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Sample records for inhaled asbestos exacerbates

  1. Enhanced interleukin activity following asbestos inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, D P; Georgian, M M; Oghiso, Y; Kagan, E

    1984-01-01

    Asbestos inhalation can cause pulmonary fibrosis and is associated with a variety of immunological abnormalities. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of asbestos inhalation on interleukin-1 (IL-1) and interleukin-2 (IL-2) production in a rodent model. Two groups of rats were exposed, by intermittent inhalation, to either amphibole (crocidolite) or serpentine (chrysotile) asbestos. A third (control) group of rats was sham exposed to clean air. Animals from the three exposure groups were thereafter immunized (or not immunized) with fetal calf serum antigens. In order to assay interleukin activity, supernatants were generated from cultures containing alveolar macrophages and autologous splenic lymphocytes, and from cultures containing alveolar macrophages alone. Using assay systems designed to detect IL-1 and IL-2 functional activity, the supernatants were evaluated for their capacity to stimulate lymphoproliferation and fibroblast DNA synthesis. Macrophage-lymphocyte co-culture supernatants, when obtained from immunized, asbestos exposed rats, contained greater IL-1 and IL-2 activity than identical supernatants from immunized, sham exposed animals. These between group differences were not, however, observed in supernatants from unimmunized rats, or when supernatants were generated in the absence of immune lymphocytes. These observations suggest that asbestos exposure is associated with enhanced activation of lymphocytes by antigens. The possible relevance of these findings to asbestos related fibrogenesis and immunological stimulation is discussed. PMID:6608427

  2. Characterization of inhaled asbestos fibers in the lung of baboons

    SciTech Connect

    Murai, Y.; Hiroshima, K.; Suzuki, Y.; Goldstein, B.; Webster, I. National Center for Occupational Health, Johannesburg )

    1991-03-15

    The histopathological changes of the lungs of 7 baboons after exposure to asbestos fibers were studied, and the size distribution of the fibers was determined by electron microscopy using 25 {mu} paraffin sections and low temperature-ashing method. The size distribution of the fibers in four locations in the lung, peribronchiolar area, alveolar area, subpleural area, and interlobular connective tissue was studied. Both amosite and chrysotile induced pulmonary asbestosis and pleural thickening. Asbestosis occurred more severely in amosite-exposed animals than in chrysotile-exposed ones, and one pleural mesothelioma was found 49 months after exposure to amosite and after another 59 months of recovery in non-dusting conditions. The length, width and aspect ratios of the UICC standard sample fibers used had geometric means (G.M.) of 3.3 {mu} 0.28 {mu}, 11.8 for amosite and 1.1 {mu}, 0.12{mu}, 9.8 for chrysotile. As a whole, intrapulmonary amosite fibers were shorter than the UICC standard samples in the four baboons dusted. After 48 months exposure with or without recovery, amosite fibers found in the lungs were thinner when compared to the standard samples. For chrysotile, the length of fibers after 13 months and 26 months exposure was longer than those of standard samples of 8.5 months exposure. After inhalation, the width of the chrysotile fibers were thinner than the standard sample fibers. The size distribution of amosite fibers found in the lung and in the mesotheliomatous tissue was not significantly different.

  3. Exposure versus internal dose: Respiratory tract deposition modeling of inhaled asbestos fibers in rats and humans (Presentation Poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to asbestos is associated with respiratory diseases, including asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma. Internal fiber dose depends on fiber inhalability and orientation, fiber density, length and width, and various deposition mechanisms (DM). Species-specific param...

  4. Pulmonary Endpoints (Lung Carcinomas and Asbestosis) Following Inhalation Exposure to Asbestos

    PubMed Central

    Mossman, Brooke T.; Lippmann, Morton; Hesterberg, Thomas W.; Kelsey, Karl T.; Barchowsky, Aaron; Bonner, James C.

    2011-01-01

    Lung carcinomas and pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis) occur in asbestos workers. Understanding the pathogenesis of these diseases is complicated because of potential confounding factors, such as smoking, which is not a risk factor in mesothelioma. The modes of action (MOA) of various types of asbestos in the development of lung cancers, asbestosis, and mesotheliomas appear to be different. Moreover, asbestos fibers may act differentially at various stages of these diseases, and have different potencies as compared to other naturally occurring and synthetic fibers. This literature review describes patterns of deposition and retention of various types of asbestos and other fibers after inhalation, methods of translocation within the lung, and dissolution of various fiber types in lung compartments and cells in vitro. Comprehensive dose-response studies at fiber concentrations inhaled by humans as well as bivariate size distributions (lengths and widths), types, and sources of fibers are rarely defined in published studies and are needed. Species-specific responses may occur. Mechanistic studies have some of these limitations, but have suggested that changes in gene expression (either fiber-catalyzed directly or by cell elaboration of oxidants), epigenetic changes, and receptor-mediated or other intracellular signaling cascades may play roles in various stages of the development of lung cancers or asbestosis. PMID:21534086

  5. Osteopontin modulates inflammation, mucin production, and gene expression signatures after inhalation of asbestos in a murine model of fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Sabo-Attwood, Tara; Ramos-Nino, Maria E; Eugenia-Ariza, Maria; Macpherson, Maximilian B; Butnor, Kelly J; Vacek, Pamela C; McGee, Sean P; Clark, Jessica C; Steele, Chad; Mossman, Brooke T

    2011-05-01

    Inflammation and lung remodeling are hallmarks of asbestos-induced fibrosis, but the molecular mechanisms that control these events are unclear. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) of distal bronchioles in a murine asbestos inhalation model, we show that osteopontin (OPN) is up-regulated by bronchiolar epithelial cells after chrysotile asbestos exposures. In contrast to OPN wild-type mice (OPN(+/+)) inhaling asbestos, OPN null mice (OPN(-/-)) exposed to asbestos showed less eosinophilia in bronchoalveolar lavage fluids, diminished lung inflammation, and decreased mucin production. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid concentrations of inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-12 subunit p40, MIP1α, MIP1β, and eotaxin) also were significantly less in asbestos-exposed OPN(-/-) mice. Microarrays performed on lung tissues from asbestos-exposed OPN(+/+) and OPN(-/-) mice showed that OPN modulated the expression of a number of genes (Col1a2, Timp1, Tnc, Eln, and Col3a1) linked to fibrosis via initiation and cross talk between IL-1β and epidermal growth factor receptor-related signaling pathways. Novel targets of OPN identified include genes involved in cell signaling, immune system/defense, extracellular matrix remodeling, and cell cycle regulation. Although it is unclear whether the present findings are specific to chrysotile asbestos or would be observed after inhalation of other fibers in general, these results highlight new potential mechanisms and therapeutic targets for asbestosis and other diseases (asthma, smoking-related interstitial lung diseases) linked to OPN overexpression. PMID:21514415

  6. Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smither, W. J.

