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Sample records for ingaas qds structures

  1. Nuclear magnetic resonance inverse spectra of InGaAs quantum dots: Atomistic level structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulutay, Ceyhun; Chekhovich, E. A.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    2014-11-01

    A wealth of atomistic information is contained within a self-assembled quantum dot (QD), associated with its chemical composition and the growth history. In the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, as in InGaAs QDs, much of this is inherited to nuclear spins via the coupling between the strain within the polar lattice and the electric quadrupole moments of the nuclei. Here, we present a computational study of the recently introduced inverse spectra nuclear magnetic resonance technique to assess its suitability for extracting such structural information. We observe marked spectral differences between the compound InAs and alloy InGaAs QDs. These are linked to the local biaxial and shear strains, and the local bonding configurations. The cation alloying plays a crucial role especially for the arsenic nuclei. The isotopic line profiles also largely differ among nuclear species: While the central transition of the gallium isotopes have a narrow linewidth, those of arsenic and indium are much broader and oppositely skewed with respect to each other. The statistical distributions of electric field gradient (EFG) parameters of the nuclei within the QD are analyzed. The consequences of various EFG axial orientation characteristics are discussed. Finally, the possibility of suppressing the first-order quadrupolar shifts is demonstrated by simply tilting the sample with respect to the static magnetic field.

  2. Preparation and Effect of Lighting on Structures and Properties of GSH Capped ZnSe QDs.

    PubMed

    Ding, Ling; Peng, Zeze; Zhou, Peijiang; Cheng, Gary J; Nian, Qiong; Lin, Dong; Zhou, Jinhui; Liang, Yuhe

    2015-11-01

    L-glutathione (GSH) capped ZnSe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared by microwave-assisted aqueous synthesis. Then, the resulting QDs were illuminated under dark, ultraviolet light and incandescent light, respectively. Thereby effect of lighting on the structures and properties of QDs were studied systematically. It was revealed that particle size and element content of QDs took a sharp change after irradiation, while the crystal structure maintains nearly unaffected. Comparing to the ZnSe QDs under dark condition, counterparts irradiated by UV light possessed outstanding sphericity, size distribution and dispersion. And the content of sulfur (S) in ZnSe QDs irradiated by UV light was much higher relatively. The effect of lighting on vibration peaks of O-H was considerable. However, this effect was observed to be weak on other chemical bonds. The possible explanation ascribes to photo-chemical interactions can occur between S-H and O-H bonds on the surface of GSH ligand. The lighting induced GSH to occur photocatalytic oxidation on the surface of ZnSe QDs, which improved the optical properties of QDs. The effects of lighting rely on irradiation types, the sequence is UV light, incandescent light and dark from high to low. PMID:26377128

  3. Formation of columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots on GaAs(100)

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.; Noetzel, R.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gong, Q.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2004-10-04

    Columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots (QDs) with homogeneous composition and shape in the growth direction are realized by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates. The columnar (In,Ga)As QDs are formed on InAs seed QDs by alternating deposition of thin GaAs intermediate layers and monolayers of InAs with extended growth interruptions after each layer. The height of the columnar (In,Ga)As QDs is controlled by varying the number of stacked GaAs/InAs layers. The structural and optical properties are studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. With increase of the aspect ratio of the columnar QDs, the emission wavelength is redshifted and the linewidth is reduced.

  4. Study of InGaAs based MODFET structures using variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Sieg, R. M.; Yao, H. D.; Snyder, P. G.; Woollam, J. A.; Pamulapati, J.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Sekula-Moise, P. A.

    1991-01-01

    Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to estimate the thicknesses of all layers within the optical penetration depth of InGaAs based MODFET structures. Strained and unstrained InGaAs channels were made by MBE on InP substrates and by MOCVD on GaAs substrates. In most cases, ellipsometrically determined thicknesses were within 10 percent of the growth calibration results. The MBE made InGaAs strained layers showed large strain effects, indicating a probable shift in the critical points of their dielectric function toward the InP lattice matched concentration.

  5. Structural, optical and photovoltaic properties of co-doped CdTe QDs for quantum dots sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayyaswamy, Arivarasan; Ganapathy, Sasikala; Alsalme, Ali; Alghamdi, Abdulaziz; Ramasamy, Jayavel

    2015-12-01

    Zinc and sulfur alloyed CdTe quantum dots (QDs) sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes have been fabricated for quantum dots sensitized solar cells. Alloyed CdTe QDs were prepared in aqueous phase using mercaptosuccinic acid (MSA) as a capping agent. The influence of co-doping on the structural property of CdTe QDs was studied by XRD analysis. The enhanced optical absorption of alloyed CdTe QDs was studied using UV-vis absorption and fluorescence emission spectra. The capping of MSA molecules over CdTe QDs was confirmed by the FTIR and XPS analyses. Thermogravimetric analysis confirms that the prepared QDs were thermally stable up to 600 °C. The photovoltaic performance of alloyed CdTe QDs sensitized TiO2 photoelectrodes were studied using J-V characteristics under the illumination of light with 1 Sun intensity. These results show the highest photo conversion efficiency of η = 1.21%-5% Zn & S alloyed CdTe QDs.

  6. Giant Up-Conversion Efficiency of InGaAs Quantum Dots in a Planar Microcavity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qinfeng; Piermarocchi, Carlo; Pershin, Yuriy V.; Salamo, G. J.; Xiao, Min; Wang, Xiaoyong; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) were fabricated inside a planar microcavity with two vertical cavity modes. This allowed us to excite the QDs coupled to one of the vertical cavity modes through two propagating cavity modes to study their down- and up-converted photoluminescence (PL). The up-converted PL increased continuously with the increasing temperature, reaching an intensity level comparable to that of the down-converted PL at ~120 K. This giant efficiency in the up-converted PL of InGaAs QDs was enhanced by about 2 orders of magnitude with respect to a similar structure without cavity. We tentatively explain the enhanced up-converted signal as a direct consequence of the modified spontaneous emission properties of the QDs in the microcavity, combined with the phonon absorption and emission effects. PMID:24492329

  7. Structural, morphological and optical properties of PEDOT:PSS/QDs nano-composite films prepared by spin-casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najeeb, Mansoor Ani; Abdullah, Shahino Mah; Aziz, Fakhra; Ahmad, Zubair; Rafique, Saqib; Wageh, S.; Al-Ghamdi, Ahmed A.; Sulaiman, Khaulah; Touati, Farid; Shakoor, R. A.; Al-Thani, N. J.

    2016-09-01

    This paper describes the structural, morphological and optical properties of the nano-composite of poly (3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) polystyrene sulfonate (PEDOT:PSS) and quantum dots (QDs). The ZnSe and CdSe QDs have been synthesized, with the aid of Mercaptoacetic acid (MAA), by a colloidal method with an average size of ~5 to 7 nm. QDs have been embedded in PEDOT:PSS using a simple solution processing approach and has been deposited as thin films by spin coating technique. The QDs embedded PEDOT:PSS enhances the light absorption spectra of samples, prominently in terms of absorption intensity which may consequently improve sensitivity of the optoelectronic devices.

  8. Structural effects on heat dissipation in InGaAs MHEMTs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Jinhyun; Ryoo, Yeonmi; Jeon, Namcheol; Cha, Ho-Young; Seo, Kwang-Seok

    2013-04-01

    Since the high thermal resistance of InGaAs metamorphic high electron mobility transistors (MHEMTs) limits their applicability, thermal management should be taken into account when designing the device structure. In this study, structural effects on heat dissipation in InGaAs MHEMTs were carefully investigated and experimentally validated. With an air bridge thickness of 10 µm and a gate pitch distance of 24 µm, the maximum channel temperature in a flip-chip bonded device was noticeably reduced from 132 to 106 °C (i.e. corresponding thermal resistance from 252.17 to 178.14 K W-1). Improved heat dissipation with the proposed structure was experimentally validated using backside-mounted devices by an infrared temperature measurement method.

  9. Coupling of single InGaAs quantum dots to the plasmon resonance of a metal nanocrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanczyk, A.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Noetzel, R.

    2010-07-26

    The authors report the coupling of single InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) to the surface plasmon resonance of a metal nanocrystal. Clear enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) in the spectral region of the surface plasmon resonance is observed which splits up into distinct emission lines from single QDs in micro-PL. The hybrid metal-semiconductor structure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100) utilizing the concept of self-organized anisotropic strain engineering for realizing ordered arrays with nanometer-scale precise positioning of the metal nanocrystals with respect to the QDs.

  10. Radiation performance of AlGaAs and InGaAs concentrator cells and expected performance of cascade structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, H. B.; Swartz, C. K.; Hart, R. E., Jr.

    1987-01-01

    Aluminum gallium arsenide, GaAs, silicon and InGaAs cells have been irradiated with 1-MeV electrons and 37-MeV protons. These cells are candidates for individual cells in a cascade structure. Data are presented for both electron and proton irradiation studies for one sun and a concentration level of 100X AM0. Results of calculations on the radiation resistance of cascade cell structures based on the individual cell data are also presented. Both series-connected and separately connected structures are investigated.

  11. The influence of growth temperature on structural and optical properties of sputtered ZnO QDs embedded in SiO2 matrix

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samavati, Alireza; Othaman, Zulkafli; Ghoshal, S. K.; Mustafa, M. K.

    2015-10-01

    We report the influence of growth temperature on surface morphology, structural and optical properties of ZnO QDs embedded with SiO2/Si matrix fabricated by radio frequency (RF) magnetron sputtering method. The fragmentation due to elastic strain relaxation compensate adatom diffusion length at higher temperature causes the decrement of the ZnO QDs sizes from ∼41 nm to ∼12 nm and number density enhancement from ∼0.2 to ∼15.4 × 1010 cm-2 by increasing the growth temperature. ZnO QDs shows a well-defined hexagonal close packed wurtzite structure with lattice parameters close to those of bulk ZnO, confirming their high crystalline quality. Increasing growth parameters causes to decrease the lattice parameters due to change in interatomic distances explained by elimination of defects and structural relaxation. The room temperature photoluminescence (PL) spectra shows strong UV accompanied by weaker green peak originated from recombination of free excitons and dominative deep-level emissions respectively. As the growth temperature increased to 500 °C, an emission intensity in the ultraviolet and green region enhanced which is due to increment in the numbers of photo-carriers by increasing the number density of QDs. Calculated band gap using an optical transmittance measurement indicates that the bandgap shift to higher energies is not taken placed because of large size of dots. The Urbach energy increases considerably in samples with increasing growth temperature which is attributed to higher degree of surface disorder in smaller QDs. The excellent features of the results suggest that our systematic analysis method may constitute a basis for the tunable growth of ZnO QDs suitable in nanophotonics.

  12. Spatially correlated structural and optical characterization of a single InGaAs quantum well fin selectively grown on Si by microscopy and cathodoluminescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S.; Roque, J.; Rochat, N.; Bernier, N.; Piot, L.; Alcotte, R.; Cerba, T.; Martin, M.; Moeyaert, J.; Bogumilowizc, Y.; Arnaud, S.; Bertin, F.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.

    2016-05-01

    Structural and optical properties of InGaAs quantum well fins (QWFs) selectively grown on Si using the aspect ratio trapping (ART) method in 200 nm deep SiO2 trenches are studied. A new method combining cathodoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, and precession electron diffraction techniques is developed to spatially correlate the presence of defects and/or strain with the light emission properties of a single InGaAs QWF. Luminescence losses and energy shifts observed at the nanoscale along InGaAs QWF are correlated with structural defects. We show that strain distortions measured around threading dislocations delimit both high and low luminescent areas. We also show that trapped dislocations on SiO2 sidewalls can also result in additional distortions. Both behaviors affect optical properties of QWF at the nanoscale. Our study highlights the need to improve the ART growth method to allow integration of new efficient III-V optoelectronic components on Si.

  13. Beyond hydrostatic strain in empirical pseudopotentials for the electronic structure of InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulutay, Ceyhun; Cakan, Asli

    2015-03-01

    Self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) are among the prime candidates for realizing semiconductor qubits. Even though much progress has been achieved toward understanding their electronic structure, more efforts are needed to reach the desired quantitative level for a precise control of the carrier and nuclear spin degrees of freedom. In this respect, the empirical pseudopotential method has been highly successful for structures involving more than hundred thousand atoms. However, due to lack of self-consistency, their use in strained environments, as in SAQDS, requires vital improvement. The main contribution of this work is to develop empirical pseudopotentials valid for inhomogeneous strain environments caused by cation alloying in InGaAs SAQDs. In our presentation, we first validate our approach with the ab initio density functional theory results based on Projector Augmented-Wave technique. This is followed by a comparison of the electronic structure results with and without strain-dependent pseudopotentials for InGaAs SAQDs having an alloy composition of 20-30% indium, which is typically the case in the current samples. Supported by TUBITAK with the Project No. 112T178.

  14. Effect of surface plasmon resonance in TiO2/Au thin films on the fluorescence of self-assembled CdTe QDs structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moura, I.; Cerqueira, M. F.; Melnikau, D.; Savateeva, D.; Rakovich, Y.; Borges, J.; Vaz, F.; Vasilevskiy, M.

    2015-04-01

    The exceptional properties of localised surface plasmons (LSPs), such as local field enhancement and confinement effects, resonant behavior, make them ideal candidates to control the emission of luminescent nanoparticles. In the present work, we investigated the LSP effect on the steady-state and time-resolved emission properties of quantum dots (QDs) by organizing the dots into self-assembled dendrite structures deposited on plasmonic nanostructures. Self-assembled structures consisting of water-soluble CdTe mono-size QDs, were developed on the surface of co-sputtered TiO2 thin films doped with Au nanoparticles (NPs) annealed at different temperatures. Their steady-state fluorescence properties were probed by scanning the spatially resolved emission spectra and the energy transfer processes were investigated by the fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM) microscopy. Our results indicate that a resonant coupling between excitons confined in QDs and LSPs in Au NPs located beneath the self-assembled structure indeed takes place and results in (i) a shift of the ground state luminescence towards higher energies and onset of emission from excited states in QDs, and (ii) a decrease of the ground state exciton lifetime (fluorescence quenching).

  15. Ground-state energy trends in single and multilayered coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dots capped with InGaAs layers: Effects of InGaAs layer thickness and annealing temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.; Ghosh, K.; Jejurikar, S.; Mishra, A.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Investigation of ground state energy in single and multi-layered InAs/GaAs QD. • Strain reducing layer (InGaAs) prevents the formation of non-radiative. • Strain reducing layer (InGaAs) is responsible for high activation energy. • Significant deviation from the Varshni model, E(T) = E − αT{sup 2}/T + β. - Abstract: Vertically coupled, multilayered InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) covered with thin InGaAs strain-reducing layers (SRLs) are in demand for various technological applications. We investigated low temperature photoluminescence of single and multilayered structures in which the SRL thickness was varied. The SRL layer was responsible for high activation energies. Deviation of experimental data from the Varshni (1967) model, E(T) = E − ∞ T{sup 2}/T + β, suggests that the InAs-layered QDs have properties different from those in bulk material. Anomalous ground-state peak linewidths (FWHM), especially for annealed multilayer structures, were observed. A ground-state peak blue-shift with a broadened linewidth was also observed. Loss of intensity was detected in samples annealed at 800 °C. Presence of SRLs prevents formation of non-radiative centers under high temperature annealing. The results indicate the potential importance of such structures in optoelectronic applications.

  16. Widely tunable alloy composition and crystal structure in catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire arrays grown by selective area molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treu, J.; Speckbacher, M.; Saller, K.; Morkötter, S.; Döblinger, M.; Xu, X.; Riedl, H.; Abstreiter, G.; Finley, J. J.; Koblmüller, G.

    2016-02-01

    We delineate the optimized growth parameter space for high-uniformity catalyst-free InGaAs nanowire (NW) arrays on Si over nearly the entire alloy compositional range using selective area molecular beam epitaxy. Under the required high group-V fluxes and V/III ratios, the respective growth windows shift to higher growth temperatures as the Ga-content x(Ga) is tuned from In-rich to Ga-rich InGaAs NWs. Using correlated x-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, we identify structural defects to govern luminescence linewidths in In-rich (x(Ga) < 0.4) and Ga-rich (x(Ga) > 0.6) NWs, whereas limitations at intermediate Ga-content (0.4 < x(Ga) < 0.6) are mainly due to compositional inhomogeneities. Most remarkably, the catalyst-free InGaAs NWs exhibit a characteristic transition in crystal structure from wurtzite to zincblende (ZB) dominated phase near x(Ga) ˜ 0.4 that is further reflected in a cross-over from blue-shifted to red-shifted photoluminescence emission relative to the band edge emission of the bulk ZB InGaAs phase.

  17. Detailed Study of the Influence of InGaAs Matrix on the Strain Reduction in the InAs Dot-In-Well Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Qimiao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Chunfang; Wang, Shumin; Gong, Qian

    2016-12-01

    InAs/InGaAs dot-in-well (DWELL) structures have been investigated with the systematically varied InGaAs thickness. Both the strained buffer layer (SBL) below the dot layer and the strain-reducing layer (SRL) above the dot layer were found to be responsible for the redshift in photoluminescence (PL) emission of the InAs/InGaAs DWELL structure. A linear followed by a saturation behavior of the emission redshift was observed as a function of the SBL and SRL thickness, respectively. The PL intensity is greatly enhanced by applying both of the SRL and SBL. Finite element analysis simulation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement were carried out to analyze the strain distribution in the InAs QD and the InGaAs SBL. The results clearly indicate the strain reduction in the QD induced by the SBL, which are likely the main cause for the emission redshift. PMID:26932758

  18. Monolithically Integrated InGaAs Nanowires on 3D Structured Silicon-on-Insulator as a New Platform for Full Optical Links.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyunseok; Farrell, Alan C; Senanayake, Pradeep; Lee, Wook-Jae; Huffaker, Diana L

    2016-03-01

    Monolithically integrated III-V semiconductors on a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) platform can be used as a building block for energy-efficient on-chip optical links. Epitaxial growth of III-V semiconductors on silicon, however, has been challenged by the large mismatches in lattice constants and thermal expansion coefficients between epitaxial layers and silicon substrates. Here, we demonstrate for the first time the monolithic integration of InGaAs nanowires on the SOI platform and its feasibility for photonics and optoelectronic applications. InGaAs nanowires are grown not only on a planar SOI layer but also on a 3D structured SOI layer by catalyst-free metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The precise positioning of nanowires on 3D structures, including waveguides and gratings, reveals the versatility and practicality of the proposed platform. Photoluminescence measurements exhibit that the composition of ternary InGaAs nanowires grown on the SOI layer has wide tunability covering all telecommunication wavelengths from 1.2 to 1.8 μm. We also show that the emission from an optically pumped single nanowire is effectively coupled and transmitted through an SOI waveguide, explicitly showing that this work lays the foundation for a new platform toward energy-efficient optical links. PMID:26901448

  19. In-situ atomic layer deposition of tri-methylaluminum and water on pristine single-crystal (In)GaAs surfaces: electronic and electric structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, T. W.; Lin, Y. H.; Fanchiang, Y. T.; Chiang, T. H.; Wei, C. H.; Lin, Y. C.; Wertheim, G. K.; Kwo, J.; Hong, M.

    2015-04-01

    The electronic structure of single-crystal (In)GaAs deposited with tri-methylaluminum (TMA) and water via atomic layer deposition (ALD) is presented with high-resolution synchrotron radiation core-level photoemission and capacitance-voltage (CV) characteristics. The interaction of the precursor atoms with (In)GaAs is confined at the topmost surface layer. The Ga-vacant site on the GaAs(111)A-2 × 2 surface is filled with Al, thereby effectively passivating the As dangling bonds. The As-As dimers on the GaAs(001)-2 × 4 surface are entirely passivated by one cycle of TMA and water. The presumed layerwise deposition fails to happen in GaAs(001)-4 × 6. In In0.20Ga0.80As(001)-2 × 4, the edge row As atoms are partially bonded with the Al, and one released methyl then bonds with the In. It is suggested that the unpassivated surface and subsurface atoms cause large frequency dispersions in CV characteristics under the gate bias. We also found that the (In)GaAs surface is immune to water in ALD. However, the momentary exposure of it to air (less than one minute) introduces significant signals of native oxides. This indicates the necessity of in situ works of high κ/(In)GaAs-related experiments in order to know the precise interfacial atomic bonding and thus know the electronic characteristics. The electric CV measurements of the ALD-Al2O3 on these (In)GaAs surfaces are correlated with their electronic properties.

  20. In situ tuning biexciton antibinding-binding transition and fine structure splitting through hydrostatic pressure in single InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hai; Wu, Xuefei; Dou, Xiuming; Ding, Kun; Yu, Ying; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Ji, Yang; Li, Shushen; Jiang, Desheng; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin; Sun, Baoquan; Institute of Semiconductors, CAS, PR China Team; Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science; Technology of China, PR China Team

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that the exciton and biexciton emission energies as well as exciton fine structure splitting (FSS) in single (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) can be efficiently tuned using hydrostatic pressure in situ in an optical cryostat at up to 4.4 GPa. The maximum exciton emission energy shift is up to 380 meV, and the FSS is up to 150 μeV. We successfully produce a biexciton antibinding-binding transition in QDs, which is the key experimental condition that generates color- and polarization-indistinguishable photon pairs from the cascade of biexciton emissions and that generates entangled photons via a time-reordering scheme. We also perform the atomistic pseudopotential calculations on realistic (In,Ga)As/GaAs QDs to understand the physical mechanism underlying the hydrostatic pressure-induced effects.

  1. Narrow optical line width from site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lily; Yakes, Michael; Sweeney, Timothy; Carter, Samuel; Kim, Chulsoo; Kim, Mijin; Bracker, Allan; Gammon, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The incorporation of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) in systematically scalable quantum devices requires a method of nucleating dots with nanometer-scale spatial accuracy while preserving their narrow optical line width. We have developed a technique combining e-beam lithography, wet etching, and molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth to deterministically position InGaAs QDs with spectrometer limited photoluminescence line widths. Our technique takes advantage of the anisotropy in GaAs growth to evolve an etched pattern of holes and lines into faceted structures in which dots nucleate. Using this technique, we were able to grow a buffer layer of pure GaAs up to 90 nm in thickness between the processed surface and the dot nucleation surface, effectively separating the QDs from unavoidable residual defects and impurities on the patterned surface that broaden their optical line widths. Additionally, we demonstrate control over the number of dots nucleating per site, from single to a chain of several, by varying the dimensions of the original pattern. Our dots are grown in a Schottky diode structure. Their PL spectrum shows discrete charging transitions, with narrow linewidths near the spectrometer's resolution limit of 20 micro eV.

  2. InGaAs inversion layers band structure, electrostatics, and mobility modeling based on 8 band k → · p → theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Anh-Tuan; Jin, Seonghoon; Choi, Woosung; Lee, Myoung-Jae; Cho, Seong-Ho; Kim, Young-Tae; Lee, Keun-Ho; Park, Youngkwan

    2015-11-01

    8 band k → · p → method is used to calculate subband structures of InGaAs inversion layers accounting for strong coupling between conduction and valence bands around Γ point as well as quantum confinement. Inversion layer mobility is computed employing Kubo-Greenwood formalism. Scatterings due to acoustic phonons, polar optical phonons, ionized impurities, interface fixed charges, surface roughness, and alloy disorder are included. The simulated low-field electron mobility results are in good agreement with experimental data with and without an InP capping layer.

  3. In situ tuning biexciton antibinding-binding transition and fine-structure splitting through hydrostatic pressure in single InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. F.; Wei, H.; Dou, X. M.; Ding, K.; Yu, Y.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.; Ji, Y.; Li, S. S.; Jiang, D. S.; Guo, G.-C.; He, L. X.; Sun, B. Q.

    2014-07-01

    Exciton and biexciton emission energies as well as excitonic fine-structure splitting (FSS) in single (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) have been continuously tuned using hydrostatic pressure up to 4.4 GPa. The blue shift of excitonic emission and the increase of FSS are 320 meV and 150\\ \\mu\\text{eV} , respectively, which are significantly greater than those that could be achieved by previously reported techniques. We successfully produce a biexciton antibinding-binding transition along with a detailed polarization-resolved emission spectra. It is shown that the biexciton binding energy linearly increases with increasing pressure and tends to be sublinear at high pressure. We have performed atomistic pseudopotential calculations on realistic QDs to understand the pressure-induced effects.

  4. Comparison of luminescent efficiency of InGaAs quantum well structures grown on Si, GaAs, Ge, and SiGe virtual substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, V. K.; Ting, S. M.; Groenert, M. E.; Bulsara, M. T.; Currie, M. T.; Leitz, C. W.; Fitzgerald, E. A.

    2003-05-01

    In order to study the luminescent efficiency of InGaAs quantum wells on Si via SiGe interlayers, identical In0.2Ga0.8As quantum well structures with GaAs and Al0.25Ga0.75As cladding layers were grown on several substrates by an atmospheric metalorganic vapor deposition system. The substrates used include GaAs, Si, Ge, and SiGe virtual substrates. The SiGe virtual substrates were graded from Si substrates to 100% Ge content. Because of the small lattice mismatch between GaAs and Ge (0.07%), high-quality GaAs-based thin films with threading dislocation densities <3×106 cm-2 were realized on these SiGe substrates. Quantitative cathodoluminescence was used to compare the luminescent efficiency of the quantum well structure on the different substrates and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy was used to characterize dislocation densities. Our results show that the InGaAs quantum wells grown on the GaAs substrates have the highest luminescent efficiencies due to the lowest dislocation densities. Interestingly, InGaAs quantum wells grown on the SiGe virtual substrates outperform those on Ge substrates, both in terms of luminescent efficiency and dislocation density. This difference is attributed to the variation in thermal expansion coefficient (α) and its impact on defect structure during the process cycle. The SiGe virtual substrate has a smaller α compared to a Ge substrate because of the smaller α of the Si substrate, which helps minimize compressive strain in the quantum well layer during the temperature decrease from the growth temperature. Consequently, fewer misfit dislocations are created between the quantum well and cladding interfaces. These misfits can greatly affect the luminescent efficiency since they can act as recombination sites. In general, the efficiencies of the quantum wells on the SiGe and Ge substrates were affected only by higher misfit dislocation densities, whereas the quantum wells on the Si substrate had low efficiency due to

  5. Colloidal QDs-polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gordillo, H.; Suárez, I.; Rodríguez-Cantó, P.; Abargues, R.; García-Calzada, R.; Chyrvony, V.; Albert, S.; Martínez-Pastor, J.

    2012-04-01

    Nanometer-size colloidal semiconductor nanocrystals, or Quantum Dots (NQD), are very prospective active centers because their light emission is highly efficient and temperature-independent. Nanocomposites based on the incorporation of QDs inside a polymer matrix are very promising materials for application in future photonic devices because they combine the properties of QDs with the technological feasibility of polymers. In the present work some basic applications of these new materials have been studied. Firstly, the fabrication of planar and linear waveguides based on the incorporation of CdS, CdSe and CdTe in PMMA and SU-8 are demonstrated. As a result, photoluminescence (PL) of the QDs are coupled to a waveguide mode, being it able to obtain multicolor waveguiding. Secondly, nanocomposite films have been evaluated as photon energy down-shifting converters to improve the efficiency of solar cells.

  6. Research and experiment of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system based on FPGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Ling; Min, Chaobo; Sun, Jianning; Gu, Yan; Yang, Feng; Zhu, Bo; Pan, Jingsheng; Guo, Yiliang

    2015-04-01

    The design and imaging characteristic experiment of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system are introduced. Through the adoption of InGaAs focal plane array, the real time image process structure of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is researched. The hardware circuit and image process software of the imaging system based on FPGA are researched. The InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is composed of shortwave infrared lens, InGaAs focal plane array, temperature controller module, power supply module, analog-to-digital converter module, digital-to-analog converter module, FPGA image processing module and optical-mechanical structure. The main lock frequency of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is 30MHz. The output mode of the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is PAL analog signal. The power dissipation of the imaging system is 2.6W. The real time signal process in InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system includes non-uniformly correction algorithm, bad pixel replacement algorithm, and histogram equalization algorithm. Based on the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system, the imaging characteristic test of shortwave infrared is carried out for different targets in different conditions. In the foggy weather, the haze and fog penetration are tested. The InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system could be used for observing humans, boats, architecture, and mountains in the haze and foggy weather. The configuration and performance of InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system are respectively logical and steady. The research on the InGaAs shortwave infrared imaging system is worthwhile for improving the development of night vision technology.

  7. Photoexcited-induced sensitivity of InGaAs surface QDs to environment.

    PubMed

    Milla, M J; Ulloa, J M; Guzmán, A

    2014-11-01

    A detailed analysis of the impact of illumination on the electrical response of In0.5Ga0.5As surface nanostructures is carried out as a function of different relative humidity conditions. The importance of the surface-to-volume ratio for sensing applications is once more highlighted. From dark-to-photo conditions, the sheet resistance (SR) of a three-dimensional In0.5Ga0.5As nanostructure decays two orders of magnitude compared with that of a two-dimensional nanostructure. The electrical response is found to be vulnerable to the energy of the incident light and the external conditions. Illuminating with high energy light translates into an SR reduction of one order of magnitude under humid atmospheres, whereas it remains nearly unchanged under dry environments. Conversely, lighting with energy below the bulk energy bandgap, shows a negligible effect on the electrical properties regardless the local moisture. Both illumination and humidity are therefore needed for sensing. Photoexcited carriers can only contribute to conductivity if surface states are inactive due to water physisorption. The strong dependence of the electrical response on the environment makes these nanostructures very suitable for the development of highly sensitive and efficient sensing devices. PMID:25325146

  8. Electrostatic assembles and optical properties of Au CdTe QDs and Ag/Au CdTe QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongzhi; Wang, Wenxing; Chen, Qifan; Huang, Yuping; Xu, Shukun

    2008-09-01

    Au-CdTe and Ag/Au-CdTe assembles were firstly investigated through the static interaction between positively charged cysteamine-stabilized CdTe quantum dots (QDs) and negatively charged Au or core/shell Ag/Au nano-particles (NCs). The CdTe QDs synthesized in aqueous solution were capped with cysteamine which endowed them positive charges on the surface. Both Au and Ag/Au NCs were prepared through reducing precursors with gallic acid obtained from the hydrolysis of natural plant poly-phenols and favored negative charges on the surface of NCs. The fluorescence spectra of CdTe QDs exhibited strong quenching with the increase of added Au or Ag/Au NCs. Railey resonance scattering spectra of Au or Ag/Au NCs increased firstly and decreased latter with the concentration of CdTe QDs, accompanied with the solution color changing from red to purple and colorless at last. Experimental results on the effects of gallic acid, chloroauric acid tetrahydrate and other reagents demonstrated the static interaction occurred between QDs and NCs. This finding reveals the possibilities to design and control optical process and electromagnetic coupling in hybrid structures.

  9. Carrier relaxation in (In,Ga)As quantum dots with magnetic field-induced anharmonic level structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtze, H.; Bayer, M.

    2016-07-01

    Sophisticated models have been worked out to explain the fast relaxation of carriers into quantum dot ground states after non-resonant excitation, overcoming the originally proposed phonon bottleneck. We apply a magnetic field along the quantum dot heterostructure growth direction to transform the confined level structure, which can be approximated by a Fock-Darwin spectrum, from a nearly equidistant level spacing at zero field to strong anharmonicity in finite fields. This changeover leaves the ground state carrier population rise time unchanged suggesting that fast relaxation is maintained upon considerable changes of the level spacing. This corroborates recent models explaining the relaxation by polaron formation in combination with quantum kinetic effects.

  10. Low dark current InGaAs detector arrays for night vision and astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDougal, Michael; Geske, Jon; Wang, Chad; Liao, Shirong; Getty, Jonathan; Holmes, Alan

    2009-05-01

    Aerius Photonics has developed large InGaAs arrays (1K x 1K and greater) with low dark currents for use in night vision applications in the SWIR regime. Aerius will present results of experiments to reduce the dark current density of their InGaAs detector arrays. By varying device designs and passivations, Aerius has achieved a dark current density below 1.0 nA/cm2 at 280K on small-pixel, detector arrays. Data is shown for both test structures and focal plane arrays. In addition, data from cryogenically cooled InGaAs arrays will be shown for astronomy applications.

  11. InGaAs quantum dot molecules around self-assembled GaAs nanomound templates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Wang, Zh. M.; Strom, N. W.; Mazur, Yu. I.; Salamo, G. J.

    2006-11-13

    Several distinctive self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot molecules (QDMs) are studied. The QDMs self-assemble around nanoscale-sized GaAs moundlike templates fabricated by droplet homoepitaxy. Depending on the specific InAs monolayer coverage, the number of QDs per GaAs mound ranges from two to six (bi-QDMs to hexa-QDMs). The Ga contribution from the mounds is analyzed in determining the morphologies of the QDMs, with respect to the InAs coverages ranging between 0.8 and 2.4 ML. Optical characterization shows that the resulting nanostructures are high-quality nanocrystals.

  12. Crosstalk study of near infrared InGaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue; Tang, Hengjing; Li, Tao; Fan, Cui; Shao, Xiumei; Li, Jianwei; Wei, Jun; Gong, Haimei

    2016-05-01

    Crosstalk characteristics of high density FPA detectors attract widespread attention in the application of electro-optical systems. Crosstalk characteristics of near-infrared (NIR) InGaAs photodiodes and focal plane arrays (FPAs) were studied in this paper. The mesa type detector was investigated by using laser beam induced current technique (LBIC) to measure the absorption outside the designed photosensitive area, and the results show that the excess absorption enlarges the crosstalk of the adjacent pixels. The structure optimization using the effective absorption layer between the pixels can effectively reduce the crosstalk to 2.5%. The major crosstalk components of the optimization photodiode come from the electronic signal caused by carrier lateral diffusion. For the planar type detectors, test structures were used to compare the crosstalk of different structures, and the guard ring structure shows good suppression of the crosstalk. Then the back-illuminated 32x32 InGaAs photodiodes with 30μm pitch were designed, and LBIC was used to measure its lateral diffusion of the effective carriers and fill factor of photosensitive area. The results indicate that the fill factor of detectors can reach up to 98% when the diffusion region is optimized, and the minimum response exists between two neighborhood pixels. Based on these crosstalk measurement results and optimizing structure designs, the linear InGaAs photodiodes were designed and thus the InGaAs FPA assembly was fabricated. The assembly shows higher electro-optical performance and good improvement on crosstalk. The assembly was applied in infrared imaging system and modulation transfer function (MTF) of FPA assembly was calculated to be above 0.50. The clear image based on FPA assembly was obtained.

