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Sample records for ingaas quantum dot

  1. Uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays fabricated using nanosphere lithography

    SciTech Connect

    Qian, X.; Li, J.; Wasserman, D.; Goodhue, W. D.

    2008-12-08

    We demonstrate the fabrication of optically active uniform InGaAs quantum dot arrays by combining nanosphere lithography and bromine ion-beam-assisted etching on a single InGaAs/GaAs quantum well. A wide range of lateral dot sizes was achieved from an oxygen plasma nanosphere resizing process. The increased lateral confinement of carriers in the dots results in low temperature photoluminescence blueshifts from 0.5 to 11 meV. Additional quantization was achieved using a selective wet-etch process. Our model suggests the presence of a 70 nm dead layer in the outer InGaAs radial edge, which we believe to be a result of defects and dislocations introduced during the dry-etch process.

  2. Formation of columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots on GaAs(100)

    SciTech Connect

    He, J.; Noetzel, R.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Gong, Q.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2004-10-04

    Columnar (In,Ga)As quantum dots (QDs) with homogeneous composition and shape in the growth direction are realized by molecular-beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) substrates. The columnar (In,Ga)As QDs are formed on InAs seed QDs by alternating deposition of thin GaAs intermediate layers and monolayers of InAs with extended growth interruptions after each layer. The height of the columnar (In,Ga)As QDs is controlled by varying the number of stacked GaAs/InAs layers. The structural and optical properties are studied by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and photoluminescence spectroscopy. With increase of the aspect ratio of the columnar QDs, the emission wavelength is redshifted and the linewidth is reduced.

  3. Study of strain boundary conditions and GaAs buffer sizes in InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oyafuso, F.; Klimeck, G.; Boykin, T. B.; Bowen, R. C.; Allmen, P. von

    2003-01-01

    NEMO 3-D has been developed for the simulation of electronic structure in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots on GaAs substrates. Typical self-assembled quantum dots in that material system contain about 0.5 to 1 million atoms. Effects of strain by the surrounding GaAs buffer modify the electronic structure inside the quantum dot significantly and a large GaAs buffer must be included in the strain and electronic structure.

  4. Giant Up-Conversion Efficiency of InGaAs Quantum Dots in a Planar Microcavity

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Qinfeng; Piermarocchi, Carlo; Pershin, Yuriy V.; Salamo, G. J.; Xiao, Min; Wang, Xiaoyong; Shih, Chih-Kang

    2014-01-01

    Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) were fabricated inside a planar microcavity with two vertical cavity modes. This allowed us to excite the QDs coupled to one of the vertical cavity modes through two propagating cavity modes to study their down- and up-converted photoluminescence (PL). The up-converted PL increased continuously with the increasing temperature, reaching an intensity level comparable to that of the down-converted PL at ~120 K. This giant efficiency in the up-converted PL of InGaAs QDs was enhanced by about 2 orders of magnitude with respect to a similar structure without cavity. We tentatively explain the enhanced up-converted signal as a direct consequence of the modified spontaneous emission properties of the QDs in the microcavity, combined with the phonon absorption and emission effects. PMID:24492329

  5. InGaAs quantum dot molecules around self-assembled GaAs nanomound templates

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, J. H.; Wang, Zh. M.; Strom, N. W.; Mazur, Yu. I.; Salamo, G. J.

    2006-11-13

    Several distinctive self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot molecules (QDMs) are studied. The QDMs self-assemble around nanoscale-sized GaAs moundlike templates fabricated by droplet homoepitaxy. Depending on the specific InAs monolayer coverage, the number of QDs per GaAs mound ranges from two to six (bi-QDMs to hexa-QDMs). The Ga contribution from the mounds is analyzed in determining the morphologies of the QDMs, with respect to the InAs coverages ranging between 0.8 and 2.4 ML. Optical characterization shows that the resulting nanostructures are high-quality nanocrystals.

  6. Narrow optical line width from site-controlled InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Lily; Yakes, Michael; Sweeney, Timothy; Carter, Samuel; Kim, Chulsoo; Kim, Mijin; Bracker, Allan; Gammon, Daniel

    2013-03-01

    The incorporation of self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) in systematically scalable quantum devices requires a method of nucleating dots with nanometer-scale spatial accuracy while preserving their narrow optical line width. We have developed a technique combining e-beam lithography, wet etching, and molecular beam epitaxial (MBE) growth to deterministically position InGaAs QDs with spectrometer limited photoluminescence line widths. Our technique takes advantage of the anisotropy in GaAs growth to evolve an etched pattern of holes and lines into faceted structures in which dots nucleate. Using this technique, we were able to grow a buffer layer of pure GaAs up to 90 nm in thickness between the processed surface and the dot nucleation surface, effectively separating the QDs from unavoidable residual defects and impurities on the patterned surface that broaden their optical line widths. Additionally, we demonstrate control over the number of dots nucleating per site, from single to a chain of several, by varying the dimensions of the original pattern. Our dots are grown in a Schottky diode structure. Their PL spectrum shows discrete charging transitions, with narrow linewidths near the spectrometer's resolution limit of 20 micro eV.

  7. Imaging surface plasmon polaritons using proximal self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Bracher, Gregor; Schraml, Konrad; Blauth, Mäx; Wierzbowski, Jakob; López, Nicolás Coca; Bichler, Max; Müller, Kai; Finley, Jonathan J.; Kaniber, Michael

    2014-07-21

    We present optical investigations of hybrid plasmonic nanosystems consisting of lithographically defined plasmonic Au-waveguides or beamsplitters on GaAs substrates coupled to proximal self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots. We designed a sample structure that enabled us to precisely tune the distance between quantum dots and the sample surface during nano-fabrication and demonstrated that non-radiative processes do not play a major role for separations down to ∼10 nm. A polarized laser beam focused on one end of the plasmonic nanostructure generates propagating surface plasmon polaritons that, in turn, create electron-hole pairs in the GaAs substrate during propagation. These free carriers are subsequently captured by the quantum dots ∼25 nm below the surface, giving rise to luminescence. The intensity of the spectrally integrated quantum dot luminescence is used to image the propagating plasmon modes. As the waveguide width reduces from 5 μm to 1 μm, we clearly observe different plasmonic modes at the remote waveguide end, enabling their direct imaging in real space. This imaging technique is applied to a plasmonic beamsplitter facilitating the determination of the splitting ratio between the two beamsplitter output ports as the interaction length L{sub i} is varied. A splitting ratio of 50:50 is observed for L{sub i}∼9±1 μm and 1 μm wide waveguides for excitation energies close to the GaAs band edge. Our experimental findings are in good agreement with mode profile and finite difference time domain simulations for both waveguides and beamsplitters.

  8. Dynamic vibronic coupling in InGaAs quantum dots [Invited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brash, A. J.; Martins, L. M. P. P.; Barth, A. M.; Liu, F.; Quilter, J. H.; Glässl, M.; Axt, V. M.; Ramsay, A. J.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M.

    2016-07-01

    The electron-phonon coupling in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots is relatively weak at low light intensities, which means that the zero-phonon line in emission is strong compared to the phonon sideband. However, the coupling to acoustic phonons can be dynamically enhanced in the presence of an intense optical pulse tuned within the phonon sideband. Recent experiments have shown that this dynamic vibronic coupling can enable population inversion to be achieved when pumping with a blue-shifted laser and for rapid de-excitation of an inverted state with red detuning. In this paper we con?rm the incoherent nature of the phonon-assisted pumping process and explore the temperature dependence of the mechanism. We also show that a combination of blue- and red-shifted pulses can create and destroy an exciton within a timescale ~20 ps determined by the pulse duration and ultimately limited by the phonon thermalisation time.

  9. Measurement of heavy-hole spin dephasing in (InGa)As quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahbashi, R.; Hübner, J.; Berski, F.; Wiegand, J.; Marie, X.; Pierz, K.; Schumacher, H. W.; Oestreich, M.

    2012-01-01

    We measure the spin dephasing of holes localized in self-assembled (InGa)As quantum dots by spin noise spectroscopy. The localized holes show a distinct hyperfine interaction with the nuclear spin bath despite the p-type symmetry of the valence band states. The experiments reveal a short spin relaxation time τfasthh of 27 ns and a second, long spin relaxation time τslowhh which exceeds the latter by more than one order of magnitude. The two times are attributed to heavy-hole spins aligned perpendicular and parallel to the stochastic nuclear magnetic field. Intensity dependent measurements and numerical simulations reveal that the long relaxation time is still obscured by light absorption, despite low laser intensity and large detuning. Off-resonant light absorption causes a suppression of the spin noise signal due to the creation of a second hole entailing a vanishing hole spin polarization.

  10. Nuclear magnetic resonance inverse spectra of InGaAs quantum dots: Atomistic level structural information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulutay, Ceyhun; Chekhovich, E. A.; Tartakovskii, A. I.

    2014-11-01

    A wealth of atomistic information is contained within a self-assembled quantum dot (QD), associated with its chemical composition and the growth history. In the presence of quadrupolar nuclei, as in InGaAs QDs, much of this is inherited to nuclear spins via the coupling between the strain within the polar lattice and the electric quadrupole moments of the nuclei. Here, we present a computational study of the recently introduced inverse spectra nuclear magnetic resonance technique to assess its suitability for extracting such structural information. We observe marked spectral differences between the compound InAs and alloy InGaAs QDs. These are linked to the local biaxial and shear strains, and the local bonding configurations. The cation alloying plays a crucial role especially for the arsenic nuclei. The isotopic line profiles also largely differ among nuclear species: While the central transition of the gallium isotopes have a narrow linewidth, those of arsenic and indium are much broader and oppositely skewed with respect to each other. The statistical distributions of electric field gradient (EFG) parameters of the nuclei within the QD are analyzed. The consequences of various EFG axial orientation characteristics are discussed. Finally, the possibility of suppressing the first-order quadrupolar shifts is demonstrated by simply tilting the sample with respect to the static magnetic field.

  11. Long dephasing time and high temperature ballistic transport in an InGaAs open quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, B.; Faniel, S.; Delfosse, F.; Gustin, C.; Boutry, H.; Huynen, I.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.; Bayot, V.

    2003-04-01

    We report on measurements of the magnetoconductance of an open circular InGaAs quantum dot between 1.3 and 204 K. We observe two types of magnetoconductance fluctuations: universal conductance fluctuations (UCFs), and “focusing” fluctuations related to ballistic trajectories between openings. The electron phase coherence time extracted from UCFs amplitude is larger than in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum dots and follows a similar temperature dependence (between T-1 and T-2). Below 150 K, the characteristic length associated with “focusing” fluctuations shows a slightly different temperature dependence from that of the conductivity.

  12. Long dephasing time and high-temperature conductance fluctuations in an open InGaAs quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, B.; Delfosse, F.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Boutry, H.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.; Bayot, V.

    2002-12-01

    We measure the electron phase-coherence time τφ up to 18 K using universal fluctuations in the low-temperature magnetoconductance of an open InGaAs quantum dot. The temperature dependence of τφ is quantitatively consistent with the two-dimensional model of electron-electron interactions in disordered systems. In our sample, τφ is two to four times larger than previously reported in GaAs quantum dots. We attribute this enhancement to a larger value of the Fermi energy and the lower electron effective mass in our sample. We also observe a distinct type of conductance fluctuation due to ballistic electron focusing inside the dot up to 204 K.

  13. Coupling of single InGaAs quantum dots to the plasmon resonance of a metal nanocrystal

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanczyk, A.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Noetzel, R.

    2010-07-26

    The authors report the coupling of single InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) to the surface plasmon resonance of a metal nanocrystal. Clear enhancement of the photoluminescence (PL) in the spectral region of the surface plasmon resonance is observed which splits up into distinct emission lines from single QDs in micro-PL. The hybrid metal-semiconductor structure is grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs (100) utilizing the concept of self-organized anisotropic strain engineering for realizing ordered arrays with nanometer-scale precise positioning of the metal nanocrystals with respect to the QDs.

  14. Development of a Quantum Dot, 0.6 eV InGaAs Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Forbes, David; Sinharoy, Samar; Raffalle, Ryne; Weizer, Victor; Homann, Natalie; Valko, Thomas; Bartos,Nichole; Scheiman, David; Bailey, Sheila

    2007-01-01

    Thermophotovoltaic (TPV) power conversion has to date demonstrated conversion efficiencies exceeding 20% when coupled to a heat source. Current III-V semiconductor TPV technology makes use of planar devices with bandgaps tailored to the heat source. The efficiency can be improved further by increasing the collection efficiency through the incorporation of InAs quantum dots. The use of these dots can provide sub-gap absorption and thus improve the cell short circuit current without the normal increase in dark current associated with lowering the bandgap. We have developed self-assembled InAs quantum dots using the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode on 0.74 eV In0.53GaAs lattice-matched to InP and also on lattice-mismatched 0.6 eV In0.69GaAs grown on InP through the use of a compositionally graded InPAsx buffer structure, by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy (MOVPE). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) measurements showed that the most reproducible dot pattern was obtained with 5 monolayers of InAs grown at 450 C. The lattice mismatch between InAs and In0.69GaAs is only 2.1%, compared to 3.2% between InAs and In0.53GaAs. The smaller mismatch results in lower strain, making dot formation somewhat more complicated, resulting in quantum dashes, rather than well defined quantum dots in the lattice-mismatched case. We have fabricated 0.6 eV InGaAs planer TPV cells with and without the quantum dashes

  15. In(Ga)As quantum dot formation on group-III assisted catalyst-free InGaAs nanowires.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Martin; Ketterer, Bernt; Uccelli, Emanuele; Morante, Joan Ramon; Arbiol, Jordi; Fontcuberta i Morral, Anna

    2011-05-13

    Growth of GaAs and In(x)Ga(1-x)As nanowires by the group-III assisted molecular beam epitaxy growth method on (001)GaAs/SiO(2) substrates is studied in dependence on growth temperature, with the objective of maximizing the indium incorporation. Nanowire growth was achieved for growth temperatures as low as 550 °C. The incorporation of indium was studied by low temperature micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy and electron energy loss spectroscopy. The results show that the incorporation of indium achieved by lowering the growth temperature does not have the effect of increasing the indium concentration in the bulk of the nanowire, which is limited to 3-5%. For growth temperatures below 575 °C, indium rich regions form at the surface of the nanowires as a consequence of the radial growth. This results in the formation of quantum dots, which exhibit spectrally narrow luminescence. PMID:21430322

  16. Strain-driven alignment of In nanocrystals on InGaAs quantum dot arrays and coupled plasmon-quantum dot emission

    SciTech Connect

    Urbanczyk, A.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Noetzel, R.

    2010-03-15

    We report the alignment of In nanocrystals on top of linear InGaAs quantum dot (QD) arrays formed by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on GaAs (100) by molecular beam epitaxy. The alignment is independent of a thin GaAs cap layer on the QDs revealing its origin is due to local strain recognition. This enables nanometer-scale precise lateral and vertical site registration between the QDs and the In nanocrystals and arrays in a single self-organizing formation process. The plasmon resonance of the In nanocrystals overlaps with the high-energy side of the QD emission leading to clear modification of the QD emission spectrum.

  17. Controlling Planar and Vertical Ordering in Three-Dimensional (In,Ga)As Quantum Dot Lattices by GaAs Surface Orientation

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidbauer, M.; Seydmohamadi, Sh.; Wang, Zh.M.; Mazur, Yu.I.; Salamo, G.J.; Grigoriev, D.; Schaefer, P.; Koehler, R.; Hanke, M.

    2006-02-17

    Anisotropic surface diffusion and strain are used to explain the formation of three-dimensional (In,Ga)As quantum dot lattices. The diffusion characteristics of the surface, coupled with the elastic anisotropy of the matrix, provides an excellent opportunity to influence the dot positions. In particular, quantum dots that are laterally organized into long chains or chessboard two-dimensional arrays vertically organized with strict vertical ordering or vertical ordering that is inclined to the sample surface normal are accurately predicted and observed.

  18. Beyond hydrostatic strain in empirical pseudopotentials for the electronic structure of InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulutay, Ceyhun; Cakan, Asli

    2015-03-01

    Self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) are among the prime candidates for realizing semiconductor qubits. Even though much progress has been achieved toward understanding their electronic structure, more efforts are needed to reach the desired quantitative level for a precise control of the carrier and nuclear spin degrees of freedom. In this respect, the empirical pseudopotential method has been highly successful for structures involving more than hundred thousand atoms. However, due to lack of self-consistency, their use in strained environments, as in SAQDS, requires vital improvement. The main contribution of this work is to develop empirical pseudopotentials valid for inhomogeneous strain environments caused by cation alloying in InGaAs SAQDs. In our presentation, we first validate our approach with the ab initio density functional theory results based on Projector Augmented-Wave technique. This is followed by a comparison of the electronic structure results with and without strain-dependent pseudopotentials for InGaAs SAQDs having an alloy composition of 20-30% indium, which is typically the case in the current samples. Supported by TUBITAK with the Project No. 112T178.

  19. A carrier relaxation bottleneck probed in single InGaAs quantum dots using integrated superconducting single photon detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Reithmaier, G. Flassig, F.; Hasch, P.; Lichtmannecker, S.; Kaniber, M.; Müller, K.; Vučković, J.; Gross, R.; Finley, J. J.

    2014-08-25

    Using integrated superconducting single photon detectors, we probe ultra-slow exciton capture and relaxation dynamics in single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots embedded in a GaAs ridge waveguide. Time-resolved luminescence measurements performed with on- and off-chip detection reveal a continuous decrease in the carrier relaxation time from 1.22 ± 0.07 ns to 0.10 ± 0.07 ns upon increasing the number of non-resonantly injected carriers. By comparing off-chip time-resolved spectroscopy with spectrally integrated on-chip measurements, we identify the observed dynamics in the rise time (τ{sub r}) as arising from a relaxation bottleneck at low excitation levels. From the comparison with the temporal dynamics of the single exciton transition with the on-chip emission signal, we conclude that the relaxation bottleneck is circumvented by the presence of charge carriers occupying states in the bulk material and the two-dimensional wetting layer continuum. A characteristic τ{sub r} ∝ P{sup −2∕3} power law dependence is observed suggesting Auger-type scattering between carriers trapped in the quantum dot and the two-dimensional wetting layer continuum which circumvents the phonon relaxation bottleneck.

  20. Hanle effect in (In,Ga)As quantum dots: Role of nuclear spin fluctuations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsova, M. S.; Flisinski, K.; Gerlovin, I. Ya.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Kavokin, K. V.; Verbin, S. Yu.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Bayer, M.

    2013-06-01

    The role of nuclear spin fluctuations in the dynamic polarization of nuclear spins by electrons is investigated in (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots. The photoluminescence polarization under circularly polarized optical pumping in transverse magnetic fields (Hanle effect) is studied. A weak additional magnetic field parallel to the optical axis is used to control the efficiency of nuclear spin cooling and the sign of nuclear spin temperature. The shape of the Hanle curve is drastically modified when changing this control field, as observed earlier in bulk semiconductors and quantum wells. However, the standard nuclear spin cooling theory, operating with the mean nuclear magnetic field (Overhauser field), fails to describe the experimental Hanle curves in a certain range of control fields. This controversy is resolved by taking into account the nuclear spin fluctuations owed to the finite number of nuclei in the quantum dot. We propose a model considering cooling of the nuclear spin system by electron spins experiencing fast vector precession in the random Overhauser fields of nuclear spin fluctuations. The model allows us to accurately describe the measured Hanle curves and to evaluate the parameters of the electron-nuclear spin system of the studied quantum dots.

  1. Formation of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot arrays aligned along quasiperiodic multiatomic steps on vicinal (111)B GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Akiyama, Y.; Sakaki, H.

    2006-10-30

    Dense and highly ordered arrays of self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots are formed by molecular beam epitaxy along multiatomic steps on vicinal (111)B GaAs. This unique structure has been synthesized by depositing a nominally 3-nm-thick In{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As layer onto a periodically corrugated surface prepared on a GaAs substrate tilted 8.5 deg. from (111)B. Each dot is typically 30-50 nm in lateral size and about 4 nm in height. Accumulation and release processes of strains in InGaAs layers deposited on stepped surfaces are discussed to suggest a possible mechanism for the aligned dot formation.

  2. InGaAs self-assembly quantum dot for high-speed 1300 nm electroabsorption modulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuan-Han; Wu, Jui-pin; Kuo, Yu-zheng; Chiu, Yi-jen; Tzeng, T. E.; Lay, T. S.

    2011-05-01

    In this paper, a new type of high-speed electroabsorption modulator (EAM) based on quantum dot (QD) p-i-n heterostructure is demonstrated. The QD layers sandwiched by p-AlGaAs and n-AlGaAs are grown by multilayer InGaAs self-assembled QD with luminance wavelength of 1300 nm, serving as the active region of EAM. The photocurrent spectrum measurement exhibits a red shift of 15 nm in QD transition energy levels on biasing from 0 to 6 V. A quadratic relation of energy shift against the reversed bias is extracted, confirming the quantum-confined Stark effect (QCSE) in QD. On fabricating a 300 μm long EAM, as high as DC 5 dB extinction ratio by 6 V voltage swing at 1310 nm is observed. As compared with well-developed quantum well (QW) EAM (well thickness ∼10 nm) of the same length, the lower density of states still shows the same order of magnitude in extinction ratio, suggesting strong QCSE in such 3-dimensional confined QD. An electrical-to-optical conversion with -3 dB bandwidth of 3.3 GHz is also attained in such QD EAM, where the speed is mainly limited by the parasitic capacitance on substrate. It implies that through optimization of QD and device structures, the advantages of QD properties are quite promising to be used in high-speed optoelectronic fields.

  3. Spin noise of electrons and holes in (In,Ga)As quantum dots: Experiment and theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glasenapp, Ph.; Smirnov, D. S.; Greilich, A.; Hackmann, J.; Glazov, M. M.; Anders, F. B.; Bayer, M.

    2016-05-01

    The spin fluctuations of electron and hole doped self-assembled quantum dot ensembles are measured optically in the low-intensity limit of a probe laser for absence and presence of longitudinal or transverse magnetic fields. The experimental results are modeled by two complementary approaches based either on a semiclassical or quantum mechanical description. This allows us to characterize the hyperfine interaction of electron and hole spins with the surrounding bath of nuclei on time scales covering several orders of magnitude. Our results demonstrate (i) the intrinsic precession of the electron spin fluctuations around the effective Overhauser field caused by the host lattice nuclear spins, (ii) the comparably long time scales for electron and hole spin decoherence, as well as (iii) the dramatic enhancement of the spin lifetimes induced by a longitudinal magnetic field due to the decoupling of nuclear and charge carrier spins.

  4. Advanced optical manipulation of carrier spins in (In,Ga)As quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varwig, S.; Evers, E.; Greilich, A.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Meier, T.; Zrenner, A.; Bayer, M.

    2016-01-01

    Spins in semiconductor quantum dots have been considered as prospective quantum bit excitations. Their coupling to the crystal environment manifests itself in a limitation of the spin coherence times to the microsecond range, both for electron and hole spins. This rather short-lived coherence compared to atomic states asks for manipulations on timescales as short as possible. Due to the huge dipole moment for transitions between the valence and conduction band, pulsed laser systems offer the possibility to perform manipulations within picoseconds or even faster. Here, we report on results that show the potential of optical spin manipulations with currently available pulsed laser systems. Using picosecond laser pulses, we demonstrate optically induced spin rotations of electron and hole spins. We further realize the optical decoupling of the hole spins from the nuclear surrounding at the nanosecond timescales and demonstrate an all-optical spin tomography for interacting electron spin sub-ensembles.

  5. Size dependence of electron spin dephasing in InGaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Y. Q.; Puttisong, Y.; Buyanova, I. A.; Chen, W. M.; Yang, X. J.; Subagyo, A.; Sueoka, K.; Murayama, A.

    2015-03-02

    We investigate ensemble electron spin dephasing in self-assembled InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) of different lateral sizes by employing optical Hanle measurements. Using low excitation power, we are able to obtain a spin dephasing time T{sub 2}{sup *} (in the order of ns) of the resident electron after recombination of negative trions in the QDs. We show that T{sub 2}{sup *} is determined by the hyperfine field arising from the frozen fluctuation of nuclear spins, which scales with the size of QDs following the Merkulov-Efros-Rosen model. This scaling no longer holds in large QDs, most likely due to a breakdown in the lateral electron confinement.

  6. Ground-state energy trends in single and multilayered coupled InAs/GaAs quantum dots capped with InGaAs layers: Effects of InGaAs layer thickness and annealing temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, S.; Ghosh, K.; Jejurikar, S.; Mishra, A.; Chakrabarti, S.

    2013-08-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Investigation of ground state energy in single and multi-layered InAs/GaAs QD. • Strain reducing layer (InGaAs) prevents the formation of non-radiative. • Strain reducing layer (InGaAs) is responsible for high activation energy. • Significant deviation from the Varshni model, E(T) = E − αT{sup 2}/T + β. - Abstract: Vertically coupled, multilayered InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) covered with thin InGaAs strain-reducing layers (SRLs) are in demand for various technological applications. We investigated low temperature photoluminescence of single and multilayered structures in which the SRL thickness was varied. The SRL layer was responsible for high activation energies. Deviation of experimental data from the Varshni (1967) model, E(T) = E − ∞ T{sup 2}/T + β, suggests that the InAs-layered QDs have properties different from those in bulk material. Anomalous ground-state peak linewidths (FWHM), especially for annealed multilayer structures, were observed. A ground-state peak blue-shift with a broadened linewidth was also observed. Loss of intensity was detected in samples annealed at 800 °C. Presence of SRLs prevents formation of non-radiative centers under high temperature annealing. The results indicate the potential importance of such structures in optoelectronic applications.

  7. Ultrafast spin tunneling and injection in coupled nanostructures of InGaAs quantum dots and quantum well

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Xiao-Jie Kiba, Takayuki; Yamamura, Takafumi; Takayama, Junichi; Subagyo, Agus; Sueoka, Kazuhisa; Murayama, Akihiro

    2014-01-06

    We investigate the electron-spin injection dynamics via tunneling from an In{sub 0.1}Ga{sub 0.9}As quantum well (QW) to In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As quantum dots (QDs) in coupled QW-QDs nanostructures. These coupled nanostructures demonstrate ultrafast (5 to 20 ps) spin injection into the QDs. The degree of spin polarization up to 45% is obtained in the QDs after the injection, essentially depending on the injection time. The spin injection and conservation are enhanced with thinner barriers due to the stronger electronic coupling between the QW and QDs.

  8. Carrier relaxation in (In,Ga)As quantum dots with magnetic field-induced anharmonic level structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurtze, H.; Bayer, M.

    2016-07-01

    Sophisticated models have been worked out to explain the fast relaxation of carriers into quantum dot ground states after non-resonant excitation, overcoming the originally proposed phonon bottleneck. We apply a magnetic field along the quantum dot heterostructure growth direction to transform the confined level structure, which can be approximated by a Fock-Darwin spectrum, from a nearly equidistant level spacing at zero field to strong anharmonicity in finite fields. This changeover leaves the ground state carrier population rise time unchanged suggesting that fast relaxation is maintained upon considerable changes of the level spacing. This corroborates recent models explaining the relaxation by polaron formation in combination with quantum kinetic effects.

  9. Optical properties of as-grown and annealed InAs quantum dots on InGaAs cross-hatch patterns

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    InAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on InGaAs cross-hatch pattern (CHP) by molecular beam epitaxy are characterized by photoluminescence (PL) at 20 K. In contrast to QDs grown on flat GaAs substrates, those grown on CHPs exhibit rich optical features which comprise as many as five ground-state emissions from [1-10]- and [110]-aligned QDs, two wetting layers (WLs), and the CHP. When subject to in situ annealing at 700°C, the PL signals rapidly degrades due to the deterioration of the CHP which sets the upper limit of overgrowth temperature. Ex situ hydrogen annealing at a much lower temperature of 350°C, however, results in an overall PL intensity increase with a significant narrowing and a small blueshift of the high-energy WL emission due to hydrogen bonding which neutralizes defects and relieves associated strains. PMID:21849063

  10. Hybrid InGaAs quantum well-dots nanostructures for light-emitting and photo-voltaic applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mintairov, S. A.; Kalyuzhnyy, N. A.; Lantratov, V. M.; Maximov, M. V.; Nadtochiy, A. M.; Rouvimov, Sergei; Zhukov, A. E.

    2015-09-01

    Hybrid quantum well-dots (QWD) nanostructures have been formed by deposition of 7-10 monolayers of In0.4Ga0.6As on a vicinal GaAs surface using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis have shown that such structures represent quantum wells comprising three-dimensional (quantum dot-like) regions of two kinds. At least 20 QWD layers can be deposited defect-free providing high gain/absorption in the 0.9-1.1 spectral interval. Use of QWD media in a GaAs solar cell resulted in a photocurrent increment of 3.7 mA cm-2 for the terrestrial spectrum and by 4.1 mA cm-2 for the space spectrum. Diode lasers based on QWD emitting around 1.1 μm revealed high saturated gain and low transparency current density of about 15 cm-1 and 37 A cm-2 per layer, respectively.