    1978-01-01

    Explains the structure and properties of asbestos, its importance in industry, and its world-wide use and production. Discusses asbestos-related diseases and suggests ways of preventing them, adding that current research is trying to make working with asbestos safer. (GA)

  7. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group is represented by a single asbestiform variety-chrysotile. There also are five commercial asbestiform varieties of amphiboles-anthophyllite asbestos, cummingtonite-grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. Nearly all of the asbestos mined after the mid-1990s was chrysotile. Only very small amounts of actinolite, anthophyllite, and tremolite asbestos may be mined in a few countries. Asbestos was mined in Argentina, Brazil, Canada, China, India, Kazakhstan, and Russia in 2010; world production was estimated to be 1.97 × 106 tons. Properties that made asbestos valuable for industrial applications were their thermal, electrical, and sound insulation properties; inflammability; matrix reinforcement (cement, plastic, and resins); adsorption capacity (filtration, liquid sterilization); wear and friction properties (friction materials such as brakes and clutches); and chemical inertia (except in acids). These properties led to the use of asbestos in about 3,000 products by the 1960s. Since about 1995, asbestos-cement products, including pipe and sheets, accounted for more than 95% of global asbestos consumption as other uses of asbestos have declined. Global consumption of asbestos was estimated to have been about 1.98 × 106 tons in 2009. The leading consuming countries in 2009 were Brazil, China, India, Russia, and Thailand, each with more than 100,000 tons of consumption.

  8. Inhaled nitric oxide exacerbated phorbol-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hen I; Chu, Shi Jye; Hsu, Kang; Wang, David

    2004-01-01

    In this study, we determined the effect of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) on the acute lung injury induced by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) in isolated rat lung. Typical acute lung injury was induced successfully by PMA during 60 min of observation. PMA (2 microg/kg) elicited a significant increase in microvascular permeability, (measured using the capillary filtration coefficient Kfc), lung weight gain, lung weight/body weight ratio, pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and protein concentration of the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Pretreatment with inhaled NO (30 ppm) significantly exacerbated acute lung injury. All of the parameters reflective of lung injury increased significantly except PAP (P<0.05). Coadministration of Nomega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (5 mM) attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO in PMA-induced lung injury, except for PAP. In addition, L-NAME (5 mM) significantly attenuated PMA-induced acute lung injury except for PAP. These experimental data suggest that inhaled NO significantly exacerbated acute lung injury induced by PMA in rats. L-NAME attenuated the detrimental effect of inhaled NO. PMID:14643171

  9. Non-adherence to inhaled corticosteroids and the risk of asthma exacerbations in children

    PubMed Central

    Vasbinder, Erwin C; Belitser, Svetlana V; Souverein, Patrick C; van Dijk, Liset; Vulto, Arnold G; van den Bemt, Patricia MLA

    2016-01-01

    Background Non-adherence to inhaled corticosteroids (ICSs) is a major risk factor for poor asthma control in children. However, little is known about the effect of adherence to ICS on the incidence of asthma exacerbations. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of poor adherence to ICS on the risk of exacerbations in children with asthma. Methods In this nested case–control study using data from the Dutch PHARMO Record Linkage System, children aged 5–12 years who had an asthma exacerbation needing oral corticosteroids or hospital admission were matched to patients without exacerbations. Refill adherence was calculated as medication possession ratio from ICS-dispensing records. Data were analyzed using a multivariable multiplicative intensity regression model. Results A total of 646 children were included, of whom 36 had one or more asthma exacerbations. The medication possession ratio was 67.9% (standard deviation [SD] 30.2%) in children with an exacerbation versus 54.2% (SD 35.6%) in the control group. In children using long-acting beta-agonist, good adherence to ICS was associated with a higher risk of asthma exacerbations: relative risk 4.34 (95% confidence interval: 1.20–15.64). Conclusion In children with persistent asthma needing long-acting beta-agonist, good adherence to ICS was associated with an increased risk of asthma exacerbations. Possible explanations include better motivation for adherence to ICS in children with more severe asthma, and reduced susceptibility to the consequences of non-adherence to ICS due to overprescription of ICS to children who are in clinical remission. Further study into the background of the complex interaction between asthma and medication adherence is needed. PMID:27110103

  10. Asbestos

    MedlinePlus

    ... building materials (roofing shingles, ceiling and floor tiles, paper products, and asbestos cement products), friction products (automobile ... Some PDF files may be electronic conversions from paper copy or other electronic ASCII text files. This ...

  11. Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    1998-01-01

    Part of a special section on the state of industrial minerals in 1997. The state of the asbestos industry in 1997 is discussed. World production of asbestos in 1997 was estimated to be 2.07 Mt. Consumption in the U.S. fell 3 percent to 21 kt, and it is expected to continue to decline at a rate of 2–4 percent per year.

  12. Inhaled hypertonic saline in adults hospitalised for exacerbation of cystic fibrosis lung disease: a retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Stoltz, David A; Hornick, Douglas B; Durairaj, Lakshmi

    2012-01-01

    Background Inhaled hypertonic saline (HTS) improves quality of life and reduces pulmonary exacerbations when given long term in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). While increasingly being offered for acute pulmonary exacerbations, little is known about the efficacy in this setting. Objectives The authors examined the tolerability and efficacy of HTS use among adult subjects hospitalised with a CF pulmonary exacerbation and hypothesised that use of HTS would improve pulmonary function during the admission. Design Pilot retrospective non-randomised study. Setting Single tertiary care centre. Participants 45 subjects admitted to the inpatient service for acute CF pulmonary exacerbation in 2006–2007. A subset of 18 subjects who were also admitted in 2005 when HTS was not available was included in the comparative study. Primary outcome Change in forced expiratory volume in one second from admission to discharge. Secondary outcomes Change in weight from admission to discharge and time to next exacerbation. Results Mean age was 32.5 years, and mean length of stay was 11.5 days. HTS was offered to 33 subjects and was well tolerated for a total use of 336 days out of 364 days of hospital stay. Baseline demographics, lung function and sputum culture results were comparable in first and second visits. Use of HTS was not associated with an improvement in forced expiratory volume in one second (p=0.1), weight gain (p=0.24) or in the time to next admission (p=0.08). Conclusions These pilot data suggest that HTS is well tolerated during CF pulmonary exacerbation but offers no clear outcome benefits. It is possible that HTS may not have much advantage above and beyond intensive rehabilitation and intravenous antibiotics and may add to hospital costs and treatment burden. PMID:22517980

  13. CMTR1 is associated with increased asthma exacerbations in patients taking inhaled corticosteroids.

    PubMed

    Dahlin, Amber; Denny, Joshua; Roden, Dan M; Brilliant, Murray H; Ingram, Christie; Kitchner, Terrie E; Linneman, James G; Shaffer, Christian M; Weeke, Peter; Xu, Hua; Kubo, Michiaki; Tamari, Mayumi; Clemmer, George L; Ziniti, John; McGeachie, Michael J; Tantisira, Kelan G; Weiss, Scott T; Wu, Ann Chen