  13. Dielectric function of InGaAs in the visible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Sieg, R. E.; Yao, H. D.; Snyder, P. G.; Woollam, J. A.; Pamulapati, J.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Sekula-Moise, P. A.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the dielectric function of thermodynamically stable In(x)Ga(1-x)As in the composition range 0.3 equal to or less than X = to or less than 0.7. The optically thick samples of InGaAs were made by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the range 0.4 = to or less than X = to or less than 0.7 and by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for X = 0.3. The MBE made samples, usually 1 micron thick, were grown on semi-insulating InP and included a strain release structure. The MOCVD sample was grown on GaAs and was 2 microns thick. The dielectric functions were measured by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range 1.55 to 4.4 eV. The data was analyzed assuming an optically thick InGaAs material with an oxide layer on top. The thickness of this layer was estimated by comparing the results for the InP lattice matched material, i.e., X = 0.53, with results published in the literature. The top oxide layer mathematically for X = 0.3 and X = 0.53 was removed to get the dielectric function of the bare InGaAs. In addition, the dielectric function of GaAs in vacuum, after a protective arsenic layer was removed. The dielectric functions for X = 0, 0.3, and 0.53 together with the X = 1 result from the literature to evaluate an algorithm for calculating the dielectric function of InGaAs for an arbitrary value of X(0 = to or less than X = to or less than 1) were used. Results of the dielectric function calculated using the algorithm were compared with experimental data.

  14. Dielectric function of InGaAs in the visible

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Yao, H. D.; Snyder, P. G.; Woolam, J. A.; Pamulapati, J.; Bhattacharya, P. K.; Sekula-Moise, P. A.; Sieg, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Measurements are reported of the dielectric function of thermodynamically stable In(x)Ga(1-x)As in the composition range 0.3 equal to or less than X = to or less than 0.7. The optically thick samples of InGaAs were made by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) in the range 0.4 = to or less than X = to or less than 0.7 and by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) for X = 0.3. The MBE made samples, usually 1 micron thick, were grown on semi-insulating InP and included a strain release structure. The MOCVD sample was grown on GaAs and was 2 microns thick. The dielectric functions were measured by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry in the range 1.55 to 4.4 eV. The data was analyzed assuming an optically thick InGaAs material with an oxide layer on top. The thickness of this layer was estimated by comparing the results for the InP lattice matched material, i.e., X = 0.53, with results published in the literature. The top oxide layer mathematically for X = 0.3 and X = 0.53 was removed to get the dielectric function of the bare InGaAs. In addition, the dielectric function of GaAs in vacuum, after a protective arsenic layer was removed. The dielectric functions for X = 0, 0.3, and 0.53 together with the X = 1 result from the literature to evaluate an algorithm for calculating the dielectric function of InGaAs for an arbitrary value of X (0 = to or less than X = to or less than 1) were used. Results of the dielectric function calculated using the algorithm were compared with experimental data.

  15. Metastable growth of pure wurtzite InGaAs microstructures.

    PubMed

    Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2014-08-13

    III-V compound semiconductors can exist in two major crystal phases, namely, zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ). While ZB is thermodynamically favorable in conventional III-V epitaxy, the pure WZ phase can be stable in nanowires with diameters smaller than certain critical values. However, thin nanowires are more vulnerable to surface recombination, and this can ultimately limit their performances as practical devices. In this work, we study a metastable growth mechanism that can yield purely WZ-phased InGaAs microstructures on silicon. InGaAs nucleates as sharp nanoneedles and expand along both axial and radial directions simultaneously in a core-shell fashion. While the base can scale from tens of nanometers to over a micron, the tip can remain sharp over the entire growth. The sharpness maintains a high local surface-to-volume ratio, favoring hexagonal lattice to grow axially. These unique features lead to the formation of microsized pure WZ InGaAs structures on silicon. To verify that the WZ microstructures are truly metastable, we demonstrate, for the first time, the in situ transformation from WZ to the energy-favorable ZB phase inside a transmission electron microscope. This unconventional core-shell growth mechanism can potentially be applied to other III-V materials systems, enabling the effective utilization of the extraordinary properties of the metastable wurtzite crystals. PMID:24988280

  16. Multijunction InGaAs thermophotovoltaic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Fatemi, N.S.; Jenkins, P.P.; Weizer, V.G.; Wilt, D.M.; Murray, C.S.

    1998-12-31

    A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. The MIM consists of many individual InGaAs cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. An infrared (IR) back surface reflector (BSR), placed on the rear surface of the substrate, returns the unused portion of the TPV radiator output spectrum back to the radiator for recuperation, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. MIMs were fabricated with an active area of 0.9 {times} 1 cm, and with 15 cells monolithically connected in series. Both lattice-matched and lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP devices were fabricated, with bandgaps of 0.74 and 0.55 eV, respectively. The 0.74 eV MIMs demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 6.16 V and a fill factor of 74.2% at a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 0.84 A/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The 0.55 eV MIMs demonstrated a Voc of 4.85 V and a fill factor of 57.8% at a Jsc of 3.87 A/cm{sup 2}. Electrical performance results for these MIMs are presented.

  17. Antibacterial potential of rutin conjugated with thioglycolic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA-CdTe QDs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran; Jagadeeswari, Sivanadanam; Nagarajan, Natarajan; Renganathan, Rajalingam; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots not only act as nanocarrier but also act as stable and resistant natural fluorescent bio markers used in various in vitro and in vivo photolabelling and biological applications. In this study, the antimicrobial potential of TGA-CdTe QDs and commercial phenolics (rutin and caffeine) were investigated against Escherichiacoli. UV absorbance and fluorescence quenching study of TGA-CdTe QDs with rutin and caffeine complex was measured by spectroscopic technique. QDs-rutin conjugate exhibited excellent quenching property due to the -OH groups present in the rutin structure. But the same time caffeine has not conjugated with QDs because of lacking of -OH group in its structure. Photolabelling of E. coli with QDs-rutin and QDs-caffeine complex was analyzed by fluorescent microscopic method. Microbe E. coli cell membrane damage was assessed by atomic force (AFM) and confocal microscopy. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that QDs-rutin conjugate enhance the antimicrobial activity more than the treatment with QDs, rutin and caffeine alone.

  18. Antibacterial potential of rutin conjugated with thioglycolic acid capped cadmium telluride quantum dots (TGA-CdTe QDs).

    PubMed

    Ananth, Devanesan Arul; Rameshkumar, Angappan; Jeyadevi, Ramachandran; Jagadeeswari, Sivanadanam; Nagarajan, Natarajan; Renganathan, Rajalingam; Sivasudha, Thilagar

    2015-03-01

    Quantum dots not only act as nanocarrier but also act as stable and resistant natural fluorescent bio markers used in various in vitro and in vivo photolabelling and biological applications. In this study, the antimicrobial potential of TGA-CdTe QDs and commercial phenolics (rutin and caffeine) were investigated against Escherichiacoli. UV absorbance and fluorescence quenching study of TGA-CdTe QDs with rutin and caffeine complex was measured by spectroscopic technique. QDs-rutin conjugate exhibited excellent quenching property due to the -OH groups present in the rutin structure. But the same time caffeine has not conjugated with QDs because of lacking of -OH group in its structure. Photolabelling of E. coli with QDs-rutin and QDs-caffeine complex was analyzed by fluorescent microscopic method. Microbe E. coli cell membrane damage was assessed by atomic force (AFM) and confocal microscopy. Based on the results obtained, it is suggested that QDs-rutin conjugate enhance the antimicrobial activity more than the treatment with QDs, rutin and caffeine alone. PMID:25544184

  19. Passivation of InGaAs surfaces with an integrated process including an ammonia DECR plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lescaut, B.; Nissim, Y.I.; Bresse, J.F.

    1996-12-31

    Stable and optimum characteristics of micro-optoelectronic devices and circuits require the passivation of the free surface of the III-V materials. An integrated process using a combination of surface cleaning and photochemical dielectric encapsulation is proposed for passivation. The passivation of InGaAs with a short ammonia plasma cleaning has been obtained. The treated surface has been protected with a photochemical dielectric encapsulation. MIS structures fabricated on treated InGaAs surfaces have shown a low density of interface traps and a small hysteresis. This process is an integration of two cold processes that enable its use at the end of the process fabrication of circuits.

  20. Optical properties of as-grown and annealed InAs quantum dots on InGaAs cross-hatch patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on InGaAs cross-hatch pattern (CHP) by molecular beam epitaxy are characterized by photoluminescence (PL) at 20 K. In contrast to QDs grown on flat GaAs substrates, those grown on CHPs exhibit rich optical features which comprise as many as five ground-state emissions from [1-10]- and [110]-aligned QDs, two wetting layers (WLs), and the CHP. When subject to in situ annealing at 700°C, the PL signals rapidly degrades due to the deterioration of the CHP which sets the upper limit of overgrowth temperature. Ex situ hydrogen annealing at a much lower temperature of 350°C, however, results in an overall PL intensity increase with a significant narrowing and a small blueshift of the high-energy WL emission due to hydrogen bonding which neutralizes defects and relieves associated strains. PMID:21849063

  1. Development and characterization of PCDTBT:CdSe QDs hybrid solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dixit, Shiv Kumar; Bhatnagar, Chhavi; Kumari, Anita; Madhwal, Devinder; Bhatnagar, P. K.; Mathur, P. C.

    2014-10-01

    Solar cell consisting of low band gap polymer poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10,30-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) as donor and cadmium selenide/zinc sulphide (CdSe/ZnS) core shell quantum dots (QDs) as an acceptor has been developed. The absorption measurements show that the absorption coefficient increases in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure covering broad absorption spectrum (200nm-700nm). Also, the photoluminescence (PL) of the PCDTBT:QDs film is found to decrease by an order of magnitude showing a significant transfer of electrons to the QDs. With this approach and under broadband white light with an irradiance of 8.19 mW/cm2, we have been able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.1 % with fill factor 0.42 for our typical solar cell.

  2. Development and characterization of PCDTBT:CdSe QDs hybrid solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Dixit, Shiv Kumar Bhatnagar, Chhavi Kumari, Anita Madhwal, Devinder Bhatnagar, P. K. Mathur, P. C.

    2014-10-15

    Solar cell consisting of low band gap polymer poly[N-900-hepta-decanyl-2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(40,70-di-2-thienyl-20,10, 30-benzothiadiazole)] (PCDTBT) as donor and cadmium selenide/zinc sulphide (CdSe/ZnS) core shell quantum dots (QDs) as an acceptor has been developed. The absorption measurements show that the absorption coefficient increases in bulk heterojunction (BHJ) structure covering broad absorption spectrum (200nm–700nm). Also, the photoluminescence (PL) of the PCDTBT:QDs film is found to decrease by an order of magnitude showing a significant transfer of electrons to the QDs. With this approach and under broadband white light with an irradiance of 8.19 mW/cm{sup 2}, we have been able to achieve a power conversion efficiency (PCE) of 3.1 % with fill factor 0.42 for our typical solar cell.

  3. Aligned ZnO nanorod arrays growth on GaN QDs for excellent optoelectronic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sang, Dandan; Li, Hongdong; Wang, Qinglin

    2016-02-01

    Uniformly aligned ZnO nanorod (NR) arrays grown on GaN quantum dots (QDs) as preferred nucleation sites are imperative for designing field emission emitters, ultraviolet photodetectors and light-emitting diodes for a wide range of new optoelectronic applications. In a recent study (2015 Nanotechnology 26 415601), Qi et al reported a novel method of fabricating ZnO NRs arrays with uniform shape, the density of which is easily tunable by adjusting the density of GaN QDs. This approach opens a door to obtaining a combination of 0D and 1D structures for optoelectronic applications.

  4. 256×1 element linear InGaAs short wavelength near-infrared detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue; Tang, Hengjing; Fan, Guangyu; Liu, Dafu; Shao, Xiumei; Zhang, Yonggang; Zhang, Haiyan; Chen, Xinyu; Zhu, Sangen; Gong, Haimei; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2008-03-01

    256×1 element linear InGaAs detector arrays assembly have been fabricated for the short wave infrared band(0.9~1.7μm), including the detector, CMOS readout circuits, thermoelectric cooler in a sealed package. The InGaAs detectors were achieved by mesa structure on the p-InP/i-InGaAs/n-InP double hetero-structure epitaxial material. 256×1 element linear InGaAs detectors were wire-bonded to 128×1 element odd and even ROIC, which were packaged in a dual-in-line package by parallel sealing. The characteristics of detectors and detector arrays module were investigated at the room temperature. The detector shows response peak at 1.62μm with 50% cutoff wavelength of 1.73μm and average R0A with 5.02KΩ•cm2. Response non-uniformity and average peak detectivity of 256×1 element linear InGaAs detector arrays are 3.10% and 1.38×10 12cmHz 1/2/W, respectively.

  5. Ellipsometric study of InGaAs MODFET material

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alterovitz, S. A.; Sieg, R. E.; Yao, H. D.; Snyder, P. G.; Woollam, J. A.; Pamulapati, J.; Bhattacharya, P. K.

    1990-01-01

    In(x)Ga(1-x)As based MODFET (modulation doped field effect transistor) material was grown by molecular beam epitaxy on semi-insulating InP substrates. Several structures were made, including lattice matched and strained layer InGaAs. All structures also included several layers of In(0.52)Al(0.48)As. Variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry was used to characterize the structures. The experimental data, together with the calibration function for the constituent materials, were analyzed to yield the thickness of all the layers of the MODFET structure. Results of the ellipsometrically determined thicknesses compare very well with the reflection high energy electron diffraction in situ thickness measurements.

  6. Impact of atomic layer deposition temperature on HfO2/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor interface properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Rena; Taoka, Noriyuki; Yokoyama, Masafumi; Kim, Sang-Hyeon; Hoshii, Takuya; Maeda, Tatsuro; Yasuda, Tetsuji; Ichikawa, Osamu; Fukuhara, Noboru; Hata, Masahiko; Takenaka, Mitsuru; Takagi, Shinichi

    2012-10-01

    We have studied the impact of atomic-layer-deposition (ALD) temperature on the HfO2/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) interface with a comparison to the Al2O3/InGaAs interface. It is found that the interface properties such as the C-V characteristics and the interface trap density (Dit) and the interface structure of HfO2/InGaAs have strong dependence on the ALD temperature, while the Al2O3/InGaAs interfaces hardly depend on it. As a result, we have achieved the HfO2/InGaAs interfaces with low Dit comparable to that in the Al2O3/InGaAs interface by lowering the ALD temperature down to 200 °C or less. Also, we have found that As2O3 and Ga2O3 formed at the interface during ALD increase with a decrease in the ALD temperature. Combined with the ALD temperature dependence of the electrical characteristics, the better C-V characteristics and the lower Dit obtained at the lower ALD temperature can be explained by the As2O3 and Ga2O3 passivation of the HfO2/InGaAs interfaces, which is consistent with a reported theoretical result on the effective passivation of III-V MOS interfaces by trivalent oxides.

  7. Improving the emission efficiency of MBE-grown GaN/AlN QDs by strain control

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The quantum-confined stark effect induced by polarization has significant effects on the optical properties of nitride heterostructures. In order to improve the emission efficiency of GaN/AlN quantum dots [QDs], a novel epitaxial structure is proposed: a partially relaxed GaN layer followed by an AlN spacer layer is inserted before the growth of GaN QDs. GaN/AlN QD samples with the proposed structure are grown by molecular beam epitaxy. The results show that by choosing a proper AlN spacer thickness to control the strain in GaN QDs, the internal quantum efficiencies have been improved from 30.7% to 66.5% and from 5.8% to 13.5% for QDs emitting violet and green lights, respectively. PMID:22136595

  8. Dark current reduction for 2.5 {micro}m wavelength, 2% mismatched InGaAs photodetectors, by changing bufferlayer structure and growth temperature

    SciTech Connect

    D`Hondt, M.; Moerman, I.; Demeester, P.

    1996-12-31

    Optical components with wavelengths ranging between 1.5 and 2.5{micro}m are becoming increasingly important. Applications include various earth observation missions, NIR spectroscopy and fiber-optic communications at 2.55{micro}m. A possible material candidate for devices at 2.5{micro}m wavelength is In{sub .82}Ga{sub .18}As with a lattice mismatch of {+-}2% with respect to the InP-substrate. To improve optical and electrical performances of a mismatched device an effective buffer layer structure is wanted: a good buffer layer prevents the generated dislocations to propagate towards the mismatched active layer. Especially the dark current, which needs to be very low for space applications (low noise), is strongly influenced by those dislocations which act as generation-recombination centers. The authors describe the influence of growth temperature, bufferlayer structure and substrate orientation on the dark current density of test devices. All growth runs were performed by means of low-pressure MOVPE, using a horizontal liner. The processing of these devices consisted of deposition of TiAu contacts, by using a removable Ni mask, with openings of different size and shape. These metal contacts were in turn used as a mask for the etching of the mesa. Afterwards a AuGe/Ni back contact was deposited.

  9. Impact of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layers on InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor interface properties in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stacks deposited by atomic-layer-deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, C.-Y. Takenaka, M.; Takagi, S.; Ichikawa, O.; Osada, T.; Hata, M.; Yamada, H.

    2015-08-28

    We examine the electrical properties of atomic layer deposition (ALD) La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) capacitors. It is found that the thick ALD La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs interface provides low interface state density (D{sub it}) with the minimum value of ∼3 × 10{sup 11} cm{sup −2} eV{sup −1}, which is attributable to the excellent La{sub 2}O{sub 3} passivation effect for InGaAs surfaces. It is observed, on the other hand, that there are a large amount of slow traps and border traps in La{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In order to simultaneously satisfy low D{sub it} and small hysteresis, the effectiveness of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stacks with ultrathin La{sub 2}O{sub 3} interfacial layers is in addition evaluated. The reduction of the La{sub 2}O{sub 3} thickness to 0.4 nm in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stacks leads to the decrease in hysteresis. On the other hand, D{sub it} of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs interfaces becomes higher than that of the La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs ones, attributable to the diffusion of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} through La{sub 2}O{sub 3} into InGaAs and resulting modification of the La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs interface structure. As a result of the effective passivation effect of La{sub 2}O{sub 3} on InGaAs, however, the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/10 cycle (0.4 nm) La{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stacks can realize still lower D{sub it} with maintaining small hysteresis and low leakage current than the conventional Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs MOS interfaces.

  10. Dimensionality of InGaAs nonlinear optical response

    SciTech Connect

    Bolton, S.R. |

    1995-07-01

    In this thesis the ultrafast optical properties of a series of InGaAs samples ranging from the two to the three dimensional limit are discussed. An optical system producing 150 fs continuum centered at 1.5 microns was built. Using this system, ultrafast pump-probe and four wave mixing experiments were performed. Carrier thermalization measurements reveal that screening of the Coulomb interaction is relatively unaffected by confinement, while Pauli blocking nonlinearities at the band edge are approximately twice as strong in two dimensions as in three. Carrier cooling via phonon emission is influenced by confinement due both to the change in electron distribution function and the reduction in electron phonon coupling. Purely coherent band edge effects, as measured by the AC Stark effect and four wave mixing, are found to be dominated by the changes in excitonic structure which take place with confinement.

  11. Site-Controlled Growth of Single InP QDs

    SciTech Connect

    Vlasov, A. S. Mintairov, A. M.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Mintairov, S. A.; Salii, R. A.; Denisyuk, A. I.; Babunts, R. A.

    2015-08-15

    The MOVPE growth of InP/GaInP quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs substrate “defects” formed by a focused beam of Ga{sup +} ions is studied. It is shown that ordered arrays of QDs with a density of 0.25 (μm){sup −2} can be obtained in the InP/GaInP system. It is demonstrated that effective luminescence can be obtained by using two QD sheets separated by a GaAs/GaInP buffer layer.

  12. Strain-driven alignment of In nanocrystals on InGaAs quantum dot arrays and coupled plasmon-quantum dot emission

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanczyk, A.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Noetzel, R.

    2010-03-15

    We report the alignment of In nanocrystals on top of linear InGaAs quantum dot (QD) arrays formed by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on GaAs (100) by molecular beam epitaxy. The alignment is independent of a thin GaAs cap layer on the QDs revealing its origin is due to local strain recognition. This enables nanometer-scale precise lateral and vertical site registration between the QDs and the In nanocrystals and arrays in a single self-organizing formation process. The plasmon resonance of the In nanocrystals overlaps with the high-energy side of the QD emission leading to clear modification of the QD emission spectrum.

  13. n/p/n tunnel junction InGaAs Monolithic Interconnected Module (MIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.M.; Murray, C.S.; Fatemi, N.S.; Weizer, V.

    1999-03-01

    The Monolithic Interconnected Module (MIM), originally introduced at the First NREL thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conference, consists of low-bandgap indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photovoltaic devices, series interconnected on a common semi-insulating indium phosphide (InP) substrate. An infrared reflector is deposited on the back surface of the substrate to reflect photons, which were not absorbed in the first pass through the structure. The single largest optical loss in the current device occurs in the heavily doped {ital p}-type emitter. A new MIM design (pat pend.) has been developed which flips the polarity of the conventional MIM cell (i.e., n/p rather than p/n), eliminating the need for the high conductivity {ital p}-type emitter. The {ital p}-type base of the cell is connected to the {ital n}-type lateral conduction layer through a thin InGaAs tunnel junction. 0.58 eV and 0.74 eV InGaAs devices have demonstrated reflectances above 90{percent} for wavelengths beyond the bandgap ({gt}95{percent} for unprocessed structures). Electrical measurements indicate minimal voltage drops across the tunnel junction ({lt}3 mV/junction under 1200 K-blackbody illumination) and fill factors that are above 70{percent} at current densities (J{sub sc}) above 8 A/cm{sup 2} for the 0.74 eV devices. {copyright} {ital 1999 American Institute of Physics.}

  14. n/p/n Tunnel Junction InGaAs Monolithic Interconnected Module (MIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Murray, Christopher S.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Weizer, Victor

    2005-01-01

    The Monolithic Interconnected Module (MIM), originally introduced at the First NREL thermophotovoltaic (TPV) conference, consists of low-bandgap indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photovoltaic devices, series interconnected on a common semi-insulating indium phosphide (inP) substrate. An infrared reflector is deposited on the back surface of the substrate to reflect photons, which were not absorbed in the first pass through the structure. The single largest optical loss in the current device occurs int he heavily doped p-type emitter. A new MIM design (pat.pend.) has been developed which flips the polarity of the conventional MIM cell (i.e., n/p rather than p/n), eliminating the need for the high conductivity p-type emitter. The p-type base of the cell is connected to the n-type lateral conduction layer through a thin InGaAs tunnel junction. 0.58 eV and 0.74 eV InGaAs devices have demonstrated reflectances above 90% for wavelengths beyond the bandgap (greater than 95% for unprocessed structures). Electrical measurements indicate minimal voltage drops across the tunnel junction (less than mV/junction under 1200K-blackbody illumnination) and fill factors that are above 70% at current densities (J(sub sc)) above 8 Angstroms per square centimeters for the 0.74eV devices.

  15. Fluorescence of colloidal PbSe/PbS QDs in NIR luminescent solar concentrators.

    PubMed

    Aeberhard, Urs; Vaxenburg, Roman; Lifshitz, Efrat; Tomić, Stanko

    2012-12-21

    For applications in luminescent solar concentrators harvesting subgap photons, either via direct irradiation of solar cells with optimized band gap or via sensitization of an up-conversion process, exact knowledge and tunability of both the spectral shape and the intensity of the emission are of paramount importance. In this work, we investigate theoretically the photoluminescence spectra of colloidal core-shell PbSe/PbS QDs with type II alignments in the valence band. The method builds on a steady-state formulation of the non-equilibrium Greens function theory for a microscopic system of coupled electrons, photons and phonons interfaced with electronic structure calculations based on a k·p model for PbSe/PbS core-shell QDs. The resulting output spectral density of photons in a realistic QD ensemble is obtained via the renormalization of the incident spectrum according to the polarization of the system. PMID:23080206

  16. Complex laterally ordered InGaAs and InAs quantum dots by guided self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on shallow- and deep-patterned GaAs (311)B substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk, E.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Noetzel, R.

    2007-11-01

    Self-organized anisotropic strain engineering guided on shallow- and deep-patterned GaAs (311)B substrates is exploited for formation of complex laterally ordered architectures of connected InGaAs quantum dot (QD) arrays and isolated InAs QD groups by molecular beam epitaxy. The combination of strain and step engineerings on shallow stripe-patterned substrates transforms the periodic spotlike arrangement of the InGaAs QD arrays and InAs QD groups (on planar substrates) into a zigzag arrangement of periodic stripes which are well ordered over macroscopic areas on zigzag mesa-patterned substrates. In contrast, the formation of slow-growing facets on deep-patterned substrates produces QD-free mesa sidewalls, while InGaAs QD arrays and InAs QD groups form on the GaAs (311)B top and bottom planes with arrangements modified only close to the sidewalls depending on the sidewall orientation. The QDs on the shallow- and deep-patterned substrates exhibit excellent optical properties up to room temperature. Therefore, the concept of guided self-organization demonstrated on shallow-patterned (due to steps) and deep-patterned (due to facets) substrates is highlighted for creation of complex architectures of laterally ordered QDs for future quantum functional devices.

  17. Lattice mismatched InGaAs on silicon photodetectors grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papanicolaou, N. A.; Anderson, G. W.; Iliadis, A. A.; Christou, A.

    1993-02-01

    In0.5Ga0.5As on silicon photodetectors, including three types of interdigitated-finger devices as well as linear photoconductors, were fabricated and measured. The InGaAs/Si structure was grown by molecular beam epitaxy and utilized a 100 Å GaAs intervening nucleation layer between the silicon substrate and the InGaAs layers, step-graded InxGa1-xAs layers, and an in-situ grown 40 Å thick GaAs surface layer, which substantially enhanced the metal-semiconductor barrier height (Φb = 0.67 V) for the InGaAs. Schottky diodes fabricated independently of the photodetectors had nearly ideal characteristics with an ideality factor (n) of 1.02 and a reverse breakdown voltage of 40 V. The interdigitated Schottky photodetectors showed dark currents between <3nA and 54 μA at a 3 V bias and initial photoresponse rise times in the range of 600 to 725 ps, comparable to similar InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors grown lattice matched on InP. The photoconductors fabricated in the same material had rise times in the range of 575 to 1300 ps, thus being slightly slower, and had dark currents of 7 to 80 mA. The responsivity of the photoconductors was typically greater than that of the diodes by a factor of five to fifteen. The results show potential for monolithic integration of InGaAs photodetectors on silicon substrates.

  18. Electrical and Optical Performance Characteristics of p/n InGaAs Monolithic Interconnected Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Weizer, Victor G.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Murray, Christopher S.; Riley, David R.

    1997-01-01

    There has been a traditional trade-off in ThermoPhotoVoltaic (TPV) energy conversion development between system efficiency and power density. This trade-off originates from the use of front surface spectral controls such as selective emitters and various types of filters. A Monolithic Interconnected Module (MIM) structure has been developed which allows for both high power densities and high system efficiencies. The MIM device consists of many individual Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) devices series-connected on a single semi-insulating Indium Phosphide (InP) substrate. The MIMs are exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. An InfraRed (IR) reflector placed on the rear surface of the substrate returns the unused portion of the emitter output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Initial MIM development has focused on a 1 sq cm device consisting of eight (8) series interconnected cells. MIM devices, produced from 0.74eV InGaAs, have demonstrated V(sub infinity) = 3.2 volts, J(sub sc) = 70 mA/sq cm and a fill factor of 66% under flashlamp testing. IR reflectance measurements (greater than 2 microns) of these devices indicate a reflectivity of greater than 82%. MIM devices produced from 0.55 eV InGaAs have also been demonstrated. In addition, conventional p/n InGaAs devices with record efficiencies (11.7% AM0) have been demonstrated.

  19. Molecualr-scale multicoordinating ligands for coating luminescent QDs and gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhan, Naiqian

    Colloidal semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are inorganic nanocrystals that possess several unique photophysical properties, including tunable narrow emission and remarkable photo- and chemical stability. They have large surface area, and thus can be decorated with large numbers and a variety of molecular vectors. These properties combined offer a potentially superior alternative to traditional organic fluorophore for advanced applications in bio-imaging and bio-sensing. Herein, our effort has centered on developing a series of metal coordinating ligands with controllable structures to modify the QD surfaces and construct biocompatible nanocrystals. The ligand architecture accounts for several factors: (i) variable coordination number, (ii) nature of the hydrophilic moiety, polyethylene glycol (PEG) or zwitterion, and (iii) versatility of end-reactive groups including amine, azide, carboxylic acid and aldehyde. The ligand design is combined with a newly developed photoligation strategy to promote the dispersion of luminescent QDs in buffer media. The dissertation is organized in six chapters: In chapter 1, we provide a brief introduction of the basic photophysical properties of QDs and the synthesis history for growing high quality semiconductor nanocrystals. We also present some of the most effective methods reported to date to prepare aqueous QD dispersions, discuss the effective chemical coupling strategies for conjugating biomolecules, and review the recent literatures that have used QD-bioconjugates for imaging and sensing purposes. In Chapter 2, we describe a novel photoligation strategy to promote the transfer of luminescent QDs from hydrophobic to hydrophilic media using lipic acid (LA)-based ligands. We also discusse the experimental conditions, mechanismfor in-situ ligand exchange and the generosity of the method towards the diverse functionality while maintaining the optical properties of the nanocrystals. In chapter 3, we present the design and synthesis

  20. A low noise high readout speed 512×128 ROIC for shortwave InGaAs FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, SongLei; Huang, Zhangcheng; Chen, Yu; Tang, Hengjing; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2015-03-01

    A low noise high readout speed 512×128 readout Integrated circuit (ROIC) based on capacitance trans-impedance amplifier (CTIA) is designed in this paper. The ROIC is flip-chip bonded with Indium bumps to InGaAs detectors which cutoff wavelength is 1.7μm, as a hybrid structure (InGaAs FPA). The ROIC with 30μm pixel pitch and 50fF integrated capacitance, is fabricated in 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process. The results show that output noise is about 3.0E-4V which equivalent readout noise is 95e-, output voltage swing is better than 2.5V; the dynamic range of InGaAs FPA reaches 69.7dB@2ms, and the power dissipation is about 175mw. The peak detectivity of InGaAs FPA reaches 2E12cmHz1/2w-1 at 300K without TEC cooling.

  1. Study of strain boundary conditions and GaAs buffer sizes in InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyafuso, F.; Klimeck, G.; Boykin, T. B.; Bowen, R. C.; Allmen, P. von

    2003-01-01

    NEMO 3-D has been developed for the simulation of electronic structure in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Typical self-assembled quantum dots in that material system contain about 0.5 to 1 million atoms. Effects of strain by the surrounding GaAs buffer modify the electronic structure inside the quantum dot significantly and a large GaAs buffer must be included in the strain and electronic structure.

  2. Preparation of water soluble L-arginine capped CdSe/ZnS QDs and their interaction with synthetic DNA: Picosecond-resolved FRET study

    SciTech Connect

    Giri, Anupam; Goswami, Nirmal; Lemmens, Peter; Pal, Samir Kumar

    2012-08-15

    Graphical abstract: Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) studies on the interaction of water soluble arginine-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs with ethidium bromide (EB) labeled synthetic dodecamer DNA. Highlights: ► We have solubilized CdSe/ZnS QD in water replacing their TOPO ligand by L-arginine. ► We have studied arginine@QD–DNA interaction using FRET technique. ► Arginine@QDs act as energy donor and ethidium bromide-DNA acts as energy acceptor. ► We have applied a kinetic model to understand the kinetics of energy transfer. ► Circular dichroism studies revealed negligible perturbation in the DNA B-form in the arg@QD-DNA complex. -- Abstract: We have exchanged TOPO (trioctylphosphine oxide) ligand of CdSe/ZnS core/shell quantum dots (QDs) with an amino acid L-arginine (Arg) at the toluene/water interface and eventually rendered the QDs from toluene to aqueous phase. We have studied the interaction of the water soluble Arg-capped QDs (energy donor) with ethidium (EB) labeled synthetic dodecamer DNA (energy acceptor) using picoseconds resolved Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. Furthermore, we have applied a model developed by M. Tachiya to understand the kinetics of energy transfer and the distribution of acceptor (EB-DNA) molecules around the donor QDs. Circular dichroism (CD) studies revealed a negligible perturbation in the native B-form structure of the DNA upon interaction with Arg-capped QDs. The melting and the rehybridization pathways of the DNA attached to the QDs have been monitored by the CD which reveals hydrogen bonding is the associative mechanism for interaction between Arg-capped QDs and DNA.

  3. InGaAs focal plane array developments and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvié, A.; Coussement, Jérome; Huet, O.; Truffer, JP.; Pozzi, Maxime; Oubensaid, E. H.; Hamard, S.; Maillart, P.; Costard, E.

    2014-10-01

    Thanks to the various developments presently available, SWIR technology presents a growing interest and gives the opportunity to address a large spectrum of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). InGaAs material, initially developed for telecommunications detectors, appears as a good candidate to satisfy SWIR detection needs. The lattice matching with InP constitutes a double advantage to this material: attractive production capacity and uncooled operation thanks to low dark current level induced by high quality material. In the context of this evolving domain, the InGaAs imagery activities from III-VLab were transferred to Sofradir, which provides a framework for the production activity with the manufacturing of high performances products: CACTUS320 and CACTUS640. The developments towards VGA format with 15μm pixel pitch, lead today to the industrialization of a new product: SNAKE SW. On one side, the InGaAs detection array presents high performances in terms of dark current and quantum efficiency. On the other side, the low noise ROIC has different additional functionalities. Then this 640x512 @ 15μm module appears as well suited to answer the needs of a wide range of applications. In this paper, we will present the Sofradir InGaAs technology, the performances of our last product SNAKE SW and the perspectives of InGaAs new developments.

  4. SWIR InGaAs focal plane arrays in France

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvié, A.; Huet, O.; Hamard, S.; Truffer, J. P.; Pozzi, M.; Decobert, J.; Costard, E.; Zécri, M.; Maillart, P.; Reibel, Y.; Pécheur, A.

    2013-06-01

    SWIR detection band benefits from natural (sun, night glow, thermal radiation) or artificial (eye safe lasers) photons sources combined to low atmospheric absorption and specific contrast compared to visible wavelengths. It gives the opportunity to address a large spectrum of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). InGaAs material appears as a good candidate to satisfy SWIR detection needs. The lattice matching with InP constitutes a double advantage to this material: attractive production capacity and uncooled operation thanks to low dark current level induced by high quality material. The study of InGaAs FPA has begun few years ago with III-VLab, gathering expertise in InGaAs material growth and imaging technology respectively from Alcatel-Lucent and Thales, its two mother companies. This work has led to put quickly on the market a 320x256 InGaAs module. The recent transfer of imagery activities from III-VLab to Sofradir allows developing new high performances products, satisfying customers' new requirements. Especially, a 640x512 InGaAs module with a pitch of 15µm is actually under development to fill the needs of low light level imaging.

