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Sample records for inhalable aerosol sampler

  1. A Simple and Disposable Sampler for Inhalable Aerosol.

    PubMed

    L'Orange, Christian; Anderson, Kimberly; Sleeth, Darrah; Anthony, T Renée; Volckens, John

    2016-03-01

    The state-of-the-art for personal sampling for inhalable aerosol hazards is constrained by issues of sampler cost and complexity; these issues have limited the adoption and use of some samplers by practicing hygienists. Thus, despite the known health effects of inhalable aerosol hazards, personal exposures are routinely assessed for only a small fraction of the at-risk workforce. To address the limitations of current technologies for inhalable aerosol sampling, a disposable inhalable aerosol sampler was developed and evaluated in the laboratory. The new sampler is designed to be less expensive and simpler to use than existing technologies. The sampler incorporates a lightweight internal capsule fused to the sampling filter. This capsule-filter assembly allows for the inclusion of particles deposited on the internal walls and inlet, thus minimizing the need to wash or wipe the interior sampling cassette when conducting gravimetric analyses. Sampling efficiency and wall losses were tested in a low-velocity wind tunnel with particles ranging from 9.5 to 89.5 μm. The results were compared to the proposed low-velocity inhalability criterion as well as published data on the IOM sampler. Filter weight stability and time-to-equilibrium were evaluated as these factors affect the practicality of a design. Preliminary testing of the new sampler showed good agreement with both the IOM and the proposed low-velocity inhalability curve. The capsule and filter assemblies reached equilibrium within 25h of manufacturing when conditioned at elevated temperatures. After reaching equilibrium, the capsule-filter assemblies were stable within 0.01mg. PMID:26467335

  2. A collaborative European study of personal inhalable aerosol sampler performance.

    PubMed

    Kenny, L C; Aitken, R; Chalmers, C; Fabriès, J F; Gonzalez-Fernandez, E; Kromhout, H; Lidén, G; Mark, D; Riediger, G; Prodi, V

    1997-04-01

    Following the adoption of new international sampling conventions for inhalable, thoracic and respirable aerosol fractions, a working group of Comité Européen de Normalisation (CEN) drafted a standard for the performance of workplace aerosol sampling instruments. The present study was set up to verify the experimental, statistical and mathematical procedures recommended in the draft performance standard and to check that they could be applied to inhalable aerosol samplers. This was achieved by applying the tests to eight types of personal inhalable aerosol sampler commonly used for workplace monitoring throughout Europe. The study led to recommendations for revising the CEN draft standard, in order to simplify the tests and reduce their cost. However, some further work will be needed to develop simpler test facilities and methods. Several of the samplers tested were found to perform adequately with respect to the inhalable sampling convention, at least over a limited range of typical workplace conditions. In general the samplers were found to perform best in low external wind speeds, which are the test conditions thought to be closest to those normally found in indoor workplaces. The practical implementation of the CEN aerosol sampling conventions requires decisions on which sampling instruments to use, estimation of the likely impact that changing sampling methods could have on apparent exposures, and adjustment where necessary of exposure limit values. The sampler performance data obtained in this project were affected by large experimental errors, but are nevertheless a useful input to decisions on how to incorporate the CEN inhalable sampling convention into regulation, guidance and occupational hygiene practice. PMID:9155236

  3. High efficiency CIP 10-I personal inhalable aerosol sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görner, P.; Wrobel, R.; Simon, X.

    2009-02-01

    The CIP 10 personal aerosol sampler was first developed by Courbon for sampling the respirable fraction of mining dust. This respirable aerosol sampler was further improved by Fabries, then selectors for sampling thoracic and inhalable aerosols were designed. Kenny et al. evaluated the particle-size dependent sampling efficiency of the inhalable version in a large-scale wind tunnel using a life-size dummy. The authors found that the overall sampling efficiency decreases more rapidly than the CEN-ISO-ACGIH target efficiency curve. Görner and Witschger measured the aspiration efficiency of the CIP 10 omni-directional inlet. They found that the aspiration efficiency was high enough for inhalable aerosol sampling. This result led to the conclusion that the low sampling efficiency is due to some internal losses of the aspirated particles before they reach the final sampling stage, namely the CIP 10 rotating filter. Based on the assumption that the inhalable particles are selected at selector aspiration level, an experimental research project was conducted to improve particle transmission to the collection stage of the sampler. Two different inhalable selectors were designed by Görner and tested in a laboratory wind tunnel. The transmission efficiency of both models was measured by Roger following an experimental protocol described by Witschger. The T-shaped air flow circuit was finally adopted to draw the aspirated particles into the final collection stage of the CIP 10. Actually, in this selector, the almost horizontally aspirated particles should be conducted vertically to the rotating cup. In two previous prototypes, particles could be deposited in certain places by inertia (where the aerosol was forced to deviate drastically) or by sedimentation (where the aerosol decelerated). The aerodynamic behaviour of the adopted solution causes the particles to accelerate radially between two horizontal plates before they enter a vertical tube. This acceleration avoids the

  4. Performance of personal inhalable aerosol samplers in very slowly moving air when facing the aerosol source.

    PubMed

    Witschger, O; Grinshpun, S A; Fauvel, S; Basso, G

    2004-06-01

    While personal aerosol samplers have been characterized primarily based on wind tunnel tests conducted at relatively high wind speeds, modern indoor occupational environments are usually represented by very slow moving air. Recent surveys suggest that elevated levels of occupational exposure to inhalable airborne particles are typically observed when the worker, operating in the vicinity of the dust source, faces the source. Thus, the first objective of this study was to design and test a new, low cost experimental protocol for measuring the sampling efficiency of personal inhalable aerosol samplers in the vicinity of the aerosol source when the samplers operate in very slowly moving air. In this system, an aerosol generator, which is located in the centre of a room-sized non-ventilated chamber, continuously rotates and omnidirectionally disperses test particles of a specific size. The test and reference samplers are equally distributed around the source at the same distance from the centre and operate in parallel (in most of our experiments, the total number of simultaneously operating samplers was 15). Radial aerosol transport is driven by turbulent diffusion and some natural convection. For each specific particle size and the sampler, the aerosol mass concentration is measured by weighing the collection filter. The second objective was to utilize the new protocol to evaluate three widely used aerosol samplers: the IOM Personal Inhalable Sampler, the Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler and the 25 mm Millipore filter holder (closed-face C25 cassette). The sampling efficiencies of each instrument were measured with six particle fractions, ranging from 6.9 to 76.9 micro m in their mass median aerodynamic diameter. The Button Sampler efficiency data demonstrated a good agreement with the standard inhalable convention and especially with the low air movement inhalabilty curve. The 25 mm filter holder was found to considerably under-sample the particles larger

  5. Relationship between indoor and outdoor bioaerosols collected with a button inhalable aerosol sampler in urban homes

    PubMed Central

    Lee, T.; Grinshpun, S. A.; Martuzevicius, D.; Adhikari, A.; Crawford, C. M.; Luo, J.; Reponen, T.

    2007-01-01

    This field study investigated the relationship between indoor and outdoor concentrations of airborne actinomycetes, fungal spores, and pollen. Air samples were collected for 24 h with a button inhalable aerosol sampler inside and outside of six single-family homes located in the Cincinnati area (overall, 15 pairs of samples were taken in each home). The measurements were conducted during three seasons – spring and fall 2004, and winter 2005. The concentration of culturable actinomycetes was mostly below the detection limit. The median indoor/outdoor ratio (I/O) for actinomycetes was the highest: 2.857. The indoor of fungal and pollen concentrations followed the outdoor concentrations while indoor levels were mostly lower than the outdoor ones. The I/O ratio of total fungal spores (median = 0.345) in six homes was greater than that of pollen grains (median = 0.025). The low I/O ratios obtained for pollen during the peak ambient pollination season (spring) suggest that only a small fraction penetrated from outdoor to indoor environment. This is attributed to the larger size of pollen grains. Higher indoor concentration levels and variability in the I/O ratio observed for airborne fungi may be associated with indoor sources and/or higher outdoor-to-indoor penetration of fungal spores compared to pollen grains. PMID:16420496

  6. The Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (ARIES): PM2.5 mass and aerosol component concentrations and sampler intercomparisons.

    PubMed

    Van Loy, M; Bahadori, T; Wyzga, R; Hartsell, B; Edgerton, E

    2000-08-01

    The Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (ARIES) was designed to provide high-quality measurements of PM2.5, its components, and co-varying pollutants for an air pollution epidemiology study in Atlanta, GA. Air pollution epidemiology studies have typically relied on available data on particle mass often collected using filter-based methods. Filter-based PM2.5 sampling is susceptible to both positive and negative errors in the measurement of aerosol mass and particle-phase component concentrations in the undisturbed atmosphere. These biases are introduced by collection of gas-phase aerosol components on the filter media or by volatilization of particle phase components from collected particles. As part of the ARIES, we collected daily 24-hr PM2.5 mass and speciation samples and continuous PM2.5 data at a mixed residential-light industrial site in Atlanta. These data facilitate analysis of the effects of a wide variety of factors on sampler performance. We assess the relative importance of PM2.5 components and consider associations and potential mechanistic linkages of PM2.5 mass concentrations with several PM2.5 components. For the 12 months of validated data collected to date (August 1, 1998-July 31, 1999), the monthly average Federal Reference Method (FRM) PM2.5 mass always exceeded the proposed annual average standard (12-month average = 20.3 +/- 9.5 micrograms/m3). The particulate SO4(2-) fraction (as (NH4)2SO4) was largest in the summer and exceeded 50% of the FRM mass. The contribution of (NH4)2SO4 to FRM PM2.5 mass dropped to less than 30% in winter. Particulate NO3- collected on a denuded nylon filter averaged 1.1 +/- 0.9 micrograms/m3. Particle-phase organic compounds (as organic carbon x 1.4) measured on a denuded quartz filter sampler averaged 6.4 +/- 3.1 micrograms/m3 (32% of FRM PM2.5 mass) with less seasonal variability than SO4(2-). PMID:11002607

  7. Experimental methods to determine inhalability and personal sampler performance for aerosols in ultra-low windspeed environments.

    PubMed

    Schmees, Darrah K; Wu, Yi-Hsuan; Vincent, James H

    2008-12-01

    Most previous experiments of aerosol inhalability as it relates to particle aerodynamic diameter were conducted in wind tunnels for windspeeds greater than 0.5 m s(-1). While that body of work was used to establish an inhalable aerosol convention, results from studies in calm air chambers (for essentially zero windspeed) are being discussed as the basis of a modified criterion. Meanwhile, however, information is lacking for windspeeds in the intermediate range, which--it so happens--pertain to most actual workplaces. With this in mind, we have developed a new experimental system to assess inhalability and personal sampler performance for aerosols with particle aerodynamic diameter within the range from 6 to 90 microm for ultra-low windspeed environments from about 0.1 to 0.5 m s(-1). In this range of conditions for particle size and windspeed, controlled aerosol experiments are very difficult to perform, most notably with respect to the problem of achieving uniform spatial distributions of both test aerosols and air velocity. In the work reported in this paper, we have addressed these difficulties in a new, custom-designed experimental facility. It is a novel wind tunnel design that provides stable and controllable low-turbulence air movement, and allows for the delivery of test aerosol to the working section both from upstream (as in conventional wind tunnel experiments) and from above (as in calm air studies). In this system, losses by elutriation of particles that are being convected in the horizontal aerosol flow are compensated by particles entering from above by gravitational settling. An important feature of the new facility is the life-size, breathing mannequin that contains physical means to achieve any combination of mouth and nasal inspiration and expiration, and allows any desired relevant breathing flowrate and pattern by means of an external computer-controlled breathing simulator. Special steps were taken in the detailed design to ensure that

  8. VALIDATION OF SAMPLERS FOR INHALED PARTICULATE MATTER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methods for the testing of new samplers for inhalable particles have been developed and applied to the dichotomous sampler and the size-selective hi-vol. The sampling effectiveness of the inlet to the dichotomous sampler was measured and found to be excessively dependent on wind ...

  9. Performance of the Button Personal Inhalable Sampler for the measurement of outdoor aeroallergens

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, Atin; Martuzevicius, Dainius; Reponen, Tiina; Grinshpun, Sergey A.; Cho, Seung-Hyun; Sivasubramani, Satheesh K.; Zhong, Wei; Levin, Linda; Kelley, Anna L.; St. Clair, Harry G.; LeMasters, Grace

    No personal aerosol sampler has been evaluated for monitoring aeroallergens in outdoor field conditions and compared to conventional stationary aerobiological samplers. Recently developed Button Personal Inhalable Aerosol Sampler has demonstrated high sampling efficiency for non-biological particles and low sensitivity to the wind direction and velocity. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the Button Sampler for the measurement of outdoor pollen grains and fungal spores side-by-side with the widely used Rotorod Sampler. The sampling was performed for 8 months (spring, summer and fall) at a monitoring station on the roof of a two-storied office building located in the center of the city of Cincinnati. Two identical Button Samplers, one oriented towards the most prevalent wind and the other towards the opposite wind and a Rotorod Sampler were placed side-by-side. The total fungal spore concentration ranged from 129 to 12,980 spores m -3 (number per cubic meter of air) and the total pollen concentration from 4 to 4536 pollen m -3. The fungal spore concentrations obtained with the two Button Samplers correlated well ( r=0.95; p<0.0001). The pollen data also showed positive correlation. These findings strongly support the results of earlier studies conducted with non-biological aerosol particles, which demonstrated a low wind dependence of the performance of the Button Sampler compared to other samplers. The Button Sampler's inlet efficiency was found to be more dependent on wind direction when sampling larger sized Pinaceae pollen grains (aerodynamic diameter ≈65 μm). Compared to Rotorod, both Button Samplers measured significantly higher total fungal spore concentrations. For total pollen count, the Button Sampler facing the prevalent wind showed concentrations levels comparable to that of the Rotorod, but the Button Sampler oriented opposite to the prevalent wind demonstrated lower concentration levels. Overall, it was concluded that the Button Sampler is

  10. Nanotechnology and pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R; Vavia, P R

    2007-02-01

    Pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols have been playing a crucial role in the health and well being of millions of people throughout the world for many years. The technology's continual advancement, the ease of use and the more desirable pulmonary-rather-than-needle delivery for systemic drugs has increased the attraction for the pharmaceutical aerosol in recent years. But administration of drugs by the pulmonary route is technically challenging because oral deposition can be high, and variations in inhalation technique can affect the quantity of drug delivered to the lungs. Recent advances in nanotechnology, particularly drug delivery field have encouraged formulation scientists to expand their reach in solving tricky problems related to drug delivery. Moreover, application of nanotechnology to aerosol science has opened up a new category of pharmaceutical aerosols (collectively known as nanoenabled-aerosols) with added advantages and effectiveness. In this review, some of the latest approaches of nano-enabled aerosol drug delivery system (including nano-suspension, trojan particles, bioadhesive nanoparticles and smart particle aerosols) that can be employed successfully to overcome problems of conventional aerosol systems have been introduced. PMID:17375556

  11. Study of fifteen respirable aerosol samplers used in occupational hygiene.

    PubMed

    Görner, P; Wrobel, R; Micka, V; Skoda, V; Denis, J; Fabriès, J F

    2001-01-01

    European and international standards lay down criteria for the size-selective aerosol sampling in occupational hygiene. Aerosol samplers are supposed to match these target sampling criteria. This study focused on 15 aerosol samplers used to sample the conventional respirable fraction. An aerodynamic particle sizer (APS) method was used to measure the sampling efficiency of the samplers in a low-velocity wind tunnel. Polydisperse coal dust was generated as the test aerosol. The data were fitted by an appropriate mathematical model. For some instruments the results show serious deviations from the conventional target curve, whereas other devices meet the convention quite well. The flow rate of certain cyclone-separator-based instruments was optimized to adjust their sampling efficiency. The mass concentration bias and accuracy of the samplers were calculated for a number of ranges of particle size distributions of aerosols commonly found in industrial workplaces. Finally, the performance of each sampler was evaluated using bias and accuracy maps. Most of these samplers are suitable for sampling the CEN-ISO-ACGIH respirable fraction of aerosols, but several require modification of the flow rate. For real industrial situations, the rough knowledge of the aerosol size distribution can guide the choice of an appropriate sampling technique. PMID:11137698

  12. Field comparison of three inhalable samplers (IOM, PGP-GSP 3.5 and Button) for welding fumes.

    PubMed

    Zugasti, Agurtzane; Montes, Natividad; Rojo, José M; Quintana, M José

    2012-02-01

    Inhalable sampler efficiency depends on the aerodynamic size of the airborne particles to be sampled and the wind speed. The aim of this study was to compare the behaviour of three personal inhalable samplers for welding fumes generated by Manual Metal Arc (MMA) and Metal Active Gas (MAG) processes. The selected samplers were the ones available in Spain when the study began: IOM, PGP-GSP 3.5 (GSP) and Button. Sampling was carried out in a welding training center that provided a homogeneous workplace environment. The static sampling assembly used allowed the placement of 12 samplers and 2 cascade impactors simultaneously. 183 samples were collected throughout 2009 and 2010. The range of welding fumes' mass concentrations was from 2 mg m(-3) to 5 mg m(-3). The pooled variation coefficients for the three inhalable samplers were less than or equal to 3.0%. Welding particle size distribution was characterized by a bimodal log-normal distribution, with MMADs of 0.7 μm and 8.2 μm. For these welding aerosols, the Button and the GSP samplers showed a similar performance (P = 0.598). The mean mass concentration ratio was 1.00 ± 0.01. The IOM sampler showed a different performance (P < 0.001). The mean mass concentration ratios were 0.90 ± 0.01 for Button/IOM and 0.92 ± 0.02 for GSP/IOM. This information is useful to consider the measurements accomplished by the IOM, GSP or Button samplers together, in order to assess the exposure at workplaces over time or to study exposure levels in a specific industrial activity, as welding operations. PMID:22037834

  13. A headset-mounted mini sampler for measuring exposure to welding aerosol in the breathing zone.

    PubMed

    Lidén, Göran; Surakka, Jouni

    2009-03-01

    to keep its flow rate constant within +/-5% at higher concentrations and for longer sampling times. Our results indicate that the inhalable fraction of the welding aerosol mass at the visited plants only consisted of 25-55% welding fume particles (agglomerates of coagulated particles generated by nucleation/condensation). The rest of the mass is made up of particles from spattering and grinding. More than 65% of manganese is generally found in the fume particles. The weighing precision of 13-mm filters is 2.2 microg. The RMS sample loss due to transport when loaded samples are shipped by mail in padded envelopes is 6 microg. Both figures are very low in comparison to the mass expected to be collected by personal sampling, generally exceeding 200 microg. The headset-mounted mini sampler is user-friendly, easy to adjust individually, does not disturb the welder during sampling and allows sampling inside personal protective equipment. The headset mounting arrangement improves personal sampling as it maintains the sampler close to the nose/mouth during the whole sampling period. This study shows that the developed headset-mounted mini sampler is suitable for assessing exposure to manganese in welding aerosol. PMID:19196747

  14. Efficiency tests of samplers for microbiological aerosols, a review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Henningson, E.; Faengmark, I.

    1984-01-01

    To obtain comparable results from studies using a variety of samplers of microbiological aerosols with different collection performances for various particle sizes, methods reported in the literature were surveyed, evaluated, and tabulated for testing the efficiency of the samplers. It is concluded that these samplers were not thoroughly tested, using reliable methods. Tests were conducted in static air chambers and in various outdoor and work environments. Results are not reliable as it is difficult to achieve stable and reproducible conditions in these test systems. Testing in a wind tunnel is recommended.

  15. Inhalability for aerosols at ultra-low windspeeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sleeth, Darrah K.; Vincent, James H.

    2009-02-01

    Most previous experimental studies of aerosol inhalability were conducted in wind tunnels for windspeeds greater than 0.5 ms-1. While that body of work was used to establish a convention for the inhalable fraction, results from studies in calm air chambers (for essentially zero windspeed) are being discussed as the basis of a modified criterion. However, information is lacking for windspeeds in the intermediate range, which - it so happens - pertain to most actual workplaces. With this in mind, we have developed a new experimental system to assess inhalability - and, ultimately, personal sampler performance - for aerosols with particle aerodynamic diameter within the range from about 9 to 90 μm for ultra-low windspeed environments from about 0.1 to 0.5 ms1. This new system contains an aerosol test facility, fully described elsewhere, that combines the physical attributes and performance characteristics of moving air wind tunnels and calm air chambers, both of which have featured individually in previous research. It also contains a specially-designed breathing, heated, life-sized mannequin that allows for accurate recovery of test particulate material that has been inhaled. Procedures have been developed that employ test aerosols of well-defined particle size distribution generated mechanically from narrowly-graded powders of fused alumina. Using this new system, we have conducted an extensive set of new experiments to measure the inhalability of a human subject (as represented by the mannequin), aimed at filling the current knowledge gap for conditions that are more realistic than those embodied in most previous research. These data reveal that inhalability throughout the range of interest is significantly different based on windspeed, indicating a rise in aspiration efficiency as windspeed decreases. Breathing flowrate and mode of breathing (i.e. nose versus mouth breathing) did not show significant differences for the inhalability of aerosols. On the whole

  16. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler

    PubMed Central

    Sleeth, Darrah K.; Balthaser, Susan A.; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R.

    2016-01-01

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET1) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET2). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm–44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device. PMID:26959046

  17. Estimation of the Human Extrathoracic Deposition Fraction of Inhaled Particles Using a Polyurethane Foam Collection Substrate in an IOM Sampler.

    PubMed

    Sleeth, Darrah K; Balthaser, Susan A; Collingwood, Scott; Larson, Rodney R

    2016-03-01

    Extrathoracic deposition of inhaled particles (i.e., in the head and throat) is an important exposure route for many hazardous materials. Current best practices for exposure assessment of aerosols in the workplace involve particle size selective sampling methods based on particle penetration into the human respiratory tract (i.e., inhalable or respirable sampling). However, the International Organization for Standardization (ISO) has recently adopted particle deposition sampling conventions (ISO 13138), including conventions for extrathoracic (ET) deposition into the anterior nasal passage (ET₁) and the posterior nasal and oral passages (ET₂). For this study, polyurethane foam was used as a collection substrate inside an inhalable aerosol sampler to provide an estimate of extrathoracic particle deposition. Aerosols of fused aluminum oxide (five sizes, 4.9 µm-44.3 µm) were used as a test dust in a low speed (0.2 m/s) wind tunnel. Samplers were placed on a rotating mannequin inside the wind tunnel to simulate orientation-averaged personal sampling. Collection efficiency data for the foam insert matched well to the extrathoracic deposition convention for the particle sizes tested. The concept of using a foam insert to match a particle deposition sampling convention was explored in this study and shows promise for future use as a sampling device. PMID:26959046

  18. Solid versus Liquid Particle Sampling Efficiency of Three Personal Aerosol Samplers when Facing the Wind

    PubMed Central

    Koehler, Kirsten A.; Anthony, T. Renee; Van Dyke, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the facing-the-wind sampling efficiency of three personal aerosol samplers as a function of particle phase (solid versus liquid). Samplers examined were the IOM, Button, and a prototype personal high-flow inhalable sampler head (PHISH). The prototype PHISH was designed to interface with the 37-mm closed-face cassette and provide an inhalable sample at 10 l min−1 of flow. Increased flow rate increases the amount of mass collected during a typical work shift and helps to ensure that limits of detection are met, particularly for well-controlled but highly toxic species. Two PHISH prototypes were tested: one with a screened inlet and one with a single-pore open-face inlet. Personal aerosol samplers were tested on a bluff-body disc that was rotated along the facing-the-wind axis to reduce spatiotemporal variability associated with sampling supermicron aerosol in low-velocity wind tunnels. When compared to published data for facing-wind aspiration efficiency for a mouth-breathing mannequin, the IOM oversampled relative to mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency for all sizes and particle types (solid and liquid). The sampling efficiency of the Button sampler was closer to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency than the IOM for solid particles, but the screened inlet removed most liquid particles, resulting in a large underestimation compared to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency. The open-face PHISH results showed overestimation for solid particles and underestimation for liquid particles when compared to the mannequin facing-the-wind aspiration efficiency. Substantial (and statistically significant) differences in sampling efficiency were observed between liquid and solid particles, particularly for the Button and screened-PHISH, with a majority of aerosol mass depositing on the screened inlets of these samplers. Our results suggest that large droplets have low penetration efficiencies

  19. Field and Wind Tunnel Comparison of Four Aerosol Samplers Using Agricultural Dusts

    PubMed Central

    Reynolds, Stephen J.; Nakatsu, Jason; Tillery, Marvin; Keefe, Thomas; Mehaffy, John; Thorne, Peter S.; Donham, Kelley; Nonnenmann, Matthew; Golla, Vijay; O'shaughnessy, Patrick

    2009-01-01

    Occupational lung disease is a significant problem among agricultural workers exposed to organic dusts. Measurements of exposure in agricultural environments in the USA have traditionally been conducted using 37-mm closed-face cassettes (CFCs) and respirable Cyclones. Inhalable aerosol samplers offer significant improvement for dose estimation studies to reduce respiratory disease. The goals of this study were to determine correction factors between the inhalable samplers (IOM and Button) and the CFC and Cyclone for dusts sampled in livestock buildings and to determine whether these factors vary among livestock types. Determination of these correction factors will allow comparison between inhalable measurements and historical measurements. Ten sets of samples were collected in swine, chicken, turkey, and dairy facilities in both Colorado and Iowa. Pairs of each sampling device were attached to the front and back of a rotating mannequin. Laboratory studies using a still-air chamber and a wind tunnel provided information regarding the effect of wind speed on sampler performance. Overall, the IOM had the lowest coefficient of variation (best precision) and was least affected by changes in wind speed. The performance of the Button was negatively impacted in poultry environments where larger (feather) particulates clogged the holes in the initial screen. The CFC/IOM ratios are important for comparisons between newer and older studies. Wind speed and dust type were both important factors affecting ratios. Based on the field studies (Table 6), a ratio of 0.56 is suggested as a conversion factor for the CFC/IOM (average for all environments because of no statistical difference). Suggested conversion factors for the Button/IOM are swine (0.57), chicken (0.80), turkey (0.53), and dairy (0.67). Any attempt to apply a conversion factor between the Cyclone and inhalable samplers is not recommended. PMID:19443852

  20. Occupational exposure to inhalable and total aerosol in the primary nickel production industry.

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, P J; Vincent, J H; Wahl, G; Maldonado, G

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVES--This paper describes a study that was carried out in the primary nickel production industry to investigate the levels of personal exposure to aerosols containing nickel and the impact on exposure assessment of introducing new personal sampling techniques with performance consistent with the latest particle size-selective criteria. METHODS--Experiments were carried out at workplaces in mining, milling, smelting, and refining works to investigate the effect of changing from the current method of total aerosol (with the widely used 37 mm filter holder) to the new method of measuring inhalable aerosol (with the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) inhalable aerosol sampler). RESULTS--The results show that inhalable aerosol exposure concentrations--for both overall aerosol and for total nickel--were consistently and significantly higher than the corresponding total aerosol concentrations. Weighted least squares linear regression yielded IOM/37 mm factors ranging from about 1.2 to 4.0. The exposure data for each company process were found to be log-normally distributed. CONCLUSIONS--The results suggest the possibility of generating a single pragmatic factor for each company process for converting current total aerosol exposures to new exposures based on the inhalability concept contained in the latest particle size-selective criteria for aerosol exposure assessment. Such data may be important in determining new occupational exposure limits for nickel. PMID:8563841

  1. Electrostatic sampler for semivolatile aerosols: chemical artifacts.

    PubMed

    Volckens, John; Leith, David

    2002-11-01

    Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) show promise as an alternative sampling method for semivolatile aerosols because they are less susceptible to adsorptive and evaporative artifacts than filter based methods. However, the corona discharge may after the chemical composition of a sampled aerosol. Chemical artifacts associated with electrostatic precipitation of semivolatile aerosols were investigated in the laboratory. ESPs and filters sampled both particles and vapors of alkanes, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and alkenes across varying concentrations. Gravimetric measurements between the two sampling methods were well correlated. Ozone generated by the ESP corona was the primary cause of alkene reactions in the gas phase. Particles collected within the corona region were vulnerable to irradiation by corona ions overtime. Particles collected outside the corona region did not react. Vapors passing through the corona reacted to a lesser extent. Vapors captured after passing through the ESP reacted with ozone that was not removed by the vapor trap. Chemical speciation of highly reactive compounds (i.e., alkenes or other compounds with relatively short half-lives outdoors) is not appropriate with ESPs. Electrostatic precipitation of these compounds is appropriate, however, when total organic carbon is of interest as the ESP does not alter the amount of mass measured gravimetrically. ESPs can make accurate measurements of more persistent semivolatile compounds, such as alkanes and PAHs. PMID:12433171

  2. Filter and electrostatic samplers for semivolatile aerosols: physical artifacts.

    PubMed

    Volckens, John; Leith, David

    2002-11-01

    Adsorptive and evaporative artifacts often bias measurements of semivolatile aerosols. Adsorption occurs when the sampling method disrupts the gas-particle partitioning equilibrium. Evaporation occurs because concentrations of semivolatiles are rarely constant over time. Filtration is subject to both adsorptive and evaporative artifacts. By comparison, electrostatic precipitation reduces these artifacts by minimizing the surface area of collected particles without substantially disrupting the gas-particle equilibrium. The extent of these artifacts was determined for filter samplers and electrostatic precipitator samplers for semivolatile alkane aerosols in the laboratory. Adsorption of gas-phase semivolatiles was lower in electrostatic precipitators by factors of 5-100 compared to the filter method. Particle evaporation from the electrostatic sampler was 2.3 times lower than that from TFE-coated glass-fiber filters. Use of a backup filter to correct for compound-specific adsorption artifacts can introduce positive or negative errors to the measured particle-phase concentration due to competition among the adsorbates for available adsorption sites. Adsorption of evaporated particles from the front filter onto the backup filter increased the measured evaporative artifact by a factor of 1.5-2. PMID:12433172

  3. Whole-Body Nanoparticle Aerosol Inhalation Exposures

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T.; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L.; Stapleton, Phoebe A.; Minarchick, Valerie C.; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R.

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 5. The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size 6, which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria 5. A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m3 whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm3) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m3). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpreand Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M/(Q*t), where Q is

  4. Whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposures.

    PubMed

    Yi, Jinghai; Chen, Bean T; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave; Castranova, Vince; McBride, Carroll; Knuckles, Travis L; Stapleton, Phoebe A; Minarchick, Valerie C; Nurkiewicz, Timothy R

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation is the most likely exposure route for individuals working with aerosolizable engineered nano-materials (ENM). To properly perform nanoparticle inhalation toxicology studies, the aerosols in a chamber housing the experimental animals must have: 1) a steady concentration maintained at a desired level for the entire exposure period; 2) a homogenous composition free of contaminants; and 3) a stable size distribution with a geometric mean diameter < 200 nm and a geometric standard deviation σg < 2.5 (5). The generation of aerosols containing nanoparticles is quite challenging because nanoparticles easily agglomerate. This is largely due to very strong inter-particle forces and the formation of large fractal structures in tens or hundreds of microns in size (6), which are difficult to be broken up. Several common aerosol generators, including nebulizers, fluidized beds, Venturi aspirators and the Wright dust feed, were tested; however, none were able to produce nanoparticle aerosols which satisfy all criteria (5). A whole-body nanoparticle aerosol inhalation exposure system was fabricated, validated and utilized for nano-TiO2 inhalation toxicology studies. Critical components: 1) novel nano-TiO2 aerosol generator; 2) 0.5 m(3) whole-body inhalation exposure chamber; and 3) monitor and control system. Nano-TiO2 aerosols generated from bulk dry nano-TiO2 powders (primary diameter of 21 nm, bulk density of 3.8 g/cm(3)) were delivered into the exposure chamber at a flow rate of 90 LPM (10.8 air changes/hr). Particle size distribution and mass concentration profiles were measured continuously with a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS), and an electric low pressure impactor (ELPI). The aerosol mass concentration (C) was verified gravimetrically (mg/m(3)). The mass (M) of the collected particles was determined as M = (Mpost-Mpre), where Mpre and Mpost are masses of the filter before and after sampling (mg). The mass concentration was calculated as C = M

  5. Influence of flow rate on aerosol particle size distributions from pressurized and breath-actuated inhalers.

    PubMed

    Smith, K J; Chan, H K; Brown, K F

    1998-01-01

    Particle size distribution of delivered aerosols and the total mass of drug delivered from the inhaler are important determinants of pulmonary deposition and response to inhalation therapy. Inhalation flow rate may vary between patients and from dose to dose. The Andersen Sampler (AS) cascade impactor operated at flow rates of 30 and 55 L/min and the Marple-Miller Impactor (MMI) operated at flow rates of 30, 55, and 80 L/min were used in this study to investigate the influence of airflow rate on the particle size distributions of inhalation products. Total mass of drug delivered from the inhaler, fine particle mass, fine particle fraction, percentage of nonrespirable particles, and amount of formulation retained within the inhaler were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry for several commercial bronchodilator products purchased in the marketplace, including a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI), breath-actuated pressurized inhaler (BAMDI), and three dry powder inhalers (DPIs), two containing salbutamol sulphate and the other containing terbutaline sulphate. Varying the flow rate through the cascade impactor produced no significant change in performance of the pressurized inhalers. Increasing the flow rate produced a greater mass of drug delivered and an increase in respirable particle mass and fraction from all DPIs tested. PMID:10346666

  6. The Gillings Sampler – An Electrostatic Air Sampler as an Alternative Method for Aerosol In Vitro Exposure Studies

    PubMed Central

    Zavala, Jose; Lichtveld, Kim; Ebersviller, Seth; Carson, Johnny L.; Walters, Glenn W.; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E.; Sexton, Kenneth G.; Vizuete, William

    2014-01-01

    There is growing interest in studying the toxicity and health risk of exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures found in ambient air, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving towards setting standards for these types of mixtures. Additionally, the Health Effects Institute's strategic plan aims to develop and apply next-generation multi-pollutant approaches to understanding the health effects of air pollutants. There's increasing concern that conventional in vitro exposure methods are not adequate to meet EPA's strategic plan to demonstrate a direct link between air pollution and health effects. To meet the demand for new in vitro technology that better represents direct air-to-cell inhalation exposures, a new system that exposes cells at the air-liquid interface was developed. This new system, named the Gillings Sampler, is a modified two-stage electrostatic precipitator that provides a viable environment for cultured cells. Polystyrene latex spheres were used to determine deposition efficiencies (38-45%), while microscopy and imaging techniques were used to confirm uniform particle deposition. Negative control A549 cell exposures indicated the sampler can be operated for up to 4 hours without inducing any significant toxic effects on cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). A novel positive aerosol control exposure method, consisting of a p-tolualdehyde (TOLALD) impregnated mineral oil aerosol (MOA), was developed to test this system. Exposures to the toxic MOA at a 1 ng/cm2 dose of TOLALD yielded a reproducible 1.4 and 2 fold increase in LDH and IL-8 mRNA levels over controls. This new system is intended to be used as an alternative research tool for aerosol in vitro exposure studies. While further testing and optimization is still required to produce a “commercially ready” system, it serves as a stepping-stone in the development of cost-effective in vitro technology that can be made accessible to researchers

  7. The Gillings Sampler--an electrostatic air sampler as an alternative method for aerosol in vitro exposure studies.

    PubMed

    Zavala, Jose; Lichtveld, Kim; Ebersviller, Seth; Carson, Johnny L; Walters, Glenn W; Jaspers, Ilona; Jeffries, Harvey E; Sexton, Kenneth G; Vizuete, William

    2014-09-01

    There is growing interest in studying the toxicity and health risk of exposure to multi-pollutant mixtures found in ambient air, and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is moving towards setting standards for these types of mixtures. Additionally, the Health Effects Institute's strategic plan aims to develop and apply next-generation multi-pollutant approaches to understanding the health effects of air pollutants. There's increasing concern that conventional in vitro exposure methods are not adequate to meet EPA's strategic plan to demonstrate a direct link between air pollution and health effects. To meet the demand for new in vitro technology that better represents direct air-to-cell inhalation exposures, a new system that exposes cells at the air-liquid interface was developed. This new system, named the Gillings Sampler, is a modified two-stage electrostatic precipitator that provides a viable environment for cultured cells. Polystyrene latex spheres were used to determine deposition efficiencies (38-45%), while microscopy and imaging techniques were used to confirm uniform particle deposition. Negative control A549 cell exposures indicated the sampler can be operated for up to 4h without inducing any significant toxic effects on cells, as measured by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and interleukin-8 (IL-8). A novel positive aerosol control exposure method, consisting of a p-tolualdehyde (TOLALD) impregnated mineral oil aerosol (MOA), was developed to test this system. Exposures to the toxic MOA at a 1 ng/cm(2) dose of TOLALD yielded a reproducible 1.4 and 2-fold increase in LDH and IL-8 mRNA levels over controls. This new system is intended to be used as an alternative research tool for aerosol in vitro exposure studies. While further testing and optimization is still required to produce a "commercially ready" system, it serves as a stepping-stone in the development of cost-effective in vitro technology that can be made accessible to researchers in the

  8. Exposures to inhalable and "total" oil mist aerosol by metal machining shop workers.

    PubMed

    Wilsey, P W; Vincent, J H; Bishop, M J; Brosseau, L M; Greaves, I A

    1996-12-01

    Several recent studies have compared worker personal aerosol exposures as measured by the current method with those obtained by a new approach based on collecting the inhalable fraction, intended to represent all the particles that are capable of entering through the nose and/or mouth during breathing. The present study investigated this relationship for a metal machining facility where aerosols were generated from severely refined, nonaqueous ("straight") cutting oils used during the lathe working of metal rod stock. Workers (n = 23) wore two personal aerosol samplers simulataneously, one of the 37-mm type (for "total" aerosol exposure, E37) and the other of the Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) type (for inhalable aerosol exposure, EIOM). The data were analyzed by weighted least squares linear regression to determine the coefficient S in the relation EIOM = S.E37. It was found that S = 2.96 +/- 0.60. This ratio-in which exposure to inhalable aerosol was greater than to "total" aerosol-is consistent with previous observations in other industries. The relative coarsenss of the oil mist aerosol, as estimated by cascade impactor measurements, probably explains the difference between the sampling methods. The collection of large "splash" droplets, may also contribute. Future occupational aerosol standards for metalworking fluids will be based on the new, health-related criteria, and exposures will be assessed on the basis of the inhalable fraction. Results of studies like that described here will enable assessment of the impact on future workplace aerosol exposure assessments of introducing new standards. PMID:8976589

  9. Pulmonary oedema due to inhalation of detergent aerosol.

    PubMed

    Rao, J; Das, P K

    1994-12-01

    Healthy adult male albino rats were subjected to inhalation of increasing doses of detergent (dioctyl sodium sulfo-succinate) aerosol ranging from 100 mg to 500 mg. Administration of 500 mg of detergent aerosol resulted in peribronchial and focal alveolar oedema in 3 out of 5 animals. The lungs of control animals which were subjected to inhalation of vehicle aerosol (ethanol and saline) did not show any abnormality. It is possible that pulmonary oedema observed in detergent aerosol inhalation may be due to the action of detergents on the surfactant system of the lung. PMID:9053567

  10. Introduction: Aerosol delivery of orally inhaled agents.

    PubMed

    Corcoran, Timothy E; Devadason, Sunalene G; Kuehl, Philip J

    2012-12-01

    Deposition scintigraphy methods have been used extensively to provide qualitative and quantitative data on aerosol drug deposition in the lungs. However, differences in methodology among the different centers performing these studies have limited the application of these techniques, especially in regulatory roles. As an introduction to the standardized techniques developed by the International Society for Aerosols in Medicine (ISAM) Regulatory Affairs Networking Group, we present potential advantages of the use of standard techniques for deposition scintigraphy. Specifically, we propose that standardized techniques would allow for better comparisons between labs and would facilitate multicenter studies. They would allow for improved methods of establishing equivalence and could be better utilized to establish dosing for new medications. They would allow for the performance of more accurate dose ranging or multidose studies and complement pharmacokinetic studies of new inhaled medications. Standardized techniques could help to establish the relationship between the deposition of drug in the lungs and clinical effect, and may also facilitate clinical measurements of deposited dose for medications with narrow therapeutic indices. In the sections that follow, we discuss the best techniques used to perform deposition scintigraphy through planar, single-photon emission computed tomography, and positron emission tomography modalities and propose a detailed set of standardized methods for each. These include methods for radiolabel validation, radiolabel accountability and mass balance, and imaging acquisition and analysis. PMID:23215846

  11. Airborne influenza virus detection with four aerosol samplers using molecular and infectivity assays: considerations for a new infectious virus aerosol sampler

    PubMed Central

    Fabian, P.; McDevitt, J. J.; Houseman, E. A.; Milton, D. K.

