the detection of defect Red Delicious apples. The algorithm utilized the fluo...

  5. Improving performance of real-time multispectral imaging system

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A real-time multispectral imaging system can be a science-based tool for fecal and ingesta contaminant detection during poultry processing. For the implementation of this imaging system at commercial poultry processing plant, false positive errors must be removed. For doing this, we tested and imp...

  6. Use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Titus, S. J.; Wensel, L. C.

    1977-01-01

    The use of multispectral data in design of forest sample surveys using a computer software package, WILLIAM, is described. The system allows evaluation of a number of alternative sampling systems and, with appropriate cost data, estimates the implementation cost for each.

  7. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION AND CONFIRMATION OF ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN WASTEWATER EXTRACTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Application of multispectral identification techniques to samples from industrial and POTW wastewaters revealed identities of 63 compounds that had not been identified by empirical matching of mass spectra with spectral libraries. wenty-five of the compounds had not been found in...

  8. COMPUTER PROCESSING OF MULTISPECTRAL SCANNER DATA OVER COAL STRIP MINES

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is little doubt that remote sensing techniques can be effectively applied to the task of monitoring coal strip mine progress and reclamation work. Aircraft multispectral scanner data acquired over six coal strip mines in the states of Wyoming, Montana, Colorado, and Arizona...

  9. Leica ADS40 Sensor for Coastal Multispectral Imaging

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craig, John C.

    2007-01-01

    The Leica ADS40 Sensor as it is used for coastal multispectral imaging is presented. The contents include: 1) Project Area Overview; 2) Leica ADS40 Sensor; 3) Focal Plate Arrangements; 4) Trichroid Filter; 5) Gradient Correction; 6) Image Acquisition; 7) Remote Sensing and ADS40; 8) Band comparisons of Satellite and Airborne Sensors; 9) Impervious Surface Extraction; and 10) Impervious Surface Details.

  10. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images characterized by an estimation of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at Nyquist frequency. The contents include: 1) MTF Analysis; 2) Target Analysis; 3) "Pulse Target"; 4) "Pulse" Method; 5) Target Images; 6) Bridge Profiles; 7) MTF Calculation; 8) MTF Results; and 9) Results Summary.

  11. The trophic classification of lakes using ERTS multispectral scanner data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blackwell, R. J.; Boland, D. H.

    1975-01-01

    Lake classification methods based on the use of ERTS data are described. Preliminary classification results obtained by multispectral and digital image processing techniques indicate satisfactory correlation between ERTS data and EPA-supplied water analysis. Techniques for determining lake trophic levels using ERTS data are examined, and data obtained for 20 lakes are discussed.

  12. Generic MSFA mosaicking and demosaicking for multispectral cameras

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miao, Lidan; Qi, Hairong; Ramanath, Rajeev

    2006-02-01

    In this paper, we investigate the potential application of the multispectral filter array (MSFA) techniques in multispectral imaging for reasons like low cost, exact registration, and strong robustness. In both human and many animal visual systems, different types of photoreceptors are organized into mosaic patterns. This behavior has been emulated in the industry to develop the so-called color filter array (CFA) in the manufacture of digital color cameras. In this way, only one color component is measured at each pixel, and the sensed image is a mosaic of different color bands. We extend this idea to multispectral imaging by developing generic mosaicking and demosaicking algorithms. The binary tree-driven MSFA design process guarantees that the pixel distributions of different spectral bands are uniform and highly correlated. These spatial features facilitate the design of the generic demosaicking algorithm based on the same binary tree, which considers three interrelated issues: band selection, pixel selection and interpolation. We evaluate the reconstructed images from two aspects: better reconstruction and better target classification. The experimental results demonstrate that the mosaicking and demosaicking process preserves the image quality effectively, which further supports that the MSFA technique is a feasible solution for multispectral cameras.

  13. Development of Handheld Multispectral Imaging For Food Safety Inspection

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to develop a handheld multispectral instrument for food safety inspection for poultry carcasses. The prototype system developed in this research consisted of a compact dual-band spectral imaging system, Light Emitting diode (LED), and portable computer. The dual-...

  14. Detection of sudden death syndrome using a multispectral imaging sensor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sudden death syndrome (SDS), caused by the fungus Fusarium solani f. sp. glycines, is a widespread mid- to late-season disease with distinctive foliar symptoms. This paper reported the development of an image analysis based method to detect SDS using a multispectral image sensor. A hue, saturation a...