  5. A sensitive photoelectrochemical biosensor for AFP detection based on ZnO inverse opal electrodes with signal amplification of CdS-QDs.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ru; Jiang, Yandong; Xia, Lei; Zhang, Tianxiang; Xu, Lin; Zhang, Shuang; Liu, Dali; Song, Hongwei

    2015-12-15

    In this work, ZnO inverse opals structure (IOs) based photoelectrochemical (PEC) electrode was fabricated for alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) detection. Then, the uniform CdS quantum dots (QDs) were hydrothermally synthesized, which allowed the binding of AFP and glucose oxidase (GOD) on CdS QDs, forming the AFP-CdS-GOD composite. The competitive immunosensor of AFP and the AFP-CdS-GOD composite with anti-AFP antibodies (Ab) immobilized on FTO (fluorine-doped tin oxide) /ZnO IOs electrode was successfully applied to the detection of AFP. GOD could catalyze glucose to produce hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) acting as an electron donor to scavenge photogenerated holes in the valence band of CdS QDs, reducing the recombination of electrons and holes of CdS QDs. Also the effective energy level matching between the conduction bands of CdS QDs and ZnO widened the range of light absorption, allowing for electron injection from excited CdS QDs to ZnO upon visible light irradiation, which enhanced the photocurrent. The results show that the immunosensor of AFP possesses a large linear detection range of 0.1-500 ng/ml with a detection limit of 0.01 ng/ml. It also exhibits excellent anti-interference property and acceptable stability. This work provides a promising method for achieving excellent photoelectrochemical biosensor detection of other proteins. PMID:26164013

  6. Hole transfer dynamics from QDs to tethered ferrocene derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alivisatos, A. Paul

    Quantum dots (QDs) have shown particular promise in recent years as light absorbers in solar energy conversion schemes. However, in solution junction solar devices such as QD-sensitized solar cells and photocatalytic water splitting systems, efficiencies are often limited by hole transfer from the photoexcited QD. This process is sluggish and can lead to oxidative photocorrosion of the QD material. In order to design highly efficient nanocrystal systems with hole transfer rates that outcompete these undesirable processes, a fundamental understanding of the parameters that control these rates is imperative.We have developed a model system to study charge transfer from QDs to surface bound acceptors, to fundamentally understand the charge transfer processes for QD systems, namely electronic coupling between the donor and acceptor and the thermodynamic driving force for the hole transfer process. Specifically, we examine hole transfer from the nearly spherical CdSe-core CdS-shell QDs with photoluminescence (PL) quantum yields over 80% to ferrocene derivatives bound to the QD surface via an alkane thiol linker. In this system, we mitigate the ill-defined nonradiative charge dynamic pathways that are intrinsic to native CdSe cores, and then controllably engineer on the surface charge acceptors with well-defined oxidation potentials, spatial distribution, and quantity. By Measuring the PL lifetime decay and calibrating the number of hole acceptor ligands per QD via quantitative `H NMR, we extracted the hole transfer rate per acceptor. This rate per acceptor could be varied over four orders of magnitude by changing the coupling between donor and acceptor through modulations in the CdS shell thickness and alkane chain length of the molecule. Furthermore, owning to the large number of acceptors on the surface, we achieve systems in which ~99% of the photoexcited holes are transferred to these well-defined mediators.We further mapped the relationship between the

  7. InGaAs monolithic interconnected modules (MIMs)

    SciTech Connect

    Fatemi, N.S.; Jenkins, P.P.; Weizer, V.G.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Wilt, D.M.; Scheiman, D.; Brinker, D.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.

    1997-12-31

    A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. The MIM device consists of many individual InGaAs cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. An infrared (IR) back surface reflector (BSR), placed on the rear surface of the substrate, returns the unused portion of the TPV radiator output spectrum back to the radiator for recuperation, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Also, the use of a BSR reduces the requirements imposed on a front surface interference filter and may lead to using only an anti-reflection coating. As a result, MIMs are exposed to the entire radiator output, and with increasing output power density. MIMs were fabricated with an active area of 0.9 x 1 cm, and with 15 cells monolithically connected in series. Both lattice-matched and lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP devices were fabricated, with bandgaps of 0.74 and 0.55 eV, respectively. The 0.74 eV MIMs demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 6.16 V and a fill factor of 74.2% at a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 0.84 A/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The 0.55 eV modules demonstrated a Voc of 4.85 V and a fill factor of 57.8% at a Jsc of 3.87 A/cm{sup 2}. The near IR reflectance (2--4 {micro}m) for both lattice-matched and lattice-mismatched structures was measured to be in the range of 80--85%. Latest electrical and optical performance results for these MIMs is presented.

  8. Visualization of reproduction toxicity of QDs for in vitro oocytes maturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Gaixia; Lin, Xiaotan; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Qu, Junle; Wang, Xiaomei

    2009-08-01

    Recently, QDs have attracted enormous attention for their potential applications ranging from physics to medicine. However, the toxicity of QDs impends its development in clinics experiment. In this work, we investigated the reproduction toxicity of QDs for in vitro oocytes matureation. The immatured oocytes of 28 day Kunming mice were harvested and cultured in vitro. And the biocompatible lysine-coated CdSe/CdS/ZnS QDs were incubated with oocytes for a certain periods. Then, each single oocyte-cumulus-complex was visualized under Leica scanning confocal microscope and rendered the 3-dimensional image. After 24 hrs, the maturation rate of oocytes decreased obviously (from 62% to 21.8%) with the concentration of QDs increasing. The 3D rendered images of oocyte-cumulus-complex showed that the most QDs distributed inside the cumulus, but no QDs entered oocytes. In summary, the results suggeste that the oocytes maturation process has high susceptibility for disturbances of QDs. The more QDs were uptaken by cumulus cells, the lower maturation rate of in vitro oocytes. We presume the QD interfere the process of oocytes maturation by dysfunctioning the cumulus cells or disturb the signal-interaction between germ cell and somatic cell. To our best knowledge, this is the first time that 3D visulization methods are used to analysize the reproduction toxicity of in vitro oocytes. The further toxicity mechanism of QDs for oocytes in vitro is undergoing investigation.

  9. InGaAs focal plane array developments and perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvié, A.; Coussement, J.; Huet, O.; Truffer, J. P.; Pozzi, M.; Oubensaid, E. H.; Hamard, S.; Chaffraix, V.; Costard, E.

    2015-05-01

    SWIR spectral band is an attractive domain thanks to its intrinsic properties. Close to visible wavelengths, SWIR images interpretation is made easier for field actors. Besides complementary information can be extracted from SWIR band and bring significant added value in several fields of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). Among the various new technologies able to detect SWIR wavelengths, InGaAs appears as a key technology. Initially developed for optical telecommunications, this material guaranties performances, stability and reliability and is compatible with attractive production capacity. Thanks to high quality material, very low dark current levels can be achieved at ambient temperature. Then uncooled operation can be set up, allowing compact and low power systems. Since the recent transfer of InGaAs imaging activities from III-Vlab, Sofradir provides a framework for the production activity with the manufacturing of high performances products: CACTUS320 SW. The developments towards VGA format with 15μm pixel pitch, lead today to the industrialization of a new product: SNAKE. On one side, the InGaAs detection array presents high performances in terms of dark current and quantum efficiency. On the other side, the low noise ROIC has different additional functionalities. Then this 640x512 @ 15μm sensor appears as well suited to answer the needs of a wide range of applications. In this paper, we will present the Sofradir InGaAs technology, the performances of our last product SNAKE and the perspectives of InGaAs new developments.

  10. InGaAs monolithic interconnected modules (MIM)

    SciTech Connect

    Fatemi, N.S.; Jenkins, P.P.; Weizer, V.G.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Wilt, D.M.; Scheiman, D.; Brinker, D.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.

    1997-12-31

    A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed for thermophotovoltaic (TPV) applications. The MIM device consists of many individual InGaAs cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating (S.I.) InP substrate. An infrared (IR) back surface reflector (BSR), placed on the rear surface of the substrate, returns the unused portion of the TPV radiator output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Also, the use of a BSR obviates the need to use a separate filtering element. As a result, MIMs are exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. MIMs with an active area of 1 x 1-cm were comprised of 15 cells monolithically connected in series. Both lattice-matched and lattice-mismatched InGaAs/InP devices were produced, with bandgaps of 0.74 and 0.55 eV, respectively. The 0.74-eV modules demonstrated an open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 6.158 V and a fill factor of 74.2% at a short-circuit current (Jsc) of 842 mA/cm{sup 2}, under flashlamp testing. The 0.55-eV modules demonstrated a Voc of 4.849 V and a fill factor of 57.8% at a Jsc of 3.87 A/cm{sup 2}. IR reflectance measurements (i.e., {lambda} > 2 {micro}m) of these devices indicated a reflectivity of {ge} 83%. Latest electrical and optical performance results for the MIMs will be presented.

  11. Optical fiber amplifiers based on PbS/CdS QDs modified by polymers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaolan; Xie, Libin; Zhou, Wei; Pang, Fufei; Wang, Tingyun; Kost, Alan R; An, Zesheng

    2013-04-01

    Optical fiber amplifiers based on PbS/CdS semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) modified by an amphiphilic polymer were demonstrated. Well-defined QDs and an amphiphilic copolymer were first prepared and the amphiphilic copolymer was then used to disperse the QDs into silica sol to allow uniform and reproducible incorporation of QDs into the silica coating of the optical fibers. QD-doped silica sol was deposited on the fusion tapered fiber coupler via dip-coating. A 1550 nm semiconductor light emitting diode as the signal source and a 980 nm laser diode as the pump source were injected into the fiber coupler simultaneously. Through evanescent wave excitation, a signal gain as high as 8 dB was obtained within the wavelength range between 1450 and 1650 nm. In addition, the optical fiber amplifiers based on PbS/CdS QDs showed enhanced thermal stability when compared to amplifiers based on PbS QDs. PMID:23571911

  12. Phase transfer of hydrophobic QDs for water-soluble and biocompatible nature through silanization

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Ping; Zhou, Guangjun

    2011-12-15

    Graphical abstract: A facile and novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm) via silanization. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A facile and novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm). Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The control of ligand exchange plays an important role to retain high fluorescence quantum yields. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs were conjugated with immunoglobin G antibody by using biotin-streptavidin as linkers. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The QD phase transfer by silanization is a well-established method for generating biocompatible QDs. -- Abstract: A novel method has been developed for creating water-soluble and biocompatible CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) with a small hydrodynamic diameter (less than 10 nm). The silanization of the QDs was carried out by using partially hydrolyzed tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) to replace organic ammine or tri-n-octylphosphine oxide on the surface of the QDs. The partially hydrolyzed 3-mercaptopropyltrimethoxysilane attached to the hydrolyzed TEOS layer on the QDs prevented the QDs from agglomeration when the QDs were transferred into water. The functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs were conjugated with immunoglobin G antibody by using biotin-streptavidin as linkers. The SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs exhibited the same absorption and photoluminescence (PL) spectra as those of initial QDs in organic solvents. The SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs preserved PL intensities, is colloidally stable over a wide pH range (pH 6-11). Because the mean diameter of amphiphilic polymer-coated QDs was almost 2 times of that of functional SiO{sub 2}-coated QDs, the QD phase transfer by silanization is a well-established method for generating biocompatible QDs.

  13. Buffer Layer Effects on Tandem InGaAs TPV Devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Wehrer, Rebecca J.; Maurer, William F.

    2004-01-01

    Single junction indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) based TPV devices have demonstrated efficiencies in excess of 20% at radiator temperatures of 1058 C. Modeling suggests that efficiency improvements in single bandgap devices should continue although they will eventually plateau. One approach for extending efficiencies beyond the single bandgap limit is to follow the technique taken in the solar cell field, namely tandem TPV cells. Tandem photovoltaic devices are traditionally composed of cells of decreasing bandgap, connected electrically and optically in series. The incident light impinges upon the highest bandgap first. This device acts as a sieve, absorbing the high-energy photons, while allowing the remainder to pass through to the underlying cell(s), and so on. Tandem devices reduce the energy lost to overexcitation as well as reducing the current density (Jsc). Reduced Jsc results in lower resistive losses and enables the use of thinner and lower doped lateral current conducting layers as well as a higher pitch grid design. Fabricating TPV tandem devices utilizing InGaAs for all of the component cells in a two cell tandem necessitates the inclusion of a buffer layer in-between the high bandgap device (In0.53 Ga0.47As - 0.74eV) and the low bandgap device (In0.66Ga0.34As - 0.63eV) to accommodate the approximately 1% lattice strain generated due to the change in InGaAs composition. To incorporate only a single buffer layer structure, we have investigated the use of the indium phosphide (InP) substrate as a superstrate. Thus the high-bandgap, lattice- matched device is deposited first, followed by the buffer structure and the low-bandgap cell. The near perfect transparency of the high bandgap (1.35eV) iron-doped InP permits the device to be oriented such that the light enters through the substrate. In this paper we examine the impact of the buffer layer on the underlying lattice-matched InGaAs device. 0.74eV InGaAs devices were produced in a variety of

  14. Effects of forming gas anneal on ultrathin InGaAs nanowire metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Si, Mengwei; Gu, Jiangjiang J.; Wang, Xinwei; Shao, Jiayi; Li, Xuefei; Manfra, Michael J.; Gordon, Roy G.; Ye, Peide D.

    2013-03-01

    InGaAs gate-all-around metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) with 6 nm nanowire thickness have been experimentally demonstrated at sub-80 nm channel length. The effects of forming gas anneal (FGA) on the performance of these devices have been systematically studied. The 30 min 400 °C FGA (4% H2/96% N2) is found to improve the quality of the Al2O3/InGaAs interface, resulting in a subthreshold slope reduction over 20 mV/dec (from 117 mV/dec in average to 93 mV/dec). Moreover, the improvement of interface quality also has positive impact on the on-state device performance. A scaling metrics study has been carried out for FGA treated devices with channel lengths down to 20 nm, indicating excellent gate electrostatic control. With the FGA passivation and the ultra-thin nanowire structure, InGaAs MOSFETs are promising for future logic applications.

  15. The toxicity and invasive effects of QDs on mung bean development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Peng; Wang, Xiaomei; Wang, Ruhua; Huang, Xuan; Feng, Gang; Lin, Guimiao; Chen, Qiang; Xu, Gaixia; Chen, Danni

    2014-09-01

    Objective: Nowadays, the nanomaterials have been applied in every aspects of our life, including cosmetics, fresh-keeping, antisepsis and medicines. However, we know little about the toxic effects of nanoparticles towards plants. In this thesis, we synthesized quantum dots (QDs), and then toxicity and invasive effects of QDs for mung beans were investigated. Methods: We synthesised red CdTe QDs in water sphase with L-Cystein stabilizers, then prepared different concentration of QDs solution to cultivate mung bean plant, the radical length of mung beans was measured after four days every day, after 7 days, the distribution of QDs in mung bean plant was recorded under the microscopic. Results: The result showed the QDs inhibited the growth of mung beans, the higher the concentration of QDs was, the greater the inhibition effect was. After 7 days, the radicle average lengths of mung beans in different concentrations of QDs solution - blank 0.1μmol/L 0.2μmol/L 0.5 μmol/L 1 μmol/L - were 19.350+/- 0.427, 14.050+/- 0.879, 10.525+/- 0.554, 7.250+/- 0.522, 7.650+/- 0.229. The QDs mostly adhered onto the root surface and hairs. Conclusion: In conclusion, the QDs synthesized with L-cystein have effects on the growth of mung beans. However, it is necessary to do more experiments to confirm the mechanism of the toxicity effect of QDs on plants.

  16. Electronic states and intraband terahertz optical transitions in InGaAs quantum rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodanović, Nikola; Vukmirović, Nenad; Indjin, Dragan; Ikonić, Zoran; Harrison, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Strain-dependent eight-band k .p method is used to analyze the electronic structure and intraband optical transitions in self-assembled InGaAs quantum rods in the terahertz range. The calculation of absorption spectra for the growth- and in-plane-polarized radiation shows some similarities to those of quantum well and single quantum dot structures, augmented with contribution from transitions between the dot and quantum well states. The influence of rod height on the electronic structure and the intraband absorption spectra is also investigated. It is found that the energy of maximal terahertz absorption can be tailored by the rod height for both in-plane and in-growth polarized radiation.

  17. Analysis of Carrier Recombination Processes in 0.6 eV InGaAs Epitaxial Materials for Thermophotovoltaic Devices

    SciTech Connect

    D Donetsky; F Newman; M Dashiell

    2006-10-30

    Minority carrier lifetime was measured by time-resolved photoluminescence (TRPL) method in sets of p-type and n-type InGaAs double heterostructures (DH) moderately doped with Zn and Te, respectively. Contributions of the radiative and non-radiative recombination terms were separated by fitting experimental data to temperature dependences of the radiative term. The latter was modeled with measured fundamental absorption spectrum and the temperature dependence of the photon recycling effect was taken into account. Different temperature dependences of radiative terms for electron and hole materials were obtained. It was concluded that in 0.6 eV Te-doped InGaAs structures the radiative recombination controls the hole lifetime at liquid nitrogen temperatures, while Auger recombination dominates at room and above room temperatures. In similar 0.6 eV InGaAs with Zn-doped active regions Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) recombination was found dominant in a wide temperature range from liquid nitrogen to above-room temperatures. Rapid decrease of electron lifetime with decrease of excess carrier concentration was observed and attributed to recombination through partially-ionized deep donor centers. The obtained data allows for more adequate modeling of the performance and design optimization of narrow-gap photonic devices based on InGaAs Indium-rich compounds.

  18. New developments on InGaAs focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coussement, J.; Rouvié, A.; Oubensaid, E. H.; Huet, O.; Hamard, S.; Truffer, J.-P.; Pozzi, M.; Maillart, P.; Reibel, Y.; Costard, E.; Billon-Lanfrey, D.

    2014-06-01

    SWIR detection band benefits from natural (sun, night glow, thermal radiation) or artificial (eye safe lasers) photons sources combined to low atmospheric absorption and specific contrast compared to visible wavelengths. It gives the opportunity to address a large spectrum of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). InGaAs material appears as a good candidate to satisfy SWIR detection needs. The lattice matching with InP constitutes a double advantage to this material: attractive production capacity and uncooled operation thanks to low dark current level induced by high quality material. The recent transfer of imagery activities from III-VLab to Sofradir provides a framework for the production activity with the manufacturing of high performances products: CACTUS320 SW and CACTUS640 SW. The developments, begun at III-Vlab towards VGA format with 15μm pixel pitch, lead today to the industrialization of a new product: SNAKE SW. On one side, the InGaAs detection array presents high performances in terms of dark current and quantum efficiency. On the other side, the low noise ROIC has different additional functionalities. Then this 640×512 @ 15μm module appears as well suited to answer the needs of a wide range of applications. In this paper, we will present the Sofradir InGaAs technology, some performances optimization and the last developments leading to SNAKE SW.

  19. One-pot microwave assisted approach for synthesis of CdSe/CdS core-shell quantum dots (QDs) and investigating optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, M.; Bardsiri, F. Salari; Bahador, A. R.; Karimipour, M.

    2016-02-01

    In this work, CdSe QDs were synthesized using a microwave assisted method and chemical reaction between NaHSe, CdSO4 at the presence of TGA as capping molecule. Thereafter without CdSe extraction, CdS shell was grown subsequently around CdSe cores by a reaction based on the heat sensitivity of Na2S2O3 dissociation. Synthesized QDs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction spectroscopy (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-Vis and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. All of these analyzes confirmed formation of CdSe QDs and successfully growth of CdS shell on surface of CdSe to forming CdSe/CdS core-shell structure.

  20. Polariton condensation in a strain-compensated planar microcavity with InGaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Cilibrizzi, Pasquale; Askitopoulos, Alexis Silva, Matteo; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.; Bastiman, Faebian; Clarke, Edmund; Zajac, Joanna M.; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2014-11-10

    The investigation of intrinsic interactions in polariton condensates is currently limited by the photonic disorder of semiconductor microcavity structures. Here, we use a strain compensated planar GaAs/AlAs{sub 0.98}P{sub 0.02} microcavity with embedded InGaAs quantum wells having a reduced cross-hatch disorder to overcome this issue. Using real and reciprocal space spectroscopic imaging under non-resonant optical excitation, we observe polariton condensation and a second threshold marking the onset of photon lasing, i.e., the transition from the strong to the weak-coupling regime. Condensation in a structure with suppressed photonic disorder is a necessary step towards the implementation of periodic lattices of interacting condensates, providing a platform for on chip quantum simulations.

  1. Room temperature green to red electroluminescence from (Al,Ga)As/GaP QDs and QWs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golz, Christian; Dadgostar, Shabnam; Masselink, W. Ted; Hatami, Fariba

    2016-03-01

    We present the growth, fabrication, and characterization of light-emitting diodes based on (Al,Ga)As quantum wells and dots embedded in a p-n GaP structure. Samples were grown on Sulphur-doped GaP (001) substrate using gas-source molecular beam epitaxy. The structures include either GaAs quantum structures with nominal coverage between 1.2 and 3.6 monolayers or Al0.3Ga0.7As quantum wells. For structures with GaAs layer thicker than 1.5 monolayers the 3.6% lattice mismatch in the materials system results in formation of quantum dots via Stranski-Krastanow growth mode with areal density of about 8×1010 cm-2. The atomic-force and transmission-electron microscopy show that with increasing coverage of GaAs from 1.8 to 3.6 monolayers the average lateral size and height of dots change in the range of 17-34 nm and 0.9-2 nm, respectively. The diode structures emit light from the red to the green spectral range up to room temperature. The GaAs/GaP QDs show electroluminescence between 1.8 eV and 2 eV, whereas the Al0.3Ga0.7As quantum wells emit light between 2 eV and 2.2 eV.

  2. Suppressed blinking behavior of CdSe/CdS QDs by polymer coating.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Aidi; Bian, Yannan; Wang, Jinjie; Chen, Kuiyong; Dong, Chaoqing; Ren, Jicun

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are very important fluorescent nanocrystals with excellent optical properties. However, QDs, at the single-particle level, show severe fluorescence intermittency (or blinking) on a wide time scale from milliseconds to minutes, which limits certain optical and biological applications. Generally, blinking behavior of QDs strongly depends on their surface state and surrounding environment. Therefore, current blinking suppression approaches are mostly focused on the introduction of an inorganic shell and organic small molecule compounds. In this study, we described a "bottom up" approach for the synthesis of CdSe/CdS/polymer core/shell/shell QDs via the in situ one-pot polymerization approach in order to control the blinking behavior of QDs. Three monomers (dithiothreitol (DTT), phenylenediamine (PDA), and hexamethylenediamine (HDA)) were respectively used to polymerize with hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP), and then the polyphosphazene polymers were obtained with cyclotriphosphazene as the basic macromolecular backbone. By regulating the molar ratios of the activated comonomers, we can control the blinking behavior of CdSe/CdS/polymer QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the percentage of "non-blinking" CdSe/CdS/polymer QDs (the "on time" fraction > 99% of the overall observation time) was up to 78%. The suppression mechanism was attributed to the efficient passivation of QD surface traps by the sulfhydryl or phenyl groups in the polyphosphazene polymers. PMID:26865498

  3. Exciton delocalization and hot hole extraction in CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS type 1 core shell QDs sensitized with newly synthesized thiols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singhal, Pallavi; Ghorpade, Prashant V.; Shankarling, Ganapati S.; Singhal, Nancy; Jha, Sanjay K.; Tripathi, Raj M.; Ghosh, Hirendra N.

    2016-01-01

    The present work describes ultrafast thermalized and hot hole transfer processes from photo-excited CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs (CSQDs) to newly synthesized thiols. Three thiols namely 2-mercapto-N-phenylacetamide (AAT), 3-mercapto-N-phenylpropanamide (APT) and 3-mercapto-N-(4-methoxyphenyl) propanamide (ADPT) were synthesized and their interaction with both CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS CSQDs was monitored. Steady state absorption study suggests the exciton delocalization from CdSe QDs in the presence of the thiols. However similar features were not observed in the presence of a ZnS shell over a CdSe core, instead a broadening in the excitonic peak was observed with both APT and ADPT but not with AAT. This exciton delocalization and broadening in the excitonic peak was also confirmed by ultrafast transient absorption studies. Steady state and time resolved emission studies show hole transfer from photo-excited QDs and CSQDs to the thiols. A signature of hot hole extraction was observed in transient absorption studies which was confirmed by fluorescence upconversion studies. Both hot and thermalized hole transfer rates from CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS CSQDs to the thiols were determined using the fluorescence up-conversion technique. Experiments with different ZnS shell thicknesses have been carried out which suggest that hole transfer is possible till 2.5 monolayer of the ZnS shell. To the best of our knowledge we are reporting for the first time the extraction of hot holes from CdSe/ZnS type I CSQDs by a molecular adsorbate.The present work describes ultrafast thermalized and hot hole transfer processes from photo-excited CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs (CSQDs) to newly synthesized thiols. Three thiols namely 2-mercapto-N-phenylacetamide (AAT), 3-mercapto-N-phenylpropanamide (APT) and 3-mercapto-N-(4-methoxyphenyl) propanamide (ADPT) were synthesized and their interaction with both CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS CSQDs was monitored. Steady

  4. Exciton delocalization and hot hole extraction in CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS type 1 core shell QDs sensitized with newly synthesized thiols.

    PubMed

    Singhal, Pallavi; Ghorpade, Prashant V; Shankarling, Ganapati S; Singhal, Nancy; Jha, Sanjay K; Tripathi, Raj M; Ghosh, Hirendra N

    2016-01-28

    The present work describes ultrafast thermalized and hot hole transfer processes from photo-excited CdSe quantum dots (QDs) and CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs (CSQDs) to newly synthesized thiols. Three thiols namely 2-mercapto-N-phenylacetamide (AAT), 3-mercapto-N-phenylpropanamide (APT) and 3-mercapto-N-(4-methoxyphenyl) propanamide (ADPT) were synthesized and their interaction with both CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS CSQDs was monitored. Steady state absorption study suggests the exciton delocalization from CdSe QDs in the presence of the thiols. However similar features were not observed in the presence of a ZnS shell over a CdSe core, instead a broadening in the excitonic peak was observed with both APT and ADPT but not with AAT. This exciton delocalization and broadening in the excitonic peak was also confirmed by ultrafast transient absorption studies. Steady state and time resolved emission studies show hole transfer from photo-excited QDs and CSQDs to the thiols. A signature of hot hole extraction was observed in transient absorption studies which was confirmed by fluorescence upconversion studies. Both hot and thermalized hole transfer rates from CdSe QDs and CdSe/ZnS CSQDs to the thiols were determined using the fluorescence up-conversion technique. Experiments with different ZnS shell thicknesses have been carried out which suggest that hole transfer is possible till 2.5 monolayer of the ZnS shell. To the best of our knowledge we are reporting for the first time the extraction of hot holes from CdSe/ZnS type I CSQDs by a molecular adsorbate. PMID:26698125

  5. Enhancement of singlet oxygen production based on FRET between Coumarin tri-compound and CdSe/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Hong Dinh; Lee, Jee Won; Rhee, Jong Il

    2014-08-01

    The compatibility between coumarin-derived dendrimer (CdD)-captured silica particles (SiCdDs) and watersoluble CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) in the FRET process improved the excited state of QDs in the reaction of singlet oxygen production under LED irradiation. Sol-gel GA was successfully used to improve the binding between SiCdDs and QDs. Singlet oxygen production using QDs coated with SiCdDs through sol-gel GA was enhanced by about 80 % compared to that achieved using QDs only. The single oxygen produced by the QDs, the QDs/GA-SiCdDs complexes and the SiCdDs/GA-QDs complexes in this study could be used in the treatment of HeLa cells.

  6. Performance limitations of InGaAs photodiodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, Antoni

    1999-04-01

    The carrier lifetimes in InxGa1-xAs (InGaAs) ternary alloys for radiative and Auger recombination are calculated for temperature 300 K in the short wavelength range 1.5 < (lambda) < 3.7 micrometers . Due to photon recycling, an order of magnitude enhancements in the radiative lifetimes over those obtained from the standard van Roosbroeck and Shockley expression, has been assumed. The possible Auger recombination mechanisms (CHCC, CHLH and CHSH processes) in direct-gap semiconductors are investigated. In n-type and p-type materials the carrier lifetimes are similar. It is clearly shown that in the range of low doping concentration, the carrier lifetime is determined by radiative recombination. For n-type material in the range of higher doping level, a competition between radiative and CHCC processes take place; instead for p-type materials the most effective channel of Auger mechanisms is the CHSH process. A special attention has been put on discussion of the carrier lifetimes in both types of In0.53Ga0.47As materials. Consequence of enhancement in the radiative lifetime leads to higher ultimate performance of photodiodes. The performance (RoA product) of heterostructure InGaAs photovoltaic devices are analyzed. Both the n-on-p (with p-type active region) as well as p-on- n (with n-type active region) are considered. Finally, theoretically predicted performance of InGaAs photodiodes are compared with experimental data reported by other authors.

  7. Multijunction InGaAs thermophotovoltaic power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven

    1996-01-01

    The experimental performance of a multijunction monolithic lattice-matched 0.74 eV InGaAs thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power converter under 980 C blackbody irradiation is reported. Eight InGaAs PN junctions grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating wafer were monolithically integrated in series to boost the approximately 0.4 V photovoltage per typical InGaAs junction to over 3 volts for the 1 cm(exp 2) chip. This chip was originally designed and characterized for free-space 1.3 micron laser power beaming. The power efficiency of this TPV device is 16% for that part of the blackbody spectrum above the material bandgap. The device is shown to deliver about 1 watt of output power when driven with enough light. This is the first report of such a multijunction TPV device. This is not a traditional tandem cell in which the junctions are stacked vertically. Eight 1 mm long by 1 cm wide junctions are laterally connected across the device area. This multijunction design has the potential for lower I(exp 2)R power loss since the smaller PN junction area limits the current to one eighth that of the equivalent surface area. In essence, the current is traded for voltage to avoid the I(exp 2)R loss, analogous to the way power utilities avoid I(exp 2)R loss in high-tension power lines, by transforming the high current, low voltage generated at a power plant into a high voltage at a low current before transmitting the power over great distances.

  8. Aqueous synthesis and characterization of Ni, Zn co-doped CdSe QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thirugnanam, N.; Govindarajan, D.

    2016-01-01

    Ni, Zn co-doped CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized by chemical precipitation method through aqueous route. The prepared QDs were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique, UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM). XRD technique results indicate that the prepared samples have a zinc blende cubic phase. From UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy technique, the prepared samples were blue shifted with respect to their bulk counter part due to quantum confinement effect. Among different doping ratios examined, a maximum PL emission intensity was observed for CdSe:Ni(1 %):Zn(1 %) QDs. HRTEM pictures show that the prepared QDs were in spherical shape.

  9. Suppressed blinking behavior of CdSe/CdS QDs by polymer coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Aidi; Bian, Yannan; Wang, Jinjie; Chen, Kuiyong; Dong, Chaoqing; Ren, Jicun

    2016-02-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are very important fluorescent nanocrystals with excellent optical properties. However, QDs, at the single-particle level, show severe fluorescence intermittency (or blinking) on a wide time scale from milliseconds to minutes, which limits certain optical and biological applications. Generally, blinking behavior of QDs strongly depends on their surface state and surrounding environment. Therefore, current blinking suppression approaches are mostly focused on the introduction of an inorganic shell and organic small molecule compounds. In this study, we described a ``bottom up'' approach for the synthesis of CdSe/CdS/polymer core/shell/shell QDs via the in situ one-pot polymerization approach in order to control the blinking behavior of QDs. Three monomers (dithiothreitol (DTT), phenylenediamine (PDA), and hexamethylenediamine (HDA)) were respectively used to polymerize with hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP), and then the polyphosphazene polymers were obtained with cyclotriphosphazene as the basic macromolecular backbone. By regulating the molar ratios of the activated comonomers, we can control the blinking behavior of CdSe/CdS/polymer QDs. Under the optimal conditions, the percentage of ``non-blinking'' CdSe/CdS/polymer QDs (the ``on time'' fraction > 99% of the overall observation time) was up to 78%. The suppression mechanism was attributed to the efficient passivation of QD surface traps by the sulfhydryl or phenyl groups in the polyphosphazene polymers.Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are very important fluorescent nanocrystals with excellent optical properties. However, QDs, at the single-particle level, show severe fluorescence intermittency (or blinking) on a wide time scale from milliseconds to minutes, which limits certain optical and biological applications. Generally, blinking behavior of QDs strongly depends on their surface state and surrounding environment. Therefore, current blinking suppression approaches are

  10. InGaAs triangular barrier photodiodes for high-responsivity detection of near-infrared light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimura, Kazuya; Ohmori, Masato; Noda, Takeshi; Kojima, Tomoya; Kado, Sakunari; Vitushinskiy, Pavel; Iwata, Naotaka; Sakaki, Hiroyuki

    2016-06-01

    InGaAs triangular barrier (TB) structures of various barrier thicknesses have been formed on InP substrates. With them, we have fabricated TB photodiodes that yield a very high responsivity of 2.3 × 104 A/W at 100 K for the 1312 nm light of 320 fW power. By passivating the diode surface with polyimide, the dark current has been markedly reduced. Diodes with thicker barriers show higher sensitivity and responsivity, reflecting the enhancement of the barrier lowering effect by photogenerated holes.

  11. The Invasion and Reproductive Toxicity of QDs-Transferrin Bioconjugates on Preantral Follicle in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Gaixia; Lin, Suxia; Law, Wing-Cheung; Roy, Indrajit; Lin, Xiaotan; Mei, Shujiang; Ma, Hanwu; Chen, Siping; Niu, Hanben; Wang, Xiaomei

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of QD has been extensively studied over the past decade. However, the potential toxicity of QDs impedes its use for clinical research. In this work, we established a preantral follicle in vitro culture system to investigate the effects of QD-Transferrin (QDs-Tf) bioconjugates on follicle development and oocyte maturation. The preantral follicles were cultured and exposed to CdTe/ZnTe QDs-Tf bioconjugates with various concentrations and the reproductive toxicity was assessed at different time points post-treatment. The invasion of QDs-Tf for oocytes was verified by laser scanning confocal microscope. Steroid production was evaluated by immunoassay. C-band Giemsa staining was performed to observe the chromosome abnormality of oocytes. The results showed that the QDs-Tf bioconjugates could permeate into granulosa cells and theca cells, but not into oocyte. There are no obvious changes of oocyte diameter, the mucification of cumulus-oocyte-complexes and the occurrence of aneulpoidy as compared with the control group. However, delay in the antrum formation and decrease in the ratio of oocytes with first polar body were observed in QDs-Tf-treated groups. The matured oocytes with first polar body decreased significantly by ~16% (from 79.6±10 % to 63±2.9 %) when the concentration of QDs-Tf bioconjugates exceeded 2.89 nmol·L-1 (P < 0.05). Our results implied that the CdTe/ZnTe QDs-Tf bioconjugates were reproductive toxic for follicle development, and thus also revealed that this in vitro culture system of preantral follicle is a highly sensitive tool for study on the reproductive toxicity of nanoparticles. PMID:22916073

  12. Numerical modeling of extended short wave infrared InGaAs focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasmann, Andreu; Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    Indium gallium arsenide (In1-xGaxAs) is an ideal material choice for short wave infrared (SWIR) imaging due to its low dark current and excellent collection efficiency. By increasing the indium composition from 53% to 83%, it is possible to decrease the energy gap from 0.74 eV to 0.47 eV and consequently increase the cutoff wavelength from 1.7 μm to 2.63 μm for extended short wavelength (ESWIR) sensing. In this work, we apply our well-established numerical modeling methodology to the ESWIR InGaAs system to determine the intrinsic performance of pixel detectors. Furthermore, we investigate the effects of different buffer/cap materials. To accomplish this, we have developed composition-dependent models for In1-xGaxAs, In1-xAlxAs, and InAs1-y Py. Using a Green's function formalism, we calculate the intrinsic recombination coefficients (Auger, radiative) to model the diffusion-limited behavior of the absorbing layer under ideal conditions. Our simulations indicate that, for a given total thickness of the buffer and absorbing layer, structures utilizing a linearly graded small-gap InGaAs buffer will produce two orders of magnitude more dark current than those with a wide gap, such as InAlAs or InAsP. Furthermore, when compared with experimental results for ESWIR photodiodes and arrays, we estimate that there is still a 1.5x magnitude of reduction in dark current before reaching diffusion-limited behavior.