    2015-12-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the most effective controller medications for asthma, and variability in ICS response is associated with genetic variation. Despite ICS treatment, some patients with poor asthma control experience severe asthma exacerbations, defined as a hospitalization or emergency room visit. We hypothesized that some individuals may be at increased risk of asthma exacerbations, despite ICS use, due to genetic factors. A GWAS of 237,726 common, independent markers was conducted in 806 Caucasian asthmatic patients from two population-based biobanks: BioVU, at Vanderbilt University Medical Center (VUMC) in Tennessee (369 patients), and Personalized Medicine Research Project (PMRP) at the Marshfield Clinic in Wisconsin (437 patients). Using a case-control study design, the association of each SNP locus with the outcome of asthma exacerbations (defined as asthma-related emergency department visits or hospitalizations concurrent with oral corticosteroid use), was evaluated for each population by logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age, gender and the first four principal components. A meta-analysis of the results was conducted. Validation of expression of selected candidate genes was determined by evaluating an independent microarray expression data set. Our study identified six novel SNPs associated with differential risk of asthma exacerbations (P < 10(-05)). The top GWAS result, rs2395672 in CMTR1, was associated with an increased risk of exacerbations in both populations (OR = 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11; joint P = 2.3 × 10(-06)). Two SNPs (rs2395672 and rs279728) were associated with increased risk of exacerbations, while the remaining four SNPs (rs4271056, rs6467778, rs2691529, and rs9303988) were associated with decreased risk. Three SNPs (rs2395672, rs6467778, and rs2691529) were present in three genes: CMTR1, TRIM24 and MAGI2. The CMTR1 mRNA transcript was significantly differentially expressed in nasal lavage samples

  14. Does roflumilast decrease exacerbations in severe COPD patients not controlled by inhaled combination therapy? the REACT study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Calverley, Peter MA; Martinez, Fernando J; Fabbri, Leonardo M; Goehring, Udo-Michael; Rabe, Klaus F

    2012-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) continue to suffer exacerbations, even when treated with maximum recommended therapy (eg, inhaled combinations of long-acting β2-agonist and high dose inhaled corticosteroids, with or without a long-acting anticholinergic [long-acting muscarinic antagonist]). Roflumilast is approved to treat severe COPD in patients with chronic bronchitis – and a history of frequent exacerbations – as an add-on to bronchodilators. Purpose The REACT (Roflumilast in the Prevention of COPD Exacerbations While Taking Appropriate Combination Treatment) study (identification number RO-2455-404-RD, clinicaltrials. gov identifier NCT01329029) will investigate whether roflumilast further reduces exacerbations when added to inhaled combination therapy in patients still suffering from frequent exacerbations. Patients and methods REACT is a 1-year randomized, double-blind, multicenter, phase III/IV study of roflumilast 500 μg once daily or placebo on top of a fixed long-acting β2-agonist/inhaled corticosteroid combination. A concomitant long-acting muscarinic antagonist will be allowed at stable doses. The primary outcome is the rate of moderate or severe COPD exacerbations. Using a Poisson regression model with a two-sided significance level of 5%, a sample size of 967 patients per treatment group is needed for 90% power. COPD patients with severe to very severe airflow limitation, symptoms of chronic bronchitis, and at least two exacerbations in the previous year will be recruited. Conclusion It is hypothesized that because roflumilast (a phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitor) has a different mode of action to bronchodilators and inhaled corticosteroids, it may provide additional benefits when added to these treatments in frequent exacerbators. REACT will be important to determine the role of roflumilast in COPD management. Here, the design and rationale for this important study is described. PMID:22791991

  15. Asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Asbestos ; CASRN 1332 - 21 - 4 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinogenic Effects

  16. Chronic inhalation study of fiber glass and amosite asbestos in hamsters: twelve-month preliminary results.

    PubMed Central

    Hesterberg, T W; Axten, C; McConnell, E E; Oberdörster, G; Everitt, J; Miiller, W C; Chevalier, J; Chase, G R; Thevenaz, P

    1997-01-01

    The effects of chronic inhalation of glass fibers and amosite asbestos are currently under study in hamsters. The study includes 18 months of inhalation exposure followed by lifetime recovery. Syrian golden hamsters are exposed, nose only, for 6 hr/day, 5 day/week to size-selected test fibers: MMVF10a (Schuller 901 insulation glass); MMVF33 (Schuller 475 durable glass); amosite asbestos (three doses); or to filtered air (controls). Here we report interim results on airborne fiber characterization, lung fiber burden, and pathology (preliminary) through 12 months. Aerosolized test fibers averaged 15 to 20 microns in length and 0.5 to 1 micron in diameter. Target aerosol concentrations of World Health Organization (WHO) fibers (longer than 5 microns) were 250 fibers/cc for MMVF10a and MMVF33, and 25, 125, or 250 fibers/cc for amosite. WHO fiber lung burdens showed time-dependent and (for amosite) dose-dependent increases. After a 12-month exposure, lung burdens of fibers longer than 20 microns were greatest with amosite high and mid doses, similar for low-dose amosite and MMVF33, and smaller for MMVF10a. Biological responses of animals exposed for 12 months to MMVF10a were limited to nonspecific pulmonary inflammation. However, exposures to MMVF33 and each of three doses of amosite were associated with lung fibrosis and possible mesotheliomas (1 with MMVF33 and 2, 3, and 1 with amosite low, mid, and high doses, respectively). Pulmonary and pleural changes associated with amosite were qualitatively and quantitatively more severe than those associated with MMVF33. As of the 12-month time point, this study demonstrates that two different fiber glass compositions with similar fiber dimensions but different durabilities can have distinctly different effects on the hamster lung and pleura after inhalation exposure. (Preliminary tumor data through 18 months of exposure and 6 weeks of postexposure recovery became available as this manuscript went to press: No tumors were

  17. Particulate matter inhalation exacerbates cardiopulmonary injury in a rat model of isoproterenol-induced cardiomyopathy.