    2013-01-01

    As a first step in conducting studies of airborne influenza transmission, we compared the collection performance of an SKC Biosampler, a compact cascade impactor (CCI), Teflon filters, and gelatin filters by collecting aerosolized influenza virus in a one-pass aerosol chamber. Influenza virus infectivity was determined using a fluorescent focus assay and influenza virus nucleic acid (originating from viable and non-viable viruses) was measured using quantitative PCR. The results showed that the SKC Biosampler recovered and preserved influenza virus infectivity much better than the other samplers – the CCI, Teflon, and gelatin filters recovered only 7–22% of infectious viruses compared with the Biosampler. Total virus collection was not significantly different among the SKC Biosampler, the gelatin, and Teflon filters, but was significantly lower in the CCI. Results from this study show that a new sampler is needed for virus aerosol sampling, as commercially available samplers do not efficiently collect and conserve virus infectivity. Applications for a new sampler include studies of airborne disease transmission and bioterrorism monitoring. Design parameters for a new sampler include high collection efficiency for fine particles and liquid sampling media to preserve infectivity. PMID:19689447

  12. Feasibility Study of Passive Aerosol Sampler for Bio-Agent Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, G

    2003-03-05

    We propose to establish the feasibility of a passive aerosol sampler for bio-agent collection through laboratory experiments and theoretical analysis. The passive sampler, unlike the typical active sampler, does not require pumps and complex fixtures, and thereby allows for large-scale field monitoring not possible with current active samplers. We plan to conduct experiments using model (both biological and non-biological) aerosols generated in an instrumented test chamber and compare the particles collected on various passive samplers to conventional filter samplers, commercial aerosol measuring instruments and to conventional surface swipes. Theoretical analysis will be used to design prototype passive samplers and to compare experimental results with theory. A successful feasibility study will be used to seek outside funding for applications that will greatly enhance current LLNL programs such as NARAC's atmospheric dispersal modeling, NAI's programs in bioagent monitoring in public locations and fixed sampling stations, and EPD's environmental monitoring and decontamination research. In addition, the feasibility study will position us favorably for responding to new calls for proposals by NIH and EPA for large scale environmental studies.

  13. Generation and characterization of aerosols and vapors for inhalation experiments.

    PubMed Central

    Tillery, M I; Wood, G O; Ettinger, H J

    1976-01-01

    Control of aerosol and vapor characteristics that affect the toxicity of inhaled contaminants often determines the methods of generating exposure atmospheres. Generation methods for aerosols and vapors are presented. The characteristics of the resulting exposure atmosphere and the limitations of the various generation methods are discussed. Methods and instruments for measuring the airborne contaminant with respect to various charcteristics are also described. PMID:797565

  14. Evaluation of particle resuspension in young children's breathing zone using stationary and robotic (PIPER) aerosol samplers

    PubMed Central

    Sagona, Jessica A.; Shalat, Stuart L; Wang, Zuocheng; Ramagopal, Maya; Black, Kathleen; Hernandez, Marta; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    Development of asthma in young children may be associated with high exposure to particulate matter (PM). However, typical stationary samplers may not represent the personal exposure of children ages 3 and younger since they may not detect particles resuspended from the floor as children play, thus reducing our ability to correlate exposure and disease etiology. To address this, an autonomous robot, the Pretoddler Inhalable Particulate Environmental Robotic (PIPER) sampler, was developed to simulate the movements of children as they play on the floor. PIPER and a stationary sampler took simultaneous measurements of particle number concentration in six size channels using an optical particle counter and inhalable PM on filters in 65 homes in New Jersey, USA. To study particle resuspension, for each sampler we calculated the ratio of particle concentration measured while PIPER was moving to the average concentration of particles measured during a reference period when PIPER remained still. For all investigated particle sizes, higher particle resuspension was observed by PIPER compared to the stationary sampler. In 71% of carpeted homes a more significant (at the α = 0.05 level) resuspension of particles larger than 2.5 μm was observed by PIPER compared to the stationary sampler. Typically, particles larger than 2.5 μm were resuspended more efficiently than smaller particles, over both carpeted and bare floors. Additionally, in carpeted homes estimations of PM10 mass from the particle number concentrations measured on PIPER while it was moving were on average a factor of 1.54 higher compared to reference period when PIPER was not moving. For comparison, the stationary sampler measured an increase of PM2.5 mass by a factor of only 1.08 when PIPER was moving compared to a reference period. This demonstrates that PIPER is able to resuspend particles through movement, and provide a better characterization of the resuspended particles than stationary samplers. Accurate

  15. PASSIVE AEROSOL SAMPLER FOR CHARACTERIZATION, AMBIENT CONCENTRATION, AND PARTICLE SIZE MEASUREMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    This is an extended abstract of a presentation made at the Air and Waste Management Association's Symposium on Air Quality Measurement Methods and Technology, Durham, NC, May 9-11, 2006. The abstract describes the theory, design, and initial testing of a passive aerosol sampler f...

  16. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as... 40 Protection of Environment 5 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Aerosol transport test for Class...

  17. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Aerosol transport test for Class...

  18. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Aerosol transport test for Class...

  19. Generation and Characterization of Indoor Fungal Aerosols for Inhalation Studies

    PubMed Central

    Larsen, Søren T.; Koponen, Ismo K.; Kling, Kirsten I.; Barooni, Afnan; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Tendal, Kira; Wolkoff, Peder

    2016-01-01

    In the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. Evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. To examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. The aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. Indoor airborne fungi were sampled and cultivated on gypsum boards. Aerosols were characterized and compared with aerosols in homes. Aerosols containing 107 CFU of fungi/m3 air were generated repeatedly from fungus-infested gypsum boards in a mouse exposure chamber. Aerosols contained Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ustus, Aspergillus versicolor, Chaetomium globosum, Cladosporium herbarum, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium camemberti, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium glabrum, Penicillium olsonii, Penicillium rugulosum, Stachybotrys chartarum, and Wallemia sebi. They were all among the most abundant airborne species identified in 28 homes. Nine species from gypsum boards and 11 species in the homes are associated with water damage. Most fungi were present as single spores, but chains and clusters of different species and fragments were also present. The variation in exposure level during the 60 min of aerosol generation was similar to the variation measured in homes. Through aerosolization of fungi from the indoor environment, cultured on gypsum boards, it was possible to generate realistic aerosols in terms of species composition, concentration, and particle sizes. The inhalation-exposure system can be used to study responses to indoor fungi associated with water damage and the importance of fungal species composition. PMID:26921421

  20. Generation and Characterization of Indoor Fungal Aerosols for Inhalation Studies.

    PubMed

    Madsen, Anne Mette; Larsen, Søren T; Koponen, Ismo K; Kling, Kirsten I; Barooni, Afnan; Karottki, Dorina Gabriela; Tendal, Kira; Wolkoff, Peder

    2016-04-01

    In the indoor environment, people are exposed to several fungal species. Evident dampness is associated with increased respiratory symptoms. To examine the immune responses associated with fungal exposure, mice are often exposed to a single species grown on an agar medium. The aim of this study was to develop an inhalation exposure system to be able to examine responses in mice exposed to mixed fungal species aerosolized from fungus-infested building materials. Indoor airborne fungi were sampled and cultivated on gypsum boards. Aerosols were characterized and compared with aerosols in homes. Aerosols containing 10(7)CFU of fungi/m(3)air were generated repeatedly from fungus-infested gypsum boards in a mouse exposure chamber. Aerosols contained Aspergillus nidulans,Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus ustus, Aspergillus versicolor,Chaetomium globosum,Cladosporium herbarum,Penicillium brevicompactum,Penicillium camemberti,Penicillium chrysogenum,Penicillium commune,Penicillium glabrum,Penicillium olsonii,Penicillium rugulosum,Stachybotrys chartarum, and Wallemia sebi They were all among the most abundant airborne species identified in 28 homes. Nine species from gypsum boards and 11 species in the homes are associated with water damage. Most fungi were present as single spores, but chains and clusters of different species and fragments were also present. The variation in exposure level during the 60 min of aerosol generation was similar to the variation measured in homes. Through aerosolization of fungi from the indoor environment, cultured on gypsum boards, it was possible to generate realistic aerosols in terms of species composition, concentration, and particle sizes. The inhalation-exposure system can be used to study responses to indoor fungi associated with water damage and the importance of fungal species composition. PMID:26921421

  1. Inhalation exposures of rats to aerosolized diesel fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Dalbey, W.; Lock, S.; Garfinkel, S.; Jenkins, R.; Holmberg, R.; Guerin, M.

    1982-01-01

    The toxicological effects of high concentrations of aerosolized, combusted diesel fuel are being investigated in Sprague-Dawley rats receiving whole-body inhalation exposures. Single exposure for 2 hours to 0.5 to 7 mg/1 resulted in a concentration-related decrease in respiratory frequency during exposure, transiently decreased responsiveness in a startle reflex assay just after exposure, and influx of granulocytes into lungs for several subsequent days. Repeated exposures (a total of 9) with varying aerosol concentration, duration, and frequency have resulted in altered pulmonary free cell number, pulmonary function, responsiveness in startle reflex assay, and histopathology.

  2. SEM/EDS of Submicron and Coarse PM Using Modified Passive Aerosol Sampler Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagner, J.; Wang, Z.; Willis, B.; Casuccio, G.

    2008-12-01

    Deployment of multiple UNC Passive Aerosol Samplers is an inexpensive and unobtrusive technique for assessing airborne particulate matter (PM) exposure and spatial variability. Computer-controlled SEM/EDS (Scanning Electron Microscopy / Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy) is used to measure the deposited particle mass and chemistry. A deposition velocity model is used to obtain ambient PM and elemental size distributions. Previous results have correlated well with active sampler results in environments dominated by coarse mineral dusts. To accurately measure submicron and carbonaceous aerosols, an improved collection substrate is needed. Previous studies used a double-sided carbon adhesive tab, which was ideal for coarse PM but under-detected submicron PM. One promising alternative is polycarbonate (PC) filter substrates. Another is transmission electron microscope (TEM) grids with formvar films mounted over holes drilled in the samplers. Preliminary tests of PC filters and TEM grid substrates, including tests in areas with smoke aerosols, exhibited substantial submicron aerosol and differing elemental size distributions. Detailed qualitative and quantitative evidence shows that the PC filters retained coarse PM well and yielded improved submicron PM imaging. TEM grids yield the best imaging and chemistry of submicron carbonaceous PM, but potentially the poorest retention of coarse PM. PM and elemental size distributions are presented for collocated passive samplers using the three substrate types, in both indoor and outdoor environments. Several methods are proposed to further optimize passive sampling of both submicron and coarse PM. Although this work was reviewed by EPA and approved for publication, it may not necessarily reflect official Agency policy.

  3. Evaluation criteria for bioaerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Kesavan, Jana; Sagripanti, Jose-Luis

    2015-03-01

    Humans contract a variety of serious diseases through inhalation of infectious aerosols. Thus, the importance of monitoring air for microbial, toxic, or allergic content is recognized in clinical, occupational, and biodefense arenas. However, accurate monitoring of potentially contaminated environments can be hampered by selection of aerosol samplers with inadequate performance for the intended task. In this study, 29 aerosol samplers were evaluated based on their respective air flow, size, weight, power consumption, and efficiency in sampling particles in the respirable range. The resulting data demonstrates that sampling air flow and efficiency vary widely, and cannot be predicted from the physical characteristics of air samplers, and hence, that proper selection of air samplers should be more involved than shopping for a device based on the limited characteristics that are published by the manufacturers. The findings are summarized in an approach to rationally select bioaerosol samplers for use in infection control and environmental biomonitoring. The presented data demonstrates that inadequate selection of air samplers could result in a failure to collect particles of interest and thus, underestimate the risk and provide a false sense of security in contaminated health care settings and environments contaminated with infectious or toxic aerosols. PMID:25631321

  4. Performance evaluation of modified Semi-continuous Elements in Aerosol Sampler-III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pancras, Joseph Patrick; Landis, Matthew S.

    2011-12-01

    A field study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a Semi-continuous Elements in Aerosol Sampler-III (SEAS-III), designed to collect ambient PM 2.5 aerosol samples at a time resolution of 30 min for elemental concentration measurements. Two identical but modified SEAS-III samplers were operated for four continuous weeks in Dearborn, MI, during July-August 2007. A total of 2308 samples were collected from the two samplers. Sampling completeness from the primary and duplicate samplers was 90% and 84%, respectively. All of the collected samples were analyzed for dilute acid-extractable trace metal concentrations using HR-ICPMS. A total of 878 collection time-matched sample pairs were available to evaluate whole-system uncertainty from collocated concentration measurements. The collocated precision for the 27 studied elements (Al, As, Ba, Ca, Cd, Ce, Cs, Cu, Fe, Ge, K, La, Mg, Mn, Mo, Na, P, Pb, Rb, S, Sb, Se, Sn, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn) varied between 9% and 40%. Twenty elements showed precision better than 25%. Uncertainty estimates from propagation of errors compared well with the whole-system uncertainty values for all minor aerosol elements studied. SEAS-III measurements of As, Cd, Ge, K, La, Mn, Mo, Na, Rb, Se, Sb, Sr, Ti, V, and Zn correlated well ( r > 0.8) with a FRM equivalent PM 2.5 integrated filter sampling method. Based on these measurements, collection efficiency of SEAS-III was estimated to be 87 ± 16%. Solubility of particles in the collection medium (water) was identified as a possible reason for low recovery of Al, Fe, Pb, Sb, and Sn.

  5. EFFECTS OF ENDOGENOUS AMMONIA ON NEUTRALIZATION OF INHALED SULFURIC ACID AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nine male beagle dogs were exposed by inhalation to 0, 6 and 10.5 mg/cu.m sulfuric acid aerosols with normal ammonia, increased blood ammonia, and increased inhaled ammonia to determine whether the addition of ammonia affected the toxicity of sulfuric acid aerosols. Exhaled conce...

  6. A study of the performance of different acidic aerosol samplers and the characteristics of acidic aerosols in Hsinchu Taiwan

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, C.J.; Perng, S.B.; Chiou, S.F.; Lin, T.Y.

    1999-07-01

    An annular denuder system (ADS), a honeycomb denuder system (HDS) and a micro-orifice uniform deposit impactor (MOUDI) were used to investigate the physical and chemical characteristics of acidic aerosols in Hsinchu Taiwan. The performances of different denuder samplers were also compared. The concentrations (in {mu}g/m{sup 3}) of major ionic species: H{sup +}, SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} are found to average 0.019{+-}0.01 (std. dev.) (range: 0.00--0.02), 7.60{+-}5.08 (range: 1.37--16.54), 7.67{+-}5.50 (range: 1.18--21.58) and 5.27{+-}2.90 (range: 1.14--9.42), as measured by the ADS, respectively. Aerosol acidity is not severe compared to urban cities in other countries, due to neutralization of aerosol acidity by ammonia in Hsinchu. The results indicate that the size distributions of H{sup +} and NH{sub 4}{sup +} are in the single mode while those of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}} are found to be mainly bimodal. The ions such as SO{sub 4}{sup 2{minus}}, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, NH{sub 4}{sup +} and H{sup +} are dominant in the fine mode, while ions such as Cl{sup {minus}}, Na{sup +} and K{sup +} are found to be in both fine and coarse modes. Comparing two different denuder samplers, the average concentration of HNO{sub 3} measured by the HDS is found to be 40% higher than that of the ADS while the average concentrations of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} and Cl{sup {minus}} measured by the ADS are higher than those of the HDS by 12% and 14%, respectively. The concentrations of other species are found to be similar in both denuder samplers.

  7. Inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Greenspan, B.J.; Allen, M.D.; Rebar, A.H.

    1986-01-01

    Studies of the acute inhalation toxicity of lithium combustion aerosols were undertaken to aid in evaluating the health hazards associated with the proposed use of lithium metal in fusion reactors. Male and female F344/Lov rats, 9-12 wk of age, were exposed once for 4 h to concentrations of 2600, 2300, 1400, or 620 mg/m/sup 3/ of aerosol (MMAD = 0.69 ..mu..m, sigma/sub g/ = 1.45) that was approximately 80% lithium carbonate and 20% lithium hydroxide to determine the acute toxic effects. Fourteen-day LC50 values (with 95% confidence limits) of 1700 (1300-2000) mg/m/sup 3/ for the male rats and 2000 (1700-2400) mg/m/sup 3/ for the female rate were calculated. Clinical signs of anorexia, dehydration, respiratory difficulty, and perioral and perinasal encrustation were observed. Body weights were decreased the first day after exposure in relation to the exposure concentration. In animals observed for an additional 2 wk, body weights, organ weights, and clinical signs began to return to pre-exposure values. Histopathologic examination of the respiratory tracts from the animals revealed ulcerative or necrotic laryngitis, focal to segmental ulcerative rhinitis often accompanied by areas of squamous metaplasia, and, in some cases, a suppurative bronchopneumonia or aspiration pneumonia, probably secondary to the laryngeal lesions. The results of these studies indicate the moderate acute toxicity of lithium carbonate aerosols and will aid in the risk analysis of accidental releases of lithium combustion aerosols.

  8. Engineering Upgrades to the Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer for the CTBT International Monitoring System

    SciTech Connect

    Forrester, Joel B.; Carty, Fitz; Comes, Laura; Hayes, James C.; Miley, Harry S.; Morris, Scott J.; Ripplinger, Mike D.; Slaugh, Ryan W.; Van Davelaar, Peter

    2013-05-13

    The Radionuclide Aerosol Sampler/Analyzer (RASA) is an automated aerosol collection and analysis system designed by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in the 1990’s and is deployed in several locations around the world as part of the International Monitoring System (IMS) required under the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty (CTBT). The utility of such an automated system is the reduction of human intervention and the production of perfectly uniform results. However, maintainability and down time issues threaten this utility, even for systems with over 90% data availability. Engineering upgrades to the RASA are currently being pursued to address these issues, as well as Fukushima lessons learned. Current work includes a new automation control unit, and other potential improvements such as alternative detector cooling and sampling options are under review. This paper presents the current state of upgrades and improvements under investigation

  9. Development and application of a dichotomous vapor/aerosol sampler for HDI-derived total reactive isocyanate group.

    PubMed

    Rando, R J; Poovey, H G

    1999-01-01

    A dichotomous vapor/aerosol sampler was developed for measurement of HDI (1,6-hexamethylene diisocyanate)-derived total reactive isocyanate group (TRIG). The sampler consisted of an impactor or cyclone inlet, followed by an annular diffusional denuder, and a glass-fiber filter backup. The denuder walls and backup filter were each coated with 20 mg tributylphosphate and 1 mg MAMA reagent (9-N-methylamino-methylanthracene). After collection, MAMA-derivatized isocyanates were desorbed from the sampler and determined by high-performance liquid chromatography with dual-wavelength ultraviolet absorbance and fluorescence detection. Test atmospheres of HDI vapor and of HDI/HDI-biuret aerosols were generated in the laboratory and sampled with the optimized dichotomous sampler. Vapor phase HDI was completely collected by the diffusional denuder. When a mixture of HDI-biuret and HDI (approximately 30 ppb) was nebulized and collected with the dichotomous sampler, approximately 78% of the HDI was in the vapor phase, whereas about 22% was associated with the aerosol fraction. The dichotomous sampler was then used to measure vapor and condensed phase TRIG in a paint spray booth during application of a polyurethane paint. Measured levels of TRIG during the spraying operation averaged 391 +/- 154 micrograms/m3. Concentrations of HDI monomer averaged only 14 +/- 6.5 micrograms/m3. HDI-biuret was the largest component of TRIG found in these samples and was completely in the condensed aerosol phase. In contrast, the majority of the HDI was in the vapor phase, but significant (15-26%) amounts were measured in the aerosol fraction of the paint overspray. Thus, significant partitioning of HDI between vapor and condensed phases was demonstrated in both the laboratory and field, even when its concentration was well below the vapor saturation point. PMID:10635539

  10. Potassium Channel Complex Autoimmunity Induced by Inhaled Brain Tissue Aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Meeusen, Jeffrey W.; Klein, Christopher J.; Pirko, Istvan; Haselkorn, Keegan E.; Kryzer, Thomas J.; Pittock, Sean J.; Lachance, Daniel H.; Dyck, P. James; Lennon, Vanda A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective Test the hypothesis that autoimmunity induced by inhalation of aerosolized brain tissue caused outbreaks of sensory-predominant polyradiculoneuropathy among swine abattoir employees in Midwestern USA Methods Mice were exposed intranasally, 5 days weekly, to liquefied brain tissue. Serum from exposed mice, patients and unaffected abattoir employees were analyzed for clinically pertinent neural autoantibodies. Results Patients, coworkers and mice exposed to liquefied brain tissue had an autoantibody profile dominated by neural cation channel IgGs. The most compelling link between patients and exposed mice was MRI evidence of grossly swollen spinal nerve roots. Autoantibody responses in patients and mice were dose-dependent and declined after antigen exposure ceased. Autoantibodies detected most frequently, and at high levels, bound to detergent-solubilized macromolecular complexes containing neuronal voltage-gated potassium channels ligated with a high affinity Kv1 channel antagonist, 125I-α-dendrotoxin. Exposed mice exhibited a behavioral phenotype consistent with potassium channel dysfunction recognized in drosophila with mutant (“shaker”) channels: reduced sensitivity to isoflurane-induced anesthesia. Pathological and electrophysiological findings in patients supported peripheral nerve hyperexcitability over destructive axonal loss. The pain-predominant symptoms were consistent with sensory nerve hyperexcitability Interpretation Our observations establish that inhaled neural antigens readily induce neurological autoimmunity and identify voltage-gated potassium channel complexes as a major immunogen. PMID:22451206

  11. Experimental evaluation of oil mists using a semivolatile aerosol dichotomous sampler.

    PubMed

    Kim, Seung Won; Raynor, Peter C

    2010-04-01

    The sampling performance of the semivolatile aerosol dichotomous sampler (SADS) was tested and compared with existing vapor and particle sampling methods: filtration, electrostatic precipitation, and vapor adsorption. Seven different test fluids were used to generate test droplets, and their concentrations and composition in each phase were evaluated using gas chromatography. The amount of wall loss inside the SADS was also evaluated. Combined vapor and particle concentrations for each test aerosol were not statistically different from one another as a function of test method. However, the particle concentrations estimated using the SADS were statistically higher than those from the other methods. In experiments with hexadecane, the particle concentrations estimated using the SADS, an electrostatic precipitator, and a glass fiber filter were 2.50 mg/m3, 0.05 mg/m3, and 0.01 mg/m3, respectively. For commercial metalworking fluid (MWF) droplets, compounds having low molecular weight were more prevalent in the vapor phase than those compounds with high molecular weight. The compositions of the particle phase were similar to those of the original fluids. The wall losses of hexadecane and bis(2-ethylhexyl) sebacate (BEHS) were 0.25% and 26.5% of combined vapor and particle concentrations in the SADS sampling, respectively. Because it can avoid evaporative losses, SADS will sample semivolatile aerosols more accurately than common filtration methods and may often yield higher particle concentrations than can be measured using the other methods. PMID:20131139

  12. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DESPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION DOSE OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT SIZE FRACTIONS. Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *S...

  13. Inhalable PEGylated Phospholipid Nanocarriers and PEGylated Therapeutics for Respiratory Delivery as Aerosolized Colloidal Dispersions and Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Muralidharan, Priya; Mallory, Evan; Malapit, Monica; Hayes Jr., Don; Mansour, Heidi M.

    2014-01-01

    Nanomedicine is making groundbreaking achievements in drug delivery. The versatility of nanoparticles has given rise to its use in respiratory delivery that includes inhalation aerosol delivery by the nasal route and the pulmonary route. Due to the unique features of the respiratory route, research in exploring the respiratory route for delivery of poorly absorbed and systemically unstable drugs has been increasing. The respiratory route has been successfully used for the delivery of macromolecules like proteins, peptides, and vaccines, and continues to be examined for use with small molecules, DNA, siRNA, and gene therapy. Phospholipid nanocarriers are an attractive drug delivery system for inhalation aerosol delivery in particular. Protecting these phospholipid nanocarriers from pulmonary immune system attack by surface modification by polyethylene glycol (PEG)ylation, enhancing mucopenetration by PEGylation, and sustaining drug release for controlled drug delivery are some of the advantages of PEGylated liposomal and proliposomal inhalation aerosol delivery. This review discusses the advantages of using PEGylated phospholipid nanocarriers and PEGylated therapeutics for respiratory delivery through the nasal and pulmonary routes as inhalation aerosols. PMID:24955820

  14. Performance of High Flow Rate Personal Respirable Samplers When Challenged with Mineral Aerosols of Different Particle Size Distributions.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Peter; Thorpe, Andrew; Echt, Alan

    2016-05-01

    It is thought that the performance of respirable samplers may vary when exposed to dust aerosols with different particle sizes and wind speeds. This study investigated the performance of the GK 4.16 (RASCAL), GK 2.69, PPI 8, and FSP 10, high flow rate personal samplers when exposed to aerosols of mineral dust in a wind tunnel at two different wind speeds (1 and 2 m s(-1)) and orientations (towards and side-on to the source of emission). The mass median aerodynamic diameter of four aerosolized test dusts ranged from 8 to 25 µm with geometric standard deviations from 1.6 to 2 µm. The performance of each sampler type was compared with that of the SIMPEDS (Higgins-Dewell design) sampler. There was slight evidence to suggest that the performance of the FSP 10 is affected by the direction of the inlet relative to the air flow, although this was not significant when most respirable dust concentrations were compared, possibly due to the variability of paired dust concentration results. The GK 2.69, RASCAL, and PPI 8 samplers had similar performances, although the results when side-on to the emission source were generally slightly lower than the SIMPEDS. Despite slight differences between respirable dust concentrations the respirable crystalline silica values were not significantly different from the SIMPEDS. The GK family of cyclones obtained most precise results and more closely matched the SIMPEDS. A comparison with dust concentration results from previous calm air chamber studies (where wind speeds were < 0.4 m s(-1)) found that the relative performance between samplers was similar to those observed in this work indicating consistent performance relative to the SIMPEDS in both calm and moving air. PMID:26865560

  15. Performance of High Flow Rate Personal Respirable Samplers When Challenged with Mineral Aerosols of Different Particle Size Distributions

    PubMed Central

    Stacey, Peter; Thorpe, Andrew; Echt, Alan

    2016-01-01

    It is thought that the performance of respirable samplers may vary when exposed to dust aerosols with different particle sizes and wind speeds. This study investigated the performance of the GK 4.16 (RASCAL), GK 2.69, PPI 8, and FSP 10, high flow rate personal samplers when exposed to aerosols of mineral dust in a wind tunnel at two different wind speeds (1 and 2 m s−1) and orientations (towards and side-on to the source of emission). The mass median aerodynamic diameter of four aerosolized test dusts ranged from 8 to 25 µm with geometric standard deviations from 1.6 to 2 µm. The performance of each sampler type was compared with that of the SIMPEDS (Higgins–Dewell design) sampler. There was slight evidence to suggest that the performance of the FSP 10 is affected by the direction of the inlet relative to the air flow, although this was not significant when most respirable dust concentrations were compared, possibly due to the variability of paired dust concentration results. The GK 2.69, RASCAL, and PPI 8 samplers had similar performances, although the results when side-on to the emission source were generally slightly lower than the SIMPEDS. Despite slight differences between respirable dust concentrations the respirable crystalline silica values were not significantly different from the SIMPEDS. The GK family of cyclones obtained most precise results and more closely matched the SIMPEDS. A comparison with dust concentration results from previous calm air chamber studies (where wind speeds were < 0.4 m s−1) found that the relative performance between samplers was similar to those observed in this work indicating consistent performance relative to the SIMPEDS in both calm and moving air. PMID:26865560

  16. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone ... inhaler is not working properly.To use the aerosol inhaler, follow these steps: Remove the cap from ...

  17. [Basic principles of comprehensive approach to the development of aerosol inhalation equipment].

    PubMed

    Liutov, G P

    1994-01-01

    The comprehensive approach to choosing the nomenclature of aerosol inhalers is based on the definition of the basic principles in the development of apparatuses as to the optimization of their consumer qualities, the unification of basic blocks and the enhancement of their reliability. With the use of the approach, two models of fixed inhalers have been put into practice, a portable universal inhaler is brought to a commercial level, and two models of portable heat humid inhalers are under development, which is in full conformity with health care requirements for this medical equipment. PMID:7707891

  18. Evaluating the applicability of a semi-continuous aerosol sampler to measure Asian dust particles.

    PubMed

    Son, Se-Chang; Park, Seung Shik

    2015-03-01

    A Korean prototype semi-continuous aerosol sampler was used to measure Asian dust particles. During two dust-storm periods, concentrations of crustal and trace elements were significantly enriched. Dust storms are one of the most significant natural sources of air pollution in East Asia. The present study aimed to evaluate use of a Korean semi-continuous aerosol sampler (K-SAS) in observation of mineral dust particles during dust storm events. Aerosol slurry samples were collected at 60 min intervals using the K-SAS, which was operated at a sampling flow rate of 16.7 L min(-1) through a PM10 cyclone inlet. The measurements were made during dust storm events at an urban site, Gwangju in Korea, between April 30 and May 5, 2011. The K-SAS uses particle growth technology as a means of collecting atmospheric aerosol particles. Concentrations of 16 elements (Al, Fe, Mn, Ca, K, Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ti, V, Ni, Co, As, and Se) were determined off-line in the collected slurry samples by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The sampling periods were classified into two types, based on the source regions of the dust storms and the transport pathways of the air masses reaching the sampling site. The first period "A" was associated with dust particles with high Ca content, originating from the Gobi desert regions of northern China and southern Mongolia. The second period "B" was associated with dust particles with low Ca content, originating from northeastern Chinese sandy deserts. The results from the K-SAS indicated noticeable differences in concentrations of crustal and trace elements in the two sampling periods, as a result of differences in the source regions of the dust storms, the air mass transport pathways, and the impact of smoke from forest fires. The concentrations of the crustal (Al, Ca, Ti, Mn, and Fe) and anthropogenic trace elements (Vi, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, and Pb) were enriched significantly during the two dust storm periods. However, the

  19. US EPA team study of inhalable particles (PM10): Study design, response rate, and sampler performance

    SciTech Connect

    Wallace, L.; Pellizzari, E.; Spengler, J.; Jenkins, P.; Sheldon, L.

    1991-03-01

    The US EPA studied the exposures of 175 residents of Riverside, CA to inhalable particles (<10 micrometers diameter) in the early fall of 1990. Participants were probabilistically selected to represent most of the Riverside nonsmoking population over the age of 10. They wore a newly-designed personal monitor (4 Lpm pump and filter) for two consecutive 12-hour periods (day and night) to determine their exposure to PM-10. Exposure to nicotine was also determined by a citric acid treated filter. Indoor and outdoor samples were collected concurrently at each home. Air exchange rates were determined for each household for the day and night periods. The response rate of the population was about 50%, roughly comparable to previous TEAM Studies. The personal and fixed particle monitors showed excellent precision of about 4% RSD.