  13. Study on 512×128 pixels InGaAs near infrared focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue; Tang, Hengjing; Huang, Songlei; Shao, Xiumei; Li, Tao; Huang, Zhangcheng; Gong, Haimei

    2014-10-01

    It is well known that In0.53Ga0.47As epitaxial material is lattice-matched to InP substrate corresponding to the wavelength from 0.9μm to 1.7μm, which results to high quality material and good device characteristics at room temperature. In order to develop the near infrared multi-spectral imaging, 512×128 pixels InGaAs Near Infrared Focal Plane Arrays (FPAs) were studied. The n-InP/i-InGaAs/n-InP double hereto-structure epitaxial material was grown by MBE. The 512×128 back-illuminated planar InGaAs detector arrays were fabricated, including the improvement of passivation film, by grooving the diffusion masking layer, the P type electrode layer, In bump condition and so on. The photo-sensitive region has the diffusion area of 23×23μm2 and pixel pitch of 30×30μm2 . The 512×128 detector arrays were individually hybridized on readout integrated circuit(ROIC) by Indium bump based on flip-chip process to make focal plane arrays (FPAs). The ROIC is based on a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier with correlated double sampling and integrated while readout (IWR) mode with high readout velocity of every pixel resulting in low readout noise and high frame frequency. The average peak detectivity and the response non-uniformity of the FPAs are 1.63×1012 cmHz1/2/W and 5.9%, respectively. The power dissipation and frame frequency of the FPAs are about 180mW and 400Hz, respectively.

  14. Multijunction InGaAs thermophotovoltaic power converter

    SciTech Connect

    Wojtczuk, S.; Parodos, T.

    1995-10-01

    The experimental performance of a multijunction monolithic In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As power converter under blackbody irradiation is reported. Eight InGaAs PN junctions grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating wafer were monolithically integrated in series to boost the approximately 0.4 V photovoltage per typical InGaAs junction to over 3 volts for the 1 sq cm chip. This chip was originally designed and characterized for free-space 1.3 micron laser power beaming. This is the first report of such a multijunction TPV. This is not a traditional tandem cell in which the junctions are stacked vertically. The junctions are each about 1mm long by 1 cm wide and are laterally connected across the 1 sq cm device area. This multijunction design has the potential for lower I(sup 2)R power loss since the smaller PN junction area limits the current to one-eighth that of the equivalent surface area. In essence, the current is traded for voltage to avoid the I(sup 2)R loss, analogous to the way power utilities avoid I(sup 2)R loss in high-tension power lines, by transforming the high current, low voltage generated at a power plant into a high voltage at a low current before transmitting the power over great distances.

  15. Multijunction InGaAs thermophotovoltaic power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, Steven; Parodos, Themis

    1995-01-01

    The experimental performance of a multijunction monolithic In(0.53)Ga(0. 47)As power converter under blackbody irradiation is reported. Eight InGaAs PN junctions grown epitaxially on a semi-insulating wafer were monolithically integrated in series to boost the approximately 0.4 V photovoltage per typical InGaAs junction to over 3 volts for the 1 sq cm chip. This chip was originally designed and characterized for free-space 1.3 micron laser power beaming. This is the first report of such a multijunction TPV. This is not a traditional tandem cell in which the junctions are stacked vertically. The junctions are each about 1mm long by 1 cm wide and are laterally connected across the 1 sq cm device area. This multijunction design has the potential for lower I(sup 2)R power loss since the smaller PN junction area limits the current to one-eighth that of the equivalent surface area. In essence, the current is traded for voltage to avoid the I(sup 2)R loss, analogous to the way power utilities avoid I(sup 2)P loss in high-tension power lines, by transforming the high current, low voltage generated at a power plant into a high voltage at a low current before transmitting the power over great distances.

  16. Efficient infrared luminescence of Er2S3/ZnS core/shell quantum dots and IR QDs-lED.

    PubMed

    Li, Bo; Zhang, Xiaosong; Ji, Ting; Zhang, Gaofeng; Li, Lan

    2014-06-01

    We have synthesized Er2S3/ZnS core/shell QDs by employing ErSt3, ZnSt2, and sulfur as precursors via a hot solution phase chemistry using a nucleation-doping strategy. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and photoluminescence (PL) spectra were used to characterize the structure, morphology and luminescence properties of Er2S3/ZnS core/shell QDs. Moreover, the influence of overcoating temperatures on the infrared luminescence properties of QDs was investigated. PL spectra show that the emission intensity from the 4I13/2 --> 4I15/2 transition of Er3+ strongly increases with increasing overcoating temperatures, which was interpreted by the enhancing diffusion of Er3+ ions. IR-LEDs were fabricated combining commercial red GaAs LEDs with Er2S3/ZnS QDs, and luminescence properties of the IR-LED have been investigated. PMID:24738369

  17. Electron mobility in ultra-thin InGaAs channels: Impact of surface orientation and different gate oxide materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krivec, Sabina; Poljak, Mirko; Suligoj, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    Electron mobility is investigated in sub-20 nm-thick InGaAs channels, sandwiched between different gate oxides (SiO2, Al2O3, HfO2) and InP as substrate, using physics-based numerical modeling. Effects of body thickness downscaling to 2 nm, different gate oxides, and surface orientation [(1 0 0) and (1 1 1)] are examined by including all electron valleys and all relevant scattering mechanisms. We report that ultra-thin (1 1 1) Al2O3-InGaAs-InP devices offer greater electron mobility than (1 0 0) devices even in the extremely-thin channels. Furthermore, ultra-thin (1 0 0) InGaAs devices outperform SOI in terms of electron mobility for body thicknesses above ∼4 nm, while (1 1 1) InGaAs channels are superior to SOI for all body thickness values above ∼3 nm. The study of different gate oxides indicates that HfO2 is the optimum gate dielectric regardless of device orientation, offering a mobility improvement of up to 124% for (1 1 1) and 149% for (1 0 0) surface orientation, when compared to the initial Al2O3-InGaAs-InP structure. The (1 1 1) orientation offers improvement over (1 0 0) device irrespective of the body thickness and gate oxide material, with the highest difference reported for SiO2, followed by Al2O3 and HfO2.

  18. Multilayers of InGaAs Nanostructures Grown on GaAs(210) Substrates

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Multilayers of InGaAs nanostructures are grown on GaAs(210) by molecular beam epitaxy. With reducing the thickness of GaAs interlayer spacer, a transition from InGaAs quantum dashes to arrow-like nanostructures is observed by atomic force microscopy. Photoluminescence measurements reveal all the samples of different spacers with good optical properties. By adjusting the InGaAs coverage, both one-dimensional and two-dimensional lateral ordering of InGaAs/GaAs(210) nanostructures are achieved. PMID:20676193

  19. Targeted near-IR QDs-loaded micelles for cancer therapy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Nurunnabi, Md; Cho, Kwang Jae; Choi, Joon Sig; Huh, Kang Moo; Lee, Yong-kyu

    2010-07-01

    The use of water-soluble, functionalized quantum dots (QDs) that are highly stable against oxidation for biological and biomedical applications is currently one of the fastest growing fields of nanotechnology. Polymer-based nanoparticles are now widely used for drug delivery and targeted therapy. We modified the surface of near Infrared QDs by the solid dispersion method using PEG-PCDA and PCDA-Herceptin conjugates to demonstrate water-solubility and target-specific properties. Upon UV irradiation, QD cores located within nanoprobes were further stabilized by intramicellar cross-linking between neighboring PCDA-Herceptin moieties. These cross-linked nanoprobes showed higher stability and less toxicity. Near-IR QDs-loaded micelles were spherical with diameters of around 130-150 nm. The anti-tumor effect of near-IR QDs-loaded micelles against MDA-MB-231 tumors was remarkably better than that of control. Mice treated with the near-IR QDs-loaded micelles had a tumor volume of about 285 mm(3), indicating shrinkage in initial tumor volume and inhibition of tumor growth by 77.3% compared to that of control group (saline injection). In addition, near-IR QDs-loaded micelles were injected intravenously into tumor-bearing nude mice for simultaneous tumor therapy and imaging. We observed that the targeted near-IR QDs-loaded micelles distributed rapidly throughout the animal body including the tumor in real time. These multi-functional nanoprobes could therefore be used for both active and passive targeting, imaging and treatment of cancers in the early stage. PMID:20409581

  20. Bandgap Engineering of InP QDs Through Shell Thickness and Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis, Allison M.; Mangum, Benjamin D.; Piryatinski, Andrei; Park, Young-Shin; Htoon, Han; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.

    2012-06-21

    Fields as diverse as biological imaging and telecommunications utilize the unique photophysical and electronic properties of nanocrystal quantum dots (NQDs). The development of new NQD compositions promises material properties optimized for specific applications, while addressing material toxicity. Indium phosphide (InP) offers a 'green' alternative to the traditional cadmium-based NQDs, but suffers from extreme susceptibility to oxidation. Coating InP cores with more stable shell materials significantly improves nanocrystal resistance to oxidation and photostability. We have investigated several new InP-based core-shell compositions, correlating our results with theoretical predictions of their optical and electronic properties. Specifically, we can tailor the InP core-shell QDs to a type-I, quasi-type-II, or type-II bandgap structure with emission wavelengths ranging from 500-1300 nm depending on the shell material used (ZnS, ZnSe, CdS, or CdSe) and the thickness of the shell. Single molecule microscopy assessments of photobleaching and blinking are used to correlate NQD properties with shell thickness.

  1. Formation of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot arrays aligned along quasiperiodic multiatomic steps on vicinal (111)B GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Y.; Sakaki, H.

    2006-10-30

    Dense and highly ordered arrays of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots are formed by molecular beam epitaxy along multiatomic steps on vicinal (111)B GaAs. This unique structure has been synthesized by depositing a nominally 3-nm-thick In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As layer onto a periodically corrugated surface prepared on a GaAs substrate tilted 8.5 deg. from (111)B. Each dot is typically 30-50 nm in lateral size and about 4 nm in height. Accumulation and release processes of strains in InGaAs layers deposited on stepped surfaces are discussed to suggest a possible mechanism for the aligned dot formation.

  2. Comparative optical study of epitaxial InGaAs quantum rods grown with As{sub 2} and As{sub 4} sources

    SciTech Connect

    Nedzinskas, Ramūnas; Čechavičius, Bronislovas; Kavaliauskas, Julius; Karpus, Vytautas; Valušis, Gintaras; Li, Lianhe; Khanna, Suraj P.; Linfield, Edmund H.

    2013-12-04

    Photoreflectance and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopies are used to examine the optical properties and electronic structure of InGaAs quantum rods (QRs), embedded within InGaAs quantum well (QW). The nanostructures studied were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using As{sub 2} or As{sub 4} sources. The impact of As source on spectral features associated with interband optical transitions in the QRs and the surrounding QW are demonstrated. A red shift of the QR- and a blue shift of the QW-related optical transitions, along with a significant increase in PL intensity, have been observed if an As{sub 4} source is used. The changes in optical properties are attributed mainly to carrier confinement effects caused by variation of In content contrast between the QR material and the surrounding well.

  3. Indium out-diffusion in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs stacks during anneal at different ambient conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Krylov, Igor; Winter, Roy; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2014-06-16

    Indium out-diffusion during anneal enhances leakage currents in metal/dielectric/InGaAs gate stacks. In this work, we study the influence of ambient conditions during anneal on indium out-diffusion in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs structures, prior to the gate metal deposition. Using X-ray photoemission spectroscopy and time of flight secondary ions mass spectrometry, we observed much lower indium concentrations in the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} layer following vacuum and O{sub 2} anneals compared to forming gas or nitrogen anneals. The electrical characteristics of the Ni/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stack following these pre-metallization anneals as well as after subsequent post metallization anneals are presented. Possible explanations for the role of the annealing ambient conditions on indium out-diffusion are presented.

  4. Numerical study of the intrinsic recombination carriers lifetime in extended short-wavelength infrared detector materials: A comparison between InGaAs and HgCdTe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Hanqing; Bellotti, Enrico

    2016-05-01

    Intrinsic carrier lifetime due to radiative and Auger recombination in HgCdTe and strained InGaAs has been computed in the extended short-wavelength infrared (ESWIR) spectrum from 1.7 μm to 2.7 μm. Using the Green's function theory, both direct and phonon-assisted indirect Auger recombination rates as well as the radiative recombination rates are calculated for different cutoff wavelengths at 300 K with full band structures of the materials. In order to properly model the full band structures of strained InGaAs, an empirical pseudo-potential model for the alloy is fitted using the virtual crystal approximation with spin-orbit coupling included. The results showed that for InxGa1-xAs grown on InP substrate, the compressive strain, which presents in the film when the cutoff wavelength is longer than 1.7 μm, leads to decrease of Auger recombination rate and increase of radiative recombination rate. Since the dominant intrinsic recombination mechanism in this spectral range is radiative recombination, the overall intrinsic carrier lifetime in the strained InGaAs alloys is shorter than that in the relaxed material. When compared to the relaxed HgCdTe, both relaxed and compressively strained InGaAs alloys show shorter intrinsic carrier lifetime at the same cutoff wavelength in room temperature which confirms the potential advantage of HgCdTe as wide-band infrared detector material. While HgCdTe offers superior performance, ultimately the material of choice for ESWIR application will also depend on material quality and cost.

  5. Dual switchable CRET-induced luminescence of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) by the hemin/G-quadruplex-bridged aggregation and deaggregation of two-sized QDs.

    PubMed

    Hu, Lianzhe; Liu, Xiaoqing; Cecconello, Alessandro; Willner, Itamar

    2014-10-01

    The hemin/G-quadruplex-catalyzed generation of chemiluminescence through the oxidation of luminol by H2O2 stimulates the chemiluminescence resonance energy transfer (CRET) to CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs), resulting in the luminescence of the QDs. By the cyclic K(+)-ion-induced formation of the hemin/G-quadruplex linked to the QDs, and the separation of the G-quadruplex in the presence of 18-crown-6-ether, the ON-OFF switchable CRET-induced luminescence of the QDs is demonstrated. QDs were modified with nucleic acids consisting of the G-quadruplex subunits sequences and of programmed domains that can be cross-linked through hybridization, using an auxiliary scaffold. In the presence of K(+)-ions, the QDs aggregate through the cooperative stabilization of K(+)-ion-stabilized G-quadruplex bridges and duplex domains between the auxiliary scaffold and the nucleic acids associated with the QDs. In the presence of 18-crown-6-ether, the K(+)-ions are eliminated from the G-quadruplex units, leading to the separation of the aggregated QDs. By the cyclic treatment of the QDs with K(+)-ions/18-crown-6-ether, the reversible aggregation/deaggregation of the QDs is demonstrated. The incorporation of hemin into the K(+)-ion-stabilized G-quadruplex leads to the ON-OFF switchable CRET-stimulated luminescence of the QDs. By the mixing of appropriately modified two-sized QDs, emitting at 540 and 610 nm, the dual ON-OFF activation of the luminescence of the QDs is demonstrated. PMID:25216118

  6. Photochemical properties and shape evolution of CdSe QDs in a non-injection reaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Eunjung; Ryu, Jiyoung; Choi, Youngseon; Hwang, Kwang-Jin; Song, Rita

    2013-04-01

    Highly monodispersed CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were prepared without an injection procedure. A series of Cd salts of long chain fatty acids, including Cd-myristate (C14), Cd-palmitate (C16) and Cd-stearate (C18) was prepared, and all metallic precursors and surfactants were mixed together followed by increasing the temperature in a controlled manner. The reaction resulted in highly monodisperse and bright zinc blende QDs. In addition, the effects of specific ligands which have been known to lead anisotropic growth of the nanocrystals in the injection method were investigated. The use of alkyl phosphonic acid and alkyl amine was found to produce extremely monodisperse CdSe QDs with a high quantum yield. This procedure was proven to be able to yield a large quantity of zinc blende CdSe QDs (2 g) in a one-pot reaction. The use of a controlled amount of tetradecylphosphonic acid and octadecylamine resulted in tetrapod- and match-shaped QDs, the first reported by a non-injection method. These results clearly demonstrate that appropriate combination of precursors can provide high quality of CdSe nanocrystals in terms of quantum yield, monodispersity and shape control by a non-injection method.

  7. Visualization of hormone binding proteins in vivo based on Mn-doped CdTe QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fang fei; Yu, Ying; Lin, Bi xia; Hu, Xiao gang; Cao, Yu juan; Wu, Jian zhong

    2014-10-01

    Daminozide (B9) is a growth inhibitor with important regulatory roles in plant growth and development. Locating and quantifying B9-binding proteins in plant tissues will assist in investigating the mechanism behind the signal transduction of B9. In this study, red fluorescent Mn-doped CdTe quantum dots (CdTeMn QDs) were synthesized by a high-temperature hydrothermal process. Since CdTeMn QDs possess a maximum fluorescence emission peak at 610 nm, their fluorescence properties are more stable than those of CdTe QDs. A B9-CdTeMn probe was synthesized by coupling B9 with CdTeMn QDs. The fluorescence intensity of the probe is double that of CdTeMn QDs; its fluorescence stability is also superior under different ambient conditions. The probe retains the biological activity of B9 and is unaffected by interference from the green fluorescent protein present in plants. Therefore, we used this probe to label B9-binding proteins selectively in root tissue sections of mung bean seedlings. These proteins were observed predominantly on the surfaces of the cell membranes of the cortex and epidermal parenchyma.

  8. Nanostructured TiO2 Films Attached CdSe QDs Toward Enhanced Photoelectrochemical Performance.

    PubMed

    Du, Yingying; Yang, Ping; Liu, Yunshi; Zhao, Jie; He, Haiyan; Miao, Yanping

    2016-06-01

    TiO2 films consisted of small nanoparticles were fabricated via a spinning coating method on fluorine doped in tin oxide (FTO) slide glass. After calcination, the films were subsequently sensitized by CdSe quantum dots (QDs) using mercaptopropionic acid (MPA) as a bifunctional surface modifier. Upon UV light irradiation, CdSe QDs inject electrons into TiO2 nanoparticles, thus resulting in the generation of photocurrent in QD-sensitized solar cell. The results indicate that TiO2 films sensitized by CdSe QDs have achieved 1.5-fold enhancement in photocurrent compared with pure TiO2 films, indicating that CdSe QDs can improve the photocurrent by promoting the separation of photoinduced charge carriers. In addition, the photocurrent enhances as the thickness of TiO2 films increased. Such improved photoelectrochemical performance is ascribed to the basis of improved interfacial charge transport of the TiO2-CdSe composite films. Combining QDs on TiO2 thin films is a promising and effective way to enhance the photoelectrochemical performance, which is important in QD-sensitized solar cell application. PMID:27427714

  9. [Toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS QDs to zebrafish embryos].

    PubMed

    Chen, Mu-Fei; Huang, Cheng-Zhi; Pu, De-Yong; Zheng, Chao-Yi; Yuan, Kai-Mi; Jin, Xing-Xing; Zhang, Yao-Guang; Jin, Li

    2015-02-01

    The toxic effects of CdSe/ZnS QDs on zebrafish (Danio rerio) embryos at different developmental stages were investigated in this study. The voluntary movement frequency, body length, hatching rate, mortality and malformation rate, SOD activities, MDA contents, mRNA expression of metallothionein (MT) and heat stress protein 70 (Hsp70) were used as indicators. The results showed that the EC50 was 316.994 nmol x L(-1) for zebrafish embryos (72 hpf) when exposed to CdSe/ZnS QDs. After the CdSe/ZnS QDs exposure, the embryos showed a significant increase in mortality and malformation rate, a decrease in hatching rate and body length, an advance in hatching time, and a changing in the spontaneous movement frequency, and many other toxic effects, such as the condensation of embryonic eggs, the formation of pericardial cysts and curvature of the spine. Moreover, it was found that the MDA contents in the embryos in CdSe/ZnS QDs groups were significantly increased, and the SOD activities were changed. In addition, the mRNA expression level of MT and Hsp70 were up-regulated. All the information suggests that exposure of CdSe/ZnS QDs can cause toxic effects on zebrafish embryos, and the effects may be related to the releasing of Cd2+, particle size and oxidative stress. PMID:26031104

  10. Surfactant-assisted growth and properties of rare-earth arsenide InGaAs nanocomposites for terahertz generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salas, R.; Guchhait, S.; McNicholas, K. M.; Sifferman, S. D.; Dasika, V. D.; Jung, D.; Krivoy, E. M.; Lee, M. L.; Bank, S. R.

    2016-05-01

    We explore the effects of surfactant-mediated epitaxy on the structural, electrical, and optical properties of fast metal-semiconductor superlattice photoconductors. Specifically, application of a bismuth flux during growth was found to significantly improve the properties of superlattices of LuAs nanoparticles embedded in In0.53Ga0.47As. These improvements are attributed to the enhanced structural quality of the overgrown InGaAs over the LuAs nanoparticles. The use of bismuth enabled a 30% increase in the number of monolayers of LuAs that could be deposited before the InGaAs overgrowth degraded. Dark resistivity increased by up to ˜15× while carrier mobility remained over 2300 cm2/V-s and carrier lifetimes were reduced by >2× at comparable levels of LuAs deposition. These findings demonstrate that surfactant-mediated epitaxy is a promising approach to enhance the properties of ultrafast photoconductors for terahert generation.

  11. Analysis and design of a low-noise ROIC for hybrid InGaAs infrared FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Huang, SongLei; Huang, ZhangCheng; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2011-08-01

    The noises of CMOS readout integrated circuit (ROIC) for hybrid focal plane array (FPA) may occupy a great part of total noise in conditions that a low resistance or large capacitor detector interfacing with CTIA input stage. A novel low noise low power preamplifier with shared current-mirrors bias is designed. It has a gain of more than 90dB, which makes enough inject efficiency and low detector bias offset. Besides, it has strong detector bias control, because the shared current-mirror copies the DC current of the amplifier and generates the bias control voltage. A pixel level Correlated Double Sample circuits is designed in order to suppress the reset KTC noise and 1/f noise from preamplifier. An experimental chip of 30μm pitch 32×32 array was fabricated in standard 0.5μm CMOS mixed signal process. A few experimental structures are designed to study the allocating of layout area for low noise designing. The ROIC is bonded to an existing back-illuminated 30μm pitch InGaAs photodiode array with indium bump fabrication. The test of both the ROIC chips and InGaAs focal plane array is shown in this paper, and the contrast of different structure is shown and analyzed.

  12. Lattice-matched and strained InGaAs solar cells for thermophotovoltaic use

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, R.K.; Wilt, D.M.; Jain, R.; Landis, G.A.; Flood, D.J.

    1996-02-01

    Lattice-matched and strained indium gallium arsenide solar cells can be used effectively and efficiently for thermophotovoltaic applications. A 0.75 eV bandgap InGaAs solar cell is well matched to a 2000 K blackbody source with a emission peak around 1.5 {mu}m. A 0.60 eV bandgap InGaAs cell is well suited to a Ho-YAG selective emitter and a blackbody at 1500 K which have emission peak around 2.0 {mu}m. Modeling results predict that the cell efficiencies in excess of 30{percent} are possible for the 1500 K Ho-YAG selective emitter (with strained InGaAs) and for the 2000 K blackbody (with lattice-matched InGaAs) sources. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. 4x4 Individually Addressable InGaAs APD Arrays Optimized for Photon Counting Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gu, Y.; Wu, X.; Wu, S.; Choa, F. S.; Yan, F.; Shu, P.; Krainak, M.

    2007-01-01

    InGaAs APDs with improved photon counting characteristics were designed and fabricated and their performance improvements were observed. Following the results, a 4x4 individually addressable APD array was designed, fabricated, and results are reported.

  14. Characterization of NIR InGaAs imager arrays for the JDEM SNAPmission concept

    SciTech Connect

    Seshadri, S.; Cole, M.D.; Hancock, B.; Ringold, P.; Wrigley, C.; Bonati, M.; Brown, M.G.; Schubnell, M.; Rahmer, G.; Guzman, D.; Figer,D.; Tarle, G.; Smith, R.M.; Bebek, C.

    2006-05-23

    We present the results of a study of the performance of InGaAs detectors conducted for the SuperNova Acceleration Probe (SNAP) dark energy mission concept. Low temperature data from a nominal 1.7um cut-off wavelength 1kx1k InGaAs photodiode array, hybridized to a Rockwell H1RG multiplexer suggest that InGaAs detector performance is comparable to those of existing 1.7um cut-off HgCdTe arrays. Advances in 1.7um HgCdTe dark current and noise initiated by the SNAP detector research and development program makes it the baseline detector technology for SNAP. However, the results presented herein suggest that existing InGaAs technology is a suitable alternative for other future astronomy applications.

  15. InGaAs Detectors for Miniature Infrared Instruments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krabach, T. N.; Staller, C.; Dejewski, S.; Cunningham, T.; Herring, M.; Fossum, E. R.

    1993-01-01

    In the past year, there has been substantial impetus for NASA to consider missions that are of relatively low cost as a trade off for a higher new mission launch rate. To maintain low mission cost, these missions will be of short duration and will use smaller launch vehicles (e.g. Pegasus). Consequently, very low volume, very low mass instrument (a.k.a. miniature instrument) payloads will be required. Furthermore, it is anticipated that the number of instruments flown on a particular mission will also be highly constrained; consequently increased instrument capability will also be desired. In the case of infrared instruments, focal planes typically require cooling to ensure high performance of the detectors, especially in the case of spectrometers where high D* is necessary. In this paper, we discuss the InGaAs detector technology and its potential.

  16. CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs: Synthesis and investigating optical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaei, M.; Sarhani, F.; Bardsiri, F. Salari; Karmipour, M.

    2016-03-01

    In this work, CdSe quantum dots (QDs) were synthesized using a microwave activated reaction between NaHSe and CdSO4 in the presence of thioglycolic acid (TGA) as capping molecule and then using a one-pot method, ZnS shell was grown subsequently around CdSe cores by a room temperature reaction based on the photo-sensitivity of Na2S2O3 dissociation. Synthesized QDs were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), UV-visible (UV-Vis) and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. All these analyses confirmed the formation of CdSe QDs and successful growth of ZnS shell around CdSe cores.

  17. Electrical and optical performance characteristics of 0.74 eV p/n InGaAs monolithic interconnected modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.M.; Fatemi, N.S.; Jenkins, P.P.; Weizer, V.G.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Jain, R.K.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R.

    1997-03-01

    There has been a traditional trade-off in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion development between system efficiency and power density. This trade-off originates from the use of front surface spectral controls such as selective emitters and various types of filters. A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed which allows for both high power densities and high system efficiencies. The MIM device consists of many individual indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating indium phosphide (InP) substrate. The MIM is exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. An infrared (IR) reflector placed on the rear surface of the substrate returns the unused portion of the emitter output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Initial MIM development has focused on a 1cm{sup 2} device consisting of eight series interconnected cells. MIM devices, produced from 0.74 eV InGaAs, have demonstrated V{sub oc}=3.2V , J{sub sc}=70mA/cm{sup 2} and a fill factor of 66{percent} under flashlamp testing. Infrared (IR) reflectance measurements ({gt}2{mu}m) of these devices indicate a reflectivity of {gt}82{percent}. MIM devices produced from 0.55 eV InGaAs have also been demonstrated. In addition, conventional p/n InGaAs devices with record efficiencies (11.7{percent} AMO) have been demonstrated. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  18. Electrical and Optical Performance Characteristics of 0.74-eV p/n InGaAs Monolithic Interconnected Modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Weizer, Victor G.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Jain, Raj K.; Murray, Christopher S.; Riley, David R.

    1997-01-01

    There has been a traditional trade-off in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion development between system efficiency and power density. This trade-off originates from the use of front surface spectral controls such as selective emitters and various types of filters. A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed which allows for both high power densities and high system efficiencies. The MIM device consists of many individual indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating indium phosphide (InP) substrate. The MIM is exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. An infrared (IR) reflector placed on the rear surface of the substrate returns the unused portion of the emitter output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Initial MIM development has focused on a 1 sq cm device consisting of eight (8) series interconnected cells. MIM devices, produced from 0.74-eV InGaAs, have demonstrated V(sub oc) = 3.2 volts, J(sub sc) = 70 mA/sq cm, and a fill factor of 66% under flashlamp testing. Infrared (IR) reflectance measurements (greater than 2 micron) of these devices indicate a reflectivity of greater than 82%. MIM devices produced from 0.55-eV InGaAs have also been demonstrated. In addition, conventional p/n InGaAs devices with record efficiencies (11.7% AM0) have been demonstrated.

  19. Electrical and optical performance characteristics of 0.74eV p/n InGaAs monolithic interconnected modules

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.M.; Weizer, V.G.; Fatemi, N.S.; Jenkins, P.P.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Jain, R.K.; Murray, C.S.; Riley, D.R.

    1997-06-01

    There has been a traditional trade-off in thermophotovoltaic (TPV) energy conversion development between system efficiency and power density. This trade-off originates from the use of front surface spectral controls such as selective emitters and various types of filters. A monolithic interconnected module (MIM) structure has been developed which allows for both high power densities and high system efficiencies. The MIM device consists of many individual indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) cells series-connected on a single semi-insulating indium phosphide (InP) substrate. The MIM is exposed to the entire emitter output, thereby maximizing output power density. An infrared (IR) reflector placed on the rear surface of the substrate returns the unused portion of the emitter output spectrum back to the emitter for recycling, thereby providing for high system efficiencies. Initial MIM development has focused on a 1 cm{sup 2} device consisting of eight series interconnected cells. MIM devices, produced from 0.74 eV InGaAs, have demonstrated V{sub oc} = 3.2 volts, J{sub sc} = 70 mA/cm{sup 2} and a fill factor of 66% under flashlamp testing. Infrared (IR) reflectance measurements (> 2 {micro}m) of these devices indicate a reflectivity of > 82%. MIM devices produced from 0.55 eV InGaAs have also been demonstrated. In addition, conventional p/n InGaAs devices with record efficiencies (11.7% AM0) have been demonstrated.

  20. Synthesis of CdTe QDs by hydrothermal method, with tunable emission fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fujun; Laurent, Sophie; Vander Elst, Luce; Muller, Robert N.

    2015-09-01

    Cadmium telluride (CdTe) quantum dots (QDs) were prepared via a hydrothermal method, using 3-mercaptopropionic acid (3-MPA) as the stabilizing agent. With the help of absorption and emission spectra, it was found that prolonging the reaction time and raising the reaction temperature can increase the size of the QDs obtained, and hence induce a red shift of fluorescence emission. Rhodamine 6G was used as the reference to calculate the quantum yield (QY), and this showed that the use of extra Cd ions will distinctly increase the QY of CdTe.

  1. Analysis of crosstalk in front-illuminated InGaAs PIN hetero-junction photovoltaic infrared detector arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yongfu; Tang, Hengjing; Zhang, Kefeng; Li, Tao; Ning, Jinhua; Li, Xue; Gong, Haimei

    2009-07-01

    Here presented an experimental study on crosstalk in front illuminated planar and mesa-type InP/ InGaAs/ InP PIN hetero-junction photovoltaic infrared detector arrays. A scanning laser beam with an optical wavelength of 1310 nm coupled in a single-mode optical fiber placed within a few microns of the detector array surface was used to measure the crosstalk between the detector pixels. The crosstalk in the detector array varying with the distance between the incident laser spot and the measured pixel was shown. It is suggested that for the deep mesa-type arrays the dominating source of crosstalk is the light reflected from the detector substrate. And the dominating source of crosstalk that occurs in the planar type and shallow mesa type photovoltaic arrays is associated with photo-induced carries generated in the InGaAs absorption layer that diffuse laterally between neighbor pixels. These results gave out the possibility to optimize the detectors structures in order to reduce crosstalk.

  2. Characterization of photochemical filtration membranes in organic solvents by using sub-10nm fluorescent Cd-based QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Suwen; Zhang, Haizheng

    2013-04-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, also called quantum dots (QDs), have been proven as powerful fluorescent probes. This paper presents a new method to evaluate the retention efficiency of nanofiltration membranes using sub-10 nm fluorescent QDs in organic solvents. Two different Cd-based QDs with uniformed sizes (nominal 8 nm and 4 nm) were used as challenge particles in this study. Fluorescence spectrophotometer was used as a detector to measure the QDs concentration before and after filtration. High resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were employed for measuring particle size and size distribution, which revealed the QDs used in this study were with a narrow size distribution. Three different types of Entegris UPE membranes were tested by using this method. The filters were rated at 3 nm, 5 nm and 10 nm using bubble-point extrapolative methods were further confirmed by the QDs retention tests in solvents.

  3. Erythorbic acid promoted formation of CdS QDs in a tube-in-tube micro-channel reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, Yan; Tan, Jiawei; Wang, Jiexin; Chen, Jianfeng; Sun, Baochang; Shao, Lei

    2014-12-15

    Erythorbic acid assistant synthesis of CdS quantum dots (QDs) was conducted by homogeneous mixing of two continuous liquids in a high-throughput microporous tube-in-tube micro-channel reactor (MTMCR) at room temperature. The effects of the micropore size of the MTMCR, liquid flow rate, mixing time and reactant concentration on the size and size distribution of CdS QDs were investigated. It was found that the size and size distribution of CdS QDs could be tuned in the MTMCR. A combination of erythorbic acid promoted formation technique with the MTMCR may be a promising pathway for controllable mass production of QDs.

  4. Lattice-engineered MBE growth of high-indium mole fraction InGaAs for low cost MMICs and (1.3--1.55 {micro}m) OEICs

    SciTech Connect

    Childs, T.T.; Sokolov, V.; Sullivan, C.T.

    1997-11-01

    Using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and lattice engineering techniques, the feasibility of combining photonic devices applicable to the 1.3 to 1.55 {micro}m wavelength range and monolithic microwave (or mm-wave) integrated circuits (MMICs) on GaAs is demonstrated. A key factor in the MBE growth is incorporation of an InGaAs active layer having an indium arsenide mole fraction of 0.35 or greater and its lattice compatibility with the underlying semi-insulating GaAs substrate. The InGaAs layer used for the photonic devices, can also serve as the active channel for the high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) for application in MMICs. Several examples of active and passive photonic devices grown by MBE are presented including an optical ridge waveguide, and a photodetector for detection of light in the 1.3 {micro}m range. The material structure includes a 3-layer AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs optical waveguide and a thin InGaAs absorbing layer situated directly above the optical waveguide. Metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodetectors are formed on the top surface of the InGaAs layer for collection of the photo-induced carriers. The optical ridge waveguide is designed for lateral incidence of the light to enhance the MSM photodetector responsivity. Initial measurements on the optical waveguide and photodetector are presented.