  15. Citrus greening detection using airborne hyperspectral and multispectral imaging techniques

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hyperspectral imaging can provide unique spectral signatures for diseased vegetation. Airborne multispectral and hyperspectral imaging can be used to detect potentially infected trees over a large area for rapid detection of infected zones. This paper proposes a method to detect the citrus greening...

  16. Comparison of Airborne Multispectral and Hyperspectral Imagery for Yield Estimation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Multispectral and hyperspectral imagery is being used to monitor crop conditions and map yield variability. However, limited research has been conducted to compare the differences between these two types of imagery for assessing crop growth and yield. The objective of this study was to compare airbo...

  17. Multispectral microwave imaging radar for remote sensing applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, R. W.; Rawson, R.; Ausherman, D.; Bryan, L.; Porcello, L.

    1974-01-01

    A multispectral airborne microwave radar imaging system, capable of obtaining four images simultaneously is described. The system has been successfully demonstrated in several experiments and one example of results obtained, fresh water ice, is given. Consideration of the digitization of the imagery is given and an image digitizing system described briefly. Preliminary results of digitization experiments are included.

  18. User oriented multispectral data processing at the University of Michigan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomson, F. J.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of solving practical multispectral data reduction problems by available processing techniques and the identification of areas for more technical development requirements are considered. Parameter mapping and ratio mapping techniques prove their usefulness in a corn blight watch experiment. A hybrid computer processing system is advocated for complete realization of aircraft and spacecraft sensor potentials.

  19. Engineering evaluation of 24 channel multispectral scanner. [from flight tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lambeck, P. F.

    1973-01-01

    The results of flight tests to evaluate the performance of the 24 channel multispectral scanner are reported. The flight plan and test site are described along with the time response and channel registration. The gain and offset drift, and moire patterns are discussed. Aerial photographs of the test site are included.

  20. Visir-Sat - a Prospective Micro-Satellite Based Multi-Spectral Thermal Mission for Land Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, G.; Menz, G.; Heinemann, S.; Hartmann, M.; Oertel, D.

    2015-04-01

    Current space-borne thermal infrared satellite systems aimed at land surface remote sensing retain some significant deficiencies, in particular in terms of spatial resolution, spectral coverage, number of imaging bands and temperature-emissivity separation. The proposed VISible-to-thermal IR micro-SATellite (VISIR-SAT) mission addresses many of these limitations, providing multi-spectral imaging data with medium-to-high spatial resolution (80m GSD from 800 km altitude) in the thermal infrared (up to 6 TIR bands, between 8 and 11μm) and in the mid infrared (1 or 2 MIR bands, at 4μm). These MIR/TIR bands will be co-registered with simultaneously acquired high spatial resolution (less than 30 m GSP) visible and near infrared multi-spectral imaging data. To enhance the spatial resolution of the MIR/TIR multi-spectral imagery during daytime, data fusion methods will be applied, such as the Multi-sensor Multi-resolution Technique (MMT), already successfully tested over agricultural terrain. This image processing technique will make generation of Land Surface Temperature (LST) EO products with a spatial resolution of 30 x 30 m2 possible. For high temperature phenomena such as vegetation- and peat-fires, the Fire Disturbance Essential Climate Variables (ECV) "Active fire location" and "Fire Radiative Power" will be retrieved with less than 100 m spatial resolution. Together with the effective fire temperature and the spatial extent even for small fire events the innovative system characteristics of VISIR-SAT go beyond existing and planned IR missions. The comprehensive and physically high-accuracy products from VISIR-SAT (e.g. for fire monitoring) may synergistically complement the high temperature observations of Sentinel-3 SLSTR in a unique way. Additionally, VISIR-SAT offers a very agile sensor system, which will be able to conduct intelligent and flexible pointing of the sensor's line-of-sight with the aim to provide global coverage of cloud free imagery every 5

  1. Characterizing thermal features from multi-spectral remote sensing data using dynamic calibration procedures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hardy, Colin C.