  20. Production of Inhalable Submicrometer Aerosols from Conventional Mesh Nebulizers for Improved Respiratory Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Longest, P. Worth; Spence, Benjamin M.; Holbrook, Landon T.; Mossi, Karla M.; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Submicrometer and nanoparticle aerosols may significantly improve the delivery efficiency, dissolution characteristics, and bioavailability of inhaled pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to explore the formation of submicrometer and nanometer aerosols from mesh nebulizers suitable for respiratory drug delivery using experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Mesh nebulizers were coupled with add-on devices to promote aerosol drying and the formation of submicrometer particles, as well as to control the inhaled aerosol temperature and relative humidity. Cascade impaction experiments were used to determine the initial mass median aerodynamic diameters of 0.1% albuterol aerosols produced by the AeroNeb commercial (4.69 μm) and lab (3.90 μm) nebulizers and to validate the CFD model in terms of droplet evaporation. Through an appropriate selection of flow rates, nebulizers, and model drug concentrations, submicrometer and nanometer aerosols could be formed with the three devices considered. Based on CFD simulations, a wire heated design was shown to overheat the airstream producing unsafe conditions for inhalation if the aerosol was not uniformly distributed in the tube cross-section or if the nebulizer stopped producing droplets. In comparison, a counter-flow heated design provided sufficient thermal energy to produce submicrometer particles, but also automatically limited the maximum aerosol outlet temperature based on the physics of heat transfer. With the counter-flow design, submicrometer aerosols were produced at flow rates of 5, 15, and 30 LPM, which may be suitable for various forms of oral and nasal aerosol delivery. Thermodynamic conditions of the aerosol stream exiting the counter-flow design were found be in a range of 21-45 °C with relative humidity greater than 40% in some cases, which was considered safe for direct inhalation and advantageous for condensational growth delivery. PMID:22707794

  1. Size-separated sampling and analysis of isocyanates in workplace aerosols. Part I. Denuder--cascade impactor sampler.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Jakob; Spanne, Mårten; Karlsson, Daniel; Dalene, Marianne; Skarping, Gunnar

    2008-07-01

    Isocyanates in the workplace atmosphere are typically present both in gas and particle phase. The health effects of exposure to isocyanates in gas phase and different particle size fractions are likely to be different due to their ability to reach different parts in the respiratory system. To reveal more details regarding the exposure to isocyanate aerosols, a denuder-impactor (DI) sampler for airborne isocyanates was designed. The sampler consists of a channel-plate denuder for collection of gaseous isocyanates, in series with three-cascade impactor stages with cut-off diameters (d(50)) of 2.5, 1.0 and 0.5 mum. An end filter was connected in series after the impactor for collection of particles smaller than 0.5 mum. The denuder, impactor plates and the end filter were impregnated with a mixture of di-n-butylamine (DBA) and acetic acid for derivatization of the isocyanates. During sampling, the reagent on the impactor plates and the end filter is continuously refreshed, due to the DBA release from the impregnated denuder plates. This secures efficient derivatization of all isocyanate particles. The airflow through the sampler was 5 l min(-1). After sampling, the samples containing the different size fractions were analyzed using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS)/MS. The DBA impregnation was stable in the sampler for at least 1 week. After sampling, the DBA derivatives were stable for at least 3 weeks. Air sampling was performed in a test chamber (300 l). Isocyanate aerosols studied were thermal degradation products of different polyurethane polymers, spraying of isocyanate coating compounds and pure gas-phase isocyanates. Sampling with impinger flasks, containing DBA in toluene, with a glass fiber filter in series was used as a reference method. The DI sampler showed good compliance with the reference method, regarding total air levels. For the different aerosols studied, vast differences were revealed in the distribution of isocyanate in gas and

  2. Inhaled aerosolized prostacyclin and nitric oxide as selective pulmonary vasodilators in ARDS--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Van Heerden, P V; Blythe, D; Webb, S A

    1996-10-01

    Nitric oxide 10 ppm and inhaled aerosolized prostacyclin 50 ng/kg/min were compared as selective pulmonary vasodilators in five patients with hypoxaemia secondary to acute respiratory distress syndrome. Neither agent resulted in systemic haemodynamic changes, indicating true pulmonary selectivity. Inhaled aerolized prostacyclin improved oxygenation to a degree comparable to nitric oxide, as measured by the arterial alveolar oxygen partial pressure gradient and shunt fraction. PMID:8909667

  3. ANALYSIS OF FLOW THROUGH A HUMAN ORAL MODEL FOR USE IN INHALATION TOXICOLOGY AND AEROSOL THERAPY PROTOCOLS

    EPA Science Inventory


    RATIONALE
    Understanding the transport and deposition of inhaled aerosols is of fundamental importance to inhalation toxicology and aerosol therapy. Herein, we focus on the development of a computer based oral morphology and related computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studi...

  4. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as... air flow splitting components that may be used in a Class I candidate equivalent method sampler...

  5. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED AMBIENT AEROSOLS FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu**, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC 27711; **IIT Research Institute, Chicago, IL; *South...

  6. Computer-automated silica aerosol generator and animal inhalation exposure system

    PubMed Central

    McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Frazer, Dave G.

    2015-01-01

    Inhalation exposure systems are necessary tools for determining the dose response relationship of inhaled toxicants under a variety of exposure conditions. The objective of this study was to develop an automated computer controlled system to expose small laboratory animals to precise concentrations of uniformly dispersed airborne silica particles. An acoustical aerosol generator was developed which was capable of re-suspending particles from bulk powder. The aerosolized silica output from the generator was introduced into the throat of a venturi tube. The turbulent high-velocity air stream within the venturi tube increased the dispersion of the re-suspended powder. That aerosol was then used to expose small laboratory animals to constant aerosol concentrations, up to 20mg/m3, for durations lasting up to 8h. Particle distribution and morphology of the silica aerosol delivered to the exposure chamber were characterized to verify that a fully dispersed and respirable aerosol was being produced. The inhalation exposure system utilized a combination of airflow controllers, particle monitors, data acquisition devices and custom software with automatic feedback control to achieve constant and repeatable exposure environments. The automatic control algorithm was capable of maintaining median aerosol concentrations to within ±0.2 mg/m3 of a user selected target concentration during exposures lasting from 2 to 8 h. The system was able to reach 95% of the desired target value in <10min during the beginning phase of an exposure. This exposure system provided a highly automated tool for conducting inhalation toxicology studies involving silica particles. PMID:23796015

  7. Inhaled aerosol particle dosimetry in mice: a review.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Loyda B; Gookin, Glenn; Phalen, Robert F

    2010-10-01

    The availability of molecular and genetic tools has made the mouse the most common animal model for a variety of human diseases in toxicology studies. However, little is known about the factors that will influence the dose delivery to murine lungs during an inhalation study. Among these factors are the respiratory tract anatomy, lung physiology, and clearance characteristics. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to briefly review the current knowledge on the aforementioned factors in mice and their implications to the dose delivered to mouse models during inhalation studies. Representative scientific publications were chosen from searches using the NCBI PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Relevant respiratory physiological differences have been widely reported for different mouse strains and sexes. The limited data on anatomical morphometry that is available for the murine respiratory tract indicates significant differences between mouse strains. These differences have implications to the dose delivered and the biological outcomes of inhalation studies. PMID:20879957

  8. Inhaled aerosol particle dosimetry in mice: a review.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Loyda B; Gookin, Glenn; Phalen, Robert F

    2010-12-01

    The availability of molecular and genetic tools has made the mouse the most common animal model for a variety of human diseases in toxicology studies. However, little is known about the factors that will influence the dose delivery to murine lungs during an inhalation study. Among these factors are the respiratory tract anatomy, lung physiology, and clearance characteristics. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to briefly review the current knowledge on the aforementioned factors in mice and their implications to the dose delivered to mouse models during inhalation studies. Representative scientific publications were chosen from searches using the NCBI PubMed and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Relevant respiratory physiological differences have been widely reported for different mouse strains and sexes. The limited data on anatomical morphometry that is available for the murine respiratory tract indicates significant differences between mouse strains. These differences have implications to the dose delivered and the biological outcomes of inhalation studies. PMID:21142796

  9. Emerging inhalation aerosol devices and strategies: where are we headed?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Tang, Patricia; Leung, Sharon Shui Yee; Chan, John Gar Yan; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2014-08-01

    Novel inhaled therapeutics including antibiotics, vaccines and anti-hypertensives, have led to innovations in designing suitable delivery systems. These emerging design technologies are in urgent demand to ensure high aerosolisation performance, consistent efficacy and satisfactory patient adherence. Recent vibrating-mesh and software technologies have resulted in nebulisers that have remarkably accurate dosing and portability. Alternatively, dry powder inhalers (DPIs) have become highly favourable for delivering high-dose and single-dose drugs with the aid of advanced particle engineering. In contrast, innovations are needed to overcome the technical constrains in drug-propellant incompatibility and delivering high-dose drugs with pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). This review discusses recent and emerging trends in pulmonary drug delivery systems. PMID:24732364

  10. Investigation of a Particle into Liquid Sampler to Study the Formation & Ageing of Secondary Organic Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, K. L.; Hamilton, J. F.; Rickard, A. R.; Bloss, W. J.; Alam, M. S.; Camredon, M.; Munoz, A.; Vazquez, M.; Rodenas, M.; Vera, T.; Borrás, E.

    2012-12-01

    The atmospheric oxidation of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) in the presence of NOx results in the formation of tropospheric ozone and Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) [Hallquist et al., 2009]. Whilst SOA is known to affect both climate and human health, the VOC oxidation pathways leading to SOA formation are poorly understood [Solomon et al., 2007]. This is in part due to the vast number and the low concentration of SOA species present in the ambient atmosphere. It has been estimated as many as 10,000 to 100,000 VOCs have been detected in the atmosphere, all of which can undergo photo-chemical oxidation and contribute to SOA formation [Goldstein and Galbally, 2007]. Atmospheric simulation chambers such as the EUropean PHOtoREactor (EUPHORE) in Valencia, Spain, are often used to study SOA formation from a single VOC precursor under controlled conditions. SOA composition and formation can be studied using online techniques such as Aerosol Mass Spectrometry (AMS), which provide high time resolution but limited structural information [Zhang et al., 2007]. Offline techniques, such as collection onto filters, extraction and subsequent analysis, provide detailed SOA composition but only usually one or two samples per experiment. In this work we report time resolved SOA composition analysis using a Particle into Liquid Sampler (PILS) followed by Liquid Chromatography Ion-Trap Mass Spectrometry (LC-IT-MS/MS) and Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry (FTICR-MS/MS). Experiments were performed at EUPHORE investigating the formation and composition of Methyl Chavicol SOA. Methyl Chavicol (also known as Estragole) was identified as the highest floral emission from an oil palm plantation in Malaysian Borneo and has also been observed in US pine forests [Bouvier-Brown et al., 2009; Misztal et al., 2010]. Previous studies indicate a high SOA yield from Methyl Chavicol at around 40 % [Lee et al., 2006], however currently there have been very few literature

  11. A TWO STAGE RESPIRABLE AEROSOL SAMPLER USING NUCLEPORE FILTERS IN SERIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Respirable and nonrespirable particles are separately collected from the atmosphere in a size selective sampler consisting of two Nuclepore filters in series. The first filter has pore diameters of 12 micrometers and collects, to a close approximation, the nonrespirable fraction ...

  12. Development and characterization of a resistance spot welding aerosol generator and inhalation exposure system.

    PubMed

    Afshari, Aliakbar; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; McKinney, Walter; Chen, Bean T; Jackson, Mark; Schwegler-Berry, Diane; Friend, Sherri; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Leonard, H Donny; Meighan, Terence G; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2014-10-01

    Limited information exists regarding the health risks associated with inhaling aerosols that are generated during resistance spot welding of metals treated with adhesives. Toxicology studies evaluating spot welding aerosols are non-existent. A resistance spot welding aerosol generator and inhalation exposure system was developed. The system was designed by directing strips of sheet metal that were treated with an adhesive to two electrodes of a spot welder. Spot welds were made at a specified distance from each other by a computer-controlled welding gun in a fume collection chamber. Different target aerosol concentrations were maintained within the exposure chamber during a 4-h exposure period. In addition, the exposure system was run in two modes, spark and no spark, which resulted in different chemical profiles and particle size distributions. Complex aerosols were produced that contained both metal particulates and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Size distribution of the particles was multi-modal. The majority of particles were chain-like agglomerates of ultrafine primary particles. The submicron mode of agglomerated particles accounted for the largest portion of particles in terms of particle number. Metal expulsion during spot welding caused the formation of larger, more spherical particles (spatter). These spatter particles appeared in the micron size mode and accounted for the greatest amount of particles in terms of mass. With this system, it is possible to examine potential mechanisms by which spot welding aerosols can affect health, as well as assess which component of the aerosol may be responsible for adverse health outcomes. PMID:25140455

  13. Deposition of Particles in the Alveolar Airways: Inhalation and Breath-Hold with Pharmaceutical Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm, Navvab; Longest, P. Worth

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that factors such as airway wall motion, inhalation waveform, and geometric complexity influence the deposition of aerosols in the alveolar airways. However, deposition fraction correlations are not available that account for these factors in determining alveolar deposition. The objective of this study was to generate a new space-filling model of the pulmonary acinus region and implement this model to develop correlations of aerosol deposition that can be used to predict the alveolar dose of inhaled pharmaceutical products. A series of acinar models was constructed containing different numbers of alveolar duct generations based on space-filling 14-hedron elements. Selected ventilation waveforms were quick-and-deep and slow-and-deep inhalation consistent with the use of most pharmaceutical aerosol inhalers. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were used to predict aerosol transport and deposition in the series of acinar models across various orientations with gravity where ventilation was driven by wall motion. Primary findings indicated that increasing the number of alveolar duct generations beyond 3 had a negligible impact on total acinar deposition, and total acinar deposition was not affected by gravity orientation angle. A characteristic model containing three alveolar duct generations (D3) was then used to develop correlations of aerosol deposition in the alveolar airways as a function of particle size and particle residence time in the geometry. An alveolar deposition parameter was determined in which deposition correlated with d2t over the first half of inhalation followed by correlation with dt2, where d is the aerodynamic diameter of the particles and t is the potential particle residence time in the alveolar model. Optimal breath-hold times to allow 95% deposition of inhaled 1, 2, and 3 μm particles once inside the alveolar region were approximately >10, 2.7, and 1.2 s, respectively. Coupling of the deposition

  14. Deposition of Particles in the Alveolar Airways: Inhalation and Breath-Hold with Pharmaceutical Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm, Navvab; Longest, P Worth

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that factors such as airway wall motion, inhalation waveform, and geometric complexity influence the deposition of aerosols in the alveolar airways. However, deposition fraction correlations are not available that account for these factors in determining alveolar deposition. The objective of this study was to generate a new space-filling model of the pulmonary acinus region and implement this model to develop correlations of aerosol deposition that can be used to predict the alveolar dose of inhaled pharmaceutical products. A series of acinar models was constructed containing different numbers of alveolar duct generations based on space-filling 14-hedron elements. Selected ventilation waveforms were quick-and-deep and slow-and-deep inhalation consistent with the use of most pharmaceutical aerosol inhalers. Computational fluid dynamics simulations were used to predict aerosol transport and deposition in the series of acinar models across various orientations with gravity where ventilation was driven by wall motion. Primary findings indicated that increasing the number of alveolar duct generations beyond 3 had a negligible impact on total acinar deposition, and total acinar deposition was not affected by gravity orientation angle. A characteristic model containing three alveolar duct generations (D3) was then used to develop correlations of aerosol deposition in the alveolar airways as a function of particle size and particle residence time in the geometry. An alveolar deposition parameter was determined in which deposition correlated with d(2)t over the first half of inhalation followed by correlation with dt(2), where d is the aerodynamic diameter of the particles and t is the potential particle residence time in the alveolar model. Optimal breath-hold times to allow 95% deposition of inhaled 1, 2, and 3 μm particles once inside the alveolar region were approximately >10, 2.7, and 1.2 s, respectively. Coupling of the deposition

  15. High-Resolution Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry Analysis of Water- Soluble Organic Aerosols Collected with a Particle into Liquid Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, Adam P.; Nizkorodov, Serguei; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander

    2010-10-01

    This work demonstrates the utility of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) a technique traditionally used for identification of inorganic ions present in ambient or laboratory aerosols for the analysis of water soluble organic aerosol (OA) using high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI-MS). Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) was produced from 0.5 ppm mixing ratios of limonene and ozone in a 5 m3 Teflon chamber. SOA was collected simultaneously using a traditional filter sampler and a PILS. The filter samples were later extracted with either water or acetonitrile, while the aqueous PILS samples were analyzed directly. In terms of peak intensities, types of detectable compounds, average O:C ratios, and organic mass to organic carbon ratios, the resulting high resolution mass spectra were essentially identical for the PILS and filter based samples. SOA compounds extracted from both filter/acetonitrile extraction and PILS/water extraction accounted for >95% of the total ion current in ESI mass spectra. This similarity was attributed to high solubility of limonene SOA in water. In contrast, significant differences in detected ions and peak abundances were observed for pine needle biomass burning organic aerosol (BBOA) collected with PILS and filter sampling. The water soluble fraction of BBOA is considerably smaller than for SOA, and a number of unique peaks were detectable only by the filter/acetonitrile method. The combination of PILS collection with HR-ESI-MS analysis offers a new approach for molecular analysis of the water-soluble organic fraction in biogenic SOA, aged photochemical smog, and BBOA.

  16. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  17. Dynamics of Particle Size on Inhalation of Environmental Aerosol and Impact on Deposition Fraction.

    PubMed

    Haddrell, Allen E; Davies, James F; Reid, Jonathan P

    2015-12-15

    Inhalation of elevated levels of particulate air pollution has been shown to elicit the onset of adverse health effects in humans, where the magnitude of the response is a product of where in the lung the particulate dose is delivered. At any point in time during inhalation the depositional flux of the aerosol is a function of the radius of the droplet, thus a detailed understanding of the rate and magnitude of the mass flux of water to the droplet during inhalation is crucial. In this study, we assess the impact of aerosol hygroscopicity on deposited dose through the inclusion of a detailed treatment of the mass flux of water to account for the dynamics of particle size in a modified version of the standard International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) whole lung deposition model. The ability to account for the role of the relative humidity (RH) of the aerosol prior to, and during, inhalation on the deposition pattern is explored, and found to have a significant effect on the deposition pattern. The model is verified by comparison to previously published measurements, and used to demonstrate that ambient RH affects where in the lung indoor particulate air pollution is delivered. PMID:26568475

  18. Multifunctional SMA-based smart inhaler system for improved aerosol drug delivery: design and fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausley, Matthew E.; Seelecke, Stefan

    2008-03-01

    This paper documents the development of a prototype smart aerosol drug inhaler system using shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators. Unlike conventional dispersed-release inhalers, the smart inhaler system releases the aerosol drug in a very small area within the mouth inlet. Kleinstreuer and Zhang [1] have found that controlled release in the mouth inlet increases drug efficiency and allows targeting of specific sites within the lung. The methodology has been validated numerically and experimentally using fixed-exit position inhalers. The design presented in this work, however, allows for variation of nozzle exit position using SMA wire actuators in a combined actuator/sensor role. In contrast to other possible mechanisms, SMA wires are lightweight, require low power, and are the least obstructive to the flow of air through the inhaler. The dual actuator/sensor nature of the SMA wires (via resistance measurement) further simplifies the design. Solutions and insights into several SMA actuator design challenges are presented. SMA wire actuator characteristics such as achievable stroke and their effect on the design are highlighted. Consideration of actuator force requirements and the capabilities of SMA wires and studied. The problems posed by the thermal characteristics of SMA wires and innovative solutions are reported.

  19. Inhalation deposition and retention patterns of a U-Pu chain aggregate aerosol.

    PubMed

    Briant, J K; Sanders, C L

    1987-10-01

    Chain aggregate aerosol particles are normally formed during many high-temperature combustion and vaporization processes. The shape of chain aggregate aerosol particles could have an effect on the pattern of inhalation deposition and retention of the particles in the respiratory tract. A chain aggregate aerosol of nuclear reactor fuel could be present as an inhalation hazard if it were released to the atmosphere after a meltdown, core-disruptive accident. Rats were exposed to a chain aggregate U-Pu aerosol made by laser vaporization of mixed-oxide, breeder reactor fuel (20% plutonium dioxide and 80% uranium dioxide), then sacrificed to measure the clearance and retention of the fuel aerosol particles. Deposition of the 0.7-micron (activity median aerodynamic equivalent diameter) aerosol particles resulted in an average initial lung burden of 4140 Bq alpha activity. The chain aggregate particle shape was not a major factor in the total deposition; however, it may have influenced the regional distribution of the activity deposited. Retention of the particles in the upper airways of the tracheobronchial tree was on the order of 1% of the concurrent lung burden, which is consistent with recent data of other investigations. This study indicates that insoluble chain aggregate particles are retained in the tracheobronchial airways to a degree similar to simple spherically shaped particles of equivalent volume diameter. PMID:3654224

  20. Quantitative assessment of inhalation exposure and deposited dose of aerosol from nanotechnology-based consumer sprays†

    PubMed Central

    Nazarenko, Yevgen; Lioy, Paul J.; Mainelis, Gediminas

    2015-01-01

    This study provides a quantitative assessment of inhalation exposure and deposited aerosol dose in the 14 nm to 20 μm particle size range based on the aerosol measurements conducted during realistic usage simulation of five nanotechnology-based and five regular spray products matching the nano-products by purpose of application. The products were also examined using transmission electron microscopy. In seven out of ten sprays, the highest inhalation exposure was observed for the coarse (2.5–10 μm) particles while being minimal or below the detection limit for the remaining three sprays. Nanosized aerosol particles (14–100 nm) were released, which resulted in low but measurable inhalation exposures from all of the investigated consumer sprays. Eight out of ten products produced high total deposited aerosol doses on the order of 101–103 ng kg−1 bw per application, ~85–88% of which were in the head airways, only <10% in the alveolar region and <8% in the tracheobronchial region. One nano and one regular spray produced substantially lower total deposited doses (by 2–4 orders of magnitude less), only ~52–64% of which were in the head while ~29–40% in the alveolar region. The electron microscopy data showed nanosized objects in some products not labeled as nanotechnology-based and conversely did not find nano-objects in some nano-sprays. We found no correlation between nano-object presence and abundance as per the electron microscopy data and the determined inhalation exposures and deposited doses. The findings of this study and the reported quantitative exposure data will be valuable for the manufacturers of nanotechnology-based consumer sprays to minimize inhalation exposure from their products, as well as for the regulators focusing on protecting the public health. PMID:25621175

  1. The effect of ozone exposure on the dispersion of inhaled aerosol boluses in healthy human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, M.J.; Bennett, W.D.; DeWitt, P.; Seal, E.; Strong, A.A.; Gerrity, T.R. )

    1991-07-01

    Acute exposure of humans to low levels of ozone are known to cause decreases in FVC and increases in SRaw. These alterations in lung function do not, however, elucidate the potential for acute small airway responses. In this study we employed a test of aerosol dispersion to examine the potential effects of ozone on small airways in humans. Twenty-two healthy nonsmoking male volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for 1 h while exercising at 20 L/min/m2 body surface area. Before and immediately after exposure, tests of spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75) and plethysmography (Raw and SRaw) were performed. Subjects also performed an aerosol dispersion test before and after exposure. Each test involved a subject inhaling five to seven breaths of a 300-ml bolus of a 0.5 micron triphenyl phosphate aerosol injected into a 2-L tidal volume. The bolus was injected into the tidal breath at three different depths: at Depth A the bolus was injected after 1.6 L of clean air were inhaled from FRC, at Depth B after 1.2 L, and at Depth C after 1.2 L but with inhalation beginning from RV. The primary measure of bolus dispersion was the expired half-width (HW). Secondary measures were the ratio (expressed as percent) of peak exhaled aerosol concentration to peak inhaled concentration (PR), shift in the median bolus volume between inspiration and expiration (VS), and percent of total aerosol recovered (RC). Changes in pulmonary function after ozone exposure were consistent with previous findings.

  2. Biokinetics and dosimetry of inhaled Cm aerosols in beagles: effect of aerosol chemical form.

    PubMed

    Guilmette, R A; Kanapilly, G M

    1988-12-01

    This study was designed to provide tissue distribution data of 244Cm that was inhaled by beagle dogs. Two chemical forms that were presumed to bracket the solubility of pure Cm compounds in vivo were used: 244Cm2O3 (oxide) and 244Cm(NO3)3 (nitrate). Adult dogs of both sexes received a single brief pernasal exposure to either a monodisperse aerosol of 244Cm2O3 (1.4 micron activity median aerodynamic diameter, AMAD, and 1.16 geometric standard deviation, sigma g) or a polydisperse aerosol of 244Cm(NO3)3 (1.1 micron AMAD, 1.74 sigma g). The resulting initial pulmonary burdens (IPB) were 1.5 and 1.7 kBq kg-1 body mass for the oxide and nitrate groups, respectively. The tissue distribution data obtained from the dogs that were serially sacrificed from 4 h to 2 y after exposure showed that both chemical forms were very soluble in vivo. For the oxide group, 78% IPB was cleared from the lung with a T 1/2 of 7.6 d, whereas for the nitrate group, 42% IPB cleared with a T 1/2 of 0.6 d. The lung retention for each group was described by three-component exponential functions. Most of the Cm that cleared the lung was redeposited in the liver (37% IPB) and skeleton (27% IPB), with lesser amounts in the muscle, fat and connective tissue (3.5% IPB) and kidney (approximately 2% IPB). The only significant difference noted in the biokinetics of Cm for the two exposure groups was a more rapid translocation of Cm from the lung to liver and bone during the first 10-20 d after exposure to the nitrate compared to the oxide chemical form. Extrapolation of these data to obtain estimates of committed dose equivalents for man indicate substantial agreement with the limits for occupational exposure specified by ICRP 30 (1979). PMID:3198400

  3. BEHAVIOR OF INHALED FIBERS: POTENTIAL APPLICATIONS TO MEDICINAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    A mathematical model of the rotational behavior of triaxial ellipsoids in sheared fluid flow is used to evaluate the aerodynamic behavior of fibrous aerosols of circular and non-circular cross-section. A general equation is developed for the average aerodynamic diameter of rotati...

  4. HYGROSCOPIC GROWTH: ITS EFFECT ON AEROSOL THERAPY AND INHALATION TOXICOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The success of an aerosol therapy protocol is contingent upon a proper quantity of drug being delivered to an appropriate site within the respiratory tract to elicit a therapeutic effect. Likewise, an accurate risk assessment of the threat to human health presented by airborne po...

  5. Evaluation of sampling inhalable PM10 particulate matter (<= 10 μm) using co-located high volume samplers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rajoy, R. R. S.; Dias, J. W. C.; Rego, E. C. P.; Pereira Netto, A. D.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the results of the determination of the concentrations of atmospheric particulate matter <= 10 μm (PM10), collected simultaneously by six PM10 high volume samplers from two different manufacturers installed in the same location. Fifteen samples of 24 h were obtained with each equipment at a selected urban area of Rio de Janeiro city. The concentration of PM10 ranged between 10.73 and 54.04 μg m-3. The samplers were considered comparable to each other, as the adopted methodology presented good repeatability.

  6. Measurement of Aerosolization of Asbestos from Soil Using the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) was designed to provide an alternative to activity-based sampling (ABS) for determining likely asbestos exposure resulting from activities at site with low contaminant levels. This paper presents a description of the RAFS device and a comp...

  7. 40 CFR 53.59 - Aerosol transport test for Class I equivalent method samplers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... specified in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable. The test requirements and performance... specified for a reference method sampler in 40 CFR part 50, appendix L or appendix O, as applicable, such as...-traceability (if required) of all measurement instruments used in the tests. The accuracy of flow rate...

  8. Design and application of a new modular adapter for laser diffraction characterization of inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    de Boer, A H; Gjaltema, D; Hagedoorn, P; Schaller, M; Witt, W; Frijlink, H W

    2002-12-01

    An inhaler adapter has been designed for the characterization of the aerosol clouds from medical aerosol generators such as nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (dpis) and metered dose inhalers (mdis) with laser diffraction technology. The adapter has a pre-separator, for separation of large particles (i.e. carrier crystals) from the aerosol cloud before it is exposed to the laser beam. It also has a fine particle collector for measuring the emitted mass fraction of fines by chemical detection methods after laser diffraction sizing. The closed system enables flow control through the aerosol generators and all test conditions, including ambient temperature and relative humidity, are automatically recorded. Counter flows minimize particle deposition onto the two windows for the laser beam, which make successive measurements without cleaning of these windows possible. The adapter has successfully been tested for nebulizers, mdis and dpis. In a comparative study with ten nebulizers it was found that these devices differ considerably in droplet size (distribution) of the aerosol cloud for the same 10% aqueous tobramycin solution (volume median diameters ranging from 1.25 to 3.25 microm) when they are used under the conditions recommended by the manufacturers. The droplet size distribution generated by the Sidestream (with PortaNeb compressor) is very constant during nebulization until dry running of the device. Comparative testing of dpis containing spherical pellet type of formulations for the drug (e.g. the AstraZeneca Turbuhaler) with the adapter is fast and simple. But also formulations containing larger carrier material could successfully be measured. Disintegration efficiency of a test inhaler with carrier retainment (acting as a pre-separator) could be measured quite accurately both for a colistin sulfate formulation with 16.7% of a lactose fraction 106-150 microm and for a budesonide formulation with a carrier mixture of Pharmatose 325 and 150 M. Therefore, it is

  9. Differences in physical chemistry and dissolution rate of solid particle aerosols from solution pressurised inhalers.

    PubMed

    Buttini, Francesca; Miozzi, Michele; Balducci, Anna Giulia; Royall, Paul G; Brambilla, Gaetano; Colombo, Paolo; Bettini, Ruggero; Forbes, Ben

    2014-04-25

    Solution composition alters the dynamics of beclomethasone diproprionate (BDP) particle formation from droplets emitted by pressurised metered dose inhalers (pMDIs). The hypothesis that differences in inhaler solutions result in different solid particle physical chemistry was tested using a suite of complementary calorimetric techniques. The atomisation of BDP-ethanol solutions from commercial HFA-pMDI produced aerodynamically-equivalent solid particle aerosols. However, differences in particle physico-chemistry (morphology and solvate/clathrate formation) were detected by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and supported by hot stage microscopy (HSM). Increasing the ethanol content of the formulation from 8 to 12% (w/w), which retards the evaporation of propellant and slows the increase in droplet surface viscosity, enhanced the likelihood of particles drying with a smooth surface. The dissolution rate of BDP from the 12% (w/w) ethanol formulation-derived particles (63% dissolved over 120 min) was reduced compared to the 8% (w/w) ethanol formulation-derived particles (86% dissolved over 120 min). The addition of 0.01% (w/w) formoterol fumarate or 1.3% (w/w) glycerol to the inhaler solution modified the particles and reduced the BDP dissolution rate further to 34% and 16% dissolved in 120 min, respectively. These data provide evidence that therapeutic aerosols from apparently similar inhaler products, including those with similar aerodynamic performance, may behave non-equivalently after deposition in the lungs. PMID:24491530

  10. Effect of ozone exposure on the dispersion of inhaled aerosol boluses in healthy human subjects

    SciTech Connect

    Keefe, M.J.; Bennett, W.D.; Dewitt, P.; Seal, E.; Strong, A.A.

    1990-12-06

    Acute exposure of humans to low levels of ozone are known to cause decreases FVC and increases sRaw. These alterations in lung function do not, however, elucidate the potential for acute small airways responses. In the study the authors employed a test of aerosol dispersion to examine the potential effects of ozone on small airways in humans. Twenty-two healthy non-smoking male volunteers were exposed to 0.4 ppm ozone for one hour while exercising at 20 l/min/m{sup 2} (BSA). Prior to and immediately following exposure, tests of spirometry (FVC, FEV1, and FEF25-75) and plethysmography (Raw and sRaw) were performed. Subjects also performed an aerosol dispersion test before and after exposure. Each test involved a subject inhaling five to seven breaths of a 300 ml bolus of a 0.5 micrometers triphenyl phosphate (TPP) aerosol injected into a 2 liters tidal volume. The bolus was injected into the tidal breath at three different depths: at depth A the bolus was injected after 1.6 liters of clean air was inhaled from FRC; at depth B after 1.2 liters; and at depth C after 1.2 liters but with inhalation beginning from RV. The primary measure of bolus dispersion was the expired half-width (HW).

  11. Efficient Nose-to-Lung (N2L) Aerosol Delivery with a Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    Golshahi, Laleh; Behara, Srinivas R.B.; Tian, Geng; Farkas, Dale R.; Hindle, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Delivering aerosols to the lungs through the nasal route has a number of advantages, but its use has been limited by high depositional loss in the extrathoracic airways. The objective of this study was to evaluate the nose-to-lung (N2L) delivery of excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation aerosols generated with a new inline dry powder inhaler (DPI). The device was also adapted to enable aerosol delivery to a patient simultaneously receiving respiratory support from high flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy. Methods: The inhaler delivered the antibiotic ciprofloxacin, which was formulated as submicrometer combination particles containing a hygroscopic excipient prepared by spray-drying. Nose-to-lung delivery was assessed using in vitro and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) methods in an airway model that continued through the upper tracheobronchial region. Results: The best performing device contained a 2.3 mm flow control orifice and a 3D rod array with a 3-4-3 rod pattern. Based on in vitro experiments, the emitted dose from the streamlined nasal cannula had a fine particle fraction <5 μm of 95.9% and mass median aerodynamic diameter of 1.4 μm, which was considered ideal for nose-to-lung EEG delivery. With the 2.3-343 device, condensational growth in the airways increased the aerosol size to 2.5–2.7 μm and extrathoracic deposition was <10%. CFD results closely matched the in vitro experiments and predicted that nasal deposition was <2%. Conclusions: The developed DPI produced high efficiency aerosolization with significant size increase of the aerosol within the airways that can be used to enable nose-to-lung delivery and aerosol administration during HFNC therapy. PMID:25192072

  12. Minimal amounts of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine improve aerosol performance of spray-dried temocillin powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cuvelier, Brieuc; Eloy, Pierre; Loira-Pastoriza, Cristina; Ucakar, Bernard; Sanogo, Abdoul Aziz; Dupont-Gillain, Christine; Vanbever, Rita

    2015-11-30

    Administration of antibiotics by inhalation can greatly improve drug targeting to the site of respiratory infections. In addition, dry powder inhalers are particularly convenient for the patients. The purposes of this study were to demonstrate the interest of pulmonary temocillin delivery to reach high temocillin concentrations locally in the lungs as well as to prepare a spray-dried temocillin powder for inhalation using a minimal amount of generally recognized as safe excipients. Intratracheal instillation of a temocillin solution allowed to reach higher and more sustained drug concentrations in the lungs than intravenous injection in mice, although a 10-fold lower temocillin dose was delivered intratracheally than systemically. A spray-dried powder of pure temocillin presented a fine particle fraction of 9% of the dose loaded in the inhaler. However, the incorporation of 0.5% to 20% of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) in the powder increased the fine particle fraction 4- to 5-fold. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction revealed that DPPC concentrated at the particle surface with its aliphatic chains laterally packed. The minimal amount of DPPC needed to improve the aerosol performance of temocillin supports the use of this excipient in the formulation of cohesive antibiotic powders for inhalation. PMID:26456267

  13. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using a nebulizer, and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. The ... will come in canisters. Each canister of levalbuterol aerosol is designed to provide 200 inhalations. After the ...

  14. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  15. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... in (inhaled). Common types of abused inhalants are: Aerosols, such as air freshener, deodorant, fabric protector, hair ... a gas from a balloon Dusting: Spraying an aerosol into the nose or mouth Glading: Inhaling air- ...