  5. InGaAs PIN photodetectors integrated and vertically coupled with silicon-on-insulator waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqi; Qiu, Chao; Sheng, Zhen; Wu, Aimin; Wang, Xi; Zou, Shichang; Gan, Fuwan

    2014-05-01

    Heterogeneous integration of III-V materials with silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguide circuitry by an adhesive die-to-wafer bonding process has been proposed as a solution to Si-based lasers and photodetectors. Here, we present the design and optimization of an InGaAs PIN photodetector vertically coupled with the underlying SOI waveguide, which could be readily fabricated using this bonding process. With the help of grating couplers, a thick bonding layer of 2.5 μm is applied, which inherently avoids the risk of low-bonding yield suffering in the evanescent coupling counterpart. An anti-reflection layer is also introduced between the bonding layer and the III-V layer stack to relieve the accuracy requirement for the bonding layer thickness. Besides, by optimizing the structure parameters, a high-absorption efficiency of 82% and a wide optical 1dB-bandwidth of 220nm are obtained. The analysis shows that the detection bandwidth of the present surface-illuminated photodetector is generally limited by transit-time in the i-InGaAs layer. The relationship of the detection bandwidth and the absorption efficiency versus the i-InGaAs layer thickness is presented for the ease of choosing proper structure parameters for specific applications. With the results presented here, the device can be readily fabricated.

  6. Spectroscopic and Microscopic Studies on the Mechanism of Mitochondrial Toxicity Induced by CdTe QDs Modified with Different Ligands.

    PubMed

    Lai, Lu; Jin, Jian-Cheng; Xu, Zi-Qiang; Ge, Yu-Shu; Jiang, Feng-Lei; Liu, Yi

    2015-08-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) are increasingly applied in sensing, drug delivery, biomedical imaging, electronics industries, etc. Consequently, it is urgently required to examine their potential threat to humans and the environment. In the present work, the toxicity of CdTe QDs with nearly identical maximum emission wavelength but modified with two different ligands (MPA and BSA) to mitochondria was investigated using flow cytometry, spectroscopic, and microscopic methods. The results showed that QDs induced mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT), which resulted in mitochondrial swelling, collapse of the membrane potential, inner membrane permeability to H(+) and K(+), the increase of membrane fluidity, depression of respiration, alterations of ultrastructure, and the release of cytochrome c. Furthermore, the protective effects of CsA and EDTA confirmed QDs might be able to induce MPT via a Ca(2+)-dependent domain. However, the difference between the influence of CdTe QDs and that of Cd(2+) on mitochondrial membrane fluidity indicated the release of Cd(2+) was not the sole reason that QDs induced mitochondrial dysfunction, which might be related to the nanoscale effect of QDs. Compared with MPA-CdTe QDs, BSA-CdTe QDs had a greater effect on the mitochondrial swelling, membrane fluidity, and permeabilization to H(+) and K(+) by mitochondrial inner membrane, which was caused the fact that BSA was more lipophilic than MPA. This study provides an important basis for understanding the mechanism of the toxicity of CdTe QDs to mitochondria, and valuable information for safe use of QDs in the future. PMID:25758230

  7. Liver Toxicity of Cadmium Telluride Quantum Dots (CdTe QDs) Due to Oxidative Stress in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Hu, Yuanyuan; Tang, Meng; Kong, Lu; Ying, Jiali; Wu, Tianshu; Xue, Yuying; Pu, Yuepu

    2015-01-01

    With the applications of quantum dots (QDs) expanding, many studies have described the potential adverse effects of QDs, yet little attention has been paid to potential toxicity of QDs in the liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs in mice and murine hepatoma cells alpha mouse liver 12 (AML 12). CdTe QDs administration significantly increased the level of lipid peroxides marker malondialdehyde (MDA) in the livers of treated mice. Furthermore, CdTe QDs caused cytotoxicity in AML 12 cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner, which was likely mediated through the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the induction of apoptosis. An increase in ROS generation with a concomitant increase in the gene expression of the tumor suppressor gene p53, the pro-apoptotic gene Bcl-2 and a decrease in the anti-apoptosis gene Bax, suggested that a mitochondria mediated pathway was involved in CdTe QDs’ induced apoptosis. Finally, we showed that NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) deficiency blocked induced oxidative stress to protect cells from injury induced by CdTe QDs. These findings provide insights into the regulatory mechanisms involved in the activation of Nrf2 signaling that confers protection against CdTe QDs-induced apoptosis in hepatocytes. PMID:26404244

  8. Comparison of Ge, InGaAs p-n junction solar cell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korun, M.; Navruz, T. S.

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, the effect of material parameters on the efficiency of Ge and InGaAs p-n junction solar cells which are most commonly used as the sub-cell of multi-junction solar cells are investigated and the results due to these two cells are compared. The efficiency of Ge (EG =0.67 eV) solar cell which is easy to manufacture and inexpensive in cost, is compared with the efficiency of InGaAs (EG =0.74 eV) solar cell which is coming with drawback of high production difficulties and cost. The theoretical efficiency limit of Ge and InGaAs solar cells with optimum thickness were determined by using detailed balance model under one sun AM1.5 illumination. Since the band gap values of two cells are close to each other, approximate detailed balance efficiency limits of 16% for InGaAs and 14% for Ge are obtained. When drift-diffusion model is used and the thicknesses and doping concentrations are optimized, the maximum efficiency values are calculated as 13% for InGaAs and 9% for Ge solar cell. For each solar cell external quantum efficiency curves due to wavelength are also sketched and compared.

  9. Low-dark current 1024×1280 InGaAs PIN arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Ping; Chang, James; Boisvert, Joseph C.; Karam, Nasser

    2014-06-01

    Photon counting imaging applications requires low noise from both detector and readout integrated circuit (ROIC) arrays. In order to retain the photon-counting-level sensitivity, a long integration time has to be employed and the dark current has to be minimized. It is well known that the PIN dark current is sensitive to temperature and a dark current density of 0.5 nA/cm2 was demonstrated at 7 °C previously. In order to restrain the size, weight, and power consumption (SWaP) of cameras for persistent large-area surveillance on small platforms, it is critical to develop large format PIN arrays with small pitch and low dark current density at higher operation temperatures. Recently Spectrolab has grown, fabricated and tested 1024x1280 InGaAs PIN arrays with 12.5 μm pitch and achieved 0.7 nA/cm2 dark current density at 15 °C. Based on our previous low-dark-current PIN designs, the improvements were focused on 1) the epitaxial material design and growth control; and 2) PIN device structure to minimize the perimeter leakage current and junction diffusion current. We will present characterization data and analyses that illustrate the contribution of various dark current mechanisms.

  10. Improved charge transportation at PbS QDs/TiO2 interface for efficient PEC hydrogen generation.

    PubMed

    Ikram, Ashi; Sahai, Sonal; Rai, Snigdha; Dass, Sahab; Shrivastav, Rohit; Satsangi, Vibha R

    2016-06-21

    The effect of lead sulfide (PbS) quantum dots (QDs) on the photoelectrochemical properties of TiO2 with a varied number of SILAR cycles has been investigated. The study has also highlighted physical processes including band alignment, charge recombination and transportation for a PbS QDs/TiO2 interface. The inclusion of PbS QDs underneath TiO2 thin film has significantly enhanced the PEC response due to a higher number of photogenerated charge carriers along with the efficient separation and facilitation of these carriers towards their respective electrodes. The uniqueness of the work lies in the high stability of the system as PbS QDs lie beneath the TiO2 thin film, compared to the commonly used QDs sensitization over metal oxide, along with a good photoresponse. PMID:27230501

  11. Research in the modulation transfer function (MTF) measurement of InGaAs focal plane arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zhonghua; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2012-10-01

    The Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) of an opto-electrical device is defined as the ratio of the system output modulation to the input modulation, which describes the performance of the imaging system in the Fourier domain. Accurate measurement of the MTF is often obtained by analyzing the high-quality image of a special target reproduced by the optical system with known MTF. To evaluate the MTF of short-wave infrared InGaAs focal plane arrays (FPAs), we develop a laboratory system with high precision and automation based on the slit scan method. An 8*1 linear InGaAs FPAs is then measured by this test set-up for the first time to evaluate the MTF of each pixel at room temperature. The results show a good MTF repeatability and uniformity of the 8*1 InGaAs FPAs. The relationship between the MTF and illumination is also discussed.

  12. InGaAs Schottky barrier diode array detector for a real-time compact terahertz line scanner.

    PubMed

    Han, Sang-Pil; Ko, Hyunsung; Park, Jeong-Woo; Kim, Namje; Yoon, Young-Jong; Shin, Jun-Hwan; Kim, Dae Yong; Lee, Dong Hun; Park, Kyung Hyun

    2013-11-01

    We present a terahertz (THz) broadband antenna-integrated 1 × 20 InGaAs Schottky barrier diode (SBD) array detector with an average responsivity of 98.5 V/W at a frequency of 250 GHz, which is measured without attaching external amplifiers and Si lenses, and an average noise equivalent power (NEP) of 106.6 pW/√Hz. The 3-dB bandwidth of the SBD detector is also investigated at approximately 180 GHz. For implementing an array-type SBD detector by a simple fabrication process to achieve a high yield, a structure comprising an SiN(x) layer instead of an air bridge between the anode and the cathode is designed. THz line beam imaging using a Gunn diode emitter with a center frequency of 250 GHz and a 1 × 20 SBD array detector is successfully demonstrated. PMID:24216813

  13. Analysis of cross talk in high density mesa linear InGaAs detector arrays using tiny light dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yaoming; Li, Xue; Wei, Jun; Li, Jianwei; Tang, Hengjing; Gong, Hai-mei

    2012-10-01

    With the development of material growth and device technologies, the pixel density becomes much higher. The pixel size and the spacing between pixels have been becoming smaller and smaller, causing the cross talk of the neighboring pixels acuter. Linear InGaAs detector arrays with 25 μm pitch and 2 μm spacing were fabricated, and the modulation transfer function of detector arrays with infrared lens was measured using a system of collimator tube. A tiny light dot produced by the collimator tube was used to analyze and calculated the cross talk of the detector with conserved absorber around the photosensitive mesa, and the cross talk between two neighboring pixels was approximately estimated. With the conserved absorber structure, the electronic cross talk is dominant in the cross talks between neighboring pixels.

  14. Indium and gallium diffusion through zirconia in the TiN/ZrO{sub 2}/InGaAs stack

    SciTech Connect

    Ceballos-Sanchez, O.; Martinez, E.; Guedj, C.; Veillerot, M.; Herrera-Gomez, A.

    2015-06-01

    Angle-resolved X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (ARXPS) was applied to the TiN/ZrO{sub 2}/InGaAs stack to assess its thermal stability. Through a robust ARXPS analysis, it was possible to observe subtle effects such as the thermally induced diffusion of substrate atomic species (In and Ga) through the dielectric layer. The detailed characterization of the film structure allowed for assessing the depth profiles of the diffused atomic species by means of the scenarios-method. Since the quantification for the amount of diffused material was done at different temperatures, it was possible to obtain an approximate value of the activation energy for the diffusion of indium through zirconia. The result is very similar to the previously reported values for indium diffusion through alumina and through hafnia.

  15. Optical properties of stacked InGaAs sidewall quantum wires in InGaAsP/InP

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, D.; Noetzel, R.; Otten, F.W.M. van; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2006-05-15

    We report on the optical properties of threefold stacked InGaAs sidewall quantum wires (QWires) with quaternary InGaAsP barriers grown on shallow-patterned InP (311)A substrates by chemical beam epitaxy. Temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) reveals efficient carrier transfer from the adjacent quantum wells (QWells) into the QWires at low temperature, thermally activated repopulation of the QWells at higher temperature, and negligible localization of carriers along the QWires. Strong broadening of power dependent PL indicates enhanced state filling in the QWires compared to that in the QWells. Clear linear polarization of the PL from the QWires confirms the lateral quantum confinement of carriers. These results demonstrate excellent optical quality of the sidewall QWire structures with room temperature PL peak wavelength at 1.55 {mu}m for applications in fiber-based optical telecommunication systems.

  16. The influence of sunlight irradiation on the characteristics of InGaAs detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shao, Xiumei; Zhu, Yaoming; Li, Xue; Tang, Hengjing; Li, Tao; Gong, Haimei

    2014-10-01

    InGaAs ternary compound is suitable for detector applications in the shortwave infrared (SWIR) band. Due to the advantages of good stability, low cooling requirements and high detectivity, InGaAs detectors have been applied widely in the space remote sensing area. However, InGaAs detectors would be affected by strong sunlight direct irradiation in space application. In this paper, a mesa-type InGaAs detector with large sensitive area of diameter 5mm was designed based on InP/In0.53Ga0.47As/InP epitaxial material, which is lattice-matched to InP substrate. The InGaAs detectors were fabricated by ICP etching, and packaged in a Kovar shell. The relative spectral response is in the range of 0.9μm to 1.7μm. The mechanism of the sunlight direct irradiation on InGaAs detector performance was studied. The sunlight were focalized by lens and irradiated directly on the detector. A piece of epitaxial material was investigated at the same time which was cleaved from a 2 inch wafer, same to the detector material. The real time testing was taken out to observe the output signal of the detector. After the irradiation experiment, the I-V curves and the relative response were tested immediately. The dark current of the detector increased temporarily, but come back to the original level after 24 hours. The response spectrum was nearly not affected. The XRD testing of the epitaxial material sample was carried out before and after sunlight direct irradiation. The sunlight irradiation causes thermal stress degradation. The thermal electrons were produced by the absorption of a great deal of visible light, leading to local enhancement of temperature and the lattice degeneration of the material.

  17. Direct Measurements of Fermi Level Pinning at the Surface of Intrinsically n-Type InGaAs Nanowires.

    PubMed

    Speckbacher, Maximilian; Treu, Julian; Whittles, Thomas J; Linhart, Wojciech M; Xu, Xiaomo; Saller, Kai; Dhanak, Vinod R; Abstreiter, Gerhard; Finley, Jonathan J; Veal, Tim D; Koblmüller, Gregor

    2016-08-10

    Surface effects strongly dominate the intrinsic properties of semiconductor nanowires (NWs), an observation that is commonly attributed to the presence of surface states and their modification of the electronic band structure. Although the effects of the exposed, bare NW surface have been widely studied with respect to charge carrier transport and optical properties, the underlying electronic band structure, Fermi level pinning, and surface band bending profiles are not well explored. Here, we directly and quantitatively assess the Fermi level pinning at the surfaces of composition-tunable, intrinsically n-type InGaAs NWs, as one of the prominent, technologically most relevant NW systems, by using correlated photoluminescence (PL) and X-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS). From the PL spectral response, we reveal two dominant radiative recombination pathways, that is, direct near-band edge transitions and red-shifted, spatially indirect transitions induced by surface band bending. The separation of their relative transition energies changes with alloy composition by up to more than ∼40 meV and represent a direct measure for the amount of surface band bending. We further extract quantitatively the Fermi level to surface valence band maximum separation using XPS, and directly verify a composition-dependent transition from downward to upward band bending (surface electron accumulation to depletion) with increasing Ga-content x(Ga) at a crossover near x(Ga) ∼ 0.2. Core level spectra further demonstrate the nature of extrinsic surface states being caused by In-rich suboxides arising from the native oxide layer at the InGaAs NW surface. PMID:27458736

  18. The Thermoelectric Properties of Rare Earths as Dopants in InGaAs Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koltun, Rachel Ann

    Current energy technologies lose over half of the energy input to waste heat. Thermoelectric materials can recover some of this waste heat by converting it into electricity. Thermoelectric devices have no moving parts, so they are low noise and highly reliable, making them particularly suitable for extreme environments. A good thermoelectric has low thermal conductivity to maintain large temperature gradients and high electrical conductivity to effectively transport carriers across that temperature gradient. One of the major challenges in engineering such thermoelectrics is effectively decoupling these parameters. These relationships are quantified in the dimensionless thermoelectric figure of merit, ZT, where a ZT of 1 is considered commercially viable. Doping MBE grown InGaAs films with rare earths forms embedded nanoparticles that have been shown to improve thermoelectric efficiency of InGaAs. Rare earth doping effectively overcomes the problematic relationship between electrical and thermal conductivities. These embedded particles effectively decouple thermal and electrical properties by contributing carriers to increase electrical conductivity as well as forming scattering centers for mid to long wavelength phonons to decrease thermal conductivity. However, the mechanism for carrier generation from rare earths is poorly understood. Comparing different rare earths as dopants in InGaAs, we find a positive correlation with the electrical activation efficiency as the rare earth arsenide nanoparticles are more closely lattice matched to the host matrix. This is in contrast to traditional Si doped InGaAs, which is fully ionized at room temperature. The high doping efficiency of Si leads it to be as good or better of a dopant for thermoelectrics compared to the best rare earths studied. We observe that rare earth doped InGaAs has thermal activation of carriers at high temperature, giving it the potential to be a more efficient thermoelectric in this regime than

  19. Reliability and failure mode investigation of high-power multimode InGaAs strained quantum well single emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongkun; Foran, Brendan; Presser, Nathan; Mason, Maribeth; Moss, Steven C.

    2007-02-01

    In recent years record performance characteristics from multi-mode InGaAs strained quantum well single emitters at 920-980nm have been reported including a maximum CW optical output power of ~20W and a power conversion efficiency of ~75%. These excellent performance characteristics are only possible through combined optimization of laser structure design, chip fabrication processes, and packaging. Whereas broad area multi-mode single emitters likely have sufficient reliability for industrial uses, reliability of these lasers still remains a concern for communications applications including deployment in potential space satellite systems where high reliability is required. Most of previous reports on these lasers have been focused on their performance characteristics with very limited reports on failure mode analysis although understanding the physics of failure is crucial in developing a proper lifetime model for these lasers. We thus report on the reliability and failure mode analysis of high power multi-mode single emitters. The lasers studied were broad area strained InGaAs single QW lasers at 940-980nm with typical aperture widths of around 100μm. At an injection current of 7A typical CW output powers were over 6W at 25°C with a wall plug efficiency of ~60%. First, various lasing characteristics were measured including spatial and thermal characteristics that are critical to understanding performance and reliability of these devices. ACC burn-in tests with different stress conditions were performed on these devices until their failure. We report accelerated lifetest results with over 5000 accumulated test hours. Finally, we report failure mode investigation results of the degraded lasers.

  20. Growth and properties of the MOVPE GaAs/InAs/GaAsSb quantum dot structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hospodková, A.; Oswald, J.; Pangrác, J.; Kuldová, K.; Zíková, M.; Vyskočil, J.; Hulicius, E.

    2016-01-01

    This review paper summarizes some of results achieved during last years of our quantum dot (QD) research. We show that the QD shape (aspect ratio and elongation) significantly influences the QD photoluminescence (PL) spectrum. Magnetophotoluminescence can be used for determination of the anisotropy of QDs. While the calculated shifts in magnetic field of the energies of higher radiative transitions are found to be sensitive to the lateral elongation, the shift of the lowest transition is determined mainly by the exciton effective mass. This behavior can be used for determining both the effective mass and the elongation fairly reliably from the magnetophotoluminescence spectra displaying at least two resolved bands. Lateral shape of InAs/GaAs QDs in vertically correlated structures was also studied. We found the ways to control the QD elongation and consequently the energy difference between PL transitions by adjusting properly the spacer layer thickness. The main goal was to redshift QD PL emission towards telecommunication wavelengths of Metal Organic Vapor Phase Epitaxy prepared InAs/GaAs QDs using InGaAs or GaAsSb covering strain reducing layer (SRL). Our results proved that GaAsSb SRL improves the QD PL properties and the type I or type II band alignment can be controlled by both, GaAsSb composition and QD size. Maintaining the type I heterostructure is important for high luminescence efficiency and emission wavelength stability of QD structure. The simulation of electron structure in InAs QDs covered with GaAsSb SRL and experimental results reveal the importance of increasing QD size for obtaining a longer wavelength PL from the type I heterostructure. The type II structure of InAs/GaAs QDs covered by GaAsSb SRL with Sb content near 30% enabled us to achieve extremely long emission wavelength at 1.8 μm. The high amount of antimony in the SRL causes the preservation of QD size, and increased QD size prolongs the PL wavelength. The type II heterostructures with

  1. Study of the formation mechanism of InGaAs pyramidal layers on GaAs(100) patterned substrates by LPE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakrishnan, K.; Iida, S.; Kumagawa, M.; Hayakawa, Y.

    2002-07-01

    A study of the liquid phase epitaxial growth of InxGa1-xAs (x = 0.06) layers on different types of patterned GaAs(100) substrates has been carried out. The dependence of growth morphology on the stripe orientation of the star patterned trench substrate has been observed. Pyramid layers were grown in the stripes oriented along the <001> direction. Broken tent structures formed along the <012> direction. Pyramidal structured layers looked to grow faster than the tent-like and broken tent-like structures. In order to analyse the hollow pyramid structure growth in detail, they were grown on circular trench substrates for different periods of time. Hollow pyramidal structures of InGaAs have been grown on circular patterned trench substrates. Effective defect filtration can be realized in this kind of growth of hollow pyramidal structures. The formation mechanism of the hollow pyramid structured layers has been studied in detail.

  2. (In,Ga)As sidewall quantum wires on shallow-patterned InP (311)A

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, D.; Noetzel, R.; Gong, Q.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Veldhoven, P.J. van; Otten, F.W.M. van; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2005-03-15

    (In,Ga)As sidewall quantum wires (QWires) are realized by chemical beam epitaxy along [01-1] mesa stripes on shallow-patterned InP (311)A substrates. The QWires exhibit strong lateral carrier confinement due to larger thickness and In composition compared to the adjacent quantum wells, as determined by cross-sectional scanning-tunneling microscopy and microphotoluminescence (micro-PL) spectroscopy. The PL of the (In,Ga)As QWires with InP and quaternary (Ga,In)(As,P) barriers reveals narrow linewidth, high efficiency, and large lateral carrier confinement energies of 60-70 meV. The QWires are stacked in growth direction with identical PL peak emission energy. The PL emission energy is not only controlled by the (In,Ga)As layer thickness but also by the patterned mesa height. Stacked (In,Ga)As QWires with quaternary barriers exhibit room temperature PL emission at 1.55 {mu}m in the technologically important wavelength region for telecommunication applications.

  3. Microsecond-long lasing delays in thin P-clad InGaAs QW lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C.H.; Miester, C.F; Zory, P.S.; Emanuel, M.A.

    1996-06-01

    Microsecond-long lasing delays have been observed in wide-stripe, thin p-clad, InGaAs single quantum well (QW) lasers with ``thick`` p{sup +} cap layers. Computer modeling indicates that localized refractive index changes in the cap layer due to ohmic heating from the con- tact resistance may be the root cause.

  4. Characteristics of Monolithically Integrated InGaAs Active Pixel Imager Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, Q.; Cunningham, T. J.; Pain, B.; Lange, M. J.; Olsen, G. H.

    2000-01-01

    Switching and amplifying characteristics of a newly developed monolithic InGaAs Active Pixel Imager Array are presented. The sensor array is fabricated from InGaAs material epitaxially deposited on an InP substrate. It consists of an InGaAs photodiode connected to InP depletion-mode junction field effect transistors (JFETs) for low leakage, low power, and fast control of circuit signal amplifying, buffering, selection, and reset. This monolithically integrated active pixel sensor configuration eliminates the need for hybridization with silicon multiplexer. In addition, the configuration allows the sensor to be front illuminated, making it sensitive to visible as well as near infrared signal radiation. Adapting the existing 1.55 micrometer fiber optical communication technology, this integration will be an ideal system of optoelectronic integration for dual band (Visible/IR) applications near room temperature, for use in atmospheric gas sensing in space, and for target identification on earth. In this paper, two different types of small 4 x 1 test arrays will be described. The effectiveness of switching and amplifying circuits will be discussed in terms of circuit effectiveness (leakage, operating frequency, and temperature) in preparation for the second phase demonstration of integrated, two-dimensional monolithic InGaAs active pixel sensor arrays for applications in transportable shipboard surveillance, night vision, and emission spectroscopy.

  5. Photosensitization of CdSe/ZnS QDs and reliability of assays for reactive oxygen species production.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, D. R.; Dimitrijevic, N. M.; Nadeau, J. L.; McGill Univ.

    2010-01-01

    CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) conjugated to biomolecules that can act as electron donors are said to be 'photosensitized': that is, they are able to oxidize or reduce molecules whose redox potential lies inside their band edges, in particular molecular oxygen and water. This leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phototoxicity. In this work, we quantify the generation of different forms of ROS from as-synthesized QDs in toluene; water-solubilized, unconjugated QDs; QDs conjugated to the neurotransmitter dopamine; and dopamine alone. Results of indirect fluorescent ROS assays, both in solution and inside cells, are compared with those of spin-trap electron paramagentic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The effect of these particles on the metabolism of mammalian cells is shown to be dependent upon light exposure and proportional to the amount of ROS generated.

  6. Photosensitization of CdSe/ZnS QDs and reliability of assays for reactive oxygen species production.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Daniel R; Dimitrijevic, Nada M; Nadeau, Jay L

    2010-01-01

    CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) conjugated to biomolecules that can act as electron donors are said to be "photosensitized": that is, they are able to oxidize or reduce molecules whose redox potential lies inside their band edges, in particular molecular oxygen and water. This leads to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and phototoxicity. In this work, we quantify the generation of different forms of ROS from as-synthesized QDs in toluene; water-solubilized, unconjugated QDs; QDs conjugated to the neurotransmitter dopamine; and dopamine alone. Results of indirect fluorescent ROS assays, both in solution and inside cells, are compared with those of spin-trap electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy (EPR). The effect of these particles on the metabolism of mammalian cells is shown to be dependent upon light exposure and proportional to the amount of ROS generated. PMID:20648372

  7. Oligomeric nanoparticles functionalized with NIR-emitting CdTe/CdS QDs and folate for tumor-targeted imaging.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yue; Zhang, Jia; An, Linna; Cao, Qinjingwen; Deng, Yun; Liang, Gaolin

    2014-09-01

    We report herein the facile surface-functionalization of one type of biocompatible, oligomeric nanoparticles 1-NPs with NIR-emitting CdTe/CdS QDs and folate for tumor-targeted imaging in vivo. The -NH2 and -SH groups of cysteine residues on the 1-NPs were utilized to covalently conjugate CdTe/CdS QDs and Mal-FA to prepare the hybrid nanoparticles 1-NPs-QDs-FA. As-prepared 1-NPs-QDs-FA showed NIR-fluorescence emission at 734 nm, selective uptake by FR-overexpressing tumor cells in vitro, and selective FR-overexpressing tumor-targeted imaging in vivo. This first example of oligomeric/inorganic hybrid nanoparticles provides people with new type of biomaterials for tumor-targeted imaging with high selectivity. PMID:24952975

  8. Toxicological effect of MPA-CdSe QDs exposure on zebrafish embryo and larvae.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Wei; Lin, Kuangfei; Sun, Xue; Dong, Qiaoxiang; Huang, Changjiang; Wang, Huili; Guo, Meijin; Cui, Xinhong

    2012-09-01

    Cadmium selenium (CdSe) quantum dots (QDs) are semiconductor nanocrystals that hold wide range of applications and substantial production volumes. Due to unique composition and nanoscale properties, their potential toxicity to aquatic organisms has increasingly gained a great amount of interest. However, the impact of CdSe QDs exposure on zebrafish embryo and larvae remains almost unknown. Therefore, the lab study was performed to determine the developmental and behavioral toxicities to zebrafish under continuous exposure to low level CdSe QDs (0.05-31.25 mg L(-1)) coated with mercaptopropionic acid (MPA). The results showed MPA-CdSe exposure from embryo to larvae stage affected overall fitness. Our findings for the first time revealed that: (1) The 120 h LC(50) of MPA-CdSe for zebrafish was 1.98 mg L(-1); (2) embryos exposed to MPA-CdSe resulted in malformations incidence and lower hatch rate; (3) abnormal vascular of FLI-1 transgenic zebrafish larvae appeared after exposure to MPA-CdSe including vascular junction, bifurcation, crossing and particle appearance; (4) larvae behavior assessment showed during MPA-CdSe exposure a rapid transition from light-to-dark elicited a similar, brief burst and a higher basal swimming rate; (5) MPA-CdSe induced embryos cell apoptosis in the head and tail region. Results of the observations provide a basic understanding of MPA-CdSe toxicity to aquatic organisms and suggest the need for additional research to identify the toxicological mechanism. PMID:22595531

  9. Formation of ZnSe/Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} QDs by surface cation exchange and high photothermal conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Jia, Guozhi; Wang, Peng; Zhang, Yanbang; Wu, Zengna; Li, Qiang; Yao, Jianghong; Chang, Kai

    2015-08-15

    Water-dispersed core/shell structure ZnSe/Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} quantum dots were synthesized by ultrasonicwave-assisted cation exchange reaction. Only surface Zn ion can be replaced by Bi ion in ZnSe quantum dots, which lead to the ultrathin Bi{sub 2}Se{sub 3} shell layer formed. It is significance to find to change the crystal of QDs due to the acting of ultrasonicwave. Cation exchange mechanism and excellent photothermal conversion properties are discussed in detail.

  10. Peptide-functionalized ZCIS QDs as fluorescent nanoprobe for targeted HER2-positive breast cancer cells imaging.

    PubMed

    Michalska, Martyna; Florczak, Anna; Dams-Kozlowska, Hanna; Gapinski, Jacek; Jurga, Stefan; Schneider, Raphaël

    2016-04-15

    In this paper, the synthesis of alloyed CuInZnxS2+x quantum dots (ZCIS QDs), their transfer into aqueous solution via a polymer coating technique, and the use of these nanocrystals to selectively target HER2-positive cells, are reported. By optimizing first the ZnS shell deposition process onto the CuInS2 core, and next the encapsulation of the dots with the amphiphilic poly(maleic anhydride-alt-1-octadecene) (PMAO) polymer, water-dispersible ZCIS QDs were successfully prepared. The nanocrystals with a photoluminescence quantum yield of 35% were purified via centrifugation and ultracentrifugation and high quality nanoparticles with narrow size distributions and surface charges were obtained. After verifying the biocompatibility of PMO-coated ZCIS QDs, we coupled these nanocrystals with the LTVSPWY peptide and demonstrated via MTT assay that both bare and the peptide-linked QDs exhibit low cytotoxicity. The HER2-mediated delivery of the peptide-linked QDs was confirmed by confocal microscopy. This study indicates that as engineered QDs can efficiently be used as fluorescent nanoprobes for selective labelling of HER2-positive SKBR3 cancer cells. PMID:26850146

  11. Synthesis of silica protected photoluminescence QDs and their applications for transparent fluorescent films with enhanced photochemical stability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Changhua; Shen, Huaibin; Wang, Hongzhe; Xu, Weiwei; Mao, Mao; Wang, Sujuan; Li, Lin Song

    2012-10-01

    In this paper, we have demonstrated a novel and simple way to prepare transparent composite fluorescent films by using poly (acrylic acid) co-polymer as a matrix and silica coated photoluminescence (PL) quantum dots (QDs) as light-emitting materials. The strategies include preparing aqueous amphiphilic oligomer (polymaleic acid n-hexadecanol ester, PMAH) modified QDs, encapsulating the aqueous QDs in silica with a modified Stöber method and fabricating the QD-PMAH-SiO2-polymer composite fluorescent films with a spin-coating method. The obtained light-emitting thin films were transparent under room light and showed bright red, green and deep-blue light under the irradiation of UV light. The PL intensity of the composite films increased incrementally with the number of layers and the concentration of QD-PMAH-SiO2 within each film. A white light emitting film was also fabricated by combining the silica coated red, green and deep-blue QDs in a proper ratio. Moreover, the photochemical stability of the QD-PMAH-SiO2 in composite film was enhanced significantly compared with PMAH coated QDs, because of a thicker and compact passivating silica layer formed on the surfaces of the PL QDs.

  12. Imaging surface plasmon polaritons using proximal self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Bracher, Gregor; Schraml, Konrad; Blauth, Mäx; Wierzbowski, Jakob; López, Nicolás Coca; Bichler, Max; Müller, Kai; Finley, Jonathan J.; Kaniber, Michael

    2014-07-21

    We present optical investigations of hybrid plasmonic nanosystems consisting of lithographically defined plasmonic Au-waveguides or beamsplitters on GaAs substrates coupled to proximal self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. We designed a sample structure that enabled us to precisely tune the distance between quantum dots and the sample surface during nano-fabrication and demonstrated that non-radiative processes do not play a major role for separations down to ∼10 nm. A polarized laser beam focused on one end of the plasmonic nanostructure generates propagating surface plasmon polaritons that, in turn, create electron-hole pairs in the GaAs substrate during propagation. These free carriers are subsequently captured by the quantum dots ∼25 nm below the surface, giving rise to luminescence. The intensity of the spectrally integrated quantum dot luminescence is used to image the propagating plasmon modes. As the waveguide width reduces from 5 μm to 1 μm, we clearly observe different plasmonic modes at the remote waveguide end, enabling their direct imaging in real space. This imaging technique is applied to a plasmonic beamsplitter facilitating the determination of the splitting ratio between the two beamsplitter output ports as the interaction length L{sub i} is varied. A splitting ratio of 50:50 is observed for L{sub i}∼9±1 μm and 1 μm wide waveguides for excitation energies close to the GaAs band edge. Our experimental findings are in good agreement with mode profile and finite difference time domain simulations for both waveguides and beamsplitters.

  13. Strain-driven growth of GaAs(111) quantum dots with low fine structure splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yerino, Christopher D.; Simmonds, Paul J.; Liang, Baolai; Jung, Daehwan; Schneider, Christian; Unsleber, Sebastian; Vo, Minh; Huffaker, Diana L.; Höfling, Sven; Kamp, Martin; Lee, Minjoo Larry

    2014-12-01

    Symmetric quantum dots (QDs) on (111)-oriented surfaces are promising candidates for generating polarization-entangled photons due to their low excitonic fine structure splitting (FSS). However, (111) QDs are difficult to grow. The conventional use of compressive strain to drive QD self-assembly fails to form 3D nanostructures on (111) surfaces. Instead, we demonstrate that (111) QDs self-assemble under tensile strain by growing GaAs QDs on an InP(111)A substrate. Tensile GaAs self-assembly produces a low density of QDs with a symmetric triangular morphology. Coherent, tensile QDs are observed without dislocations, and the QDs luminescence at room temperature. Single QD measurements reveal low FSS with a median value of 7.6 μeV, due to the high symmetry of the (111) QDs. Tensile self-assembly thus offers a simple route to symmetric (111) QDs for entangled photon emitters.

  14. Strain-driven growth of GaAs(111) quantum dots with low fine structure splitting

    SciTech Connect

    Yerino, Christopher D.; Jung, Daehwan; Lee, Minjoo Larry; Simmonds, Paul J.; Liang, Baolai; Huffaker, Diana L.; Schneider, Christian; Unsleber, Sebastian; Vo, Minh; Kamp, Martin; Höfling, Sven

    2014-12-22

    Symmetric quantum dots (QDs) on (111)-oriented surfaces are promising candidates for generating polarization-entangled photons due to their low excitonic fine structure splitting (FSS). However, (111) QDs are difficult to grow. The conventional use of compressive strain to drive QD self-assembly fails to form 3D nanostructures on (111) surfaces. Instead, we demonstrate that (111) QDs self-assemble under tensile strain by growing GaAs QDs on an InP(111)A substrate. Tensile GaAs self-assembly produces a low density of QDs with a symmetric triangular morphology. Coherent, tensile QDs are observed without dislocations, and the QDs luminescence at room temperature. Single QD measurements reveal low FSS with a median value of 7.6 μeV, due to the high symmetry of the (111) QDs. Tensile self-assembly thus offers a simple route to symmetric (111) QDs for entangled photon emitters.