    PubMed

    Carll, Alex P; Haykal-Coates, Najwa; Winsett, Darrell W; Rowan, William H; Hazari, Mehdi S; Ledbetter, Allen D; Nyska, Abraham; Cascio, Wayne E; Watkinson, William P; Costa, Daniel L; Farraj, Aimen K

    2010-04-01

    Ambient particulate matter (PM) exposure is linked to cardiovascular events and death, especially among individuals with heart disease. A model of toxic cardiomyopathy was developed in Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) rats to explore potential mechanisms. Rats were infused with isoproterenol (ISO; 2.5 mg/kg/day subcutaneous [sc]), a beta-adrenergic agonist, for 28 days and subsequently exposed to PM by inhalation. ISO induced tachycardia and hypotension throughout treatment followed by postinfusion decrements in heart rate, contractility, and blood pressures (systolic, diastolic, pulse), and fibrotic cardiomyopathy. Changes in heart rate and heart rate variability (HRV) 17 days after ISO cessation indicated parasympathetic dominance with concomitantly altered ventilation. Rats were subsequently exposed to filtered air or Harvard Particle 12 (HP12) (12 mg/m(3))--a metal-rich oil combustion-derived PM--at 18 and 19 days (4 h/day) after ISO infusion via nose-only inhalation to determine if cardio-impaired rats were more responsive to the effects of PM exposure. Inhalation of PM among ISO-pretreated rats significantly increased pulmonary lactate dehydrogenase, serum high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, and heart-to-body mass ratio. PM exposure increased the number of ISO-pretreated rats that experienced bradyarrhythmic events, which occurred concomitantly with acute alterations of HRV. PM, however, did not significantly affect mean HRV in the ISO- or saline-pretreated groups. In summary, subchronic ISO treatment elicited some pathophysiologic and histopathological features of heart failure, including cardiomyopathy. The enhanced sensitivity to PM exposure in SHHF rats with ISO-accelerated cardiomyopathy suggests that this model may be useful for elucidating the mechanisms by which PM exposure exacerbates heart disease. PMID:20121584

  18. Amphibole asbestos in tree bark--a review of findings for this inhalational exposure source in Libby, Montana.

    PubMed

    Ward, Tony J; Spear, Terry M; Hart, Julie F; Webber, James S; Elashheb, Mohamed I

    2012-01-01

    In June 2009, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) designated the town of Libby, Montana, a public health emergency--the first and only time the EPA has made such a determination under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). From about 1920 until 1990, the leading source of vermiculite ore for the United States and the world was from a mine near Libby. This vermiculite ore was contaminated with fibrous and asbestiform amphibole in veins throughout the deposit. Today, areas surrounding the abandoned vermiculite processing/mining facilities and much of the town of Libby are contaminated with these asbestos fibers, contributing to an outbreak of asbestos-related diseases in the Libby population. Trees in Libby and in forested areas surrounding the abandoned mine have accumulated amphibole asbestos fibers on their bark surface, providing for inhalational exposures. Several studies have been conducted to further understand this exposure pathway. To address exposures to the public, Libby amphibole (LA) was measured in personal breathing zone and Tyvek surface wipe samples collected during firewood harvesting simulations, as well as in the ash and emissions of woodstoves when amphibole-contaminated firewood was combusted. Occupational studies simulating wildland firefighting and routine U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Forest Service activities have also been conducted in the forested areas surrounding the abandoned mine, demonstrating the potential for inhalational exposures during common regional workplace activities. We present a review of the findings of this emerging environmental health concern impacting not only the residents of Libby but applicable to other populations living near asbestos-contaminated areas. PMID:22577793

  19. Asbestos in the Home.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    The United States Government is concerned about asbestos-containing products in the home because sometimes asbestos fibers can be released from these produces. If asbestos fibers are inhaled, certain types of cancer may later develop. Asbestos in homes poses several problems. Household members have little or no protection from exposure to asbestos…

  20. In situ microscopic analysis of asbestos and synthetic vitreous fibers retained in hamster lungs following inhalation.

    PubMed Central

    Rogers, R A; Antonini, J M; Brismar, H; Lai, J; Hesterberg, T W; Oldmixon, E H; Thevenaz, P; Brain, J D

    1999-01-01

    Hamsters breathed, nose-only, for 13 weeks, 5 days/week, 6 hr/day, either man-made vitreous fiber (MMVF)10a, MMVF33, or long amosite asbestos at approximately 300 World Health Organization (WHO) fibers/cc or long amosite at 25 WHO fibers/cc. [World Health Organization fibers are longer than 5 microm and thicker than 3 microm, with aspect ratio >3.] After sacrifice, fiber burden was estimated (left lungs) by ashing and scanning electron microscopy (ashing/SEM) or (right middle lobes) by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) in situ. In situ CLSM also provided three-dimensional views of fibers retained, undisturbed, in lung tissue. Fibers of each type were lodged in alveoli and small airways, especially at airway bifurcations, and were seen fully or partly engulfed by alveolar macrophages. Amosite fibers penetrated into and through alveolar septa. Length densities of fibers in parenchyma (total length of fiber per unit volume of lung) were estimated stereologically from fiber transsections counted on two-dimensional optical sections and were 30.5, 25.3, 20.0, and 81.6 mm/mm3 for MMVF10a, MMVF33, and low- and high-dose amosite, respectively. Lengths of individual fibers were measured in three dimensions by tracking individual fibers through series of optical sections. Length distributions of amosite fibers aerosolized, but before inhalation versus after retention in the lung were similar, whether determined by ashing/SEM or in situ CLSM. In contrast, the fraction of short MMVF10a and MMVF33 fibers increased and the geometric mean fiber lengths of both MMVFs decreased by approximately 60% during retention. Most likely due to fiber deposition pattern and differences in sampling, fiber burdens [MMVF10a, MMVF33, and amosite (high dose; 269 WHO fibers/cc)] determined by ashing/SEM were 1.4, 1. 5, and 3.5 times greater, respectively, than those calculated from in situ CLSM data. In situ CLSM is able to provide detailed information about the anatomic sites of fiber

  1. Inhalation of concentrated ambient air particles exacerbates myocardial ischemia in conscious dogs.

    PubMed Central

    Wellenius, Gregory A; Coull, Brent A; Godleski, John J; Koutrakis, Petros; Okabe, Kazunori; Savage, Sara T; Lawrence, Joy E; Murthy, G G Krishna; Verrier, Richard L

    2003-01-01

    Short-term increases in ambient air pollution have been associated with an increased incidence of acute cardiac events. We assessed the effect of inhalation exposure to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) on myocardial ischemia in a canine model of coronary artery occlusion. Six mongrel dogs underwent thoracotomy for implantation of a vascular occluder around the left anterior descending coronary artery and tracheostomy to facilitate particulate exposure. After recovery (5-13 weeks), pairs of subjects were exposed for 6 hr/day on 3 or 4 consecutive days. Within each pair, one subject was randomly assigned to breathe CAPs on the second exposure day and filtered air at other times. The second subject breathed CAPs on the third exposure day and filtered air at other times. Immediately after each exposure, subjects underwent 5-min coronary artery occlusion. We determined ST-segment elevation, a measure of myocardial ischemia heart rate, and arrhythmia incidence during occlusion from continuous electrocardiograms. Exposure to CAPs (median, 285.7; range, 161.3-957.3 microg/m3) significantly (p = 0.007) enhanced occlusion-induced peak ST-segment elevation in precordial leads V4 (9.4 +/- 1.7 vs. 6.2 +/- 0.9 mm, CAPs vs. filtered air, respectively) and V5 (9.2 +/- 1.3 vs. 7.5 +/- 0.9 mm). ST-segment elevation was significantly correlated with the silicon concentration of the particles and other crustal elements possibly associated with urban street dust (p = 0.003 for Si). No associations were found with CAPs mass or number concentrations. Heart rate was not affected by CAPs exposure. These results suggest that exacerbation of myocardial ischemia during coronary artery occlusion may be an important mechanism of environmentally related acute cardiac events. PMID:12676590