  16. The Treatment of Pulmonary Diseases and Respiratory-Related Conditions with Inhaled (Nebulized or Aerosolized) Glutathione

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Reduced glutathione or simply glutathione (γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine; GSH) is found in the cytosol of most cells of the body. GSH in the epithelial lining fluid (ELF) of the lower respiratory tract is thought to be the first line of defense against oxidative stress. Inhalation (nebulized or aerosolized) is the only known method that increases GSH's levels in the ELF. A review of the literature was conducted to examine the clinical effectiveness of inhaled GSH as a treatment for various pulmonary diseases and respiratory-related conditions. This report also discusses clinical and theoretical indications for GSH inhalation, potential concerns with this treatment, its presumed mechanisms of action, optimal doses to be administered and other important details. Reasons for inhaled GSH's effectiveness include its role as a potent antioxidant, and possibly improved oxygenation and host defenses. Theoretical uses of this treatment include Farmer's lung, pre- and postexercise, multiple chemical sensitivity disorder and cigarette smoking. GSH inhalation should not be used as a treatment for primary lung cancer. Testing for sulfites in the urine is recommended prior to GSH inhalation. Minor side effects such as transient coughing and an unpleasant odor are common with this treatment. Major side effects such as bronchoconstriction have only occurred among asthma patients presumed to be sulfite-sensitive. The potential applications of inhaled GSH are numerous when one considers just how many pulmonary diseases and respiratory-related conditions are affected by deficient antioxidant status or an over production of oxidants, poor oxygenation and/or impaired host defenses. More studies are clearly warranted. PMID:18317545

  17. Neurotoxicity following acute inhalation of aerosols generated during resistance spot weld-bonding of carbon steel

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Krishnan; Jefferson, Amy M.; Lin, Gary X.; Afshari, Aliakbar; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Meighan, Terence G.; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L.; Leonard, Howard D.; Frazer, David G.; Antonini, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Welding generates complex metal aerosols, inhalation of which is linked to adverse health effects among welders. An important health concern of welding fume (WF) exposure is neurological dysfunction akin to Parkinson’s disease (PD). Some applications in manufacturing industry employ a variant welding technology known as “weld-bonding” that utilizes resistance spot welding, in combination with adhesives, for metal-to-metal welding. The presence of adhesives raises additional concerns about worker exposure to potentially toxic components like Methyl Methacrylate, Bisphenol A and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we investigated the potential neurotoxicological effects of exposure to welding aerosols generated during weld-bonding. Male Sprague–Dawley rats were exposed (25 mg/m3 targeted concentration; 4 h/day × 13 days) by whole-body inhalation to filtered air or aerosols generated by either weld-bonding with sparking (high metal, low VOCs; HM) or without sparking (low metal; high VOCs; LM). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited complex aerosols that contained both metal oxide particulates and VOCs. LM aerosols contained a greater fraction of VOCs than HM, which comprised largely metal particulates of ultrafine morphology. Short-term exposure to LM aerosols caused distinct changes in the levels of the neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), in various brain areas examined. LM aerosols also specifically decreased the mRNA expression of the olfactory marker protein (Omp) and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in the olfactory bulb. Consistent with the decrease in Th, LM also reduced the expression of dopamine transporter (Slc6a3; Dat), as well as, dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) in the olfactory bulb. In contrast, HM aerosols induced the expression of Th and dopamine D5 receptor (Drd5) mRNAs, elicited neuroinflammation and blood–brain barrier-related changes in the olfactory bulb, but did not alter the expression of Omp. Our findings

  18. Neurotoxicity following acute inhalation of aerosols generated during resistance spot weld-bonding of carbon steel.

    PubMed

    Sriram, Krishnan; Jefferson, Amy M; Lin, Gary X; Afshari, Aliakbar; Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Meighan, Terence G; McKinney, Walter; Jackson, Mark; Cumpston, Amy; Cumpston, Jared L; Leonard, Howard D; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2014-10-01

    Welding generates complex metal aerosols, inhalation of which is linked to adverse health effects among welders. An important health concern of welding fume (WF) exposure is neurological dysfunction akin to Parkinson's disease (PD). Some applications in manufacturing industry employ a variant welding technology known as "weld-bonding" that utilizes resistance spot welding, in combination with adhesives, for metal-to-metal welding. The presence of adhesives raises additional concerns about worker exposure to potentially toxic components like Methyl Methacrylate, Bisphenol A and volatile organic compounds (VOCs). Here, we investigated the potential neurotoxicological effects of exposure to welding aerosols generated during weld-bonding. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed (25 mg/m³ targeted concentration; 4 h/day × 13 days) by whole-body inhalation to filtered air or aerosols generated by either weld-bonding with sparking (high metal, low VOCs; HM) or without sparking (low metal; high VOCs; LM). Fumes generated under these conditions exhibited complex aerosols that contained both metal oxide particulates and VOCs. LM aerosols contained a greater fraction of VOCs than HM, which comprised largely metal particulates of ultrafine morphology. Short-term exposure to LM aerosols caused distinct changes in the levels of the neurotransmitters, dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT), in various brain areas examined. LM aerosols also specifically decreased the mRNA expression of the olfactory marker protein (Omp) and tyrosine hydroxylase (Th) in the olfactory bulb. Consistent with the decrease in Th, LM also reduced the expression of dopamine transporter (Slc6a3; Dat), as well as, dopamine D2 receptor (Drd2) in the olfactory bulb. In contrast, HM aerosols induced the expression of Th and dopamine D5 receptor (Drd5) mRNAs, elicited neuroinflammation and blood-brain barrier-related changes in the olfactory bulb, but did not alter the expression of Omp. Our findings

  19. Ultrasensitive detection of inhaled organic aerosol particles by accelerator mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Parkhomchuk, E V; Gulevich, D G; Taratayko, A I; Baklanov, A M; Selivanova, A V; Trubitsyna, T A; Voronova, I V; Kalinkin, P N; Okunev, A G; Rastigeev, S A; Reznikov, V A; Semeykina, V S; Sashkina, K A; Parkhomchuk, V V

    2016-09-01

    Accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) was shown to be applicable for studying the penetration of organic aerosols, inhaled by laboratory mice at ultra-low concentration ca. 10(3) cm(-3). We synthesized polystyrene (PS) beads, composed of radiocarbon-labeled styrene, for testing them as model organic aerosols. As a source of radiocarbon we used methyl alcohol with radioactivity. Radiolabeled polystyrene beads were obtained by emulsifier-free emulsion polymerization of synthesized (14)C-styrene initiated by K2S2O8 in aqueous media. Aerosol particles were produced by pneumatic spraying of diluted (14)C-PS latex. Mice inhaled (14)C-PS aerosol consisting of the mix of 10(3) 225-nm particles per 1 cm(3) and 5·10(3) 25-nm particles per 1 cm(3) for 30 min every day during five days. Several millions of 225-nm particles deposited in the lungs and slowly excreted from them during two weeks of postexposure. Penetration of particles matter was also observed for liver, kidneys and brain, but not for a heart. PMID:27281540

  20. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the wide variety of substances—including solvents, aerosols, gases, and nitrites—that are rarely, if ever, ... a glue bottle or a marking pen), spray aerosols (such as computer cleaning dusters) directly into their ...

  1. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... electronic contact cleaner Aerosols are sprays that contain propellants and solvents. They include: Spray paint, hair spray, ... burn injuries Freon (difluoroethane substitutes) Refrigerant and aerosol propellant Sudden sniffing death Breathing problems and death (from ...

  2. Lung Deposition Analyses of Inhaled Toxic Aerosols in Conventional and Less Harmful Cigarette Smoke: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Kleinstreuer, Clement; Feng, Yu

    2013-01-01

    Inhaled toxic aerosols of conventional cigarette smoke may impact not only the health of smokers, but also those exposed to second-stream smoke, especially children. Thus, less harmful cigarettes (LHCs), also called potential reduced exposure products (PREPs), or modified risk tobacco products (MRTP) have been designed by tobacco manufacturers to focus on the reduction of the concentration of carcinogenic components and toxicants in tobacco. However, some studies have pointed out that the new cigarette products may be actually more harmful than the conventional ones due to variations in puffing or post-puffing behavior, different physical and chemical characteristics of inhaled toxic aerosols, and longer exposure conditions. In order to understand the toxicological impact of tobacco smoke, it is essential for scientists, engineers and manufacturers to develop experiments, clinical investigations, and predictive numerical models for tracking the intake and deposition of toxicants of both LHCs and conventional cigarettes. Furthermore, to link inhaled toxicants to lung and other diseases, it is necessary to determine the physical mechanisms and parameters that have significant impacts on droplet/vapor transport and deposition. Complex mechanisms include droplet coagulation, hygroscopic growth, condensation and evaporation, vapor formation and changes in composition. Of interest are also different puffing behavior, smoke inlet conditions, subject geometries, and mass transfer of deposited material into systemic regions. This review article is intended to serve as an overview of contributions mainly published between 2009 and 2013, focusing on the potential health risks of toxicants in cigarette smoke, progress made in different approaches of impact analyses for inhaled toxic aerosols, as well as challenges and future directions. PMID:24065038

  3. Positron emission tomography (PET) for assessing aerosol deposition of orally inhaled drug products.

    PubMed

    Dolovich, Myrna B; Bailey, Dale L

    2012-12-01

    The topical distribution of inhaled therapies in the lung can be viewed using radionuclides and imaging. Positron emission tomography (PET) is a three-dimensional functional imaging technique providing quantitatively accurate localization of the quantity and distribution of an inhaled or injected PET radiotracer in the lung. A series of transaxial slices through the lungs are obtained, comparable to an X-ray computed tomography (CT) scan. Subsequent reformatting allows coronal and sagittal images of the distribution of radioactivity to be viewed. This article describes procedures for administering [(18)F]-fluorodeoxyglucose aerosol to human subjects for the purpose of determining dose and distribution following inhalation from an aerosol drug delivery device (ADDD). The advantages of using direct-labeled PET drugs in the ADDD are discussed with reference to the literature. The methods for designing the inhalation system, determining proper radiation shielding, calibration, and validation of administered radioactivity, scanner setup, and data handling procedures are described. Obtaining an X-ray CT or radionuclide transmission scan to provide accurate geometry of the lung and also correct for tissue attenuation of the PET radiotracer is discussed. Protocols for producing accurate images, including factors that need to be incorporated into the data calibration, are described, as well as a proposed standard method for partitioning the lung into regions of interest. Alternate methods are described for more detailed assessments. Radiation dosimetry/risk calculations for the procedures are appended, as well as a sample data collection form and spreadsheet for calculations. This article should provide guidance for those interested in using PET to determine quantity and distribution of inhaled therapeutics. PMID:23215847

  4. Inhalation of U aerosols from UO2 fuel element fabrication.

    PubMed

    Schieferdecker, H; Dilger, H; Doerfel, H; Rudolph, W; Anton, R

    1985-01-01

    Publication No. 30 of the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) assigns the uranium oxides UO2 and U3O8 to transportability class Y, i.e. the half-life of these compounds in the lungs is about 500 days. This assignment seemed not to be in accordance with our experience resulting from incorporation surveillance during UO2 fuel element fabrication. Persons who worked in atmospheres containing UO2 aerosols with activity concentrations significantly above the derived air concentrations (DAC) for class Y U showed much lower activity in the lungs than would be expected according to the ICRP. To understand this discrepancy, aerosol concentrations and aerosol particle-size distributions at work places with the possibility of UO2 incorporation, the activity of urine and feces and the lung activity of persons working at these places were measured in an investigation program. The results are only consistent with the ICRP lung model if one uses a measured biological half-life in the lungs of 109 days and a measured AMAD of 8.2 micron instead of the ICRP standard assumptions of 500 days and 1.0 micron, respectively. ICRP Publication No. 30 recommends application of specific parameters for health physics instead of standard model values. For the special conditions in our UO2 fuel fabrication plant we therefore derive limits of air concentrations, lung activities and fecal and urinary activity concentrations by applying our measured particle-size and lung-retention parameters to the ICRP model. Our special derived limits in comparison to class Y limits for U after ICRP Publication No. 30 for a 1-micron AMAD and 500-day half-life (in brackets) are: (a) annual limit of intake: 6 X 10(4) Bq/y (1 X 10(3) Bq/y); (b) derived air concentration: 20 Bq/m3 (0.6 Bq/m3); (c) derived lung activity: 1.6 X 10(3) Bq; (d) derived fecal activity: 14 Bq/day; and (e) derived urine activity: 8.9 Bq/day. The committed dose equivalents calculated from our measured data and from our

  5. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  6. Influence of elastase-induced emphysema and the inhalation of an irritant aerosol on deposition and retention of an inhaled insoluble aerosol in Fischer-344 rats

    SciTech Connect

    Damon, E.G.; Mokler, B.V.; Jones, R.K.

    1983-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema and the inhalation of an irritant aerosol (Triton X-100, a nonionic surfactant similar to those used in a number of pressurized consumer products) on pulmonary deposition and retention of an insoluble test aerosol, /sup 59/FE-labeled Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Untreated rats or rats pretreated by intratracheal in stillation with elastase were exposed to an aerosol of /sup 59/Fe-labeled Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ either 18 hr or 7 days after exposure to aerosslized Triton X-100 which was administered in doses of 20, 100, or 200 ..mu..g/g of lung. Rats pretreated with elastase had significantly lower pulmonary deposition of /sup 59/Fe than the untreated controls (p < 0.005). Pulmonary deposition of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ was unaffected by pretreatment with Triton X-100. Elastase treatment alone had no effect on retention of Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/. Triton X-100 administered 18 hr prior to exposure of rats to Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/ aerosol resulted in dose-related increases in whole-body retention of /sup 59/Fe. When rats were exposed to Triton X-100 7 days before exposure to Fe/sub 2/O/sub 3/, increased retention of /sup 59/Fe was noted only in those treated at the highest Triton X-100 dose level (200 ..mu..g/g). 20 references, 5 tables.

  7. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  8. The Effect of Spacer Morphology on the Aerosolization Performance of Metered-Dose Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Momeni, Sepideh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Ghanbarzadeh, Saeed; Hamishehkar, Hamed

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Respiratory drug delivery has been attracted great interest for the past decades, because of the high incidence of pulmonary diseases. However, despite its invaluable benefits, there are some major drawbacks in respiratory drug delivery, mainly due to the relatively high drug deposition in undesirable regions. One way to improve the efficiency of respiratory drug delivery through metered-dose inhalers (MDI) is placing a respiratory spacer between the inhaler exit and the mouth. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of type and shape of spacer on the aerosolization performance of MDIs. Methods: A commercial Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) MDI alone or equipped with two different spacer devices (roller and pear type) widely distributed in the world pharmaceutical market was used. The effect of spacers was evaluated by calculating aerosolization indexes such as fine particle fraction (FPF), mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMAD) and geometric standard deviation (GSD) using the next generation impactor. Results: Although one of the spacers resulted in superior outcomes than the other one, but it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: The results confirmed that the type and shape of spacer did not substantially influence the aerosolization performance of MDIs. PMID:27478789

  9. Optimization of levofloxacin-loaded crosslinked chitosan microspheres for inhaled aerosol therapy.

    PubMed

    Gaspar, Marisa C; Sousa, João J S; Pais, Alberto A C C; Cardoso, Olga; Murtinho, Dina; Serra, M Elisa S; Tewes, Frédéric; Olivier, Jean-Christophe

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this work was the development of innovative levofloxacin-loaded swellable microspheres (MS) for the dry aerosol therapy of pulmonary chronicPseudomonas aeruginosainfections in Cystic Fibrosis patients. In a first step, a factorial design was applied to optimize formulations of chitosan-based MS with glutaraldehyde as crosslinker. After optimization, other crosslinkers (genipin, glutaric acid and glyceraldehyde) were tested. Analyses of MS included aerodynamic and swelling properties, morphology, drug loading, thermal and chemical characteristics,in vitroantibacterial activity and drug release studies. The prepared MS presented a drug content ranging from 39.8% to 50.8% of levofloxacin in an amorphous or dispersed state, antibacterial activity and fast release profiles. The highest degree of swelling was obtained for MS crosslinked with glutaric acid and genipin. These formulations also presented satisfactory aerodynamic properties, making them a promising alternative, in dry-powder inhalers, to levofloxacin solution for inhalation. PMID:26192459

  10. Physicochemical characterization and aerosol dispersion performance of organic solution advanced spray-dried cyclosporine A multifunctional particles for dry powder inhalation aerosol delivery

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Xiao; Zhang, Weifen; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    In this systematic and comprehensive study, inhalation powders of the polypeptide immunosuppressant drug – cyclosporine A – for lung delivery as dry powder inhalers (DPIs) were successfully designed, developed, and optimized. Several spray drying pump rates were rationally chosen. Comprehensive physicochemical characterization and imaging was carried out using scanning electron microscopy, hot-stage microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffraction, Karl Fischer titration, laser size diffraction, and gravimetric vapor sorption. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using a next generation impactor with a Food and Drug Administration-approved DPI device. These DPIs displayed excellent aerosol dispersion performance with high values in emitted dose, respirable fraction, and fine particle fraction. In addition, novel multifunctional inhalation aerosol powder formulations of cyclosporine A with lung surfactant-mimic phospholipids were also successfully designed and developed by advanced organic solution cospray drying in closed mode. The lung surfactantmimic phospholipids were 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine and 1,2-dipalmitoyl-snglycero- 3-(phosphor-rac-1-glycerol). These cyclosporine A lung surfactant-mimic aerosol powder formulations were comprehensively characterized. Powder X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry confirmed that the phospholipid bilayer structure in the solid state was preserved following advanced organic solution spray drying in closed mode. These novel multifunctional inhalation powders were optimized for DPI delivery with excellent aerosol dispersion performance and high aerosol performance parameters. PMID:23569375

  11. Quantification of Aerosol Hydrofluoroalkane HFA-134a Elimination in the Exhaled Human Breath Following Inhaled Corticosteroids Administration.

    PubMed

    Shin, Hye-Won; Barletta, Barbara; Yoonessi, Leila; Meinardi, Simone; Leu, Szu-Yun; Radom-Aizik, Shlomit; Randhawa, Inderpal; Nussbaum, Eliezer; Blake, Donald R; Cooper, Dan M

    2015-10-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) and β2-agonists are the primary pharmacotherapies of asthma management. However, suboptimal medication compliance is common in asthmatics and is associated with increased morbidity. We hypothesized that exhaled breath measurements of the aerosol used in the inhaled medications might prove useful as surrogate marker for asthma medication compliance. To explore this, 10 healthy controls were recruited and randomly assigned to ICS (Flovent HFA) or short acting bronchodilators (Proventil HFA). Both inhalers contain HFA-134a as aerosol propellant. Exhaled breath sampling and pulmonary function tests were performed prior to the inhaler medication dispersion, immediately after inhalation, then at 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48 hours postadministration. At baseline, mean (SD) levels of HFA-134a in the breath were 252 (156) pptv. Immediately after inhalation, HFA-134a breath levels increased to 300 × 10(6) pptv and were still well above ambient levels 24 hours postadministration. The calculated ratio of forced expiratory volume in 1 second over forced vital capacity did not change over time following inhaler administration. This study demonstrates, for the first time, that breath HFA-134a levels can be used to assess inhaler medication compliance. It may also be used to evaluate how effectively the medicine is delivered. PMID:26155923

  12. Physico-chemical qualification of a universal portable sampler for aerosols and water-soluble gases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roux, Jean-Maxime; Sarda-Estève, Roland

    2015-10-01

    Developing a universal portable air sampler based on electrostatic precipitation. The challenge is to collect micro and nanoparticles, microorganisms as well as toxic molecules with a portable device. Electrostatic precipitation is an efficient and gentle method to collect airborne microorganisms and preserve their cultivability. But the collection of toxic gases required is not possible in such a device. The collection of such gases requires a liquid into which they have to be solubilized. Two concepts are being evaluated. The first one is based on electrospray. The goal is to investigate the collection efficiency of water-soluble gases. The second concept is based on the semi-humid electrostatic precipitator. Their high collection efficiencies for particles were already demonstrated. In the present study they are both tested with water-soluble gases. Concentrations are measured in the liquid solution by Ion Chromatography and in the gas phase by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometry.

  13. Prediction of Asbestos Exposure Resulting From Asbestos Aerosolization Determined Using the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activity-based sampling (ABS) used to evaluate breathing zone exposure to a contaminant present in soil resulting from various activities, involves breathing zone sampling for contaminants while that activity is performed. A probabilistic model based upon aerosol physics and flui...

  14. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  15. Ultra-fast absorption of amorphous pure drug aerosols via deep lung inhalation.

    PubMed

    Rabinowitz, Joshua D; Lloyd, Peter M; Munzar, Patrik; Myers, Daniel J; Cross, Steve; Damani, Ramesh; Quintana, Reynaldo; Spyker, Daniel A; Soni, Pravin; Cassella, James V

    2006-11-01

    A deficiency of most current drug products for treatment of acute conditions is slow onset of action. A promising means of accelerating drug action is through rapid systemic drug administration via deep lung inhalation. The speed of pulmonary drug absorption depends on the site of aerosol deposition within the lung and the dissolution rate and drug content of the deposited particles. Alveolar delivery of fast-dissolving, pure drug particles should in theory enable very rapid absorption. We have previously shown that heating of thin drug films generates vapor-phase drug that subsequently cools and condenses into pure drug particles of optimal size for alveolar delivery. Here we present a hand held, disposable, breath-actuated device incorporating this thermal aerosol technology, and its application to the delivery of alprazolam, an anti-panic agent, and prochlorperazine, an anti-emetic with recently discovered anti-migraine properties. Thermal aerosol particles of these drugs exist in an amorphous state, which results in remarkably rapid drug absorption from the lung into the systemic circulation, with peak left ventricular concentrations achieved within 20 s, even quicker than following rapid (5 s) intravenous infusion. Absorption of the thermal aerosol is nearly complete, with >80% absolute bioavailability found in both dogs and human normal volunteers. PMID:16886198

  16. Influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride dry powder inhalation characteristics and aerosolization properties.

    PubMed

    Ren, Yachao; Yu, Chaoqun; Meng, Kangkang; Tang, Xing

    2008-09-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the influence of formulation and preparation process on ambroxol hydrochloride (AH) dry powder inhalation (DPI) characteristics and aerosolization properties. Spray-dried samples of AH, AH/leucine, and AH/leucine/mannitol were prepared from their corresponding water solutions under the same conditions to study the influence of the composition, and the AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) formulation was used for investigation of the effect of the preparation process. Following spray-drying, the resulting powders were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, laser diffraction, tapped density, and angle of repose measurements, and the aerosolization performance was determined using a twin-stage liquid impinger. AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) obtained by cospray-drying improved the AH aerosolization properties. The AH/leucine/mannitol (2.5/0.5/1 by weight) preparation exhibited the following properties: 62.34% yield, 0.34 g/cm(3) tap density, 2.71 microm d(ae), 33.45 degrees angle of repose, and 30.93% respirable fraction. The influence of the preparation process on DPI characteristics and aerosolization properties was relatively small, but the influence of the composition was relatively large. Optimization of DPI can be achieved by selecting the most appropriate formulation and preparation process. PMID:18800258

  17. Mode shift of an inhaled aerosol bolus is correlated with flow sequencing in the human lung

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mills, Christopher N.; Darquenne, Chantal; Prisk, G. Kim; West, J. B. (Principal Investigator)

    2002-01-01

    We studied the effects on aerosol bolus inhalations of small changes in convective inhomogeneity induced by posture change from upright to supine in nine normal subjects. Vital capacity single-breath nitrogen washout tests were used to determine ventilatory inhomogeneity change between postures. Relative to upright, supine phase III slope was increased 33 +/- 11% (mean +/- SE, P < 0.05) and phase IV height increased 25 +/- 11% (P < 0.05), consistent with an increase in convective inhomogeneity likely due to increases in flow sequencing. Subjects also performed 0.5-microm-particle bolus inhalations to penetration volumes (V(p)) between 150 and 1,200 ml during a standardized inhalation from residual volume to 1 liter above upright functional residual capacity. Mode shift (MS) in supine posture was more mouthward than upright at all V(p), changing by 11.6 ml at V(p) = 150 ml (P < 0.05) and 38.4 ml at V(p) = 1,200 ml (P < 0.05). MS and phase III slope changes correlated positively at deeper V(p). Deposition did not change at any V(p), suggesting that deposition did not cause the MS change. We propose that the MS change results from increased sequencing in supine vs. upright posture.

  18. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide.

    PubMed Central

    Gillett, N. A.; Muggenburg, B. A.; Mewhinney, J. A.; Hahn, F. F.; Seiler, F. A.; Boecker, B. B.; McClellan, R. O.

    1988-01-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 238PuO2. Initial deposition of 238PuO2 in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the 238Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to 238PuO2, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after 238Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that 238Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of 238Pu. Images Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:3142267

  19. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide

    SciTech Connect

    Gillett, N.A.; Muggenburg, B.A.; Mewhinney, J.A.; Hahn, F.F.; Seiler, F.A.; Boecker, B.B.; McClellan, R.O.

    1988-11-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/. Initial deposition of /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/ in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the /sup 238/Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to /sup 238/PuO/sub 2/, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after /sup 238/Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that /sup 238/Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of /sup 238/Pu.

  20. Primary liver tumors in beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide.

    PubMed

    Gillett, N A; Muggenburg, B A; Mewhinney, J A; Hahn, F F; Seiler, F A; Boecker, B B; McClellan, R O

    1988-11-01

    Primary liver tumors developed in Beagle dogs exposed by inhalation to aerosols of 238PuO2. Initial deposition of 238PuO2 in the respiratory tract was followed by translocation of a portion of the 238Pu to the liver and skeleton, which resulted in a large dose commitment and tumor risk to all three tissues. In a population of 144 dogs exposed to 238PuO2, 112 dogs died or were killed 4000 days after 238Pu exposure, 100 dogs had osteosarcoma, and 28 dogs had lung cancers. At increasing times after exposure, however, liver lesions have become more pronounced. Ten primary liver tumors in nine animals were diagnosed in the dogs dying before 4000 days after exposure. An additional five primary liver tumors in three dogs occurred in 9 animals killed after 4000 days after exposure. The majority of these tumors have been fibrosarcomas. The liver tumors were usually not the cause of death, and rarely metastasized. The occurrence of liver tumors in this study indicates that 238Pu is an effective hepatic carcinogen. Liver carcinogenesis is assuming an increasing importance in this study at late times after inhalation exposure. These results suggest that the liver may be an important organ at risk for the development of neoplasia in humans at time periods long after inhalation of 238Pu. PMID:3142267

  1. Creation of a protective pulmonary bioshield against inhaled organophosphates using an aerosolized bioscavenger.

    PubMed

    Rosenberg, Yvonne J; Fink, James B

    2016-06-01

    In addition to the global use of organophosphate (OP) pesticides for agriculture, OP nerve agents and pesticides have been employed on battlefields and by terrorists (e.g., a recent sarin attack in Syria). These occurrences highlight the need for an effective countermeasure against OP exposure. Human butyrylcholinesterase (HuBChE) is a leading candidate, but injection of the high doses required for protection present pharmacokinetic challenges. An aerosolized recombinant form (aer-rHuBChE) that can neutralize inhaled OPs at the portal of entry has been assessed for its efficacy in protecting macaques against respiratory toxicity following inhalation exposure to the pesticide paraoxon (aer-Px). While protection in macaques has been demonstrated using the MicroSprayer® delivery device, administration to humans will likely employ a vibrating mesh nebulizer (VMN). Compared to the 50-70% lung deposition achieved in adult humans with a VMN, deposition in macaques is <5%, an initial major obstacle to demonstrating protection. Such problems have been partly overcome by using a more efficient modified VMN and proportionally higher doses, which together generate an effective rHuBChE pulmonary bioshield and protect against high levels of inhaled Px. PMID:27371808

  2. Fate of inhaled monoclonal antibodies after the deposition of aerosolized particles in the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Guilleminault, L; Azzopardi, N; Arnoult, C; Sobilo, J; Hervé, V; Montharu, J; Guillon, A; Andres, C; Herault, O; Le Pape, A; Diot, P; Lemarié, E; Paintaud, G; Gouilleux-Gruart, V; Heuzé-Vourc'h, N

    2014-12-28

    Monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) are usually delivered systemically, but only a small proportion of the drug reaches the lung after intravenous injection. The inhalation route is an attractive alternative for the local delivery of mAbs to treat lung diseases, potentially improving tissue concentration and exposure to the drug while limiting passage into the bloodstream and adverse effects. Several studies have shown that the delivery of mAbs or mAb-derived biopharmaceuticals via the airways is feasible and efficient, but little is known about the fate of inhaled mAbs after the deposition of aerosolized particles in the respiratory system. We used cetuximab, an anti-EGFR antibody, as our study model and showed that, after its delivery via the airways, this mAb accumulated rapidly in normal and cancerous tissues in the lung, at concentrations twice those achieved after intravenous delivery, for early time points. The spatial distribution of cetuximab within the tumor was heterogeneous, as reported after i.v. injection. Pharmacokinetic (PK) analyses were carried out in both mice and macaques and showed aerosolized cetuximab bioavailability to be lower and elimination times shorter in macaques than in mice. Using transgenic mice, we showed that FcRn, a key receptor involved in mAb distribution and PK, was likely to make a greater contribution to cetuximab recycling than to the transcytosis of this mAb in the airways. Our results indicate that the inhalation route is potentially useful for the treatment of both acute and chronic lung diseases, to boost and ensure the sustained accumulation of mAbs within the lungs, while limiting their passage into the bloodstream. PMID:25451545

  3. Design, characterization, and aerosolization of organic solution advanced spray-dried moxifloxacin and ofloxacin dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders for pulmonary inhalation aerosol delivery

    PubMed Central

    Duan, Jinghua; Vogt, Frederick G; Li, Xiaojian; Hayes, Don; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to design and develop respirable antibiotics moxifloxacin (MOXI) hydrochloride and ofloxacin (OFLX) microparticles and nanoparticles, and multifunctional antibiotics particles with or without lung surfactant 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC) for targeted dry powder inhalation delivery as a pulmonary nanomedicine. Particles were rationally designed and produced by advanced spray-drying particle engineering from an organic solution in closed mode (no water) from dilute solution. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that these particles had both optimal particle morphology and surface morphology, and the particle size distributions were suitable for pulmonary delivery. Comprehensive and systematic physicochemical characterization and in vitro aerosol dispersion performance revealed significant differences between these two fluoroquinolone antibiotics following spray drying as drug aerosols and as cospray-dried antibiotic drug: DPPC aerosols. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and confocal Raman microspectroscopy were employed to probe composition and interactions in the solid state. Spray-dried MOXI was rendered noncrystalline (amorphous) following organic solution advanced spray drying. This was in contrast to spray-dried OFLX, which retained partial crystallinity, as did OFLX:DPPC powders at certain compositions. Aerosol dispersion performance was conducted using inertial impaction with a dry powder inhaler device approved for human use. The present study demonstrates that the use of DPPC offers improved aerosol delivery of MOXI as cospray-dried microparticulate/nanoparticulate powders, whereas residual partial crystallinity influenced aerosol dispersion of OFLX and most of the compositions of OFLX:DPPC inhalation powders. PMID:24092972

  4. Field testing of a personal size-selective bioaerosol sampler.

    PubMed

    Kenny, L C; Bowry, A; Crook, B; Stancliffe, J D

    1999-08-01

    Existing samplers for the collection of bioaerosols have been designed with the aim of maintaining biological stability of the collected material, and in general do not select particles in accordance with international conventions for aerosol sampling. Many have uncharacterised sampling efficiencies and few are designed as personal samplers. If standard personal dust samplers are used for bioaerosols the viability of collected microorganisms may be compromised by dehydration. The objective of this study was to evaluate a novel personal bioaerosol sampler designed to collect the inhalable dust fraction and further subdivide the sample into thoracic and respirable fractions. The new sampler was tested to see whether it enhanced the survival of the collected microorganisms, and was assessed for ease of use in the field and in subsequent laboratory analyses. A number of occupation-related field sites were selected where large concentrations of bioaerosols were to be expected. The prototype sampler was found to be simple to use. Analysis could be carried out with similar efficiency either with all three fractions together for a total count, or separately for size selective data. The sampler performed at least as well as the standard IOM filter method but with the added advantage of size fractionation. The field trials showed that for sampling periods lasting several hours, microorganism survival within the sampler was adequate for culture and identification of the organisms present. This new sampler is now commercially available. In addition to bioaerosol sampling, the principle of size selective sampling using porous foams can be applied to other occupational hygiene problems, and also to indoor air monitoring of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations. PMID:10518465

  5. Two-week aerosol inhalation study on polyethylene glycol (PEG) 3350 in F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Klonne, D R; Dodd, D E; Losco, P E; Troup, C M; Tyler, T R

    1989-03-01

    PEGs in the 3000 to 4000 MW range are used in many pharmaceutical and cosmetic applications; they produce little ocular or dermal irritation and have extremely low acute and subchronic toxicity by oral and dermal routes of administration. However, little information exists on the potential of aerosols of these materials to produce adverse health effects. F-344 rats were exposed to aerosols of PEG 3350 (20% w:w in water) at 0, 109, 567, or 1008 (highest attainable) mg/m3 for 6 hr/d, 5 d/wk for 2 wk. No exposure-related toxicity was found with regard to clinical signs, ophthalmology, serum chemistry, urinalysis, or gross pathology. Exposure-related effects included: a 50% increase in the neutrophil count (males only) at 1008 mg/m3; decreased body weight gain (16%) for both the 567 and 1008 mg/m3 groups (males only); absolute lung weights of both sexes were increased 10 and 18% for the 567 and 1008 mg/m3 groups, respectively. A slight increase in the number of macrophages in the alveoli was the only change observed histologically in all PEG 3350-exposed groups. Therefore, inhalation of aerosols of PEG 3350 at concentrations up to 1008 mg/m3 produced relatively little toxicity in rats, the lung was the target organ, and the no-observable-effect-level was between 109 to 567 mg/m3. PMID:2714207

  6. Effects of formulation and operating variables on zanamivir dry powder inhalation characteristics and aerosolization performance.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Yang, Ziwei; Ren, Yufeng; Mei, Xingguo

    2014-09-01

    Abstract The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of formulation and operating variables on the physical characteristics and aerosolization performance of zanamivir spary-dried powders for inhalation. Spray-dried samples of zanamivir, zanamivir/mannitol and zanamivir/mannitol/leucine were prepared from their corresponding aqueous solutions under the same conditions to study the influence of the composition, and zanamivir/mannitol/leucine (1/1/3 by weight) formulation was used for investigation of the effect of the preparation process. Dry powders were characterized afterwards for different physical properties, including morphology, particle size, flowability, density and moisture absorption. The in vitro deposition was also evaluated after the aerosolization of powders at 100 L min(-1) via the Aerolizer® into a Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The highest FPF of 41.40 ± 1.1% was obtained with a zanamivir/mannitol/leucine ratio of 1/1/3, which had an average Dg of 3.11 ± 0.13 μm and an angle of repose of 36°( )± 1. It was found that the influence of the preparation process on zanamivir spary-dried powders characteristics and aerosolization properties was relatively small, but the influence of the composition was relatively large. Optimization of DPI can be achieved by selecting the most appropriate formulation and preparation process. PMID:24491208

  7. AEROSOL DEPOSITION EFFICIENCIES AND UPSTREAM RELEASE POSITIONS FOR DIFFERENT INHALATION MODES IN AN UPPER BRONCHIAL AIRWAY MODELS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Aerosol Deposition Efficiencies and Upstream Release Positions for Different Inhalation Modes in an Upper Bronchial Airway Model

    Zhe Zhang, Clement Kleinstreuer, and Chong S. Kim

    Center for Environmental Medicine and Lung Biology, University of North Carolina at Ch...