  15. Ultrafast spin tunneling and injection in coupled nanostructures of InGaAs quantum dots and quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Jie Kiba, Takayuki; Yamamura, Takafumi; Takayama, Junichi; Subagyo, Agus; Sueoka, Kazuhisa; Murayama, Akihiro

    2014-01-06

    We investigate the electron-spin injection dynamics via tunneling from an In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As quantum well (QW) to In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As quantum dots (QDs) in coupled QW-QDs nanostructures. These coupled nanostructures demonstrate ultrafast (5 to 20 ps) spin injection into the QDs. The degree of spin polarization up to 45% is obtained in the QDs after the injection, essentially depending on the injection time. The spin injection and conservation are enhanced with thinner barriers due to the stronger electronic coupling between the QW and QDs.

  16. Comparison and implications of charge collection measurements in silicon and InGaAs irradiated by energetic protons and neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Normand, E.; Oberg, D.L.; Wert, J.L.

    1995-12-01

    A variety of charge collection measurements by energetic protons and neutrons have been measured and compared. These include deposition in: small silicon junctions, large volume American and russian silicon surface barrier detectors, and InGaAs photodiodes.

  17. Size dependence of electron spin dephasing in InGaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y. Q.; Puttisong, Y.; Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.; Yang, X. J.; Subagyo, A.; Sueoka, K.; Murayama, A.

    2015-03-02

    We investigate ensemble electron spin dephasing in self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) of different lateral sizes by employing optical Hanle measurements. Using low excitation power, we are able to obtain a spin dephasing time T{sub 2}{sup *} (in the order of ns) of the resident electron after recombination of negative trions in the QDs. We show that T{sub 2}{sup *} is determined by the hyperfine field arising from the frozen fluctuation of nuclear spins, which scales with the size of QDs following the Merkulov-Efros-Rosen model. This scaling no longer holds in large QDs, most likely due to a breakdown in the lateral electron confinement.

  18. Optical properties of InGaAs linear graded buffer layers on GaAs grown by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, B.; Baek, J. H.; Lee, J. H.; Choi, S. W.; Jung, S. D.; Han, W. S.; Lee, E. H.

    1996-05-01

    We report optical characteristics of linear graded InxGa1-xAs (XIn=0-0.58) buffer layers grown on GaAs by low-pressure metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. Two types of wirelike surface structures were observed from the layers grown at two different temperatures. Low-temperature photoluminescence (PL) and double-crystal x-ray diffractometric measurements indicate that the PL energy and the relaxation of the graded layers were strongly dependent on the top surface structure. InGaAs cap layers were grown on top of the graded buffer layers with a variation of indium composition. A strong PL signal was observed from the top region of the graded layer grown with a lattice-matched cap layer. It suggests that the top region of the grade, similar to a graded well structure, is compressively strained but is of high structural quality without dislocations.

  19. X ray photoelectron analysis of oxide-semiconductor interface after breakdown in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Shekhter, P.; Palumbo, F.; Cohen Weinfeld, K.; Eizenberg, M.

    2014-09-08

    In this work, the post-breakdown characteristics of metal gate/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs structures were studied using surface analysis by x ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show that for dielectric breakdown under positive bias, localized filaments consisting of oxidized substrate atoms (In, Ga and As) were formed, while following breakdown under negative bias, a decrease of oxidized substrate atoms was observed. Such differences in the microstructure at the oxide-semiconductor interface after breakdown for positive and negative voltages are explained by atomic diffusion of the contact atoms into the gate dielectric in the region of the breakdown spot by the current induced electro-migration effect. These findings show a major difference between Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs and SiO{sub 2}/Si interfaces, opening the way to a better understanding of the breakdown characteristics of III-V complementary-metal-oxide-semiconductor technology.

  20. Self-assembled Ge QDs Formed by High-Temperature Annealing on Al(Ga)As (001)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, William A.; Qi, Meng; Yan, Lifan; Stephenson, Chad A.; Protasenko, Vladimir; Xing, Huili; Millunchick, Joanna M.; Wistey, Mark A.

    2015-05-01

    This work studies the spontaneous self-assembly of Ge QDs on AlAs, GaAs and AlGaAs by high-temperature in situ annealing using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE). The morphology of Ge dots formed on AlAs were observed by atom probe tomography, which revealed nearly spherical QDs with diameters approaching 10 nm and confirmed the complete absence of a wetting layer. Reflection high-energy electron diffraction and atomic force microscopy of Ge annealed under similar conditions on GaAs and Al0.3Ga0.7As surfaces revealed the gradual suppression of QD formation with decreasing Al-content of the buffer. To investigate the prospects of using encapsulated Ge dots for upconverting photovoltaics, in which photocurrent can still be generated from photons with energy less than the host bandgap, Ge QDs were embedded into the active region of III-V PIN diodes by MBE. It was observed that orders of magnitude higher short-circuit current is obtained at photon energies below the GaAs bandgap compared with a reference PIN diode without Ge QDs. These results demonstrate the promise of Ge QDs for upconverting solar cells and the realization of device-quality integration of group IV and III-V semiconductors.

  1. The influence of cell penetrating peptide branching on cellular uptake of QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breger, Joyce; Delehanty, James; Susumu, Kimihiro; Anderson, George; Muttenhaler, Markus; Dawson, Philip; Medintz, Igor

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) serve as a valuable platform for understating the intricacies of nanoparticle cellular uptake and fate for the development of theranostics. Developing novel internalization peptides that maximize cellular uptake while minimizing the amount of peptide is important to allow space on the nanoparticle for other cargo (e.g. drugs). We have designed a range of branched, dendritic internalization peptides composed of polyarginine (Arg9) branches (1 to 16 repeats) attached a dendritic wedge based on the sequence WP9G2H6. By attaching these branched dendritic peptides to QD's, we can study the influence of branching on cellular uptake as a function of time, ratio, and degree of branching.

  2. A low noise low power 512×256 ROIC for extended wavelength InGaAs FPA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Songlei; Huang, Zhangcheng; Chen, Yu; Li, Tao; Fang, Jiaxiong

    2015-05-01

    A low noise low power 512×256 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) based on Capacitance Trans-impedance Amplifier (CTIA) was designed in this paper. The ROIC with 30μm pixel-pitch and 70 fF integrated capacitance as normal structure and test structure capacitance from 5 to 60 fF, was fabricated in 0.5μm DPTM CMOS process. The results showed that output voltage was larger than 2.0V and power consumption was about 150mW, output ROIC noise was about 3.6E-4V which equivalent noise was 160e-, and the test structure noise was from 20e- to 140 e-. Compared the readout noises in Integration Then Readout (ITR) mode and Integration While Readout (IWR) mode, it indicated that in IWR mode, readout noise comes mainly from both integration capacitance and sampling capacitance, while in ITR mode, readout noise comes mostly from sampling capacitance. Finally the ROIC was flip-chip bonded with Indium bumps to extended wavelength InGaAs detectors with cutoff wavelength 2.5μm at 200K. The peak detectivity exceeded 5E11cmHz1/2/w with 70nA/cm2 dark current density at 200K.

  3. Border trap reduction in Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Kechao; Winter, Roy; Zhang, Liangliang; Droopad, Ravi; Eizenberg, Moshe; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of Al2O3 atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the border trap density (Nbt) of Al2O3/InGaAs gate stacks is investigated quantitatively, and we demonstrate that lowering the trimethylaluminum (TMA)/water vapor ALD temperature from 270 °C to 120 °C significantly reduces Nbt. The reduction of Nbt coincides with increased hydrogen incorporation in low temperature ALD-grown Al2O3 films during post-gate metal forming gas annealing. It is also found that large-dose (˜6000 L) exposure of the In0.53Ga0.47As (100) surface to TMA immediately after thermal desorption of a protective As2 capping layer is an important step to guarantee the uniformity and reproducibility of high quality Al2O3/InGaAs samples made at low ALD temperatures.

  4. Thermophotovoltaic energy converters based on thin film selective emitters and InGaAs photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Fatemi, N.S.; Hoffman, R.H.; Wilt, D.M.; Lowe, R.A.; Garverick, L.M.; Scheiman, D.

    1996-02-01

    This paper presents the results of an investigation to demonstrate thermophotovoltaic energy conversion using InGaAs photovoltaic cells, yttrium-aluminum-garnet- (YAG-) based selective emitters, and bandpass/reflector filters, with the heat source operating at 1100{degree}C. InGaAs cells were grown on InP by organometallic vapor phase epitaxy with bandgaps of 0.60 and 0.75 eV and coupled to Ho-, Er-, and Er-Tm-doped YAG selective emitters. Infrared reflector and/or shortpass filters were also used to increase the ratio of in-band to out-of-band radiation from the selective emitters. Efficiencies as high as 13.2{percent} were recorded for filtered converters. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  5. Low-Cost InGaAs Detectors for Near-Infrared Imaging and Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter; Croll, B.; Simcoe, R. A.

    2014-01-01

    Near-infrared detectors made from InGaAs should provide an alternative to HgCdTe that is particularly cost-effective for arrays of small telescopes or for covering large focal planes. Originally designed for night-vision equipment, these detectors can be suitable for astronomy if they support long, up-the-ramp exposures and are cooled sufficiently. We developed custom electronics to operate the FLIR APS640C detector in a camera with thermoelectric and chilled-water cooling. We achieved differential photometric precision of 500 ppm (0.5 mmag) hr^-1/2 observing J=7.7 stars with an effective telescope aperture of 0.25 m. Laboratory results from the latest generation of InGaAs detectors will be presented, and we discuss the limits to achieving background-limited performance in the Y, J, and H bands on 1 m - class telescopes.

  6. Uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, X.; Li, J.; Wasserman, D.; Goodhue, W. D.

    2008-12-08

    We demonstrate the fabrication of optically active uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays by combining nanosphere lithography and bromine ion-beam-assisted etching on a single InGaAs/GaAs quantum well. A wide range of lateral dot sizes was achieved from an oxygen plasma nanosphere resizing process. The increased lateral confinement of carriers in the dots results in low temperature photoluminescence blueshifts from 0.5 to 11 meV. Additional quantization was achieved using a selective wet-etch process. Our model suggests the presence of a 70 nm dead layer in the outer InGaAs radial edge, which we believe to be a result of defects and dislocations introduced during the dry-etch process.

  7. InGaAs HEMT MMIC LINA and doublers for EHF SATCOM ground terminals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chow, P. D.; Lester, J.; Huang, P.; Jones, W.

    1991-07-01

    A K-band MMIC LNA and a family of MMIC frequency doublers were designed and fabricated using the planar-doped pseudomorphic InGaAs HEMT technology for future EHF satellite communication terminal transceiver applications. The InGaAs HEMT LNA showed less than 2 dB noise figure and more than 32 dB gain from 21 to 23 GHz. The Ku-, K-, and Q-band MMIC HEMT doublers demonstrated low conversion loss and wideband operation. They showed 10 dBm, 8 dBm, and 0 dBm output powers, and 2.5 dB, 4.5 dB, and 8.6 dB conversion losses at 17.4 GHz, 22.25 GHz, and 43.5 GHz, respectively.

  8. Three-dimensional whispering gallery modes in InGaAs nanoneedle lasers on silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Tran, T.-T. D.; Chen, R.; Ng, K. W.; Ko, W. S.; Lu, F.; Chang-Hasnain, C. J.

    2014-09-15

    As-grown InGaAs nanoneedle lasers, synthesized at complementary metal–oxide–semiconductor compatible temperatures on polycrystalline and crystalline silicon substrates, were studied in photoluminescence experiments. Radiation patterns of three-dimensional whispering gallery modes were observed upon optically pumping the needles above the lasing threshold. Using the radiation patterns as well as finite-difference-time-domain simulations and polarization measurements, all modal numbers of the three-dimensional whispering gallery modes could be identified.

  9. InGaAs focal plane array developments at III-V Lab

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvié, Anne; Reverchon, Jean-Luc; Huet, Odile; Djedidi, Anis; Robo, Jean-Alexandre; Truffer, Jean-Patrick; Bria, Toufiq; Pires, Mauricio; Decobert, Jean; Costard, Eric

    2012-06-01

    SWIR detection band benefits from natural (sun, night glow, thermal radiation) or artificial (eye safe lasers) photons sources combined to low atmospheric absorption and specific contrast compared to visible wavelengths. It gives the opportunity to address a large spectrum of applications such as defense and security (night vision, active imaging), space (earth observation), transport (automotive safety) or industry (non destructive process control). InGaAs material appears as a good candidate to satisfy SWIR detection needs. The lattice matching with InP constitutes a double advantage to this material: attractive production capacity and uncooled operation thanks to low dark current level induced by high quality material. For few years, III-VLab has been studying InGaAs imagery, gathering expertise in InGaAs material growth and imaging technology respectively from Alcatel-Lucent and Thales, its two mother companies. This work has lead to put quickly on the market a 320x256 InGaAs module, exhibiting high performances in terms of dark current, uniformity and quantum efficiency. In this paper, we present the last developments achieved in our laboratory, mainly focused on increasing the pixels number to VGA format associated to pixel pitch decrease (15μm) and broadening detection spectrum toward visible wavelengths. Depending on targeted applications, different Read Out Integrated Circuits (ROIC) have been used. Low noise ROIC have been developed by CEA LETI to fit the requirements of low light level imaging whereas logarithmic ROIC designed by NIT allows high dynamic imaging adapted for automotive safety.

  10. InGaAs concentrator cells for laser power converters and tandem cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtczuk, S.; Vernon, S.; Gagnon, E.

    1993-01-01

    In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As N-on-P concentrator cells were made as part of an effort to develop 1.315 micron laser power converters. The 1.315 micron laser power conversion efficiency was estimated as 29.4 percent (at 5.57 W/cm(sup 2)) based on an 86 percent measured external quantum efficiency at 1.315 microns, and a measured open circuit voltage (484 mV), and fill-factor (67 percent) at the equivalent AM0 short-circuit photocurrent (5.07 A/cm(sup 2)). A 13.5 percent percent AMO efficiency was achieved at 89 suns and 25 C. Measured one-sun and 100-sun AMO efficiency, log I-V analysis, and quantum efficiency are presented for InGaAs cells with and without InP windows to passivate the front surface. Windowed cells performed better at concentration than windowless cells. Lattice mismatch between InGaAs epilayers and InP substrate was less than 800 ppm. Theoretical efficiency is estimated for 1.315 microns laser power converters versus the bandgap energy. Adding aluminum to InGaAs to form In(x)Al(y)Ga(1-x-y)As is presented as a way to achieve an optimal bandgap for 1.315 microns laser power conversion.

  11. Crystal growth of compound semiconductors in a low-gravity environment (InGaAs crystals) (M-22)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tatsumi, Masami

    1993-01-01

    Compound semiconductor crystals, such as gallium arsenide and indium phosphide crystals, have many interesting properties that silicon crystals lack, and they are expected to be used as materials for optic and/or electro-optic integrated devices. Generally speaking, alloy semiconductors, which consist of more than three elements, demonstrate new functions. For example, values of important parameters, such as lattice constant and emission wavelength, can be chosen independently. However, as it is easy for macroscopic and/or microscopic fluctuations of composition to occur in alloy semiconductor crystals, it is difficult to obtain crystals having homogeneous properties. Macroscopic change of composition in a crystal is caused by the segregation phenomenon. This phenomenon is due to a continuous change in the concentration of constituent elements at the solid-liquid interfacing during solidification. On Earth, attempts were made to obtain a crystal with homogeneous composition by maintaining a constant melt composition near the solid-liquid interface, through suppression of the convection flow of the melt by applying a magnetic field. However, the attempt was not completely successful. Convective flow does not occur in microgravity because the gravity in space is from four to six orders of magnitude less than that on Earth. In such a case, mass transfer in the melt is dominated by the diffusion phenomenon. So, if crystal growth is carried out at a rate that is higher than the rate of mass transfer due to this phenomenon, it is expected that crystals having a homogeneous composition will be obtained. In addition, it is also possible that microscopic composition fluctuations (striation) may disappear because microscopic fluctuations diminish in the absence of convection. We are going to grow a bulk-indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) crystal using the gradient heating furnace (GHF) in the first material processing test (FMPT). The structure of the sample is shown where InGaAs

  12. Upconversion Nanoparticles for Security Printing and CdSe QDs for Drug Delivery Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baride, Aravind

    demonstrated NIR light induced release of a target molecule, coumarin, from functionalized quantum dots. Coumarin, a model drug molecule, is released upon NIR two-photon excitation of cinnamate capped CdSe QDs. Electron transfer from the excited QD to the cinnamate ligand induces the release of coumarin. The electron transfer across the QD to the cinnamate ligand is confirmed by evaluation of uncaging activity in the cinnamate capped CdSe/ZnS core-shell QDs.

  13. Femtosecond insights into direct electron injection in dye anchored ZnO QDs following charge transfer excitation.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pushpendra; Kumar, Sunil; Ghosh, Subrata; Pal, Suman Kalyan

    2016-07-27

    The role of the charge transfer (CT) state in interfacial electron transfer in dye-sensitized semiconductor nanocrystals is still poorly understood. To address this problem, femtosecond transient absorption (TA) spectroscopy is used as a probe to investigate the electron injection across a newly synthesized coumarin dye (8-hydroxy-2-oxo-4-phenyl-2 benzo[h]chromene-3-carbonitrile, coded BC5) and ZnO quantum dots (QDs). Steady state and time-resolved spectroscopic measurements reveal that BC5 dye interacts strongly with ZnO QDs in the ground state forming a CT complex. The BC5-ZnO QD complex absorbs more towards red compared to only the dye and QDs, and emits fluorescence due to radiative recombination of photogenerated charges. The formation of charges following the excitation of the CT complex has been demonstrated by observing the signature of dye radical cations and electrons in the conduction band (CB) of the QDs in the TA spectra. The TA signals of these charges grow sharply as a result of ultrafast direct electron injection into the QD. We have monitored the complete dynamics of photogenerated charges by measuring the TA signals of the charges up to a couple of nanoseconds. The injected electrons that are free or shallowly trapped recombine with a time constant of 625 fs, whereas deeply trapped electrons disappear slowly (526 ps) via radiative recombination. Furthermore, theoretical studies based on ab initio calculations have been carried out to complement the experimental findings. PMID:27412034

  14. Ultrasensitive fluorescence immunoassay for detection of ochratoxin A using catalase-mediated fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xiaolin; Zhan, Shengnan; Xu, Hengyi; Meng, Xianwei; Xiong, Yonghua; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-04-28

    Herein, for the first time we report an improved competitive fluorescent enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) by using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced fluorescence quenching of mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs). In this immunoassay, catalase (CAT) was labeled with OTA as a competitive antigen to connect the fluorescence signals of the QDs with the concentration of the target. Through the combinatorial use of H2O2-induced fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs as a fluorescence signal output and the ultrahigh catalytic activity of CAT to H2O2, our proposed method could be used to perform a dynamic linear detection of OTA ranging from 0.05 pg mL(-1) to 10 pg mL(-1). The half maximal inhibitory concentration was 0.53 pg mL(-1) and the limit of detection was 0.05 pg mL(-1). These values were approximately 283- and 300-folds lower than those of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-based conventional ELISA, respectively. The reported method is accurate, highly reproducible, and specific against other mycotoxins in agricultural products as well. In summary, the developed fluorescence immunoassay based on H2O2-induced fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs can be used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of mycotoxins or haptens in food safety monitoring. PMID:27093176

  15. Imaging of the GI tract by QDs loaded heparin-deoxycholic acid (DOCA) nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Khatun, Zehedina; Nurunnabi, Md; Cho, Kwang Jae; Lee, Yong-kyu

    2012-11-01

    This study presents an approach to deliver non invasive, near-IR imaging agent using oral delivery system. Low molecular weight heparin (LMWH)-deoxycholic acid (DOCA)/(LHD) nanoparticles formed by a self-assembly method was prepared to evaluate their physicochemical properties and oral absorption in vitro and in vivo. Near-IR QDs were prepared and loaded into LHD nanoparticles for imaging of the gastro-intestinal (GI) tract absorption. Q-LHD nanoparticles were almost spherical in shape with diameters of 194-217 nm. The size and fluorescent intensity of the Q-LHD nanoparticles were stable in 10% FBS solution and retained their fluorescent even after 5 days of incubation. Cell viability of Q-LHD nanoparticles maintained in the range of 80-95% for 24h incubation. No damage was found in tissues or organs during animal experiments. The in vivo oral absorption of Q-LHD was observed in SKH1 mice for 3h under different doses. From the results, we confirmed that Q-LHD was absorbed mostly into the ileum of small intestine containing intestinal bile acid transporter as observed in TEM and molecular imaging system. Our designed nanoparticles could be administered orally for bio-imaging and studying the bio-distribution of drug. PMID:22944403

  16. Single mode 1.3 μm InGaAs VCSELs for access network applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Westbergh, Petter; Söderberg, Emma; Gustavsson, Johan S.; Modh, Peter; Larsson, Anders; Zhang, Zhenzhong; Berggren, Jesper; Hammar, Mattias

    2008-04-01

    GaAs-based VCSELs emitting near 1.3 μm are realized using highly strained InGaAs quantum wells and a large detuning of the cavity resonance with respect to the gain peak. The VCSELs have an oxide aperture for current and optical confinement and an inverted surface relief for suppression of higher-order transverse modes. The inverted surface relief structure also has the advantage of suppressing oxide modes that otherwise appear in VCSELs with a large detuning between the cavity resonance and the gain peak. Under large signal, digital modulation, clear and open eyes and error free transmission over 9 km of single mode fiber have been demonstrated at the OC-48 and 10 GbE bit rates up to 85°C. Here we review these results and present results from a complementary study of the RF modulation characteristics, including second order harmonic and third order intermodulation distortion, relative intensity noise (RIN), and spurious free dynamic range (SFDR). RIN levels comparable to those of single mode VCSELs emitting at 850 nm are demonstrated, with values from -140 to -150 dB/Hz. SFDR values of 100 and 95 dB•Hz 2/3 were obtained at 2 and 5 GHz, respectively, which is in the range of those required in radio-over-fiber systems.

  17. Study on the Infrared Lens-Free Irradiation Thermometer Based on InGaAs Detector at NIM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, X. P.; Yuan, Z. D.; Huang, S. Y.; Song, J.; Xu, K.

    2015-12-01

    A lens-free irradiation thermometer (LF-IRRT) designed for laboratory applications, with 1.55 \\upmu m center wavelength based on the InGaAs detector, and a temperature range from 300° C to 1000° C, has been developed at NIM of China. The thermometer has no imaging optics for collecting the radiation, for which a major benefit is improved stability compared to other radiation thermometers. This paper introduces the measurement principle, the structure of the LF-IRRT, the multiple-point calibration method, and the stability and expanded uncertainty of the thermometer. The stability of the LF-IRRT is better than 0.070° C at temperatures from 300° C to 1000° C over a period of 1 month. The expanded uncertainty is less than 0.20° C for temperatures between 300° C and 1000° C. The size-of-source effect of the LF-IRRT is 0.6 % from the source diameter range from 10 mm to 65 mm.

  18. InGaAs self-assembly quantum dot for high-speed 1300 nm electroabsorption modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan-Han; Wu, Jui-pin; Kuo, Yu-zheng; Chiu, Yi-jen; Tzeng, T. E.; Lay, T. S.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, a new type of high-speed electroabsorption modulator (EAM) based on quantum dot (QD) p-i-n heterostructure is demonstrated. The QD layers sandwiched by p-AlGaAs and n-AlGaAs are grown by multilayer InGaAs self-assembled QD with luminance wavelength of 1300 nm, serving as the active region of EAM. The photocurrent spectrum measurement exhibits a red shift of 15 nm in QD transition energy levels on biasing from 0 to 6 V. A quadratic relation of energy shift against the reversed bias is extracted, confirming the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) in QD. On fabricating a 300 μm long EAM, as high as DC 5 dB extinction ratio by 6 V voltage swing at 1310 nm is observed. As compared with well-developed quantum well (QW) EAM (well thickness ∼10 nm) of the same length, the lower density of states still shows the same order of magnitude in extinction ratio, suggesting strong QCSE in such 3-dimensional confined QD. An electrical-to-optical conversion with -3 dB bandwidth of 3.3 GHz is also attained in such QD EAM, where the speed is mainly limited by the parasitic capacitance on substrate. It implies that through optimization of QD and device structures, the advantages of QD properties are quite promising to be used in high-speed optoelectronic fields.

  19. Albumin-Mediated Biomineralization of Paramagnetic NIR Ag2S QDs for Tiny Tumor Bimodal Targeted Imaging in Vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Hao, Guangyu; Yao, Chenfei; Yu, Jiani; Wang, Jun; Yang, Weitao; Hu, Chunhong; Zhang, Bingbo

    2016-07-01

    Bimodal imaging has captured increasing interests due to its complementary characteristics of two kinds of imaging modalities. Among the various dual-modal imaging techniques, MR/fluorescence imaging has been widely studied owing to its high 3D resolution and sensitivity. There is, however, still a strong demand to construct biocompatible MR/fluorescence contrast agents with near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent emissions and high relaxivities. In this study, BSA-DTPA(Gd) derived from bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a novel kind of biotemplate is employed for biomineralization of paramagnetic NIR Ag2S quantum dots (denoted as Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs). This synthetic strategy is found to be bioinspired, environmentally benign, and straightforward. The obtained Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs have fine sizes (ca. 6 nm) and good colloidal stability. They exhibit unabated NIR fluorescent emission (ca. 790 nm) as well as high longitudinal relaxivity (r1 = 12.6 mM(-1) s(-1)) compared to that of commercial Magnevist (r1 = 3.13 mM(-1) s(-1)). In vivo tumor-bearing MR and fluorescence imaging both demonstrate that Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs have pronounced tiny tumor targeting capability. In vitro and in vivo toxicity study show Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs are biocompatible. Also, biodistribution analysis indicates they can be cleared from body mainly via liver metabolism. This protein-mediated biomineralized Ag2S@BSA-DTPA(Gd) pQDs presents great potential as a novel bimodal imaging contrast agent for tiny tumor diagnosis. PMID:27300300

  20. The physical origin of dispersion in accumulation in InGaAs based metal oxide semiconductor gate stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, Igor; Ritter, Dan; Eizenberg, Moshe

    2015-05-01

    Dispersion in accumulation is a widely observed phenomenon in technologically important InGaAs gate stacks. Two principal different interface defects were proposed as the physical origin of this phenomenon—disorder induced gap states and border traps. While the gap states are located at the semiconductor side of the interface, the border traps are related to the dielectric side. The study of Al2O3, HfO2, and an intermediate composition of HfxAlyO deposited on InGaAs enabled us to find a correlation between the dispersion and the dielectric/InGaAs band offset. At the same time, no change in the dispersion was observed after applying an effective pre-deposition treatment which results in significant reduction of the interface states. Both observations prove that border traps are the physical origin of the dispersion in accumulation in InGaAs based metal-oxide-semiconductor gate stacks.

  1. Development of a large area InGaAs APD receiver based on an impact ionization engineered detector for free-space lasercomm applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burris, H. R.; Ferraro, M. S.; Freeman, W. T.; Moore, C. I.; Murphy, J. L.; Rabinovich, W. S.; Smith, W. R.; Summers, L. L.; Thomas, L. M.; Vilcheck, M. J.; Clark, W. R.; Waters, W. D.

    2012-06-01

    The U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) is developing a small size, weight and power (SWaP) free space lasercomm terminal for small unmanned airborne platforms. The terminal is based on a small gimbal developed by CloudCap Technology. A receiver with a large field of view and with sensitivity sufficient to meet the program range goals is required for this terminal. An InGaAs Avalanche Photodiode (APD) with internal structures engineered to reduce excess noise and keff in high gain applications was selected as the detector. The detector is a 350 micron diameter impact ionization engineered (I2E) APD developed by Optogration, Inc. Results of development and characterization of the receiver will be presented.

  2. Structural and emission properties of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots emitting at 1.3 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Goldmann, Elias Jahnke, Frank; Paul, Matthias; Kettler, Jan; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter; Krause, Florian F.; Müller, Knut; Mehrtens, Thorsten; Rosenauer, Andreas

    2014-10-13

    A combined experimental and theoretical study of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) emitting at 1.3 μm under the influence of a strain-reducing InGaAs quantum well is presented. We demonstrate a red shift of 20–40 nm observed in photoluminescence spectra due to the quantum well. The InGaAs/GaAs QDs grown by metal organic vapor phase epitaxy show a bimodal height distribution (1 nm and 5 nm) and indium concentrations up to 90%. The emission properties are explained with combined tight-binding and configuration-interaction calculations of the emission wavelengths in conjunction with high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy investigations of QD geometry and indium concentrations in the QDs, which directly enter the calculations. QD geometries and concentration gradients representative for the ensemble are identified.

  3. Threshold Dose of Three Types of Quantum Dots (QDs) Induces Oxidative Stress Triggers DNA Damage and Apoptosis in Mouse Fibroblast L929 Cells

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ting; Wang, Yiqing; Kong, Lu; Xue, Yuying; Tang, Meng

    2015-01-01

    Although it has been reported that fluorescent quantum dots (QDs) have obvious acute toxic effects in vitro, their toxic effects at low doses or threshold doses are still unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the biological histocompatibility and in vitro toxicity of three types of QDs at threshold doses. Also, we compared the toxic effects of QDs with different raw chemical compositions and sizes. The results showed that low concentrations of QDs (≤7 μg/mL) had no obvious effect on cell viability and cell membrane damage, oxidative damage, cell apoptosis or DNA damage. However, QD exposure led to a significant cytotoxicity at higher doses (≥14 μg/mL) and induced abnormal cellular morphology. In addition, when comparing the three types of QDs, 2.2 nm CdTe QDs exposure showed a significantly increased proportion of apoptotic cells and significant DNA damage, suggesting that size and composition contribute to the toxic effects of QDs. Based on these discussions, it was concluded that the concentration (7 μg/mL) may serve as a threshold level for these three types of QDs only in L929 fibroblasts, whereas high concentrations (above 14 μg/mL) may be toxic, resulting in inhibition of proliferation, induction of apoptosis and DNA damage in L929 fibroblasts. PMID:26516873

  4. Precision of a Low-Cost InGaAs Detector for Near Infrared Photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Croll, Bryce; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2013-09-01

    We have designed, constructed, and tested an InGaAs near-infrared camera to explore whether low-cost detectors can make small (<= 1 m) telescopes capable of precise (< 1 mmag) infrared photometry of relatively bright targets. The camera is constructed around the 640 × 512 pixel APS640C sensor built by FLIR Electro-Optical Components. We designed custom analog-to-digital electronics for maximum stability and minimum noise. The InGaAs dark current halves with every 7°C of cooling, and we reduce it to 840 e- s-1 pixel-1 (with a pixel-to-pixel variation of ± 200 e- s-1 pixel-1) by cooling the array to -20°C. Beyond this point, glow from the readout dominates. The single-sample read noise of 149 e- is reduced to 54 e- through up-the-ramp sampling. Laboratory testing with a star field generated by a lenslet array shows that two-star differential photometry is possible to a precision of 631 ± 205 ppm (0.68 mmag) hr-1/2 at a flux of 2.4 × 104 e- s-1. Employing three comparison stars and decorrelating reference signals further improves the precision to 483 ± 161 ppm (0.52 mmag) hr-1/2. Photometric observations of HD80606 and HD80607 (J = 7.7 and 7.8) in the Y band shows that differential photometry to a precision of 415 ppm (0.45 mmag) hr-1/2 is achieved with an effective telescope aperture of 0.25 m. Next-generation InGaAs detectors should indeed enable Poisson-limited photometry of brighter dwarfs with particular advantage for late-M and L types. In addition, one might acquire near-infrared photometry simultaneously with optical photometry or radial velocity measurements to maximize the return of exoplanet searches with small telescopes.

  5. InGaAs versus HgCdTe for short-wavelength infrared applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogalski, Antoni; Ciupa, Robert

    1999-04-01

    The carrier lifetimes in In(subscript x)Ga(subscript 1-x)As (InGaAs) and Hg(subscript 1-x)Cd(subscript x)Te (HgCdTe) ternary alloys for radiative and Auger recombination are calculated for temperature 300 K in the short wavelength range 1.5 less than (lambda) less than 3.7 micrometer. Due to photon recycling, an order of magnitude enhancements in the radiative lifetimes over those obtained from the standard van Roosbroeck and Shockley expression, has been assumed. This theoretical prediction has been confirmed by good agreement with experimental data for n-type In(subscript 0.53)Ga(subscript 0.47)As. The possible Auger recombination mechanisms (CHCC, CHLH and CHSH processes) in direct-gap semiconductors are investigated. In both n-type ternary alloys, the carrier lifetimes are similar, and competition between radiative and CHCC processes take place. In p-type materials the carrier lifetime are also comparable, however the most effective channels of Auger mechanisms are: CHSH process in InGaAs, and CHLH process in HgCdTe. Next, the performance of heterostructure p-on-n photovoltaic devices are considered. Theoretically predicted R(subscript o)A values are compared with experimental data reported by other authors. In(subscript 0.53)Ga(subscript 0.47)As photodiodes have shown the device performance within a factor of 10 of theoretical limit. However, the performance of InGaAs photodiodes decreases rapidly at intermediate wavelengths due to mismatch-induced defects. HgCdTe photodiodes maintain high performance close to ultimate limit over a wider range of wavelengths. In this context technology of HgCdTe is considerably advanced since the same lattice parameter of this alloy over wide composition range.

  6. Monolithic integration of 1.3-μm InGaAs photodetectors and high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) electronic circuits on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, Thomas; Hurm, Volker; Raynor, Brian; Koehler, Klaus; Benz, Willy; Ludwig, M.

    1995-04-01

    For the first time, monolithic optoelectronic receivers for a wavelength of 1.3 micrometers have been fabricated successfully on GaAs substrates using InGaAs metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) photodiodes and AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs high-electron-mobility transistors (HEMTs). Using molecular beam epitaxy (MBE), the photodetector layers were grown on top of a double (delta) -doped AlGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs HEMT structure which allows the fabrication of enhancement and depletion field effect transistors. The photoabsorbing InGaAs layer was grown at 500 degree(s)C. To fabricate the optoelectronic receivers, first, an etch process using a combination of non-selective wet etching and selective reactive ion etching was applied to produce mesas for the photoconductors and to uncover the HEMT structure in all other areas. For the electronic circuits, our well-established HEMT process for 0.3-micrometers transistor gates was used which includes electron-beam lithography for gate definition and optical lithography for NiCr thin films resistors, capacitors, and inductors. The interdigitated MSM photodiode fingers were also fabricated using electron-beam lithography. For interconnecting the electronic circuits and the photodetectors, air bridges were employed. The entire process was performed on 2-inch wafers with more than 90% yield of functional receivers. The finished receiver--basically an MSM photodetector linked to a transimpedance amplifier--is operational at an incident wavelength of 1.3 micrometers at data rates up to 1.2 Gbit/s. The sensitivity of the detectors is 0.16 A/W at a 10 V bias.