    A thermal infrared remote sensing project was implemented to develop methods for identifying, classifying, and mapping thermal features. This study is directed at geothermal features, with the expectation that new protocols developed here will apply to the wildland fire thermal environment. Airborne multi-spectral digital imagery was acquired over the geothermally active Norris Basin region of Yellowstone National Park, USA. Two image acquisitions were flown, with one near solar noon and the other at night. The five-band image data included thermal infrared (TIR), near-infrared (NIR), and three visible bandpasses. While focused on TIR, the study relied on the multi-spectral visible and NIR data as well as on an ancillary hyperspectral data set. The raw, five-band data were uncalibrated, requiring implementation of two calibration protocols. First, a vicarious calibration procedure was developed to compute reflectance for the visible and NIR bands using an independently calibrated hyperspectral dataset. Second, a dynamic, in-scene calibration procedure was developed for the thermal sensor that exploited natural, pseudo-invariant thermal reference targets instrumented with kinetic temperature recorders. A suite of thermal attributes was derived, including daytime and nighttime radiant temperatures, a temperature difference (DeltaT), albedo, one minus albedo, and apparent thermal inertia (ATI). The albedo terms were computed using a published weighed-average albedo algorithm based on ratios of the narrowband red and NIR reflectances to total solar irradiance for the respective red and NIR bandpasses. In the absence of verifiable "truth," a step-wise chain of unsupervised classification and multivariate analysis exercises was performed, drawing heavily on "fuzzy truth." A final classification synthesizes a "thermal phenomenology" comprised of four components: spectral, statistical, geographical/contextual, and feature space. In situ measurements paired with image data

  2. Rainfall Estimation over the Nile Basin using Multi-Spectral, Multi- Instrument Satellite Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habib, E.; Kuligowski, R.; Sazib, N.; Elshamy, M.; Amin, D.; Ahmed, M.

    2012-04-01

    Management of Egypt's Aswan High Dam is critical not only for flood control on the Nile but also for ensuring adequate water supplies for most of Egypt since rainfall is scarce over the vast majority of its land area. However, reservoir inflow is driven by rainfall over Sudan, Ethiopia, Uganda, and several other countries from which routine rain gauge data are sparse. Satellite- derived estimates of rainfall offer a much more detailed and timely set of data to form a basis for decisions on the operation of the dam. A single-channel infrared (IR) algorithm is currently in operational use at the Egyptian Nile Forecast Center (NFC). In this study, the authors report on the adaptation of a multi-spectral, multi-instrument satellite rainfall estimation algorithm (Self- Calibrating Multivariate Precipitation Retrieval, SCaMPR) for operational application by NFC over the Nile Basin. The algorithm uses a set of rainfall predictors that come from multi-spectral Infrared cloud top observations and self-calibrate them to a set of predictands that come from the more accurate, but less frequent, Microwave (MW) rain rate estimates. For application over the Nile Basin, the SCaMPR algorithm uses multiple satellite IR channels that have become recently available to NFC from the Spinning Enhanced Visible and Infrared Imager (SEVIRI). Microwave rain rates are acquired from multiple sources such as the Special Sensor Microwave/Imager (SSM/I), the Special Sensor Microwave Imager and Sounder (SSMIS), the Advanced Microwave Sounding Unit (AMSU), the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer on EOS (AMSR-E), and the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Microwave Imager (TMI). The algorithm has two main steps: rain/no-rain separation using discriminant analysis, and rain rate estimation using stepwise linear regression. We test two modes of algorithm calibration: real- time calibration with continuous updates of coefficients with newly coming MW rain rates, and calibration using static

  3. Data-intensive multispectral remote sensing of the nighttime Earth for environmental monitoring and emergency response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhizhin, M.; Poyda, A.; Velikhov, V.; Novikov, A.; Polyakov, A.

    2016-02-01

    All Most of the remote sensing applications rely on the daytime visible and infrared images of the Earth surface. Increase in the number of satellites, their spatial resolution as well as the number of the simultaneously observed spectral bands ensure a steady growth of the data volumes and computational complexity in the remote sensing sciences. Recent advance in the night time remote sensing is related to the enhanced sensitivity of the on-board instruments and to the unique opportunity to observe “pure” emitters in visible infrared spectra without contamination from solar heat and reflected light. A candidate set of the night-time emitters observable from the low-orbiting and geostationary satellites include steady state and temporal changes in the city and traffic electric lights, fishing boats, high-temperature industrial objects such as steel mills, oil cracking refineries and power plants, forest and agricultural fires, gas flares, volcanic eruptions and similar catastrophic events. Current satellite instruments can detect at night 10 times more of such objects compared to daytime. We will present a new data-intensive workflow of the night time remote sensing algorithms for map-reduce processing of visible and infrared images from the multispectral radiometers flown by the modern NOAA/NASA Suomi NPP and the USGS Landsat 8 satellites. Similar radiometers are installed on the new generation of the US geostationary GOES-R satellite to be launched in 2016. The new set of algorithms allows us to detect with confidence and track the abrupt changes and long-term trends in the energy of city lights, number of fishing boats, as well as the size, geometry, temperature of gas flares and to estimate monthly and early flared gas volumes by site or by country. For real-time analysis of the night time multispectral satellite images with global coverage we need gigabit network, petabyte data storage and parallel compute cluster with more than 20 nodes. To meet the