  11. Hybrid InGaAs quantum well-dots nanostructures for light-emitting and photo-voltaic applications.

    PubMed

    Mintairov, S A; Kalyuzhnyy, N A; Lantratov, V M; Maximov, M V; Nadtochiy, A M; Rouvimov, Sergei; Zhukov, A E

    2015-09-25

    Hybrid quantum well-dots (QWD) nanostructures have been formed by deposition of 7-10 monolayers of In0.4Ga0.6As on a vicinal GaAs surface using metal-organic chemical vapor deposition. Transmission electron microscopy, photoluminescence and photocurrent analysis have shown that such structures represent quantum wells comprising three-dimensional (quantum dot-like) regions of two kinds. At least 20 QWD layers can be deposited defect-free providing high gain/absorption in the 0.9-1.1 spectral interval. Use of QWD media in a GaAs solar cell resulted in a photocurrent increment of 3.7 mA cm(-2) for the terrestrial spectrum and by 4.1 mA cm(-2) for the space spectrum. Diode lasers based on QWD emitting around 1.1 μm revealed high saturated gain and low transparency current density of about 15 cm(-1) and 37 A cm(-2) per layer, respectively. PMID:26328920

  12. Growth-temperature dependence of optical spin-injection dynamics in self-assembled InGaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yamamura, Takafumi; Kiba, Takayuki; Yang, Xiaojie; Takayama, Junichi; Subagyo, Agus; Sueoka, Kazuhisa; Murayama, Akihiro

    2014-09-07

    The growth-temperature dependence of the optical spin-injection dynamics in self-assembled quantum dots (QDs) of In{sub 0.5}Ga{sub 0.5}As was studied by increasing the sheet density of the dots from 2 × 10{sup 10} to 7 × 10{sup 10} cm{sup −2} and reducing their size through a decrease in growth temperature from 500 to 470 °C. The circularly polarized transient photoluminescence (PL) of the resulting QD ensembles was analyzed after optical excitation of spin-polarized carriers in GaAs barriers by using rate equations that take into account spin-injection dynamics such as spin-injection time, spin relaxation during injection, spin-dependent state-filling, and subsequent spin relaxation. The excitation-power dependence of the transient circular polarization of PL in the QDs, which is sensitive to the state-filling effect, was also examined. It was found that a systematic increase occurs in the degree of circular polarization of PL with decreasing growth temperature, which reflects the transient polarization of exciton spin after spin injection. This is attributed to strong suppression of the filling effect for the majority-spin states as the dot-density of the QDs increases.

  13. Modeling of quasi-supercontinuum laser linewidth and derivative characteristics of InGaAs quantum dot broadband laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. L.; Wang, Y.; Djie, H. S.; Dimas, C. E.; Ding, Y. H.; Hongpinyo, V.; Chen, C.; Ooi, B. S.

    2009-02-01

    We present the development of theoretical model based on multi-population rate equation to assess the broadband lasing emission in addition to the derivative optical gain and chirp characteristics from the supercontinuum InGaAs/GaAs self-assembled quantum-dot (QD) interband laser. The model incorporates the peculiar characteristics such as inhomogeneous broadening of the QD transition energies due to the size and composition fluctuation, homogeneous broadening due to the finite carrier lifetime in each confined energy states, and the presence of continuum states in wetting layer. We showed that the theoretical model agrees well with the experimental data of broadband QD laser. From the model, the broadband lasing characteristics can be ascribed to the large dispersion of QD with varying energy sub-bands and the change of de-phasing rate. These interesting characteristics can be attributed to the carrier localization in different dots that result in a system without a global Fermi function and thus an inhomogeneously broadened gain spectrum. Furthermore, our simulation results predict that the linewidth enhancement factor (α = 2) from the ground state (GS) in this new class of semiconductor lasers is slightly larger but in the same order of magnitude as the values obtained in conventional QD lasers. The calculated gain spectrum shows similar magnitude order of material differential gain (~10-16 cm2) and material differential refractive index (~10-20 cm3) as compared to conventional QD lasers. The comparable derivative characteristics of broadband QD laser shows its competency in providing low frequency chirping as well as a platform for monolithic integration operation.

  14. Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartakovskii, Alexander

    2012-07-01

    Part I. Nanostructure Design and Structural Properties of Epitaxially Grown Quantum Dots and Nanowires: 1. Growth of III/V semiconductor quantum dots C. Schneider, S. Hofling and A. Forchel; 2. Single semiconductor quantum dots in nanowires: growth, optics, and devices M. E. Reimer, N. Akopian, M. Barkelid, G. Bulgarini, R. Heeres, M. Hocevar, B. J. Witek, E. Bakkers and V. Zwiller; 3. Atomic scale analysis of self-assembled quantum dots by cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy and atom probe tomography J. G. Keizer and P. M. Koenraad; Part II. Manipulation of Individual Quantum States in Quantum Dots Using Optical Techniques: 4. Studies of the hole spin in self-assembled quantum dots using optical techniques B. D. Gerardot and R. J. Warburton; 5. Resonance fluorescence from a single quantum dot A. N. Vamivakas, C. Matthiesen, Y. Zhao, C.-Y. Lu and M. Atature; 6. Coherent control of quantum dot excitons using ultra-fast optical techniques A. J. Ramsay and A. M. Fox; 7. Optical probing of holes in quantum dot molecules: structure, symmetry, and spin M. F. Doty and J. I. Climente; Part III. Optical Properties of Quantum Dots in Photonic Cavities and Plasmon-Coupled Dots: 8. Deterministic light-matter coupling using single quantum dots P. Senellart; 9. Quantum dots in photonic crystal cavities A. Faraon, D. Englund, I. Fushman, A. Majumdar and J. Vukovic; 10. Photon statistics in quantum dot micropillar emission M. Asmann and M. Bayer; 11. Nanoplasmonics with colloidal quantum dots V. Temnov and U. Woggon; Part IV. Quantum Dot Nano-Laboratory: Magnetic Ions and Nuclear Spins in a Dot: 12. Dynamics and optical control of an individual Mn spin in a quantum dot L. Besombes, C. Le Gall, H. Boukari and H. Mariette; 13. Optical spectroscopy of InAs/GaAs quantum dots doped with a single Mn atom O. Krebs and A. Lemaitre; 14. Nuclear spin effects in quantum dot optics B. Urbaszek, B. Eble, T. Amand and X. Marie; Part V. Electron Transport in Quantum Dots Fabricated by

  15. Complex laterally ordered InGaAs and InAs quantum dots by guided self-organized anisotropic strain engineering on shallow- and deep-patterned GaAs (311)B substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Selcuk, E.; Hamhuis, G. J.; Noetzel, R.

    2007-11-01

    Self-organized anisotropic strain engineering guided on shallow- and deep-patterned GaAs (311)B substrates is exploited for formation of complex laterally ordered architectures of connected InGaAs quantum dot (QD) arrays and isolated InAs QD groups by molecular beam epitaxy. The combination of strain and step engineerings on shallow stripe-patterned substrates transforms the periodic spotlike arrangement of the InGaAs QD arrays and InAs QD groups (on planar substrates) into a zigzag arrangement of periodic stripes which are well ordered over macroscopic areas on zigzag mesa-patterned substrates. In contrast, the formation of slow-growing facets on deep-patterned substrates produces QD-free mesa sidewalls, while InGaAs QD arrays and InAs QD groups form on the GaAs (311)B top and bottom planes with arrangements modified only close to the sidewalls depending on the sidewall orientation. The QDs on the shallow- and deep-patterned substrates exhibit excellent optical properties up to room temperature. Therefore, the concept of guided self-organization demonstrated on shallow-patterned (due to steps) and deep-patterned (due to facets) substrates is highlighted for creation of complex architectures of laterally ordered QDs for future quantum functional devices.

  16. Initial stages of chain formation in a single layer of (In,Ga)As quantum dots grown on GaAs (100)

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidbauer, M.; Wang, Zh. M.; Mazur, Yu. I.; Lytvyn, P. M.; Salamo, G. J.; Grigoriev, D.; Schaefer, P.; Koehler, R.; Hanke, M.

    2007-08-27

    The self-organized formation of In{sub 0.40}Ga{sub 0.60}As quantum dot chains was investigated using x-ray scattering. Two samples were compared grown on GaAs(100) by molecular beam epitaxy. The first sample with a single layer of In{sub 0.40}Ga{sub 0.60}As dots shows weak quantum dot alignment and a corresponding elongated shape along [011], while the top layer of a multilayered In{sub 0.40}Ga{sub 0.60}As/GaAs sample exhibits extended and highly regular quantum dot chains oriented along [011]. Numerical calculations of the three-dimensional strain fields are used to explain the initial stages of chain formation by anisotropic strain relaxation induced by the elongated dot shape.

  17. Improved dot size uniformity and luminescense of InAs quantum dots on InP substrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Y.; Uhl, D.

    2002-01-01

    InAs self-organized quantum dots have been grown in InGaAs quantum well on InP substrates by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy. Atomic Force Microscopy confirmed of quantum dot formation with dot density of 3X10(sup 10) cm(sup -2). Improved dot size uniformity and strong room temperature photoluminescence up to 2 micron were observed after modifying the InGaAs well.

  18. Bound states in continuum: Quantum dots in a quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodanović, Nikola; Milanović, Vitomir; Ikonić, Zoran; Indjin, Dragan; Harrison, Paul

    2013-11-01

    We report on the existence of a bound state in the continuum (BIC) of quantum rods (QR). QRs are novel elongated InGaAs quantum dot nanostructures embedded in the shallower InGaAs quantum well. BIC appears as an excited confined dot state and energetically above the bottom of a well subband continuum. We prove that high height-to-diameter QR aspect ratio and the presence of a quantum well are indispensable conditions for accommodating the BIC. QRs are unique semiconductor nanostructures, exhibiting this mathematical curiosity predicted 83 years ago by Wigner and von Neumann.

  19. Impact of ex situ rapid thermal annealing on magneto-optical properties and oscillator strength of In(Ga)As quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, T.; Betzold, S.; Lundt, N.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Schneider, C.

    2016-04-01

    We discuss the influence of a rapid thermal annealing step on the magneto-optical emission properties of In(Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots. We map out a strong influence of the growth and annealing parameters on the excitons' effective Landé g factors and in particular on their diamagnetic coefficients, which we directly correlate with the modification of the emitters' shape and material composition. In addition, we study the excitons' spontaneous emission lifetime as a function of the annealing temperature and the dot height and observe a strong increase of the emission rate with the quantum dot volume. The corresponding increase in oscillator strength yields fully consistent results with the analysis of the diamagnetic behavior. Specifically, we demonstrate that a rapid thermal annealing step of 850 ∘C can be employed to increase the oscillator strength of as-grown InAs/GaAs QDs by more than a factor of 2.

  20. 15 Gb/s index-coupled distributed-feedback lasers based on 1.3 μm InGaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Stubenrauch, M. Stracke, G.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Strittmatter, A.

    2014-07-07

    The static properties and large-signal modulation capabilities of directly modulated p-doped quantum-dot distributed-feedback lasers are presented. Based on pure index gratings the devices exhibit a side-mode-suppression ratio of 58 dB and optical output powers up to 34 mW. Assisted by a broad gain spectrum, which is typical for quantum-dot material, emission wavelengths from 1290 nm to 1310 nm are covered by the transversal and longitudinal single-mode lasers fabricated from the same single wafer. Thus, these lasers are ideal devices for on-chip wavelength division multiplexing within the original-band according to the IEEE802.3ba standard. 10 Gb/s data transmission across 30 km of single mode fiber is demonstrated. The maximum error-free data rate is found to be 15 Gb/s.

  1. The use of spatially ordered arrays of etched holes for fabrication of single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kuzmenkov, A. G. Blokhin, S. A.; Maleev, N. A.; Sakharov, A. V.; Tikhomirov, V. G.; Maksimov, M. V.; Ustinov, V. M.; Kovsh, A. R.; Mikhrin, S. S.; Ledentsov, N. N.; Yang, H. P. D.; Lin, G.; Hsiao, R. S.; Chi, J. Y.

    2007-10-15

    To suppress the generation of high-order modes in vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers based on submonolayer InGaAs quantum dots, the method of formation of a spatially ordered array of etched holes in the upper distributed Bragg reflector was used. Single-mode vertical-cavity surface-emitting lasers for spectral region of 990 nm with current-aperture diameter of 20 {mu}m, threshold current 0.9 mA, and maximum output power 3.8 mW at room temperature were demonstrated. Single-mode lasing with the coefficient of side-mode suppression in excess of 35 dB is retained in the entire range of pump currents. A decrease in the current oxide aperture to sizes that are close to those of the optical aperture brings about an increase in the external quantum efficiency; however, in this case, the transition to the multimode of lasing is observed at high pump currents.

  2. In situ tuning biexciton antibinding-binding transition and fine-structure splitting through hydrostatic pressure in single InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, X. F.; Wei, H.; Dou, X. M.; Ding, K.; Yu, Y.; Ni, H. Q.; Niu, Z. C.; Ji, Y.; Li, S. S.; Jiang, D. S.; Guo, G.-C.; He, L. X.; Sun, B. Q.

    2014-07-01

    Exciton and biexciton emission energies as well as excitonic fine-structure splitting (FSS) in single (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) have been continuously tuned using hydrostatic pressure up to 4.4 GPa. The blue shift of excitonic emission and the increase of FSS are 320 meV and 150\\ \\mu\\text{eV} , respectively, which are significantly greater than those that could be achieved by previously reported techniques. We successfully produce a biexciton antibinding-binding transition along with a detailed polarization-resolved emission spectra. It is shown that the biexciton binding energy linearly increases with increasing pressure and tends to be sublinear at high pressure. We have performed atomistic pseudopotential calculations on realistic QDs to understand the pressure-induced effects.

  3. In situ tuning biexciton antibinding-binding transition and fine structure splitting through hydrostatic pressure in single InGaAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Hai; Wu, Xuefei; Dou, Xiuming; Ding, Kun; Yu, Ying; Ni, Haiqiao; Niu, Zhichuan; Ji, Yang; Li, Shushen; Jiang, Desheng; Guo, Guang-Can; He, Lixin; Sun, Baoquan; Institute of Semiconductors, CAS, PR China Team; Key Laboratory of Quantum Information, University of Science; Technology of China, PR China Team

    2014-03-01

    We demonstrate that the exciton and biexciton emission energies as well as exciton fine structure splitting (FSS) in single (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) can be efficiently tuned using hydrostatic pressure in situ in an optical cryostat at up to 4.4 GPa. The maximum exciton emission energy shift is up to 380 meV, and the FSS is up to 150 μeV. We successfully produce a biexciton antibinding-binding transition in QDs, which is the key experimental condition that generates color- and polarization-indistinguishable photon pairs from the cascade of biexciton emissions and that generates entangled photons via a time-reordering scheme. We also perform the atomistic pseudopotential calculations on realistic (In,Ga)As/GaAs QDs to understand the physical mechanism underlying the hydrostatic pressure-induced effects.

  4. Two-dimensional ordering of (In,Ga)As quantum dots in vertical multilayers grown on GaAs(100) and (n11)

    SciTech Connect

    Lytvyn, P. M.; Strelchuk, V. V.; Kolomys, O. F.; Prokopenko, I. V.; Valakh, M. Ya.; Mazur, Yu. I.; Wang, Zh. M.; Salamo, G. J.; Hanke, M.

    2007-10-22

    We have investigated lateral self-assembling in In{sub 0.4}Ga{sub 0.6}As/GaAs quantum dot (QD) multilayers, which were grown by molecular beam epitaxy on GaAs(100) and (n11)B substrates with n=9,8,7,5,4,3. The lateral self-assembling and the QD size distribution have been studied by atomic force microscopy depending on substrate orientation and the number of periods within the multilayers. The observed two-dimensional ordering can be described by a centered rectangular surface unit cell. Derived autocorrelation functions exhibit the most pronounced lateral QD assembling along the elastically soft directions [1n0]. This can be attributed to elastic interaction, the particular elastic anisotropy of the high index substrates, and the minimization of the strain energy.

  5. Gallium arsenide-based long-wavelength quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Gyoungwon

    2001-09-01

    GaAs-based long-wavelength quantum dot lasers have long been studied for applications to optical interconnects. The zero-dimensional confinement potential of quantum dots opens possibility of novel devices. Also, the quantum dot itself shows very interesting characteristics. This dissertation describes the development of GaAs-based 1.3 μm quantum dot lasers and the research on the unique characteristics of quantum dot ensemble. InGaAs quantum dots grown using molecular beam epitaxy in submonolayer deposition have extended wavelength around 1.3 μm and well resolved energy levels that can be described by three-dimensional harmonic oscillator model assuming parabolic confining potential. Lasing transitions from various InGaAs quantum dot energy levels are obtained from edge-emitting lasers. With optimized quantum dot active region and device structure, continuous-wave, room-temperature lasing operation around 1.3 μm is achieved with very low threshold current. Lateral confinement of carriers and photons in the cavity with AlxO y using wet-oxidation technique results in low waveguide loss, which lowers the threshold further. InGaAs quantum dot lasers have almost temperature- insensitive lasing threshold below ~200 K with very low threshold current density close to transparency current density. The rapid increase of threshold current along with temperature above ~200 K is due to thermal excitation of carriers into the higher energy levels and increase of non-radiative recombination. Quasi- equilibrium model for carrier dynamics shows that the optical gain of quantum dot ensemble is strongly temperature dependent, and that the separation between quantum dot energy levels plays an important role in the temperature dependence of the device characteristics. Several predictions of the model are compared with the experimental results. Lasing operation with less temperature-sensitivity is achieved from InAs quantum dot lasers with increased level separation.

  6. Electronic states and intraband terahertz optical transitions in InGaAs quantum rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prodanović, Nikola; Vukmirović, Nenad; Indjin, Dragan; Ikonić, Zoran; Harrison, Paul

    2012-04-01

    Strain-dependent eight-band k .p method is used to analyze the electronic structure and intraband optical transitions in self-assembled InGaAs quantum rods in the terahertz range. The calculation of absorption spectra for the growth- and in-plane-polarized radiation shows some similarities to those of quantum well and single quantum dot structures, augmented with contribution from transitions between the dot and quantum well states. The influence of rod height on the electronic structure and the intraband absorption spectra is also investigated. It is found that the energy of maximal terahertz absorption can be tailored by the rod height for both in-plane and in-growth polarized radiation.

  7. A Nanowire-Based Plasmonic Quantum Dot Laser.

    PubMed

    Ho, Jinfa; Tatebayashi, Jun; Sergent, Sylvain; Fong, Chee Fai; Ota, Yasutomo; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-04-13

    Quantum dots enable strong carrier confinement and exhibit a delta-function like density of states, offering significant improvements to laser performance and high-temperature stability when used as a gain medium. However, quantum dot lasers have been limited to photonic cavities that are diffraction-limited and further miniaturization to meet the demands of nanophotonic-electronic integration applications is challenging based on existing designs. Here we introduce the first quantum dot-based plasmonic laser to reduce the cross-sectional area of nanowire quantum dot lasers below the cutoff limit of photonic modes while maintaining the length in the order of the lasing wavelength. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition grown GaAs-AlGaAs core-shell nanowires containing InGaAs quantum dot stacks are placed directly on a silver film, and lasing was observed from single nanowires originating from the InGaAs quantum dot emission into the low-loss higher order plasmonic mode. Lasing threshold pump fluences as low as ∼120 μJ/cm(2) was observed at 7 K, and lasing was observed up to 125 K. Temperature stability from the quantum dot gain, leading to a high characteristic temperature was demonstrated. These results indicate that high-performance, miniaturized quantum dot lasers can be realized with plasmonics. PMID:27030886

  8. Quantum Dots: Theory

    SciTech Connect

    Vukmirovic, Nenad; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2009-11-10

    This review covers the description of the methodologies typically used for the calculation of the electronic structure of self-assembled and colloidal quantum dots. These are illustrated by the results of their application to a selected set of physical effects in quantum dots.

  9. Spatially resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dybiec, Maciej

    Recent advancements in nanotechnology create a need for a better understanding of the underlying physical processes that lead to the different behavior of nanoscale structures in comparison to bulk materials. The influence of the surrounding environment on the physical and optical properties of nanoscale objects embedded inside them is of particular interest. This research is focused on the optical properties of semiconductor quantum dots which are zero-dimensional nanostructures. There are many investigation techniques for measuring the local parameters and structural characteristics of Quantum Dot structures. They include X-ray diffraction, Transmission Electron Microscopy, Wavelength Dispersive Spectroscopy, etc. However, none of these is suitable for the study of large areas of quantum dots matrices and substrates. The existence of spatial inhomogeneity in the quantum dots allows for a deeper and better understanding of underlying physical processes responsible in particular for the observed changes in photoluminescence (PL) characteristics. Spectroscopic PL mapping can reveal areas of improved laser performance of InAs - InGaAs quantum dots structures. Establishing physical mechanisms responsible for two different types of spatial PL inhomogeneity in InAs/InGaAs quantum dots structures for laser applications was the first objective of this research. Most of the bio-applications of semiconductor quantum dots utilize their superior optical properties over organic fluorophores. Therefore, optimization of QD labeling performance with biomolecule attachment was another focus of this research. Semiconductor quantum dots suspended in liquids were investigated, especially the influence of surrounding molecules that may be attached or bio-conjugated to the quantum dots for specific use in biological reactions on the photoluminescence spectrum. Provision of underlying physical mechanisms of optical property instability of CdSe/ZnS quantum dots used for biological

  10. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-10-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  11. Quantum Dot Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Hepp, Aloysius; Bailey, Sheila G.

    2002-01-01

    We have been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe, CuInS2, and CuInSe2 for use in an intermediate bandgap solar cell. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Bawendi, et. al., in the early 1990's. However, unlike previous work in this area we have also utilized single-source precursor molecules in the synthesis process. We will present XRD, TEM, SEM and EDS characterization of our initial attempts at fabricating these quantum dots. Investigation of the size distributions of these nanoparticles via laser light scattering and scanning electron microscopy will be presented. Theoretical estimates on appropriate quantum dot composition, size, and inter-dot spacing along with potential scenarios for solar cell fabrication will be discussed.

  12. Annealing-induced change in quantum dot chain formation mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Tyler D.; Colton, John S.; Farrer, Jeffrey K.; Yang, Haeyeon; Kim, Dong Jun

    2014-12-15

    Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot chains were grown using a modified Stranski-Krastanov method in which the InGaAs layer is deposited under a low growth temperature and high arsenic overpressure, which suppresses the formation of dots until a later annealing process. The dots are capped with a 100 nm GaAs layer. Three samples, having three different annealing temperatures of 460°C, 480°C, and 500°C, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate two distinct types of dot formation processes: dots in the 460°C and 480°C samples form from platelet precursors in a one-to-one ratio whereas the dots in the sample annealed at 500°C form through the strain-driven self-assembly process, and then grow larger via an additional Ostwald ripening process whereby dots grow into larger dots at the expense of smaller seed islands. There are consequently significant morphological differences between the two types of dots, which explain many of the previously-reported differences in optical properties. Moreover, we also report evidence of indium segregation within the dots, with little or no indium intermixing between the dots and the surrounding GaAs barrier.

  13. Annealing-induced change in quantum dot chain formation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Tyler D.; Colton, John S.; Farrer, Jeffrey K.; Yang, Haeyeon; Kim, Dong Jun

    2014-12-01

    Self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot chains were grown using a modified Stranski-Krastanov method in which the InGaAs layer is deposited under a low growth temperature and high arsenic overpressure, which suppresses the formation of dots until a later annealing process. The dots are capped with a 100 nm GaAs layer. Three samples, having three different annealing temperatures of 460°C, 480°C, and 500°C, were studied by transmission electron microscopy. Results indicate two distinct types of dot formation processes: dots in the 460°C and 480°C samples form from platelet precursors in a one-to-one ratio whereas the dots in the sample annealed at 500°C form through the strain-driven self-assembly process, and then grow larger via an additional Ostwald ripening process whereby dots grow into larger dots at the expense of smaller seed islands. There are consequently significant morphological differences between the two types of dots, which explain many of the previously-reported differences in optical properties. Moreover, we also report evidence of indium segregation within the dots, with little or no indium intermixing between the dots and the surrounding GaAs barrier.

  14. Growing High-Quality InAs Quantum Dots for Infrared Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Uhl, David

    2004-01-01

    An improved method of growing high-quality InAs quantum dots embedded in lattice-matched InGaAs quantum wells on InP substrates has been developed. InAs/InGaAs/InP quantum dot semiconductor lasers fabricated by this method are capable of operating at room temperature at wavelengths greater than or equal to 1.8 mm. Previously, InAs quantum dot lasers based on InP substrates have been reported only at low temperature of 77 K at a wavelength of 1.9 micrometers. In the present method, as in the prior method, one utilizes metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy to grow the aforementioned semiconductor structures. The development of the present method was prompted in part by the observation that when InAs quantum dots are deposited on an InGaAs layer, some of the InAs in the InGaAs layer becomes segregated from the layer and contributes to the formation of the InAs quantum dots. As a result, the quantum dots become highly nonuniform; some even exceed a critical thickness, beyond which they relax. In the present method, one covers the InGaAs layer with a thin layer of GaAs before depositing the InAs quantum dots. The purpose and effect of this thin GaAs layer is to suppress the segregation of InAs from the InGaAs layer, thereby enabling the InAs quantum dots to become nearly uniform (see figure). Devices fabricated by this method have shown near-room-temperature performance.

  15. Microanalysis of quantum dots with type II band alignments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarney, Wendy; Little, John; Svensson, Stefan

    2006-03-01

    We will discuss the structural characterization of a system consisting of undoped self-assembled InSb quantum dots having a type II band alignment with the surrounding In0.53Ga0.47As matrix. This differs from systems using conventional type-I quantum dots that must be doped and that rely on intersubband transitions for infrared photoresponse. Type II dots grown in a superlattice structure combine the advantages of quantum dots (3-dimensional confinement) with the tunability and photovoltaic operation of the type II superlattice. We grew a high surface density of InSb quantum dots with a narrow distribution of sizes and shapes and free of dislocations within the body of the dots. The dots are relaxed due to an array of misfit dislocations confined at the basal dot/matrix interface. This makes burying the dots with InGaAs not feasible without generating dislocations due to the large dot/matrix lattice mismatch. We are experimenting with strain-compensating or graded strain overlayers to lower the lattice mismatch.

  16. Quantum dot device tunable from single to triple dot system

    SciTech Connect

    Rogge, M. C.; Haug, R. J.; Pierz, K.

    2013-12-04

    We present a lateral quantum dot device which has a tunable number of quantum dots. Depending on easily tunable gate voltages, one, two or three quantum dots are found. They are investigated in transport and charge detection.

  17. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole–dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single

  18. Colloidal Double Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Teitelboim, Ayelet; Meir, Noga; Kazes, Miri; Oron, Dan

    2016-05-17

    Pairs of coupled quantum dots with controlled coupling between the two potential wells serve as an extremely rich system, exhibiting a plethora of optical phenomena that do not exist in each of the isolated constituent dots. Over the past decade, coupled quantum systems have been under extensive study in the context of epitaxially grown quantum dots (QDs), but only a handful of examples have been reported with colloidal QDs. This is mostly due to the difficulties in controllably growing nanoparticles that encapsulate within them two dots separated by an energetic barrier via colloidal synthesis methods. Recent advances in colloidal synthesis methods have enabled the first clear demonstrations of colloidal double quantum dots and allowed for the first exploratory studies into their optical properties. Nevertheless, colloidal double QDs can offer an extended level of structural manipulation that allows not only for a broader range of materials to be used as compared with epitaxially grown counterparts but also for more complex control over the coupling mechanisms and coupling strength between two spatially separated quantum dots. The photophysics of these nanostructures is governed by the balance between two coupling mechanisms. The first is via dipole-dipole interactions between the two constituent components, leading to energy transfer between them. The second is associated with overlap of excited carrier wave functions, leading to charge transfer and multicarrier interactions between the two components. The magnitude of the coupling between the two subcomponents is determined by the detailed potential landscape within the nanocrystals (NCs). One of the hallmarks of double QDs is the observation of dual-color emission from a single nanoparticle, which allows for detailed spectroscopy of their properties down to the single particle level. Furthermore, rational design of the two coupled subsystems enables one to tune the emission statistics from single photon

  19. PREFACE: Quantum Dot 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert A.

    2010-09-01

    These conference proceedings contain the written papers of the contributions presented at Quantum Dot 2010 (QD2010). The conference was held in Nottingham, UK, on 26-30 April 2010. The conference addressed topics in research on: 1. Epitaxial quantum dots (including self-assembled and interface structures, dots defined by electrostatic gates etc): optical properties and electron transport quantum coherence effects spin phenomena optics of dots in cavities interaction with surface plasmons in metal/semiconductor structures opto-electronics applications 2. Novel QD structures: fabrication and physics of graphene dots, dots in nano-wires etc 3. Colloidal quantum dots: growth (shape control and hybrid nanocrystals such as metal/semiconductor, magnetic/semiconductor) assembly and surface functionalisation optical properties and spin dynamics electrical and magnetic properties applications (light emitting devices and solar cells, biological and medical applications, data storage, assemblers) The Editors Acknowledgements Conference Organising Committee: Maurice Skolnick (Chair) Alexander Tartakovskii (Programme Chair) Pavlos Lagoudakis (Programme Chair) Max Migliorato (Conference Secretary) Paola Borri (Publicity) Robert Taylor (Proceedings) Manus Hayne (Treasurer) Ray Murray (Sponsorship) Mohamed Henini (Local Organiser) International Advisory Committee: Yasuhiko Arakawa (Tokyo University, Japan) Manfred Bayer (Dortmund University, Germany) Sergey Gaponenko (Stepanov Institute of Physics, Minsk, Belarus) Pawel Hawrylak (NRC, Ottawa, Canada) Fritz Henneberger (Institute for Physics, Berlin, Germany) Atac Imamoglu (ETH, Zurich, Switzerland) Paul Koenraad (TU Eindhoven, Nethehrlands) Guglielmo Lanzani (Politecnico di Milano, Italy) Jungil Lee (Korea Institute of Science and Technology, Korea) Henri Mariette (CNRS-CEA, Grenoble, France) Lu Jeu Sham (San Diego, USA) Andrew Shields (Toshiba Research Europe, Cambridge, UK) Yoshihisa Yamamoto (Stanford University, USA) Artur

  20. Entanglement and Quantum Optics with Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgers, A. P.; Schaibley, J. R.; Steel, D. G.