  8. A correlation equation for the mass median aerodynamic diameter of the aerosol emitted by solution metered dose inhalers.

    PubMed

    Ivey, James W; Lewis, David; Church, Tanya; Finlay, Warren H; Vehring, Reinhard

    2014-04-25

    A correlation equation for the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of the aerosol emitted by solution metered dose inhalers (MDIs) is presented. A content equivalent diameter is defined and used to describe aerosols generated by evaporating metered dose inhaler sprays. A large set of cascade impaction data is analyzed, and the MMAD and geometric standard deviation is calculated for each datum. Using dimensional analysis, the mass median content equivalent diameter is correlated with formulation variables. Based on this correlation in combination with mass balance considerations and the definition of the aerodynamic diameter, an equation for prediction of the MMAD of an inhaler given the pressure of the propellant in the metering chamber of the MDI valve and the surface tension of the propellant is derived. The accuracy of the correlation equation is verified by comparison with literature results. The equation is applicable to both HFA (hydrofluoroalkane) propellants 134a and 227ea, with varying levels of co-solvent ethanol. PMID:24524827

  9. AEROSOL CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTION ON BOARD THE DOE G1 AIRCRAFT USING A PARTICLE INTO LIQUID SAMPLER DURING THE TEXAQS 2000 EXPERIMENT.

    SciTech Connect

    LEE,Y.N.; SONG,Z.; LIU,Y.; DAUM,P.; WEBER,R.; ORSINI,D.; LAULAINEN,N.; HUBBE,J.; MORRIS,V.

    2001-01-13

    Knowledge of aerosol chemical composition is key to understanding a number of properties of ambient aerosol particles including sources, size/number distribution, chemical evolution, optical properties and human health effects. Although filter based techniques have been widely used to determine aerosol chemical constituents, they generally cannot provide sufficiently fast time resolution needed to investigate sources and chemical evolution that effect aerosol chemical, size and number changes. In order to gain an ability to describe and predict the life cycles of ambient aerosols as a basis for ambient air quality control, fast and sensitive determination of the aerosol chemical composition must be made available. To help to achieve this goal, we deployed a newly developed technique, referred to as PILS (particle-into-liquid-sampler), on the DOE G1 aircraft during the 2000 Texas Air Quality Study (TexAQS 2000) to characterize the major ionic species of aerosol particles with aerodynamic size smaller than 2.5 {micro}m (PM 2.5). The results obtained are examined in the context of other simultaneously collected data for insights into the measurement capability of the PILS system.

  10. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  11. Behaviordelia Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malott, Richard W., Ed.

    Behaviordelia Sampler is based on the same principle as a candy sampler or record sampler. It compiles excerpts from a variety of texts which Behaviordelia is now publishing. It is intended as a supplementary book of readings for courses in psychology and related fields and also as a catalog of their materials. Much of the sampler uses a comic…

  12. Sampling of high amounts of bioaerosols using a high-volume electrostatic field sampler.

    PubMed

    Madsen, A M; Sharma, A K

    2008-04-01

    For studies of the biological effects of bioaerosols, large samples are necessary. To be able to sample enough material and to cover the variations in aerosol content during and between working days, a long sampling time is necessary. Recently, a high-volume transportable electrostatic field sampler for collection of fine particles has been described. The aim of this study was to investigate whether this sampler can be used for collection of high amounts of authentic bioaerosols that can subsequently be used for biological analysis. The investigation was carried out at a biofuel plant in a straw storage room and in a boiler room over two seasons. The sampled dust was quantified in terms of mass and characterized regarding microbial components and compared with dust sampled by Gravikon and GSP samplers. For the electrostatic field sampler, a prefilter was used to remove large objects. The prefilter was characterized for particle penetration and this testing indicated that the prefilter did not remove particles up to 10 mum, and therefore respirable dust was sampled by the electrostatic field sampler. Using the electrostatic field sampler in the straw storage and in the boiler room, 330 and 315 mg dust (net recovery of the lyophilized dust) was sampled during a period of 7 days, respectively. The sampling rates of the electrostatic field samplers were between 1.34 and 1.96 mg dust per hour, the value for the Gravikon was between 0.083 and 0.108 mg dust per hour and the values for the GSP samplers were between 0.0031 and 0.032 mg dust per hour. The standard deviations of replica samplings and the following microbial analysis using the electrostatic field sampler and GSP samplers were at the same levels. The exposure to dust in the straw storage was 7.7 mg m(-3) when measured by the electrostatic field sampler and 11.8 mg m(-3) when measured by the GSP inhalable dust sampler. The quantity (amount per mg dust) of total fungi, Aspergillus fumigatus, total bacteria

  13. Rifapentine-loaded PLGA microparticles for tuberculosis inhaled therapy: Preparation and in vitro aerosol characterization.

    PubMed

    Parumasivam, Thaigarajan; Leung, Sharon S Y; Quan, Diana Huynh; Triccas, Jamie A; Britton, Warwick J; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-06-10

    Inhaled delivery of drugs incorporated into poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles allows a sustained lung concentration and encourages phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages that harboring Mycobacterium tuberculosis. However, limited data are available on the effects of physicochemical properties of PLGA, including the monomer ratio (lactide:glycide) and molecular weight (MW) on the aerosol performance, macrophage uptake, and toxicity profile. The present study aims to address this knowledge gap, using PLGAs with monomer ratios of 50:50, 75:25 and 85:15, MW ranged 24 - 240kDa and an anti-tuberculosis (TB) drug, rifapentine. The PLGA-rifapentine powders were produced through a solution spray drying technique. The particles were spherical with a smooth surface and a volume median diameter around 2μm (span ~2). When the powders were dispersed using an Osmohaler(®) at 100L/min for 2.4s, the fine particle fraction (FPFtotal, wt.% particles in aerosol <5μm relative to the total recovered drug mass) was ranged between 52 and 57%, with no significant difference between the formulations. This result suggests that the monomer ratio and MW are not crucial parameters for the aerosol performance of PLGA. The phagocytosis analysis was performed using Thp-1 monocyte-derived macrophages. The highest rate of uptake was observed in PLGA 85:15 followed by 75:25 and 50:50 with about 90%, 80% and 70%, respectively phagocytosis over 4h of exposure. Furthermore, the cytotoxicity analysis on Thp-1 and human lung adenocarcinoma epithelial cells demonstrated that PLGA concentration up to 1.5mg/mL, regardless of the monomer composition and MW, were non-toxic. In conclusion, the monomer ratio and MW are not crucial in determining the aerosol performance and cytotoxicity profile of PLGA however, the particles with high lactide composition have a superior tendency for macrophage uptake. PMID:27049049

  14. Natural versus anthropogenic inhalable aerosol chemistry of transboundary East Asian atmospheric outflows into western Japan.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Kojima, Tomoko; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Amato, Fulvio; Gibbons, Wes

    2012-05-01

    The eastward transport of aerosols exported from mainland Asia strongly influences air quality in the Japanese archipelago. The bulk of the inhalable particulate matter (PM(10)) in these intrusions comprises either natural, desert-derived minerals (mostly supermicron silicates) or anthropogenic pollutants (mostly submicron sulphates), in various states of mixing. We analyse PM(10) collected in Kumamoto, SW Japan, during three contrasting types of aerosol intrusions, the first being dominated by desert PM which became increasingly mixed with anthropogenic components as time progressed, the second being a relatively minor event mixing fine, distal desert PM with anthropogenic materials, and the third being dominated by anthropogenic pollutants. Whereas the chemistry of the natural mineral component is characterised by "crustal" elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg, K, Li, P, Sc, V, Rb, Sr, Zr, Th, lanthanoids), the anthropogenic component is rich in secondary inorganic compounds and more toxic metallic elements (NH(4)(+), SO(4)(2-), As, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Sn, Bi, Sb, and Ge). Some desert-dust (Kosa) intrusions are more calcareous than others, implicating geologically different source areas, and contain enhanced levels of NO(3)(-), probably as supermicron Ca(NO(3))(2) particles produced by chemical reaction between NOx pollutants (mostly from industry and traffic) and carbonate during atmospheric transport. The overall trace element chemistry of aerosol intrusions into Kumamoto shows low V/Rb, low NO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-), enhanced As levels, and unfractionated La/Ce values, which are all consistent with anthropogenic sources including coal emissions rather than those derived from the refining and combustion of oil fractionates. Geographically dispersed, residual sulphatic plumes of this nature mix with local traffic (revealed by OC and EC concentrations) and industrial emissions and dissipate only slowly, due to the dominance of submicron accumulation mode PM which is atmospherically

  15. Validation of radiolabeling of drug formulations for aerosol deposition assessment of orally inhaled products.

    PubMed

    Devadason, Sunalene G; Chan, Hak-Kim; Haeussermann, Sabine; Kietzig, Claudius; Kuehl, Philip J; Newman, Stephen; Sommerer, Knut; Taylor, Glyn

    2012-12-01

    Radiolabeling of inhaler formulations for imaging studies is an indirect method of determining lung deposition and regional distribution of drug in human subjects. Hence, ensuring that the radiotracer and drug exhibit similar aerodynamic characteristics when aerosolized, and that addition of the radiotracer has not significantly altered the characteristics of the formulation, are critical steps in the development of a radiolabeling method. The validation phase should occur during development of the radiolabeling method, prior to commencement of in vivo studies. The validation process involves characterization of the aerodynamic particle size distribution (APSD) of drug in the reference formulation, and of both drug and radiotracer in the radiolabeled formulation, using multistage cascade impaction. We propose the adoption of acceptance criteria similar to those recommended by the EMA and ISAM/IPAC-RS for determination of therapeutic equivalence of orally inhaled products: (a) if only total lung deposition is being quantified, the fine particle fraction ratio of both radiolabeled drug and radiotracer to that of the reference drug should fall between 0.85 and 1.18, and (b) if regional lung deposition (e.g., outer and inner lung regions) is to be quantified, the ratio of both radiolabeled drug and radiotracer to reference drug on each impactor stage or group of stages should fall between 0.85 and 1.18. If impactor stages are grouped together, at least four separate groups should be provided. In addition, while conducting in vivo studies, measurement of the APSD of the inhaler used on each study day is recommended to check its suitability for use in man. PMID:23215848

  16. Development of dry powder inhaler formulation loaded with alendronate solid lipid nanoparticles: solid-state characterization and aerosol dispersion performance.

    PubMed

    Ezzati Nazhad Dolatabadi, Jafar; Hamishehkar, Hamed; Valizadeh, Hadi

    2015-01-01

    Alendronate sodium is a bisphosphonate drug used for the treatment of osteoporosis and acts as a specific inhibitor of osteoclast-mediated bone resorption. Inhalable solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs) of the alendronate were successfully designed and developed by spray-dried and co-spray dried inhalable mannitol from aqueous solution. Emulsification technique using a simple homogenization method was used for preparation of SLNs. In vitro deposition of the aerosolized drug was studied using a Next Generation Impactor at 60 L/min following the methodology described in the European and United States Pharmacopeias. The Carr's Index, Hausner ratio and angle of repose were calculated as suitable criteria for estimation of the flow behavior of solids. Scanning electron microscopy showed spherical particle morphology of the respirable particles. The proposed spray-dried nanoparticulate-on-microparticles dry powders displayed good aerosol dispersion performance as dry powder inhalers with high values in emitted dose, fine particle fraction and mass median aerodynamic diameter. These results indicate that this novel inhalable spray-dried nanoparticulate-on-microparticles aerosol platform has great potential in systemic delivery of the drug. PMID:25220930

  17. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Ciclesonide is usually inhaled twice a day. Try to use ciclesonide at around ... than usual.The inhaler that comes with ciclesonide aerosol is designed for use only with a canister ...

  18. Effects of ramp-up of inspired airflow on in vitro aerosol dose delivery performance for certain dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Ung, Keith T; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-03-10

    This study investigated the effect of airflow ramp-up on the dose delivery performance of seven dry powder inhalers, covering a broad range of powder formulations and powder dispersion mechanisms. In vitro performance tests were performed at a target pressure drop of 4kPa, using two inspiratory flow ramp-up conditions, representing slow and fast ramp-up of airflow, respectively. The fluidization of bulk powder and aerosol clearance from the inhaler was assessed by laser photometer evaluation of aerosol emission kinetics and measurement of the delivered dose (DD). The quality of aerosol dispersion (i.e. de-agglomeration) and associated lung targeting performance was assessed by measuring the total lung dose (TLD) using the Alberta idealized mouth-throat model. The ratio of DD and TLD under slow/fast ramp conditions was used as a metric to rank-order flow ramp effects. Test results show that the delivered dose is relatively unaffected by flow ramp (DD ratio ~1 for all dry powder inhalers). In contrast, the total lung dose showed significantly more variation as a function of flow ramp and inhaler type. Engineered (spray dried) powder formulations were associated with relatively high TLD (>50% of nominal dose) compared to lactose blend and agglomerate based formulations, which had a lower TLD (7-40% of nominal dose), indicative of less efficient targeting of the lung. The TLD for the Tobi Podhaler was the least influenced by flow ramp (TLD ratio ~1), while the TLD for the Asmanex Twisthaler was the most sensitive to flow ramp (TLD ratio ≪1). The relatively high sensitivity of the Asmanex Twisthaler to flow ramp is attributed to rapid aerosol clearance (from the inhaler) combined with a strong effect of flow-rate on particle de-agglomeration and resulting size distribution. PMID:26780380

  19. Design and operation of a batch-feed fluidizing bed aerosol generator for inhalation toxicity studies

    SciTech Connect

    Shiotsuka, R.N.; Peck, R.W. Jr.; Drew, R.T.

    1985-02-01

    A fluidizing bed aerosol generator (FBG), designed for inhalation toxicity studies, was constructed and tested. A key design feature contributing to its operational stability was the partial masking of the screen supporting the bronze beads. This caused 20-80% of the bed to fluidize under normal operating conditions. The non-fluidizing areas functioned as reservoirs to feed the fluidizing areas. Using a bed volume of 1000 cc of bronze beads and 20 g of MnO/sub 2/ dust, the mass output rate ranged from 0.1 to 1.0 mg/min when operated at plenum pressures of 1.04 x 10/sup 2/ to 2.42 x 10/sup 2/ kPa (minimum fluidization pressure was approximately 82.8 kPa). During daily operation at three different output rates, the FBG produced aerosols with little change in particle size distributions or concentration when operated six hours/day for five days. Furthermore, when the FBG was operated at a fixed output rate for 15 days with two recharges of MnO/sub 2/ dust, the particle size distribution did not show any cumulative increase. Thus, long-term operation of this FBG should result in a reproducible range of concentration and particle size distribution.

  20. An evaluation of the "GGP" personal samplers under semi-volatile aerosols: sampling losses and their implication on occupational risk assessment.

    PubMed

    Dragan, George C; Breuer, Dietmar; Blaskowitz, Morten; Karg, Erwin; Schnelle-Kreis, Jürgen; Arteaga-Salas, Jose M; Nordsieck, Hermann; Zimmermann, Ralf

    2015-02-01

    Semi-volatile (SV) aerosols still represent an important challenge to occupational hygienists due to toxicological and sampling issues. Particularly problematic is the sampling of hazardous SV that are present in both particulate and vapour phases at a workplace. In this study we investigate the potential evaporation losses of SV aerosols when using off-line filter-adsorber personal samplers. Furthermore, we provide experimental data showing the extent of the evaporation loss that can bias the workplace risk assessment. An experimental apparatus consisting of an aerosol generator, a flow tube and an aerosol monitoring and sampling system was set up inside a temperature controlled chamber. Aerosols from three n-alkanes were generated, diluted with nitrogen and sampled using on-line and off-line filter-adsorber methods. Parallel measurements using the on-line and off-line methods were conducted to quantify the bias induced by filter sampling. Additionally, two mineral oils of different volatility were spiked on filters and monitored for evaporation depending on the samplers flow rate. No significant differences between the on-line and off-line methods were detected for the sum of particles and vapour. The filter-adsorber method however tended to underestimate up to 100% of the particle mass, especially for the more volatile compounds and lower concentrations. The off-line sampling method systematically returned lower particle and higher vapour values, an indication for particle evaporation losses. We conclude that using only filter sampling for the assessment of semi-volatiles may considerably underestimate the presence of the particulate phase due to evaporation. Thus, this underestimation can have a negative impact on the occupational risk assessment if the evaporated particle mass is no longer quantified. PMID:25345615

  1. Sump bay fever: inhalational fever associated with a biologically contaminated water aerosol.

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, K; McSharry, C P; Clark, C; Clark, C J; Barclay, G R; Morris, G P

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To investigate the clinical, serological, and environmental features of a work related inhalational fever associated with exposure to an aerosol generated from a biologically contaminated 130,000 gallon water pool in a building used for testing scientific equipment. METHOD: Cross sectional survey of all exposed subjects (n = 83) by symptom questionnaire, clinical examination, spirometry, and serology for antibody to Pseudomonads, pool water extract, and endotoxin. In symptomatic patients diffusion capacity was measured, and chest radiology was performed if this was abnormal. Serial peak flow was recorded in those subjects with wheeze. Bacterial and fungal air sampling was performed before and during operation of the water pool pump mechanism. Endotoxin was measured in the trapped waters and in the pumps. Serum cotinine was measured as an objective indicator of smoking. RESULTS: Of the 20 symptomatic subjects, fever was most common in those with the highest exposure (chi 2 42.7, P < 0.001) in the sump bay when the water was (torrentially) recirculated by the water pumps. Symptoms occurred late in the working day only on days when the water pumps were used, and were independent of the serum cotinine. Pulmonary function was normal in most subjects (spirometry was normal in 79/83, diffusion capacity was low in five subjects, chest radiology was normal). Peak flow recording did not suggest a work relation. The bacterial content of the aerosol rose from 6 to > 10,000 colony forming units per cubic metre (cfu/m3) (predominantly environmental Pseudomonads) when the pumps were operating. High endotoxin concentrations were measured in the waters and oil sumps in the pumps. Low concentrations of antibody to the organisms isolated were detected (apart from two subjects with high antibody) but there was no relation to exposure or the presence of symptoms and similar antibody was found in the serum samples from a non-exposed population. The fever symptoms settled

  2. Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1)

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a animal model for humans in influenza pathogenicity and transmissibility studies. In this manuscript, a nose-only bioaerosol inhalation exposure system that was recently developed and validated was used in an inhalation exposure study of aerosolized A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) virus in ferrets. The clinical spectrum of influenza resulting from exposure to A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) through intranasal verses inhalation routes was analyzed. Results Ferrets were successfully infected through intranasal instillation or through inhalation of small particle aerosols with four different doses of Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1). The animals developed severe influenza encephalomyelitis following intranasal or inhalation exposure to 101, 102, 103, or 104 infectious virus particles per ferret. Conclusions Aerosolized Influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1) is highly infectious and lethal in ferrets. Clinical signs appeared earlier in animals infected through inhalation of aerosolized virus compared to those infected through intranasal instillation. PMID:20843329

  3. Evaluation of IOM personal sampler at different flow rates.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Cheng, Yung-Sung

    2010-02-01

    The Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM) personal sampler is usually operated at a flow rate of 2.0 L/min, the rate at which it was designed and calibrated, for sampling the inhalable mass fraction of airborne particles in occupational environments. In an environment of low aerosol concentrations only small amounts of material are collected, and that may not be sufficient for analysis. Recently, a new sampling pump with a flow rate up to 15 L/min became available for personal samplers, with the potential of operating at higher flow rates. The flow rate of a Leland Legacy sampling pump, which operates at high flow rates, was evaluated and calibrated, and its maximum flow was found to be 10.6 L/min. IOM samplers were placed on a mannequin, and sampling was conducted in a large aerosol wind tunnel at wind speeds of 0.56 and 2.22 m/s. Monodisperse aerosols of oleic acid tagged with sodium fluorescein in the size range of 2 to 100 microm were used in the test. The IOM samplers were operated at flow rates of 2.0 and 10.6 L/min. Results showed that the IOM samplers mounted in the front of the mannequin had a higher sampling efficiency than those mounted at the side and back, regardless of the wind speed and flow rate. For the wind speed of 0.56 m/s, the direction-averaged (the average value of all orientations facing the wind direction) sampling efficiency of the samplers operated at 2.0 L/min was slightly higher than that of 10.6 L/min. For the wind speed of 2.22 m/s, the sampling efficiencies at both flow rates were similar for particles < 60 microm. The results also show that the IOM's sampling efficiency at these two different flow rates follows the inhalable mass curve for particles in the size range of 2 to 20 microm. The test results indicate that the IOM sampler can be used at higher flow rates. PMID:19953412

  4. Quantification of Kras mutant fraction in the lung DNA of mice exposed to aerosolized particulate vanadium pentoxide by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Banda, Malathi; McKim, Karen L; Haber, Lynne T; MacGregor, Judith A; Gollapudi, B Bhaskar; Parsons, Barbara L

    2015-08-01

    This study investigated whether Kras mutation is an early event in the development of lung tumors induced by inhalation of particulate vanadium pentoxide (VP) aerosols. A National Toxicology Program tumor bioassay of inhaled particulate VP aerosols established that VP-induced alveolar/bronchiolar carcinomas of the B6C3F1 mouse lung carried Kras mutations at a higher frequency than observed in spontaneous mouse lung tumors. Therefore, this study sought to: (1) characterize any Kras mutational response with respect to VP exposure concentration, and (2) investigate the possibility that amplification of preexisting Kras mutation is an early event in VP-induced mouse lung tumorigenesis. Male Big Blue B6C3F1 mice (6 mice/group) were exposed to aerosolized particulate VP by inhalation, 6h/day, 5 days/week for 4 or 8 weeks, using VP exposure concentrations of 0, 0.1, and 1 mg/m(3). The levels of two different Kras codon 12 mutations [GGT → GAT (G12D) and GGT → GTT (G12V)] were measured in lung DNAs by Allele-specific Competitive Blocker PCR (ACB-PCR). For both exposure concentrations (0.1 and 1.0mg/m(3)) and both time points (4 and 8 weeks), the mutant fractions observed in VP-exposed mice were not significantly different from the concurrent controls. Given that 8 weeks of inhalation of a tumorigenic concentration of particulate aerosols of VP did not result in a significant change in levels of lung Kras mutation, the data do not support either a direct genotoxic effect of VP on Kras or early amplification of preexisting mutation as being involved in the genesis of VP-induced mouse lung tumors under the exposure conditions used. Rather, the data suggest that accumulation of Kras mutation occurs later with chronic VP exposure and is likely not an early event in VP-induced mouse lung carcinogenesis. PMID:26232258

  5. Differences in aerosolization of Rift Valley fever virus resulting from choice of inhalation exposure chamber: implications for animal challenge studies

    PubMed Central

    Bethel, Laura M.; Powell, Diana S.; Caroline, Amy L.; Hartman, Amy L.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract The aerosol characteristics of Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) were evaluated to achieve reproducible infection of experimental animals with aerosolized RVFV suitable for animal efficacy studies. Spray factor (SF), the ratio between the concentrations of the aerosolized agent to the agent in the aerosol generator, is used to compare performance differences between aerosol exposures. SF indicates the efficiency of the aerosolization process; a higher SF means a lower nebulizer concentration is needed to achieve a desired inhaled dose. Relative humidity levels as well as the duration of the exposure and choice of exposure chamber all impacted RVFV SF. Differences were also noted between actual and predicted minute volumes for different species of nonhuman primates. While NHP from Old World species (Macaca fascicularis, M. mulatta, Chlorocebus aethiops) generally had a lower actual minute volume than predicted, the actual minute volume for marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) was higher than predicted (150% for marmosets compared with an average of 35% for all other species examined). All of these factors (relative humidity, chamber, duration, and minute volume) impact the ability to reliably and reproducibly deliver a specific dose of aerosolized RVFV. The implications of these findings for future pivotal efficacy studies are discussed. PMID:24532259

  6. Evaluation of Electronic Cigarette Liquids and Aerosol for the Presence of Selected Inhalation Toxins

    PubMed Central

    Kistler, Kurt A.; Gillman, Gene; Voudris, Vassilis

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The purpose of this study was to evaluate sweet-flavored electronic cigarette (EC) liquids for the presence of diacetyl (DA) and acetyl propionyl (AP), which are chemicals approved for food use but are associated with respiratory disease when inhaled. Methods: In total, 159 samples were purchased from 36 manufacturers and retailers in 7 countries. Additionally, 3 liquids were prepared by dissolving a concentrated flavor sample of known DA and AP levels at 5%, 10%, and 20% concentration in a mixture of propylene glycol and glycerol. Aerosol produced by an EC was analyzed to determine the concentration of DA and AP. Results: DA and AP were found in 74.2% of the samples, with more samples containing DA. Similar concentrations were found in liquid and aerosol for both chemicals. The median daily exposure levels were 56 μg/day (IQR: 26–278 μg/day) for DA and 91 μg/day (IQR: 20–432 μg/day) for AP. They were slightly lower than the strict NIOSH-defined safety limits for occupational exposure and 100 and 10 times lower compared with smoking respectively; however, 47.3% of DA and 41.5% of AP-containing samples exposed consumers to levels higher than the safety limits. Conclusions: DA and AP were found in a large proportion of sweet-flavored EC liquids, with many of them exposing users to higher than safety levels. Their presence in EC liquids represents an avoidable risk. Proper measures should be taken by EC liquid manufacturers and flavoring suppliers to eliminate these hazards from the products without necessarily limiting the availability of sweet flavors. PMID:25180080

  7. Comparison of traditional intranasal and aerosol inhalation inoculation of mice with influenza A viruses.

    PubMed

    Belser, Jessica A; Gustin, Kortney M; Katz, Jacqueline M; Maines, Taronna R; Tumpey, Terrence M

    2015-07-01

    Intranasal instillation of virus in a liquid suspension (IN) is the most frequently employed method to inoculate small mammalian models with influenza virus, but does not reflect a natural route of exposure. In contrast, inoculation via aerosol inhalation (AR) more closely resembles human exposure to influenza virus. Studies in mice have yielded conflicting results regarding virulence induced by virus inoculated by these routes, and have not controlled for potential strain-specific differences, or examined contemporary influenza viruses and avian viruses with pandemic potential. We used a whole-body AR inoculation method to compare infectivity and disease progression of a highly pathogenic H5N1, a low pathogenic H7N9, and a 2009 H1N1 virus with traditional IN inoculation in the mouse model. Generally comparable levels of morbidity and mortality were observed with all viruses examined using either inoculation route, indicating that both IN and AR delivery are appropriate for murine studies investigating influenza virus pathogenicity. PMID:25771498

  8. Role of Topological Heterogeneity on the Fate of Inhaled Aerosols in the Pulmonary Acinus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofemeier, Philipp; Koshiyama, Kenichiro; Wada, Shigeo; Sznitman, Josue

    2015-11-01

    Particle transport, and ultimately deposition outcomes, in the acinar region of the lungs are intrinsically coupled with local the shape and morphology of the airways and alveolar cavities (Hofemeier and Sznitman, 2015). Thus, it is paramount to capture the complexity and heterogeneity of the acinar environment in order to predict realistic aerosol dynamics. Recently, Koshiyama and Wada (2015) introduced an algorithm to generate acinar models with space-filling heterogeneous alveolar structures to mimic realistic in vivo environments. Their model is able to reproduce the characteristic polyhedral shape and size of alveolar cavities as well as the length and branching angles of the connecting airways. Here, we utilize for the first time such acinar models as the basis for numerical simulations of respiratory acinar flows and particle transport. By generating and modeling various heterogeneous multi-generation acinar models, we aim to shed light on the role of spatial acinar heterogeneity on particle deposition fate, as a function of inhaled particle size and breathing maneuvers. The present studies are a first step towards predicting realistic acinar deposition patterns indicative for whole lung statistics as well as inter-acinar differences.

  9. Aerosolization characteristics of dry powder inhaler formulations for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application: effect of spray drying process conditions on aerosol performance.

    PubMed

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Worth Longest, P; Hindle, Michael

    2013-02-25

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20%, v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF(1 μm/ED)) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

  10. Aerosolization Characteristics of Dry Powder Inhaler Formulations for the Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Application: Effect of Spray Drying Process Conditions on Aerosol Performance

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a spray dried submicrometer powder formulation suitable for the excipient enhanced growth (EEG) application. Combination particles were prepared using the Buchi Nano spray dryer B-90. A number of spray drying and formulation variables were investigated with the aims of producing dry powder formulations that were readily dispersed upon aerosolization and maximizing the fraction of submicrometer particles. Albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine, and poloxamer 188 were selected as a model drug, hygroscopic excipient, dispersibility enhancer and surfactant, respectively. Formulations were assessed by scanning electron microscopy and aerosol performance following aerosolization using an Aerolizer® dry powder inhaler (DPI). In vitro drug deposition was studied using a realistic mouth-throat (MT) model. Based on the in vitro aerosolization results, the best performing submicrometer powder formulation consisted of albuterol sulfate, mannitol, L-leucine and poloxamer 188 in a ratio of 30:48:20:2, containing 0.5% solids in a water:ethanol (80:20% v/v) solution which was spray dried at 70 °C. The submicrometer particle fraction (FPF1μm/ED) of this final formulation was 28.3% with more than 80% of the capsule contents being emitted during aerosolization. This formulation also showed 4.1% MT deposition. The developed combination formulation delivered a powder aerosol developed for the EEG application with high dispersion efficiency and low MT deposition from a convenient DPI device platform. PMID:23313343

  11. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Flunisolide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled twice daily. Try to use flunisolide at around the same times every ... acting medication than usual.Each canister of flunisolide aerosol is designed to provide 60 or 120 inhalations, ...

  12. Capstone Depleted Uranium Aerosols: Generation and Characterization

    SciTech Connect

    Parkhurst, MaryAnn; Szrom, Fran; Guilmette, Ray; Holmes, Tom; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Kenoyer, Judson L.; Collins, John W.; Sanderson, T. Ellory; Fliszar, Richard W.; Gold, Kenneth; Beckman, John C.; Long, Julie

    2004-10-19

    In a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessing possible health effects from inhaling depleted uranium (DU) aerosols, a series of DU penetrators was fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and continuously monitor the sampler flow rates. Aerosols collected were analyzed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analyzed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology, and dissolution in vitro. The resulting data provide input useful in human health risk assessments.

  13. Pulmonary drug delivery. Part II: The role of inhalant delivery devices and drug formulations in therapeutic effectiveness of aerosolized medications

    PubMed Central

    Labiris, N R; Dolovich, M B

    2003-01-01

    Research in the area of pulmonary drug delivery has gathered momentum in the last several years, with increased interest in using the lung as a means of delivering drugs systemically. Advances in device technology have led to the development of more efficient delivery systems capable of delivering larger doses and finer particles into the lung. As more efficient pulmonary delivery devices and sophisticated formulations become available, physicians and health professionals will have a choice of a wide variety of device and formulation combinations that will target specific cells or regions of the lung, avoid the lung's clearance mechanisms and be retained within the lung for longer periods. It is now recognized that it is not enough just to have inhalation therapy available for prescribing; physicians and other healthcare providers need a basic understanding of aerosol science, inhaled formulations, delivery devices, and bioequivalence of products to prescribe these therapies optimally. PMID:14616419

  14. Polymer coating of carrier excipients modify aerosol performance of adhered drugs used in dry powder inhalation therapy.

    PubMed

    Traini, Daniela; Scalia, Santo; Adi, Handoko; Marangoni, Elisabetta; Young, Paul M

    2012-11-15

    The potential of excipient coating to enhance aerosol performance of micronized drugs in carrier excipient-drug blends, used in dry powder inhalers, was investigated. Both EC (ethyl cellulose) and PVP (polyvinylpyrrolidone) were used as coating agents. Carriers were prepared via sieve fractioning followed by spray drying, with and without polymer additive. Each uncoated and coated carrier salbutamol sulphate (SS) blended systems were evaluated for particle size, morphology, drug carrier adhesion and aerosolisation performance, after blending and storage for 24h. All carrier-based systems prepared had similar particle sizes and morphologies. The surface chemistries of the carriers were significantly different, as was drug-carrier adhesion and aerosolisation performance. Particle adhesion between SS and aerosol performance (fine particle fraction; FPF) followed the rank: PVP coated>un-coated>EC coated lactose. This rank order could be attributed to the surface energy measured by contact goniometry and related to the chemistry of lactose and each polymer. Storage did not significantly affect aerosol performance, however a rank increase in mean FPF value was observed for uncoated and EC coated lactose. Finally, the net electrostatic charge across the aerosol cloud indicated that the EC coated lactose transferred less charge to SS particles. The performance of each carrier system could be attributed to the carrier surface chemistry and, in general, by careful selection of the coating polymer, drug-carrier adhesion, electrostatic charge and aerosol performance could be controlled. PMID:22964399

  15. Late-occurring pulmonary pathologies following inhalation of mixed oxide (uranium + plutonium oxide) aerosol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, N M; Van der Meeren, A; Fritsch, P; Abram, M-C; Bernaudin, J-F; Poncy, J L

    2010-09-01

    Accidental exposure by inhalation to alpha-emitting particles from mixed oxide (MOX: uranium and plutonium oxide) fuels is a potential long-term health risk to workers in nuclear fuel fabrication plants. For MOX fuels, the risk of lung cancer development may be different from that assigned to individual components (plutonium, uranium) given different physico-chemical characteristics. The objective of this study was to investigate late effects in rat lungs following inhalation of MOX aerosols of similar particle size containing 2.5 or 7.1% plutonium. Conscious rats were exposed to MOX aerosols and kept for their entire lifespan. Different initial lung burdens (ILBs) were obtained using different amounts of MOX. Lung total alpha activity was determined by external counting and at autopsy for total lung dose calculation. Fixed lung tissue was used for anatomopathological, autoradiographical, and immunohistochemical analyses. Inhalation of MOX at ILBs ranging from 1-20 kBq resulted in lung pathologies (90% of rats) including fibrosis (70%) and malignant lung tumors (45%). High ILBs (4-20 kBq) resulted in reduced survival time (N = 102; p < 0.05) frequently associated with lung fibrosis. Malignant tumor incidence increased linearly with dose (up to 60 Gy) with a risk of 1-1.6% Gy for MOX, similar to results for industrial plutonium oxide alone (1.9% Gy). Staining with antibodies against Surfactant Protein-C, Thyroid Transcription Factor-1, or Oct-4 showed differential labeling of tumor types. In conclusion, late effects following MOX inhalation result in similar risk for development of lung tumors as compared with industrial plutonium oxide. PMID:20699696

  16. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  17. Bacterial communities in urban aerosols collected with wetted-wall cyclonic samplers and seasonal fluctuations of live and culturable airborne bacteria.

    PubMed

    Ravva, Subbarao V; Hernlem, Bradley J; Sarreal, Chester Z; Mandrell, Robert E

    2012-02-01

    Airborne transmission of bacterial pathogens from point sources (e.g., ranches, dairy waste treatment facilities) to areas of food production (farms) has been suspected. Determining the incidence, transport and viability of extremely low levels of pathogens require collection of high volumes of air and characterization of live bacteria from aerosols. We monitored the numbers of culturable bacteria in urban aerosols on 21 separate days during a 9 month period using high volume cyclonic samplers at an elevation of 6 m above ground level. Culturable bacteria in aerosols fluctuated from 3 CFU to 6 million CFU/L of air per hour and correlated significantly with changes in seasonal temperatures, but not with humidity or wind speed. Concentrations of viable bacteria determined by fluorescence staining and flow cytometry correlated significantly with culturable bacteria. Members of the phylum Proteobacteria constituted 98% of the bacterial community, which was characterized using 16S rRNA gene sequencing using DNA from aerosols. Aquabacterium sp., previously characterized from aquatic environments, represented 63% of all clones and the second most common were Burkholderia sp; these are ubiquitous in nature and some are potential human pathogens. Whole genome amplification prior to sequencing resulted in a substantial decrease in species diversity compared to characterizing culturable bacteria sorted by flow cytometry based on scatter signals. Although 27 isolated colonies were characterized, we were able to culture 38% of bacteria characterized by sequencing. The whole genome amplification method amplified DNA preferentially from Phyllobacterium myrsinacearum, a minor member of the bacterial communities, whereas Variovorax paradoxus dominated the cultured organisms. PMID:22193549

  18. Use of the integrated organic gas and particle sampler to improve the characterization of carbonaceous aerosol in the near-road environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Dabek-Zlotorzynska, Ewa; Liggio, John; Stroud, Craig A.; Charland, Jean-Pierre; Brook, Jeffrey R.