  4. A liquid-crystal-tunable-filter-based multispectral imaging system for prediction of apple fruit firmness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yankun; Lu, Renfu

    2004-11-01

    Firmness of apple fruit is an important quality attribute, which varies greatly in the same lot of fruit due to such factors as climatic condition, cultural practice, harvest time or maturity level, and postharvest handling and storage. This research developed a compact multispectral imaging system with a low cost digital camera and a liquid crystal tunable filter (LCTF), and proposed a modified Lorentzian distribution (MLD) function to describe scattering profiles acquired from Red Delicious apples. The LCTF, which allows for the rapid, vibration-less selection of any wavelength in the visible/near-infrared range, was used to find optimal wavelengths over the spectral region between 650 nm and 1,000 nm for predicting apple fruit firmness. Radial scattering profiles were described accurately by the MLD function with four profile parameters for wavelengths between 650 nm and 1000 nm at an interval of 10 nm. Multi-linear regression (MLR) and cross-validation were performed on relating MLD parameters to fruit firmness. The prediction model gave good firmness predictions with the correlation coefficient (r) of 0.82 and the standard error of validation (SEV) of 6.64 N, which were considerably better than those obtained with visible/near-infrared spectroscopy.

  5. High durability antireflection coatings for silicon and multispectral ZnS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joseph, Shay; Marcovitch, Orna; Yadin, Ygal; Klaiman, Dror; Koren, Nitzan; Zipin, Hedva

    2007-04-01

    In the current complex battle field, military platforms are required to operate on land, at sea and in the air in all weather conditions both day and night. In order to achieve such capabilities, advanced electro-optical systems are being constantly developed and improved. These systems such as missile seeker heads, reconnaissance and target acquisition pods and tracking, monitoring and alert systems have external optical components (window or dome) which must remain operational even at extreme environmental conditions. Depending on the intended use of the system, there are a few choices of window and dome materials. Amongst the more common materials one can point out sapphire, ZnS, germanium and silicon. Other materials such as spinel, ALON and yittria may also be considered. Most infrared materials have high indices of refraction and therefore they reflect a large part of radiation. To minimize the reflection and increase the transmission, antireflection (AR) coatings are the most common choice. Since these systems operate at different environments and weather conditions, the coatings must be made durable to withstand these extreme conditions. In cases where the window or dome is made of relatively soft materials such as multispectral ZnS, the coating may also serve as protection for the window or dome. In this work, several antireflection coatings have been designed and manufactured for silicon and multispectral ZnS. The coating materials were chosen to be either oxides or fluorides which are known to have high durability. Ellipsometry measurements were used to characterize the optical constants of the thin films. The effects of the deposition conditions on the optical constants of the deposited thin films and durability of the coatings will be discussed. The coatings were tested according to MIL-STD-810E and were also subjected to rain erosion tests at the University of Dayton Research Institute (UDRI) whirling arm apparatus in which one of the coatings showed

  6. Retrieval Using Texture Features in High Resolution Multi-spectral Satellite Imagery

    SciTech Connect

    Newsam, S D; Kamath, C

    2004-01-22

    Texture features have long been used in remote sensing applications to represent and retrieve image regions similar to a query region. Various representations of texture have been proposed based on the Fourier power spectrum, spatial co-occurrence, wavelets, Gabor filters, etc. These representations vary in their computational complexity and their suitability for representing different region types. Much of the work done thus far has focused on panchromatic imagery at low to moderate spatial resolutions, such as images from Landsat 1-7 which have a resolution of 15-30 m/pixel, and from SPOT 1-5 which have a resolution of 2.5-20 m/pixel. However, it is not clear which texture representation works best for the new classes of high resolution panchromatic (60-100 cm/pixel) and multi-spectral (4 bands for red, green, blue, and near infra-red at 2.4-4 m/pixel) imagery. It is also not clear how the different spectral bands should be combined. In this paper, we investigate the retrieval performance of several different texture representations using multi-spectral satellite images from IKONOS. A query-by-example framework, along with a manually chosen ground truth dataset, allows different combinations of texture representations and spectral bands to be compared. We focus on the specific problem of retrieving inhabited regions from images of urban and rural scenes. Preliminary results show that (1) the use of all spectral bands improves the retrieval performance, and (2) co-occurrence, wavelet and Gabor texture features perform comparably.