  2. Lung proliferative and clearance responses to inhaled para-aramid RFP in exposed hamsters and rats: comparisons with chrysotile asbestos fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Warheit, D B; Snajdr, S I; Hartsky, M A; Frame, S R

    1997-01-01

    This study compared pulmonary effects of para-aramid respirable-sized, fiber-shaped particles (RFP) (p-aramid fibrils) and chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures in rats. Additional p-aramid inhalation studies were conducted in hamsters to compare species responses. The hamster results are preliminary. The parameters studied were clearance/biopersistence of inhaled p-aramid RFP or size-separated asbestos fibers as well as pulmonary cell proliferation and inflammation indices after 2-week inhalation exposures. Rats were exposed nose only to chrysotile asbestos fibers at concentrations of 459 and 782 fibers/ml or to p-aramid RFP at 419 or 772 fibrils/ml. Hamsters were exposed whole body to p-aramid RFP at concentrations of 358 and 659 fibrils/ml. Subsequently, animals were assessed immediately (time 0) as well as 5 days (10 days for hamsters), 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postexposure. Lung burdens for the p-aramid-exposed rats were 4.8 x 10(7) and 7.6 x 10(7) fibrils/lung, with similar numbers of chrysotile fibers > 5 microns recovered from the lungs of asbestos-exposed rats. In comparison, 1.4 x 10(6) fibrils/lung were recovered in the high-dose hamster group. Biopersistence studies in p-aramid-exposed rats and hamsters demonstrated an initial increase (relative to time 0) in retained p-aramid fibrils during the first month postexposure, which indicated breakage or shortening of inhaled fibrils. This result was associated with a progressive reduction, and increased residence time in the lung, in the mean lengths of the fibrils, which signified biodegradability of inhaled p-aramid fibrils in both species. In contrast, clearance of short chrysotile asbestos fibers was rapid, but clearance of the long chrysotile fibers was slow or insignificant, as evidenced by a progressive increase over time in the mean lengths of fibers recovered from the lungs of exposed rats. Two-week, high-dose exposures to p-aramid in both rats and hamsters produced transient increases in pulmonary

  3. Lung proliferative and clearance responses to inhaled para-aramid RFP in exposed hamsters and rats: comparisons with chrysotile asbestos fibers.

    PubMed

    Warheit, D B; Snajdr, S I; Hartsky, M A; Frame, S R

    1997-09-01

    This study compared pulmonary effects of para-aramid respirable-sized, fiber-shaped particles (RFP) (p-aramid fibrils) and chrysotile asbestos fiber exposures in rats. Additional p-aramid inhalation studies were conducted in hamsters to compare species responses. The hamster results are preliminary. The parameters studied were clearance/biopersistence of inhaled p-aramid RFP or size-separated asbestos fibers as well as pulmonary cell proliferation and inflammation indices after 2-week inhalation exposures. Rats were exposed nose only to chrysotile asbestos fibers at concentrations of 459 and 782 fibers/ml or to p-aramid RFP at 419 or 772 fibrils/ml. Hamsters were exposed whole body to p-aramid RFP at concentrations of 358 and 659 fibrils/ml. Subsequently, animals were assessed immediately (time 0) as well as 5 days (10 days for hamsters), 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postexposure. Lung burdens for the p-aramid-exposed rats were 4.8 x 10(7) and 7.6 x 10(7) fibrils/lung, with similar numbers of chrysotile fibers > 5 microns recovered from the lungs of asbestos-exposed rats. In comparison, 1.4 x 10(6) fibrils/lung were recovered in the high-dose hamster group. Biopersistence studies in p-aramid-exposed rats and hamsters demonstrated an initial increase (relative to time 0) in retained p-aramid fibrils during the first month postexposure, which indicated breakage or shortening of inhaled fibrils. This result was associated with a progressive reduction, and increased residence time in the lung, in the mean lengths of the fibrils, which signified biodegradability of inhaled p-aramid fibrils in both species. In contrast, clearance of short chrysotile asbestos fibers was rapid, but clearance of the long chrysotile fibers was slow or insignificant, as evidenced by a progressive increase over time in the mean lengths of fibers recovered from the lungs of exposed rats. Two-week, high-dose exposures to p-aramid in both rats and hamsters produced transient increases in pulmonary

  4. INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE (LA) AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation toxicology studies are being conducted to inform the risk assessment ofLibby amphibole. The overall purpose of these studies is to compare the toxicity of inhaled Libby amphibole fibers to a positive control fiber sample (UICC amosite). A 2-week study was conducted to ...

  5. Addition of Montelukast to Low-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid Leads to Fewer Exacerbations in Older Patients Than Medium-Dose Inhaled Corticosteroid Monotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Ye, Young-Min; Kim, Sang-Ha; Hur, Gyu-Young; Kim, Joo-Hee; Park, Jung-Won; Shim, Jae Jeong; Jung, Ki-Suck; Lee, Hyun-Young

    2015-01-01

    Purpose There have been few reports regarding the efficacy of antiasthmatics in older patients. To compare the efficacy of the addition of montelukast to low-dose inhaled budesonide (MON-400BUD) versus increasing the dose of inhaled steroid (800BUD) on asthma control in older asthmatics. Methods A randomized, open-label, parallel-designed trial was conducted for 12 weeks. The primary endpoint was the rate of patients who reached "well-controlled asthma status" after the 12-week treatment period. Additionally, asthma exacerbations, sputum inflammatory cells, asthma control test (ACT) and physical functioning scale (PFS), and adverse reactions were monitored. Results Twenty-four (36.9%) and 22 (34.9%) subjects in the MON-400BUD (n=65) and 800BUD (n=63) groups had well-controlled asthma at the end of the study, respectively. The numbers of asthma exacerbations requiring oral corticosteroid treatment (20 vs 9, respectively, P=0.036) and the development of sore throat (22 vs 11, respectively, P=0.045) were significantly higher in the 800BUD group than in the MON-400BUD group. Body mass index and changes in ACT, FEV1%, 6-min walk distance and PFS from baseline were all significant determinants for distinguishing subjects with well-controlled and partly controlled asthma from those with uncontrolled asthma (P<0.05) at the end of the study. Conclusions The efficacy of 12-week treatment with MON-400BUD in older asthmatics was comparable to that of 800BUD on asthma control but associated with reduced frequency of asthma exacerbations requiring oral steroids and sore throat events. Changes in ACT and PFS can be useful predictors of asthma control status in older patients. PMID:26122504

  6. LPS exacerbates functional and inflammatory responses to ovalbumin and decreases sensitivity to inhaled fluticasone propionate in a guinea pig model of asthma