    2015-06-01

    Quantum dots (QDs) exhibit many characteristics of simpler two-level (or few level) systems, under optical excitation. This makes atomic coherent optical spectroscopy theory and techniques well suited for understanding the behavior of quantum dots. Furthermore, the combination of the solid state nature of quantum dots and their close approximation to atomic systems makes them an attractive platform for quantum information based technologies. In this chapter, we will discuss recent studies using direct detection of light emitted from a quantum dot to investigate coherence properties and confirm entanglement between the emitted photon and an electron spin qubit confined to the QD.

  1. Temperature independent infrared responsivity of a quantum dot quantum cascade photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Feng-Jiao; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Shu-Man; Ren, Fei; Ning, Zhen-Dong; Ye, Xiao-Ling; Liu, Jun-Qi; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Liu, Feng-Qi; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a quantum dot quantum cascade photodetector with a hybrid active region of InAs quantum dots and an InGaAs quantum well, which exhibited a temperature independent response at 4.5 μm. The normal incident responsivity reached 10.3 mA/W at 120 K and maintained a value of 9 mA/W up to 260 K. It exhibited a specific detectivity above 1011 cm Hz1/2 W-1 at 77 K, which remained at 108 cm Hz1/2 W-1 at 260 K. We ascribe the device's good thermal stability of infrared response to the three-dimensional quantum confinement of the InAs quantum dots incorporated in the active region.

  2. Electrochromic nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, C; Shim, M; Guyot-Sionnest, P

    2001-03-23

    Incorporating nanocrystals into future electronic or optoelectronic devices will require a means of controlling charge-injection processes and an understanding of how the injected charges affect the properties of nanocrystals. We show that the optical properties of colloidal semiconductor nanocrystal quantum dots can be tuned by an electrochemical potential. The injection of electrons into the quantum-confined states of the nanocrystal leads to an electrochromic response, including a strong, size-tunable, midinfrared absorption corresponding to an intraband transition, a bleach of the visible interband exciton transitions, and a quench of the narrow band-edge photoluminescence. PMID:11264530

  3. Coulomb Mediated Hybridization of Excitons in Coupled Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ardelt, P.-L.; Gawarecki, K.; Müller, K.; Waeber, A. M.; Bechtold, A.; Oberhofer, K.; Daniels, J. M.; Klotz, F.; Bichler, M.; Kuhn, T.; Krenner, H. J.; Machnikowski, P.; Finley, J. J.

    2016-02-01

    We report Coulomb mediated hybridization of excitonic states in optically active InGaAs quantum dot molecules. By probing the optical response of an individual quantum dot molecule as a function of the static electric field applied along the molecular axis, we observe unexpected avoided level crossings that do not arise from the dominant single-particle tunnel coupling. We identify a new few-particle coupling mechanism stemming from Coulomb interactions between different neutral exciton states. Such Coulomb resonances hybridize the exciton wave function over four different electron and hole single-particle orbitals. Comparisons of experimental observations with microscopic eight-band k .p calculations taking into account a realistic quantum dot geometry show good agreement and reveal that the Coulomb resonances arise from broken symmetry in the artificial semiconductor molecule.

  4. Photoconductivity of Er-doped InAs quantum dots embedded in strain-relaxed InGaAs layers with 1.5 µm cw and pulse excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murakumo, Keisuke; Yamaoka, Yuya; Kumagai, Naoto; Kitada, Takahiro; Isu, Toshiro

    2016-04-01

    We fabricated a photoconductive antenna structure utilizing Er-doped InAs quantum dot layers embedded in strain-relaxed In0.35Ga0.65As layers on a GaAs substrate. Mesa-shaped electrodes for the antenna structure were formed by photolithography and wet etching in order to suppress its dark current. We measured the photocurrent with the excitation of ∼1.5 µm cw and femtosecond pulse lasers. Compared with the dark current, the photocurrent was clearly observed under both cw and pulse excitation conditions and almost linearly increased with increasing excitation power in a wide range of magnitudes from 10 W/cm2 to 10 MW/cm2 order.

  5. Controlling the polarization eigenstate of a quantum dot exciton with light.

    PubMed

    Belhadj, Thomas; Simon, Claire-Marie; Amand, Thierry; Renucci, Pierre; Chatel, Beatrice; Krebs, Olivier; Lemaître, Aristide; Voisin, Paul; Marie, Xavier; Urbaszek, Bernhard

    2009-08-21

    We demonstrate optical control of the polarization eigenstates of a neutral quantum dot exciton without any external fields. By varying the excitation power of a circularly polarized laser in microphotoluminescence experiments on individual InGaAs quantum dots we control the magnitude and direction of an effective internal magnetic field created via optical pumping of nuclear spins. The adjustable nuclear magnetic field allows us to tune the linear and circular polarization degree of the neutral exciton emission. The quantum dot can thus act as a tunable light polarization converter. PMID:19792745

  6. Quantum dots: Rethinking the electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bishnoi, Dimple

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate theoretically that the Quantum dots are quite interesting for the electronics industry. Semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) are nanometer-scale crystals, which have unique photo physical, quantum electrical properties, size-dependent optical properties, There small size means that electrons do not have to travel as far as with larger particles, thus electronic devices can operate faster. Cheaper than modern commercial solar cells while making use of a wider variety of photon energies, including "waste heat" from the sun's energy. Quantum dots can be used in tandem cells, which are multi junction photovoltaic cells or in the intermediate band setup. PbSe (lead selenide) is commonly used in quantum dot solar cells.

  7. The sandwich InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure for IR photoelectric detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moldavskaya, L. D. Vostokov, N. V.; Gaponova, D. M.; Danil'tsev, V. M.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Shashkin, V. I.

    2008-01-15

    A new possibility for growing InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructures for infrared photoelectric detectors by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is discussed. The specific features of the technological process are the prolonged time of growth of quantum dots and the alternation of the low-and high-temperature modes of overgrowing the quantum dots with GaAs barrier layers. During overgrowth, large-sized quantum dots are partially dissolved, and the secondary InGaAs quantum well is formed of the material of the dissolved large islands. In this case, a sandwich structure is formed. In this structure, quantum dots are arranged between two thin layers with an increased content of indium, namely, between the wetting InAs layer and the secondary InGaAs layer. The height of the quantum dots depends on the thickness of the GaAs layer grown at a comparatively low temperature. The structures exhibit intraband photoconductivity at a wavelength around 4.5 {mu}m at temperatures up to 200 K. At 90 K, the photosensitivity is 0.5 A/W, and the detectivity is 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 9} cm Hz{sup 1/2}W{sup -1}.

  8. The sandwich InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot structure for IR photoelectric detectors

    SciTech Connect

    Moldavskaya, L. D. Vostokov, N. V.; Gaponova, D. M.; Danil'tsev, V. M.; Drozdov, M. N.; Drozdov, Yu. N.; Shashkin, V. I.

    2008-01-15

    A new possibility for growing InAs/GaAs quantum dot heterostructures for infrared photoelectric detectors by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy is discussed. The specific features of the technological process are the prolonged time of growth of quantum dots and the alternation of the low-and high-temperature modes of overgrowing the quantum dots with GaAs barrier layers. During overgrowth, large-sized quantum dots are partially dissolved, and the secondary InGaAs quantum well is formed of the material of the dissolved large islands. In this case, a sandwich structure is formed. In this structure, quantum dots are arranged between two thin layers with an increased content of indium, namely, between the wetting InAs layer and the secondary InGaAs layer. The height of the quantum dots depends on the thickness of the GaAs layer grown at a comparatively low temperature. The structures exhibit intraband photoconductivity at a wavelength around 4.5 {mu}m at temperatures up to 200 K. At 90 K, the photosensitivity is 0.5 A/W, and the detectivity is 3 x 10{sup 9} cm Hz{sup 1/2}W{sup -1}.

  9. On-chip interference of single photons from an embedded quantum dot and an external laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prtljaga, N.; Bentham, C.; O'Hara, J.; Royall, B.; Clarke, E.; Wilson, L. R.; Skolnick, M. S.; Fox, A. M.

    2016-06-01

    In this work, we demonstrate the on-chip two-photon interference between single photons emitted by a single self-assembled InGaAs quantum dot and an external laser. The quantum dot is embedded within one arm of an air-clad directional coupler which acts as a beam-splitter for incoming light. Photons originating from an attenuated external laser are coupled to the second arm of the beam-splitter and then combined with the quantum dot photons, giving rise to two-photon quantum interference between dissimilar sources. We verify the occurrence of on-chip Hong-Ou-Mandel interference by cross-correlating the optical signal from the separate output ports of the directional coupler. This experimental approach allows us to use a classical light source (laser) to assess in a single step the overall device performance in the quantum regime and probe quantum dot photon indistinguishability on application realistic time scales.

  10. Ordered quantum dot molecules and single quantum dots formed by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Lippen, T. van; Noetzel, R.; Hamhuis, G.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2005-02-15

    An ordered lattice of lateral InAs quantum dot (QD) molecules is created by self-organized anisotropic strain engineering of an (In,Ga)As/GaAs superlattice (SL) template on GaAs(311)B by molecular-beam epitaxy, constituting a Turing pattern in solid state. The SL template and InAs QD growth conditions, such as the number of SL periods, growth temperatures, amount and composition of deposited (In,Ga)As, and insertion of Al-containing layers, are studied in detail for an optimized QD ordering within and among the InAs QD molecules on the SL template nodes, which is evaluated by atomic force microscopy. The average number of InAs QDs within the molecules is controlled by the thickness of the upper GaAs separation layer on the SL template and the (In,Ga)As growth temperature in the SL. The strain-correlated growth in SL template formation and QD ordering is directly confirmed by high-resolution x-ray diffraction. Ordered arrays of single InAs QDs on the SL template nodes are realized for elevated SL template and InAs QD growth temperatures together with the insertion of a second InAs QD layer. The InAs QD molecules exhibit strong photoluminescence (PL) emission up to room temperature. Temperature-dependent PL measurements exhibit an unusual behavior of the full width at half maximum, indicating carrier redistribution solely within the QD molecules.

  11. (In,Ga)As sidewall quantum wires on shallow-patterned InP (311)A

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, D.; Noetzel, R.; Gong, Q.; Offermans, P.; Koenraad, P.M.; Veldhoven, P.J. van; Otten, F.W.M. van; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2005-03-15

    (In,Ga)As sidewall quantum wires (QWires) are realized by chemical beam epitaxy along [01-1] mesa stripes on shallow-patterned InP (311)A substrates. The QWires exhibit strong lateral carrier confinement due to larger thickness and In composition compared to the adjacent quantum wells, as determined by cross-sectional scanning-tunneling microscopy and microphotoluminescence (micro-PL) spectroscopy. The PL of the (In,Ga)As QWires with InP and quaternary (Ga,In)(As,P) barriers reveals narrow linewidth, high efficiency, and large lateral carrier confinement energies of 60-70 meV. The QWires are stacked in growth direction with identical PL peak emission energy. The PL emission energy is not only controlled by the (In,Ga)As layer thickness but also by the patterned mesa height. Stacked (In,Ga)As QWires with quaternary barriers exhibit room temperature PL emission at 1.55 {mu}m in the technologically important wavelength region for telecommunication applications.

  12. Lateral Quantum Dots for Quantum Information Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    House, Matthew Gregory

    The possibility of building a computer that takes advantage of the most subtle nature of quantum physics has been driving a lot of research in atomic and solid state physics for some time. It is still not clear what physical system or systems can be used for this purpose. One possibility that has been attracting significant attention from researchers is to use the spin state of an electron confined in a semiconductor quantum dot. The electron spin is magnetic in nature, so it naturally is well isolated from electrical fluctuations that can a loss of quantum coherence. It can also be manipulated electrically, by taking advantage of the exchange interaction. In this work we describe several experiments we have done to study the electron spin properties of lateral quantum dots. We have developed lateral quantum dot devices based on the silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor transistor, and studied the physics of electrons confined in these quantum dots. We measured the electron spin excited state lifetime, which was found to be as long as 30 ms at the lowest magnetic fields that we could measure. We fabricated and characterized a silicon double quantum dot. Using this double quantum dot design, we fabricated devices which combined a silicon double quantum dot with a superconducting microwave resonator. The microwave resonator was found to be sensitive to two-dimensional electrons in the transistor channel, which we measured and characterized. We developed a new method for extracting information from random telegraph signals, which are produced when we observe thermal fluctuations of electrons in quantum dots. The new statistical method, based on the hidden Markov model, allows us to detect spin-dependent effects in such fluctuations even though we are not able to directly observe the electron spin. We use this analysis technique on data from two experiments involving gallium arsenide quantum dots and use it to measure spin-dependent tunneling rates. Our results advance the

  13. Transport through graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Güttinger, J.; Molitor, F.; Stampfer, C.; Schnez, S.; Jacobsen, A.; Dröscher, S.; Ihn, T.; Ensslin, K.

    2012-12-01

    We review transport experiments on graphene quantum dots and narrow graphene constrictions. In a quantum dot, electrons are confined in all lateral dimensions, offering the possibility for detailed investigation and controlled manipulation of individual quantum systems. The recently isolated two-dimensional carbon allotrope graphene is an interesting host to study quantum phenomena, due to its novel electronic properties and the expected weak interaction of the electron spin with the material. Graphene quantum dots are fabricated by etching mono-layer flakes into small islands (diameter 60-350 nm) with narrow connections to contacts (width 20-75 nm), serving as tunneling barriers for transport spectroscopy. Electron confinement in graphene quantum dots is observed by measuring Coulomb blockade and transport through excited states, a manifestation of quantum confinement. Measurements in a magnetic field perpendicular to the sample plane allowed to identify the regime with only a few charge carriers in the dot (electron-hole transition), and the crossover to the formation of the graphene specific zero-energy Landau level at high fields. After rotation of the sample into parallel magnetic field orientation, Zeeman spin splitting with a g-factor of g ≈ 2 is measured. The filling sequence of subsequent spin states is similar to what was found in GaAs and related to the non-negligible influence of exchange interactions among the electrons.

  14. Multi-million atom electronic structure calculations for quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usman, Muhammad

    stark shift, coherent coupling of electronic states in a quantum dot molecule etc.; (3) to assess the potential use of the quantum dots in real device implementation and to provide physical insight to the experimentalists. Full three dimensional strain and electronic structure simulations of quantum dot structures containing multi-million atoms are done using NEMO 3-D. Both single and vertically stacked quantum dot structures are analyzed in detail. The results show that the strain and the piezoelectricity significantly impact the electronic structure of these devices. This work shows that the InAs quantum dots when placed in the InGaAs quantum well red shifts the emission wavelength. Such InAs/GaAs-based optical devices can be used for optical-fiber based communication systems at longer wavelengths (1.3um -- 1.5um). Our atomistic simulations of InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots quantitatively match with the experiment and give the critical insight of the physics involved in these structures. A single quantum dot molecule is studied for coherent quantum coupling of electronic states under the influence of static electric field applied in the growth direction. Such nanostructures can be used in the implementation of quantum information technologies. A close quantitative match with the experimental optical measurements allowed us to get a physical insight into the complex physics of quantum tunnel couplings of electronic states as the device operation switches between atomic and molecular regimes. Another important aspect is to design the quantum dots for a desired isotropic polarization of the optical emissions. Both single and coupled quantum dots are studied for TE/TM ratio engineering. The atomistic study provides a detailed physical analysis of these computationally expensive large nanostructures and serves as a guide for the experimentalists for the design of the polarization independent devices for the optical communication systems.

  15. Optically active quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerard, Valerie; Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-10-01

    The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important optically active quantum dot (QD) based materials, study their properties and explore their biological applications. For the first time chiral II-VI QDs have been prepared by us using microwave induced heating with the racemic (Rac), D- and L-enantiomeric forms of penicillamine as stabilisers. Circular dichroism (CD) studies of these QDs have shown that D- and L-penicillamine stabilised particles produced mirror image CD spectra, while the particles prepared with a Rac mixture showed only a weak signal. It was also demonstrated that these QDs show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. These QDs have demonstrated highly specific chiral recognition of various biological species including aminoacids. The utilisation of chiral stabilisers also allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS nano-tetrapods, which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. Biological testing of chiral CdS nanotetrapods displayed a chiral bias for an uptake of the D- penicillamine stabilised nano-tetrapods by cancer cells. It is expected that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in nanobiotechnology, medicine and optical chemo- and bio-sensing.

  16. Towards quantum-dot arrays of entangled photon emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juska, Gediminas; Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Mereni, Lorenzo O.; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Pelucchi, Emanuele

    2013-07-01

    To make photonic quantum information a reality, a number of extraordinary challenges need to be overcome. One challenge is to achieve large arrays of reproducible `entangled' photon generators, while maintaining compatibility for integration with optical devices and detectors. Semiconductor quantum dots are potentially ideal for this as they allow photons to be generated on demand without relying on probabilistic processes. Nevertheless, most quantum-dot systems are limited by their intrinsic lack of symmetry, which allows only a small number (typically 1 out of 100, or worse) of good dots to be achieved per chip. The recent retraction of Mohan et al. seemed to question the very possibility of simultaneously achieving site control and high symmetry. Here, we show that with a new family of (111)-grown pyramidal site-controlled InGaAs1-δNδ quantum dots it is possible to overcome previous hurdles and obtain areas with up to 15% of polarization-entangled photon emitters, with fidelities as high as 0.721 +/- 0.043.

  17. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi; Liu, Feng-Qi; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 μm. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski-Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 1011 and 4.83 × 106 Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.

  18. Quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Xue-Jiao; Zhai, Shen-Qiang; Zhuo, Ning; Liu, Jun-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Feng-Qi E-mail: fqliu@semi.ac.cn; Liu, Shu-Man; Wang, Zhan-Guo

    2014-04-28

    We demonstrate an InAs quantum dot quantum cascade infrared photodetector operating at room temperature with a peak detection wavelength of 4.3 μm. The detector shows sensitive photoresponse for normal-incidence light, which is attributed to an intraband transition of the quantum dots and the following transfer of excited electrons on a cascade of quantum levels. The InAs quantum dots for the infrared absorption were formed by making use of self-assembled quantum dots in the Stranski–Krastanov growth mode and two-step strain-compensation design based on InAs/GaAs/InGaAs/InAlAs heterostructure, while the following extraction quantum stairs formed by LO-phonon energy are based on a strain-compensated InGaAs/InAlAs chirped superlattice. Johnson noise limited detectivities of 3.64 × 10{sup 11} and 4.83 × 10{sup 6} Jones at zero bias were obtained at 80 K and room temperature, respectively. Due to the low dark current and distinct photoresponse up to room temperature, this device can form high temperature imaging.

  19. Chiral Graphene Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Nozomu; Wang, Yichun; Elvati, Paolo; Qu, Zhi-Bei; Kim, Kyoungwon; Jiang, Shuang; Baumeister, Elizabeth; Lee, Jaewook; Yeom, Bongjun; Bahng, Joong Hwan; Lee, Jaebeom; Violi, Angela; Kotov, Nicholas A

    2016-02-23

    Chiral nanostructures from metals and semiconductors attract wide interest as components for polarization-enabled optoelectronic devices. Similarly to other fields of nanotechnology, graphene-based materials can greatly enrich physical and chemical phenomena associated with optical and electronic properties of chiral nanostructures and facilitate their applications in biology as well as other areas. Here, we report that covalent attachment of l/d-cysteine moieties to the edges of graphene quantum dots (GQDs) leads to their helical buckling due to chiral interactions at the "crowded" edges. Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the GQDs revealed bands at ca. 210-220 and 250-265 nm that changed their signs for different chirality of the cysteine edge ligands. The high-energy chiroptical peaks at 210-220 nm correspond to the hybridized molecular orbitals involving the chiral center of amino acids and atoms of graphene edges. Diverse experimental and modeling data, including density functional theory calculations of CD spectra with probabilistic distribution of GQD isomers, indicate that the band at 250-265 nm originates from the three-dimensional twisting of the graphene sheet and can be attributed to the chiral excitonic transitions. The positive and negative low-energy CD bands correspond to the left and right helicity of GQDs, respectively. Exposure of liver HepG2 cells to L/D-GQDs reveals their general biocompatibility and a noticeable difference in the toxicity of the stereoisomers. Molecular dynamics simulations demonstrated that d-GQDs have a stronger tendency to accumulate within the cellular membrane than L-GQDs. Emergence of nanoscale chirality in GQDs decorated with biomolecules is expected to be a general stereochemical phenomenon for flexible sheets of nanomaterials. PMID:26743467

  20. Low Threshold Quantum Dot Lasers.

    PubMed

    Iyer, Veena Hariharan; Mahadevu, Rekha; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-04-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots have replaced conventional inorganic phosphors in numerous applications. Despite their overall successes as emitters, their impact as laser materials has been severely limited. Eliciting stimulated emission from quantum dots requires excitation by intense short pulses of light typically generated using other lasers. In this Letter, we develop a new class of quantum dots that exhibit gain under conditions of extremely low levels of continuous wave illumination. We observe thresholds as low as 74 mW/cm(2) in lasers made from these materials. Due to their strong optical absorption as well as low lasing threshold, these materials could possibly convert light from diffuse, polychromatic sources into a laser beam. PMID:26978011

  1. A colloidal quantum dot spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jie; Bawendi, Moungi G.

    2015-07-01

    Spectroscopy is carried out in almost every field of science, whenever light interacts with matter. Although sophisticated instruments with impressive performance characteristics are available, much effort continues to be invested in the development of miniaturized, cheap and easy-to-use systems. Current microspectrometer designs mostly use interference filters and interferometric optics that limit their photon efficiency, resolution and spectral range. Here we show that many of these limitations can be overcome by replacing interferometric optics with a two-dimensional absorptive filter array composed of colloidal quantum dots. Instead of measuring different bands of a spectrum individually after introducing temporal or spatial separations with gratings or interference-based narrowband filters, a colloidal quantum dot spectrometer measures a light spectrum based on the wavelength multiplexing principle: multiple spectral bands are encoded and detected simultaneously with one filter and one detector, respectively, with the array format allowing the process to be efficiently repeated many times using different filters with different encoding so that sufficient information is obtained to enable computational reconstruction of the target spectrum. We illustrate the performance of such a quantum dot microspectrometer, made from 195 different types of quantum dots with absorption features that cover a spectral range of 300 nanometres, by measuring shifts in spectral peak positions as small as one nanometre. Given this performance, demonstrable avenues for further improvement, the ease with which quantum dots can be processed and integrated, and their numerous finely tuneable bandgaps that cover a broad spectral range, we expect that quantum dot microspectrometers will be useful in applications where minimizing size, weight, cost and complexity of the spectrometer are critical.

  2. Generation of heralded entanglement between distant quantum dot hole spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delteil, Aymeric

    Entanglement plays a central role in fundamental tests of quantum mechanics as well as in the burgeoning field of quantum information processing. Particularly in the context of quantum networks and communication, some of the major challenges are the efficient generation of entanglement between stationary (spin) and propagating (photon) qubits, the transfer of information from flying to stationary qubits, and the efficient generation of entanglement between distant stationary (spin) qubits. In this talk, I will present such experimental implementations achieved in our team with semiconductor self-assembled quantum dots.Not only are self-assembled quantum dots good single-photon emitters, but they can host an electron or a hole whose spin serves as a quantum memory, and then present spin-dependent optical selection rules leading to an efficient spin-photon quantum interface. Moreover InGaAs quantum dots grown on GaAs substrate can profit from the maturity of III-V semiconductor technology and can be embedded in semiconductor structures like photonic cavities and Schottky diodes.I will report on the realization of heralded quantum entanglement between two semiconductor quantum dot hole spins separated by more than five meters. The entanglement generation scheme relies on single photon interference of Raman scattered light from both dots. A single photon detection projects the system into a maximally entangled state. We developed a delayed two-photon interference scheme that allows for efficient verification of quantum correlations. Moreover the efficient spin-photon interface provided by self-assembled quantum dots allows us to reach an unprecedented rate of 2300 entangled spin pairs per second, which represents an improvement of four orders of magnitude as compared to prior experiments carried out in other systems.Our results extend previous demonstrations in single trapped ions or neutral atoms, in atom ensembles and nitrogen vacancy centers to the domain of

  3. Self-assembly drives quantum dot photoluminescence.

    PubMed

    Plain, J; Sonnefraud, Y; Viste, P; Lérondel, G; Huant, S; Royer, P

    2009-03-01

    Engineering the spectral properties of quantum dots can be achieved by a control of the quantum dots organization on a substrate. Indeed, many applications of quantum dots as LEDs are based on the realization of a 3D architecture of quantum dots. In this contribution, we present a systematic study of the quantum dot organization obtained on different chemically modified substrates. By varying the chemical affinity between the quantum dots and the substrate, the quantum dot organization is strongly modified from the 2D monolayer to the 3D aggregates. Then the photoluminescence of the different obtained samples has been systematically studied and correlated with the quantum dot film organization. We clearly show that the interaction between the substrate and the quantum dot must be stronger than the quantum dot-quantum dot interaction to avoid 3D aggregation and that these organization strongly modified the photoluminescence of the film rather than intrinsic changes of the quantum dot induced by pure surface chemistry. PMID:18792763

  4. Ultrafast carrier capture in InGaAs quantum posts

    SciTech Connect

    Talbayev, Diyar; Taylor, Antoinette J; Stehr, D; Morris, C M; Wagner, M; Kim, H C; Schneider, H; Petroff, P M; Sherwin, M S

    2009-01-01

    To explore the capture dynamics of photoexcited carriers in semiconductor quantum posts, optical pump - THz probe and time-resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy were performed. The results of the THz experiment show that after ultrafast excitation, electrons relax within a few picoseconds into the quantum posts, which are acting as efficient traps. The saturation of the quantum post states, probed by photoluminescence, was reached approximately at ten times the quantum post density in the samples. The results imply that quantum posts are posts highly attractive nanostructures for future device applications.

  5. Optically pumped semiconductor quantum dot disk laser operating at 1180 nm.

    PubMed

    Rautiainen, Jussi; Krestnikov, Igor; Butkus, Mantas; Rafailov, Edik U; Okhotnikov, Oleg G

    2010-03-01

    We demonstrate an optically pumped semiconductor disk laser using 39 layers of Stranski-Krastanov InGaAs quantum dots self-assembled during epitaxial growth on a monolithic GaAs/AlAs distributed Bragg reflector. The gain structure bonded to an intracavity diamond crystal heat spreader allows 1.75 W single-transverse-mode output (M(2)<1.2) with circular beam shape operating at 1180 nm in a disk laser geometry. PMID:20195322

  6. Impact of nanomechanical resonances on lasing from electrically pumped quantum dot micropillars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Czerniuk, T.; Tepper, J.; Akimov, A. V.; Unsleber, S.; Schneider, C.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.; Yakovlev, D. R.; Bayer, M.

    2015-01-01

    We use a picosecond acoustics technique to modulate the laser output of electrically pumped GaAs/AlAs micropillar lasers with InGaAs quantum dots. The modulation of the emission wavelength takes place on the frequencies of the nanomechanical extensional and breathing (radial) modes of the micropillars. The amplitude of the modulation for various nanomechanical modes is different for every micropillar which is explained by a various elastic contact between the micropillar walls and polymer environment.

  7. Optical Fiber Sensing Using Quantum Dots

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, Pedro; Martins, Manuel António; Trindade, Tito; Santos, José Luís; Farahi, Faramarz

    2007-01-01

    Recent advances in the application of semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots, as biochemical sensors are reviewed. Quantum dots have unique optical properties that make them promising alternatives to traditional dyes in many luminescence based bioanalytical techniques. An overview of the more relevant progresses in the application of quantum dots as biochemical probes is addressed. Special focus will be given to configurations where the sensing dots are incorporated in solid membranes and immobilized in optical fibers or planar waveguide platforms.