  7. Differentiating aquatic plant communities in a eutrophic river using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tian, Y.Q.; Yu, Q.; Zimmerman, M.J.; Flint, S.; Waldron, M.C.

    2010-01-01

    This study evaluates the efficacy of remote sensing technology to monitor species composition, areal extent and density of aquatic plants (macrophytes and filamentous algae) in impoundments where their presence may violate water-quality standards. Multispectral satellite (IKONOS) images and more than 500 in situ hyperspectral samples were acquired to map aquatic plant distributions. By analyzing field measurements, we created a library of hyperspectral signatures for a variety of aquatic plant species, associations and densities. We also used three vegetation indices. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), near-infrared (NIR)-Green Angle Index (NGAI) and normalized water absorption depth (DH), at wavelengths 554, 680, 820 and 977 nm to differentiate among aquatic plant species composition, areal density and thickness in cases where hyperspectral analysis yielded potentially ambiguous interpretations. We compared the NDVI derived from IKONOS imagery with the in situ, hyperspectral-derived NDVI. The IKONOS-based images were also compared to data obtained through routine visual observations. Our results confirmed that aquatic species composition alters spectral signatures and affects the accuracy of remote sensing of aquatic plant density. The results also demonstrated that the NGAI has apparent advantages in estimating density over the NDVI and the DH. In the feature space of the three indices, 3D scatter plot analysis revealed that hyperspectral data can differentiate several aquatic plant associations. High-resolution multispectral imagery provided useful information to distinguish among biophysical aquatic plant characteristics. Classification analysis indicated that using satellite imagery to assess Lemna coverage yielded an overall agreement of 79% with visual observations and >90% agreement for the densest aquatic plant coverages. Interpretation of biophysical parameters derived from high-resolution satellite or airborne imagery should prove to be a

  8. Robust materials classification based on multispectral polarimetric BRDF imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chao; Zhao, Yong-qiang; Luo, Li; Liu, Dan; Pan, Quan

    2009-07-01

    When light is reflected from object surface, its spectral characteristics will be affected by surface's elemental composition, while its polarimetric characteristics will be determined by the surface's orientation, roughness and conductance. Multispectral polarimetric imaging technique records both the spectral and polarimetric characteristics of the light, and adds dimensions to the spatial intensity typically acquired and it also could provide unique and discriminatory information which may argument material classification techniques. But for the sake of non-Lambert of object surface, the spectral and polarimetric characteristics will change along with the illumination angle and observation angle. If BRDF is ignored during the material classification, misclassification is inevitable. To get a feature that is robust material classification to non-Lambert surface, a new classification methods based on multispectral polarimetric BRDF characteristics is proposed in this paper. Support Vector Machine method is adopted to classify targets in clutter grass environments. The train sets are obtained in the sunny, while the test sets are got from three different weather and detected conditions, at last the classification results based on multispectral polarimetric BRDF features are compared with other two results based on spectral information, and multispectral polarimetric information under sunny, cloudy and dark conditions respectively. The experimental results present that the method based on multispectral polarimetric BRDF features performs the most robust, and the classification precision also surpasses the other two. When imaging objects under the dark weather, it's difficult to distinguish different materials using spectral features as the grays between backgrounds and targets in each different wavelength would be very close, but the method proposed in this paper would efficiently solve this problem.

  9. Semiconductor Laser Multi-Spectral Sensing and Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Le, Han Q.; Wang, Yang