    PubMed Central

    Lowe, A P P; Thomas, R S; Nials, A T; Kidd, E J; Broadley, K J; Ford, W R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Asthma exacerbations contribute to corticosteroid insensitivity. LPS is ubiquitous in the environment. It causes bronchoconstriction and airway inflammation and may therefore exacerbate allergen responses. This study examined whether LPS and ovalbumin co-administration could exacerbate the airway inflammatory and functional responses to ovalbumin in conscious guinea pigs and whether these exacerbated responses were insensitive to inhaled corticosteroid treatment with fluticasone propionate (FP). Experimental Approach Guinea pigs were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin and airway function recorded as specific airway conductance by whole body plethysmography. Airway inflammation was measured from lung histology and bronchoalveolar lavage. Airway hyper-reactivity (AHR) to inhaled histamine was examined 24 h after ovalbumin. LPS was inhaled alone or 24 or 48 h before ovalbumin and combined with ovalbumin. FP (0.05–1 mg·mL−1) or vehicle was nebulized for 15 min twice daily for 6 days before ovalbumin or LPS exposure. Key Results Ovalbumin inhalation caused early (EAR) and late asthmatic response (LAR), airway hyper-reactivity to histamine and influx of inflammatory cells into the lungs. LPS 48 h before and co-administered with ovalbumin exacerbated the response with increased length of the EAR, prolonged response to histamine and elevated inflammatory cells. FP 0.5 and 1 mg·mL−1 reduced the LAR, AHR and cell influx with ovalbumin alone, but was ineffective when guinea pigs were exposed to LPS before and with ovalbumin. Conclusions and Implications LPS exposure exacerbates airway inflammatory and functional responses to allergen inhalation and decreases corticosteroid sensitivity. Its widespread presence in the environment could contribute to asthma exacerbations and corticosteroid insensitivity in humans. PMID:25586266

  7. TWO-WEEK INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE (LA) AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The relative potency of LA compared to UICC amosite was assessed in a subacute inhalation study designed to set exposure levels for a future subchronic study. Male F344 rats (n=7/group) were exposed nose-only to air (control), 3 concentrations of LA, or I concentration of amosite...

  8. SUBCHRONIC INHALATION EXPOSURE OF RATS TO LIBBY AMPHIBOLE AND AMOSITE ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Exposure to Libby amphibole (LA) is associated with significant increases in asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma. To support biological potency assessment and dosimetry model development, a subchronic nose-only inhalation exposure study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted...

  9. Evaluation of the deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust with and without added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation: Interim results

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, David M.; Rogers, Rick; Sepulveda, Rosalina; Kunzendorf, Peter; Bellmann, Bernd; Ernst, Heinrich; Phillips, James I.

    2014-04-01

    Chrysotile has been frequently used in the past in manufacturing brakes and continues to be used in brakes in many countries. This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake dust or crocidolite asbestos. No significant pathological response was observed at any time point in either the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. The long chrysotile fibers (> 20 μm) cleared quickly with T{sub 1/2} estimated as 30 and 33 days, respectively in the brake dust and the chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups. In contrast, the long crocidolite fibers had a T{sub 1/2} > 1000 days and initiated a rapid inflammatory response in the lung following exposure resulting in a 5-fold increase in fibrotic response within 91 days. These results provide support that brake dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • We evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite produced pathological response - Wagner 4 interstitial fibrosis by 32d.

  10. Asbestos-related lung disease

    SciTech Connect

    Westerfield, B.T. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos is a versatile fibrous mineral that can cause lung disease and death. Asbestosis, benign pleural disease, lung cancer, and mesothelioma can all result from inhaling asbestos. The history of disease and exposure risks are discussed. The difficult assessment of risk and the long latency period for development of disease demand evaluation and regular surveillance of asbestos-exposed workers.22 references.

  11. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  12. Evaluation of the fate and pathological response in the lung and pleura of brake dust alone and in combination with added chrysotile compared to crocidolite asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, D.M.; Rogers, R.A.; Sepulveda, R.; Kunzendorf, P.; Bellmann, B.; Ernst, H.; Creutzenberg, O.; Phillips, J.I.

    2015-02-15

    This study was designed to provide an understanding of the biokinetics and potential toxicology in the lung and pleura following inhalation of brake dust following short term exposure in rats. The deposition, translocation and pathological response of brake-dust derived from brake pads manufactured with chrysotile were evaluated in comparison to the amphibole, crocidolite asbestos. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to either brake-dust obtained by sanding of brake-drums manufactured with chrysotile, a mixture of chrysotile and the brake-dust or crocidolite asbestos. The chrysotile fibers were relatively biosoluble whereas the crocidolite asbestos fibers persisted through the life-time of the animal. This was reflected in the lung and the pleura where no significant pathological response was observed at any time point in the brake dust or chrysotile/brake dust exposure groups through 365 days post exposure. In contrast, crocidolite asbestos produced a rapid inflammatory response in the lung parenchyma and the pleura, inducing a significant increase in fibrotic response in both of these compartments. Crocidolite fibers were observed embedded in the diaphragm with activated mesothelial cells immediately after cessation of exposure. While no chrysotile fibers were found in the mediastinal lymph nodes, crocidolite fibers of up to 35 μm were observed. These results provide support that brake-dust derived from chrysotile containing brake drums would not initiate a pathological response in the lung or the pleural cavity following short term inhalation. - Highlights: • Evaluated brake dust w/wo added chrysotile in comparison to crocidolite asbestos. • Persistence, translocation, pathological response in the lung and pleural cavity. • Chrysotile cleared rapidly from the lung while the crocidolite asbestos persisted. • No significant pathology in lung or pleural cavity observed at any time point in the brake-dust groups. • Crocidolite quickly

  13. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  14. Studies on the inhalation toxicology of two fiberglasses and amosite asbestos in the Syrian golden hamster. Part II. Results of chronic exposure.

    PubMed

    McConnell, E E; Axten, C; Hesterberg, T W; Chevalier, J; Miiller, W C; Everitt, J; Oberdörster, G; Chase, G R; Thevenaz, P; Kotin, P