  8. Semiconductor double quantum dot micromaser.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y-Y; Stehlik, J; Eichler, C; Gullans, M J; Taylor, J M; Petta, J R

    2015-01-16

    The coherent generation of light, from masers to lasers, relies upon the specific structure of the individual emitters that lead to gain. Devices operating as lasers in the few-emitter limit provide opportunities for understanding quantum coherent phenomena, from terahertz sources to quantum communication. Here we demonstrate a maser that is driven by single-electron tunneling events. Semiconductor double quantum dots (DQDs) serve as a gain medium and are placed inside a high-quality factor microwave cavity. We verify maser action by comparing the statistics of the emitted microwave field above and below the maser threshold. PMID:25593187

  9. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-10-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices.

  10. Brightness-equalized quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Sung Jun; Zahid, Mohammad U.; Le, Phuong; Ma, Liang; Entenberg, David; Harney, Allison S.; Condeelis, John; Smith, Andrew M.

    2015-01-01

    As molecular labels for cells and tissues, fluorescent probes have shaped our understanding of biological structures and processes. However, their capacity for quantitative analysis is limited because photon emission rates from multicolour fluorophores are dissimilar, unstable and often unpredictable, which obscures correlations between measured fluorescence and molecular concentration. Here we introduce a new class of light-emitting quantum dots with tunable and equalized fluorescence brightness across a broad range of colours. The key feature is independent tunability of emission wavelength, extinction coefficient and quantum yield through distinct structural domains in the nanocrystal. Precise tuning eliminates a 100-fold red-to-green brightness mismatch of size-tuned quantum dots at the ensemble and single-particle levels, which substantially improves quantitative imaging accuracy in biological tissue. We anticipate that these materials engineering principles will vastly expand the optical engineering landscape of fluorescent probes, facilitate quantitative multicolour imaging in living tissue and improve colour tuning in light-emitting devices. PMID:26437175

  11. Ultrasensitive solution-cast quantum dot photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantatos, Gerasimos; Howard, Ian; Fischer, Armin; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Clifford, Jason; Klem, Ethan; Levina, Larissa; Sargent, Edward H.

    2006-07-01

    Solution-processed electronic and optoelectronic devices offer low cost, large device area, physical flexibility and convenient materials integration compared to conventional epitaxially grown, lattice-matched, crystalline semiconductor devices. Although the electronic or optoelectronic performance of these solution-processed devices is typically inferior to that of those fabricated by conventional routes, this can be tolerated for some applications in view of the other benefits. Here we report the fabrication of solution-processed infrared photodetectors that are superior in their normalized detectivity (D*, the figure of merit for detector sensitivity) to the best epitaxially grown devices operating at room temperature. We produced the devices in a single solution-processing step, overcoating a prefabricated planar electrode array with an unpatterned layer of PbS colloidal quantum dot nanocrystals. The devices showed large photoconductive gains with responsivities greater than 103AW-1. The best devices exhibited a normalized detectivity D* of 1.8 × 1013jones (1jones = 1cmHz1/2W-1) at 1.3µm at room temperature: today's highest performance infrared photodetectors are photovoltaic devices made from epitaxially grown InGaAs that exhibit peak D* in the 1012jones range at room temperature, whereas the previous record for D* from a photoconductive detector lies at 1011jones. The tailored selection of absorption onset energy through the quantum size effect, combined with deliberate engineering of the sequence of nanoparticle fusing and surface trap functionalization, underlie the superior performance achieved in this readily fabricated family of devices.

  12. Designing quantum dots for solotronics

    PubMed Central

    Kobak, J.; Smoleński, T.; Goryca, M.; Papaj, M.; Gietka, K.; Bogucki, A.; Koperski, M.; Rousset, J.-G.; Suffczyński, J.; Janik, E.; Nawrocki, M.; Golnik, A.; Kossacki, P.; Pacuski, W.

    2014-01-01

    Solotronics, optoelectronics based on solitary dopants, is an emerging field of research and technology reaching the ultimate limit of miniaturization. It aims at exploiting quantum properties of individual ions or defects embedded in a semiconductor matrix. It has already been shown that optical control of a magnetic ion spin is feasible using the carriers confined in a quantum dot. However, a serious obstacle was the quenching of the exciton luminescence by magnetic impurities. Here we show, by photoluminescence studies on thus-far-unexplored individual CdTe dots with a single cobalt ion and CdSe dots with a single manganese ion, that even if energetically allowed, nonradiative exciton recombination through single-magnetic-ion intra-ionic transitions is negligible in such zero-dimensional structures. This opens solotronics for a wide range of as yet unconsidered systems. On the basis of results of our single-spin relaxation experiments and on the material trends, we identify optimal magnetic-ion quantum dot systems for implementation of a single-ion-based spin memory. PMID:24463946

  13. Calculation of metamorphic two-dimensional quantum energy system: Application to wetting layer states in InAs/InGaAs metamorphic quantum dot nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Seravalli, L.; Trevisi, G.; Frigeri, P.

    2013-11-14

    In this work, we calculate the two-dimensional quantum energy system of the In(Ga)As wetting layer that arises in InAs/InGaAs/GaAs metamorphic quantum dot structures. Model calculations were carried on the basis of realistic material parameters taking in consideration their dependence on the strain relaxation of the metamorphic buffer; results of the calculations were validated against available literature data. Model results confirmed previous hypothesis on the extrinsic nature of the disappearance of wetting layer emission in metamorphic structures with high In composition. We also show how, by adjusting InGaAs metamorphic buffer parameters, it could be possible: (i) to spatially separate carriers confined in quantum dots from wetting layer carriers, (ii) to create an hybrid 0D-2D system, by tuning quantum dot and wetting layer levels. These results are interesting not only for the engineering of quantum dot structures but also for other applications of metamorphic structures, as the two design parameters of the metamorphic InGaAs buffer (thickness and composition) provide additional degrees of freedom to control properties of interest.

  14. Thermoelectric energy harvesting with quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Sothmann, Björn; Sánchez, Rafael; Jordan, Andrew N

    2015-01-21

    We review recent theoretical work on thermoelectric energy harvesting in multi-terminal quantum-dot setups. We first discuss several examples of nanoscale heat engines based on Coulomb-coupled conductors. In particular, we focus on quantum dots in the Coulomb-blockade regime, chaotic cavities and resonant tunneling through quantum dots and wells. We then turn toward quantum-dot heat engines that are driven by bosonic degrees of freedom such as phonons, magnons and microwave photons. These systems provide interesting connections to spin caloritronics and circuit quantum electrodynamics. PMID:25549281

  15. Inversion of Zeeman splitting of exciton states in InGaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigoryev, P. S.; Yugov, O. A.; Eliseev, S. A.; Efimov, Yu. P.; Lovtcius, V. A.; Petrov, V. V.; Sapega, V. F.; Ignatiev, I. V.

    2016-05-01

    Zeeman splitting of quantum-confined states of excitons in InGaAs quantum wells (QWs) is experimentally found to depend strongly on quantization energy. Moreover, it changes sign when the quantization energy increases with a decrease in the QW width. In the 87-nm QW, the sign change is observed for the excited quantum-confined states, which are above the ground state only by a few meV. A two-step approach for the numerical solution of the two-particle Schrödinger equation, taking into account the Coulomb interaction and valence-band coupling, is used for a theoretical justification of the observed phenomenon. The calculated variation of the g -factor convincingly follows the dependencies obtained in the experiments.

  16. Temperature dependent photoluminescence and micromapping of multiple stacks InAs quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Ming Jaffré, Alexandre Alvarez, José Kleider, Jean-Paul Boutchich, Mohamed; Jittrong, Apichat; Chokamnuai, Thitipong; Panyakeow, Somsak; Kanjanachuchai, Songphol

    2015-02-27

    We utilized temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) techniques to investigate 1, 3 and 5 stack InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on cross-hatch patterns. PL mapping can well reproduce the QDs distribution as AFM and position dependency of QD growth. It is possible to observe crystallographic dependent PL. The temperature dependent spectra exhibit the QDs energy distribution which reflects the size and shape. The inter-dot carrier coupling effect is observed and translated as a red shift of 120mV on the [1–10] direction peak is observed at 30K on 1 stack with regards to 3 stacks samples, which is assigned to lateral coupling.

  17. Temperature dependent photoluminescence and micromapping of multiple stacks InAs quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Ming; Jaffré, Alexandre; Alvarez, José; Kleider, Jean-Paul; Jittrong, Apichat; Chokamnuai, Thitipong; Panyakeow, Somsak; Boutchich, Mohamed; Kanjanachuchai, Songphol

    2015-02-01

    We utilized temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) techniques to investigate 1, 3 and 5 stack InGaAs quantum dots (QDs) grown on cross-hatch patterns. PL mapping can well reproduce the QDs distribution as AFM and position dependency of QD growth. It is possible to observe crystallographic dependent PL. The temperature dependent spectra exhibit the QDs energy distribution which reflects the size and shape. The inter-dot carrier coupling effect is observed and translated as a red shift of 120mV on the [1-10] direction peak is observed at 30K on 1 stack with regards to 3 stacks samples, which is assigned to lateral coupling.

  18. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect

    Keith Kahen

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m2, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  19. Quantum Dot Light Emitting Diode

    SciTech Connect

    Kahen, Keith

    2008-07-31

    The project objective is to create low cost coatable inorganic light emitting diodes, composed of quantum dot emitters and inorganic nanoparticles, which have the potential for efficiencies equivalent to that of LEDs and OLEDs and lifetime, brightness, and environmental stability between that of LEDs and OLEDs. At the end of the project the Recipient shall gain an understanding of the device physics and properties of Quantum-Dot LEDs (QD-LEDs), have reliable and accurate nanocrystal synthesis routines, and have formed green-yellow emitting QD-LEDs with a device efficiency greater than 3 lumens/W, a brightness greater than 400 cd/m{sup 2}, and a device operational lifetime of more than 1000 hours. Thus the aim of the project is to break the current cost-efficiency paradigm by creating novel low cost inorganic LEDs composed of inorganic nanoparticles.

  20. Quantitative multiplexed quantum dot immunohistochemistry

    SciTech Connect

    Sweeney, E.; Ward, T.H.; Gray, N.; Womack, C.; Jayson, G.; Hughes, A.; Dive, C.; Byers, R.

    2008-09-19

    Quantum dots are photostable fluorescent semiconductor nanocrystals possessing wide excitation and bright narrow, symmetrical, emission spectra. These characteristics have engendered considerable interest in their application in multiplex immunohistochemistry for biomarker quantification and co-localisation in clinical samples. Robust quantitation allows biomarker validation, and there is growing need for multiplex staining due to limited quantity of clinical samples. Most reported multiplexed quantum dot staining used sequential methods that are laborious and impractical in a high-throughput setting. Problems associated with sequential multiplex staining have been investigated and a method developed using QDs conjugated to biotinylated primary antibodies, enabling simultaneous multiplex staining with three antibodies. CD34, Cytokeratin 18 and cleaved Caspase 3 were triplexed in tonsillar tissue using an 8 h protocol, each localised to separate cellular compartments. This demonstrates utility of the method for biomarker measurement enabling rapid measurement of multiple co-localised biomarkers on single paraffin tissue sections, of importance for clinical trial studies.

  1. Stability of quantum-dot excited-state laser emission under simultaneous ground-state perturbation

    SciTech Connect

    Kaptan, Y. Herzog, B.; Schöps, O.; Kolarczik, M.; Woggon, U.; Owschimikow, N.; Röhm, A.; Lingnau, B.; Lüdge, K.; Schmeckebier, H.; Arsenijević, D.; Bimberg, D.; Mikhelashvili, V.; Eisenstein, G.

    2014-11-10

    The impact of ground state amplification on the laser emission of In(Ga)As quantum dot excited state lasers is studied in time-resolved experiments. We find that a depopulation of the quantum dot ground state is followed by a drop in excited state lasing intensity. The magnitude of the drop is strongly dependent on the wavelength of the depletion pulse and the applied injection current. Numerical simulations based on laser rate equations reproduce the experimental results and explain the wavelength dependence by the different dynamics in lasing and non-lasing sub-ensembles within the inhomogeneously broadened quantum dots. At high injection levels, the observed response even upon perturbation of the lasing sub-ensemble is small and followed by a fast recovery, thus supporting the capacity of fast modulation in dual-state devices.

  2. Tunneling through a quantum dot in a quantum waveguide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arsen'ev, A. A.

    2010-07-01

    The problem is considered of scattering in a system consisting of a quantum waveguide and a quantum dot weakly coupled to the waveguide. It is assumed that the quantum waveguide is described by the Pauli equations, and the Rashba spin-orbit interaction is taken into account. The possibility of tunneling through the quantum dot is proved.

  3. Progress and prospect of quantum dot lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2001-10-01

    Optical properties and growth of self-assembled quantum dots (SAQDs) for optoelectronic device applications are discussed. After briefly reviewing the history of research on QD lasers, we discuss growth of InAs SQDs including the light emission at the wavelength of 1.52)mum with a narrow linewidth (22 meV) and the area-controlled growth which demonstrates formation of SAQDs in selected local areas on a growth plane using a SiO)-2) mask with MOCVD growth. Then properties of the InGaAs AQDs are investigated by the near- field photoluminescence excitation spectroscopy which reveals gradually increasing continuum absorption connected with the two-dimensional-like (2D-like) wetting layer, resulting in faster relaxation of electrons due to a crossover between OD and 2D character in the density of states. Moreover, we have investigated InGaN self-assembled QDs on a GaN layer achieving the average diameter as small as 8.4nm and a strong light at room temperature. A laser structure with the stacked InGAN QDs embedded in the active layer was fabricated and room temperature operation of blue InGaN QD lasers was achieved under optical excitation. Carrier confinement in QDs was examined using near-field $DAL- photoluminescence measurement: A very sharp spectral line emitted from excitons in individual InGaN QDs was observed. Establishing AlGaN/GaN DBR of high quality, we succeeded in lasing action in InGaN blue light emitting VCSELs. Enhancement of spontaneous emission is demonstrated. Finally, perspective of QD lasers.

  4. Modeling of the quantum dot filling and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Ameen, Tarek A.; El-Batawy, Yasser M.; Abouelsaood, A. A.

    2014-02-14

    A generalized drift-diffusion model for the calculation of both the quantum dot filling profile and the dark current of quantum dot infrared photodetectors is proposed. The confined electrons inside the quantum dots produce a space-charge potential barrier between the two contacts, which controls the quantum dot filling and limits the dark current in the device. The results of the model reasonably agree with a published experimental work. It is found that increasing either the doping level or the temperature results in an exponential increase of the dark current. The quantum dot filling turns out to be nonuniform, with a dot near the contacts containing more electrons than one in the middle of the device where the dot occupation approximately equals the number of doping atoms per dot, which means that quantum dots away from contacts will be nearly unoccupied if the active region is undoped.

  5. Dwell-time-limited coherence in open quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Hackens, B; Faniel, S; Gustin, C; Wallart, X; Bollaert, S; Cappy, A; Bayot, V

    2005-04-15

    We present measurements of the electron phase coherence time tau(varphi) on a wide range of open ballistic quantum dots (QDs) made from InGaAs heterostructures. The observed saturation of tau(varphi) below temperatures 0.5 K

  6. Dwell-Time-Limited Coherence in Open Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, B.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Wallart, X.; Bollaert, S.; Cappy, A.; Bayot, V.

    2005-04-01

    We present measurements of the electron phase coherence time τϕ on a wide range of open ballistic quantum dots (QDs) made from InGaAs heterostructures. The observed saturation of τϕ below temperatures 0.5 K

  7. The quantum Hall effect in quantum dot systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beltukov, Y. M.; Greshnov, A. A.

    2014-12-01

    It is proposed to use quantum dots in order to increase the temperatures suitable for observation of the integer quantum Hall effect. A simple estimation using Fock-Darwin spectrum of a quantum dot shows that good part of carriers localized in quantum dots generate the intervals of plateaus robust against elevated temperatures. Numerical calculations employing local trigonometric basis and highly efficient kernel polynomial method adopted for computing the Hall conductivity reveal that quantum dots may enhance peak temperature for the effect by an order of magnitude, possibly above 77 K. Requirements to potentials, quality and arrangement of the quantum dots essential for practical realization of such enhancement are indicated. Comparison of our theoretical results with the quantum Hall measurements in InAs quantum dot systems from two experimental groups is also given.

  8. Synthetic Developments of Nontoxic Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Das, Adita; Snee, Preston T

    2016-03-01

    Semiconductor nanocrystals, or quantum dots (QDs), are candidates for biological sensing, photovoltaics, and catalysis due to their unique photophysical properties. The most studied QDs are composed of heavy metals like cadmium and lead. However, this engenders concerns over heavy metal toxicity. To address this issue, numerous studies have explored the development of nontoxic (or more accurately less toxic) quantum dots. In this Review, we select three major classes of nontoxic quantum dots composed of carbon, silicon and Group I-III-VI elements and discuss the myriad of synthetic strategies and surface modification methods to synthesize quantum dots composed of these material systems. PMID:26548450

  9. Electron energy spectrum in cylindrical quantum dots and rods: approximation of separation of variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedzinskas, R.; Karpus, V.; Čechavičius, B.; Kavaliauskas, J.; Valušis, G.

    2015-06-01

    A simple analytical method for electron energy spectrum calculations of cylindrical quantum dots (QDs) and quantum rods (QRs) is presented. The method is based on a replacement of an actual QD or QR hamiltonian with an approximate one, which allows for a separation of variables. Though this approach is known in the literature, it is essentially expanded in the present paper by taking into account a discontinuity of the effective mass, which is of importance in actual semiconductor heterostructures, e.g., InGaAs QDs or QRs embedded in GaAs matrix. Several examples of InGaAs QDs and QRs are considered—their energy spectrum calculations show that the suggested method yields reliable results both for the ground and excited states. The proposed analytical model is verified by numerical calculations, results of which coincide with an accuracy of ∼1 meV.

  10. Chiral quantum dot based materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govan, Joseph; Loudon, Alexander; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii

    2014-05-01

    Recently, the use of stereospecific chiral stabilising molecules has also opened another avenue of interest in the area of quantum dot (QD) research. The main goal of our research is to develop new types of technologically important quantum dot materials containing chiral defects, study their properties and explore their applications. The utilisation of chiral penicillamine stabilisers allowed the preparation of new water soluble white emitting CdS quantum nanostructures which demonstrated circular dichroism in the band-edge region of the spectrum. It was also demonstrated that all three types of QDs (D-, L-, and Rac penicillamine stabilised) show very broad emission bands between 400 and 700 nm due to defects or trap states on the surfaces of the nanocrystals. In this work the chiral CdS based quantum nanostructures have also been doped by copper metal ions and new chiral penicilamine stabilized CuS nanoparticles have been prepared and investigated. It was found that copper doping had a strong effect at low levels in the synthesis of chiral CdS nanostructures. We expect that this research will open new horizons in the chemistry of chiral nanomaterials and their application in biotechnology, sensing and asymmetric synthesis.

  11. Polariton condensation in a strain-compensated planar microcavity with InGaAs quantum wells

    SciTech Connect

    Cilibrizzi, Pasquale; Askitopoulos, Alexis Silva, Matteo; Lagoudakis, Pavlos G.; Bastiman, Faebian; Clarke, Edmund; Zajac, Joanna M.; Langbein, Wolfgang

    2014-11-10

    The investigation of intrinsic interactions in polariton condensates is currently limited by the photonic disorder of semiconductor microcavity structures. Here, we use a strain compensated planar GaAs/AlAs{sub 0.98}P{sub 0.02} microcavity with embedded InGaAs quantum wells having a reduced cross-hatch disorder to overcome this issue. Using real and reciprocal space spectroscopic imaging under non-resonant optical excitation, we observe polariton condensation and a second threshold marking the onset of photon lasing, i.e., the transition from the strong to the weak-coupling regime. Condensation in a structure with suppressed photonic disorder is a necessary step towards the implementation of periodic lattices of interacting condensates, providing a platform for on chip quantum simulations.

  12. Detailed Study of the Influence of InGaAs Matrix on the Strain Reduction in the InAs Dot-In-Well Structure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peng; Chen, Qimiao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Cao, Chunfang; Wang, Shumin; Gong, Qian

    2016-12-01

    InAs/InGaAs dot-in-well (DWELL) structures have been investigated with the systematically varied InGaAs thickness. Both the strained buffer layer (SBL) below the dot layer and the strain-reducing layer (SRL) above the dot layer were found to be responsible for the redshift in photoluminescence (PL) emission of the InAs/InGaAs DWELL structure. A linear followed by a saturation behavior of the emission redshift was observed as a function of the SBL and SRL thickness, respectively. The PL intensity is greatly enhanced by applying both of the SRL and SBL. Finite element analysis simulation and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) measurement were carried out to analyze the strain distribution in the InAs QD and the InGaAs SBL. The results clearly indicate the strain reduction in the QD induced by the SBL, which are likely the main cause for the emission redshift. PMID:26932758

  13. Laterally Coupled Quantum-Dot Distributed-Feedback Lasers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qui, Yueming; Gogna, Pawan; Muller, Richard; Maker, paul; Wilson, Daniel; Stintz, Andreas; Lester, Luke

    2003-01-01

    InAs quantum-dot lasers that feature distributed feedback and lateral evanescent- wave coupling have been demonstrated in operation at a wavelength of 1.3 m. These lasers are prototypes of optical-communication oscillators that are required to be capable of stable single-frequency, single-spatial-mode operation. A laser of this type (see figure) includes an active layer that comprises multiple stacks of InAs quantum dots embedded within InGaAs quantum wells. Distributed feedback is provided by gratings formed on both sides of a ridge by electron lithography and reactive-ion etching on the surfaces of an AlGaAs/GaAs waveguide. The lateral evanescent-wave coupling between the gratings and the wave propagating in the waveguide is strong enough to ensure operation at a single frequency, and the waveguide is thick enough to sustain a stable single spatial mode. In tests, the lasers were found to emit continuous-wave radiation at temperatures up to about 90 C. Side modes were found to be suppressed by more than 30 dB.

  14. Analysis of cross talk in high density mesa linear InGaAs detector arrays using tiny light dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yaoming; Li, Xue; Wei, Jun; Li, Jianwei; Tang, Hengjing; Gong, Hai-mei

    2012-10-01

    With the development of material growth and device technologies, the pixel density becomes much higher. The pixel size and the spacing between pixels have been becoming smaller and smaller, causing the cross talk of the neighboring pixels acuter. Linear InGaAs detector arrays with 25 μm pitch and 2 μm spacing were fabricated, and the modulation transfer function of detector arrays with infrared lens was measured using a system of collimator tube. A tiny light dot produced by the collimator tube was used to analyze and calculated the cross talk of the detector with conserved absorber around the photosensitive mesa, and the cross talk between two neighboring pixels was approximately estimated. With the conserved absorber structure, the electronic cross talk is dominant in the cross talks between neighboring pixels.

  15. Photoluminescence of a quantum-dot molecule

    SciTech Connect

    Kruchinin, Stanislav Yu.; Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Baimuratov, Anvar S.; Leonov, Mikhail Yu.; Turkov, Vadim K.; Baranov, Alexander V.; Fedorov, Anatoly V.; Gun'ko, Yurii K.

    2015-01-07

    The coherent coupling of quantum dots is a sensitive indicator of the energy and phase relaxation processes taking place in the nanostructure components. We formulate a theory of low-temperature, stationary photoluminescence from a quantum-dot molecule composed of two spherical quantum dots whose electronic subsystems are resonantly coupled via the Coulomb interaction. We show that the coupling leads to the hybridization of the first excited states of the quantum dots, manifesting itself as a pair of photoluminescence peaks with intensities and spectral positions strongly dependent on the geometric, material, and relaxation parameters of the quantum-dot molecule. These parameters are explicitly contained in the analytical expression for the photoluminescence differential cross section derived in the paper. The developed theory and expression obtained are essential in interpreting and analyzing spectroscopic data on the secondary emission of coherently coupled quantum systems.

  16. Anomalous polarization in coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, X. H.; Jiang, H.; Sun, X.; Lin, H. Q.

    2000-04-01

    The coupled quantum dots can be designed to possess negative polarizability in low-lying excited states. In an electric field, the coupled dots are polarized, and the dipole moment of the coupled dots is reversed by absorbing one photon. This photoswitch effect is a new photoinduced phenomenon.

  17. Intraband absorption in the 8-12 μm band from Si-doped vertically aligned InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Q. D.; Li, J. M.; Li, H. X.; Zeng, Y. P.; Pan, L.; Chen, Y. H.; Kong, M. Y.; Lin, L. Y.

    1998-12-01

    Normal-incident infrared absorption in the 8-12-μm-atmospheric spectral window in the InGaAs/GaAs quantum-dot superlattice is observed. Using cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy, we find that the InGaAs quantum dots are perfectly vertically aligned in the growth direction (100). Under the normal incident radiation, a distinct absorption peaked at 9.9 μm is observed. This work indicates the potential of this quantum-dot superlattice structure for use as normal-incident infrared imaging focal arrays application without fabricating grating structures.

  18. Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A.; Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2014-11-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.

  19. Charge state hysteresis in semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, C. H.; Rossi, A. Lai, N. S.; Leon, R.; Lim, W. H.; Dzurak, A. S.

    2014-11-03

    Semiconductor quantum dots provide a two-dimensional analogy for real atoms and show promise for the implementation of scalable quantum computers. Here, we investigate the charge configurations in a silicon metal-oxide-semiconductor double quantum dot tunnel coupled to a single reservoir of electrons. By operating the system in the few-electron regime, the stability diagram shows hysteretic tunnelling events that depend on the history of the dots charge occupancy. We present a model which accounts for the observed hysteretic behaviour by extending the established description for transport in double dots coupled to two reservoirs. We demonstrate that this type of device operates like a single-electron memory latch.

  20. A quantum dot in topological insulator nanofilm.

    PubMed

    Herath, Thakshila M; Hewageegana, Prabath; Apalkov, Vadym

    2014-03-19

    We introduce a quantum dot in topological insulator nanofilm as a bump at the surface of the nanofilm. Such a quantum dot can localize an electron if the size of the dot is large enough, ≳5 nm. The quantum dot in topological insulator nanofilm has states of two types, which belong to two ('conduction' and 'valence') bands of the topological insulator nanofilm. We study the energy spectra of such defined quantum dots. We also consider intraband and interband optical transitions within the dot. The optical transitions of the two types have the same selection rules. While the interband absorption spectra have multi-peak structure, each of the intraband spectra has one strong peak and a few weak high frequency satellites. PMID:24590177

  1. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-05-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ~50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging.

  2. Thick-shell nanocrystal quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Hollingsworth, Jennifer A.; Chen, Yongfen; Klimov, Victor I.; Htoon, Han; Vela, Javier

    2011-05-03

    Colloidal nanocrystal quantum dots comprising an inner core having an average diameter of at least 1.5 nm and an outer shell, where said outer shell comprises multiple monolayers, wherein at least 30% of the quantum dots have an on-time fraction of 0.80 or greater under continuous excitation conditions for a period of time of at least 10 minutes.

  3. STED nanoscopy with fluorescent quantum dots

    PubMed Central

    Hanne, Janina; Falk, Henning J.; Görlitz, Frederik; Hoyer, Patrick; Engelhardt, Johann; Sahl, Steffen J.; Hell, Stefan W.

    2015-01-01

    The widely popular class of quantum-dot molecular labels could so far not be utilized as standard fluorescent probes in STED (stimulated emission depletion) nanoscopy. This is because broad quantum-dot excitation spectra extend deeply into the spectral bands used for STED, thus compromising the transient fluorescence silencing required for attaining super-resolution. Here we report the discovery that STED nanoscopy of several red-emitting commercially available quantum dots is in fact successfully realized by the increasingly popular 775 nm STED laser light. A resolution of presently ∼50 nm is demonstrated for single quantum dots, and sub-diffraction resolution is further shown for imaging of quantum-dot-labelled vimentin filaments in fibroblasts. The high quantum-dot photostability enables repeated STED recordings with >1,000 frames. In addition, we have evidence that the tendency of quantum-dot labels to blink is largely suppressed by combined action of excitation and STED beams. Quantum-dot STED significantly expands the realm of application of STED nanoscopy, and, given the high stability of these probes, holds promise for extended time-lapse imaging. PMID:25980788

  4. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    PubMed Central

    Rosenthal, Sandra J.; Chang, Jerry C.; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James R.; Tomlinson, Ian D.

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, sizetunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots. PMID:21276935

  5. Biocompatible Quantum Dots for Biological Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenthal, Sandra; Chang, Jerry; Kovtun, Oleg; McBride, James; Tomlinson, Ian

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are quickly becoming a critical diagnostic tool for discerning cellular function at the molecular level. Their high brightness, long-lasting, size-tunable, and narrow luminescence set them apart from conventional fluorescence dyes. Quantum dots are being developed for a variety of biologically oriented applications, including fluorescent assays for drug discovery, disease detection, single protein tracking, and intracellular reporting. This review introduces the science behind quantum dots and describes how they are made biologically compatible. Several applications are also included, illustrating strategies toward target specificity, and are followed by a discussion on the limitations of quantum dot approaches. The article is concluded with a look at the future direction of quantum dots.