    2010-01-01

    Multi-spectral laser imaging is a technique that can offer a combination of the laser capability of accurate spectral sensing with the desirable features of passive multispectral imaging. The technique can be used for detection, discrimination, and identification of objects by their spectral signature. This article describes and reviews the development and evaluation of semiconductor multi-spectral laser imaging systems. Although the method is certainly not specific to any laser technology, the use of semiconductor lasers is significant with respect to practicality and affordability. More relevantly, semiconductor lasers have their own characteristics; they offer excellent wavelength diversity but usually with modest power. Thus, system design and engineering issues are analyzed for approaches and trade-offs that can make the best use of semiconductor laser capabilities in multispectral imaging. A few systems were developed and the technique was tested and evaluated on a variety of natural and man-made objects. It was shown capable of high spectral resolution imaging which, unlike non-imaging point sensing, allows detecting and discriminating objects of interest even without a priori spectroscopic knowledge of the targets. Examples include material and chemical discrimination. It was also shown capable of dealing with the complexity of interpreting diffuse scattered spectral images and produced results that could otherwise be ambiguous with conventional imaging. Examples with glucose and spectral imaging of drug pills were discussed. Lastly, the technique was shown with conventional laser spectroscopy such as wavelength modulation spectroscopy to image a gas (CO). These results suggest the versatility and power of multi-spectral laser imaging, which can be practical with the use of semiconductor lasers. PMID:22315555

  10. Multi-spectral confocal microendoscope for in-vivo imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouse, Andrew Robert

    The concept of in-vivo multi-spectral confocal microscopy is introduced. A slit-scanning multi-spectral confocal microendoscope (MCME) was built to demonstrate the technique. The MCME employs a flexible fiber-optic catheter coupled to a custom built slit-scan confocal microscope fitted with a custom built imaging spectrometer. The catheter consists of a fiber-optic imaging bundle linked to a miniature objective and focus assembly. The design and performance of the miniature objective and focus assembly are discussed. The 3mm diameter catheter may be used on its own or routed though the instrument channel of a commercial endoscope. The confocal nature of the system provides optical sectioning with 3mum lateral resolution and 30mum axial resolution. The prism based multi-spectral detection assembly is typically configured to collect 30 spectral samples over the visible chromatic range. The spectral sampling rate varies from 4nm/pixel at 490nm to 8nm/pixel at 660nm and the minimum resolvable wavelength difference varies from 7nm to 18nm over the same spectral range. Each of these characteristics are primarily dictated by the dispersive power of the prism. The MCME is designed to examine cellular structures during optical biopsy and to exploit the diagnostic information contained within the spectral domain. The primary applications for the system include diagnosis of disease in the gastro-intestinal tract and female reproductive system. Recent data from the grayscale imaging mode are presented. Preliminary multi-spectral results from phantoms, cell cultures, and excised human tissue are presented to demonstrate the potential of in-vivo multi-spectral imaging.

  11. Standardized system for multispectral imaging of palimpsests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Easton, Roger L., Jr.; Knox, Keith T.; Christens-Barry, William A.; Boydston, Kenneth; Toth, Michael B.; Emery, Doug; Noel, William

    2010-02-01

    The Archimedes Palimpsest imaging team has developed a spectral imaging system and associated processing techniques for general use with palimpsests and other artifacts. It includes an illumination system of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) in 13 narrow bands from the near ultraviolet through the near infrared (▵λ<= 40nm), blue and infrared LEDs at raking angles, high-resolution monochrome and color sensors, a variety of image collection techniques (including spectral imaging of emitted fluorescence), standard metadata records, and image processing algorithms, including pseudocolor color renderings and principal component analysis (PCA). This paper addresses the development and optimization of these techniques for the study of parchment palimpsests and the adaptation of these techniques to allow flexibility for new technologies and processing capabilities. The system has proven useful for extracting text from several palimpsests, including all original manuscripts in the Archimedes Palimpsest, the undertext in a privately owned 9th-century Syriac palimpsest, and in a survey of selected palimpsested leaves at St. Catherine's Monastery in Egypt. In addition, the system is being used at the U.S. Library of Congress for spectral imaging of historical manuscripts and other documents.

  12. Multispectral image fusion based on fractal features

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jie; Chen, Jie; Zhang, Chunhua

    2004-01-01

    Imagery sensors have been one indispensable part of the detection and recognition systems. They are widely used to the field of surveillance, navigation, control and guide, et. However, different imagery sensors depend on diverse imaging mechanisms, and work within diverse range of spectrum. They also perform diverse functions and have diverse circumstance requires. So it is unpractical to accomplish the task of detection or recognition with a single imagery sensor under the conditions of different circumstances, different backgrounds and different targets. Fortunately, the multi-sensor image fusion technique emerged as important route to solve this problem. So image fusion has been one of the main technical routines used to detect and recognize objects from images. While, loss of information is unavoidable during fusion process, so it is always a very important content of image fusion how to preserve the useful information to the utmost. That is to say, it should be taken into account before designing the fusion schemes how to avoid the loss of useful information or how to preserve the features helpful to the detection. In consideration of these issues and the fact that most detection problems are actually to distinguish man-made objects from natural background, a fractal-based multi-spectral fusion algorithm has been proposed in this paper aiming at the recognition of battlefield targets in the complicated backgrounds. According to this algorithm, source images are firstly orthogonally decomposed according to wavelet transform theories, and then fractal-based detection is held to each decomposed image. At this step, natural background and man-made targets are distinguished by use of fractal models that can well imitate natural objects. Special fusion operators are employed during the fusion of area that contains man-made targets so that useful information could be preserved and features of targets could be extruded. The final fused image is reconstructed from the