    1999-09-01

    Fiberglass (FG) is the largest category of man-made mineral fibers (MMVFs). Many types of FG are manufactured for specific uses building insulation, air handling, filtration, and sound absorption. In the United States, > 95% of FG produced is for building insulation. Several inhalation studies in rodents of FG building insulation have shown no indication of pulmonary fibrosis or carcinogenic activity. However, because of increasing use and potential for widespread human exposure, a chronic toxicity/carcinogenicity inhalation study of a typical building insulation FG (MMVF 10a) was conducted in hamsters, which were shown to be highly sensitive to the induction of mesotheliomas with another MMVF. A special-application FG (MMVF 33) and amosite asbestos were used for comparative purposes. Groups of 140 weanling male Syrian golden hamsters were exposed via nose-only inhalation for 6 h/day, 5 days/wk for 78 wk to either filtered air (chamber controls) or MMVF 10a, MMVF 33, or amosite asbestos at 250-300 WHO fibers/cm(3) with two additional amosite asbestos groups at 25 and 125 WHO fibers/cm(3). They were then held unexposed for 6 wk until approximately 10-20% survival. After 13, 26, 52, and 78 wk, various pulmonary parameters and lung fiber burdens were evaluated. Groups hamsters were removed from exposure at 13 and 52 wk and were held until 78 wk (recovery groups). Initial lung deposition of long fibers (>20 microm in length) after a single 6-h exposure was similar for all 3 fibers exposed to 250-300 fibers/cm(3). MMVF 10a lungs showed inflammation (which regressed in recovery hamsters) but no pulmonary or pleural fibrosis or neoplasms. MMVF 33 induced more severe inflammation and mild interstitial and pleural fibrosis by 26 wk that progressed in severity until 52 wk, after which it plateaued. While the inflammatory lesions regressed in the recovery animals, pulmonary or pleural fibrosis did not. A single multicentric mesothelioma was observed at 32 wk. No neoplasms

  15. Carcinogenic hazards from inhaled carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibers: recent evaluations by an IARC Monographs Working Group.

    PubMed

    Baan, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    In February 2006, an IARC Monographs Working Group reevaluated the carcinogenic hazards to humans of carbon black, titanium dioxide, and talc, which belong to the group of poorly soluble, low-toxicity particles. The review of the relevant literature and the evaluations by the Working Group will be published in Volume 93 of the IARC Monographs series. This article summarizes the Working Group's conclusions. Epidemiological studies among workers in carbon black production and in the rubber industry provided inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity. The overall data from cancer studies in rodents exposed to carbon black provided sufficient evidence of carcinogenicity. The Working Group evaluated carbon black as possibly carcinogenic to humans, Group 2B. Reviewing the epidemiological studies in the titanium dioxide production industry, the Working Group concluded that there is inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity. Overall, the results from rodent cancer studies with titanium dioxide were considered to provide sufficient evidence. Titanium dioxide was evaluated as possibly carcinogenic to humans, Group 2B. Epidemiological studies on talc miners and millers provided inadequate evidence of carcinogenicity of inhaled talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibers. The evidence from rodent cancer studies was considered limited. The Working Group evaluated inhaled talc not containing asbestos or asbestiform fibers as not classifiable as to its carcinogenicity to humans, Group 3. The Working Group noted that prolonged exposure to inhaled particles at sufficiently high concentrations in experimental animals may lead to impairment of normal clearance mechanisms in the alveolar region of the lung, resulting in a continued buildup of particles that eventually leads to excessive lung burdens accompanied by chronic alveolar inflammation. The inflammatory response may give rise to increased generation of reactive oxygen species, cell injury, cell proliferation, fibrosis

  16. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  17. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 18 Months Post Exposure

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rats were ex...

  18. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 18 Months Post Exposure###

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rats were ex...

  19. Subchronic Inhalation Exposure of Rats to Libby Amphibole and Amosite Asbestos: Effects at 1 and 3 Months Post Exposure**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation exposure study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Rat...

  20. Subchronic inhalation exposure of rats to Libby amphibole and amosite asbestos: Effects at 1 and 3 months post exposure#

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased asbestosis, lung cancer, and mesothelioma rates are evident in humans after exposures to Libby amphibole (LA). To support dosimetry model development and compare potency, a subchronic nose-only inhalation study (6 hr/d, 5 d/wk, 13 wk) was conducted in male F344 rats. Ra...

  1. Early response to inhaled bronchodilators and corticosteroids as a predictor of 12-month treatment responder status and COPD exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Calverley, Peter M; Postma, Dirkje S; Anzueto, Antonio R; Make, Barry J; Eriksson, Göran; Peterson, Stefan; Jenkins, Christine R

    2016-01-01

    Background Early treatment response markers, for example, improvement in forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) and St George’s Respiratory Questionnaire (SGRQ) total score, may help clinicians to better manage patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). We investigated the prevalence of clinically important improvements in FEV1 and SGRQ scores after 2-month budesonide/formoterol or formoterol treatment and whether such improvements predict subsequent improvements and exacerbation rates. Methods This post hoc analysis is based on data from three double-blind, randomized studies in patients with moderate-to-very-severe COPD receiving twice-daily budesonide/formoterol or formoterol alone for 6 or 12 months. Prebronchodilator FEV1 and SGRQ total score were measured before treatment and at 2 and 12 months; COPD exacerbation rates were measured during months 2–12. Responders were defined by ≥100 mL improvement in prebronchodilator FEV1 and ≥4-point decrease in SGRQ total score. Results Overall, 2,331 and 1,799 patients were included in the 0–2- and 0–12-month responder analyses, respectively, and 2,360 patients in the 2–12-month exacerbation rate analysis. At 2 months, 35.1% of patients were FEV1 responders and 44.3% were SGRQ responders. The probability of response was significantly greater with budesonide/formoterol than with formoterol or placebo for both parameters. Two-month responders had a greater chance of 12-month response than 2-month nonresponders for both FEV1 (odds ratio, 5.57; 95% confidence interval, 4.14–7.50) and SGRQ (odds ratio, 3.87; 95% confidence interval, 2.83–5.31). Two-month response in FEV1 (P<0.001), but not SGRQ (P=0.11), was associated with greater reductions in exacerbation risk. Conclusion Early FEV1 and SGRQ treatment responses relate to their changes at 12 months. FEV1 response, but not SGRQ response, at 2 months predicts the risk of a future COPD exacerbation in some, but not all patients. This is

  2. Inhaled corticosteroids do not reduce initial high activity of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 in exhaled breath condensates of children with asthma exacerbation: a proof of concept study

    PubMed Central

    Grzela, Katarzyna; Zagórska, Wioletta; Krejner, Alicja; Banaszkiewicz, Aleksandra; Litwiniuk, Małgorzata; Kulus, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) are the key component of asthma treatment. However, it is unclear whether they could control the activity and level of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9, which is an important factor in asthma-associated inflammation and airway remodeling. Therefore, the aim of this proof of concept study was to analyze the influence of increased doses of ICS on MMP-9 in exhaled breath condensates (EBC) of patients with allergic asthma exacerbation. Apart from MMP-9, the assessment concerned selected inflammation markers – exhaled nitric oxide (eNO) and cytokines (IL-8 and TNF). The study involved a small group (n = 4) of individuals with asthma exacerbation. The intervention concerned increased doses of ICS with β-mimetics for 4 weeks. In addition to clinical evaluation, eNO measurements and EBC collections were done before and after 4 weeks of intense ICS treatment. The biochemical assessment of EBC concerned MMP-9, IL-8 and TNF. The data were compared to results of healthy controls (n = 6). The initial levels of eNO, MMP-9 and TNF in EBC were higher in the asthma group than in controls. In all subjects IL-8 levels were below the detection limit. After 4 weeks of ICS treatment in all patients we observed improvement of clinical and laboratory parameters. Interestingly, despite reduction of eNO and TNF, the activity of MMP-9/EBC remained on the initial level. Practical relevance of our results is limited by a small group. Nevertheless, our data suggest that ICS, although sufficient to control symptoms and inflammatory markers, may be ineffective to reduce MMP-9/EBC activity in asthma exacerbation and, possibly, airway remodeling. PMID:27536209