    2016-02-01

    Particle phase organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC) and particle phase semi-volatile organic carbon were measured simultaneously at two distances downwind of a highway using an integrated organic gas and particle sampler. This method reduces sampling artifacts associated with OC measurement. On average, artifact-corrected OC (referred to as OCT) was 2.4 μg/m3 and the positive and negative artifacts were significant at 0.8 and 1.0 μg/m3 respectively. Close to the highway negative artifacts are potentially dominant over positive artifacts indicating that traditional integrated filter-based sampling for OC and fine particles (PM2.5) may be biased low. Decreases in OCT between the near and far site ranged from 25 to 44% while the decreases observed for EC, which reflects the impact of dispersion, were larger at 42-84%. The nature of the OCT changed between sites becoming less volatile and having a greater content of pyrolized organic carbon. Collectively, these results suggest that secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formed downwind of the highway from vehicle-related emissions and was detectable within the 15 min transit time between the highway and the far site. These results highlight the need for improvements in understanding the processes influencing organic aerosols in locations directly impacted by motor vehicle emissions in order to realistically predict PM2.5 using air quality models.

  19. Evaluation and Modification of Commercial Dry Powder Inhalers for the Aerosolization of a Submicrometer Excipient Enhanced Growth (EEG) Formulation

    PubMed Central

    Son, Yoen-Ju; Longest, P. Worth; Tian, Geng; Hindle, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and modify commercial dry powder inhalers (DPIs) for the aerosolization of a submicrometer excipient enhanced growth (EEG) formulation. The optimized device and formulation combination was then tested in a realistic in vitro mouth-throat - tracheobronchial (MT-TB) model. An optimized EEG submicrometer powder formulation, consisting of albuterol sulfate (drug), mannitol (hygroscopic excipient), L-leucine (dispersion enhancer) and poloxamer 188 (surfactant) in a ratio of 30:48:20:2 was prepared using a Büchi Nano spray dryer. The aerosolization performance of the EEG formulation was evaluated with 5 conventional DPIs: Aerolizer, Novolizer, HandiHaler, Exubera and Spiros. To improve powder dispersion, the HandiHaler was modified with novel mouth piece (MP) designs. The aerosol performance of each device was assessed using a next generation impactor (NGI) at airflow rates generating a pressure drop of 4 kPa across the DPI. In silico and in vitro deposition and hygroscopic growth of formulations was studied using a MT-TB airway geometry model. Both Handihaler and Aerolizer produced high emitted doses (ED) together with a significant submicrometer aerosol fraction. A modified HandiHaler with a MP including a three-dimensional (3D) array of rods (HH-3D) produced a submicrometer particle fraction of 38.8% with a conventional fine particle fraction (% <5µm) of 97.3%. The mass median diameter (MMD) of the aerosol was reduced below 1 µm using this HH-3D DPI. The aerosol generated from the modified HandiHaler increased to micrometer size (2.8 µm) suitable for pulmonary deposition, when exposed to simulated respiratory conditions, with negligible mouth-throat (MT) deposition (2.6 %). PMID:23608613

  20. Stability and aerosolization of pressurized metered dose inhalers containing thymopentin nanoparticles produced using a bottom-up process.

    PubMed

    Tan, Yinhe; Yang, Zhiwen; Pan, Xin; Chen, Meiwan; Feng, Min; Wang, Lili; Liu, Hu; Shan, Ziyun; Wu, Chuanbin

    2012-05-10

    The objective of this study was to investigate the stability and aerosolization of pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) containing thymopentin nanoparticles. Thymopentin nanoparticles, fabricated by a bottom-up process, were suspended in hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) 134a together with cineole and/or n-heptane to produce pMDI formulations. The stability study of the pMDIs obtained was carried out at ambient temperature for 6 months. The amount of thymopentin and the aerosolization properties of pMDIs were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and a twin-stage impinger (TSI), respectively. Based on the results, thymopentin nanoparticles were readily suspended in HFA 134a with the aid of cineole and/or n-heptane to form physically stable pMDI formulations, and more than 98% of the labeled amount of thymopentin and over 50% of the fine particle fraction (FPF) of the pMDIs were achieved. During storage, it was found that for all pMDIs more than 97% of the labeled amount of thymopentin and FPF greater than 47% were achieved. Moreover, the size of thymopentin nanoparticles in propellant containing cineole and n-heptane showed little change. It is, therefore, concluded that the pMDIs comprising thymopentin nanoparticles developed in this study were stable and suitable for inhalation therapy for systemic action. PMID:22343132

  1. gamma-Tocopherol nebulization by a lipid aerosolization device improves pulmonary function in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Kraft, Edward R; Lange, Matthias; Leonard, Scott W; Traber, Maret G; Cox, Robert A; Schmalstieg, Frank C; Hawkins, Hal K; Whorton, Elbert B; Horvath, Eszter M; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Lillian D; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

    2008-08-15

    Fire accident victims who sustain both thermal injury to skin and smoke inhalation have gross evidence of systemic and pulmonary oxidant damage and acute lung injury. We hypothesized that gamma-tocopherol (gT), a reactive O(2) and N(2) scavenger, when delivered into the airway, would attenuate lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation. Acute lung injury was induced in chronically prepared, anesthetized sheep by 40% total burn surface area, third-degree skin burn and smoke insufflation (48 breaths of cotton smoke, <40 degrees C). The study groups were: (1) Sham (not injured, flaxseed oil (FO)-nebulized, n=6); (2) SA-neb (injured, saline-nebulized, n=6); (3) FO-neb (injured, FO-nebulized, n=6); and (4) gT+FO-neb (injured, gT and FO-nebulized, n=6). Nebulization was started 1 h postinjury, and 24 ml of FO with or without gT (51 mg/ml) was delivered into airways over 47 h using our newly developed lipid aerosolization device (droplet size: 2.5-5 microm). The burn- and smoke inhalation-induced pathological changes seen in the saline group were attenuated by FO nebulization; gT addition further improved pulmonary function. Pulmonary gT delivery along with a FO source may be a novel effective treatment strategy in management of patients with acute lung injury. PMID:18503777

  2. The effects of loaded carrier mass and formulation mass on aerosolization efficiency in dry powder inhaler devices.

    PubMed

    Ooi, Jesslynn; Gill, Charlotte; Young, Paul M; Traini, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that particle-particle impaction may influence aerosolization properties in carrier-based dry powder inhalers, through transfer of kinetic energy from large carriers to surface-deposited active drug. The importance of particle-particle collision has yet to be compared against other mechanisms that could lead to drug liberation, such as particle-wall impaction and turbulence. In particular, particle-particle collisions are difficult to model in silico due to computational restrictions. This study investigated the effects of dry powder inhaler particle-particle collisions in vitro using an established carrier-drug model dry powder inhalation formulation. Spherical polystyrene beads of median size 82.80 μm were chosen as a model carrier as they were of uniform size, shape, surface area, density, porosity and hardness and thus eliminated potential variables that would have conflicted with the study. This model carrier was geometrically blended with micronized salbutamol sulphate (loaded blend). The correlation between the mass of loaded blend (5-40 mg) in the Rotahaler® DPI device and resulting fine particle fraction (FPF) was examined at a constant flow rate of 60 L.min(-1). In a second experiment, the mass of loaded blend was kept constant and a variable amount of blank carrier particles were added to the Rotahaler® device to ascertain if additional "blank" carrier particles affected the final FPF. The efficiency of aerosolization remained constant with varying amounts of blank carrier particles as determined by the fine particle fraction of the emitted dose (FPFED) and fine particle fraction of the loaded dose (FPFLD). No statistical difference in FPFED and FPFLD values were observed for increasing masses of blank carrier. In addition, no statistical difference in FPFED and FPFLD between the two experiments was obtained. These observations suggest that particle-particle collisions are not a driving mechanism responsible for

  3. Inflammation, Mucous Cell Metaplasia, and Bcl-2 Expression in Response to Inhaled Lipopolysaccharide Aerosol and Effect of Rolipram

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Kevin R.; Leonard, David; McDonald, Jacob D.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-01-01

    Our previous studies have characterized the inflammatory response of intratracheally instilled lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in F344/N rats. To better reflect the environmentally relevant form of LPS exposure, the present study evaluated the inflammatory response of F344/N rats exposed to LPS by inhalation. Rats were exposed by nose-only inhalation to aerosolized LPS at a median particle diameter of 1 μm and a dose range from 0.08 to 480 μg. Animals were sacrificed 72 h post exposure and the inflammatory cell counts and differentials, the cytokine/chemokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the changes in intraepithelial stored mucosubstances, mucous cells per mm basal lamina, and Bcl-2-positive mucous cells were quantified. We observed a dose-dependent increase reaching maximum values at the 75μg LPS dose for the numbers of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes, for the levels of IL-6, IL-1α, IL-1β, TNFα, MCP-1 and GRO-KC. In addition, mucous cell metaplasia and the percentage of Bcl-2-positive mucous cells were increased with increasing deposited LPS dose. When rats were treated with the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram (10 mg/kg), prior to exposure to aerosolized LPS neutrophil numbers in the BAL were reduced at 8 h but not at 24 or 72 h post LPS exposure. These results demonstrate that exposure to aerosolized LPS resulted in a more potent inflammatory response at lower doses and that inflammation was more uniformly distributed throughout the lung compared to inflammation caused by intratracheal LPS instillation. Therefore, this animal model will be useful for screening efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs. PMID:21504754

  4. Inflammation, mucous cell metaplasia, and Bcl-2 expression in response to inhaled lipopolysaccharide aerosol and effect of rolipram

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Kevin R.; Leonard, David; McDonald, Jacob D.; Tesfaigzi, Yohannes

    2011-06-15

    Our previous studies have characterized the inflammatory response of intratracheally instilled lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in F344/N rats. To better reflect the environmentally relevant form of LPS exposure, the present study evaluated the inflammatory response of F344/N rats exposed to LPS by inhalation. Rats were exposed by nose-only inhalation to aerosolized LPS at a median particle diameter of 1 {mu}m and a dose range from 0.08 to 480 {mu}g. Animals were euthanized 72 h post exposure and the inflammatory cell counts and differentials, the cytokine/chemokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), and the changes in intraepithelial stored mucosubstances, mucous cells per mm basal lamina, and Bcl-2-positive mucous cells were quantified. We observed a dose-dependent increase reaching maximum values at the 75 {mu}g LPS dose for the numbers of neutrophils, macrophages and lymphocytes, for the levels of IL-6, IL-1{alpha}, IL-1{beta}, TNF{alpha}, MCP-1 and GRO-KC. In addition, mucous cell metaplasia and the percentage of Bcl-2-positive mucous cells were increased with an increasing deposited LPS dose. When rats were treated with the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor, rolipram (10 mg/kg), prior to exposure to aerosolized LPS neutrophil numbers in the BAL were reduced at 8 h but not at 24 or 72 h post LPS exposure. These results demonstrate that exposure to aerosolized LPS resulted in a more potent inflammatory response at lower doses and that inflammation was more uniformly distributed throughout the lung compared to inflammation caused by intratracheal LPS instillation. Therefore, this animal model will be useful for screening efficacy of anti-inflammatory drugs.

  5. The influence of drug loading on formulation structure and aerosol performance in carrier based dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Wood, Owen; Ooi, Jesslynn; Traini, Daniela

    2011-09-15

    Previous studies have reported that carrier:drug ratio and carrier size influence the aerosol performance of dry powder inhalation systems. These previous studies were complicated by the heterogeneous nature of the carriers used, making it difficult to define an explicit relationship between parameters and performance. Here, the authors studied the influence of drug loading and carrier size on drug aerosol performance using homogeneous spherical model carriers. Different formulations containing drug (salbutamol sulphate) and carriers (polystyrene beads with median diameters of 82.8μm, 277.5μm and 582.9μm, respectively) were prepared by varying the ratio of carrier to drug (from ∼5:1 to ∼85:1). The surface morphology of the carrier particles and force of adhesion were investigated using atomic force microscopy, while the aerosol performance was evaluated using a multi-stage liquid impinger. The carrier surface morphology for all carrier sizes was homogenous with root-mean square roughness values ≤112nm. No significant difference in the force of adhesion between salbutamol sulphate and the three carrier sizes was observed. Significant differences in aerosol performance of salbutamol sulphate (measured as fine particle dose (FPD) and fraction (FPF)≤5μm) from the carriers were observed. Specifically, as carrier size increased FPF decreased. In comparison, as drug loading increased there was no change in FPF until a critical threshold was exceeded. Such observations suggest that: (A) aerosolisation performance is governed by carrier collisions and (B) when homogeneous carriers are used, the aerosol performance remains constant with respect to drug concentration, until the formulation transitions from an ordered mix to an agglomerated and/or segregated powder bed. PMID:21708238

  6. CHANGES IN OPERATING PROCEDURES FOR AEROSOL CONCENTRATION UNIFORMITY FOR PM2.5 AND PM10 SAMPLER TESTING

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical note documents changes in the standard operating procedures used at the Environmental Protection Agency's (U.S. EPA) aerosol testing wind tunnel facility for testing of particulate matter monitoring methods of PM2.5 and PM10. These changes are relative to the op...

  7. ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANALYSIS OF RESPIRATORY DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES FOR DIFFERENT DOSE METRICS: COMPARISON OF NUMBER, SURFACE AREA AND MASS DOSE OF TYPICAL AMBIENT BI-MODAL AEROSOLS.
    Chong S. Kim, SC. Hu*, PA Jaques*, US EPA, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, ...

  8. Ferrets develop fatal influenza after inhaling small particle aerosols of highly pathogenic avian influenza virus A/Vietnam/1203/2004 (H5N1)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There is limited knowledge about the potential routes for H5N1 influenza virus transmission to and between humans, and it is not clear whether humans can be infected through inhalation of aerosolized H5N1 virus particles. Ferrets are often used as a surrogate for humans in influenza pathogenicity a...

  9. Pulmonary cellular effects in rats following aerosol exposures to ultrafine Kevlar aramid fibrils: evidence for biodegradability of inhaled fibrils.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Kellar, K A; Hartsky, M A

    1992-10-01

    Previous chronic inhalation studies have shown that high concentrations of Kevlar fibrils produced fibrosis and cystic keratinizing tumors in rats following 2-year inhalation exposures. The current studies were undertaken to evaluate mechanisms and to assess the toxicity of inhaled Kevlar fibrils relative to other reference materials. Rats were exposed to ultrafine Kevlar fibers (fibrils) for 3 or 5 days at concentrations ranging from 600-1300 fibers/cc (gravimetric concentrations ranging from 2-13 mg/m3). A complete characterization of the fiber aerosol and dose was carried out. These measurements included gravimetric concentrations, mass median aerodynamic diameter, fiber number, and count median lengths and diameters of the aerosol. Following exposures, cells and fluids from groups of sham- and fiber-exposed animals were recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL). Alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), protein, and N-acetyl glucosaminidase (NAG) values were measured in BAL fluids at several time points postexposure. Alveolar macrophages were cultured and studied for morphology, chemotaxis, and phagocytosis by scanning electron microscopy. The lungs of additional exposed animals were processed for deposition, cell labeling, retained dose, and lung clearance studies, as well as fiber dimensions (from digested lung tissue), histopathology, and transmission electron microscopy. Five-day exposures to Kevlar fibrils elicited a transient granulocytic inflammatory response with concomitant increases in BAL fluid levels of alkaline phosphatase, NAG, LDH, and protein. Unlike the data from silica and asbestos exposures where inflammation persisted, biochemical parameters returned to control levels at time intervals between 1 week and 1 month postexposure. Macrophage function in Kevlar-exposed alveolar macrophages was not significantly different from sham controls at any time period. Cell labeling studies were carried out immediately after exposure, as well as 1

  10. Study of particulate matter from Primary/Secondary Marine Aerosol and anthropogenic sources collected by a self-made passive sampler for the evaluation of the dry deposition impact on built heritage.

    PubMed

    Morillas, Héctor; Maguregui, Maite; García-Florentino, Cristina; Marcaida, Iker; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-04-15

    Dry deposition is one of the most dangerous processes that can take place in the environment where the compounds that are suspended in the atmosphere can react directly on different surrounding materials, promoting decay processes. Usually this process is related with industrial/urban fog and/or marine aerosol in the coastal areas. Particularly, marine aerosol transports different types of salts which can be deposited on building materials and by dry deposition promotes different decay pathways. A new analytical methodology based on the combined use of Raman Spectroscopy and SEM-EDS (point-by-point and imaging) was applied. For that purpose, firstly evaporated seawater (presence of Primary Marine Aerosol (PMA)) was analyzed. After that, using a self-made passive sampler (SMPS), different suspended particles coming from marine aerosol (transformed particles in the atmosphere (Secondary Marine Aerosol (SMA)) and metallic airborne particulate matter coming from anthropogenic sources, were analyzed. Finally in order to observe if SMA and metallic particles identified in the SMPS can be deposited on a building, sandstone samples from La Galea Fortress (Getxo, north of Spain) located in front of the sea and in the place where the passive sampler was mounted were analyzed. PMID:26820932

  11. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF AN AMBIENT VIABLE MICROBIAL AIR SAMPLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Studies were performed to evaluate the suitability of cyclone scrubber samplers and a continuously wetted substrate for detection of several types of microorganisms. The samplers were evaluated in a dynamic aerosol chamber using all-glass impingers as reference samplers. Comparis...

  12. 21 CFR 201.305 - Isoproterenol inhalation preparations (pressurized aerosols, nebulizers, powders) for human use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... completely to other forms of therapy until use of the isoproterenol inhalation preparation was discontinued...) On the basis of the above information and after discussion with and concurrence of the Respiratory... such instances the use of this preparation be discontinued immediately and alternative...

  13. 21 CFR 201.305 - Isoproterenol inhalation preparations (pressurized aerosols, nebulizers, powders) for human use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... completely to other forms of therapy until use of the isoproterenol inhalation preparation was discontinued...) On the basis of the above information and after discussion with and concurrence of the Respiratory... such instances the use of this preparation be discontinued immediately and alternative...

  14. 21 CFR 201.305 - Isoproterenol inhalation preparations (pressurized aerosols, nebulizers, powders) for human use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... completely to other forms of therapy until use of the isoproterenol inhalation preparation was discontinued...) On the basis of the above information and after discussion with and concurrence of the Respiratory... such instances the use of this preparation be discontinued immediately and alternative...

  15. 21 CFR 201.305 - Isoproterenol inhalation preparations (pressurized aerosols, nebulizers, powders) for human use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... completely to other forms of therapy until use of the isoproterenol inhalation preparation was discontinued...) On the basis of the above information and after discussion with and concurrence of the Respiratory... such instances the use of this preparation be discontinued immediately and alternative...

  16. 21 CFR 201.305 - Isoproterenol inhalation preparations (pressurized aerosols, nebulizers, powders) for human use...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... completely to other forms of therapy until use of the isoproterenol inhalation preparation was discontinued...) On the basis of the above information and after discussion with and concurrence of the Respiratory... such instances the use of this preparation be discontinued immediately and alternative...

  17. Inhaler technique: facts and fantasies. A view from the Aerosol Drug Management Improvement Team (ADMIT).

    PubMed

    Levy, Mark L; Dekhuijzen, P N R; Barnes, P J; Broeders, M; Corrigan, C J; Chawes, B L; Corbetta, L; Dubus, J C; Hausen, Th; Lavorini, F; Roche, N; Sanchis, J; Usmani, Omar S; Viejo, J; Vincken, W; Voshaar, Th; Crompton, G K; Pedersen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals tasked with advising patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) how to use inhaler devices properly and what to do about unwanted effects will be aware of a variety of commonly held precepts. The evidence for many of these is, however, lacking or old and therefore in need of re-examination. Few would disagree that facilitating and encouraging regular and proper use of inhaler devices for the treatment of asthma and COPD is critical for successful outcomes. It seems logical that the abandonment of unnecessary or ill-founded practices forms an integral part of this process: the use of inhalers is bewildering enough, particularly with regular introduction of new drugs, devices and ancillary equipment, without unnecessary and pointless adages. We review the evidence, or lack thereof, underlying ten items of inhaler 'lore' commonly passed on by health professionals to each other and thence to patients. The exercise is intended as a pragmatic, evidence-informed review by a group of clinicians with appropriate experience. It is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the literature; rather, we aim to stimulate debate, and to encourage researchers to challenge some of these ideas and to provide new, updated evidence on which to base relevant, meaningful advice in the future. The discussion on each item is followed by a formal, expert opinion by members of the ADMIT Working Group. PMID:27098045

  18. Inhaler technique: facts and fantasies. A view from the Aerosol Drug Management Improvement Team (ADMIT)

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Mark L; Dekhuijzen, P N R; Barnes, P J; Broeders, M; Corrigan, C J; Chawes, B L; Corbetta, L; Dubus, J C; Hausen, Th; Lavorini, F; Roche, N; Sanchis, J; Usmani, Omar S; Viejo, J; Vincken, W; Voshaar, Th; Crompton, G K; Pedersen, Soren

    2016-01-01

    Health professionals tasked with advising patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) how to use inhaler devices properly and what to do about unwanted effects will be aware of a variety of commonly held precepts. The evidence for many of these is, however, lacking or old and therefore in need of re-examination. Few would disagree that facilitating and encouraging regular and proper use of inhaler devices for the treatment of asthma and COPD is critical for successful outcomes. It seems logical that the abandonment of unnecessary or ill-founded practices forms an integral part of this process: the use of inhalers is bewildering enough, particularly with regular introduction of new drugs, devices and ancillary equipment, without unnecessary and pointless adages. We review the evidence, or lack thereof, underlying ten items of inhaler ‘lore’ commonly passed on by health professionals to each other and thence to patients. The exercise is intended as a pragmatic, evidence-informed review by a group of clinicians with appropriate experience. It is not intended to be an exhaustive review of the literature; rather, we aim to stimulate debate, and to encourage researchers to challenge some of these ideas and to provide new, updated evidence on which to base relevant, meaningful advice in the future. The discussion on each item is followed by a formal, expert opinion by members of the ADMIT Working Group. PMID:27098045

  19. A PERSONAL PARTICLE SPECIATION SAMPLER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Dr. Susanne Hering of Aerosol Dynamics Inc and her colleagues expect to design and validate a personal monitoring sampler for particles smaller than 2.5 µm (PM2.5) that is suitable for subsequent chemical speciation work. The investigators believe the result will be a...

  20. Effects of single and repeated inhalation exposure of Syrian hamsters to aerosols of /sup 144/CeO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Lundgren, D.L.; Hahn, F.F.; McClellan, R.O.

    1982-05-01

    Male Syrian hamsters (84 days old at the time of the initial exposure) were repeatedly exposed by inhalation at approximately 60-day intervals for 1 year (seven exposures) to aerosols of /sup 144/CeO/sub 2/ to reestablish lung burdens of 0.4, 2.0, or 10 ..mu..Ci of /sup 144/Ce. Other hamsters were exposed once when either 84, 220, or 360 days old to achieve similar initial lung burdens. Primary lung tumors were observed in 7 of 197 hamsters repeatedly exposed to /sup 144/CeO/sub 2/ that died between 177 and 685 days after the initial inhalation exposure. The cumulative adsorbed ..beta..-radiation doses to the lungs of these hamsters were 14,000 to 50,000 rad. Primary lung tumors also were observed in 6 of 153 hamsters exposed once to /sup 144/CeO/sub 2/ when 84 or 220 days old that died between 270 and 695 days after exposure. The cumulative ..beta..-radiation doses to the lungs of these hamsters were 6000 to 21,000 rad. Lung tumors were not observed in hamsters exposed when 360 days old or in control hamsters. The incidences of primary lung tumors were more dependent on the cumulative dose to the lung than the radiation dose pattern that resulted in the cumulative dose.

  1. Methods used to calculate doses resulting from inhalation of Capstone depleted uranium aerosols.

    PubMed

    Miller, Guthrie; Cheng, Yung Sung; Traub, Richard J; Little, Tom T; Guilmette, Raymond A

    2009-03-01

    The methods used to calculate radiological and toxicological doses to hypothetical persons inside either a U.S. Army Abrams tank or Bradley Fighting Vehicle that has been perforated by depleted uranium munitions are described. Data from time- and particle-size-resolved measurements of depleted uranium aerosol as well as particle-size-resolved measurements of aerosol solubility in lung fluids for aerosol produced in the breathing zones of the hypothetical occupants were used. The aerosol was approximated as a mixture of nine monodisperse (single particle size) components corresponding to particle size increments measured by the eight stages plus the backup filter of the cascade impactors used. A Markov Chain Monte Carlo Bayesian analysis technique was employed, which straightforwardly calculates the uncertainties in doses. Extensive quality control checking of the various computer codes used is described. PMID:19204488

  2. Inhalation Exposure and Lung Dose Analysis of Multi-mode Complex Ambient Aerosols

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rationale: Ambient aerosols are complex mixture of particles with different size, shape and chemical composition. Although they are known to cause health hazard, it is not fully understood about causal mechanisms and specific attributes of particles causing the effects. Internal ...

  3. Direct gravimetric measurements of the mass of the antarctic aerosol collected by high volume sampler: PM10 summer seasonal variation at Terra Nova Bay.

    PubMed

    Truzzi, Cristina; Lambertucci, Luca; Illuminati, Silvia; Annibaldi, Anna; Scarponi, Giuseppe

    2005-01-01

    An on-site procedure was set up for direct gravimetric measurement of the mass of aerosol collected using high volume impactors (aerodynamic size cut point of 10 microm, PM10); this knowledge has hitherto been unavailable. Using a computerized microbalance in a clean chemistry laboratory, under controlled temperature (+/-0.5 degrees C) and relative humidity (+/-1%), continuous, long time filter mass measurements (hours) were carried out before and after exposure, after a 48 h minimun equilibration at the laboratory conditions. The effect of the electrostatic charge was exhausted in 30-60 min, after which stable measurements were obtained. Measurements of filters exposed for 7-11 days (1.13 m3 min(-1)) in a coastal site near Terra Nova Bay (December 2000 - February 2001), gave results for aerosol mass in the order of 10-20 mg (SD approximately 2 mg), corresponding to atmospheric concentrations of 0.52-1.27 microg m(-3). Data show a seasonal behaviour in the PM10 content with an increase during December - early January, followed by a net decrease. The above results compare well with estimates obtained from proxy data for the Antarctic Peninsula (0.30 microg m(-3)), the Ronne Ice Shelf (1.49 microg m(-3)), and the South Pole (0.18 microg m(-3), summer 1974-1975, and 0.37 microg m(-3), average summer seasons 1975-1976 and 1977-1978), and from direct gravimetric measurements recently obtained from medium volume samplers at McMurdo station (downwind 3.39 microg m(-3), upwind 4.15 microg m(-3)) and at King George Island (2.5 microg m(-3), summer, particle diameter <20 microm). This finding opens the way to the direct measurement of the chemical composition of the Antarctic aerosol and, in turn, to a better knowledge of the snow/air relationships as required for the reconstruction of the chemical composition of past atmospheres from deep ice core data. PMID:16398350

  4. Performance evaluation of two personal bioaerosol samplers.

    PubMed

    Tolchinsky, Alexander D; Sigaev, Vladimir I; Varfolomeev, Alexander N; Uspenskaya, Svetlana N; Cheng, Yung S; Su, Wei-Chung

    2011-01-01

    In this study, the performance of two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers for monitoring the level of environmental and occupational airborne microorganisms was evaluated. These new personal bioaerosol samplers were designed based on a swirling cyclone with recirculating liquid film. The performance evaluation included collection efficiency tests using inert aerosols, the bioaerosol survival test using viable airborne microorganism, and the evaluation of using non-aqueous collection liquid for long-period sampling. The test results showed that these two newly developed personal bioaerosol samplers are capable of doing high efficiency, aerosol sampling (the cutoff diameters are around 0.7 μm for both samplers), and have proven to provide acceptable survival for the collected bioaerosols. By using an appropriate non-aqueous collection liquid, these two personal bioaerosol samplers should be able to permit continuous, long-period bioaerosol sampling with considerable viability for the captured bioaerosols. PMID:22175872

  5. Exposure based waiving: the application of the toxicological threshold of concern (TTC) to inhalation exposure for aerosol ingredients in consumer products.

    PubMed

    Carthew, P; Clapp, C; Gutsell, S

    2009-06-01

    The inhalation toxicology studies available in the public domain have been reviewed to establish a database for inhalation toxicology and derive thresholds of toxicological concern (TTC) for effects in the respiratory tract and systemically for Cramer class 1 and 3 chemicals. These TTCs can be used as the basis for developing an exposure based waiving (EBW) approach to evaluating the potential for adverse effects from exposure to ingredients in aerosol products, used by consumers. The measurement of consumer exposure in simulated product use is key to the application of an exposure based waiving approach to evaluating potential consumer risk. The detailed exposure evaluation for aerosol ingredients with defined use scenarios, in conjunction with an evaluation of the potential structure activity relationship for toxicity and the TTCs for inhalation exposure could be used to waive undertaking inhalation toxicology studies under REACH. Not all classes of chemicals are suitable for such an approach, but for chemicals with a predictable low potential toxicity, and very low levels of exposure, this approach, could reduce the amount of inhalation toxicology studies required for the implementation of the European REACH legislation. Such an approach is consistent with the concept of developing 'intelligent testing strategies' for REACH. PMID:19275927

  6. Design, assembly, and validation of a nose-only inhalation exposure system for studies of aerosolized viable influenza H5N1 virus in ferrets

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The routes by which humans acquire influenza H5N1 infections have not been fully elucidated. Based on the known biology of influenza viruses, four modes of transmission are most likely in humans: aerosol transmission, ingestion of undercooked contaminated infected poultry, transmission by large droplets and self-inoculation of the nasal mucosa by contaminated hands. In preparation of a study to resolve whether H5N1 viruses are transmissible by aerosol in an animal model that is a surrogate for humans, an inhalation exposure system for studies of aerosolized H5N1 viruses in ferrets was designed, assembled, and validated. Particular attention was paid towards system safety, efficacy of dissemination, the viability of aerosolized virus, and sampling methodology. Results An aerosol generation and delivery system, referred to as a Nose-Only Bioaerosol Exposure System (NBIES), was assembled and function tested. The NBIES passed all safety tests, met expected engineering parameters, required relatively small quantities of material to obtain the desired aerosol concentrations of influenza virus, and delivered doses with high-efficacy. Ferrets withstood a mock exposure trial without signs of stress. Conclusions The NBIES delivers doses of aerosolized influenza viruses with high efficacy, and uses less starting material than other similar designs. Influenza H5N1 and H3N2 viruses remain stable under the conditions used for aerosol generation and sample collection. The NBIES is qualified for studies of aerosolized H5N1 virus. PMID:20573226

  7. Sinonasal inhalation of tobramycin vibrating aerosol in cystic fibrosis patients with upper airway Pseudomonas aeruginosa colonization: results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Mainz, Jochen G; Schädlich, Katja; Schien, Claudia; Michl, Ruth; Schelhorn-Neise, Petra; Koitschev, Assen; Koitschev, Christiane; Keller, Peter M; Riethmüller, Joachim; Wiedemann, Baerbel; Beck, James F

    2014-01-01

    Rationale In cystic fibrosis (CF), the paranasal sinuses are sites of first and persistent colonization by pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Pathogens subsequently descend to the lower airways, with P. aeruginosa remaining the primary cause of premature death in patients with the inherited disease. Unlike conventional aerosols, vibrating aerosols applied with the PARI Sinus™ nebulizer deposit drugs into the paranasal sinuses. This trial assessed the effects of vibrating sinonasal inhalation of the antibiotic tobramycin in CF patients positive for P. aeruginosa in nasal lavage. Objectives To evaluate the effects of sinonasal inhalation of tobramycin on P. aeruginosa quantification in nasal lavage; and on patient quality of life, measured with the Sino-Nasal Outcome Test (SNOT-20), and otologic and renal safety and tolerability. Methods Patients were randomized to inhalation of tobramycin (80 mg/2 mL) or placebo (2 mL isotonic saline) once daily (4 minutes/nostril) with the PARI Sinus™ nebulizer over 28 days, with all patients eligible for a subsequent course of open-label inhalation of tobramycin for 28 days. Nasal lavage was obtained before starting and 2 days after the end of each treatment period by rinsing each nostril with 10 mL of isotonic saline. Results Nine patients participated, six initially receiving tobramycin and three placebo. Sinonasal inhalation was well tolerated, with serum tobramycin <0.5 mg/L and stable creatinine. P. aeruginosa quantity decreased in four of six (67%) patients given tobramycin, compared with zero of three given placebo (non-significant). SNOT-20 scores were significantly lower in the tobramycin than in the placebo group (P=0.033). Conclusion Sinonasal inhalation of vibrating antibiotic aerosols appears promising for reducing pathogen colonization of paranasal sinuses and for control of symptoms in patients with CF. PMID:24596456

  8. Design, Characterization, and Aerosol Dispersion Performance Modeling of Advanced Spray-Dried Microparticulate/Nanoparticulate Mannitol Powders for Targeted Pulmonary Delivery as Dry Powder Inhalers

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaojian; Vogt, Frederick G.; Hayes, Don

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: The purpose was to design and characterize inhalable microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of mannitol with essential particle properties for targeted dry powder delivery for cystic fibrosis mucolytic treatment by dilute organic solution spray drying, and, in addition, to tailor and correlate aerosol dispersion performance delivered as dry powder inhalers based on spray-drying conditions and solid-state physicochemical properties. Methods: Organic solution advanced spray drying from dilute solution followed by comprehensive solid-state physicochemical characterization and in vitro dry powder aerosolization were used. Results: The particle size distribution of the spray-dried (SD) powders was narrow, unimodal, and in the range of ∼500 nm to 2.0 μm. The particles possessed spherical particle morphology, relatively smooth surface morphology, low water content and vapor sorption (crystallization occurred at exposure above 65% relative humidity), and retention of crystallinity by polymorphic interconversion. The emitted dose, fine particle fraction (FPF), and respirable fraction (RF) were all relatively high. The mass median aerodynamic diameters were below 4 μm for all SD mannitol aerosols. Conclusion: The in vitro aerosol deposition stage patterns could be tailored based on spray-drying pump rate. Positive linear correlation was observed between both FPF and RF values with spray-drying pump rates. The interplay between various spray-drying conditions, particle physicochemical properties, and aerosol dispersion performance was observed and examined, which enabled tailoring and modeling of high aerosol deposition patterns. PMID:24502451

  9. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  10. [A disulfiram-alcohol reaction after inhalation of a salbutamol aerosol: a plausible interaction?].