  13. Why Infrared?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. R.

    1973-01-01

    Discusses applications of techniques developed for the remote sensing of infrared radiation. In addition to military applications, remote sensing has become important in collecting environmental data and detecting ecological problems. (JR)

  14. Multispectral Mosaic of the Aristarchus Crater and Plateau

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    The Aristarchus region is one of the most diverse and interesting areas on the Moon. About 500 Clementine images acquired through three spectral filters (415, 750, and 1000 nm) were processed and combined into a multispectral mosaic of this region. Shown here is a color-ratio composite, in which the 750/415 ratio controls the red-channel brightness, it inverse (415/750) controls the blue, and the 750/1000 ratio controls the green. Color ratios serve to cancel out the dominant brightness variations and topographic shading, thus isolating the color differences related to composition or mineralogy. The Aristarchus plateau is a rectangular, elevated crustal block about 200 km across, surrounded by the vast mare lava plains of Oceanus Procellarum. Clementine altimetry shows that the plateau is a tilted slab sloping down to the northwest, that rises more than 2 km above Oceanus Procellarum on its southeastern margin. The plateau was probably uplifted, tilted, and fractured by the Imbrium basin impact, which also deposited hummocky ejecta on the plateau surface. The plateau has experienced intense volcanic activity, both effusive and explosive. It includes the densest concentration of lunar sinuous rilles, including the largest known, Vallis Schroteri, which is about 160 km long, up to 11 km wide, and 1 km deep. The rilles in this area begin at 'cobra-head' craters, which are the apparent vents for low-viscosity lavas that formed vents for 'dark mantling' deposit covering the plateau and nearby areas to the north and east. This dark mantling deposit probably consists primarily of iron-rich glass spheres (pyroclastics or cinders), and has a deep red color on this image. Rather than forming cinder cones as on Earth, the lower gravity and vacuum of the Moon allows the pyroclastics to travel much greater heights and distances, thus depositing an extensive regional blanket. The Aristarchus impact occurred relatively recently in geologic time, after the Copernicus impact but

  15. Multispectral Detection with Metal-Dielectric Filters: An Investigation in Several Wavelength Bands with Temporal Coupled-Mode Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesmanne, Emeline; Espiau de Lamaestre, Roch; Boutami, Salim; Durantin, Cédric; Dussopt, Laurent; Badano, Giacomo

    2016-09-01

    Multispectral infrared (IR) detection is of great interest to enhance our ability to gather information from a scene. Filtering is a low-cost alternative to the complex multispectral device architectures to which the IR community has devoted much attention. Multilayer dielectric filters are standard in industry, but they require changing the thickness of at least one layer to tune the wavelength. Here, we pursue an approach based on apertures in a metallic layer of fixed thickness, in which the filtered wavelengths are selected by varying the aperture geometry. In particular, we study filters made of at least one sheet of resonating apertures in metal embedded in dielectrics. We will discuss two interesting problems that arise when one attempts to design such filters. First, metallic absorption must be taken into account. Second, the form and size of the pattern is limited by lithography. We will present some design examples and an attempt at explaining the filtering behavior based on the temporal coupled mode theory. That theory models the filter as a resonator interacting with the environment via loss channels. The transmission is solely determined by the loss rates associated with those channels. This model allows us to give a general picture of the filtering performance and compare their characteristics at different wavelength bands.