  7. Ultrasensitive fluorescence immunoassay for detection of ochratoxin A using catalase-mediated fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Xiaolin; Zhan, Shengnan; Xu, Hengyi; Meng, Xianwei; Xiong, Yonghua; Chen, Xiaoyuan

    2016-04-01

    Herein, for the first time we report an improved competitive fluorescent enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) by using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced fluorescence quenching of mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs). In this immunoassay, catalase (CAT) was labeled with OTA as a competitive antigen to connect the fluorescence signals of the QDs with the concentration of the target. Through the combinatorial use of H2O2-induced fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs as a fluorescence signal output and the ultrahigh catalytic activity of CAT to H2O2, our proposed method could be used to perform a dynamic linear detection of OTA ranging from 0.05 pg mL-1 to 10 pg mL-1. The half maximal inhibitory concentration was 0.53 pg mL-1 and the limit of detection was 0.05 pg mL-1. These values were approximately 283- and 300-folds lower than those of horseradish peroxidase (HRP)-based conventional ELISA, respectively. The reported method is accurate, highly reproducible, and specific against other mycotoxins in agricultural products as well. In summary, the developed fluorescence immunoassay based on H2O2-induced fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs can be used for the rapid and highly sensitive detection of mycotoxins or haptens in food safety monitoring.Herein, for the first time we report an improved competitive fluorescent enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the ultrasensitive detection of ochratoxin A (OTA) by using hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced fluorescence quenching of mercaptopropionic acid-modified CdTe quantum dots (QDs). In this immunoassay, catalase (CAT) was labeled with OTA as a competitive antigen to connect the fluorescence signals of the QDs with the concentration of the target. Through the combinatorial use of H2O2-induced fluorescence quenching of CdTe QDs as a fluorescence signal output and the ultrahigh catalytic activity of CAT to H2O2, our proposed method could be used to

  8. An amplified electrochemical strategy using DNA-QDs dendrimer superstructure for the detection of thymine DNA glycosylase activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, Hongying; Lou, Youbing; Zhou, Fei; Zhu, Hao; Abdel-Halim, E S; Zhu, Jun-Jie

    2015-09-15

    A triple-signal amplification strategy was proposed for highly sensitive and selective detection of thymine DNA glycosylase (TDG) by coupling a dendrimer-like DNA label with the electrochemical method and quantum dots (QDs) tagging. The DNA-QDs dendrimer-like superstructure was designed by DNA hybridization and covalent assembling. Benefiting from outstanding performance of the amplification strategy, this assay showed high sensitivity, extraordinary stability, and easy operation. The limit of detection could reach 0.00003 U µL(-1) with a splendid specificity. The TDG content in different concentration of HeLa cell was also determined. This assay opens a new horizon for both qualitative and quantitative detection of TDG, holding great promise for potential application in cancer cell research and clinical diagnostics. PMID:25913445

  9. CdS QDs-chitosan microcapsules with stimuli-responsive property generated by gas-liquid microfluidic technique.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanjun; Yao, Rongyi; Wang, Yifeng; Chen, Ming; Qiu, Tong; Zhang, Chaocan

    2015-01-01

    This article describes a straightforward gas-liquid microfluidic approach to generate uniform-sized chitosan microcapsules containing CdS quantum dots (QDs). CdS QDs are encapsulated into the liquid-core of the microcapsules. The sizes of the microcapsules can be conveniently controlled by gas flow rate. QDs-chitosan microcapsules show good fluorescent stability in water, and exhibit fluorescent responses to chemical environmental stimuli. α-Cyclodextrin (α-CD) causes the microcapsules to deform and even collapse. More interestingly, α-CD induces obvious changes on the fluorescent color of the microcapsules. However, β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) has little influence on the shape and fluorescent color of the microcapsules. Based on the results of scanning electron microscopy, the possible mechanism about the effects of α-CD on the chitosan microcapsules is analyzed. These stimuli-responsive microcapsules are low-cost and easy to be prepared by gas-liquid microfluidic technique, and can be applied as a potential micro-detector to chemicals, such as CDs. PMID:25460598

  10. Developing a fluorescence-coupled capillary electrophoresis based method to probe interactions between QDs and colorectal cancer targeting peptides.

    PubMed

    Liu, Feifei; Wang, Jianhao; Yang, Li; Liu, Li; Ding, Shumin; Fu, Minli; Deng, Linhong; Gao, Li-Qian

    2016-08-01

    As is well known, quantum dots (QDs) have become valuable probes for cancer imaging. In particular, QD-labeled targeting peptides are capable of identifying cancer or tumors cells. A new colorectal cancer targeting peptide, cyclo(1, 9)-CTPSPFSHC, has strong targeting ability and also shows great potential in the identification and treatment of colon cancer. Herein, we synthesized a dual functional polypeptide, cyclo(1, 9)-CTPSPFSHCD2 G2 DP9 G3 H6 (H6 -TCP), to investigate its interaction with QDs inside the capillary. Fluorescence-coupled CE was adopted and applied to characterize the self-assembly of H6 -TCP onto QDs. It was indicated that the formation of the assembly was affected by H6 -TCP/QD molar ratio and sampling time. This novel in-capillary assay greatly reduced the sample consumption and the detection time, which was beneficial for the environment. It is expected that this kind of detection method could find more applications to provide more useful information for cancer diagnosis and detection of harm and hazardous substances/organisms in the environment in the future. PMID:27159348

  11. Logarithmic InGaAs detectors with global shutter and active dark current reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ni, Yang; Arion, Bogdan; Bouvier, Christian; Noguier, Vincent

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we present newly developed logarithmic InGaAs detectors with global shuttering and also an active dark current reduction technique to ensure ambient temperature operation without TEC for industrial applications. The newly released detectors come with both VGA (15um pitch) and QVGA (25um pitch) resolutions, giving the possibility to use lens less than 1-inch size. The logarithmic response is obtained by using solar-cell mode InGaAs photodiodes. The VGA and QVGA ROICs have 3 analog memories inside each pixel which permit, except the classic ITR, IWR and CDS modes, a new differential imaging mode which can be a useful feature in active imaging systems. The photodiode frontend circuit, in pure voltage mode, is made with non-inverting amplifier instead of CTIA. The reason of this choice is that the exposure time can be shortened without need of excessive power consumption as in CTIA front-end. We think that this arrangement associated with true CDS could match the noise performance of CTIA based one. VGA and QVGA ROICs have been designed and manufactured by using 0.18um 1P4M CMOS process. Both ROIC have been tested with success and match the design targets. The first batch of both detectors is under fabrication and will be presented during the conference.

  12. Near-infrared InGaAs detectors for background-limited imaging and photometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sullivan, Peter W.; Croll, Bryce; Simcoe, Robert A.

    2014-07-01

    Originally designed for night-vision equipment, InGaAs detectors are beginning to achieve background-limited performance in broadband imaging from the ground. The lower cost of these detectors can enable multi-band instruments, arrays of small telescopes, and large focal planes that would be uneconomical with high-performance HgCdTe detectors. We developed a camera to operate the FLIR AP1121 sensor using deep thermoelectric cooling and up-the-ramp sampling to minimize noise. We measured a dark current of 163 e- s-1 pix-1, a read noise of 87 e- up-the-ramp, and a well depth of 80k e-. Laboratory photometric testing achieved a stability of 230 ppm hr-1/2, which would be required for detecting exoplanet transits. InGaAs detectors are also applicable to other branches of near-infrared time-domain astronomy, ranging from brown dwarf weather to gravitational wave follow-up.

  13. Multifunction InGaAs detector with on-chip signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shkedy, Lior; Fraenkel, Rami; Fishman, Tal; Giladi, Avihoo; Bykov, Leonid; Grimberg, Ilana; Ilan, Elad; Vaserman, Shay; Koifman, Alina

    2013-06-01

    Advanced electro-optical systems are designed towards a more compact, low power, and low cost solution with respect to traditional systems. Integration of several components or functionalities, such as infrared imager, laser designator, laser range finder (LRF), into one multi-function detector serves this trend. SNIR Read-Out Integrated Circuit (ROIC) incorporates this high level of signal processing and with relatively low power consumption. In this paper we present measurement results from a Focal Plane Array (FPA) where the SNIR ROIC is Flip-Chip bonded to a 15µm pitch VGA InGaAs detector array. The FPA is integrated into a metallic vacuum sealed package. We present InGaAs arrays with dark current density below 1.5 nA/cm2 at 280K (typically 1fA), Quantum Efficiency higher than 80% at 1550 nm and operability better than 99.5%. The metallic package is integrated with a low power proximity electronics which delivers Camera Link output. The overall power dissipation is less than 1W, not including Thermal-Electric Cooling (TEC), which is required in some applications. The various active and passive operation modes of this detector will be reviewed. Specifically, we concentrate on the "high gain" mode with low readout noise for Low Light Level imaging application. Another promising feature is the Asynchronous Laser Pulse Detection (ALPD) with remarkably low detection thresholds.

  14. Control of asymmetric strain relaxation in InGaAs grown by molecular-beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    France, R.; Ptak, A. J.; Jiang, C.-S.; Ahrenkiel, S. P.

    2010-05-15

    InGaAs strain relaxation is studied by an in situ multibeam optical stress sensor (MOSS). Strain relaxation during growth of InGaAs on GaAs occurs at different thicknesses and rates along the directions perpendicular to its misfit dislocations, [110] and [110]. We show the asymmetry of relaxation between these directions in real time by aligning the MOSS laser array along [110] and [110]. This asymmetric relaxation data from the MOSS correlates with both x-ray diffraction relaxation analysis and an estimation of the misfit dislocation density from transmission electron microscopy images. Lowering the V/III ratio or raising the growth temperature lowers the thickness of the onset of dislocation formation, changes the relaxation rate, lowers the final relaxation during 2 {mu}m of growth, and shifts the initial direction of relaxation from [110] to [110]. We identify two phases of relaxation that occur at different growth thicknesses. Lowering the V/III ratio changes the relative contribution of each of these phases to the total relaxation of the epilayer.

  15. Cadmium telluride quantum dots (CdTe-QDs) and enhanced ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation trigger antioxidant enzyme metabolism and programmed cell death in wheat seedlings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Huize; Gong, Yan; Han, Rong

    2014-01-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) are becoming increasingly widespread in the environment. Free cadmium ions released from commonly used NPs under ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation are potentially toxic to living organisms. With increasing levels of UV-B radiation at the Earth's surface due to the depletion of the ozone layer, the potential additive effect of NPs and UV-B radiation on plants is of concern. In this study, we investigated the synergistic effect of CdTe quantum dots (CdTe-QDs), a common form of NP, and UV-B radiation on wheat seedlings. Graded doses of CdTe-QDs and UV-B radiation were tested, either alone or in combination, based on physical characteristics of 5-day-old seedlings. Treatments of wheat seedlings with either CdTe-QDs (200 mg/L) or UV-B radiation (10 KJ/m(2)/d) induced the activation of wheat antioxidant enzymes. CdTe-QDs accumulation in plant root cells resulted in programmed cell death as detected by DNA laddering. CdTe-QDs and UV-B radiation inhibited root and shoot growth, respectively. Additive inhibitory effects were observed in the combined treatment group. This research described the effects of UV-B and CdTe-QDs on plant growth. Furthermore, the finding that CdTe-QDs accumulate during the life cycle of plants highlights the need for sustained assessments of these interactions. PMID:25329900

  16. Short wave infrared InGaAs focal plane arrays detector: the performance optimization of photosensitive element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Xin-jiang; Tang, Zun-lie; Zhang, Xiu-chuan; Chen, Yang; Jiang, Li-qun; Cheng, Hong-bing

    2009-07-01

    Significant progress has been achieved in technology of the InGaAs focal plane arrays (FPA) detector operating in short wave infrared (SWIR) last two decades. The no cryogenic cooling, low manufacturing cost, low power, high sensitivity and maneuverability features inherent of InGaAs FPA make it as a mainstream SWIR FPA in a variety of critical military, national security, aerospace, telecommunications and industrial applications. These various types of passive image sensing or active illumination image detecting systems included range-gated imaging, 3-Dimensional Ladar, covert surveillance, pulsed laser beam profiling, machine vision, semiconductor inspection, free space optical communications beam tracker, hyperspectroscopy imaging and many others. In this paper the status and perspectives of hybrid InGaAs FPA which is composed of detector array (PDA) and CMOS readout integrate circuit (ROIC) are reviewed briefly. For various low light levels applications such as starlight or night sky illumination, we have made use of the interface circuit of capacitive feedback transimpedance amplifier (CTIA) in which the integration capacitor was adjustable, therefore implements of the physical and electrical characteristics matches between detector arrays and readout intergrate circuit was achieved excellently. Taking into account the influences of InGaAs detector arrays' optoelectronic characteristics on performance of the FPA, we discussed the key parameters of the photodiode in detailed, and the tradeoff between the responsivity, dark current, impedance at zero bias and junction capacitance of photosensitive element has been made to root out the impact factors. As a result of the educed approach of the photodiode's characteristics optimizing which involve with InGaAs PDA design and process, a high performance InGaAs FPA of 30um pixel pitch and 320×256 format has been developed of which the response spectrum range over 0.9um to 1.7um, the mean peak detectivity (λ=1.55

  17. Development of a Quantum Dot, 0.6 eV InGaAs Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, David; Sinharoy, Samar; Raffalle, Ryne; Weizer, Victor; Homann, Natalie; Valko, Thomas; Bartos,Nichole; Scheiman, David; Bailey, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion has to date demonstrated conversion efficiencies exceeding 20% when coupled to a heat source. Current III-V semiconductor TPV technology makes use of planar devices with bandgaps tailored to the heat source. The efficiency can be improved further by increasing the collection efficiency through the incorporation of InAs quantum dots. The use of these dots can provide sub-gap absorption and thus improve the cell short circuit current without the normal increase in dark current associated with lowering the bandgap. We have developed self-assembled InAs quantum dots using the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode on 0.74 eV In0.53GaAs lattice-matched to InP and also on lattice-mismatched 0.6 eV In0.69GaAs grown on InP through the use of a compositionally graded InPAsx buffer structure, by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed that the most reproducible dot pattern was obtained with 5 monolayers of InAs grown at 450 C. The lattice mismatch between InAs and In0.69GaAs is only 2.1%, compared to 3.2% between InAs and In0.53GaAs. The smaller mismatch results in lower strain, making dot formation somewhat more complicated, resulting in quantum dashes, rather than well defined quantum dots in the lattice-mismatched case. We have fabricated 0.6 eV InGaAs planer TPV cells with and without the quantum dashes

  18. Determination of the technological growth parameters in the InAs-GaAs system for the MOCVD synthesis of “Multimodal” InAs QDs

    SciTech Connect

    Salii, R. A.; Mintairov, S. A.; Brunkov, P. N.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Payusov, A. S.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.

    2015-08-15

    The specific features of growth in the InAs-GaAs system by the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition method are studied. The dependences of the In content of the InxGa{sub 1−x}As solid solution and of the InAs growth rate on the molar flow of In in a wide temperature range (480–700°C) are determined. The growth processes of InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs with different surface misorientations are examined. The conditions are found in which InAs QDs are formed with a small number of defects and at a high density on a GaAs “sublayer” grown at a high rate. An epitaxial technique is developed for the synthesis of InAs QDs with multimodal size distribution and an extended photoluminescence spectrum, which can be effectively used in designing solar cells with QDs in the active region.

  19. Dually enriched Cu:CdS@ZnS QDs with both polyvinylpyrrolidone twisting and SiO2 loading for improved cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Mei; Xu, Chaoying; Wu, Lan; Wu, Peng; Hou, Xiandeng

    2015-02-28

    Through harvesting of the increased Stokes shift of CdS QDs via Cu-doping, the concentration-quenching or aggregation-quenching of CdS QDs was largely alleviated. A dually-enriched strategy with both polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) twisting and SiO2 loading was developed for generating a highly luminescent doped-dots (d-dots) assembly for improved cell imaging. PMID:25626901

  20. Inversion of Zeeman splitting of exciton states in InGaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Yugov, O. A.; Eliseev, S. A.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Sapega, V. F.; Ignatiev, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    Zeeman splitting of quantum-confined states of excitons in InGaAs quantum wells (QWs) is experimentally found to depend strongly on quantization energy. Moreover, it changes sign when the quantization energy increases with a decrease in the QW width. In the 87-nm QW, the sign change is observed for the excited quantum-confined states, which are above the ground state only by a few meV. A two-step approach for the numerical solution of the two-particle Schrödinger equation, taking into account the Coulomb interaction and valence-band coupling, is used for a theoretical justification of the observed phenomenon. The calculated variation of the g -factor convincingly follows the dependencies obtained in the experiments.

  1. Dynamic vibronic coupling in InGaAs quantum dots [Invited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brash, A. J.; Martins, L. M. P. P.; Barth, A. M.; Liu, F.; Quilter, J. H.; Glässl, M.; Axt, V. M.; Ramsay, A. J.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    The electron-phonon coupling in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots is relatively weak at low light intensities, which means that the zero-phonon line in emission is strong compared to the phonon sideband. However, the coupling to acoustic phonons can be dynamically enhanced in the presence of an intense optical pulse tuned within the phonon sideband. Recent experiments have shown that this dynamic vibronic coupling can enable population inversion to be achieved when pumping with a blue-shifted laser and for rapid de-excitation of an inverted state with red detuning. In this paper we con?rm the incoherent nature of the phonon-assisted pumping process and explore the temperature dependence of the mechanism. We also show that a combination of blue- and red-shifted pulses can create and destroy an exciton within a timescale ~20 ps determined by the pulse duration and ultimately limited by the phonon thermalisation time.

  2. InGaAs PV device development for TPV power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.M.; Fatemi, N.S.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Jenkins, P.P.; Brinker, D.J.; Scheiman, D.; Lowe, R.A.; Chubb, D.

    1994-09-01

    Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photovoltaic devices have been fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.75 eV to 0.60 on Indium phosphide (InP) substrates. Reported efficiencies have been as high as 11.2 percent (AMO) for the lattice matched 0.75 eV devices. The 0.75 eV cell demonstrated 14.8 percent efficiency under a 1500 K blackbody with a projected efficiency of 29.3 percent. The lattice mismatched devices (0.66 and 0.60 eV) demonstrated measured efficiencies of 8 percent and 6 percent respectively under similar conditions. Low long wavelength response and high rack currents are responsible for the poor performance of the mismatched devices. Temperature coefficients have been measured and are presented for all of the bandgaps tested.

  3. InGaAs PV device development for TPV power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.M.; Fatemi, N.S.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Jenkins, P.P.; Scheiman, D.; Lowe, R.; Landis, G.A.

    1994-08-01

    Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photovoltaic devices have been fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.75 eV to 0.60 eV on Indium Phosphide (InP) substrates. Reported efficiencies have been as high as 11.2 percent (AMO) for the lattice matched 0.75 eV devices. The 0.75 eV cell demonstrated 14.8 percent efficiency under a 1500 K blackbody with a projected efficiency of 29.3 percent. The lattice mismatched devices (0.66 and 0.60 eV) demonstrated measured efficiencies of 8 percent and 6 percent respectively under similar conditions. Low long wavelength response and high dark currents are responsible for the poor performance of the mismatched devices. Temperature coefficients have been measured and are presented for all of the bandgaps tested.

  4. InGaAs PV device development for TPV power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Wilt, D.M.; Fatemi, S.; Hoffman, R.W. Jr.; Jenkins, P.P.; Scheiman, D.; Lowe, R.; Landis, G.A.

    1995-01-05

    Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) photovoltaic devices have been fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.75 eV to 0.60 eV on Indium Phosphide (InP) substrates. Reported efficiencies have been as high as 11.2% (AM0) for the lattice matched 0.75 eV devices. The 0.75 eV cell demonstrated 14.8% efficiency under a 1500 {degree}K blackbody with a projected efficiency of 29.3%. The lattice mismatched devices (0.66 and 0.60 eV) demonstrated measured efficiencies of 8% and 6% respectively under similar conditions. Low long wavelength response and high dark currents are responsible for the poor performance of the mismatched devices. Temperature coefficients have been measured and are presented for all of the bandgaps tested. {copyright} {ital 1995} {ital American} {ital Institute} {ital of} {ital Physics}.

  5. Measurement of heavy-hole spin dephasing in (InGa)As quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahbashi, R.; Hübner, J.; Berski, F.; Wiegand, J.; Marie, X.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Oestreich, M.

    2012-01-01

    We measure the spin dephasing of holes localized in self-assembled (InGa)As quantum dots by spin noise spectroscopy. The localized holes show a distinct hyperfine interaction with the nuclear spin bath despite the p-type symmetry of the valence band states. The experiments reveal a short spin relaxation time τfasthh of 27 ns and a second, long spin relaxation time τslowhh which exceeds the latter by more than one order of magnitude. The two times are attributed to heavy-hole spins aligned perpendicular and parallel to the stochastic nuclear magnetic field. Intensity dependent measurements and numerical simulations reveal that the long relaxation time is still obscured by light absorption, despite low laser intensity and large detuning. Off-resonant light absorption causes a suppression of the spin noise signal due to the creation of a second hole entailing a vanishing hole spin polarization.

  6. Carrier dynamics in InGaAs with embedded ErAs nanoislands

    SciTech Connect

    Azad, Abul K.; Prasankumar, Rohit P.; Talbayev, Diyar; Taylor, Antoinette J.; O'Hara, John F.; Averitt, Richard D.; Zide, Joshua M. O.; Lu Hong; Gossard, Arthur C.

    2008-09-22

    Using time-resolved optical-pump terahertz-probe spectroscopy, we study the ultrafast carrier dynamics in In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As:ErAs, a potential candidate for 1550 nm based terahertz photoconductive detectors. Material growth is performed by codepositing ErAs nanoislands with Be-compensated InGaAs on an InP:Fe substrate using molecular beam epitaxy. The material shows a rapid photoconductivity response following optical excitation. Photoexcitation with {approx}0.5 {mu}J/cm{sup 2} 800 nm femtosecond laser pulses yields a 3.2 ps carrier lifetime in optical-pump terahertz-probe experiments. We also measure the carrier lifetime using a 1550 nm femtosecond optical pump-probe system, and it is found to agree well with the terahertz measurements. These short lifetimes demonstrate significant potential for implementing terahertz systems using telecommunication based technologies.

  7. InGaAs spin light emitting diodes measured in the Faraday and oblique Hanle geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansell, R.; Laloë, J.-B.; Holmes, S. N.; Petrou, A.; Farrer, I.; Jones, G. A. C.; Ritchie, D. A.; Barnes, C. H. W.

    2016-04-01

    InGaAs quantum well light emitting diodes (LED) with spin-injecting, epitaxial Fe contacts were fabricated using an in situ wafer transfer process where the semiconductor wafer was transferred under ultrahigh vacuum (UHV) conditions to a metals growth chamber to achieve a high quality interface between the two materials. The spin LED devices were measured optically with applied magnetic fields in either the Faraday or the oblique Hanle geometries in two experimental set-ups. Optical polarizations efficiencies of 4.5% in the Faraday geometry and 1.5% in the Hanle geometry are shown to be equivalent. The polarization efficiency of the electroluminescence is seen to decay as the temperature increases although the spin lifetime remains constant due to the influence of the D’yakonov–Perel’ spin scattering mechanism in the quantum well.

  8. InGaAs PV Device Development for TPV Power Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Scheiman, David; Lowe, Roland; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1994-01-01

    Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photovoltaic devices have been fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.75 eV to 0.60 eV on Indium Phosphide (InP) substrates. Reported efficiencies have been as high as 11.2 percent (AMO) for the lattice matched 0.75 eV devices. The 0.75 eV cell demonstrated 14.8 percent efficiency under a 1500 K blackbody with a projected efficiency of 29.3 percent. The lattice mismatched devices (0.66 and 0.60 eV) demonstrated measured efficiencies of 8 percent and 6 percent respectively under similar conditions. Low long wavelength response and high dark currents are responsible for the poor performance of the mismatched devices. Temperature coefficients have been measured and are presented for all of the bandgaps tested.

  9. InGaAs vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Geels, R.S.; Corzine, S.W.; Coldren, L.A. )

    1991-06-01

    In this paper the authors give theoretical and experimental results for vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers (VCSEL's). The modeling is applied to the design of InGaAs VCSEL's A simple method is introduced to calculate the reflectivity of semiconductor stack mirrors with graded interfaces and compound metal/semiconductor stack mirrors. The theoretical predictions are compared to results from actual device measurements. A novel technique is introduced to determine material parameters: fabrication of in-plane lasers from VCSEL material. The procedure used to determine the optical model in such an in-plane laser is described. Using the insight gained from our modeling, we have increased our external efficiency to {gt}30% with a threshold current density of 1 kA/cm{sup 2}. Linewidth measurements on very high reflectivity VCSEL's have indicated widths as low as 85 MHz and linewidth-power products of 5 MHz {center dot} mW.

  10. InGaAs PV device development for TPV power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilt, David M.; Fatemi, Navid S.; Hoffman, Richard W., Jr.; Jenkins, Phillip P.; Brinker, David J.; Scheiman, David; Lowe, Roland A.; Chubb, Donald

    1994-01-01

    Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) photovoltaic devices have been fabricated with bandgaps ranging from 0.75 eV to 0.60 on Indium phosphide (InP) substrates. Reported efficiencies have been as high as 11.2 percent (AMO) for the lattice matched 0.75 eV devices. The 0.75 eV cell demonstrated 14.8 percent efficiency under a 1500 K blackbody with a projected efficiency of 29.3 percent. The lattice mismatched devices (0.66 and 0.60 eV) demonstrated measured efficiencies of 8 percent and 6 percent respectively under similar conditions. Low long wavelength response and high rack currents are responsible for the poor performance of the mismatched devices. Temperature coefficients have been measured and are presented for all of the bandgaps tested.

  11. Vacuum packaging of InGaAs focal plane array with four-stage thermoelectric cooler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mo, De-feng; Liu, Da-fu; Yang, Li-yi; Xu, Qin-fei; Li, Xue

    2013-09-01

    The InGaAs focal plane array (FPA) detectors, covering the near-infrared 1~2.4 μm wavelength range, have been developed for application in space-based spectroscopy of the Earth atmosphere. This paper shows an all-metal vacuum package design for area array InGaAs detector of 1024×64 pixels, and its architecture will be given. Four-stage thermoelectric cooler (TEC) is used to cool down the FPA chip. To acquire high heat dissipation for TEC's Joule-heat, tungsten copper (CuW80) and kovar (4J29) is used as motherboard and cavity material respectively which joined by brazing. The heat loss including conduction, convection and radiation is analyzed. Finite element model is established to analyze the temperature uniformity of the chip substrate which is made of aluminum nitride (AlN). The performance of The TEC with and without heat load in vacuum condition is tested. The results show that the heat load has little influence to current-voltage relationship of TEC. The temperature difference (ΔT) increases as the input current increases. A linear relationship exists between heat load and ΔT of the TEC. Theoretical analysis and calculation show that the heat loss of radiation and conduction is about 187 mW and 82 mW respectively. Considering the Joule-heat of readout circuit and the heat loss of radiation and conduction, the FPA for a 220 K operation at room temperature can be achieved. As the thickness of AlN chip substrate is thicker than 1 millimeter, the temperature difference can be less than 0.3 K.

  12. Development of high performance SWIR InGaAs focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagi, Richie; Bregman, Jeremy; Mizuno, Genki; Oduor, Patrick; Olah, Robert; Dutta, Achyut K.; Dhar, Nibir K.

    2015-05-01

    Banpil Photonics has developed a novel InGaAs based photodetector array for Short-Wave Infrared (SWIR) imaging, for the most demanding security, defense, and machine vision applications. These applications require low noise from both the detector and the readout integrated circuit arrays. In order to achieve high sensitivity, it is crucial to minimize the dark current generated by the photodiode array. This enables the sensor to function in extremely low light situations, which enables it to successfully exploit the benefits of the SWIR band. In addition to minimal dark current generation, it is essential to develop photodiode arrays with higher operating temperatures. This is critical for reducing the power consumption of the device, as less energy is spent in cooling down the focal plane array (in order to reduce the dark current). We at Banpil Photonics are designing, simulating, fabricating and testing SWIR InGaAs arrays, and have achieved low dark current density at room temperature. This paper describes Banpil's development of the photodetector array. We also highlight the fabrication technique used to reduce the amount of dark current generated by the photodiode array, in particular the surface leakage current. This technique involves the deposition of strongly negatively doped semiconductor material in the area between the pixels. This process reduces the number of dangling bonds present on the edges of each pixel, which prevents electrons from being swept across the surface of the pixels. This in turn drastically reduces the amount of surface leakage current at each pixel, which is a major contributor towards the total dark current. We present the optical and electrical characterization data, as well as the analysis that illustrates the dark current mechanisms. Also highlighted are the challenges and potential opportunities for further reduction of dark current, while maintaining other parameters of the photodiode array, such as size, weight, temperature

  13. Development of hybrid organic-inorganic surface imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs and their application as a sensing material for target proteins.

    PubMed

    Tan, Lei; Huang, Cong; Peng, Rongfei; Tang, Youwen; Li, Weiming

    2014-11-15

    Applying molecular imprinting techniques to the surface of functionalized quantum dots (QDs) allows the preparation of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) with accessible, surface exposed binding sites and excellent optical properties. This paper demonstrates a new strategy for producing such hybrid organic-inorganic imprinted Mn-doped ZnS QDs for specific recognition of bovine hemoglobin. The technique provides surface grafting imprinting in aqueous solutions using amino modified Mn-doped ZnS QDs as supports, acrylamide and methacrylic acid as functional monomers, γ-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxy silane as the grafting agent, and bovine hemoglobin as a template. The amino propyl functional monomer layer directs the selective occurrence of imprinting polymerization at the QDs surface through copolymerization of grafting agents with functional monomers, but also acts as an assistive monomer to drive the template into the formed polymer shells to create effective recognition sites. Using MIP-QDs composites as a fluorescence sensing material, trace amounts of bovine hemoglobin are signaled with high selectivity by emission intensity changes of Mn-doped ZnS QDs, which is embedded into the imprinted polymers. PMID:24951920

  14. Synthesis and characterization of Mn doped ZnCdS core shell nanostructures QDs using a chemical precipitation route

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Manpreet; Pandey, O. P.; Sharma, Manoj

    2016-04-01

    With advancement in time, researchers has drawn great attention in the synthesis and characterization of mono dispersed alloyed nanocomposites of II-VI compounds. Ternary semiconductor alloyed ZnCdS quantum dots (QD's) exhibit properties intermediate between those of ZnS and CdS. It shows high absorption coefficients, a composition tunable and size tunable band gap. Moreover, ZnCdS alloyed NC's display unique composition dependent properties distinct from those of their bulk counterparts. The most striking feature of the alloyed NC's nanocrystals is their unusual long time stability in emission wavelength. ZnCdS alloyed QD's at room temperature has been synthesized using chemical precipitation method. Undoped and Mn2+ doped ZnCdS QDs have been synthesized and studied. UV-visible absorption spectrum shows absorbance in the visible region and photoluminescence (PL) emission spectra of the doped ZnCdS QD's shows orange emission in comparison to weak blue emission from undoped QDs. The crystallite size is calculated from the XRD patterns. The experimental results indicate that this easy synthesis route would prove a versatile approach for the preparation of doped and undoped ZnCdS QD's.

  15. Testing of InGaAs, microbolometer and pyroelectric detectors in support of the EarthCARE mission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkinson, Gordon; Gomez Rojas, Luis; Skipper, Mark; Meynart, Roland

    2008-10-01

    A test programme for infrared detectors in support of the EarthCARE mission is discussed. Commercially available linear InGaAs arrays from XenICs, Belgium (cut-off wavelengths 1.7, 2.2 and 2.5 μm), 384 x 288 amorphous silicon microbolometer arrays from ULIS, France and un-windowed single element lithium tantalate pyroelectric detectors from Infratec, Germany have been studied in detail to assess their suitability for EarthCARE and to provide performance data to aid in the design of the flight instruments. Tests included radiation resistance (cobalt60 and 60 MeV protons plus a heavy ion latch-up test for the InGaAs and microbolometer arrays), dark signal, noise, output stability, linearity, crosstalk and spectral response. In addition, the pyroelectric detectors were tested for low microphony.

  16. A simple device for measuring the spectral transmittance of lens used in InGaAs image intensifier apparatus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Xiaofeng; Guo, Hui; Yin, Lei; He, Yingping; Hou, Zhipeng; Miao, Zhuang; Yan, Lei

    2014-09-01

    In this article, in order to accurately measure the spectral transmittance of imaging lens used in InGaAs imaging apparatus, a simple device, which spectrum ranges from 400 nanometers to 2000 nanometers, based on double grating monochromator and self-collimating has been founded by using stable shortwave infrared radiant source, accurate double grating monochromator and telescope, stable silicon detector and cooled HgCdTe infrared detector. An imaging lens whose spectral transmittance has been known is measured on it. Comparing the test results to known data provided by manufacture, it is shown that the testing device founded in this article is competent to measure spectral transmittance of shortwave infrared imaging lens and which max relative deviation is no more than +/-2.5%. It is worthwhile for selecting InGaAs image intensifier assembly and evaluating the quality of shortwave infrared imaging lens.

  17. Characterization of Si volume- and delta-doped InGaAs grown by molecular beam epitaxy

    SciTech Connect

    Fedoryshyn, Y.; Kaspar, P.; Jaeckel, H.; Beck, M.

    2010-05-15

    Bulk InGaAs layers were grown at 400 deg. C lattice-matched to InP semi-insulating substrates by molecular beam epitaxy. Si doping of the layers was performed by applying volume- and delta-doping techniques. The samples were characterized by capacitance-voltage, van der Pauw-Hall, secondary ion mass spectroscopy and photoluminescence measurements. Good agreement in terms of dependence of mobility and Burstein-Moss shift shift on doping concentration in samples doped by the two different techniques was obtained. Amphoteric behavior of Si was observed at doping concentrations higher than {approx}2.9x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3} in both delta- and volume-doped samples. Degradation of InGaAs crystalline quality occurred in samples with Si concentrations higher than {approx}4x10{sup 19} cm{sup -3}.

  18. 15 μm pixel-pitch VGA InGaAs module for very low background applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rouvié, A.; Huet, O.; Reverchon, J. L.; Robo, J. A.; Truffer, J. P.; Decobert, J.; Costard, E.; Bois, P.

    2011-11-01

    Thanks to the high transmission coefficient of short infrared wavelengths in the atmosphere and specific contrasts, SWIR imaging is an attractive technology for space applications such as astronomical or earth observation. Detection module must demonstrate high uniformity, sensitivity and resolution combined with compactness to meet the needs of this application field. Image sensors based on InGaAs photodiodes arrays present very low dark currents even at ambient temperature as high quality materials can be grown on InP substrates. Besides, the suppression of InP substrate after hybridization is a way to extend the detection range towards visible wavelengths. These properties result in a new generation of sensitive, compact and multifunctional InGaAs detection modules. In this paper, we describe the performances of an uncooled VGA InGaAs module recently developed. The 640x512 array with a pitch of 15μm allows high resolution images. The excellent crystalline quality induces very low dark current densities at ambient temperature. The readout circuit is based on a capacitive trans-impedance amplifier with correlated double sampling resulting in low readout noise figure. This compact module appears as a serious alternative to the existing technologies for low light level imaging in the [0.4μm-1.7μm] spectral range.

  19. Low dark current small pixel large format InGaAs 2D photodetector array development at Teledyne Judson Technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Henry; Meixell, Mike; Zhang, Jiawen; Bey, Philip; Kimchi, Joe; Kilmer, Louis C.