  6. Optophononics with coupled quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Kerfoot, Mark L; Govorov, Alexander O; Czarnocki, Cyprian; Lu, Davis; Gad, Youstina N; Bracker, Allan S; Gammon, Daniel; Scheibner, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Modern technology is founded on the intimate understanding of how to utilize and control electrons. Next to electrons, nature uses phonons, quantized vibrations of an elastic structure, to carry energy, momentum and even information through solids. Phonons permeate the crystalline components of modern technology, yet in terms of technological utilization phonons are far from being on par with electrons. Here we demonstrate how phonons can be employed to render a single quantum dot pair optically transparent. This phonon-induced transparency is realized via the formation of a molecular polaron, the result of a Fano-type quantum interference, which proves that we have accomplished making typically incoherent and dissipative phonons behave in a coherent and non-dissipative manner. We find the transparency to be widely tunable by electronic and optical means. Thereby we show amplification of weakest coupling channels. We further outline the molecular polaron's potential as a control element in phononic circuitry architecture. PMID:24534815

  7. Adding GaAs Monolayers to InAs Quantum-Dot Lasers on (001) InP

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Yueming; Chacon, Rebecca; Uhl, David; Yang, Rui

    2005-01-01

    In a modification of the basic configuration of InAs quantum-dot semiconductor lasers on (001)lnP substrate, a thin layer (typically 1 to 2 monolayer thick) of GaAs is incorporated into the active region. This modification enhances laser performance: In particular, whereas it has been necessary to cool the unmodified devices to temperatures of about 80 K in order to obtain lasing at long wavelengths, the modified devices can lase at wavelengths of about 1.7 microns or more near room temperature. InAs quantum dots self-assemble, as a consequence of the lattice mismatch, during epitaxial deposition of InAs on ln0.53Ga0.47As/lnP. In the unmodified devices, the quantum dots as thus formed are typically nonuniform in size. Strainenergy relaxation in very large quantum dots can lead to poor laser performance, especially at wavelengths near 2 microns, for which large quantum dots are needed. In the modified devices, the thin layers of GaAs added to the active regions constitute potential-energy barriers that electrons can only penetrate by quantum tunneling and thus reduce the hot carrier effects. Also, the insertion of thin GaAs layer is shown to reduce the degree of nonuniformity of sizes of the quantum dots. In the fabrication of a batch of modified InAs quantum-dot lasers, the thin additional layer of GaAs is deposited as an interfacial layer in an InGaAs quantum well on (001) InP substrate. The device as described thus far is sandwiched between InGaAsPy waveguide layers, then further sandwiched between InP cladding layers, then further sandwiched between heavily Zn-doped (p-type) InGaAs contact layer.

  8. High-performance SWIR sensing from colloidal quantum dot photodiode arrays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, Ethan; Lewis, Jay; Gregory, Chris; Cunningham, Garry; Temple, Dorota; D'Souza, Arvind; Robinson, Ernest; Wijewarnasuriya, P. S.; Dhar, Nibir

    2013-09-01

    RTI has demonstrated a novel photodiode technology based on IR-absorbing solution-processed PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQD) that can overcome the high cost, limited spectral response, and challenges in the reduction in pixel size associated with InGaAs focal plane arrays. The most significant advantage of the CQD technology is ease of fabrication. The devices can be fabricated directly onto the ROIC substrate at low temperatures compatible with CMOS, and arrays can be fabricated at wafer scale. Further, device performance is not expected to degrade significantly with reduced pixel size. We present results for upward-looking detectors fabricated on Si substrates with sensitivity from the UV to ~1.7 μm, compare these results to InGaAs detectors, and present measurements of the CQD detectors temperature dependent dark current.

  9. Fluorescent Quantum Dots for Biological Labeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Gene; Nadeau, Jay; Nealson, Kenneth; Storrie-Lomardi, Michael; Bhartia, Rohit

    2003-01-01

    Fluorescent semiconductor quantum dots that can serve as "on/off" labels for bacteria and other living cells are undergoing development. The "on/off" characterization of these quantum dots refers to the fact that, when properly designed and manufactured, they do not fluoresce until and unless they come into contact with viable cells of biological species that one seeks to detect. In comparison with prior fluorescence-based means of detecting biological species, fluorescent quantum dots show promise for greater speed, less complexity, greater sensitivity, and greater selectivity for species of interest. There are numerous potential applications in medicine, environmental monitoring, and detection of bioterrorism.

  10. Magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yuan; Huang, Chuankun; Liao, Tianjun; Chen, Jincan

    2015-12-01

    A new model of refrigerator consisting of a spin-splitting quantum dot coupled with two ferromagnetic reservoirs and a ferromagnetic insulator is proposed. The rate equation is used to calculate the occupation probabilities of the quantum dot. The expressions of the electron and magnon currents are obtained. The region that the system can work in as a refrigerator is determined. The cooling power and coefficient of performance (COP) of the refrigerator are derived. The influences of the magnetic field, applied voltage, and polarization of two leads on the performance are discussed. The performances of two different magnon-driven quantum dot refrigerators are compared.

  11. Quantum dots and prion proteins

    PubMed Central

    Sobrova, Pavlina; Blazkova, Iva; Chomoucka, Jana; Drbohlavova, Jana; Vaculovicova, Marketa; Kopel, Pavel; Hubalek, Jaromir; Kizek, Rene; Adam, Vojtech

    2013-01-01

    A diagnostics of infectious diseases can be done by the immunologic methods or by the amplification of nucleic acid specific to contagious agent using polymerase chain reaction. However, in transmissible spongiform encephalopathies, the infectious agent, prion protein (PrPSc), has the same sequence of nucleic acids as a naturally occurring protein. The other issue with the diagnosing based on the PrPSc detection is that the pathological form of prion protein is abundant only at late stages of the disease in a brain. Therefore, the diagnostics of prion protein caused diseases represent a sort of challenges as that hosts can incubate infectious prion proteins for many months or even years. Therefore, new in vivo assays for detection of prion proteins and for diagnosis of their relation to neurodegenerative diseases are summarized. Their applicability and future prospects in this field are discussed with particular aim at using quantum dots as fluorescent labels. PMID:24055838

  12. Comparison of quantum confinement effects between quantum wires and dots

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jingbo; Wang, Lin-Wang

    2004-03-30

    Dimensionality is an important factor to govern the electronic structures of semiconductor nanocrystals. The quantum confinement energies in one-dimensional quantum wires and zero-dimensional quantum dots are quite different. Using large-scale first-principles calculations, we systematically study the electronic structures of semiconductor (including group IV, III-V, and II-VI) surface-passivated quantum wires and dots. The band-gap energies of quantum wires and dots have the same scaling with diameter for a given material. The ratio of band-gap-increases between quantum wires and dots is material-dependent, and slightly deviates from 0.586 predicted by effective-mass approximation. Highly linear polarization of photoluminescence in quantum wires is found. The degree of polarization decreases with the increasing temperature and size.

  13. Triple quantum dots as charge rectifiers.

    PubMed

    Busl, M; Platero, G

    2012-04-18

    We theoretically analyze electronic spin transport through a triple quantum dot in series, attached to electrical contacts, where the drain contact is coupled to the central dot. We show that current rectification is observed in the device due to current blockade. The current blocking mechanism is originated by a destructive interference of the electronic wavefunction at the drain dot. There, the electrons are coherently trapped in a singlet two-electron dark state, which is a coherent superposition of the electronic wavefunction in the source dot and in the dot isolated from the contacts. Its formation gives rise to zero current and current rectification as the voltage is swept. We analyze this behavior analytically and numerically for both zero and finite magnetic dc fields. On top of that, we include phenomenologically a finite spin relaxation rate and calculate the current numerically. Our results show that triple dots in series can be designed to behave as quantum charge rectifiers. PMID:22442135

  14. Entangled exciton states in quantum dot molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayer, Manfred

    2002-03-01

    Currently there is strong interest in quantum information processing(See, for example, The Physics of Quantum Information, eds. D. Bouwmeester, A. Ekert and A. Zeilinger (Springer, Berlin, 2000).) in a solid state environment. Many approaches mimic atomic physics concepts in which semiconductor quantum dots are implemented as artificial atoms. An essential building block of a quantum processor is a gate which entangles the states of two quantum bits. Recently a pair of vertically aligned quantum dots has been suggested as optically driven quantum gate(P. Hawrylak, S. Fafard, and Z. R. Wasilewski, Cond. Matter News 7, 16 (1999).)(M. Bayer, P. Hawrylak, K. Hinzer, S. Fafard, M. Korkusinski, Z.R. Wasilewski, O. Stern, and A. Forchel, Science 291, 451 (2001).): The quantum bits are individual carriers either on dot zero or dot one. The different dot indices play the same role as a "spin", therefore we call them "isospin". Quantum mechanical tunneling between the dots rotates the isospin and leads to superposition of these states. The quantum gate is built when two different particles, an electron and a hole, are created optically. The two particles form entangled isospin states. Here we present spectrocsopic studies of single self-assembled InAs/GaAs quantum dot molecules that support the feasibility of this proposal. The evolution of the excitonic recombination spectrum with varying separation between the dots allows us to demonstrate coherent tunneling of carriers across the separating barrier and the formation of entangled exciton states: Due to the coupling between the dots the exciton states show a splitting that increases with decreasing barrier width. For barrier widths below 5 nm it exceeds the thermal energy at room temperature. For a given barrier width, we find only small variations of the tunneling induced splitting demonstrating a good homogeneity within a molecule ensemble. The entanglement may be controlled by application of electromagnetic field. For

  15. Theory Of Alkyl Terminated Silicon Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Reboredo, F; Galli, G

    2004-08-19

    We have carried out a series of ab-initio calculations to investigate changes in the optical properties of Si quantum dots as a function of surface passivation. In particular, we have compared hydrogen passivated dots with those having alkyl groups at the surface. We find that, while on clusters with reconstructed surfaces a complete alkyl passivation is possible, steric repulsion prevents full passivation of Si dots with unreconstructed surfaces. In addition, our calculations show that steric repulsion may have a dominant effect in determining the surface structure, and eventually the stability of alkyl passivated clusters, with results dependent on the length of the carbon chain. Alkyl passivation weakly affects optical gaps of silicon quantum dots, while it substantially decreases ionization potentials and electron affinities and affect their excited state properties. On the basis of our results we propose that alkyl terminated quantum dots may be size selected taking advantage of the change in ionization potential as a function of the cluster size.

  16. Single to quadruple quantum dots with tunable tunnel couplings

    SciTech Connect

    Takakura, T.; Noiri, A.; Obata, T.; Yoneda, J.; Yoshida, K.; Otsuka, T.; Tarucha, S.

    2014-03-17

    We prepare a gate-defined quadruple quantum dot to study the gate-tunability of single to quadruple quantum dots with finite inter-dot tunnel couplings. The measured charging energies of various double dots suggest that the dot size is governed by the gate geometry. For the triple and quadruple dots, we study the gate-tunable inter-dot tunnel couplings. For the triple dot, we find that the effective tunnel coupling between side dots significantly depends on the alignment of the center dot potential. These results imply that the present quadruple dot has a gate performance relevant for implementing spin-based four-qubits with controllable exchange couplings.

  17. Quantum Dots Investigated for Solar Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bailey, Sheila G.; Castro, Stephanie L.; Raffaelle, Ryne P.; Hepp, Aloysius F.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center has been investigating the synthesis of quantum dots of CdSe and CuInS2 for use in intermediate-bandgap solar cells. Using quantum dots in a solar cell to create an intermediate band will allow the harvesting of a much larger portion of the available solar spectrum. Theoretical studies predict a potential efficiency of 63.2 percent, which is approximately a factor of 2 better than any state-of-the-art devices available today. This technology is also applicable to thin-film devices--where it offers a potential four-fold increase in power-to-weight ratio over the state of the art. Intermediate-bandgap solar cells require that quantum dots be sandwiched in an intrinsic region between the photovoltaic solar cell's ordinary p- and n-type regions (see the preceding figure). The quantum dots form the intermediate band of discrete states that allow sub-bandgap energies to be absorbed. However, when the current is extracted, it is limited by the bandgap, not the individual photon energies. The energy states of the quantum dot can be controlled by controlling the size of the dot. Ironically, the ground-state energy levels are inversely proportional to the size of the quantum dots. We have prepared a variety of quantum dots using the typical organometallic synthesis routes pioneered by Ba Wendi et al., in the early 1990's. The most studied quantum dots prepared by this method have been of CdSe. To produce these dots, researchers inject a syringe of the desired organometallic precursors into heated triocytlphosphine oxide (TOPO) that has been vigorously stirred under an inert atmosphere (see the following figure). The solution immediately begins to change from colorless to yellow, then orange and red/brown, as the quantum dots increase in size. When the desired size is reached, the heat is removed from the flask. Quantum dots of different sizes can be identified by placing them under a "black light" and observing the various color differences in

  18. Nanomaterials: Earthworms lit with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tilley, Richard D.; Cheong, Soshan

    2013-01-01

    Yeast, bacteria and fungi have been used to synthesize a variety of nanocrystals. Now, the metal detoxification process in the gut of an earthworm is exploited to produce biocompatible cadmium telluride quantum dots.

  19. Submonolayer Quantum Dot Infrared Photodetector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ting, David Z.; Bandara, Sumith V.; Gunapala, Sarath D.; Chang, Yia-Chang

    2010-01-01

    A method has been developed for inserting submonolayer (SML) quantum dots (QDs) or SML QD stacks, instead of conventional Stranski-Krastanov (S-K) QDs, into the active region of intersubband photodetectors. A typical configuration would be InAs SML QDs embedded in thin layers of GaAs, surrounded by AlGaAs barriers. Here, the GaAs and the AlGaAs have nearly the same lattice constant, while InAs has a larger lattice constant. In QD infrared photodetector, the important quantization directions are in the plane perpendicular to the normal incidence radiation. In-plane quantization is what enables the absorption of normal incidence radiation. The height of the S-K QD controls the positions of the quantized energy levels, but is not critically important to the desired normal incidence absorption properties. The SML QD or SML QD stack configurations give more control of the structure grown, retains normal incidence absorption properties, and decreases the strain build-up to allow thicker active layers for higher quantum efficiency.

  20. Indium segregation during III–V quantum wire and quantum dot formation on patterned substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Moroni, Stefano T.; Dimastrodonato, Valeria; Chung, Tung-Hsun; Juska, Gediminas; Gocalinska, Agnieszka; Pelucchi, Emanuele; Vvedensky, Dimitri D.

    2015-04-28

    We report a model for metalorganic vapor-phase epitaxy on non-planar substrates, specifically V-grooves and pyramidal recesses, which we apply to the growth of InGaAs nanostructures. This model—based on a set of coupled reaction-diffusion equations, one for each facet in the system—accounts for the facet-dependence of all kinetic processes (e.g., precursor decomposition, adatom diffusion, and adatom lifetimes) and has been previously applied to account for the temperature-, concentration-, and temporal-dependence of AlGaAs nanostructures on GaAs (111)B surfaces with V-grooves and pyramidal recesses. In the present study, the growth of In{sub 0.12}Ga{sub 0.88}As quantum wires at the bottom of V-grooves is used to determine a set of optimized kinetic parameters. Based on these parameters, we have modeled the growth of In{sub 0.25}Ga{sub 0.75}As nanostructures formed in pyramidal site-controlled quantum-dot systems, successfully producing a qualitative explanation for the temperature-dependence of their optical properties, which have been reported in previous studies. Finally, we present scanning electron and cross-sectional atomic force microscopy images which show previously unreported facetting at the bottom of the pyramidal recesses that allow quantum dot formation.

  1. Renormalization in Periodically Driven Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Eissing, A K; Meden, V; Kennes, D M

    2016-01-15

    We report on strong renormalization encountered in periodically driven interacting quantum dots in the nonadiabatic regime. Correlations between lead and dot electrons enhance or suppress the amplitude of driving depending on the sign of the interaction. Employing a newly developed flexible renormalization-group-based approach for periodic driving to an interacting resonant level we show analytically that the magnitude of this effect follows a power law. Our setup can act as a non-Markovian, single-parameter quantum pump. PMID:26824557

  2. First principle thousand atom quantum dot calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Lin-Wang; Li, Jingbo

    2004-03-30

    A charge patching method and an idealized surface passivation are used to calculate the single electronic states of IV-IV, III-V, II-VI semiconductor quantum dots up to a thousand atoms. This approach scales linearly and has a 1000 fold speed-up compared to direct first principle methods with a cost of eigen energy error of about 20 meV. The calculated quantum dot band gaps are parametrized for future references.

  3. Electron Spin Dynamics in Semiconductor Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Marie, X.; Belhadj, T.; Urbaszek, B.; Amand, T.; Krebs, O.; Lemaitre, A.; Voisin, P.

    2011-07-15

    An electron spin confined to a semiconductor quantum dot is not subject to the classical spin relaxation mechanisms known for free carriers but it strongly interacts with the nuclear spin system via the hyperfine interaction. We show in time resolved photoluminescence spectroscopy experiments on ensembles of self assembled InAs quantum dots in GaAs that this interaction leads to strong electron spin dephasing.

  4. Fast electron spin resonance controlled manipulation of spin injection into quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Merz, Andreas Siller, Jan; Schittny, Robert; Krämmer, Christoph; Kalt, Heinz; Hetterich, Michael

    2014-06-23

    In our spin-injection light-emitting diodes, electrons are spin-polarized in a semimagnetic ZnMnSe spin aligner and then injected into InGaAs quantum dots. The resulting electron spin state can be read out by measuring the circular polarization state of the emitted light. Here, we resonantly excite the Mn 3d electron spin system with microwave pulses and perform time-resolved measurements of the spin dynamics. We find that we are able to control the spin polarization of the injected electrons on a microsecond timescale. This electron spin resonance induced spin control could be one of the ingredients required to utilize the quantum dot electrons or the Mn spins as qubits.

  5. Model for the light-induced magnetization in singly charged quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henriques, A. B.; Cordeiro, R. C.; Koenraad, P. M.; Otten, F. W. M.; Bayer, M.

    2015-02-01

    Magnetization is induced in an ensemble of quantum dots, each charged with a single electron, when it is illuminated with a short circularly polarized light pulse that is resonant with the fundamental energy gap of the quantum dots. In this investigation, a quantum-mechanical model for the light-induced magnetization is presented. The phase of the magnetization precession as a function of the strength of the magnetic field in a Voigt geometry is in excellent agreement with experimental data measured on (In,Ga)As singly charged quantum dot ensembles. It is demonstrated that the precession of the hole in the trion plays a vital role because it determines the amplitude and phase of the magnetization precession. The model could also be easily extended to describe positively charged quantum dots. We also suggest that our theory, combined with measurements of the phase as a function of magnetic field, can be used as a technique to measure the resonant trion lifetime as a function of QD emission energy.

  6. Quantum Dots in Gated Nanowires and Nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Churchill, Hugh Olen Hill

    This thesis describes experiments on quantum dots made by locally gating one-dimensional quantum wires. The first experiment studies a double quantum dot device formed in a Ge/Si core/shell nanowire. In addition to measuring transport through the double dot, we detect changes in the charge occupancy of the double dot by capacitively coupling it to a third quantum dot on a separate nanowire using a floating gate. We demonstrate tunable tunnel coupling of the double dot and quantify the strength of the tunneling using the charge sensor. The second set of experiments concerns carbon nanotube double quantum dots. In the first nanotube experiment, spin-dependent transport through the double dot is compared in two sets of devices. The first set is made with carbon containing the natural abundance of 12C (99%) and 13C (1%), the second set with the 99% 13C and 1% 12C. In the devices with predominantly 13C, we find evidence in spin-dependent transport of the interaction between the electron spins and the 13C nuclear spins that was much stronger than expected and not present in the 12C devices. In the second nanotube experiment, pulsed gate experiments are used to measure the timescales of spin relaxation and dephasing in a two-electron double quantum dot. The relaxation time is longest at zero magnetic field and goes through a minimum at higher field, consistent with the spin-orbit-modified electronic spectrum of carbon nanotubes. We measure a short dephasing time consistent with the anomalously strong electron-nuclear interaction inferred from the first nanotube experiment.

  7. Optimal control strategies for coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Räsänen, Esa; Putaja, Antti; Mardoukhi, Yousof

    2013-09-01

    Semiconductor quantum dots are ideal candidates for quantum information applications in solid-state technology. However, advanced theoretical and experimental tools are required to coherently control, for example, the electronic charge in these systems. Here we demonstrate how quantum optimal control theory provides a powerful way to manipulate the electronic structure of coupled quantum dots with an extremely high fidelity. As alternative control fields we apply both laser pulses as well as electric gates, respectively. We focus on double and triple quantum dots containing a single electron or two electrons interacting via Coulomb repulsion. In the two-electron situation we also briefly demonstrate the challenges of timedependent density-functional theory within the adiabatic local-density approximation to produce comparable results with the numerically exact approach.

  8. Quantum phase transition in trigonal triple quantum dots: The case of quantum dots deviated from particle-hole symmetric point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Song-Hyok; Kang, Chol-Jin; Kim, Yon-Il; Kim, Kwang-Hyon

    2015-05-01

    We consider a triple quantum dot system in a triangular geometry with one of the dots connected to metallic leads. We investigate quantum phase transition between local moment phase and Kondo screened strong coupling phase in triple quantum dots where energy levels of dots are deviated from the particle-hole symmetric point. The effect of on-site energy of dots on quantum phase transition between local moment phase and Kondo screened strong coupling phase in triple quantum dots is studied based on the analytical arguments and the numerical renormalization group method. The results show that the critical value of tunnel coupling between side dots decreases when the energy level of embedded dot rises up from the symmetric point to the Fermi level and the critical value increases when the energy levels of two side dots rise up. The study of the influence of on-site-energy changes on the quantum phase transitions in triple quantum dots has the importance for clarifying the mechanism of Kondo screening in triple quantum dots where energy levels of dots are deviated from the particle-hole symmetric point.

  9. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-07-16

    Heteroepitaxy-atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate-is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned 'dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics. PMID:26178963

  10. Quantum-dot-in-perovskite solids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Zhijun; Gong, Xiwen; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Fan, Fengjia; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Yassitepe, Emre; Buin, Andrei; Hoogland, Sjoerd; Sargent, Edward H.

    2015-07-01

    Heteroepitaxy--atomically aligned growth of a crystalline film atop a different crystalline substrate--is the basis of electrically driven lasers, multijunction solar cells, and blue-light-emitting diodes. Crystalline coherence is preserved even when atomic identity is modulated, a fact that is the critical enabler of quantum wells, wires, and dots. The interfacial quality achieved as a result of heteroepitaxial growth allows new combinations of materials with complementary properties, which enables the design and realization of functionalities that are not available in the single-phase constituents. Here we show that organohalide perovskites and preformed colloidal quantum dots, combined in the solution phase, produce epitaxially aligned `dots-in-a-matrix' crystals. Using transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction, we reveal heterocrystals as large as about 60 nanometres and containing at least 20 mutually aligned dots that inherit the crystalline orientation of the perovskite matrix. The heterocrystals exhibit remarkable optoelectronic properties that are traceable to their atom-scale crystalline coherence: photoelectrons and holes generated in the larger-bandgap perovskites are transferred with 80% efficiency to become excitons in the quantum dot nanocrystals, which exploit the excellent photocarrier diffusion of perovskites to produce bright-light emission from infrared-bandgap quantum-tuned materials. By combining the electrical transport properties of the perovskite matrix with the high radiative efficiency of the quantum dots, we engineer a new platform to advance solution-processed infrared optoelectronics.

  11. Luminescent Quantum Dots as Ultrasensitive Biological Labels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nie, Shuming

    2000-03-01

    Highly luminescent semiconductor quantum dots have been covalently coupled to biological molecules for use in ultrasensitive biological detection. This new class of luminescent labels is considerably brighter and more resistant againt photobleaching in comparison with organic dyes. Quantum dots labeled with the protein transferrin undergo receptor-mediated endocytosis (RME) in cultured HeLa cells, and those dots that were conjugated to immunomolecules recognize specific antibodies or antigens. In addition, we show that DNA functionalized quantum dots can be used to target specific genes by hybridization. We expect that quantum dot bioconjugates will have a broad range of biological applications, such as ligand-receptor interactions, real-time monitoring of molecular trafficking inside living cells, multicolor fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH), high-sensitivity detection in miniaturized devices (e.g., DNA chips), and fluorescent tagging of combinatorial chemical libraries. A potential clinical application is the use of quantum dots for ultrasensitive viral RNA detection, in which as low as 100 copies of hepatitis C and HIV viruses per ml blood should be detected.

  12. Spectroscopy characterization and quantum yield determination of quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras Ortiz, S. N.; Mejía Ospino, E.; Cabanzo, R.

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we show the characterization of two kinds of quantum dots: hydrophilic and hydrophobic, with core and core/shell respectively, using spectroscopy techniques such as UV-Vis, fluorescence and Raman. We determined the quantum yield in the quantum dots using the quinine sulphate as standard. This salt is commonly used because of its quantum yield (56%) and stability. For the CdTe excitation, we used a wavelength of 549nm and for the CdSe/ZnS excitation a wavelength of 527nm. The results show that CdSe/ZnS (49%) has better fluorescence, better quantum dots, and confirm the fluorescence result. The quantum dots have shown a good fluorescence performance, so this property will be used to replace dyes, with the advantage that quantum dots are less toxic than some dyes like the rhodamine. In addition, in this work we show different techniques to find the quantum dots emission: fluorescence spectrum, synchronous spectrum and Raman spectrum.

  13. (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dot structures

    SciTech Connect

    Bouravleuv, Alexei; Sapega, Victor; Nevedomskii, Vladimir; Khrebtov, Artem; Samsonenko, Yuriy; Cirlin, George

    2014-12-08

    (In,Mn)As multilayer quantum dots structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy using a Mn selective doping of the central parts of quantum dots. The study of the structural and magneto-optical properties of the samples with three and five layers of (In,Mn)As quantum dots has shown that during the quantum dots assembly, the out-diffusion of Mn from the layers with (In,Mn)As quantum dots can occur resulting in the formation of the extended defects. To produce a high quality structures using the elaborated technique of selective doping, the number of (In,Mn)As quantum dot layers should not exceed three.

  14. Electrical and Optical Gain Lever Effects in InGaAs Double Quantum Well Diode Lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pocha, M D; Goddard, L L; Bond, T C; Nikolic, R J; Vernon, S P; Kallman, J S; Behymer, E M

    2007-01-03

    In multisection laser diodes, the amplitude or frequency modulation (AM or FM) efficiency can be improved using the gain lever effect. To study gain lever, InGaAs double quantum well (DQW) edge emitting lasers have been fabricated with integrated passive waveguides and dual sections providing a range of split ratios from 1:1 to 9:1. Both the electrical and the optical gain lever have been examined. An electrical gain lever with greater than 7 dB enhancement of AM efficiency was achieved within the range of appropriate DC biasing currents, but this gain dropped rapidly outside this range. We observed a 4 dB gain in the optical AM efficiency under non-ideal biasing conditions. This value agreed with the measured gain for the electrical AM efficiency under similar conditions. We also examined the gain lever effect under large signal modulation for digital logic switching applications. To get a useful gain lever for optical gain quenched logic, a long control section is needed to preserve the gain lever strength and a long interaction length between the input optical signal and the lasing field of the diode must be provided. The gain lever parameter space has been fully characterized and validated against numerical simulations of a semi-3D hybrid beam propagation method (BPM) model for the coupled electron-photon rate equation. We find that the optical gain lever can be treated using the electrical injection model, once the absorption in the sample is known.

  15. Quantum optics with quantum dots. Towards semiconductor sources of quantum light for quantum information processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beveratos, Alexios; Abram, Izo; Gérard, Jean-Michel; Robert-Philip, Isabelle

    2014-12-01

    For the past fifteen years, single semiconductor quantum dots, often referred to as solid-state artificial atoms, have been at the forefront of various research direction lines for experimental quantum information science, in particular in the development of practical sources of quantum states of light. Here we review the research to date, on the tailoring of the emission properties from single quantum dots producing single photons, indistinguishable single photons and entangled photon pairs. Finally, the progress and future prospects for applications of single dots in quantum information processing is considered.

  16. Optical properties of charged semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jha, Praket P.

    The effect of n-type doping on the luminescence properties of II-VI quantum dots is studied. The addition of two shells of CdS on CdSe quantum dots prevents the creation of surface traps and makes the system stable under reducing environment. The injection of electrons into films of quantum dots leads to lower photoluminescence (PL) efficiency, with the extent of quenching dependent on both the number and the quantum states of the spectator charges in the nanocrystal. It is found that a 1Pe electron is an eightfold better PL quencher than the 1Se electron. Reduced threshold for stimulated emission is also observed in doped CdSe/CdS films. Time resolved photoluminescence measurements are used to extract the recombination rates of a charged exciton, called trion. It is observed that the negative trion has a radiative rate ˜2.2 +/- 0.4x faster than a neutral exciton, while its non-radiative recombination rate is slower than the biexciton non-radiative recombination rate by a factor of 7.5 +/- 1.7. The knowledge of the recombination rates of the trion enables us to calculate the quantum yield of a negative trion to be ˜10% for the nanocrystals investigated in our work. This is larger than the off state quantum yield from a single quantum dot photoluminescence trajectory and eliminates the formation of negative trion as the possible reason for the PL blinking of single quantum dots. Single quantum dot electrochemistry has also been achieved. It is shown that by varying the Fermi level of the system electrons can be reversibly injected into and extracted out of single CdSe/CdS and CdSe/ZnS nanoparticles to modulate the photoluminescence.