    PubMed

    Choi, T; Neven, A; Al Hadithy, A F Y

    2016-01-01

    An asthmatic patient (male, aged 47) being treated for his alcohol dependence complained of experiencing mild symptoms of disulfiram-alcohol reaction after using of pressurised metered-dose inhaler containing ethanol. It has been reported in the literature that the disulfiram-alcohol reaction may occur after a patient has been exposed to only minimal amounts of ethanol. This is why, in daily practice, physicians are generally reluctant to prescribe preparations containing ethanol and why they usually switch patients to an alternative. However, close evaluation of the biopharmaceutical and pharmacokinetic aspects of ethanol suggests that subjective disulfiram-alcohol reactions following the use of inhalers containing ethanol cannot be explained rationally from a clinical pharmacological perspective. PMID:27213641

  11. A multiple dose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) compared with a conventional aerosol. An acceptance study in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Osterman, K; Norborg, A M; Stähl, E

    1989-05-01

    Nineteen patients with asthma completed an open, randomized, crossover study in which 0.5 mg terbutaline sulphate was administered either via Turbuhaler or via the metered dose inhaler (MDI) for 2-week periods. The clinical effect of the two treatment forms was comparable; both provided adequate bronchodilator therapy. Patients also considered Turbuhaler and MDI equally effective, with a small preference for the MDI. Turbuhaler seems to be a valuable alternative to bronchodilator MDI therapy. PMID:2735519

  12. Airflows after inhalation of terbutaline sulphate aerosol from a 750-ml spacer for four weeks.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, N E; Hidinger, K G; Rosenhall, L; Hagstad, H; Löfgren, L; Perk, J; Stiksa, G; Ström, K

    1986-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate was administered to 40 adult asthmatic patients via an ordinary metered-dose inhaler (MDI) or one connected to a 750-ml spacer in an open, randomized, crossover study. Spirometry was obtained before the start of the study and again after four weeks of treatment with each inhaler. The patients recorded on a diary card the severity of their asthma symptoms and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in the morning before and after drug administration and in the evening. Preinhalation spirometric values were higher after four weeks with the 750-ml spacer than at the start of the study (P less than or equal to 0.05). Daily morning and evening PEFR values were higher after use of the 750-ml spacer than after use of the ordinary MDI (P less than 0.05). Daily symptom scores were generally low. A significantly better effect (P less than or equal to 0.05) with the 750-ml spacer was achieved only in daytime dyspnea. The investigators conclude that the attachment of a 750-ml spacer to an ordinary metered-dose inhaler can improve the efficacy of terbutaline sulphate in the long-term treatment of asthma. PMID:3698068

  13. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Cohen, B.S.; Harley, N.H.; Lippmann, M.

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and mini hi-volume samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. The authors conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages.

  14. Bias in air sampling techniques used to measure inhalation exposure.

    PubMed

    Cohen, B S; Harley, N H; Lippmann, M

    1984-03-01

    Factors have been evaluated which contribute to the lack of agreement between inhalation exposure estimates obtained by time-weighted averaging of samples taken with mini hi-volume samplers, and those measured by time integrating, low-volume, lapel mounted, personal monitors. Measurements made with real-time aerosol monitors on workers at a Be-Cu production furnace show that part of the discrepancy results from variability of the aerosol concentration within the breathing zone. Field studies of sampler inlet bias, the influences of the electrostatic fields around polystyrene filter holders, and resuspension of dust from work clothing, were done in three areas of a Be plant. No significant differences were found in Be air concentrations measured simultaneously by open and closed face cassettes, and "mini hi-volume" samplers mounted on a test stand. No significant influence on Be collection was detected between either positively or negatively charged monitors and charge neutralized control monitors. The effect of contaminated work clothing on dust collection by lapel mounted monitors is most important. Beryllium release from the fabrics affected air concentrations measured by fabric mounted monitors more than it affected concentrations measured by monitors positioned above the fabrics. The latter were placed 16 cm from the vertically mounted fabrics, to simulate the position of the nose or mouth. We conclude that dust resuspended from work clothing is the major source of the observed discrepancy between exposures estimated from lapel mounted samplers and time-weighted averages. PMID:6720582

  15. Influenza A Virus Challenge Models in Cynomolgus Macaques Using the Authentic Inhaled Aerosol and Intra-Nasal Routes of Infection.

    PubMed

    Marriott, Anthony C; Dennis, Mike; Kane, Jennifer A; Gooch, Karen E; Hatch, Graham; Sharpe, Sally; Prevosto, Claudia; Leeming, Gail; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; Staples, Karl J; Hall, Graham; Ryan, Kathryn A; Bate, Simon; Moyo, Nathifa; Whittaker, Catherine J; Hallis, Bassam; Silman, Nigel J; Lalvani, Ajit; Wilkinson, Tom M; Hiscox, Julian A; Stewart, James P; Carroll, Miles W

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined challenge routes, with the majority being intra-tracheal delivery, and high doses of virus (> 107 infectious units). This paper describes the outcome of novel challenge routes (inhaled aerosol, intra-nasal instillation) and low to moderate doses (103 to 106 plaque forming units) of H1N1pdm virus in cynomolgus macaques. Evidence of virus replication and sero-conversion were detected in all four challenge groups, although the disease was sub-clinical. Intra-nasal challenge led to an infection confined to the nasal cavity. A low dose (103 plaque forming units) did not lead to detectable infectious virus shedding, but a 1000-fold higher dose led to virus shedding in all intra-nasal challenged animals. In contrast, aerosol and intra-tracheal challenge routes led to infections throughout the respiratory tract, although shedding from the nasal cavity was less reproducible between animals compared to the high-dose intra-nasal challenge group. Intra-tracheal and aerosol challenges induced a transient lymphopaenia, similar to that observed in influenza-infected humans, and greater virus-specific cellular immune responses in the blood were observed in these groups in comparison to the intra-nasal challenge groups. Activation of lung macrophages and innate immune response genes was detected at days 5 to 7 post-challenge. The kinetics of infection, both virological and immunological, were broadly in line with human influenza A virus infections. These more authentic infection models will be valuable in the determination of anti-influenza efficacy of novel entities against less severe (and thus more common) influenza infections. PMID

  16. Influenza A Virus Challenge Models in Cynomolgus Macaques Using the Authentic Inhaled Aerosol and Intra-Nasal Routes of Infection

    PubMed Central

    Marriott, Anthony C.; Dennis, Mike; Kane, Jennifer A.; Gooch, Karen E.; Hatch, Graham; Sharpe, Sally; Prevosto, Claudia; Leeming, Gail; Zekeng, Elsa-Gayle; Staples, Karl J.; Hall, Graham; Ryan, Kathryn A.; Bate, Simon; Moyo, Nathifa; Whittaker, Catherine J.; Hallis, Bassam; Silman, Nigel J.; Lalvani, Ajit; Wilkinson, Tom M.; Hiscox, Julian A.; Stewart, James P.; Carroll, Miles W.

    2016-01-01

    Non-human primates are the animals closest to humans for use in influenza A virus challenge studies, in terms of their phylogenetic relatedness, physiology and immune systems. Previous studies have shown that cynomolgus macaques (Macaca fascicularis) are permissive for infection with H1N1pdm influenza virus. These studies have typically used combined challenge routes, with the majority being intra-tracheal delivery, and high doses of virus (> 107 infectious units). This paper describes the outcome of novel challenge routes (inhaled aerosol, intra-nasal instillation) and low to moderate doses (103 to 106 plaque forming units) of H1N1pdm virus in cynomolgus macaques. Evidence of virus replication and sero-conversion were detected in all four challenge groups, although the disease was sub-clinical. Intra-nasal challenge led to an infection confined to the nasal cavity. A low dose (103 plaque forming units) did not lead to detectable infectious virus shedding, but a 1000-fold higher dose led to virus shedding in all intra-nasal challenged animals. In contrast, aerosol and intra-tracheal challenge routes led to infections throughout the respiratory tract, although shedding from the nasal cavity was less reproducible between animals compared to the high-dose intra-nasal challenge group. Intra-tracheal and aerosol challenges induced a transient lymphopaenia, similar to that observed in influenza-infected humans, and greater virus-specific cellular immune responses in the blood were observed in these groups in comparison to the intra-nasal challenge groups. Activation of lung macrophages and innate immune response genes was detected at days 5 to 7 post-challenge. The kinetics of infection, both virological and immunological, were broadly in line with human influenza A virus infections. These more authentic infection models will be valuable in the determination of anti-influenza efficacy of novel entities against less severe (and thus more common) influenza infections. PMID

  17. Behavioral-physiological effects of red phosphorous smoke inhalation on two wildlife species. Task 1. Inhalation equipment development/ambient CO evaluation/aerosol distribution and air-quality study. Final report, March 1985-December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Sterner, R.T.; Shumake, S.A.; Johns, B.E.; Thompson, R.D.

    1987-12-01

    Tests to evaluate the spatial and temporal uniformity of red phosphorous - butyl rubber smoke produced in a commercial 1-CuM inhalation chamber are described. Several modifications to the inhalation exposure system aimed at improving air filtration, relative humidity, and temperature control for the conduct of animal studies are also presented. Smoke generation involved the use of a system for the continuous generation of phosphoric acid aerosols. Assessments of spatial and temporal uniformity of smoke were based upon measurements of aerosol mass concentration (gravimetric analysis), phosphoric acid deposition (titration analysis), aerosol opacity (infrared sensor), and particle size (cascade impactor); assessments of air quality and combustion products within the chamber involved checks for oxygen, carbon dioxide, phosphine, hexane, and carbon monoxide using either gas chromatography or industrial-hygiene-analyzer tubes. Results for aerosol mass, phosphoric acid, and particle size showed that the within-chamber smoke was highly uniform among burns. Although a number of statistically significant effects were obtained, further inspection showed these to be limited to specific sampling locations and within a priori criteria established to define acceptable uniformity.

  18. THE EFFECTS OF INHALED OXIDANTS AND ACID AEROSOLS ON PULMONARY FUNCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drs. Koenig and Utell each conducted studies in which human volunteers received either combined or sequential exposures to oxidant gases and acid aerosols. In each case, standard pulmonary function tests were performed and symptoms were recorded. Dr. Koenig exposed 28 adole...

  19. EFFECT OF OZONE EXPOSURE ON THE DISPERSION OF INHALED AEROSOL BOLUSES IN HEALTHY HUMAN SUBJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute exposure of humans to low levels of ozone are known to cause decreases FVC and increases sRaw. hese alterations in lung function do not, however, elucidate the potential for acute small airways responses. n this study we employed a test of aerosol dispersion to examine the ...

  20. An aerosol formulation of R-salbutamol sulfate for pulmonary inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xuemei; Liu, Qing; Hu, Junhua; Xu, Ling; Tan, Wen

    2014-01-01

    An aerosol formulation containing 7.5 mg of R-salbutamol sulfate was developed. The aerosol was nebulized with an air-jet nebulizer, and further assessed according to the new European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. A breath simulator was used for studies of delivery rate and total amount of the active ingredient at volume of 3 mL. A next generation impactor (NGI) with a cooler was used for analysis of the particle size and in vitro lung deposition rate of the active ingredient at 5 °C. The anti-asthmatic efficacy of the aerosol formulation was assessed in guinea pigs with asthma evoked by intravenous injection of histamine compared with racemic salbutamol. Our results show that this aerosol formulation of R-salbutamol sulfate met all the requirements of the new EMA guidelines for nebulizer. The efficacy of a half-dose of R-salbutamol equaled that of a normal dose of racemic salbutamol. PMID:26579368

  1. An aerosol formulation of R-salbutamol sulfate for pulmonary inhalation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xuemei; Liu, Qing; Hu, Junhua; Xu, Ling; Tan, Wen

    2014-02-01

    An aerosol formulation containing 7.5 mg of R-salbutamol sulfate was developed. The aerosol was nebulized with an air-jet nebulizer, and further assessed according to the new European Medicines Agency (EMA) guidelines. A breath simulator was used for studies of delivery rate and total amount of the active ingredient at volume of 3 mL. A next generation impactor (NGI) with a cooler was used for analysis of the particle size and in vitro lung deposition rate of the active ingredient at 5 °C. The anti-asthmatic efficacy of the aerosol formulation was assessed in guinea pigs with asthma evoked by intravenous injection of histamine compared with racemic salbutamol. Our results show that this aerosol formulation of R-salbutamol sulfate met all the requirements of the new EMA guidelines for nebulizer. The efficacy of a half-dose of R-salbutamol equaled that of a normal dose of racemic salbutamol. PMID:26579368

  2. Online determination of levoglucosan in ambient aerosols with Particle-into-Liquid Sampler - High-Performance Anion-Exchange Chromatography - Mass Spectrometry (PILS-HPAEC-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarnio, K.; Teinilä, K.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Hillamo, R.

    2013-06-01

    Biomass burning, such as domestic heating, agricultural, and wild open-land fires, has a significant influence on the atmosphere at the global and, especially, at the local scale. Levoglucosan has been shown to be a good tracer for biomass burning emissions in atmospheric particulate matter and several analytical techniques have been presented for the determination of levoglucosan from filter samples. In this paper, a novel combination of a Particle-into-Liquid Sampler (PILS) to a high-performance anion-exchange chromatograph (HPAEC) with the detection by a mass spectrometer (MS) is presented for the online analysis of levoglucosan in ambient particles. The PILS-HPAEC-MS technique enables a fast online analysis of levoglucosan from the particulate samples. The method was tested at an urban background station in Helsinki, Finland, in winter 2011. A comparison with simultaneous levoglucosan measurements from filter samples by the HPAEC-MS was performed and it showed a good agreement between the online and offline methods. Additionally, the online levoglucosan data were compared with the biomass burning tracer fragments measured by a High-Resolution Time-of-Flight Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). As there were no local biomass burning sources close to the measurement station, online levoglucosan measurements revealed that most of the particles from biomass burning were either regionally distributed or long-range transported in the urban background of Helsinki. The average levoglucosan concentrations were relatively low (average 0.083 μg m-3) during the measurement campaign. The highest concentration peak measured for levoglucosan (1.4 μg m-3) seemed to originate from biomass burning in Eastern Europe, likely in Estonia, that was transported to Helsinki.

  3. Online determination of levoglucosan in ambient aerosols with particle-into-liquid sampler - high-performance anion-exchange chromatography - mass spectrometry (PILS-HPAEC-MS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarnio, K.; Teinilä, K.; Saarikoski, S.; Carbone, S.; Gilardoni, S.; Timonen, H.; Aurela, M.; Hillamo, R.

    2013-10-01

    Biomass burning, such as domestic heating, agricultural, and wild open-land fires, has a significant influence on the atmosphere at the global and, especially, at the local scale. Levoglucosan has been shown to be a good tracer for biomass burning emissions in atmospheric particulate matter, and several analytical techniques have been presented for the determination of levoglucosan from filter samples. In this paper, a novel combination of a particle-into-liquid sampler (PILS) to a high-performance anion-exchange chromatograph (HPAEC) with the detection by a mass spectrometer (MS) is presented for the online analysis of levoglucosan in ambient particles. The PILS-HPAEC-MS technique enables a fast online analysis of levoglucosan from the particulate samples. The method was tested at an urban background station in Helsinki, Finland, in winter 2011. A comparison with simultaneous levoglucosan measurements from filter samples by the HPAEC-MS was performed and it showed a good agreement between the online and offline methods. Additionally, the online levoglucosan data were compared with the biomass burning tracer fragments measured by a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS). As there were no local biomass burning sources close to the measurement station, online levoglucosan measurements revealed that most of the particles from biomass burning were either regionally distributed or long-range transported in the urban background of Helsinki. The average levoglucosan concentrations were relatively low (average 0.083 μg m-3) during the measurement campaign. The highest concentration peak measured for levoglucosan (1.4 μg m-3) seemed to originate from biomass burning in the Baltic countries, likely in Estonia, that was transported to Helsinki.

  4. Hypoadrenocorticism in beagles exposed to aerosols of plutonium-238 dioxide by inhalation

    SciTech Connect

    Weller, R.E.; Buschbom, R.L.; Dagle, G.E.

    1996-12-01

    Hypoadrenocorticism, known as Addison`s disease in humans, was diagnosed in six beagles after inhalation of at least 1.7 kBq/g lung of {sup 238}PuO{sub 2}. Histological examination of adrenal gland specimens obtained at necropsy revealed marked adrenal cortical atrophy in all cases. Autoadiographs showed only slight {alpha}-particle activity. Although the pathogenesis of adrenal cortical atrophy in these dogs is unclear, there is evidence to suggest an automimmune disorder linked to damage resulting from {alpha}-particle irradiation to the lymphatic system.

  5. Role of alveolar macrophages in precipitation of mineral elements inhaled as soluble aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Galle, P.; Berry, J.P.; Galle, C. )

    1992-07-01

    The lysosomes of several varieties of cells such as the tubular proximal cell of the kidney and the alveolar macrophage have the ability to concentrate and precipitate several elements inhaled in water-soluble form, usually as phosphate. The mechanism involved is attributed to the high acid phosphatase activity of lysosomes and can be considered as an in vivo Gomori reaction. Among the elements studied, most of them are chemotoxic or radiotoxic (Cr; group IIIA: Al, Ga, In; rare earths: La, Ce, Tm; actinides: Th, U). In the lung macrophage, this mechanism of intralysosomal concentration and precipitation may prevent the diffusion of these toxic elements through the alveolar membrane. 7 refs., 2 figs.

  6. Operating manual for Ford's Farm Range air samplers

    SciTech Connect

    Glissmeyer, J.A.; Halverson, M.A.

    1980-10-01

    An air-sampling program was designed for a target enclosure at the Ford's Farm Range, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland, where the Army test-fires tungsten and depleted-uranium armor penetrators. The primary potential particle inhalation hazard is depleted uranium. The sampling program includes workplace and filtered exhaust air sampling. Conventional isokinetic stack sampling was employed for the filtered exhaust air. Because of the need for rapid monitor response to concentration increases and decreases, conventional radioactive particle monitors were not used. Instead, real-time aerosol monitors employing a light-scattering technique were used for monitors requiring a fast response. For other monitoring functions, piezoelectric and beta-attenuation respirable-particle sampling techniques were used. The application of these technologies to the monitoring of airborne radioactive contaminants is addressed. Sampler installation and operation are detailed.

  7. Urinary hexane diamine to assess respiratory exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate aerosol: a human inhalation study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Youcheng; Berode, Michele; Stowe, Meredith H; Holm, Carole T; Walsh, Frank X; Slade, Martin D; Boeniger, Mark F; Redlich, Carrie A

    2004-01-01

    The use of urinary hexane diamine (HDA) as a biomarker to assess human respiratory exposure to hexamethylene diisocyanate (HDI) aerosol was evaluated. Twenty-three auto body shop workers were exposed to HDI biuret aerosol for two hours using a closed exposure apparatus. HDI exposures were quantified using both a direct-reading instrument and a treated-filter method. Urine samples collected at baseline, immediately post exposure, and every four to five hours for up to 20 hours were analyzed for HDA using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Mean urinary HDA (microg/g creatinine) sharply increased from the baseline value of 0.7 to 18.1 immediately post exposure and decreased rapidly to 4.7, 1.9 and 1.1, respectively, at 4, 9, and 18 hours post exposure. Considerable individual variability was found. Urinary HDA can assess acute respiratory exposure to HDI aerosol, but may have limited use as a biomarker of exposure in the workplace. PMID:15473079

  8. Numerical simulation of inhaled aerosol particle deposition within 3D realistic human upper respiratory tract

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, J.; Fan, J. R.; Zheng, Y. Q.; Hu, G. L.; Pan, D.

    2010-03-01

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations of airflow and particle deposition in the upper respiratory tract (URT) were conducted in this paper. Based on the CT (Computerized Tomography) scanned images of a 19-years-old healthy boy, a realistic geometric model of URT from oral cavity to the upper six-generation bronchial is rebuilt. To investigate airflow and particle deposition in the obtained realistic human upper respiratory tract, RNG k-ɛ turbulence model was used to describe the primary flow and particle deposition under three breathing intensity such as 15 L/min, 30 L/min and 60 L/min. The particle is tracked and analyzed in the Lagrangian frame. The velocity fields of airflow under different airflow rates were computed and discussed. In order to study the characteristics of particles movement and the effect of particles diameter on the deposition pattern, eleven kinds of sphere particles with different diameters are selected as research object. The diameters of selected particles as follows: 0.1 μm, 0.5 μm, 1 μm, 2.5 μm, 3 μm, 3.5 μm, 4 μm, 4.5 μm, 5 μm, 6.5 μm and 8 μm. The variation of inhalable particles deposition in realistic human upper respiratory tract with respiratory intensity and particle size was researched and compared. Furthermore, the more real inhalable particles with Rosin-Rammler mass distribution are used to study the effect of particles size. The deposition rate of particles with the different diameter scope in the different part of upper respiratory tract was summarized. The geometrical model based images technology promises to provide more real results of airflow field and particle deposition in the URT.

  9. Effects of acute inhalation of aerosols generated during resistance spot welding with mild-steel on pulmonary, vascular and immune responses in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C.; Meighan, Terence G.; Erdely, Aaron; Fedan, Jeffrey S.; Thompson, Janet A.; Bilgesu, Suzan; Waugh, Stacey; Anderson, Stacey; Marshall, Nikki B.; Afshari, Aliakbar; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G.; Antonini, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Spot welding is used in the automotive and aircraft industries, where high-speed, repetitive welding is needed to join thin sections of metal. Epoxy adhesives are applied as sealers to the metal seams. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation have been reported in spot welders, but no animal toxicology studies exist. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate vascular, immune and lung toxicity measures after exposure to these metal fumes in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation to 25 mg/m3 to either mild-steel spot welding aerosols with sparking (high metal, HM) or without sparking (low metal, LM) for 4 h/d for 3, 8 and 13 d. Shams were exposed to filtered air. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung gene expression and ex vivo BAL cell challenge were performed to assess lung toxicity. Lung resistance (RL) was evaluated before and after challenge with inhaled methacholine (MCh). Functional assessment of the vascular endothelium in isolated rat tail arteries and leukocyte differentiation in the spleen and lymph nodes via flow cytometry was also done. Immediately after exposure, baseline RL was significantly elevated in the LM spot welding aerosols, but returned to control level by 24 h postexposure. Airway reactivity to MCh was unaffected. Lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were mild and transient. Lung epithelial permeability was significantly increased after 3 and 8 d, but not after 13 d of exposure to the HM aerosol. HM aerosols also caused vascular endothelial dysfunction and increased CD4+, CD8+ and B cells in the spleen. Only LM aerosols caused increased IL-6 and MCP-1 levels compared with sham after ex vivo LPS stimulation in BAL macrophages. Acute inhalation of mild-steel spot welding fumes at occupationally relevant concentrations may act as an irritant as evidenced by the increased RL and result in endothelial dysfunction, but otherwise had minor effects on the lung. PMID:25140454

  10. Measuring aerosols generated inside armoured vehicles perforated by depleted uranium ammunition.

    PubMed

    Parkhurst, M A

    2003-01-01

    In response to questions raised after the Gulf War about the health significance of exposure to depleted uranium (DU), the US Department of Defense initiated a study designed to provide an improved scientific basis for assessment of possible health effects on soldiers in vehicles struck by these munitions. As part of this study, a series of DU penetrators were fired at an Abrams tank and a Bradley fighting vehicle, and the aerosols generated by vehicle perforation were collected and characterised. A robust sampling system was designed to collect aerosols in this difficult environment and monitor continuously the sampler flow rates. The aerosol samplers selected for these tests included filter cassettes, cascade impactors, a five-stage cyclone and a moving filter. Sampler redundancy was an integral part of the sampling system to offset losses from fragment damage. Wipe surveys and deposition trays collected removable deposited particulate matter. Interior aerosols were analysed for uranium concentration and particle size distribution as a function of time. They were also analysed for uranium oxide phases, particle morphology and dissolution in vitro. These data, currently under independent peer review, will provide input for future prospective and retrospective dose and health risk assessments of inhaled or ingested DU aerosols. This paper briefly discusses the target vehicles, firing trajectories, aerosol samplers and instrumentation control systems, and the types of analyses conducted on the samples. PMID:14526950

  11. Modeling and Simulations of Olfactory Drug Delivery with Passive and Active Controls of Nasally Inhaled Pharmaceutical Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Si, Xiuhua A; Xi, Jinxiang

    2016-01-01

    There are many advantages of direct nose-to-brain drug delivery in the treatment of neurological disorders. However, its application is limited by the extremely low delivery efficiency (< 1%) to the olfactory mucosa that directly connects the brain. It is crucial to develop novel techniques to deliver neurological medications more effectively to the olfactory region. The objective of this study is to develop a numerical platform to simulate and improve intranasal olfactory drug delivery. A coupled image-CFD method was presented that synthetized the image-based model development, quality meshing, fluid simulation, and magnetic particle tracking. With this method, performances of three intranasal delivery protocols were numerically assessed and compared. Influences of breathing maneuvers, magnet layout, magnetic field strength, drug release position, and particle size on the olfactory dosage were also numerically studied. From the simulations, we found that clinically significant olfactory dosage (up to 45%) were feasible using the combination of magnet layout and selective drug release. A 64 -fold higher delivery of dosage was predicted in the case with magnetophoretic guidance compared to the case without it. However, precise guidance of nasally inhaled aerosols to the olfactory region remains challenging due to the unstable nature of magnetophoresis, as well as the high sensitivity of olfactory dosage to patient-, device-, and particle-related factors. PMID:27285852

  12. Influence of surface characteristics of modified glass beads as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) on the aerosolization performance.

    PubMed

    Zellnitz, Sarah; Schroettner, Hartmuth; Urbanetz, Nora Anne

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to investigate the effect of surface characteristics (surface roughness and specific surface area) of surface-modified glass beads as model carriers in dry powder inhalers (DPIs) on the aerosolization, and thus, the in vitro respirable fraction often referred to as fine particle fraction (FPF). By processing glass beads in a ball mill with different grinding materials (quartz and tungsten carbide) and varying grinding time (4 h and 8 h), and by plasma etching for 1 min, glass beads with different shades of surface roughness and increased surface area were prepared. Compared with untreated glass beads, the surface-modified rough glass beads show increased FPFs. The drug detachment from the modified glass beads is also more reproducible than from untreated glass beads indicated by lower standard deviations for the FPFs of the modified glass beads. Moreover, the FPF of the modified glass beads correlates with their surface characteristics. The higher the surface roughness and the higher the specific surface area of the glass beads the higher is the FPF. Thus, surface-modified glass beads make an ideal carrier for tailoring the performance of DPIs in the therapy of asthma and chronically obstructive pulmonary diseases. PMID:25632978

  13. Short inhalation exposures of the isolated and perfused rat lung to respirable dry particle aerosols; the detailed pharmacokinetics of budesonide, formoterol, and terbutaline.

    PubMed

    Ewing, Per; Eirefelt, Stefan J; Andersson, Paul; Blomgren, Anders; Ryrfeldt, Ake; Gerde, Per

    2008-06-01

    There is an increasing interest in using the lung as a route of entry for both local and systemic administration of drugs. However, because adequate technologies have been missing in the preclinical setting, few investigators have addressed the detailed disposition of drugs in the lung following short inhalation exposures to highly concentrated dry powder aerosols. New methods are needed to explore the disposition of drugs after short inhalation exposures, thus mimicking a future clinical use. Our aim was to study the pulmonary disposition of budesonide, formoterol, and terbutaline, which are clinically used for the treatment of bronchial asthma. Using the recently developed DustGun aerosol technology, we exposed by inhalation for approximately 1 min the isolated and perfused rat lung (IPL) to respirable dry particle aerosols of the three drugs at high concentrations. The typical aerosol concentration was 1 mug/mL, and the particle size distribution of the tested substances varied with a MMAD ranging from 2.3 to 5.3 mum. The IPL was perfused in single pass mode and repeated samples of the perfusate were taken for up to 80 min postexposure. The concentration of drug in perfusate and in lung extracts was measured using LC-MS/MS. The deposited dose was determined by adding the amounts of drug collected in perfusate to the amount extracted from the tissues at 80 min. Deposited amounts of budesonide, formoterol fumarate, and terbutaline sulphate were 23 +/- 17, 36 +/- 8, and 60 +/- 3.2 mug (mean +/- SD, n = 3), respectively. Retention in lung tissues at the end of the perfusion period expressed as fraction of deposited dose was 0.19 +/- 0.05, 0.19 +/- 0.06, and 0.04 +/- 0.01 (mean +/- SD, n = 3) for budesonide, formoterol, and terbutaline, respectively. Each short inhalation exposure to the highly concentrated aerosols consumed 1-3 mg powder. Hence, this system can be particularly useful for obtaining a detailed pharmacokinetic characterization of inhaled compounds in

  14. Effect of device design on the aerosolization of a carrier-based dry powder inhaler--a case study on Aerolizer(®) Foradile (®).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Tong, Zhenbo; Tang, Patricia; Citterio, Mauro; Yang, Runyu; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of device design of the Aerolizer(®) on the aerosolization of a carrier-based dry powder inhaler formulation (Foradile(®)). The Aerolizer was modified by reducing the air inlet size and mouthpiece length to 1/3 of the original dimensions, or by increasing the grid voidage. Aerosolization of the powder formulation was assessed on a multi-stage liquid impinger at air flow rates of 30, 60, and 100 L/min. Coupled CFD-DEM simulations were performed to investigate the air flow pattern and particle impaction. There was no significant difference in the aerosolization behavior between the original and 1/3 mouthpiece length devices. Significant increases in FPF total and FPF emitted were demonstrated when the inlet size was reduced, and the results were explained by the increases in air velocity and turbulence from the CFD analysis. No significant differences were shown in FPF total and FPF emitted when the grid voidage was increased, but more drugs were found to deposit in induction port and to a lesser extent, the mouthpiece. This was supported by the CFD-DEM analysis which showed the particle-device collisions mainly occurred in the inhaler chamber, and the cross-grid design increased the particle-device collisions on both mouthpiece and induction port. The air inlet size and grid structure of the Aerolizer(®) were found to impact significantly on the aerosolization of the carrier-based powder. PMID:23371759

  15. Characterisation of the aggregation behaviour in a salmeterol and fluticasone propionate inhalation aerosol system.

    PubMed

    Michael, Y; Snowden, M J; Chowdhry, B Z; Ashurst, I C; Davies-Cutting, C J; Riley, T

    2001-06-19

    The nature of the drug-drug aggregation phenomena between salmeterol xinafoate and fluticasone propionate used in a metered-dose inhaler system has been examined. Interactions between the drugs in the solvents 1,1,2-trichlorotrifloroethane (CFC-113) and 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (HFA-134a) have been characterised using a focused beam reflectance measurement probe by measuring the average floc size of the drug particles individually and in combination as a function of stirrer rate. The floc composition in the CFC-113 system, where the drug particles cream, was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. The aggregation behaviour of the individual drugs was shown to depend on the physical and chemical properties of both the drug substance and the media. Larger flocs were observed for salmeterol xinafoate compared with fluticasone propionate, while both drugs formed larger aggregates in HFA-134a compared with in CFC-113. The floc composition studies demonstrated that, in the combined formulation in CFC-113, salmeterol xinafoate and fluticasone propionate aggregate together to form hetero-flocs. The interaction between the two drugs was such that they did not separate on creaming, despite having different densities. The average floc size of the combined drug suspension was also found to depend on the dispersion medium. PMID:11397578

  16. Tuning Aerosol Particle Size Distribution of Metered Dose Inhalers Using Cosolvents and Surfactants

    PubMed Central

    Saleem, Imran Y.; Smyth, Hugh D. C.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives. The purpose of these studies was to understand the influence of cosolvent and surfactant contributions to particle size distributions emitted from solution metered dose inhalers (pMDIs) based on the propellant HFA 227. Methods. Two sets of formulations were prepared: (a) pMDIs-HFA 227 containing cosolvent (5–15% w/w ethanol) with constant surfactant (pluronic) concentration and (b) pMDIs-HFA 227 containing surfactant (0–5.45% w/w pluronic) with constant cosolvent concentration. Particle size distributions emitted from these pMDIs were analyzed using aerodynamic characterization (inertial impaction) and laser diffraction methods. Results. Both cosolvent and surfactant concentrations were positively correlated with median particle sizes; that is, drug particle size increased with increasing ethanol and pluronic concentrations. However, evaluation of particle size distributions showed that cosolvent caused reduction in the fine particle mode magnitude while the surfactant caused a shift in the mode position. These findings highlight the different mechanisms by which these components influence droplet formation and demonstrate the ability to utilize the different effects in formulations of pMDI-HFA 227 for independently modulating particle sizes in the respirable region. Conclusion. Potentially, the formulation design window generated using these excipients in combination could be used to match the particle size output of reformulated products to preexisting pMDI products. PMID:23984381

  17. Design, physicochemical characterization, and optimization of organic solution advanced spray-dried inhalable dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine poly(ethylene glycol) (DPPE-PEG) microparticles and nanoparticles for targeted respiratory nanomedicine delivery as dry powder inhalation aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Meenach, Samantha A; Vogt, Frederick G; Anderson, Kimberly W; Hilt, J Zach; McGarry, Ronald C; Mansour, Heidi M

    2013-01-01

    Novel advanced spray-dried and co-spray-dried inhalable lung surfactant-mimic phospholipid and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG)ylated lipopolymers as microparticulate/nanoparticulate dry powders of biodegradable biocompatible lipopolymers were rationally formulated via an organic solution advanced spray-drying process in closed mode using various phospholipid formulations and rationally chosen spray-drying pump rates. Ratios of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) and dipalmitoylphosphatidylethanolamine PEG (DPPE-PEG) with varying PEG lengths were mixed in a dilute methanol solution. Scanning electron microscopy images showed the smooth, spherical particle morphology of the inhalable particles. The size of the particles was statistically analyzed using the scanning electron micrographs and SigmaScan® software and were determined to be 600 nm to 1.2 μm in diameter, which is optimal for deep-lung alveolar penetration. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) were performed to analyze solid-state transitions and long-range molecular order, respectively, and allowed for the confirmation of the presence of phospholipid bilayers in the solid state of the particles. The residual water content of the particles was very low, as quantified analytically via Karl Fischer titration. The composition of the particles was confirmed using attenuated total-reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy and confocal Raman microscopy (CRM), and chemical imaging confirmed the chemical homogeneity of the particles. The dry powder aerosol dispersion properties were evaluated using the Next Generation Impactor™ (NGI™) coupled with the HandiHaler® dry powder inhaler device, where the mass median aerodynamic diameter from 2.6 to 4.3 μm with excellent aerosol dispersion performance, as exemplified by high values of emitted dose, fine particle fraction, and respirable fraction. Overall, it was determined that the pump rates defined in the

  18. Sludge sampler

    DOEpatents

    Ward, R.C.

    1981-06-25

    The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

  19. Sludge sampler

    DOEpatents

    Ward, Ralph C.

    1983-01-01

    The disclosure relates to a sludge sampler comprising an elongated generally cylindrical housing containing a baffle containing an aperture. Connected to the aperture is a flexible tubing having a valve for maintaining and releasing pressure in the lower end of the housing and exiting the upper end of the housing. The lower end of the housing contains a ball check valve maintained in closed position by pressure. When the lower end of the device contacts the sludge bed, the pressure valve is opened, enabling sludge to enter the lower end of the housing. After the sample is collected the valve is closed. An upsetting pin opens the valve to empty a sludge sample after the sample is removed from the fluid.

  20. Temporal characteristics of inhalable mercury and arsenic aerosols in the urban atmosphere in southern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Ying I.; Kuo, Su-Ching; Lin, Yi-Hsuan

    Urban aerosol samples for PM 10 and PM 2.5 were collected during summer (August) and winter (December) 2000 in southern Taiwan (Tainan City) to demonstrate the temporal variations of Hg and As in particulate matter (PM). The mean mass concentrations with standard deviations were 80.0±26.8 μg m -3 for PM 10 and 50.6±16.6 μg m -3 for PM 2.5. The average PM 2.5/PM 10 mass ratio for the two periods combined was 63%, indicating that fine particles were a large portion of PM 10. Particulate samples of Hg and As were analyzed within 2 days following sampling and weighing, because of the highly volatile nature of PM Hg and As. The average Hg and As values in PM 10, PM 2.5 and PM 2.5-10 in summer were significantly lower than those in winter. PM 2.5 Hg constituted 0.34 to 5.8 ng m -3 and PM 2.5-10 Hg 0.05 to 3.1 ng m -3. PM 2.5 As constituted 1.09 to 9.51 ng m -3 and PM 2.5-10 As 0.18 to 4.14 ng m -3. In summer and winter PM 10, the Hg contents showed regular daily variation, with the higher values at daytime and lower values at nighttime, indicating conversion of gaseous Hg to the particulate phase by reaction with atmospheric oxidants under strong solar radiation during the daytime in both summer and winter. PM As behaved similar to Hg in the summer, but in the winter higher concentrations were observed during the nighttime than during the daytime, implying that the stable temperature inversion during winter nighttime caused the accumulation of PM As near the ground. In summer, SE-WSW winds carried As from an As-emitting fossil power plant to the sample area. In a similar vein, NE-WNW winter winds contributed to aerosol Hg, especially in PM 2.5, originating from a waste incinerator located NW of Tainan City.