    2012-06-01

    Teledyne Judson Technologies (TJT) has been developing technology for small pixel, large format, low dark current, and low capacitance NIR/SWIR InGaAs detector arrays, aiming to produce <10μm pixels and >2Kx2K format arrays that can be operated at or near room temperature. Furthermore, TJT is now developing technology for sub-10μm pixel arrays in response to requirements for a variety of low light level (LLL) imaging applications. In this paper, we will review test data that demonstrates lower dark current density for 10-20μm pixel arrays. We will present preliminary results on the successful fabrication of test arrays with pixels as small as 5μm. In addition, a lot of effort has been made to control and reduce the detector pixel capacitance which can become another source of detector noise. TJT is also developing 4" InGaAs wafer process and now offers four different types of InGaAs 2D arrays/FPAs that are tailored to different customer requirements for dark current, capacitance, spectral response, and bias range.

  20. Growth, microstructure, and luminescent properties of direct-bandgap InAlP on relaxed InGaAs on GaAs substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, K.; Beaton, D. A.; Christian, T.; Jones, E. J.; Alberi, K.; Mascarenhas, A.; Bulsara, M. T.; Fitzgerald, E. A.

    2013-05-01

    Direct-bandgap InAlP alloy has the potential to be an active material in nitride-free yellow-green and amber optoelectronics with applications in solid-state lighting, display devices, and multi-junction solar cells. We report on the growth of high-quality direct-bandgap InAlP on relaxed InGaAs graded buffers with low threading dislocation densities. Structural characterization reveals phase-separated microstructures in these films which have an impact on the luminescence spectrum. While similar to InGaP in many ways, the greater tendency for phase separation in InAlP leads to the simultaneous occurrence of compositional inhomogeneity and CuPt-B ordering. Mechanisms connecting these two structural parameters are presented as well as results on the effect of silicon and zinc dopants on homogenizing the microstructure. Spontaneous formation of tilted planes of phase-separated material, with alternating degrees of ordering, is observed when InAlP is grown on vicinal substrates. The photoluminescence peak-widths of these films are actually narrower than those grown on exact (001) substrates. We find that, despite phase-separation, ordered direct-bandgap InAlP is a suitable material for optoelectronics.

  1. Synthesis of water-soluble Ag₂Se QDs as a novel resonance Rayleigh scattering sensor for highly sensitive and selective ConA detection.

    PubMed

    Yan, Shuguang; Zhang, Lichun; Tang, Yurong; Lv, Yi

    2014-09-01

    Ag2Se quantum dots (QDs) have attracted a lot of interest due to their potential applications in biosensing and bioimaging. A strategy is presented that involves coupling of selenium powder reduction with the binding of silver ions, and thioglycollic acid (TGA) and glycine as stabilizers to obtain ultrasmall Ag2Se QDs at 85 °C in aqueous solution. This strategy avoids high temperatures, high pressures and organic solvents so that water-soluble 3 nm Ag2Se QDs can be directly obtained. The conjugation of ConA to TGA stabilized Ag2Se QDs by hydrogen bonds leads to the adsorption of ConA to Ag2Se QDs and forms the aggregation and leads to the generation of resonance Rayleigh scattering (RRS) as a readout signal for the sensing events. The reaction mechanism of Ag2Se QD RRS enhancement is studied in this work. The resulting RRS sensor enables the detection of ConA with limit of detection reaching 0.08 μg mL(-1) concentration in a wide linear range from 0.27 μg mL(-1) to 35 μg mL(-1). The recovery of spiked ConA in human serum samples ranges from 94% to 106%. The relative standard deviation (RSD) for eleven replicate detections is 3.6%. Our results correlate many important experimental observations and will fuel the further growth of this field. PMID:24957549

  2. Efficient double-quenching of electrochemiluminescence from CdS:Eu QDs by hemin-graphene-Au nanorods ternary composite for ultrasensitive immunoassay

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jing; Cui, Meirong; Zhou, Hong; Zhang, Shusheng

    2016-01-01

    A novel ternary composite of hemin-graphene-Au nanorods (H-RGO-Au NRs) with high electrocatalytic activity was synthesized by a simple method. And this ternary composite was firstly used in construction of electrochemiluminescence (ECL) immunosensor due to its double-quenching effect of quantum dots (QDs). Based on the high electrocatalytic activity of ternary complexes for the reduction of H2O2 which acted as the coreactant of QDs-based ECL, as a result, the ECL intensity of QDs decreased. Besides, due to the ECL resonance energy transfer (ECL-RET) strategy between the large amount of Au nanorods (Au NRs) on the ternary composite surface and the CdS:Eu QDs, the ECL intensity of QDs was further quenched. Based on the double-quenching effect, a novel ultrasensitive ECL immunoassay method for detection of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) which is used as a model biomarker analyte was proposed. The designed immunoassay method showed a linear range from 0.01 pg mL−1 to 1.0 ng mL−1 with a detection limit of 0.01 pg mL−1. The method showing low detection limit, good stability and acceptable fabrication reproducibility, provided a new approach for ECL immunoassay sensing and significant prospect for practical application. PMID:27460868

  3. Large-scale growth of density-tunable aligned ZnO nanorods arrays on GaN QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qi, Zhiqiang; Li, Senlin; Sun, Shichuang; Zhang, Wei; Ye, Wei; Fang, Yanyan; Tian, Yu; Dai, Jiangnan; Chen, Changqing

    2015-10-01

    An effective approach for growing large-scale, uniformly aligned ZnO nanorods arrays is demonstrated. The synthesis uses a GaN quantum dot (QD) template produced by a self-assembled Stranski-Krastanow mode in metal organic chemical vapor deposition, which serves as a nucleation site for ZnO owing to the QD’s high surface free energy. The resultant ZnO nanorods with uniform shape and length align vertically on the template, while their density is easily tunable by adjusting the density of GaN QDs, which can be adjusted by simply varying growth interruption. By controlling the density of ZnO nanorod arrays, their optical performance can also be improved. This approach opens the possibility of combining one-dimensional (1D) with 0D nanostructures for applications in sensor arrays, piezoelectric antenna arrays, optoelectronic devices, and interconnects.

  4. Generation of reactive oxygen species from 5-aminolevulinic acid and Glutamate in cooperation with excited CdSe/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duong, Hong Dinh; Lee, Jee Won; Rhee, Jong Il

    2014-08-01

    CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) can be joined in the reductive pathway involving the electron transfer to an acceptor or in the oxidative pathway involving the hole transfer to a donor. They were exploited in the oxidation reactions of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) and glutamate (GLU) for the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) such as hydroxyl radical (HO●) and superoxide anion (O2 ● -). Fast and highly efficient oxidation reactions of ALA to produce HO● and of GLU to produce O2 ●- were observed in the cooperation of mercaptopropionic acid (MPA)-capped CdSe/ZnS QDs under LED irradiation. Fluorescence spectroscopy and electron spin resonance (ESR) spectroscopy were used to evaluate the generation of different forms of ROS. Confocal fluorescent microscopic images of the size and morphology of HeLa cells confirmed the ROS generation from ALA or GLU in cooperation with CdSe/ZnS QDs under LED irradiation.

  5. Components-dependent optical nonlinearity in a series of CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS QDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Shunlong; Wu, Feng; Zhang, Siwen; Wang, Qian; Li, Songtao; Cheng, Xiaoman

    2016-08-01

    The different compositions of the ternary alloyed CdSexS1-x and CdSexS1-x/ZnS core/shell quantum dots(CSQDs) have been synthesized by the chemical routes. The nonlinear optical properties of these QDs were investigated using Z-scan technique under the excitation of the 1064 nm picosecond laser pulse. The Z-scan results reveal that the nonlinear refractive indices of these QDs can be tuned by changing the ratio of Se and S components. Nonlinear optical (NLO) properties have been shown to be enhanced in CSQDs as compared to their core semiconductor counterparts. These QDs exhibit the components-tuned nonlinear refraction indices, which lead to a wide application in the photonic field.

  6. Quantum size effects on the optical properties of nc-Si QDs embedded in an a-SiOx matrix synthesized by spontaneous plasma processing.

    PubMed

    Das, Debajyoti; Samanta, Arup

    2015-02-21

    Quantum confinement effects on optical transitions in ensembles of nc-Si QDs in an a-SiOx matrix has become evident by simultaneously considering the dielectric function dispersions obtained by optical modeling with spectroscopic ellipsometry, the absorption edge, and the photoluminescence peak. Diminution of the peak amplitude in the ε2-spectra for reducing the diameter of nc-Si QDs could arise due to the disappearance of excitonic effects in the E1 transition, while the peak broadening indicates an amplification of disorder in Si QDs. An energy blue shift happens to take place in an analogous fashion for all the characteristic parameters, upon decreasing the size of the nc-Si QDs for diameters in the range 6.5 < d < 2.0 nm. The band gap widening with the reduction of QD size is well supported by the first-principles calculations based on quantum confinement, while studies on the Stokes shift in the optical gap from the PL data could provide an understanding of the imperfect passivation of the surface defects on tiny nc-Si QDs. Low dimensional nc-Si QDs (∼2 nm in diameter) assembled in a large density (∼2.3 × 10(12) cm(-2)) embedded in an a-SiOx matrix synthesized by spontaneous and low-temperature (300 °C) RF plasma processing, compatible to CMOS technology, are highly conducive for device applications. Systematic changes in composition and characteristics, including the thickness, of the individual sub-layers of the nc-Si QD thin films can be comprehensively pursued through a nondestructive process by ellipsometric simulation which could, thereby, enormously contribute to the precise optimization of the deposition parameters suitable for specific device fabrication e.g., all-silicon tandem solar cells and light emitting diodes, using silicon nanotechnology. PMID:25598473

  7. Deep levels in virtually unstrained InGaAs layers deposited on GaAs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pal, D.; Gombia, E.; Mosca, R.; Bosacchi, A.; Franchi, S.

    1998-09-01

    The dislocation-related deep levels in InxGa1-xAs layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs substrates have been investigated. Virtually unstrained InGaAs layers with mole fraction x of 0.10, 0.20, and 0.30 have been obtained by properly designing the In composition of linearly graded InxGa1-xAs buffers. Two electron traps, labeled as E2 and E3, whose activation energy scales well with the energy gap, have been found. Unlike E2, E3 shows: (i) a logarithmic dependence of the deep level transient spectroscopy amplitude on the filling pulse width and (ii) an increase of concentration as the buffer/InGaAs interface is approached. These findings, together with the observation that, in compressively strained In0.2Ga0.8As, the E3-related concentration is definitely higher than that of virtually unstrained In0.2Ga0.8As, indicate that this trap is likely originated by extended defects like threading dislocations.

  8. Electrical and Optical Gain Lever Effects in InGaAs Double Quantum Well Diode Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M D; Goddard, L L; Bond, T C; Nikolic, R J; Vernon, S P; Kallman, J S; Behymer, E M

    2007-01-03

    In multisection laser diodes, the amplitude or frequency modulation (AM or FM) efficiency can be improved using the gain lever effect. To study gain lever, InGaAs double quantum well (DQW) edge emitting lasers have been fabricated with integrated passive waveguides and dual sections providing a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1. Both the electrical and the optical gain lever have been examined. An electrical gain lever with greater than 7 dB enhancement of AM efficiency was achieved within the range of appropriate DC biasing currents, but this gain dropped rapidly outside this range. We observed a 4 dB gain in the optical AM efficiency under non-ideal biasing conditions. This value agreed with the measured gain for the electrical AM efficiency under similar conditions. We also examined the gain lever effect under large signal modulation for digital logic switching applications. To get a useful gain lever for optical gain quenched logic, a long control section is needed to preserve the gain lever strength and a long interaction length between the input optical signal and the lasing field of the diode must be provided. The gain lever parameter space has been fully characterized and validated against numerical simulations of a semi-3D hybrid beam propagation method (BPM) model for the coupled electron-photon rate equation. We find that the optical gain lever can be treated using the electrical injection model, once the absorption in the sample is known.

  9. Stray light characterization of an InGaAs anamorphic hyperspectral imager.

    PubMed

    Lin, Mike; Swanson, Rand; Moon, Thomas; Smith, Casey; Kehoe, Michael; Brown, Steven W; Lykke, Keith R

    2010-08-01

    Compact hyperspectral sensors potentially have a wide range of applications, including machine vision, quality control, and surveillance from small Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs). With the development of Indium Gallium Arsenide (InGaAs) focal plane arrays, much of the Short Wave Infra-Red (SWIR) spectral regime can be accessed with a small hyperspectral imaging system, thereby substantially expanding hyperspectral sensing capabilities. To fully realize this potential, system performance must be well-understood. Here, stray light characterization of a recently-developed push-broom hyperspectral sensor sensitive in the 1 microm -1.7 microm spectral regime is described. The sensor utilizes anamorphic fore-optics that partially decouple image formation along the spatial and spectral axes of the instrument. This design benefits from a reduction in complexity over standard high-performance spectrometer optical designs while maintaining excellent aberration control and spatial and spectral distortion characteristics. The stray light performance characteristics of the anamorphic imaging spectrometer were measured using the spectral irradiance and radiance responsivity calibrations using uniform sources (SIRCUS) facility at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). A description of the measurements and results are presented. Additionally, a stray-light matrix was assembled for the instrument to improve the instrument's spectral accuracy. Transmittance of a silicon wafer was measured to validate this approach. PMID:20721136

  10. Polarized and spatially resolved Raman scattering from composition-graded wurtzite InGaAs nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H.; Rho, H.; Lee, E. H.; Song, J. D.

    2016-05-01

    We report Raman scattering from wurtzite single-crystalline InGaAs nanowires (NWs) to probe optical phonon behaviors associated with spatial grading in alloy composition along the NW length. Polarized Raman spectra revealed several optical phonons and their scattering symmetries: (i) InAs-like A 1(LO) and A 1(TO) phonons and (ii) GaAs-like A 1(LO), A 1(TO), and E 2(high) phonons. In addition, strong anisotropic behavior was observed in the Raman tensor elements of the A 1(TO) phonon mode. Interestingly, a spatial mapping of the GaAs-like A 1(TO) phonon along the NW length direction showed a systematic increase in energy from the NW top (~255 cm‑1) to the midpoint (~263 cm‑1), indicating an increase in the Ga mole fraction from about 0.5 to about 0.8. Further toward the NW bottom, the GaAs-like A 1(TO) phonon energy saturated to the peak value at about 264 cm‑1. In the upper half of the NW, the phonon linewidths broadened significantly due to the spatial grading in In/Ga composition along the NW length. When the composition grading was negligible in the bottom half of the NW, the spectral widths were considerably narrowed. The GaAs-like E 2(high) phonon showed similar variations in both energy and spectral width along the NW length.

  11. Reduction of sidewall interface recombination in GaAs and InGaAs active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strand, Timothy Andrew

    In the continual effort to reduce the operating current in semiconductor lasers, the first step is always to reduce the size of the device. When we do so, however, we encounter a new set of challenges. As the device size decreases, the "walls close in" on the electrons and holes, that is, the sidewalls of the device become so close together that the electrons and holes can diffuse to them before recombining radiatively. The device sidewalls, are often littered with carrier traps, which act as nonradiative recombination sites for the electrons and holes. This wasted current, a small fraction of the total in larger devices, becomes the dominant current mechanism in small devices. In this work we present two techniques for limiting this sidewall interface recombination. The first uses semiconductor regrowth to remove the recombination sites that are normally formed at the air-exposed sidewalls. We use buried, in-plane lasers to demonstrate a reduction in the sidewall recombination rate by a factor of forty. In the second technique, we show that the sidewall interface recombination can also be reduced by preventing the carriers from diffusing to the sidewalls. We demonstrate two methods for reducing this lateral carrier diffusion; segmented GaAs quantum wells, and InGaAs quantum dots. In the former, we demonstrate a reduction in the low-temperature lateral carrier diffusion constant by a factor of forty-six (versus a comparable GaAs quantum well).

  12. Conduction mechanisms in ion-irradiated InGaAs layers

    SciTech Connect

    Joulaud, L.; Mangeney, J.; Chimot, N.; Crozat, P.; Fishman, G.; Bourgoin, J.C.

    2005-03-15

    The electrical and optical properties of H{sup +}- and Au{sup +}-irradiated InGaAs layers were studied using Hall-effect, van der Pauw, and relaxation-time measurements. Comparing the different results allows us to obtain information on the nature of the defects created by these two irradiations. Proton irradiation introduces donor-acceptor paired defects. Gold-ion irradiation creates neutral defect clusters and ionized point defects. The carrier mobilities in all of the irradiated materials are degraded, decreasing with increasing irradiation dose. A scattering model taking into account the paired defects is developed and the mobility evolution calculated from this model agrees with the experimental data of both annealed and unannealed samples. The photocurrent spectra reveal a metallic conduction in the band gap in the case of light-ion irradiation, while such type of conduction does not appear for heavy-ion irradiation. This metallic conduction is a consequence of band tailing induced by shallow defects and vanishes when the material is annealed at 400 deg. C. The proton irradiation-induced defects appear to be related to the EL-2-like defects.

  13. Impact of strain engineering on nanoscale strained InGaAs MOSFET devices.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chang-Chun; Chang, Shu-Tong; Sun, P-H; Huang, C-X

    2011-07-01

    The strain distributions in the In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As channel regions of the In(0.4)Ga(0.6)As source/drain (S/D) with various lengths and widths were studied via 3D process simulations. The resulting mobility improvement was analyzed. The tensile strain along the transport direction was found to dominate the mobility improvement. The strain along the vertical direction perpendicular to the gate oxide was found to affect the mobility the least, while the strain along the width direction was slightly degraded. The impact of the channel width and length on the performance improvement, such as on the mobility gain, was analyzed via TCAD simulations. The novelty of this paper stems from its study of the impact of the channel width and length on the performance of InGaAs NMOSFETs, such as on their mobility gain, and from its exploration of physical insights for scaling the future III-V MOS devices. PMID:22121581

  14. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP)

    PubMed Central

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free–modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells. PMID:27143126

  15. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP).

    PubMed

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free-modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells. PMID:27143126

  16. Enhanced DSSCs efficiency via Cooperate co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and plasmonic core-shell nanoparticle (Ag@PVP)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiri, Omid; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Bagheri, Samira; Yousefi, Amin Termeh

    2016-05-01

    This paper describes cooperate the co-absorbance (CdS QDs) and the plasmonic core-shell nanoparticles (Ag@PVP) of dye synthesized solar cells in which CdS QDs and Ag@PVP are incorporated into the TiO2 layer. Cooperative nanoparticles show superior behavior on enhancing light absorption in comparison with reference cells. Cooperated DSSC exhibits the best performance with the power conversion efficiency of 7.64% which is superior to that of the free–modified DSSC with the PCE of 5%. Detailed studies offer an effective approach to enhance the efficiency of dye synthesized solar cells.

  17. Extremely low nonalloyed and alloyed contact resistance using an InAs cap layer on InGaAs by molecular-beam epitaxy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peng, C. K.; Chen, J.; Chyi, J.; Morkoc, H.

    1988-01-01

    Extremely low alloyed and nonalloyed ohmic contact resistances have been formed on n-type InAs/In(0.53)Ga(0.47)As/In(0.52)Al(0.48)As structures grown on InP(Fe) by molecular-beam epitaxy. To insure the accuracy of the small contact resistances measured, an extended transmission line model was used to extrapolate contact resistances from test patterns with multiple gap spacings varying from 1 to 20 microns. For a 150-A-thick InAs layer doped to 2 x 10 to the 18th/cu cm and a 0.1-micron-thick InGaAs layer doped to 1 x 10 to the 18th/cu cm, a specific contact resistance of 2.6 x 10 to the -8th ohm-asterisk sq cm was measured for the nonalloyed contact, while a resistance less than 1.7 x 10 to the -8th ohm-asterisk sq cm is reported for the alloyed contact. Conventional Au-Ge/Ni/Au was used for the ohmic metal contact and alloying was performed at 500 C for 50 s in flowing H2. Using a thermionic field emission model, the barrier height at the InAs/InGaAs interface was calculated to be 20 meV.

  18. Generation of continuous wave terahertz frequency radiation from metal-organic chemical vapour deposition grown Fe-doped InGaAs and InGaAsP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohandas, Reshma A.; Freeman, Joshua R.; Rosamond, Mark C.; Hatem, Osama; Chowdhury, Siddhant; Ponnampalam, Lalitha; Fice, Martyn; Seeds, Alwyn J.; Cannard, Paul J.; Robertson, Michael J.; Moodie, David G.; Cunningham, John E.; Davies, A. Giles; Linfield, Edmund H.; Dean, Paul

    2016-04-01

    We demonstrate the generation of continuous wave terahertz (THz) frequency radiation from photomixers fabricated on both Fe-doped InGaAs and Fe-doped InGaAsP, grown by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. The photomixers were excited using a pair of distributed Bragg reflector lasers with emission around 1550 nm, and THz radiation was emitted over a bandwidth of greater than 2.4 THz. Two InGaAs and four InGaAsP wafers with different Fe doping concentrations were investigated, with the InGaAs material found to outperform the InGaAsP in terms of emitted THz power. The dependencies of the emitted power on the photomixer applied bias, incident laser power, and material doping level were also studied.

  19. Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS QDs emitting in the entire color range via a heating up process.

    PubMed

    Park, Joong Pill; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    InP-based quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention for use in optical applications, and several types of QDs such as InP/ZnS, InP/ZnSeS, and InP/GaP/ZnS have been developed. However, early synthetic methods that involved rapid injection at high temperatures have not been able to reproducibly produce the required optical properties. They were also not able to support commercialization efforts successfully. Herein, we introduce a simple synthetic method for InP/GaP/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs via a heating process. The reaction was completed within 0.5 h and a full color range from blue to red was achieved. For emitting blue color, t-DDT was applied to prevent particle growth. From green to orange, color variation was achieved by adjusting the quantity of myristic acid. Utilizing large quantities of gallium chloride led to red color. With this method, we produced high-quality InP/GaP/ZnS QDs (blue QY: ~40%, FWHM: 50 nm; green QY: ~85%, FWHM: 41 nm; red QY: ~60%, FWHM: 65 nm). We utilized t-DDT as a new sulfur source. Compared with n-DDT, t-DDT was more reactive, which allowed for the formation of a thicker shell. PMID:27435428

  20. Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS QDs emitting in the entire color range via a heating up process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Joong Pill; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2016-07-01

    InP-based quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention for use in optical applications, and several types of QDs such as InP/ZnS, InP/ZnSeS, and InP/GaP/ZnS have been developed. However, early synthetic methods that involved rapid injection at high temperatures have not been able to reproducibly produce the required optical properties. They were also not able to support commercialization efforts successfully. Herein, we introduce a simple synthetic method for InP/GaP/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs via a heating process. The reaction was completed within 0.5 h and a full color range from blue to red was achieved. For emitting blue color, t-DDT was applied to prevent particle growth. From green to orange, color variation was achieved by adjusting the quantity of myristic acid. Utilizing large quantities of gallium chloride led to red color. With this method, we produced high-quality InP/GaP/ZnS QDs (blue QY: ~40%, FWHM: 50 nm green QY: ~85%, FWHM: 41 nm red QY: ~60%, FWHM: 65 nm). We utilized t-DDT as a new sulfur source. Compared with n-DDT, t-DDT was more reactive, which allowed for the formation of a thicker shell.

  1. Highly luminescent InP/GaP/ZnS QDs emitting in the entire color range via a heating up process

    PubMed Central

    Park, Joong Pill; Lee, Jae-Joon; Kim, Sang-Wook

    2016-01-01

    InP-based quantum dots (QDs) have attracted much attention for use in optical applications, and several types of QDs such as InP/ZnS, InP/ZnSeS, and InP/GaP/ZnS have been developed. However, early synthetic methods that involved rapid injection at high temperatures have not been able to reproducibly produce the required optical properties. They were also not able to support commercialization efforts successfully. Herein, we introduce a simple synthetic method for InP/GaP/ZnS core/shell/shell QDs via a heating process. The reaction was completed within 0.5 h and a full color range from blue to red was achieved. For emitting blue color, t-DDT was applied to prevent particle growth. From green to orange, color variation was achieved by adjusting the quantity of myristic acid. Utilizing large quantities of gallium chloride led to red color. With this method, we produced high-quality InP/GaP/ZnS QDs (blue QY: ~40%, FWHM: 50 nm; green QY: ~85%, FWHM: 41 nm; red QY: ~60%, FWHM: 65 nm). We utilized t-DDT as a new sulfur source. Compared with n-DDT, t-DDT was more reactive, which allowed for the formation of a thicker shell. PMID:27435428

  2. Detection of terahertz radiation by tightly concatenated InGaAs field-effect transistors integrated on a single chip

    SciTech Connect

    Popov, V. V.; Yermolaev, D. M.; Shapoval, S. Yu.; Maremyanin, K. V.; Gavrilenko, V. I.; Zemlyakov, V. E.; Bespalov, V. A.; Yegorkin, V. I.; Maleev, N. A.; Ustinov, V. M.

    2014-04-21

    A tightly concatenated chain of InGaAs field-effect transistors with an asymmetric T-gate in each transistor demonstrates strong terahertz photovoltaic response without using supplementary antenna elements. We obtain the responsivity above 1000 V/W and up to 2000 V/W for unbiased and drain-biased transistors in the chain, respectively, with the noise equivalent power below 10{sup −11} W/Hz{sup 0.5} in the unbiased mode of the detector operation.

  3. Long dephasing time and high temperature ballistic transport in an InGaAs open quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, B.; Faniel, S.; Delfosse, F.; Gustin, C.; Boutry, H.; Huynen, I.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.; Bayot, V.

    2003-04-01

    We report on measurements of the magnetoconductance of an open circular InGaAs quantum dot between 1.3 and 204 K. We observe two types of magnetoconductance fluctuations: universal conductance fluctuations (UCFs), and “focusing” fluctuations related to ballistic trajectories between openings. The electron phase coherence time extracted from UCFs amplitude is larger than in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots and follows a similar temperature dependence (between T-1 and T-2). Below 150 K, the characteristic length associated with “focusing” fluctuations shows a slightly different temperature dependence from that of the conductivity.

  4. Electro-optical switching between polariton and cavity lasing in an InGaAs quantum well microcavity.

    PubMed

    Amthor, Matthias; Weißenseel, Sebastian; Fischer, Julian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven

    2014-12-15

    We report on the condensation of microcavity exciton polaritons under optical excitation in a microcavity with four embedded InGaAs quantum wells. The polariton laser is characterized by a distinct non-linearity in the input-output-characteristics, which is accompanied by a drop of the emission linewidth indicating temporal coherence and a characteristic persisting emission blueshift with increased particle density. The temporal coherence of the device at threshold is underlined by a characteristic drop of the second order coherence function to a value close to 1. Furthermore an external electric field is used to switch between polariton regime, polariton condensate and photon lasing. PMID:25607064

  5. Low phase noise high power handling InGaAs photodiodes for precise timing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Datta, Shubhashish; Joshi, Abhay; Becker, Don

    2009-05-01

    Time is the most precisely measured physical quantity. Such precision is achieved by optically probing hyperfine atomic transitions. These high Q-factor resonances demonstrate frequency instability of ~10-18 over 1 s observation time. Conversion of such a stable optical clock signal to an electrical clock through photodetection introduces additional phase noise, thereby resulting in a significant degradation in the frequency stability. This excess phase noise is primarily caused by the conversion of optical intensity noise into electrical phase noise by the phase non-linearity of the photodetector, characterized by its power-to-phase conversion factor. It is necessary to minimize this phase nonlinearity in order to develop the next generation of ultra-high precision electronic clocks. Reduction in excess phase noise must be achieved while ensuring a large output RF signal generated by the photodetector. The phase linearity in traditional system designs that employ a photoreceiver, namely a photodiode followed by a microwave amplifier, is limited by the phase non-linearity of the amplifier. Utilizing high-power handling photodiodes eliminates the need of microwave amplifiers. In this work, we present InGaAs p-i-n photodiodes that display a power-to-phase conversion factor <6 rad/W at a peak-to-peak RF output amplitude of 2 V. In comparison, the photodiode coupled to a transimpedance amplifier demonstrates >44 rad/W at a peak-to-peak RF output amplitude of 0.5 V. These results are supported by impulse response measurements at 1550 nm wavelength at 1 GHz repetition rate. These photodiodes are suitable of applications such as optical clock distribution networks, photonic analog-to-digital converters, and phased array radars.

  6. Imaging Early Demineralization on Tooth Occlusal Surfaces with a High Definition InGaAs Camera

    PubMed Central

    Fried, William A.; Fried, Daniel; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.

    2013-01-01

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that high contrast images of tooth demineralization can be acquired in the near-IR due to the high transparency of dental enamel. The purpose of this study is to compare the lesion contrast in reflectance at near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption with those in the visible, the near-IR at 1300-nm and with fluorescence measurements for early lesions in occlusal surfaces. Twenty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acid-resistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window in the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the exposed windows after 1 & 2-day exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Lesions were imaged using NIR reflectance at 3 wavelengths, 1310, 1460 and 1600-nm using a high definition InGaAs camera. Visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm were also used to acquire images for comparison. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. The contrast of both the 24 hr and 48 hr lesions were significantly higher (P<0.05) for NIR reflectance imaging at 1460-nm and 1600-nm than it was for NIR reflectance imaging at 1300-nm, visible reflectance imaging, and fluorescence. The results of this study suggest that NIR reflectance measurements at longer near-IR wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption are better suited for imaging early caries lesions. PMID:24357911

  7. Imaging early demineralization on tooth occlusional surfaces with a high definition InGaAs camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fried, William A.; Fried, Daniel; Chan, Kenneth H.; Darling, Cynthia L.

    In vivo and in vitro studies have shown that high contrast images of tooth demineralization can be acquired in the near-IR due to the high transparency of dental enamel. The purpose of this study is to compare the lesion contrast in reflectance at near-IR wavelengths coincident with high water absorption with those in the visible, the near-IR at 1300-nm and with fluorescence measurements for early lesions in occlusal surfaces. Twenty-four human molars were used in this in vitro study. Teeth were painted with an acidresistant varnish, leaving a 4×4 mm window in the occlusal surface of each tooth exposed for demineralization. Artificial lesions were produced in the exposed windows after 1 and 2-day exposure to a demineralizing solution at pH 4.5. Lesions were imaged using NIR reflectance at 3 wavelengths, 1310, 1460 and 1600-nm using a high definition InGaAs camera. Visible light reflectance, and fluorescence with 405-nm excitation and detection at wavelengths greater than 500-nm were also used to acquire images for comparison. Crossed polarizers were used for reflectance measurements to reduce interference from specular reflectance. The contrast of both the 24 hr and 48 hr lesions were significantly higher (P<0.05) for NIR reflectance imaging at 1460-nm and 1600-nm than it was for NIR reflectance imaging at 1300-nm, visible reflectance imaging, and fluorescence. The results of this study suggest that NIR reflectance measurements at longer near-IR wavelengths coincident with higher water absorption are better suited for imaging early caries lesions.

  8. COUGAR: a liquid nitrogen cooled InGaAs camera for astronomy and electro-luminescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Bogget, Urbain; Vervenne, Vincent; Vinella, Rosa Maria; van der Zanden, Koen; Merken, Patrick; Vermeiren, Jan

    2014-06-01

    A SWIR FPA was designed and manufactured with 640*512 pixels, 20 μm pitch and InGaAs detectors for electroluminescence characterization and astronomical applications in the [0.9 - 1.55 μm] range. The FPA is mounted in a liquid nitrogen dewar and is operated by a low noise frontend electronics. One of the biggest problem in designing sensors and cameras for electro-luminescence measurements is the autoillumination of the detectors by the readout circuit. Besides of proper shielding of the detectors, the ROIC shall be optimized for minimal electrical activity during the integration time of the very-weak signals coming from the circuit under test. For this reason a SFD (or Source Follower per Detector) architecture (like in the Hawaii sensor) was selected, resulting in a background limited performance of the detector. The pixel has a (somewhat arbitrary) full well capacity of 400 000 e- and a sensitivity of 2.17 μV/e-. The dark signal is app. 1 e-/pixel/sec and with the appropriate Fowler sampling the dark noise lowers below 5 e-rms. The power consumption of the circuit is limited 2 mW, allowing more than 24 hours of operation on less than 1 l of liquid nitrogen. The FPA is equipped with 4 outputs (optional readout on one single channel) and is capable of achieving 3 frames per second. Due to the non-destructive readout it is possible to determine in a dynamic way the optimal integration time for each observation. The Cougar camera is equipped with ultra-low noise power supply and bias lines; the electronics contain also a 24 bit AD converter to fully exploit the sensitivity of the FPA and the camera.

  9. Time-resolved spectroscopy of low-dimensional semiconductor structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Joseph R.

    This dissertation is a survey of ultrafast time-resolved optical measurements conducted on a variety of low-dimensional semiconductor systems to further the understanding of the dynamic behavior in the following systems: ZnMnTe/ZnSe quantum dots, ZnTe/ZnMnSe quantum dots, InGaAs quantum wells, CdMnSe colloidal quantum dots, multi-shell CdSe/CdMnS/CdS colloidal nanoplatelets, and graphene and graphene-related solutions and films. Using time-resolved photoluminescence to study epitaxially-grown ZnTe and ZnMnTe quantum dots in corresponding ZnMnSe and ZnSe matrices, the location dependence of manganese ions in respect to magnetic polaron formation is shown. The structure with manganese ions located in the matrix exhibited magnetic polaron behavior consistent with previous literature, whereas the structure with the magnetic ions located within the quantum dots exhibited unconventional magnetic polaron properties. These properties, including temperature and magnetic field insensitivity, were explained through the use of a model that predicted an increased internal magnetic field due to a decreased effective volume of the magnetic polaron and a higher effective temperature due to laser heating. Magneto-time-resolved photoluminescence measurements on a system of colloidal CdMnSe quantum dots show that the magnetic polaron properties differ significantly from the epitaxially grown quantum dots. First the timescales at which the magnetic polaron forms and the polarization saturates are different by more than an order of magnitude, and second, the magnetic polaron energy exhibited step-like behavior as the strength of the externally applied magnetic field is increased. The field dependent MP formation energy that is observed experimentally is explained as due to the breaking of the antiferromagnetic coupling of Mn dimers within the QDs. This model is further verified by the observation of quantized behavior in the Zeeman energy splitting. Through the use of magneto

  10. Border trap reduction in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Kechao; McIntyre, Paul C.; Winter, Roy; Eizenberg, Moshe; Zhang, Liangliang; Droopad, Ravi

    2015-11-16

    The effect of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} atomic layer deposition (ALD) temperature on the border trap density (N{sub bt}) of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs gate stacks is investigated quantitatively, and we demonstrate that lowering the trimethylaluminum (TMA)/water vapor ALD temperature from 270 °C to 120 °C significantly reduces N{sub bt}. The reduction of N{sub bt} coincides with increased hydrogen incorporation in low temperature ALD-grown Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} films during post-gate metal forming gas annealing. It is also found that large-dose (∼6000 L) exposure of the In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As (100) surface to TMA immediately after thermal desorption of a protective As{sub 2} capping layer is an important step to guarantee the uniformity and reproducibility of high quality Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/InGaAs samples made at low ALD temperatures.