  17. Optically controlled spins in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Economou, Sophia

    2010-03-01

    Spins in charged semiconductor quantum dots are currently generating much interest, both from a fundamental physics standpoint, as well as for their potential technological relevance. Being naturally a two-level quantum system, each of these spins can encode a bit of quantum information. Optically controlled spins in quantum dots possess several desirable properties: their spin coherence times are long, they allow for all-optical manipulation---which translates into fast logic gates---and their coupling to photons offers a straightforward route to exchange of quantum information between spatially separated sites. Designing the laser fields to achieve the unprecedented amount of control required for quantum information tasks is a challenging goal, towards which there has been recent progress. Special properties of hyperbolic secant optical pulses enabled the design of single qubit rotations, initially developed about the growth axis z [1], and later about an arbitrary direction [2]. Recently we demonstrated our theoretical proposal [1] in an ensemble of InAs/GaAs quantum dots by implementing ultrafast rotations about the z axis by an arbitrary angle [3], with the angle of rotation as a function of the optical detuning in excellent agreement with the theoretical prediction. We also developed two-qubit conditional control in a quantum dot `molecule' using the electron-hole exchange interaction [4]. In addition to its importance in quantum dot-based quantum computation, our two-qubit gate can also play an important role in photonic cluster state generation for measurement-based quantum computing [5]. [1] S. E. Economou, L. J. Sham, Y. Wu, D. S. Steel, Phys. Rev. 74, 205415 (2006) [2] S. E. Economou and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. Lett., 99, 217401 (2007) [3] A. Greilich, S. E. Economou et al, Nature Phys. 5, 262 (2009) [4] S. E. Economou and T. L. Reinecke, Phys. Rev. B, 78, 115306 (2008) [5] S. E. Economou, N. H. Lindner, and T. Rudolph, in preparation

  18. Quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers: comparison to quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Michael, Stephan; Chow, Weng W.; Schneider, Hans Christian

    2016-03-01

    We review a microscopic laser theory for quantum dots as active material for quantum cascade lasers, in which carrier collisions are treated at the level of quantum kinetic equations. The computed characteristics of such a quantum-dot active material are compared to a state-of-the-art quantum-well quantum cascade laser. We find that the current requirement to achieve a comparable gain-length product is reduced compared to that of the quantum-well quantum cascade laser.

  19. Origins and optimization of entanglement in plasmonically coupled quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otten, Matthew; Larson, Jeffrey; Min, Misun; Wild, Stefan M.; Pelton, Matthew; Gray, Stephen K.

    2016-08-01

    A system of two or more quantum dots interacting with a dissipative plasmonic nanostructure is investigated in detail by using a cavity quantum electrodynamics approach with a model Hamiltonian. We focus on determining and understanding system configurations that generate multiple bipartite quantum entanglements between the occupation states of the quantum dots. These configurations include allowing for the quantum dots to be asymmetrically coupled to the plasmonic system. Analytical solution of a simplified limit for an arbitrary number of quantum dots and numerical simulations and optimization for the two- and three-dot cases are used to develop guidelines for maximizing the bipartite entanglements. For any number of quantum dots, we show that through simple starting states and parameter guidelines, one quantum dot can be made to share a strong amount of bipartite entanglement with all other quantum dots in the system, while entangling all other pairs to a lesser degree.

  20. Dot-in-Well Quantum-Dot Infrared Photodetectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gunapala, Sarath; Bandara, Sumith; Ting, David; Hill, cory; Liu, John; Mumolo, Jason; Chang, Yia Chung

    2008-01-01

    Dot-in-well (DWELL) quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) [DWELL-QDIPs] are subjects of research as potentially superior alternatives to prior QDIPs. Heretofore, there has not existed a reliable method for fabricating quantum dots (QDs) having precise, repeatable dimensions. This lack has constituted an obstacle to the development of uniform, high-performance, wavelength-tailorable QDIPs and of focal-plane arrays (FPAs) of such QDIPs. However, techniques for fabricating quantum-well infrared photodetectors (QWIPs) having multiple-quantum- well (MQW) structures are now well established. In the present research on DWELL-QDIPs, the arts of fabrication of QDs and QWIPs are combined with a view toward overcoming the deficiencies of prior QDIPs. The longer-term goal is to develop focal-plane arrays of radiationhard, highly uniform arrays of QDIPs that would exhibit high performance at wavelengths from 8 to 15 m when operated at temperatures between 150 and 200 K. Increasing quantum efficiency is the key to the development of competitive QDIP-based FPAs. Quantum efficiency can be increased by increasing the density of QDs and by enhancing infrared absorption in QD-containing material. QDIPs demonstrated thus far have consisted, variously, of InAs islands on GaAs or InAs islands in InGaAs/GaAs wells. These QDIPs have exhibited low quantum efficiencies because the numbers of QD layers (and, hence, the areal densities of QDs) have been small typically five layers in each QDIP. The number of QD layers in such a device must be thus limited to prevent the aggregation of strain in the InAs/InGaAs/GaAs non-lattice- matched material system. The approach being followed in the DWELL-QDIP research is to embed In- GaAs QDs in GaAs/AlGaAs multi-quantum- well (MQW) structures (see figure). This material system can accommodate a large number of QD layers without excessive lattice-mismatch strain and the associated degradation of photodetection properties. Hence, this material

  1. Quantum efficiency of a double quantum dot microwave photon detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wong, Clement; Vavilov, Maxim

    Motivated by recent interest in implementing circuit quantum electrodynamics with semiconducting quantum dots, we study charge transfer through a double quantum dot (DQD) capacitively coupled to a superconducting cavity subject to a microwave field. We analyze the DQD current response using input-output theory and determine the optimal parameter regime for complete absorption of radiation and efficient conversion of microwave photons to electric current. For experimentally available DQD systems, we show that the cavity-coupled DQD operates as a photon-to-charge converter with quantum efficiencies up to 80% C.W. acknowledges support by the Intelligence Community Postdoctoral Research Fellowship Program.

  2. Surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition

    DOEpatents

    Sykora, Milan; Koposov, Alexey; Fuke, Nobuhiro

    2015-02-03

    Provided are methods of surface treatment of nanocrystal quantum dots after film deposition so as to exchange the native ligands of the quantum dots for exchange ligands that result in improvement in charge extraction from the nanocrystals.

  3. Scalable quantum computer architecture with coupled donor-quantum dot qubits

    DOEpatents

    Schenkel, Thomas; Lo, Cheuk Chi; Weis, Christoph; Lyon, Stephen; Tyryshkin, Alexei; Bokor, Jeffrey

    2014-08-26

    A quantum bit computing architecture includes a plurality of single spin memory donor atoms embedded in a semiconductor layer, a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, wherein a first voltage applied across at least one pair of the aligned quantum dot and donor atom controls a donor-quantum dot coupling. A method of performing quantum computing in a scalable architecture quantum computing apparatus includes arranging a pattern of single spin memory donor atoms in a semiconductor layer, forming a plurality of quantum dots arranged with the semiconductor layer and aligned with the donor atoms, applying a first voltage across at least one aligned pair of a quantum dot and donor atom to control a donor-quantum dot coupling, and applying a second voltage between one or more quantum dots to control a Heisenberg exchange J coupling between quantum dots and to cause transport of a single spin polarized electron between quantum dots.

  4. Electrical control of quantum dot spin qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laird, Edward Alexander

    This thesis presents experiments exploring the interactions of electron spins with electric fields in devices of up to four quantum dots. These experiments are particularly motivated by the prospect of using electric fields to control spin qubits. A novel hyperfine effect on a single spin in a quantum dot is presented in Chapter 2. Fluctuations of the nuclear polarization allow single-spin resonance to be driven by an oscillating electric field. Spin resonance spectroscopy revealed a nuclear polarization built up inside the quantum dot device by driving the resonance. The evolution of two coupled spins is controlled by the combination of hyperfine interaction, which tends to cause spin dephasing, and exchange, which tends to prevent it. In Chapter 3, dephasing is studied in a device with tunable exchange, probing the crossover between exchange-dominated and hyperfine-dominated regimes. In agreement with theoretical predictions, oscillations of the spin conversion probability and saturation of dephasing are observed. Chapter 4 deals with a three-dot device, suggested as a potential qubit controlled entirely by exchange. Preparation and readout of the qubit state are demonstrated, together with one out of two coherent exchange operations needed for arbitrary manipulations. A new readout technique allowing rapid device measurement is described. In Chapter 5, an attempt to make a two-qubit gate using a four-dot device is presented. Although spin qubit operation has not yet been possible, the electrostatic interaction between pairs of dots was measured to be sufficient in principle for coherent qubit coupling.

  5. Nonvolatile Quantum Dot Gate Memory (NVQDM): Tunneling Rate from Quantum Well Channel to Quantum Dot Gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasaneen, El-Sayed; Heller, Evan; Bansal, Rajeev; Jain, Faquir

    2003-10-01

    In this paper, we compute the tunneling of electrons in a nonvolatile quantum dot memory (NVQDM) cell during the WRITE operation. The transition rate of electrons from a quantum well channel to the quantum dots forming the floating gate is calculated using a recently reported method by Chuang et al.[1]. Tunneling current is computed based on transport of electrons from the channel to the floating quantum dots. The maximum number of electrons on a dot is calculated using surface electric field and break down voltage of the tunneling dielectric material. Comparison of tunneling for silicon oxide and high-k dielectric gate insulators is also described. Capacitance-Voltage characteristics of a NVQDM device are calculated by solving the Schrodinger and Poisson equations self-consistently. In addition, the READ operation of the memory has been investigated analytically. Results for 70 nm channel length Si NVQDMs are presented. Threshold voltage is calculated including the effect of the charge on nanocrystal quantum dots. Current-voltage characteristics are obtained using BSIM3v3 model [2-3]. This work is supported by Office of Navel Research (N00014210883, Dr. D. Purdy, Program Monitor), Connecticut Innovations Inc./TranSwitch (CII # 00Y17), and National Science Foundation (CCR-0210428) grants. [1] S. L. Chuang and N. Holonyak, Appl. Phys. Lett., 80, pp. 1270, 2002. [2] Y. Chen et. al., BSIM3v3 Manual, Elect. Eng. and Comp. Dept., U. California, Berkeley, CA, 1996. [3] W. Liu, MOSFET Models for SPICE Simulation, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2001.

  6. Controlled Population Transfer in a Double Quantum Dot System

    SciTech Connect

    Fountoulakis, Antonios; Terzis, Andreas F.; Paspalakis, Emmanuel

    2007-12-26

    We study the potential for controlled population transfer between the ground states of two anharmonic coupled quantum dots. We propose a method based on the interaction of the quantum dot structure with external electromagnetic fields. The interaction of the quantum dot system with the electromagnetic fields is studied with the use of the time-dependent Schroedinger equation. We present numerical results for an asymmetric quantum dot structure.

  7. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit.

    PubMed

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G; Kiselev, Andrey A; Fong, Bryan H; Holabird, Kevin S; Hazard, Thomas M; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E; Ross, Richard S; Gyure, Mark F; Hunter, Andrew T

    2015-05-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking. PMID:26601186

  8. Isotopically enhanced triple-quantum-dot qubit

    PubMed Central

    Eng, Kevin; Ladd, Thaddeus D.; Smith, Aaron; Borselli, Matthew G.; Kiselev, Andrey A.; Fong, Bryan H.; Holabird, Kevin S.; Hazard, Thomas M.; Huang, Biqin; Deelman, Peter W.; Milosavljevic, Ivan; Schmitz, Adele E.; Ross, Richard S.; Gyure, Mark F.; Hunter, Andrew T.

    2015-01-01

    Like modern microprocessors today, future processors of quantum information may be implemented using all-electrical control of silicon-based devices. A semiconductor spin qubit may be controlled without the use of magnetic fields by using three electrons in three tunnel-coupled quantum dots. Triple dots have previously been implemented in GaAs, but this material suffers from intrinsic nuclear magnetic noise. Reduction of this noise is possible by fabricating devices using isotopically purified silicon. We demonstrate universal coherent control of a triple-quantum-dot qubit implemented in an isotopically enhanced Si/SiGe heterostructure. Composite pulses are used to implement spin-echo type sequences, and differential charge sensing enables single-shot state readout. These experiments demonstrate sufficient control with sufficiently low noise to enable the long pulse sequences required for exchange-only two-qubit logic and randomized benchmarking. PMID:26601186

  9. Laser spectroscopy of individual quantum dots charged with a single hole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerardot, B. D.; Barbour, R. J.; Brunner, D.; Dalgarno, P. A.; Badolato, A.; Stoltz, N.; Petroff, P. M.; Houel, J.; Warburton, R. J.

    2011-12-01

    We characterize the positively charged exciton (X1+) in single InGaAs quantum dots using resonant laser spectroscopy. Three samples with different dopant species (Be or C as acceptors, Si as a donor) are compared. The p-doped samples exhibit larger inhomogeneous broadening (×3) and smaller absorption contrast (×10) than the n-doped sample. For X1+ in the Be-doped sample, a dot dependent non-linear Fano effect is observed, demonstrating coupling to degenerate continuum states. However, for the C-doped sample, the X1+ lineshape and saturation broadening follows isolated atomic transition behaviour. This C-doped device structure is useful for single hole spin initialization, manipulation, and measurement.

  10. Growth-interruption-induced low-density InAs quantum dots on GaAs

    SciTech Connect

    Li, L. H.; Alloing, B.; Chauvin, N.; Fiore, A.; Patriarche, G.

    2008-10-15

    We investigate the use of growth interruption to obtain low-density InAs quantum dots (QDs) on GaAs. The process was realized by Ostwald-type ripening of a thin InAs layer. It was found that the optical properties of the QDs as a function of growth interruption strongly depend on InAs growth rate. By using this approach, a low density of QDs (4 dots/{mu}m{sup 2}) with uniform size distribution was achieved. As compared to QDs grown without growth interruption, a larger energy separation between the QD confined levels was observed, suggesting a situation closer to the ideal zero-dimensional system. Combining with an InGaAs capping layer such as In-rich QDs enable 1.3 {mu}m emission at 4 K.

  11. Engineering of 3D self-directed quantum dot ordering in multilayer InGaAs/GaAs nanostructures by means of flux gas composition.

    PubMed

    Lytvyn, P M; Mazur, Yu I; Marega, E; Dorogan, V G; Kladko, V P; Slobodian, M V; Strelchuk, V V; Hussein, M L; Ware, M E; Salamo, G J

    2008-12-17

    Lateral ordering of InGaAs quantum dots on the GaAs (001) surface has been achieved in earlier reports, resembling an anisotropic pattern. In this work, we present a method of breaking the anisotropy of ordered quantum dots (QDs) by changing the growth environment. We show experimentally that using As(2) molecules instead of As(4) as a background flux is efficient in controlling the diffusion of distant Ga adatoms to make it possible to produce isotropic ordering of InGaAs QDs over GaAs (001). The control of the lateral ordering of QDs under As(2) flux has enabled us to improve their optical properties. Our results are consistent with reported experimental and theoretical data for structure and diffusion on the GaAs surface. PMID:19942777

  12. Bilayer graphene quantum dot defined by topgates

    SciTech Connect

    Müller, André; Kaestner, Bernd; Hohls, Frank; Weimann, Thomas; Pierz, Klaus; Schumacher, Hans W.

    2014-06-21

    We investigate the application of nanoscale topgates on exfoliated bilayer graphene to define quantum dot devices. At temperatures below 500 mK, the conductance underneath the grounded gates is suppressed, which we attribute to nearest neighbour hopping and strain-induced piezoelectric fields. The gate-layout can thus be used to define resistive regions by tuning into the corresponding temperature range. We use this method to define a quantum dot structure in bilayer graphene showing Coulomb blockade oscillations consistent with the gate layout.

  13. Kondo effect in triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Žitko, R.; Bonča, J.; Ramšak, A.; Rejec, T.

    2006-04-01

    Numerical analysis of the simplest odd-numbered system of coupled quantum dots reveals an interplay between magnetic ordering, charge fluctuations, and the tendency of itinerant electrons in the leads to screen magnetic moments. The transition from local-moment to molecular-orbital behavior is visible in the evolution of correlation functions as the interdot coupling is increased. Resulting Kondo phases are presented in a phase diagram which can be sampled by measuring the zero-bias conductance. We discuss the origin of the even-odd effects by comparing with the double quantum dot.

  14. Ambipolar quantum dots in intrinsic silicon

    SciTech Connect

    Betz, A. C. Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.; Podd, G.; Ferguson, A. J.

    2014-10-13

    We electrically measure intrinsic silicon quantum dots with electrostatically defined tunnel barriers. The presence of both p- and n-type ohmic contacts enables the accumulation of either electrons or holes. Thus, we are able to study both transport regimes within the same device. We investigate the effect of the tunnel barriers and the electrostatically defined quantum dots. There is greater localisation of charge states under the tunnel barriers in the case of hole conduction, leading to higher charge noise in the p-type regime.

  15. Electro-optical switching between polariton and cavity lasing in an InGaAs quantum well microcavity.

    PubMed

    Amthor, Matthias; Weißenseel, Sebastian; Fischer, Julian; Kamp, Martin; Schneider, Christian; Höfling, Sven

    2014-12-15

    We report on the condensation of microcavity exciton polaritons under optical excitation in a microcavity with four embedded InGaAs quantum wells. The polariton laser is characterized by a distinct non-linearity in the input-output-characteristics, which is accompanied by a drop of the emission linewidth indicating temporal coherence and a characteristic persisting emission blueshift with increased particle density. The temporal coherence of the device at threshold is underlined by a characteristic drop of the second order coherence function to a value close to 1. Furthermore an external electric field is used to switch between polariton regime, polariton condensate and photon lasing. PMID:25607064

  16. Quantum dot nanostructures for multi-band infrared detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perera, A. G. U.; Ariyawansa, G.; Huang, G.; Bhattacharya, P.

    2009-11-01

    A dual-band (two-color) tunneling-quantum dot infrared photodetector (T-QDIP) structure, which provides wavelength selectivity using bias voltage polarity, is reported. In this T-QDIP, photoexcitation takes place in InGaAs QDs and the excited carriers tunnel through an AlGaAs/InGaAs/AlGaAs double-barrier by means of resonant tunneling when the bias voltage required to line up the QD excited state and the double-barrier state is applied. Two double-barriers incorporated on the top and bottom sides of the QDs provide tunneling conditions for the second and the first excited state in the QDs (one double-barrier for each QD excited state) under forward and reverse bias, respectively. This field dependent tunneling for excited carriers in the T-QDIP is the basis for the operating wavelength selection. Experimental results showed that the T-QDIP exhibits three response peaks at ˜4.5 (or 4.9), 9.5, and 16.9 μm and selection of either the 9.5 or the 16.9 μm peak is obtained by the bias polarity. The peak detectivity (at 9.5 and 16.9 μm) of this detector is in the range of 1.0-6.0 × 10 12 Jones at 50 K. This detector does not provide a zero spectral crosstalk due to the peak at 4.5 μm not being bias-selectable. To overcome this, a quantum dot super-lattice infrared photodetector (SL-QDIP), which provides complete bias-selectability of the response peaks, is presented. The active region consists of two quantum dot super-lattices separated by a graded barrier, enabling photocurrent generation only in one super-lattice for a given bias polarity. According to theoretical predictions, a combined response due to three peaks at 2.9, 3.7, and 4.2 μm is expected for reverse bias, while a combined response of three peaks at 5.1, 7.8, and 10.5 μm is expected for forward bias.

  17. Quantum Optical Signature of Plasmonically Coupled Nanocrystal Quantum Dots.

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Karan, Niladri S; Nguyen, Hue Minh; Mangum, Benjamin D; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Sheehan, Chris J; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Htoon, Han

    2015-10-01

    Small clusters of two to three silica-coated nanocrystals coupled to plasmonic gap-bar antennas can exhibit photon antibunching, a characteristic of single quantum emitters. Through a detailed analysis of their photoluminescence emissions characteristics, it is shown that the observed photon antibunching is the evidence of coupled quantum dot formation resulting from the plasmonic enhancement of dipole-dipole interaction. PMID:26140499

  18. Metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy-grown ultra-low density InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots exhibiting cascaded single-photon emission at 1.3 μm

    SciTech Connect

    Paul, Matthias Kettler, Jan; Zeuner, Katharina; Clausen, Caterina; Jetter, Michael; Michler, Peter

    2015-03-23

    By metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy, we have fabricated InGaAs quantum dots on GaAs substrate with an ultra-low lateral density (<10{sup 7} cm{sup −2}). The photoluminescence emission from the quantum dots is shifted to the telecom O-band at 1.31 μm by an InGaAs strain reducing layer. In time-resolved measurements, we find fast decay times for exciton (∼600 ps) and biexciton (∼300 ps). We demonstrate triggered single-photon emission (g{sup (2)}(0)=0.08) as well as cascaded emission from the biexciton decay. Our results suggest that these quantum dots can compete with their counterparts grown by state-of-the-art molecular beam epitaxy.

  19. Cavity quantum electrodynamics with carbon nanotube quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontos, Takis

    Cavity quantum electrodynamics techniques have turned out to be instrumental to probe or manipulate the electronic states of nanoscale circuits. Recently, cavity QED architectures have been extended to quantum dot circuits. These circuits are appealing since other degrees of freedom than the traditional ones (e.g. those of superconducting circuits) can be investigated. I will show how one can use carbon nanotube based quantum dots in that context. In particular, I will focus on the coherent coupling of a single spin or non-local Cooper pairs to cavity photons. Quantum dots also exhibit a wide variety of many body phenomena. The cQED architecture could also be instrumental for understanding them. One of the most paradigmatic phenomenon is the Kondo effect which is at the heart of many electron correlation effects. I will show that a cQED architecture has allowed us to observe the decoupling of spin and charge excitations in a Kondo system.

  20. Formation and ordering of epitaxial quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atkinson, Paola; Schmidt, Oliver G.; Bremner, Stephen P.; Ritchie, David A.

    2008-10-01

    Single quantum dots (QDs) have great potential as building blocks for quantum information processing devices. However, one of the major difficulties in the fabrication of such devices is the placement of a single dot at a pre-determined position in the device structure, for example, in the centre of a photonic cavity. In this article we review some recent investigations in the site-controlled growth of InAs QDs on GaAs by molecular beam epitaxy. The method we use is ex-situ patterning of the GaAs substrate by electron beam lithography and conventional wet or dry etching techniques to form shallow pits in the surface which then determine the nucleation site of an InAs dot. This method is easily scalable and can be incorporated with marker structures to enable simple post-growth lithographic alignment of devices to each site-controlled dot. We demonstrate good site-control for arrays with up to 10 micron spacing between patterned sites, with no dots nucleating between the sites. We discuss the mechanism and the effect of pattern size, InAs deposition amount and growth conditions on this site-control method. Finally we discuss the photoluminescence from these dots and highlight the remaining challenges for this technique. To cite this article: P. Atkinson et al., C. R. Physique 9 (2008).

  1. Demonstration of a two-color 320×256 quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varley, Eric S.; Ramirez, David A.; Brown, Jay S.; Lee, Sang Jun; Stintz, Andreas; Lenz, Michael; Krishna, Sanjay; Reisinger, Axel; Sundaram, Mani

    2007-09-01

    In our research group, we develop novel dots-in-a-well (DWELL) photodetectors that are a hybrid of the quantum dot infrared photodetector (QDIP). The DWELL detector consists of an active region composed of InAs quantum dots embedded in InGaAs quantum wells. By adjusting the InGaAs well thickness, our structure allows for the manipulation of the operating wavelength and the nature of the transitions (bound-to-bound, bound-to-quasibound and bound-to-continuum) of the detector. Based on these principles, DWELL samples were grown using molecular beam epitaxy and fabricated into 320 x 256 focal plane arrays (FPAs) with Indium bumps using standard lithography at the University of New Mexico. The FPA evaluated was hybridized to an Indigo 9705 readout integrated circuit (ROIC) in collaboration with QmagiQ LLC and tested with a CamIRa TM system manufactured by SE-IR Corp. From this evaluation, we report the first two-color, co-located quantum dot based imaging system that can be used to take multicolor images using a single FPA. We demonstrated that we can operate the device at an intermediate bias (V b=-1.25 V) and obtain two color response from the FPA at 77K. Using filter lenses, both MWIR and LWIR responses were obtained from the array at the same bias voltage. The MWIR and LWIR responses are thought to be from bound states in the dot to higher and lower lying states in the quantum well respectively. Temporal NEDT for the DWELL FPA was measured to be 80mK at 77K.

  2. Optical properties of stacked InGaAs sidewall quantum wires in InGaAsP/InP

    SciTech Connect

    Zhou, D.; Noetzel, R.; Otten, F.W.M. van; Eijkemans, T.J.; Wolter, J.H.

    2006-05-15

    We report on the optical properties of threefold stacked InGaAs sidewall quantum wires (QWires) with quaternary InGaAsP barriers grown on shallow-patterned InP (311)A substrates by chemical beam epitaxy. Temperature dependent photoluminescence (PL) reveals efficient carrier transfer from the adjacent quantum wells (QWells) into the QWires at low temperature, thermally activated repopulation of the QWells at higher temperature, and negligible localization of carriers along the QWires. Strong broadening of power dependent PL indicates enhanced state filling in the QWires compared to that in the QWells. Clear linear polarization of the PL from the QWires confirms the lateral quantum confinement of carriers. These results demonstrate excellent optical quality of the sidewall QWire structures with room temperature PL peak wavelength at 1.55 {mu}m for applications in fiber-based optical telecommunication systems.

  3. Silicon based quantum dot hybrid qubits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dohun

    2015-03-01

    The charge and spin degrees of freedom of an electron constitute natural bases for constructing quantum two level systems, or qubits, in semiconductor quantum dots. The quantum dot charge qubit offers a simple architecture and high-speed operation, but generally suffers from fast dephasing due to strong coupling of the environment to the electron's charge. On the other hand, quantum dot spin qubits have demonstrated long coherence times, but their manipulation is often slower than desired for important future applications. This talk will present experimental progress of a `hybrid' qubit, formed by three electrons in a Si/SiGe double quantum dot, which combines desirable characteristics (speed and coherence) in the past found separately in qubits based on either charge or spin degrees of freedom. Using resonant microwaves, we first discuss qubit operations near the `sweet spot' for charge qubit operation. Along with fast (>GHz) manipulation rates for any rotation axis on the Bloch sphere, we implement two independent tomographic characterization schemes in the charge qubit regime: traditional quantum process tomography (QPT) and gate set tomography (GST). We also present resonant qubit operations of the hybrid qubit performed on the same device, DC pulsed gate operations of which were recently demonstrated. We demonstrate three-axis control and the implementation of dynamic decoupling pulse sequences. Performing QPT on the hybrid qubit, we show that AC gating yields π rotation process fidelities higher than 93% for X-axis and 96% for Z-axis rotations, which demonstrates efficient quantum control of semiconductor qubits using resonant microwaves. We discuss a path forward for achieving fidelities better than the threshold for quantum error correction using surface codes. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), DOE (DE-FG02-03ER46028), and by the Laboratory Directed Research and Development program at Sandia National Laboratories

  4. Deep level centers and their role in photoconductivity transients of InGaAs/GaAs quantum dot chains

    SciTech Connect

    Kondratenko, S. V. Vakulenko, O. V.; Mazur, Yu. I. Dorogan, V. G.; Marega, E.; Benamara, M.; Ware, M. E.; Salamo, G. J.

    2014-11-21

    The in-plane photoconductivity and photoluminescence are investigated in quantum dot-chain InGaAs/GaAs heterostructures. Different photoconductivity transients resulting from spectrally selecting photoexcitation of InGaAs QDs, GaAs spacers, or EL2 centers were observed. Persistent photoconductivity was observed at 80 K after excitation of electron-hole pairs due to interband transitions in both the InGaAs QDs and the GaAs matrix. Giant optically induced quenching of in-plane conductivity driven by recharging of EL2 centers is observed in the spectral range from 0.83 eV to 1.0 eV. Conductivity loss under photoexcitation is discussed in terms of carrier localization by analogy with carrier distribution in disordered media.

  5. Reconfigurable visible quantum dot microlasers integrated on a silicon chip

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehrabani, Simin; Hunt, Heather K.; Armani, Andrea M.

    2012-02-01

    Developing on-chip, dynamically reconfigurable visible lasers that can be integrated with additional optical and electronic components will enable adaptive optical components. In the present work, we demonstrate a reconfigurable quantum dot laser based on an integrated silica ultra high-Q microcavity. By attaching the quantum dot using a reversible, non-destructive bioconjugation process, the ability to remove and replace it with an alternative quantum dot without damaging the underlying microcavity device has been demonstrated. As a result of the absorption/emission characteristics of quantum dots, the same laser source can be used to excite quantum dots with distinct emission wavelengths.