  1. Long-term safety of a non-chlorofluorocarbon-containing triamcinolone acetonide inhalation aerosol in patients with asthma. Azmacort HFA Study Group.

    PubMed

    Nelson, H S; Kane, R E; Petillo, J; Banerji, D

    2000-04-01

    In response to environmental concerns regarding chlorofluorocarbon (CFC), two new triamcinolone acetonide (TAA) inhalation aerosol (Azmacort Inhalation Aerosol) formulations have been developed using a more environmentally favorable propellant, HFA-134a (1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane). This multicenter, open-label study evaluated the safety of switching asthma patients from TAA-CFC to one of two TAA-HFA formulations. After a 2- or 4-week baseline period during which patients received only CFC-containing TAA Inhaler, 552 patients were randomized to receive TAA-HFA 75 or 225 microg for 6 or 12 months. A total of 493 patients completed treatment. Seven patients discontinued because of adverse events and two because of ineffective asthma control. The incidence of adverse events was similar in the two treatment groups, and most events were mild to moderate in severity and were not considered related to study medication. No clinically relevant suppression of the hypophyseal-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis was observed. Pulmonary function tests were not adversely affected by use of either study medication, and improvements were noted in forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1) and forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (FEF25%-75%) throughout the course of treatment. This study confirms that TAA-HFA provides effective, long-term asthma control and can safely be substituted for the currently marketed CFC-containing TAA product. PMID:10805203

  2. Lessons learned from case studies of inhalation exposures of workers to radioactive aerosols

    SciTech Connect

    Hoover, M.D.; Fencl, A.F.; Newton, G.J.

    1995-12-01

    Various Department of Energy requirements, rules, and orders mandate that lessons learned be identified, evaluated, shared, and incorporated into current practices. The recently issued, nonmandatory DOE standard for Development of DOE Lessons Learned Program states that a DOE-wide lessons learned program will {open_quotes}help to prevent recurrences of negative experiences, highlight best practices, and spotlight innovative ways to solve problems or perform work more safely, efficiently, and cost effectively.{close_quotes} Additional information about the lessons learned program is contained in the recently issued DOE handbook on Implementing U.S. Department of Energy Lessons Learned Programs and in October 1995 DOE SAfety Notice on Lessons Learned Programs. This report summarizes work in progress at ITRI to identify lessons learned for worker exposures to radioactive aerosols, and describes how this work will be incorporated into the DOE lessons learned program, including a new technical guide for measuring, modeling, and mitigating airborne radioactive particles. Follow-on work is focusing on preparation of {open_quotes}lessons learned{close_quotes} training materials for facility designers, managers, health protection professionals, line supervisors, and workers.

  3. Atmospheric metal pollution (Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn) in Oporto city derived from results for low-volume aerosol samplers and for the moss Sphagnum auriculatum bioindicator.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, M T; Tavares, H M

    1998-03-01

    A low-volume aerosol sampler with filters and bags of Sphagnum auriculatum were exposed, in parallel, to the atmosphere of Oporto city for approx. 2 months in 1994, during a dry weather period. The levels of Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn in the moss (weekly samples) and in the filters (daily samples) were determined by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and the results were compared. For all the heavy metals, the rate of metal uptake by moss was significantly correlated with the metal concentration in atmospheric aerosols. The results indicated that moss bags of S. auriculatum can provide a quantitative estimation of the concentration of different heavy metals in urban atmospheres, when specific calibration by mechanic monitoring, at the same sampling point, is performed during a first stage of biomonitoring. The mean aerosol metal concentrations found in the Oporto atmosphere were similar to those observed in other urban atmospheres in different countries. The relative order of the mean metal concentrations was Fe (1.8 micrograms/m3) > Zn > Pb > Cu > Cr > Mn > Ni (20 ng/m3). The aerosol Pb levels were monitored at different sampling points over various periods of time between 1991 and 1997. The mean Pb levels were < or = 0.5 microgram/m3 and approximately constant at each sample point up to January 1996. After that date it decreased by approx. 50%, in consequence of the reduction of the Pb concentration in leaded gasoline. PMID:9525044

  4. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  5. Metabolites from inhalation of aerosolized S-8 synthetic jet fuel in rats.

    PubMed

    Tremblay, Raphael T; Martin, Sheppard A; Fisher, Jeffrey W

    2011-01-01

    Alternative fuels are being considered for civilian and military uses. One of these is S-8, a replacement jet fuel synthesized using the Fischer-Tropsch process, which contains no aromatic compounds and is mainly composed of straight and branched alkanes. Metabolites of S-8 fuel in laboratory animals have not been identified. The goal of this study was to identify metabolic products from exposure to aerosolized S-8 and a designed straight-chain alkane/polyaromatic mixture (decane, undecane, dodecane, tridecane, tetradecane, pentadecane, naphthalene, and 2-methylnaphthalene) in male Fischer 344 rats. Collected blood and tissue samples were analyzed for 70 straight and branched alcohols and ketones ranging from 7 to 15 carbons. No fuel metabolites were observed in the blood, lungs, brain, and fat following S-8 exposure. Metabolites were detected in the liver, urine, and feces. Most of the metabolites were 2- and 3-position alcohols and ketones of prominent hydrocarbons with very few 1- or 4-position metabolites. Following exposure to the alkane mixture, metabolites were observed in the blood, liver, and lungs. Interestingly, heavy metabolites (3-tridecanone, 2-tridecanol, and 2-tetradecanol) were observed only in the lung tissues possibly indicating that metabolism occurred in the lungs. With the exception of these heavy metabolites, the metabolic profiles observed in this study are consistent with previous studies reporting on the metabolism of individual alkanes. Further work is needed to determine the potential metabolic interactions of parent, primary, and secondary metabolites and identify more polar metabolites. Some metabolites may have potential use as biomarkers of exposure to fuels. PMID:21222558

  6. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency. PMID:23196863

  7. Lung retention and binding of (/sup 14/C)-1-nitropyrene when inhaled by F344 rats as a pure aerosol or adsorbed to carbon black particles

    SciTech Connect

    Wolff, R.K.; Sun, J.D.; Barr, E.B.; Rothenberg, S.J.; Yeh, H.C.

    1989-01-01

    1-Nitropyrene (NP), as found in the environment, is more typically associated with carbonaceous particles than found as an aerosol of the pure compound. To determine whether (and why) an association with particles resulted in prolonged lung retention of NP, rats were exposed to 14C-NP as a pure aerosol or adsorbed on carbon black particles. Total 14C retained in the lung was greater at all times from 0.5 h to 30 d after exposure to 14C-NP adsorbed to carbon black particles than after exposure to pure 14C-NP (p less than .05). The fraction of total 14C in lung bound to carbon black particles decreased steadily with time after exposure, indicating in vivo removal of NP from the particles. At 0.5 h after exposure, the fraction of the estimated deposited 14C that was covalently bound to lung macromolecules was twofold greater for NP adsorbed on carbon black than for pure NP. Covalently bound 14C in lungs increased with time after exposure to 14C-NP adsorbed to carbon black, reaching levels of approximately 1% of the deposited radioactivity at 7-30 d after exposure, whereas levels of covalently bound 14C declined with time after exposure to pure NP. Thus, at 30 d after exposure, the amount of 14C covalently bound to lung macromolecules was approximately 10-fold greater (p less than .05) in rats that inhaled 14C-NP adsorbed on carbon black particles than in rats that inhaled pure 14C-NP aerosols. These results suggest that association of NP with carbon black particles augments the interaction of reactive metabolites of NP with target macromolecules. This phenomenon is thought to be related to the slow release of NP from carbon black particles, and may augment the biological effects of inhaled NP when adsorbed on carbon black or similar particles in the environment.

  8. Direct-reading inhalable dust monitoring--an assessment of current measurement methods.

    PubMed

    Thorpe, Andrew; Walsh, Peter T

    2013-08-01

    Direct-reading dust monitors designed specifically to measure the inhalable fraction of airborne dust are not widely available. Current practice therefore often involves comparing the response of photometer-type dust monitors with the concentration measured with a reference gravimetric inhalable sampler, which is used to adjust the dust monitor measurement. However, changes in airborne particle size can result in significant errors in the estimation of inhalable concentration by this method. The main aim of this study was to assess how these dust monitors behave when challenged with airborne dust containing particles in the inhalable size range and also to investigate alternative dust monitors whose response might not be as prone to variations in particle size or that could be adapted to measure inhalable dust concentration. Several photometer-type dust monitors and a Respicon TM, tapered element oscillating microbalance (TEOM) personal dust monitor (PDM) 3600, TEOM 1400, and Dustrak DRX were assessed for the measurement of airborne inhalable dust during laboratory and field trials. The PDM was modified to allow it to sample and measure larger particles in the inhalable size range. During the laboratory tests, the dust monitors and reference gravimetric samplers were challenged inside a large dust tunnel with aerosols of industrial dusts known to present an inhalable hazard and aluminium oxide powders with a range of discrete particle sizes. A constant concentration of each dust type was generated and peak concentrations of larger particles were periodically introduced to investigate the effects of sudden changes in particle size on monitor calibration. The PDM, Respicon, and DataRam photometer were also assessed during field trials at a bakery, joinery, and a grain mill. Laboratory results showed that the Respicon, modified PDM, and TEOM 1400 observed good linearity for all types of dust when compared with measurements made with a reference IOM sampler; the

  9. Effects of acute inhalation of aerosols generated during resistance spot welding with mild-steel on pulmonary, vascular and immune responses in rats.

    PubMed

    Zeidler-Erdely, Patti C; Meighan, Terence G; Erdely, Aaron; Fedan, Jeffrey S; Thompson, Janet A; Bilgesu, Suzan; Waugh, Stacey; Anderson, Stacey; Marshall, Nikki B; Afshari, Aliakbar; McKinney, Walter; Frazer, David G; Antonini, James M

    2014-10-01

    Spot welding is used in the automotive and aircraft industries, where high-speed, repetitive welding is needed to join thin sections of metal. Epoxy adhesives are applied as sealers to the metal seams. Pulmonary function abnormalities and airway irritation have been reported in spot welders, but no animal toxicology studies exist. Therefore, the goal of this study was to investigate vascular, immune and lung toxicity measures after exposure to these metal fumes in an animal model. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed by inhalation to 25 mg/m³ to either mild-steel spot welding aerosols with sparking (high metal, HM) or without sparking (low metal, LM) for 4 h/d for 3, 8 and 13 d. Shams were exposed to filtered air. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), lung gene expression and ex vivo BAL cell challenge were performed to assess lung toxicity. Lung resistance (R(L)) was evaluated before and after challenge with inhaled methacholine (MCh). Functional assessment of the vascular endothelium in isolated rat tail arteries and leukocyte differentiation in the spleen and lymph nodes via flow cytometry was also done. Immediately after exposure, baseline R(L) was significantly elevated in the LM spot welding aerosols, but returned to control level by 24 h postexposure. Airway reactivity to MCh was unaffected. Lung inflammation and cytotoxicity were mild and transient. Lung epithelial permeability was significantly increased after 3 and 8 d, but not after 13 d of exposure to the HM aerosol. HM aerosols also caused vascular endothelial dysfunction and increased CD4+, CD8+ and B cells in the spleen. Only LM aerosols caused increased IL-6 and MCP-1 levels compared with sham after ex vivo LPS stimulation in BAL macrophages. Acute inhalation of mild-steel spot welding fumes at occupationally relevant concentrations may act as an irritant as evidenced by the increased R(L) and result in endothelial dysfunction, but otherwise had minor effects on the lung. PMID:25140454

  10. Laboratory evaluation of the CIP 10 personal dust sampler.

    PubMed

    Gero, A; Tomb, T

    1988-06-01

    The "capteur individuel de poussiere" CIP 10 personal dust sampler--developed by the Centre d'Etudes et Recherches de Charbonnages de France (CERCHAR) research organization--is a small, quiet, lightweight unit which samples at a flow rate of 10 L/min. It is a three-stage sampler, using two stages to remove nonrespirable dust particles and one stage to collect the respirable fraction. Airflow through the sampler is induced by the third stage, which is a rotating collector cup that contains a fine grade sponge. Laboratory tests were conducted in a dust chamber using aerosols of Arizona road dust, coal dust and silica dust. Aerosol concentrations measured with the CIP 10 were compared to those measured with the coal mine dust personal sampler unit used in the United States. The results of this study showed that aerosol concentrations measured with the CIP 10 were linearly related to those obtained with the coal mine dust personal sampler. The relationship, however, was dependent on preselector configuration and aerosol characteristics. The collection medium allows some small particles (less than 3 microns) to pass through the sampler without being collected. As much as 13% (by weight) of the aerosol that penetrated through the preseparating stages was exhausted from the sampler. PMID:2840817

  11. Isoetharine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Isoetharine comes as an aerosol and a solution to inhale by mouth. It is used as needed to relieve symptoms but usually should not be ... proper disposal of your medication. Avoid puncturing the aerosol container, and do not discard it in an ...

  12. The effect of excipients on the stability and aerosol performance of salmon calcitonin dry powder inhalers prepared via the spray freeze drying process.

    PubMed

    Poursina, Narges; Vatanara, Alireza; Rouini, Mohammad Reza; Gilani, Kambiz; Najafabadi, Abdolhossein Rouholamini

    2016-06-01

    Spray freeze drying was developed to produce dry powders suitable for applications such as inhalation delivery. In the current study, the spray freeze drying technique was employed to produce inhalable salmon calcitonin microparticles. Effects of the carrier type, concentration of hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin and the presence of Tween 80 on the chemical and structural stability, as well as on the aerosol performance of the particles were investigated. The results indicated that hydroxyl propyl-β-cyclodextrin had the most important effect on the chemical stability of the powder and strongly increased its stability by increasing its concentration in the formulation. Chemically stable formulations (over 90 % recovery) were selected for further examinations. Fluorescence spectroscopy and circular dichroism suggested that the formulations were structurally stable. Aerosol performance showed that the Tween-free powders produced higher fine particle fraction values than the formulations containing Tween (53.7 vs. 41.92 % for trehalose content and 52.85 vs. 43.06 % for maltose content). PMID:27279064

  13. Inhalation of aerosolized vitamin a: reversibility of metaplasia and dysplasia of human respiratory epithelia -- a prospective pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kohlhäufl, M; Häussinger, K; Stanzel, F; Markus, A; Tritschler, J; Mühlhöfer, A; Morresi-Hauf, A; Golly, I; Scheuch, G; Jany, B H; Biesalski, H K

    2002-02-21

    The objective of this preliminary uncontrolled study was twofold: First, to assess the feasibility of retinyl palmitate inhalation and second, to analyze the changes of metaplastic lesions of the respiratory epithelium (metaplasia or dysplasia) following retinyl palmitate inhalation. The response to a daily dose of 18.000 I.U. retinyl palmitate by inhalation over a period of 3 month was assessed in 11 subjects (9 smokers, 2 ex-smokers). Using white-light bronchoscopy combined with autofluorescence bronchoscopy, bronchial biopsies were taken before and after a 3 month-period. The biopsy samples were evaluated blind by a referee lung pathologist. The overall response rate (remission or partial remission) was 56% (95% CI 0.30 0.79; p<0.05). These data suggest that inhalation of retinyl esters could be a promising therapeutical approach for chemoprevention of lung cancer. Vitamin A; chemoprevention; lung cancer; squamous metaplasia; dysplasia; retinoids PMID:11891147

  14. Using structural equation modeling to construct calibration equations relating PM2.5 mass concentration samplers to the federal reference method sampler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilonick, Richard A.; Connell, Daniel P.; Talbott, Evelyn O.; Rager, Judith R.; Xue, Tao

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this study was to remove systematic bias among fine particulate matter (PM2.5) mass concentration measurements made by different types of samplers used in the Pittsburgh Aerosol Research and Inhalation Epidemiology Study (PARIES). PARIES is a retrospective epidemiology study that aims to provide a comprehensive analysis of the associations between air quality and human health effects in the Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, region from 1999 to 2008. Calibration was needed in order to minimize the amount of systematic error in PM2.5 exposure estimation as a result of including data from 97 different PM2.5 samplers at 47 monitoring sites. Ordinary regression often has been used for calibrating air quality measurements from pairs of measurement devices; however, this is only appropriate when one of the two devices (the "independent" variable) is free from random error, which is rarely the case. A group of methods known as "errors-in-variables" (e.g., Deming regression, reduced major axis regression) has been developed to handle calibration between two devices when both are subject to random error, but these methods require information on the relative sizes of the random errors for each device, which typically cannot be obtained from the observed data. When data from more than two devices (or repeats of the same device) are available, the additional information is not used to inform the calibration. A more general approach that often has been overlooked is the use of a measurement error structural equation model (SEM) that allows the simultaneous comparison of three or more devices (or repeats). The theoretical underpinnings of all of these approaches to calibration are described, and the pros and cons of each are discussed. In particular, it is shown that both ordinary regression (when used for calibration) and Deming regression are particular examples of SEMs but with substantial deficiencies. To illustrate the use of SEMs, the 7865 daily average PM2.5 mass

  15. Understanding the Different Effects of Inhaler Design on the Aerosol Performance of Drug-Only and Carrier-Based DPI Formulations. Part 1: Grid Structure.

    PubMed

    Leung, Cassandra Ming Shan; Tong, Zhenbo; Zhou, Qi Tony; Chan, John Gar Yan; Tang, Patricia; Sun, Siping; Yang, Runyu; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-09-01

    The design of a dry powder inhaler device has significant influence on aerosol performance; however, such influence may be different between the drug-only and carrier-based formulations. The present study aims to examine the potential difference on the dispersion between these distinct types of formulations, using Aerolizer(®) as a model inhaler with the original or modified (cross-grid) designs. A coupled CFD-discrete element method analysis was employed to determine the flow characteristics and particle impaction. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a drug-only formulation and three lactose carrier-based formulations with various drug-to-carrier weight ratios 1:5, 1:10 and 1:100 were used. The in vitro aerosolization performance was assessed by a next-generation impactor operating at 100 L/min. Using the original device, FPFloaded was reduced from 47.5 ± 3.8% for the drug-only formulation to 31.8 ± 0.7%, 32.1 ± 0.7% and 12.9 ± 1.0% for the 1:5, 1:10 and 1:100 formulations, respectively. With the cross-grid design, powder-mouthpiece impaction was increased, which caused not only powder deagglomeration but also significant drug retention (doubling or more) in the mouthpiece, and the net result is a significant decrease in FPFloaded to 36.8 ± 1.2%, 20.9 ± 2.6% and 21.9 ± 1.5% for the drug-only, 1:5 and 1:10 formulations, respectively. In contrast, the FPFloaded of the 1:100 formulation remained the same at 12.1 ± 1.3%, indicating the increased mouthpiece drug retention was compensated by increased drug detachment from carriers caused by increased powder-mouthpiece impaction. In conclusion, this study has elucidated different effects and the mechanism on the aerosolization of varied dry powder inhaler formulations due to the grid design. PMID:27161214

  16. Inhalational anthrax (Ames aerosol) in naïve and vaccinated New Zealand rabbits: characterizing the spread of bacteria from lung deposition to bacteremia

    PubMed Central

    Gutting, Bradford W.; Nichols, Tonya L.; Channel, Stephen R.; Gearhart, Jeffery M.; Andrews, George A.; Berger, Alan E.; Mackie, Ryan S.; Watson, Brent J.; Taft, Sarah C.; Overheim, Katie A.; Sherwood, Robert L.

    2012-01-01

    There is a need to better understand inhalational anthrax in relevant animal models. This understanding could aid risk assessment, help define therapeutic windows, and provide a better understanding of disease. The aim here was to characterize and quantify bacterial deposition and dissemination in rabbits following exposure to single high aerosol dose (> 100 LD50) of Bacillus anthracis (Ames) spores immediately following exposure through 36 h. The primary goal of collecting the data was to support investigators in developing computational models of inhalational anthrax disease. Rabbits were vaccinated prior to exposure with the human vaccine (Anthrax Vaccine Adsorbed, AVA) or were sham-vaccinated, and were then exposed in pairs (one sham and one AVA) so disease kinetics could be characterized in equally-dosed hosts where one group is fully protected and is able to clear the infection (AVA-vaccinated), while the other is susceptible to disease, in which case the bacteria are able to escape containment and replicate uncontrolled (sham-vaccinated rabbits). Between 4–5% of the presented aerosol dose was retained in the lung of sham- and AVA-vaccinated rabbits as measured by dilution plate analysis of homogenized lung tissue or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid. After 6 and 36 h, >80% and >96%, respectively, of the deposited spores were no longer detected in BAL, with no detectable difference between sham- or AVA-vaccinated rabbits. Thereafter, differences between the two groups became noticeable. In sham-vaccinated rabbits the bacteria were detected in the tracheobronchial lymph nodes (TBLN) 12 h post-exposure and in the circulation at 24 h, a time point which was also associated with dramatic increases in vegetative CFU in the lung tissue of some animals. In all sham-vaccinated rabbits, bacteria increased in both TBLN and blood through 36 h at which point in time some rabbits succumbed to disease. In contrast, AVA-vaccinated rabbits showed small numbers of CFU in

  17. Electret-based passive dust sampler: sampling of organic dusts.

    PubMed

    Brown, R C; Hemingway, M A; Wake, D; Thorpe, A

    1996-09-01

    Passive samplers are light, convenient and cheap. However, the sample size tends to be small and a correlation exercise between the results of a passive sampler and a conventional sampler must be carried out. The design principles and mode of action of an electret-based passive dust sampler are described. The device captures dust particles at a rate independent of the velocity of air except when this is very low but dependent on the electrical properties of the dust being sampled. Experimental results are presented of measurements made in bakeries, pig farms, a dairy farm, an arable farm and a rubber-manufacturing plant. Correlation between measurements made with the passive sampler and measurements of inhalable dust performed by other means are reasonable. The results are interpreted in terms of the physical properties of the dust being sampled. PMID:8831282

  18. Exposure of F344 rats to aerosols of {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and chronically inhaled cigarette smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Finch, G.L.; Nikula, K.J.; Barr, E.B.; Bechtold, W.E.; Chen, B.T.; Griffith, W.C.; Hobbs, C.H.; Hoover, M.D.; Mauderly, J.L.

    1994-11-01

    Nuclear workers may be accidently exposed to radioactive materials such as {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} by inhalation, and thus have increased risk for lung cancer compared to the general population. Of additional concern is the possibility that interactions between radionuclides and other carcinogens may increase the risk of cancer induction. An important and common lung carcinogen is cigarette smoke. This study is being conducted to better determine the combined effects of inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2} and cigarette smoke on the induction of lung cancer in rats.

  19. Lung inflammation in coal miners assessed by uptake of 67Ga-citrate and clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate aerosol

    SciTech Connect

    Susskind, H.; Rom, W.N. )

    1992-07-01

    The authors compared the diffuse lung uptake of 67Ga-citrate, an index of inflammatory lung activity, with the lung clearance of inhaled 99mTc-labeled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (DTPA) aerosol, an index of pulmonary epithelial permeability, in a group of 19 West Virginia coal miners whose pulmonary status was compatible with coal worker's pneumoconiosis. 99mTc-DTPA clearance alone and 67Ga-citrate uptake alone were measured in nine and five additional subjects, respectively. The objective of this study was to determine if increased 99mTc-DTPA lung clearance was caused by inflammation at the lung epithelial surfaces. Subjects inhaled approximately 150 microCi (approximately 5.6 MBq) of 99mTc-DTPA aerosol, and quantitative gamma camera images of the lungs were acquired at 1-min increments for 25 min. Regions of interest (ROI) were selected to include (1) both lungs; (2) each individual lung; and (3) the upper, middle, and lower thirds of each lung. 99mTc-DTPA clearance was determined from the slopes of the respective time-activity plots for the different ROI. Each subject was intravenously administered 50 miCroCk (1.9 MBq)/kg 67Ga-citrate 48 to 72 h before imaging the body between neck and pelvis. The extent of 67Ga-citrate lung uptake was expressed as the gallium index (GI). Mean radioaerosol clearance half-time (T1/2) for the six nonsmoking coal miners (60.6 +/- 16.0 min) was significantly shorter (p less than 0.001) than for the nonsmoking control group (123.8 +/- 28.7 min). T1/2 for the 12 smoking miners (18.4 +/- 10.2 min) was shorter than for the smoking control group (33.1 +/- 17.8 min), but the difference did not attain statistical significance.

  20. Bacterial communities in urban aerosols collected with wetted-wall cyclonic samplers and seasonal fluctuations of live and culturable airborne bacteria

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The airborne transmission of bacterial pathogens from point sources (e.g. ranches, waste treatment facilities) to areas of food production (farms) has been suspected. However, there have been few studies monitoring the incidence, transport and viability of bacteria in aerosols. We monitored the numb...

  1. Spatial and Temporal Variability of Outdoor Coarse Particulate Matter Mass Concentrations Measured with a New Coarse Particulate Sampler during the Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Detroit Exposure and Aerosol Research Study (DEARS) provided data to compare outdoor residential coarse particulate matter (PM10-2.5) concentrations in six different areas of Detroit with data from a central monitoring site. Daily and seasonal influences on the spa...

  2. Workplace aerosol mass concentration measurement using optical particle counters.

    PubMed

    Görner, Peter; Simon, Xavier; Bémer, Denis; Lidén, Göran

    2012-02-01

    Direct-reading aerosol measurement usually uses the optical properties of airborne particles to detect and measure particle concentration. In the case of occupational hygiene, mass concentration measurement is often required. Two aerosol monitoring methods are based on the principle of light scattering: optical particle counting (OPC) and photometry. The former analyses the light scattered by a single particle, the latter by a cloud of particles. Both methods need calibration to transform the quantity of scattered light detected into particle concentration. Photometers are simpler to use and can be directly calibrated to measure mass concentration. However, their response varies not only with aerosol concentration but also with particle size distribution, which frequently contributes to biased measurement. Optical particle counters directly measure the particle number concentration and particle size that allows assessment of the particle mass provided the particles are spherical and of known density. An integrating algorithm is used to calculate the mass concentration of any conventional health-related aerosol fraction. The concentrations calculated thus have been compared with simultaneous measurements by conventional gravimetric sampling to check the possibility of field OPC calibration with real workplace aerosols with a view to further monitoring particle mass concentration. Aerosol concentrations were measured in the food industry using the OPC GRIMM® 1.108 and the CIP 10-Inhalable and CIP 10-Respirable (ARELCO®) aerosol samplers while meat sausages were being brushed and coated with calcium carbonate. Previously, the original OPC inlet had been adapted to sample inhalable aerosol. A mixed aerosol of calcium carbonate and fungi spores was present in the workplace. The OPC particle-size distribution and an estimated average particle density of both aerosol components were used to calculate the mass concentration. The inhalable and respirable aerosol fractions

  3. Environmental Curiosity Sampler.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stehney, Virginia A.

    The Sampler is designed to stimulate teachers, parents, students, and groups to look at various types of open spaces and facilities as resources for environmental study. Written for use with children, but adaptable to older groups, the Sampler tries to engage the feelings as well as intellects of its users in the process of inquiry. It locates…

  4. The use of colloid probe microscopy to predict aerosolization performance in dry powder inhalers: AFM and in vitro correlation.

    PubMed

    Young, Paul M; Tobyn, Michael J; Price, Robert; Buttrum, Mark; Dey, Fiona

    2006-08-01

    The atomic force microscope (AFM) colloid probe technique was utilized to measure cohesion forces (separation energy) between three drug systems as a function of relative humidity (RH). The subsequent data was correlated with in vitro aerosolization data collected over the same RH range. Three drug-only systems were chosen for study; salbutamol sulphate (SS), triamcinolone acetonide (TAA), and di-sodium cromoglycate (DSCG). Analysis of the AFM and in vitro data suggested good correlations, with the separation energy being related inversely to the aerosolization performance (measured as fine particle fraction, FPF(LD)). In addition, the relationship between, cohesion, RH, and aerosolization performance was drug specific. For example, an increase in RH between 15% and 75% resulted in increased cohesion and decreased FPF(LD) for SS and DSCG. In comparison, for TAA, a decrease in cohesion and increased FPF(LD) was observed when RH was increased (15-75%). Linear regression analysis comparing AFM with in vitro data indicated R(2) values > 0.80, for all data sets, suggesting the AFM could be used to indicate in vitro aerosolization performance. PMID:16795018

  5. Stimulation of interferons and endorphins/enkephalins by electro-aerosol inhalation? An experimental approach for testing an expanded hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wehner, A. P.

    1984-03-01

    The biological effects of endorphins/enkephalins and of interferons closely resemble those attributed to air ions and electro-aerosols. Air ions/electro-aerosols have been reported to affect brain functions and feelings of “well-being”; to have sedative and analgesic effects; to be therapeutically effective in certain viral (e.g., upper respiratory) infections; and to have tumor-attenuating effects. It is, therefore, conceivable that endorphins/enkephalins and interferons might be the mediators of these air ion/electro-aerosol effects. An experimental approach for testing this hypothesis is described. It calls for mice to be challenged with a suitable agent and to be exposed under appropriate conditions to a negatively charged aerosol of physiological saline 6 hours/day for up to 3 weeks; for the serial sacrifice of subgroups of these mice; for collecting blood and brains of the sacrificed animals; for the bioassay of the sera for interferon; and for radioimmunoassays of brains for endorphins/enkephalins. Special considerations, necessitated by the nature of the experiment, are discussed.

  6. Dry powder inhalers: physicochemical and aerosolization properties of several size-fractions of a promising alterative carrier, freeze-dried mannitol.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2015-02-20

    The purpose of this work was to evaluate the physicochemical and inhalation characteristics of different size fractions of a promising carrier, i.e., freeze-dried mannitol (FDM). FDM was prepared and sieved into four size fractions. FDMs were then characterized in terms of micromeritic, solid-state and bulk properties. Dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations were prepared using salbutamol sulphate (SS) and then evaluated in terms of drug content homogeneity and in vitro aerosolization performance. The results showed that the crystalline state of mannitol was maintained following freeze-drying for all size fractions of FDM. All FDM particles showed elongated morphology and contained mixtures of α-, β- and δ-mannitol. In comparison to small FDM particles, FDMs with larger particle sizes demonstrated narrower size distributions, higher bulk and tap densities, lower porosities and better flowability. Regardless of particle size, all FDMs generated a significantly higher (2.2-2.9-fold increase) fine particle fraction (FPF, 37.5 ± 0.9%-48.6 ± 2.8%) of SS in comparison to commercial mannitol. The FPFs of SS were related to the shape descriptors of FDM particles; however, FPFs did not prove quantitative apparent relationships with either particle size or powder bulk descriptors. Large FDM particles were more favourable than smaller particles because they produced DPI formulations with better flowability, better drug content homogeneity, lower amounts of the drug depositing on the throat and contained lower fine-particle-mannitol. Optimized stable DPI formulations with superior physicochemical and pharmaceutical properties can be achieved using larger particles of freeze-dried mannitol (FDM). PMID:25497318

  7. The Gibbs Centroid Sampler

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, William A.; Newberg, Lee A.; Conlan, Sean; McCue, Lee Ann; Lawrence, Charles E.

    2007-07-01

    The Gibbs Centroid Sampler is a software package designed for locating conserved elements in biopolymer sequences. The Gibbs Centroid Sampler reports a centroid alignment, i.e., an alignment that has the minimum total distance to the set of samples chosen from the a posteriori probability distribution of transcription factor binding site alignments. In so doing, it garners information from the full ensemble of solutions, rather than only the single most probable point that is the target of many motif finding algorithms, including its predecessor, the Gibbs Recursive Sampler. Centroid estimators have been shown to yield substantial improvements, in both sensitivity and positive predictive values, to the prediction of RNA secondary structure and motif finding. The Gibbs Centroid Sampler, along with interactive tutorials, an online user manual, and information on downloading the software, is available at http://bayesweb.wadsworth.org/gibbs/gibbs.html.

  8. Variable percentage sampler

    DOEpatents

    Miller, Jr., William H.

    1976-01-01

    A remotely operable sampler is provided for obtaining variable percentage samples of nuclear fuel particles and the like for analyses. The sampler has a rotating cup for a sample collection chamber designed so that the effective size of the sample inlet opening to the cup varies with rotational speed. Samples of a desired size are withdrawn from a flowing stream of particles without a deterrent to the flow of remaining particles.

  9. Short term inhalation toxicity of a liquid aerosol of glutaraldehyde-coated CdS/Cd(OH)2 core shell quantum dots in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma-Hock, L; Farias, P M A; Hofmann, T; Andrade, A C D S; Silva, J N; Arnaud, T M S; Wohlleben, W; Strauss, V; Treumann, S; Chaves, C R; Gröters, S; Landsiedel, R; van Ravenzwaay, B

    2014-02-10

    Quantum dots exhibit extraordinary optical and mechanical properties, and the number of their applications is increasing. In order to investigate a possible effect of coating on the inhalation toxicity of previously tested non-coated CdS/Cd(OH)2 quantum dots and translocation of these very small particles from the lungs, rats were exposed to coated quantum dots or CdCl2 aerosol (since Cd(2+) was present as impurity), 6h/d for 5 consecutive days. Cd content was determined in organs and excreta after the end of exposure and three weeks thereafter. Toxicity was determined by examination of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid and microscopic evaluation of the entire respiratory tract. There was no evidence for translocation of particles from the respiratory tract. Evidence of a minimal inflammatory process was observed by examination of broncho-alveolar lavage fluid. Microscopically, minimal to mild epithelial alteration was seen in the larynx. The effects observed with coated quantum dots, non-coated quantum dots and CdCl2 were comparable, indicating that quantum dots elicited no significant effects beyond the toxicity of the Cd(2+) ion itself. Compared to other compounds with larger particle size tested at similarly low concentrations, quantum dots caused much less pronounced toxicological effects. Therefore, the present data show that small particle sizes with corresponding high surfaces are not the only factor triggering the toxic response or translocation. PMID:24296008

  10. Uptake of all-trans retinoic acid–containing aerosol by inhalation to lungs in a guinea pig model system—A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Schäffer, Michael W.; Roy, Somdutta Sinha; Mukherjee, Shyamali; Ong, David E.; Das, Salil K.

    2010-01-01

    Systemic therapies with retinoic acid (RA) can result in toxic side effects without yielding biologically effective levels in target tissues such as lung. The authors adapted a PARI LC Star nebulizer to create a tubular system for short-term inhalation treatment of guinea pigs using a water-miscible formulation of all-trans RA (ATRA) or vehicle. Based on the initial average weight, animals received an estimated average ATRA doses of either 0.32 mg·kg−1 (low dose, 1.4 mM), or 0.62 mg·kg−1 (medium dose, 2.8 mM), or 1.26 mg·kg−1 (high dose, 5.6 mM) 20 minutes per day for 6 consecutive days. This system led to a rise of ATRA levels in lung, but not liver or plasma. Cellular lung levels of retinol, retinyl palmitate, and retinyl stearate also appeared to be unaffected (245.6 ± 10.7, 47.4 ± 3.4, and 132.8 ± 7.7 ng·g−1 wet weight, respectively). The application of this aerosolized ATRA also induced a dose-dependent protein expression of the cellular retinol-binding protein 1 (CRBP-1) in lung, without apparent harmful side effects. PMID:21043991