  16. Multispectral Detection with Metal-Dielectric Filters: An Investigation in Several Wavelength Bands with Temporal Coupled-Mode Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesmanne, Emeline; Espiau de Lamaestre, Roch; Boutami, Salim; Durantin, Cédric; Dussopt, Laurent; Badano, Giacomo

    2016-04-01

    Multispectral infrared (IR) detection is of great interest to enhance our ability to gather information from a scene. Filtering is a low-cost alternative to the complex multispectral device architectures to which the IR community has devoted much attention. Multilayer dielectric filters are standard in industry, but they require changing the thickness of at least one layer to tune the wavelength. Here, we pursue an approach based on apertures in a metallic layer of fixed thickness, in which the filtered wavelengths are selected by varying the aperture geometry. In particular, we study filters made of at least one sheet of resonating apertures in metal embedded in dielectrics. We will discuss two interesting problems that arise when one attempts to design such filters. First, metallic absorption must be taken into account. Second, the form and size of the pattern is limited by lithography. We will present some design examples and an attempt at explaining the filtering behavior based on the temporal coupled mode theory. That theory models the filter as a resonator interacting with the environment via loss channels. The transmission is solely determined by the loss rates associated with those channels. This model allows us to give a general picture of the filtering performance and compare their characteristics at different wavelength bands.

  17. On-line object feature extraction for multispectral scene representation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ghassemian, Hassan; Landgrebe, David

    1988-01-01

    A new on-line unsupervised object-feature extraction method is presented that reduces the complexity and costs associated with the analysis of the multispectral image data and data transmission, storage, archival and distribution. The ambiguity in the object detection process can be reduced if the spatial dependencies, which exist among the adjacent pixels, are intelligently incorporated into the decision making process. The unity relation was defined that must exist among the pixels of an object. Automatic Multispectral Image Compaction Algorithm (AMICA) uses the within object pixel-feature gradient vector as a valuable contextual information to construct the object's features, which preserve the class separability information within the data. For on-line object extraction the path-hypothesis and the basic mathematical tools for its realization are introduced in terms of a specific similarity measure and adjacency relation. AMICA is applied to several sets of real image data, and the performance and reliability of features is evaluated.

  18. Seeker multispectral atmospheric reentry technology (SMART) window development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gal, G.; Herman, B.; Morrow, H.; Anderson, W.; Hsu, I.; Stubbs, D.

    1992-05-01

    Seeker Multispectral Atmospheric Reentry Technology (SMART) window development is concerned with the application of innovative technologies to develop an internally cooled window with minimum aperture size for a large field-of-regard (FOR) multispectral seeker installed in an endoatmospheric hypersonic kill vehicle. The window should be very small and lightweight and have a built-in scanner to cover the FOR. The design of such a window requires input from several critical areas, including system requirements, optical design, fabrication of micro-optical components, cooling, optomechanical design, mechanical stress analysis, and flow-field analysis. This paper describes our approach to the development of a SMART window and the current state of our design.

  19. Uniqueness in multispectral constant-wave epi-illumination imaging.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Allende, P B; Radrich, K; Symvoulidis, P; Glatz, J; Koch, M; Jentoft, K M; Ripoll, J; Ntziachristos, V

    2016-07-01

    Multispectral tissue imaging based on optical cameras and continuous-wave tissue illumination is commonly used in medicine and biology. Surprisingly, there is a characteristic absence of a critical look at the quantities that can be uniquely characterized from optically diffuse matter by multispectral imaging. Here, we investigate the fundamental question of uniqueness in epi-illumination measurements from turbid media obtained at multiple wavelengths. By utilizing an analytical model, tissue-mimicking phantoms, and an in vivo imaging experiment we show that independent of the bands employed, spectral measurements cannot uniquely retrieve absorption and scattering coefficients. We also establish that it is, nevertheless, possible to uniquely quantify oxygen saturation and the Mie scattering power-a previously undocumented uniqueness condition. PMID:27367111

  20. Demosaicking for multispectral images based on vectorial total variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Kazuma; Hamasaki, Taisuke; Kawase, Maru; Hasegawa, Madoka; Kato, Shigeo

    2016-08-01

    Multispectral images (MSIs), which consist of more color components than RGB images, can be used in the field of vegetation analysis and medical imaging. A capturing system with multispectral filter array (MSFA) technology has been researched to shorten the capturing time and reduce the cost. In this system, the mosaicked image captured by the MSFA is demosaicked to reconstruct the MSI. We propose a demosaicking method using vectorial total variation (VTV) regularization for an MSI. This process is regarded as inverse problem of the image observation model. The reconstructed image is estimated by minimizing the VTV as a regularization term under the constraint condition. In the experimental results, the reconstructed image quality obtained using the proposed method is better than that of the conventional approaches in terms of both peak signal-to-noise ratio and structural similarity.