  6. Synthesis of CdSe quantum dots for quantum dot sensitized solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Neetu Kapoor, Avinashi; Kumar, Vinod; Mehra, R. M.

    2014-04-24

    CdSe Quantum Dots (QDs) of size 0.85 nm were synthesized using chemical route. ZnO based Quantum Dot Sensitized Solar Cell (QDSSC) was fabricated using CdSe QDs as sensitizer. The Pre-synthesized QDs were found to be successfully adsorbed on front ZnO electrode and had potential to replace organic dyes in Dye Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSCs). The efficiency of QDSSC was obtained to be 2.06 % at AM 1.5.

  7. New small quantum dots for neuroscience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvin, Paul

    2014-03-01

    In "New Small Quantum Dots for Neuroscience," Paul Selvin (University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign) notes how the details of synapsis activity in the brain involves chemical receptors that facilitate the creation of the electrical connection between two nerves. In order to understand the details of this neuroscience phenomenon you need to be able to "see" what is happening at the scale of these receptors, which is around 10 nanometers. This is smaller than the diffraction limit of normal microscopy and it takes place on a 3 dimensional structure. Selvin describes the development of small quantum dots (on the order of 6-9 microns) that are surface-sensitized to interact with the receptors. This allows the application of photo-activated localized microscopy (PALM), a superresolution microscopy that can be scanned through focus to develop a 3D map on a scale that is the same size as the emitter, which in this case are the small quantum dots. The quantum dots are stable in time and provide access to the receptors which allows the imaging of the interactions taking place at the synoptic level.

  8. Producing Quantum Dots by Spray Pyrolysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2006-01-01

    An improved process for making nanocrystallites, commonly denoted quantum dots (QDs), is based on spray pyrolysis. Unlike the process used heretofore, the improved process is amenable to mass production of either passivated or non-passivated QDs, with computer control to ensure near uniformity of size.

  9. Nanocomposites of POC and quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borriello, C.; Concilio, S.; Minarini, C.; Iannelli, P.; Di Luccio, T.

    2012-07-01

    New luminescent polymer nanocomposites were synthesized combining carbazole/oxadiazole copolymer (POC) and CdSe/ZnS quantum dots (QDs) surface passivated by ionic liquids. Ionic liquid ligands improve the photostability of QDs and their compatibility with polymer allowing the deposition of homogeneous nanocomposites films. The nanocomposites were characterized by UV and photoluminescence spectroscopy.

  10. Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne D.

    2009-04-01

    Quantum-dot infrared photodetectors (QDIPs) are positioned to become an important technology in the field of infrared (IR) detection, particularly for high-temperature, low-cost, high-yield detector arrays required for military applications. High-operating temperature (>=150 K) photodetectors reduce the cost of IR imaging systems by enabling cryogenic dewars and Stirling cooling systems to be replaced by thermo-electric coolers. QDIPs are well-suited for detecting mid-IR light at elevated temperatures, an application that could prove to be the next commercial market for quantum dots. While quantum dot epitaxial growth and intraband absorption of IR radiation are well established, quantum dot non-uniformity remains as a significant challenge. Nonetheless, state-of-the-art mid-IR detection at 150 K has been demonstrated using 70-layer InAs/GaAs QDIPs, and QDIP focal plane arrays are approaching performance comparable to HgCdTe at 77 K. By addressing critical challenges inherent to epitaxial QD material systems (e.g., controlling dopant incorporation), exploring alternative QD systems (e.g., colloidal QDs), and using bandgap engineering to reduce dark current and enhance multi-spectral detection (e.g. resonant tunneling QDIPs), the performance and applicability of QDIPs will continue to improve.

  11. Single-dot optical emission from ultralow density well-isolated InP quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Ugur, A.; Hatami, F.; Masselink, W. T.; Vamivakas, A. N.; Lombez, L.; Atatuere, M.

    2008-10-06

    We demonstrate a straightforward way to obtain single well-isolated quantum dots emitting in the visible part of the spectrum and characterize the optical emission from single quantum dots using this method. Self-assembled InP quantum dots are grown using gas-source molecular-beam epitaxy over a wide range of InP deposition rates, using an ultralow growth rate of about 0.01 atomic monolayers/s, a quantum-dot density of 1 dot/{mu}m{sup 2} is realized. The resulting isolated InP quantum dots embedded in an InGaP matrix are individually characterized without the need for lithographical patterning and masks on the substrate. Such low-density quantum dots show excitonic emission at around 670 nm with a linewidth limited by instrument resolution. This system is applicable as a single-photon source for applications such as quantum cryptography.

  12. Light-trapping for room temperature Bose-Einstein condensation in InGaAs quantum wells.

    PubMed

    Vasudev, Pranai; Jiang, Jian-Hua; John, Sajeev

    2016-06-27

    We demonstrate the possibility of room-temperature, thermal equilibrium Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of exciton-polaritons in a multiple quantum well (QW) system composed of InGaAs quantum wells surrounded by InP barriers, allowing for the emission of light near telecommunication wavelengths. The QWs are embedded in a cavity consisting of double slanted pore (SP2) photonic crystals composed of InP. We consider exciton-polaritons that result from the strong coupling between the multiple quantum well excitons and photons in the lowest planar guided mode within the photonic band gap (PBG) of the photonic crystal cavity. The collective coupling of three QWs results in a vacuum Rabi splitting of 3% of the bare exciton recombination energy. Due to the full three-dimensional PBG exhibited by the SP2 photonic crystal (16% gap to mid-gap frequency ratio), the radiative decay of polaritons is eliminated in all directions. Due to the short exciton-phonon scattering time in InGaAs quantum wells of 0.5 ps and the exciton non-radiative decay time of 200 ps at room temperature, polaritons can achieve thermal equilibrium with the host lattice to form an equilibrium BEC. Using a SP2 photonic crystal with a lattice constant of a = 516 nm, a unit cell height of 2a=730nm and a pore radius of 0.305a = 157 nm, light in the lowest planar guided mode is strongly localized in the central slab layer. The central slab layer consists of 3 nm InGaAs quantum wells with 7 nm InP barriers, in which excitons have a recombination energy of 0.944 eV, a binding energy of 7 meV and a Bohr radius of aB = 10 nm. We take the exciton recombination energy to be detuned 35 meV above the lowest guided photonic mode so that an exciton-polariton has a photonic fraction of approximately 97% per QW. This increases the energy range of small-effective-mass photonlike states and increases the critical temperature for the onset of a Bose-Einstein condensate. With three quantum wells in the central slab layer

  13. Optical properties of quantum-dot-doped liquid scintillators

    PubMed Central

    Aberle, C.; Li, J.J.; Weiss, S.; Winslow, L.

    2014-01-01

    Semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots) were studied in the context of liquid scintillator development for upcoming neutrino experiments. The unique optical and chemical properties of quantum dots are particularly promising for the use in neutrinoless double-beta decay experiments. Liquid scintillators for large scale neutrino detectors have to meet specific requirements which are reviewed, highlighting the peculiarities of quantum-dot-doping. In this paper, we report results on laboratory-scale measurements of the attenuation length and the fluorescence properties of three commercial quantum dot samples. The results include absorbance and emission stability measurements, improvement in transparency due to filtering of the quantum dot samples, precipitation tests to isolate the quantum dots from solution and energy transfer studies with quantum dots and the fluorophore PPO. PMID:25392711

  14. Non-Markovian full counting statistics in quantum dot molecules

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Hai-Bin; Jiao, Hu-Jun; Liang, Jiu-Qing; Liu, Wu-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Full counting statistics of electron transport is a powerful diagnostic tool for probing the nature of quantum transport beyond what is obtainable from the average current or conductance measurement alone. In particular, the non-Markovian dynamics of quantum dot molecule plays an important role in the nonequilibrium electron tunneling processes. It is thus necessary to understand the non-Markovian full counting statistics in a quantum dot molecule. Here we study the non-Markovian full counting statistics in two typical quantum dot molecules, namely, serially coupled and side-coupled double quantum dots with high quantum coherence in a certain parameter regime. We demonstrate that the non-Markovian effect manifests itself through the quantum coherence of the quantum dot molecule system, and has a significant impact on the full counting statistics in the high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, which depends on the coupling of the quantum dot molecule system with the source and drain electrodes. The results indicated that the influence of the non-Markovian effect on the full counting statistics of electron transport, which should be considered in a high quantum-coherent quantum dot molecule system, can provide a better understanding of electron transport through quantum dot molecules. PMID:25752245

  15. Efficient Luminescence from Perovskite Quantum Dot Solids.

    PubMed

    Kim, Younghoon; Yassitepe, Emre; Voznyy, Oleksandr; Comin, Riccardo; Walters, Grant; Gong, Xiwen; Kanjanaboos, Pongsakorn; Nogueira, Ana F; Sargent, Edward H

    2015-11-18

    Nanocrystals of CsPbX3 perovskites are promising materials for light-emitting optoelectronics because of their colloidal stability, optically tunable bandgap, bright photoluminescence, and excellent photoluminescence quantum yield. Despite their promise, nanocrystal-only films of CsPbX3 perovskites have not yet been fabricated; instead, highly insulating polymers have been relied upon to compensate for nanocrystals' unstable surfaces. We develop solution chemistry that enables single-step casting of perovskite nanocrystal films and overcomes problems in both perovskite quantum dot purification and film fabrication. Centrifugally cast films retain bright photoluminescence and achieve dense and homogeneous morphologies. The new materials offer a platform for optoelectronic applications of perovskite quantum dot solids. PMID:26529572

  16. Quantum dot circuits: Single-electron switch and few-electron quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Ian Hin-Yun

    A strongly capacitively-coupled parallel double quantum dot was studied as a single-electron switch. The double dot was fabricated in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. An electrically-floating coupling gate increased capacitive-coupling between the dots, while an etched trench prevented tunnel-coupling between them. Split Coulomb blockade peaks were observed in each dot, and the Coulomb blockade conductance of the double dot formed a hexagonal pattern characteristic of coupled dots. A fractional peak splitting f = 0.34 was measured, which corresponds to a fractional capacitive-coupling alpha ≡ CINT/CSigma = 0.20. This is an order of magnitude larger than reported for similar lateral quantum dots, and shows that the coupling gate works. The strong capacitive-coupling in our device allowed the charge state of one dot to strongly influence the conductance of the other dot and enabled it to work as a single-electron switch. By moving in a combination of gate voltages, electrons are induced in one dot (the "trigger" dot) only. In response to the change in the charge state, the conductance of the other dot (the "switched" dot) is turned on and off. The abruptness of the conductance switching in gate voltage (the switching lineshape) is determined by how well charge is quantized on the trigger dot, and was found to follow tanh and arctan forms for (respectively) good and poor charge quantization in the trigger dot. A few-electron tunnel-coupled series double dot was studied for possible application to quantum computing. The device was fabricated in a square-well 2DEG in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. The dots were emptied of electrons in order to define the absolute number of electrons in the dot. Finite bias Coulomb blockade measurements on each dot showed that the last Coulomb blockade diamonds did not close and thus that both dots could be emptied. A three-dimensional conductance measurement of one dot in the one sidegate and the

  17. Dynamic nuclear polarization and Hanle effect in (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots. Role of nuclear spin fluctuations

    SciTech Connect

    Gerlovin, I. Ya.; Cherbunin, R. V.; Ignatiev, I. V.; Kuznetsova, M. S.; Verbin, S. Yu.; Flisinski, K.; Bayer, M.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.; Yakovlev, D. R.

    2013-12-04

    The degree of circular polarization of photoluminescence of (In,Ga)As quantum dots as a function of magnetic field applied perpendicular to the optical axis (Hanle effect) is experimentally studied. The measurements have been performed at various regimes of the optical excitation modulation. The analysis of experimental data has been performed in the framework of a vector model of regular nuclear spin polarization and its fluctuations. The analysis allowed us to evaluate the magnitude of nuclear polarization and its dynamics at the experimental conditions used.

  18. Reconstruction of nuclear quadrupole interaction in (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots observed by transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sokolov, P. S.; Petrov, M. Yu.; Mehrtens, T.; Müller-Caspary, K.; Rosenauer, A.; Reuter, D.; Wieck, A. D.

    2016-01-01

    A microscopic study of the individual annealed (In,Ga)As/GaAs quantum dots is done by means of high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. The Cauchy-Green strain-tensor component distribution and the chemical composition of the (In,Ga)As alloy are extracted from the microscopy images. The image processing allows for the reconstruction of the strain-induced electric-field gradients at the individual atomic columns extracting thereby the magnitude and asymmetry parameter of the nuclear quadrupole interaction. Nuclear magnetic resonance absorption spectra are analyzed for parallel and transverse mutual orientations of the electric-field gradient and a static magnetic field.

  19. Solution-processed colloidal quantum dot photodiodes for low-cost SWIR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klem, Ethan J. D.; Lewis, Jay; Gregory, Christopher; Cunningham, Garry; Temple, Dorota

    2012-06-01

    While InGaAs-based focal plane arrays (FPAs) provide excellent detectivity and low noise for SWIR imaging applications, wider scale adoption of systems capable of working in this spectral range is limited by high costs, limited spectral response, and costly integration with Si ROIC devices. RTI has demonstrated a novel photodiode technology based on IR-absorbing solution-processed PbS colloidal quantum dots (CQD) that can overcome these limitations of InGaAs FPAs. We have fabricated devices with quantum efficiencies exceeding 50%, and detectivities that are competitive with that of InGaAs. Dark currents of ~2 nA/cm2 were measured at temperatures compatible with solid state coolers. Additionally, by processing these devices entirely at room temperature we find them to be compatible with monolithic integration onto readout ICs, thereby removing any limitation on device size. We will show early efforts towards demonstrating a direct integration of this sensor technology onto a Si ROIC IC and describe a path towards fabricating sensors sensitive from the visible to 2200 nm at a cost comparable to that of CMOS based devices. This combination of high performance, dramatic cost reduction, and multispectral sensitivity is ideally suited to expand the use of SWIR imaging in current applications, as well as to address applications which require a multispectral sensitivity not met by existing technologies.

  20. Quantum Computation Using Optically Coupled Quantum Dot Arrays

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pradhan, Prabhakar; Anantram, M. P.; Wang, K. L.; Roychowhury, V. P.; Saini, Subhash (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    A solid state model for quantum computation has potential advantages in terms of the ease of fabrication, characterization, and integration. The fundamental requirements for a quantum computer involve the realization of basic processing units (qubits), and a scheme for controlled switching and coupling among the qubits, which enables one to perform controlled operations on qubits. We propose a model for quantum computation based on optically coupled quantum dot arrays, which is computationally similar to the atomic model proposed by Cirac and Zoller. In this model, individual qubits are comprised of two coupled quantum dots, and an array of these basic units is placed in an optical cavity. Switching among the states of the individual units is done by controlled laser pulses via near field interaction using the NSOM technology. Controlled rotations involving two or more qubits are performed via common cavity mode photon. We have calculated critical times, including the spontaneous emission and switching times, and show that they are comparable to the best times projected for other proposed models of quantum computation. We have also shown the feasibility of accessing individual quantum dots using the NSOM technology by calculating the photon density at the tip, and estimating the power necessary to perform the basic controlled operations. We are currently in the process of estimating the decoherence times for this system; however, we have formulated initial arguments which seem to indicate that the decoherence times will be comparable, if not longer, than many other proposed models.

  1. Spatially correlated structural and optical characterization of a single InGaAs quantum well fin selectively grown on Si by microscopy and cathodoluminescence techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, S.; Roque, J.; Rochat, N.; Bernier, N.; Piot, L.; Alcotte, R.; Cerba, T.; Martin, M.; Moeyaert, J.; Bogumilowizc, Y.; Arnaud, S.; Bertin, F.; Bassani, F.; Baron, T.

    2016-05-01

    Structural and optical properties of InGaAs quantum well fins (QWFs) selectively grown on Si using the aspect ratio trapping (ART) method in 200 nm deep SiO2 trenches are studied. A new method combining cathodoluminescence, transmission electron microscopy, and precession electron diffraction techniques is developed to spatially correlate the presence of defects and/or strain with the light emission properties of a single InGaAs QWF. Luminescence losses and energy shifts observed at the nanoscale along InGaAs QWF are correlated with structural defects. We show that strain distortions measured around threading dislocations delimit both high and low luminescent areas. We also show that trapped dislocations on SiO2 sidewalls can also result in additional distortions. Both behaviors affect optical properties of QWF at the nanoscale. Our study highlights the need to improve the ART growth method to allow integration of new efficient III-V optoelectronic components on Si.

  2. Reconfigurable quadruple quantum dots in a silicon nanowire transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Betz, A. C.; Tagliaferri, M. L. V.; Vinet, M.; Broström, M.; Sanquer, M.; Ferguson, A. J.; Gonzalez-Zalba, M. F.

    2016-05-01

    We present a reconfigurable metal-oxide-semiconductor multi-gate transistor that can host a quadruple quantum dot in silicon. The device consists of an industrial quadruple-gate silicon nanowire field-effect transistor. Exploiting the corner effect, we study the versatility of the structure in the single quantum dot and the serial double quantum dot regimes and extract the relevant capacitance parameters. We address the fabrication variability of the quadruple-gate approach which, paired with improved silicon fabrication techniques, makes the corner state quantum dot approach a promising candidate for a scalable quantum information architecture.

  3. Quantum-dot-induced phase shift in a pillar microcavity

    SciTech Connect

    Young, A. B.; Hu, C. Y.; Rarity, J. G.; Oulton, R.; Thijssen, A. C. T.; Schneider, C.; Reitzenstein, S.; Kamp, M.; Hoefling, S.; Worschech, L.; Forchel, A.

    2011-07-15

    We perform high-resolution reflection spectroscopy of a quantum dot resonantly coupled to a pillar microcavity. We show the change in reflectivity as the quantum dot is tuned through the cavity resonance and measure the quantum-dot-induced phase shift using an ultrastable interferometer. The macroscopic phase shift we measure could be extended to the study of charged quantum dot pillar microcavity systems, where it could be exploited to realize a high-efficiency spin photon interface for hybrid quantum information schemes.

  4. Demonstration of a bias tunable quantum dots-in-a-well focal plane array

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andrews, Jonathan; Jang, Woo-Yong; Pezoa, Jorge E.; Sharma, Yagya D.; Lee, Sang Jun; Noh, Sam Kyu; Hayat, Majeed M.; Restaino, Sergio; Teare, Scott W.; Krishna, Sanjay

    2009-11-01

    Infrared detectors based on quantum wells and quantum dots have attracted a lot of attention in the past few years. Our previous research has reported on the development of the first generation of quantum dots-in-a-well (DWELL) focal plane arrays, which are based on InAs quantum dots embedded in an InGaAs well having GaAs barriers. This focal plane array has successfully generated a two-color imagery in the mid-wave infrared (i.e. 3-5 μm) and the long-wave infrared (i.e. 8-12 μm) at a fixed bias voltage. Recently, the DWELL device has been further modified by embedding InAs quantum dots in InGaAs and GaAs double wells with AlGaAs barriers, leading to a less strained InAs/InGaAs/GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. This is expected to improve the operating temperature while maintaining a low dark current level. This paper examines 320 × 256 double DWELL based focal plane arrays that have been fabricated and hybridized with an Indigo 9705 read-out integrated circuit using Indium-bump (flip-chip) technology. The spectral tunability is quantified by examining images and determining the transmittance ratio (equivalent to the photocurrent ratio) between mid-wave and long-way infrared filter targets. Calculations were performed for a bias range from 0.3 to 1.0 V. The results demonstrate that the mid-wave transmittance dominates at these low bias voltages, and the transmittance ratio continuously varies over different applied biases. Additionally, radiometric characterization, including array uniformity and measured noise equivalent temperature difference for the double DWELL devices is computed and compared to the same results from the original first generation DWELL. Finally, higher temperature operation is explored. Overall, the double DWELL devices had lower noise equivalent temperature difference and higher uniformity, and worked at higher temperature (70 K and 80 K) than the first generation DWELL device.

  5. Small bright charged colloidal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Qin, Wei; Liu, Heng; Guyot-Sionnest, Philippe

    2014-01-28

    Using electrochemical charge injection, the fluorescence lifetimes of negatively charged core/shell CdTe/CdSe QDs are measured as a function of core size and shell thickness. It is found that the ensemble negative trion lifetimes reach a maximum (∼4.5 ns) for an intermediate shell thickness. This leads to the smallest particles (∼4.5 nm) with the brightest trion to date. Single dot measurements show that the negative charge suppresses blinking and that the trion can be as bright as the exciton at room temperature. In contrast, the biexciton lifetimes remain short and exhibit only a monotonous increase with shell thickness, showing no correlation with the negative trion decays. The suppression of the Auger process in small negatively charged CdTe/CdSe quantum dots is unprecedented and a significant departure from prior results with ultrathick CdSe/CdS core/shell or dot-in-rod structures. The proposed reason for the optimum shell thickness is that the electron-hole overlap is restricted to the CdTe core while the electron is tuned to have zero kinetic energy in the core for that optimum shell thickness. The different trend of the biexciton lifetime is not explained but tentatively attributed to shorter-lived positive trions at smaller sizes. These results improve our understanding of multiexciton recombination in colloidal quantum dots and may lead to the design of bright charged QDs for more efficient light-emitting devices. PMID:24350673

  6. Quantum dot/glycol chitosan fluorescent nanoconjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mansur, Alexandra AP; Mansur, Herman S.

    2015-04-01

    In this study, novel carbohydrate-based nanoconjugates combining chemically modified chitosan with semiconductor quantum dots (QDs) were designed and synthesised via single-step aqueous route at room temperature. Glycol chitosan (G-CHI) was used as the capping ligand aiming to improve the water solubility of the nanoconjugates to produce stable and biocompatible colloidal systems. UV-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy were used to characterise the synthesis and the relative stability of biopolymer-capped semiconductor nanocrystals. The results clearly demonstrated that the glycol chitosan derivative was remarkably effective at nucleating and stabilising semiconductor CdS quantum dots in aqueous suspensions under acidic, neutral, and alkaline media with an average size of approximately 2.5 nm and a fluorescent activity in the visible range of the spectra.

  7. Magnetoconductance fluctuations in open bismuth quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hackens, B.; Minet, J. P.; Farhi, G.; Crahay, A.; Faniel, S.; Gustin, C.; Bayot, V.

    2002-03-01

    We investigate the low temperature (300 mK - 10 K) magnetoconductance of open circular bismuth quantum dots (diameter: 500 nm). The structures are fabricated using a combination of electron beam lithography, lift off and plasma etching techniques on bismuth thin films evaporated on heated SiO2 substrates. We observe reproducible magnetoconductance fluctuations (UCFs) up to 5T, qualitatively similar to conductance fluctuations evidenced in open quantum dots patterned in high mobility semiconductor heterostructures. In our samples, UCFs are superposed on a slowly varying negative magnetoconductance background. We also observe a sharp conductance maximum centered in B=0, which is reminescent of the spin-orbit induced anti-localisation phenomenon. The behavior of UCFs and of the conductance maximum is discussed as a function of the temperature, thickness and degree of cristallinity of the cavity.

  8. Scanning photoluminescent spectroscopy of bioconjugated quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chornokur, G.; Ostapenko, S.; Oleynik, E.; Phelan, C.; Korsunska, N.; Kryshtab, T.; Zhang, J.; Wolcott, A.; Sellers, T.

    2009-04-01

    We report on the application of the bio-conjugated quantum dots (QDs) for a "sandwich" enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) cancer testing technique. Quantum dot ELISA detection of the cancer PSA antigen at concentrations as low as 0.01 ng/ml which is ˜50 times lower than the classic "sandwich" ELISA was demonstrated. Scanning photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy was performed on dried ELISA wells and the results compared with the same QD samples dried on a solid substrate. We confirmed a "blue" up to 37 nm PL spectral shift in a case of QDs conjugated to PSA antibodies. Increasing of the "blue" spectral shift was observed at lower PSA antigen concentrations. The results can be used to improve sensitivity of "sandwich" ELISA cancer antigen detection.

  9. Conductance Peaks in Open Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos, J. G. G. S.; Bazeia, D.; Hussein, M. S.; Lewenkopf, C. H.

    2011-10-01

    We present a simple measure of the conductance fluctuations in open ballistic chaotic quantum dots, extending the number of maxima method originally proposed for the statistical analysis of compound nuclear reactions. The average number of extreme points (maxima and minima) in the dimensionless conductance T as a function of an arbitrary external parameter Z is directly related to the autocorrelation function of T(Z). The parameter Z can be associated with an applied gate voltage causing shape deformation in quantum dot, an external magnetic field, the Fermi energy, etc. The average density of maxima is found to be ⟨ρZ⟩=αZ/Zc, where αZ is a universal constant and Zc is the conductance autocorrelation length, which is system specific. The analysis of ⟨ρZ⟩ does not require large statistic samples, providing a quite amenable way to access information about parametric correlations, such as Zc.

  10. Separability and dynamical symmetry of Quantum Dots

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, P.-M.; Zou, L.-P.; Horvathy, P.A.; Gibbons, G.W.

    2014-02-15

    The separability and Runge–Lenz-type dynamical symmetry of the internal dynamics of certain two-electron Quantum Dots, found by Simonović et al. (2003), are traced back to that of the perturbed Kepler problem. A large class of axially symmetric perturbing potentials which allow for separation in parabolic coordinates can easily be found. Apart from the 2:1 anisotropic harmonic trapping potential considered in Simonović and Nazmitdinov (2013), they include a constant electric field parallel to the magnetic field (Stark effect), the ring-shaped Hartmann potential, etc. The harmonic case is studied in detail. -- Highlights: • The separability of Quantum Dots is derived from that of the perturbed Kepler problem. • Harmonic perturbation with 2:1 anisotropy is separable in parabolic coordinates. • The system has a conserved Runge–Lenz type quantity.

  11. Protease-activated quantum dot probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Emmanuel; Sun, Jiantang; Miller, Jordan S.; Yu, William W.; Colvin, Vicki L.; West, Jennifer L.; Drezek, Rebekah

    2006-04-01

    We demonstrate a novel quantum dot based probe with inherent signal amplification upon interaction with a targeted proteolytic enzyme. This probe may be useful for imaging in cancer detection and diagnosis. In this system, quantum dots (QDs) are bound to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) via a proteolytically-degradable peptide sequence to non-radiatively suppress luminescence. A 71% reduction in luminescence was achieved with conjugation of AuNPs to QDs. Peptide cleavage results in release of AuNPs and restores radiative QD photoluminescence. Initial studies observed a 52% rise in luminescence over 47 hours of exposure to 0.2 mg/mL collagenase. These probes can be customized for targeted degradation simply by changing the sequence of the peptide linker.

  12. Electrical properties of semiconductor quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Kharlamov, V. F. Korostelev, D. A.; Bogoraz, I. G.; Milovidova, O. A.; Sergeyev, V. O.

    2013-04-15

    A method, which makes it possible to obtain semiconductor particles V Almost-Equal-To 10{sup -20} cm{sup 3} in volume (quantum dots) with a concentration of up to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -2} and electrical contacts to each of them, is suggested. High variability in the electrical properties of such particles from a metal oxide (CuO or NiO) after the chemisorption of gas molecules is found.

  13. Inverted colloidal quantum dot solar cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Gi-Hwan; Walker, Bright; Kim, Hak-Beom; Kim, Jin Young; Sargent, Edward H; Park, Jongnam; Kim, Jin Young

    2014-05-28

    An inverted architecture of quantum dot solar cells is demonstrated by introducing a novel ZnO method on top of the PbS CQD film. Improvements in device characteristics stem from constructive optical interference from the ZnO layer that enhances absorption in the PbS CQD layer. Outstanding diode characteristics arising from a superior PbS/ZnO junction provide a further electronic advantage. PMID:24677118

  14. Relaxation dynamics in correlated quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Andergassen, S.; Schuricht, D.; Pletyukhov, M.; Schoeller, H.

    2014-12-04

    We study quantum many-body effects on the real-time evolution of the current through quantum dots. By using a non-equilibrium renormalization group approach, we provide analytic results for the relaxation dynamics into the stationary state and identify the microscopic cutoff scales that determine the transport rates. We find rich non-equilibrium physics induced by the interplay of the different energy scales. While the short-time limit is governed by universal dynamics, the long-time behavior features characteristic oscillations as well as an interplay of exponential and power-law decay.

  15. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-10-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy.Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The

  16. The impact of quantum dot filling on dual-band optical transitions via intermediate quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jiang; Passmore, Brandon; Manasreh, M. O.

    2015-08-28

    InAs/GaAs quantum dot infrared photodetectors with different doping levels were investigated to understand the effect of quantum dot filling on both intraband and interband optical transitions. The electron filling of self-assembled InAs quantum dots was varied by direct doping of quantum dots with different concentrations. Photoresponse in the near infrared and middle wavelength infrared spectral region was observed from samples with low quantum dot filling. Although undoped quantum dots were favored for interband transitions with the absence of a second optical excitation in the near infrared region, doped quantum dots were preferred to improve intraband transitions in the middle wavelength infrared region. As a result, partial filling of quantum dot was required, to the extent of maintaining a low dark current, to enhance the dual-band photoresponse through the confined electron states.

  17. Quantum-Dot Laser for Wavelengths of 1.8 to 2.3 micron

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Qiu, Yueming

    2006-01-01

    The figure depicts a proposed semiconductor laser, based on In(As)Sb quantum dots on a (001) InP substrate, that would operate in the wavelength range between 1.8 and 2.3 m. InSb and InAsSb are the smallest-bandgap conventional III-V semiconductor materials, and the present proposal is an attempt to exploit the small bandgaps by using InSb and InAsSb nanostructures as midinfrared emitters. The most closely related prior III-V semiconductor lasers are based, variously, on strained InGaAs quantum wells and InAs quantum dots on InP substrates. The emission wavelengths of these prior devices are limited to about 2.1 m because of critical quantum-well thickness limitations for these lattice mismatched material systems. The major obstacle to realizing the proposed laser is the difficulty of fabricating InSb quantum dots in sufficient density on an InP substrate. This difficulty arises partly because of the weakness of the bond between In and Sb and partly because of the high temperature needed to crack metalorganic precursor compounds during the vapor-phase epitaxy used to grow quantum dots: The mobility of the weakly bound In at the high growth temperature is so high that In adatoms migrate easily on the growth surface, resulting in the formation of large InSb islands at a density, usually less than 5 x 10(exp 9) cm(exp -2), that is too low for laser operation. The mobility of the In adatoms could be reduced by introducing As atoms to the growth surface because the In-As bond is about 30 percent stronger than is the In-Sb bond. The fabrication of the proposed laser would include a recently demonstrated process that involves the use of alternative supplies of precursors to separate group-III and group-V species to establish local non-equilibrium process conditions, so that In(As)Sb quantum dots assemble themselves on a (001) InP substrate at a density as high as 4 x 10(exp 10) cm(exp -2). Room-temperature photoluminescence spectra of quantum dots formed by this process

  18. Quantum dot spectroscopy using a single phosphorus donor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büch, Holger; Fuechsle, Martin; Baker, William; House, Matthew G.; Simmons, Michelle Y.

    2015-12-01

    Using a deterministic single P donor placed with atomic precision accuracy next to a nanoscale silicon quantum dot, we present a way to analyze the energy spectrum of small quantum dots in silicon by tunnel-coupled transport measurements. The energy-level structure of the quantum dot is observed as resonance features within the transport bias triangles when the donor chemical potential is aligned with states within the quantum dot as confirmed by a numeric rate equation solver SIMON. This technique allows us to independently extract the quantum dot level structure irrespective of the density of states in the leads. Such a method is useful for the investigation of silicon quantum dots in the few-electron regime where the level structure is governed by an intricate interplay between the spin- and the valley-orbit degrees of freedom.

  19. The ground state properties of In(Ga)As/GaAs low strain quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pieczarka, Maciej; Sęk, Grzegorz

    2016-08-01

    We present theoretical studies on the confined states in low-strain In(Ga)As quantum dots (QDs). The 8-band k·p model together with the continuum elasticity theory and piezoelectric fields were employed to calculate the potential and confined electron and hole eigenstates. We focused on low-indium-content QDs with distinct in-plane asymmetry, which are naturally formed in the low strain regime of the Stranski-Krastanow growth mode. It has been found that the naturally thick wetting layer together with piezoelectric potential affect the total confinement potential to such extent that the hole eigenstates can get the spatial in-plane orientation orthogonal to the main axis of the dot elongation. This can influence both, qualitatively and quantitatively, many of the electronic and optical properties, as e.g. the polarization selection rules for the optical transition or the transitions oscillator strength. Eventually, importance of the degree of the shape asymmetry or the dots' size, and differences between the low-strain (low-In-content) QDs and pure InAs dots formed in high strain conditions are discussed.

  20. Quantum dots fluorescence quantum yield measured by Thermal Lens Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Estupiñán-López, Carlos; Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

    2014-01-01

    An essential parameter to evaluate the light emission properties of fluorophores is the fluorescence quantum yield, which quantify the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons to emitted photons. We detail here an alternative nonfluorescent method to determine the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of quantum dots (QDs). The method is based in the so-called Thermal Lens Spectroscopy (TLS) technique, which consists on the evaluation of refractive index gradient thermally induced in the fluorescent material by the absorption of light. Aqueous dispersion carboxyl-coated cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs samples were used to demonstrate the Thermal Lens Spectroscopy technical procedure. PMID:25103802

  1. Sensitivity and noise of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on InGaAs quantum wells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenaud, B.; Segovia-Mera, A.; Delgard, A.; Feltin, N.; Hoffmann, A.; Pascal, F.; Zawadzki, W.; Mailly, D.; Chaubet, C.

    2016-01-01

    We study the room-temperature performance of micro-Hall magnetic sensors based on pseudomorphic InGaAs quantum wells. Active areas of our sensors range from 1 to 80 μm. We focus on the smallest detectable magnetic fields in small sensors and perform a systematic study of noise at room temperature in the frequency range between 1 Hz and 100 kHz. Our data are interpreted by the mobility fluctuation model. The Hooge parameter is determined for the applied technology. We show that, independently of the experimental frequency, the ratio of sensitivity to noise is proportional to characteristic length of the sensor. The resolution of 1 mG/√{Hz } is achievable in a 3 μm sensor at room temperature.

  2. Experimental demonstration of hot-carrier photo-current in an InGaAs quantum well solar cell

    SciTech Connect

    Hirst, L. C.; Walters, R. J.; Führer, M. F.; Ekins-Daukes, N. J.

    2014-06-09

    An unambiguous observation of hot-carrier photocurrent from an InGaAs single quantum well solar cell is reported. Simultaneous photo-current and photoluminescence measurements were performed for incident power density 0.04–3 kW cm{sup −2}, lattice temperature 10 K, and forward bias 1.2 V. An order of magnitude photocurrent increase was observed for non-equilibrium hot-carrier temperatures >35 K. This photocurrent activation temperature is consistent with that of equilibrium carriers in a lattice at elevated temperature. The observed hot-carrier photo-current is extracted from the well over an energy selective GaAs barrier, thus integrating two essential components of a hot-carrier solar cell: a hot-carrier absorber and an energy selective contact.

  3. Quantum limit for nuclear spin polarization in semiconductor quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildmann, Julia; Kavousanaki, Eleftheria; Burkard, Guido; Ribeiro, Hugo

    2014-05-01

    A recent experiment [E. A. Chekhovich et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 066804 (2010), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.066804] has demonstrated that high nuclear spin polarization can be achieved in self-assembled quantum dots by exploiting an optically forbidden transition between a heavy hole and a trion state. However, a fully polarized state is not achieved as expected from a classical rate equation. Here, we theoretically investigate this problem with the help of a quantum master equation and we demonstrate that a fully polarized state cannot be achieved due to formation of a nuclear dark state. Moreover, we show that the maximal degree of polarization depends on structural properties of the quantum dot.

  4. Growth and Characterization of Telecommunication-Wavelength Quantum Dots Using Bi as a Surfactant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okamoto, Hiroshi; Tawara, Takehiko; Gotoh, Hideki; Kamada, Hidehiko; Sogawa, Tetsuomi

    2010-06-01

    Telecommunication-wavelength quantum dots (QDs) were successfully grown by metalorganic vapor phase epitaxy using a novel growth method in which trimethylbismuth (TMBi) was supplied during the growth. Supplying TMBi during the growth was confirmed to have a surfactant effect, but did not result in the formation of a bismuth-containing alloy. Using this growth method, the photoluminescence intensity and wavelength of the QDs were much improved. It was found that the QD size was increased during the growth of the InGaAs covering layer; this effect partly resembled activated alloy phase separation reported for molecular-beam-epitaxy-grown QDs. For the realization of high density and multilayer QDs, we confirmed that a much higher V/III ratio than that of usual growth conditions and a strain-compensation structure are effective, respectively.

  5. InAs quantum dot morphology after capping with In, N, Sb alloyed thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Keizer, J. G.; Koenraad, P. M.; Ulloa, J. M.; Utrilla, A. D.

    2014-02-03

    Using a thin capping layer to engineer the structural and optical properties of InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) has become common practice in the last decade. Traditionally, the main parameter considered has been the strain in the QD/capping layer system. With the advent of more exotic alloys, it has become clear that other mechanisms significantly alter the QD size and shape as well. Larger bond strengths, surfactants, and phase separation are known to act on QD properties but are far from being fully understood. In this study, we investigate at the atomic scale the influence of these effects on the morphology of capped QDs with cross-sectional scanning tunneling microscopy. A broad range of capping materials (InGaAs, GaAsSb, GaAsN, InGaAsN, and GaAsSbN) are compared. The QD morphology is related to photoluminescence characteristics.

  6. Optical signatures of valence-band mixing in positive trion recombination spectra of double quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasek, W. J.; Nowak, M. P.; Szafran, B.

    2014-06-01

    We consider optical signatures of valence band mixing in positive trion and exciton complexes in vertically stacked InGaAs quantum dots. We use the configuration interaction method and an axially symmetric four-band Luttinger-Kohn Hamiltonian (KL) that allows for heavy-hole and light-hole band mixing due to spin-orbit interaction. A scalar effective hole mass model is also included for comparison. We found essential differences (i.e., different recombination patterns) between the KL and separated-bands model spectra. In the weak-coupling regime for KL model, we obtained a good agreement with experimentally observed X patterns in contrast to the scalar effective mass model.

  7. Polarized quantum dot emission in electrohydrodynamic jet printed photonic crystals

    SciTech Connect

    See, Gloria G.; Xu, Lu; Nuzzo, Ralph G.; Sutanto, Erick; Alleyne, Andrew G.; Cunningham, Brian T.

    2015-08-03

    Tailored optical output, such as color purity and efficient optical intensity, are critical considerations for displays, particularly in mobile applications. To this end, we demonstrate a replica molded photonic crystal structure with embedded quantum dots. Electrohydrodynamic jet printing is used to control the position of the quantum dots within the device structure. This results in significantly less waste of the quantum dot material than application through drop-casting or spin coating. In addition, the targeted placement of the quantum dots minimizes any emission outside of the resonant enhancement field, which enables an 8× output enhancement and highly polarized emission from the photonic crystal structure.

  8. Imaging ligand-gated ion channels with quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, I. D.; Orndorff, Rebecca L.; Gussin, Hélène; Mason, John N.; Blakely, Randy D.; Pepperberg, David R.; Rosenthal, Sandra J.

    2007-02-01

    In this paper we report two different methodologies for labeling ligand-gated receptors. The first of these builds upon our earlier work with serotonin conjugated quantum dots and our studies with pegilated quantum dots to reduce non specific binding. In this approach a pegilated derivative of muscimol was synthesized and attached via an amide linkage to quantum dots coated in an amphiphillic polymer derivative of poly acrylamide. These conjugates were used to image the GABA C receptor in oocytes. An alternative approach was used to image tissue sections to study nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the neuro muscular junction with biotinylated Bungerotoxin and streptavidin coated quantum dots.

  9. Temperature-dependent modulated reflectance of InAs/InGaAs/GaAs quantum dots-in-a-well infrared photodetectors

    SciTech Connect

    Nedzinskas, R. Čechavičius, B.; Rimkus, A.; Pozingytė, E.; Kavaliauskas, J.; Valušis, G.; Li, L. H.; Linfield, E. H.

    2015-04-14

    We present a photoreflectance (PR) study of multi-layer InAs quantum dot (QD) photodetector structures, incorporating InGaAs overgrown layers and positioned asymmetrically within GaAs/AlAs quantum wells (QWs). The influence of the back-surface reflections on the QD PR spectra is explained and a temperature-dependent photomodulation mechanism is discussed. The optical interband transitions originating from the QD/QW ground- and excited-states are revealed and their temperature behaviour in the range of 3–300 K is established. In particular, we estimated the activation energy (∼320 meV) of exciton thermal escape from QD to QW bound-states at high temperatures. Furthermore, from the obtained Varshni parameters, a strain-driven partial decomposition of the InGaAs cap layer is determined.

  10. Enhanced performance of quantum dot solar cells based on type II quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Feng; Yang, Xiao-Guang; Luo, Shuai; Lv, Zun-Ren; Yang, Tao

    2014-10-07

    The characteristics of quantum dot solar cells (QDSCs) based on type II QDs are investigated theoretically. Based on a drift-diffusion model, we obtained a much higher open circuit voltage (V{sub oc}) as well as conversion efficiency in a type II QDSC, compared to type I QDSCs. The improved V{sub oc} and efficiency are mainly attributed to the much longer Auger recombination lifetime in type II QDs. Moreover, the influence of the carrier lifetime on devices' performance is discussed and clarified. In addition, an explicit criterion to determine the role of quantum dots in solar cells is put forward.

  11. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot

    PubMed Central

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R.; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D.; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible. PMID:27550534

  12. Silicon quantum dots: fine-tuning to maturity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Andrea

    2015-12-01

    Quantum dots in semiconductor heterostructures provide one of the most flexible platforms for the study of quantum phenomena at the nanoscale. The surging interest in using quantum dots for quantum computation is forcing researchers to rethink fabrication and operation methods, to obtain highly tunable dots in spin-free host materials, such as silicon. Borselli and colleagues report in Nanotechnology the fabrication of a novel Si/SiGe double quantum dot device, which combines an ultra-low disorder Si/SiGe accumulation-mode heterostructure with a stack of overlapping control gates, ensuring tight confining potentials and exquisite tunability. This work signals the technological maturity of silicon quantum dots, and their readiness to be applied to challenging projects in quantum information science.

  13. Single-electron Spin Resonance in a Quadruple Quantum Dot.

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Tomohiro; Nakajima, Takashi; Delbecq, Matthieu R; Amaha, Shinichi; Yoneda, Jun; Takeda, Kenta; Allison, Giles; Ito, Takumi; Sugawara, Retsu; Noiri, Akito; Ludwig, Arne; Wieck, Andreas D; Tarucha, Seigo

    2016-01-01

    Electron spins in semiconductor quantum dots are good candidates of quantum bits for quantum information processing. Basic operations of the qubit have been realized in recent years: initialization, manipulation of single spins, two qubit entanglement operations, and readout. Now it becomes crucial to demonstrate scalability of this architecture by conducting spin operations on a scaled up system. Here, we demonstrate single-electron spin resonance in a quadruple quantum dot. A few-electron quadruple quantum dot is formed within a magnetic field gradient created by a micro-magnet. We oscillate the wave functions of the electrons in the quantum dots by applying microwave voltages and this induces electron spin resonance. The resonance energies of the four quantum dots are slightly different because of the stray field created by the micro-magnet and therefore frequency-resolved addressable control of each electron spin resonance is possible. PMID:27550534

  14. Ultra-bright alkylated graphene quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Feng, Lan; Tang, Xing-Yan; Zhong, Yun-Xin; Liu, Yue-Wen; Song, Xue-Huan; Deng, Shun-Liu; Xie, Su-Yuan; Yan, Jia-Wei; Zheng, Lan-Sun

    2014-11-01

    Highly efficient and stable photoluminescence (PL) are urgently desired for graphene quantum dots (GQDs) to facilitate their prospective applications as optical materials. Here, we report the facile and straightforward synthesis of alkylated graphene quantum dots (AGQDs) via the solvothermal reaction of propagatively alkylated graphene sheets (PAGenes). In contrast to most GQDs reported so far, the synthesized AGQDs process pH-independent and ultra-bright PL with a relative quantum yield of up to 65%. Structural and chemical composition characterization demonstrated that the synthesized AGQDs are nearly oxygen-defect-free with alkyl groups decorated on edges and basal plane, which may contribute to their greatly improved pH tolerance and high quantum efficiency. The photocatalytic performance of AGQDs-P25 nanocomposites was evaluated by the degradation of Rhodamine B under visible light. The photocatalytic rate is ca. 5.9 times higher than that of pure P25, indicating that AGQDs could harness the visible spectrum of sunlight for energy conversion or environmental therapy. PMID:25192187

  15. The quantum dot nanoconjugate tool box (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomlinson, I. D.; Wright, D. W.; Giorgio, T. D.; Blakely, R. D.; Pennycook, S. J.; Hercules, D.; Bentzen, L.; Smith, R. A.; McBride, J.; Vergne, M. J.; Rosenthal, S.

    2005-04-01

    The surface coating of quantum dots has been characterised using Z-stem. Quantum dots have been pegylated to increase stability in aqueous solution. The fluorescence intensity of the quantum dots was modulated pegylation. PEG was coupled using different ratios of EDC, PEG and NHS. Optimum coupling conditions were found to occur when 2000 equivalents of PEG were reacted with 1 equivalent of dot in the presence of 1500 equivalents of NHS and EDC. Angiotensin II was also conjugated to quantum dots and these conjugates were shown to be biologically active. Quantum dots have also been surface functionalised with other peptides such as NGR with subsequent demonstration of cell surface binding and can be characterized by flow cytometry.

  16. Quantum dot spin cellular automata for realizing a quantum processor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayat, Abolfazl; Creffield, Charles E.; Jefferson, John H.; Pepper, Michael; Bose, Sougato

    2015-10-01

    We show how single quantum dots, each hosting a singlet-triplet qubit, can be placed in arrays to build a spin quantum cellular automaton. A fast (˜10 ns) deterministic coherent singlet-triplet filtering, as opposed to current incoherent tunneling/slow-adiabatic based quantum gates (operation time ˜300 ns), can be employed to produce a two-qubit gate through capacitive (electrostatic) couplings that can operate over significant distances. This is the coherent version of the widely discussed charge and nano-magnet cellular automata, and would increase speed, reduce dissipation, and perform quantum computation while interfacing smoothly with its classical counterpart. This combines the best of two worlds—the coherence of spin pairs known from quantum technologies, and the strength and range of electrostatic couplings from the charge-based classical cellular automata. Significantly our system has zero electric dipole moment during the whole operation process, thereby increasing its charge dephasing time.

  17. Quantum Dots: An Experiment for Physical or Materials Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, L. D.; Arceo, J. F.; Hughes, W. C.; DeGraff, B. A.; Augustine, B. H.

    2005-01-01

    An experiment is conducted for obtaining quantum dots for physical or materials chemistry. This experiment serves to both reinforce the basic concept of quantum confinement and providing a useful bridge between the molecular and solid-state world.

  18. Lifetime blinking in nonblinking nanocrystal quantum dots.

    PubMed

    Galland, Christophe; Ghosh, Yagnaseni; Steinbrück, Andrea; Hollingsworth, Jennifer A; Htoon, Han; Klimov, Victor I

    2012-01-01

    Nanocrystal quantum dots are attractive materials for applications as nanoscale light sources. One impediment to these applications is fluctuations of single-dot emission intensity, known as blinking. Recent progress in colloidal synthesis has produced nonblinking nanocrystals; however, the physics underlying blinking suppression remains unclear. Here we find that ultra-thick-shell CdSe/CdS nanocrystals can exhibit pronounced fluctuations in the emission lifetimes (lifetime blinking), despite stable nonblinking emission intensity. We demonstrate that lifetime variations are due to switching between the neutral and negatively charged state of the nanocrystal. Negative charging results in faster radiative decay but does not appreciably change the overall emission intensity because of suppressed nonradiative Auger recombination for negative trions. The Auger process involving excitation of a hole (positive trion pathway) remains efficient and is responsible for charging with excess electrons, which occurs via Auger-assisted ionization of biexcitons accompanied by ejection of holes. PMID:22713750

  19. Lateral excitonic switching in vertically stacked quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jarzynka, Jarosław R.; McDonald, Peter G.; Shumway, John; Galbraith, Ian

    2016-06-01

    We show that the application of a vertical electric field to the Coulomb interacting system in stacked quantum dots leads to a 90° in-plane switching of charge probability distribution in contrast to a single dot, where no such switching exists. Results are obtained using path integral quantum Monte Carlo with realistic dot geometry, alloy composition, and piezo-electric potential profiles. The origin of the switching lies in the strain interactions between the stacked dots hence the need for more than one layer of dots. The lateral polarization and electric field dependence of the radiative lifetimes of the excitonic switch are also discussed.

  20. Nano-laser on silicon quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Qi; Liu, Shi-Rong; Qin, Chao-Jian; Lü, Quan; Xu, Li

    2011-04-01

    A new conception of nano-laser is proposed in which depending on the size of nano-clusters (silicon quantum dots (QD)), the pumping level of laser can be tuned by the quantum confinement (QC) effect, and the population inversion can be formed between the valence band and the localized states in gap produced from the surface bonds of nano-clusters. Here we report the experimental demonstration of nano-laser on silicon quantum dots fabricated by nanosecond pulse laser. The peaks of stimulated emission are observed at 605 nm and 693 nm. Through the micro-cavity of nano-laser, a full width at half maximum of the peak at 693 nm can reach to 0.5 nm. The theoretical model and the experimental results indicate that it is a necessary condition for setting up nano-laser that the smaller size of QD (d < 3 nm) can make the localized states into band gap. The emission energy of nano-laser will be limited in the range of 1.7-2.3 eV generally due to the position of the localized states in gap, which is in good agreement between the experiments and the theory.

  1. Reliability and failure mode investigation of high-power multimode InGaAs strained quantum well single emitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sin, Yongkun; Foran, Brendan; Presser, Nathan; Mason, Maribeth; Moss, Steven C.

    2007-02-01

    In recent years record performance characteristics from multi-mode InGaAs strained quantum well single emitters at 920-980nm have been reported including a maximum CW optical output power of ~20W and a power conversion efficiency of ~75%. These excellent performance characteristics are only possible through combined optimization of laser structure design, chip fabrication processes, and packaging. Whereas broad area multi-mode single emitters likely have sufficient reliability for industrial uses, reliability of these lasers still remains a concern for communications applications including deployment in potential space satellite systems where high reliability is required. Most of previous reports on these lasers have been focused on their performance characteristics with very limited reports on failure mode analysis although understanding the physics of failure is crucial in developing a proper lifetime model for these lasers. We thus report on the reliability and failure mode analysis of high power multi-mode single emitters. The lasers studied were broad area strained InGaAs single QW lasers at 940-980nm with typical aperture widths of around 100μm. At an injection current of 7A typical CW output powers were over 6W at 25°C with a wall plug efficiency of ~60%. First, various lasing characteristics were measured including spatial and thermal characteristics that are critical to understanding performance and reliability of these devices. ACC burn-in tests with different stress conditions were performed on these devices until their failure. We report accelerated lifetest results with over 5000 accumulated test hours. Finally, we report failure mode investigation results of the degraded lasers.

  2. Power-law photoluminescence decay in quantum dots

    SciTech Connect

    Král, Karel; Menšík, Miroslav

    2014-05-15

    Some quantum dot samples show a long-time (power-law) behavior of their luminescence intensity decay. This effect has been recently explained as being due to a cooperation of many tunneling channels transferring electrons from small quantum dots with triplet exciton to quantum dots at which the electrons can recombine with the holes in the valence band states. In this work we show that the long-time character of the sample luminescence decay can also be caused by an intrinsic property of a single dot, namely, by a non-adiabatic effect of the electron occupation up-conversion caused by the electron-phonon multiple scattering mechanism.

  3. Thermodynamic properties of a quantum Hall anti-dot interferometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy Schreier, Sarah; Stern, Ady; Rosenow, Bernd; Halperin, Bertrand I.

    2016-02-01

    We study quantum Hall interferometers in which the interference loop encircles a quantum anti-dot. We base our study on thermodynamic considerations, which we believe reflect the essential aspects of interference transport phenomena. We find that similar to the more conventional Fabry-Perot quantum Hall interferometers, in which the interference loop forms a quantum dot, the anti-dot interferometer is affected by the electro-static Coulomb interaction between the edge modes defining the loop. We show that in the Aharonov-Bohm regime, in which effects of fractional statistics should be visible, is easier to access in interferometers based on anti-dots than in those based on dots. We discuss the relevance of our results to recent measurements on anti-dots interferometers.

  4. Controlling quantum dot energies using submonolayer bandstructure engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, L.; Law, S.; Wasserman, D.; Jung, D.; Lee, M. L.; Shen, J.; Cha, J. J.

    2014-08-25

    We demonstrate control of energy states in epitaxially-grown quantum dot structures formed by stacked submonolayer InAs depositions via engineering of the internal bandstructure of the dots. Transmission electron microscopy of the stacked sub-monolayer regions shows compositional inhomogeneity, indicative of the presence of quantum dots. The quantum dot ground state is manipulated not only by the number of deposited InAs layers, but also by control of the thickness and material composition of the spacing layers between submonolayer InAs depositions. In this manner, we demonstrate the ability to shift the quantum dot ground state energy at 77 K from 1.38 eV to 1.88 eV. The results presented offer a potential avenue towards enhanced control of dot energies for a variety of optoelectronic applications.

  5. Quantum Dot Device Design Optimization for Resonator Coupling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    King, Cameron; Coppersmith, S. N.; Friesen, Mark

    Coupling a semiconductor quantum dot qubit to a superconducting resonator broadens the possibilities for interqubit communication and potentially allows integration of quantum dots with other qubit systems. The major technological hurdle that must be overcome is reaching the strong coupling limit, where the coupling frequency between the resonator and the qubit is larger than both the qubit decoherence rate and the photon loss rate of the resonator. In this work, we examine optimization of the quantum dot device design. Using the Thomas-Fermi approximation in conjunction with a metallic dot capacitive model, we focus on improving the capacitive coupling between a resonator gate and a quantum dot while decreasing the cross-coupling to nearby dots. Through these simulations, we find that the optimization follows an intuitive geometric relation. This work was supported in part by ARO (W911NF-12-0607), NSF (PHY-1104660), and ONR (N00014-15-1-0029).

  6. Fabrication of a graphene quantum dot device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jeong Il; Kim, Eunseong

    2014-03-01

    Graphene, which exhibits a massless Dirac-like spectrum for its electrons, has shown impressive properties for nano-electronics applications including a high mobility and a width dependent bandgap. We will report the preliminary report on the transport property of the suspended graphene nano-ribbon(GNR) quantum dot device down to dilution refrigerator temperature. This GNR QD device was fabricated to realize an ideal probe to investigate Kondo physics--a characteristic phenomenon in the physics of strongly correlated electrons. We gratefully acknowledge the financial support by the National Research Foundation of Korea through the Creative Research Initiatives.

  7. A hybrid silicon evanescent quantum dot laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jang, Bongyong; Tanabe, Katsuaki; Kako, Satoshi; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Tsuchizawa, Tai; Nishi, Hidetaka; Hatori, Nobuaki; Noguchi, Masataka; Nakamura, Takahiro; Takemasa, Keizo; Sugawara, Mitsuru; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2016-09-01

    We report the first demonstration of a hybrid silicon quantum dot (QD) laser, evanescently coupled to a silicon waveguide. InAs/GaAs QD laser structures with thin AlGaAs lower cladding layers were transferred by direct wafer bonding onto silicon waveguides defining cavities with adiabatic taper structures and distributed Bragg reflectors. The laser operates at temperatures up to 115 °C under pulsed current conditions, with a characteristic temperature T 0 of 303 K near room temperature. Furthermore, by reducing the width of the GaAs/AlGaAs mesa down to 8 µm, continuous-wave operation is realized at 25 °C.

  8. Superexchange blockade in triple quantum dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez, Rafael; Gallego-Marcos, Fernando; Platero, Gloria

    2014-04-01

    We propose the interaction of two electrons in a triple quantum dot as a minimal system to control long-range superexchange transitions. These are probed by transport spectroscopy. Narrow resonances appear indicating the transfer of charge from one side of the sample to the other with the central one being occupied only virtually. We predict that two different intermediate states establish the two arms of a one-dimensional interferometer. We find configurations where destructive interference of the two superexchange trajectories totally blocks the current through the system. We emphasize the role of spin correlations giving rise to lifetime-enhanced resonances.

  9. Implementing of Quantum Cloning with Spatially Separated Quantum Dot Spins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Jing-Ji; Yeon, Kyu-Hwang; Du, Xin; Lv, Jia; Wang, Ming; Wang, Hong-Fu; Zhang, Shou

    2016-07-01

    We propose some schemes for implementing optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 universal quantum cloning, optimal symmetric (asymmetric) 1 → 2 phase-covariant cloning, optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical phase-covariant cloning and optimal symmetric 1 → 3 economical real state cloning with spatially separated quantum dot spins by choosing the single-qubit rotation angles appropriately. The decoherences of the spontaneous emission of QDs, cavity decay and fiber loss are suppressed since the effective long-distance off-resonant interaction between two distant QDs is mediated by the vacuum fields of the fiber and cavity, and during the whole process no system is excited.

  10. Quantum Adiabatic Pumping by Modulating Tunnel Phase in Quantum Dots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taguchi, Masahiko; Nakajima, Satoshi; Kubo, Toshihiro; Tokura, Yasuhiro

    2016-08-01

    In a mesoscopic system, under zero bias voltage, a finite charge is transferred by quantum adiabatic pumping by adiabatically and periodically changing two or more control parameters. We obtained expressions for the pumped charge for a ring of three quantum dots (QDs) by choosing the magnetic flux penetrating the ring as one of the control parameters. We found that the pumped charge shows a steplike behavior with respect to the variance of the flux. The value of the step heights is not universal but depends on the trajectory of the control parameters. We discuss the physical origin of this behavior on the basis of the Fano resonant condition of the ring.