  3. Withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids can be safe in COPD patients at low risk of exacerbation: a real-life study on the appropriateness of treatment in moderate COPD patients (OPTIMO)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background It has been suggested that withdrawal of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in COPD patients on maintenance treatment results in deterioration of symptoms, lung function and exacerbations. The aim of this real-life, prospective, multicentric study was to investigate whether withdrawal of ICS in COPD patients at low risk of exacerbation is linked to a deterioration in lung function and symptoms and to a higher frequency of exacerbations. Methods 914 COPD patients, on maintenance therapy with bronchodilators and ICS, FEV1>50% predicted, and <2 exacerbations/year were recruited. Upon decision of the primary physicians, 59% of patients continued their ICS treatment whereas in 41% of patients ICS were withdrawn and regular therapy was continued with long-acting bronchodilators mostly (91% of patients). FEV1, CAT (COPD Assessment Test), and occurrence of exacerbations were measured at the beginning (T0) and at the end (T6) of the 6 months observational period. Results 816 patients (89.3%) concluded the study. FEV1, CAT and exacerbations history were similar in the two groups (ICS and no ICS) at T0 and at T6. We did not observe any deterioration of lung function symptoms, and exacerbation rate between the two groups at T0 and T6. Conclusions We conclude that the withdrawal of ICS, in COPD patients at low risk of exacerbation, can be safe provided that patients are left on maintenance treatment with long-acting bronchodilators. PMID:25005873

  4. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  5. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  6. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  7. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  8. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  9. 16 CFR 1145.5 - Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145... Emberizing materials (embers and ash) containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated... regulate the risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers from artificial...

  10. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  11. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  12. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  13. 16 CFR 1145.4 - Consumer patching compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. 1145.4 Section... compounds containing respirable free-form asbestos; risk of cancer associated with inhalation of asbestos fibers. (a) The Commission finds that it is in the public interest to regulate the risk of...

  14. Asbestos, Lung Cancers, and Mesotheliomas

    PubMed Central

    Heintz, Nicholas H.; Janssen-Heininger, Yvonne M. W.; Mossman, Brooke T.

    2010-01-01

    Fifteen years have passed since we published findings in the AJRCMB demonstrating that induction of early response fos/jun proto-oncogenes in rodent tracheal and mesothelial cells correlates with fibrous geometry and pathogenicity of asbestos. Our study was the first to suggest that the aberrant induction of signaling responses by crocidolite asbestos and erionite, a fibrous zeolite mineral associated with the development of malignant mesotheliomas (MMs) in areas of Turkey, led to altered gene expression. New data questioned the widely held belief at that time that the carcinogenic effects of asbestos in the development of lung cancer and MM were due to genotoxic or mutagenic effects. Later studies by our group revealed that proto-oncogene expression and several of the signaling pathways activated by asbestos were redox dependent, explaining why antioxidants and antioxidant enzymes were elevated in lung and pleura after exposure to asbestos and how they alleviated many of the phenotypic and functional effects of asbestos in vitro or after inhalation. Since these original studies, our efforts have expanded to understand the interface between asbestos-induced redox-dependent signal transduction cascades, the relationship between these pathways and cell fate, and the role of asbestos and cell interactions in development of asbestos-associated diseases. Of considerable significance is the fact that the signal transduction pathways activated by asbestos are also important in survival and chemoresistance of MMs and lung cancers. An understanding of the pathogenic features of asbestos fibers and dysregulation of signaling pathways allows strategies for the prevention and therapy of asbestos-related diseases. PMID:20068227

  15. Asbestos: A Lingering Danger. AIO Red Paper #20.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malcolm, Stuart

    Its unique qualities makes asbestos extremely useful in industry, yet it is termed one of the most dangerous and insidious substances in the work place. Composed of mostly fibers, asbestos is readily freed into the atmosphere during handling, constituting a real health risk. There are two ways asbestos can enter the human body: by inhalation or…

  16. Comparison of Calidria chrysotile asbestos to pure tremolite: final results of the inhalation biopersistence and histopathology examination following short-term exposure.

    PubMed

    Bernstein, David M; Chevalier, Jörg; Smith, Paul

    2005-08-01

    Calidria chrysotile asbestos, which is a serpentine mineral, has been shown to be considerably less biopersistent than the durable amphibole mineral tremolite asbestos, which persists once deposited in the lung. The initial results of this inhalation biopersistence study in rats that demonstrates this difference were reported in Bernstein et al. (2003). This article presents the full results through 1 yr after cessation of the 5-day exposure. This study was based upon the recommendations of the European Commission (EC) Interim Protocol for the Inhalation Biopersistence of synthetic mineral fibers (Bernstein & Riego-Sintes, 1999). In addition, the histopathological response in the lung was evaluated following exposure. In order to quantify the dynamics and rate by which these fibers are removed from the lung, the biopersistence of a sample of commercial-grade chrysotile from the Coalinga mine in New Idria, CA, of the type Calidria RG144 and that of a long-fiber tremolite were studied. For synthetic vitreous fibers, the biopersistence of the fibers longer than 20 microm has been found to be directly related to their potential to cause disease. This study was designed to determine lung clearance (biopersistence) and the histopathological response. As the long fibers have been shown to have the greatest potential for pathogenicity, the aerosol generation technique was designed to maximize the number of long respirable fibers. The chrysotile samples were specifically chosen to have 200 fibers/cm3 longer than 20 microm in length present in the exposure aerosol. These longer fibers were found to be largely composed of multiple shorter fibrils. The tremolite samples were chosen to have 100 fibers/cm3 longer than 20 microm in length present in the exposure aerosol. Calidria chrysotile has been found to be one of the most rapidly cleared mineral fibers from the lung. The fibers longer than 20 microm in length are cleared with a half-time of 7 h. By 2 days postexposure all

  17. Development of the Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    A risk assessment for intermittent, low-level exposure to asbestos requires personal breathing concentration data. Currently, activity-based sampling (ABS) is the preferred approach to measurement of a person’s inhalation exposure; i.e., asbestos structures per cubic centimeter ...

  18. Exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Pavord, Ian D; Jones, Paul W; Burgel, Pierre-Régis; Rabe, Klaus F

    2016-01-01

    Exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are defined as sustained worsening of a patient’s condition beyond normal day-to-day variations that is acute in onset, and that may also require a change in medication and/or hospitalization. Exacerbations have a significant and prolonged impact on health status and outcomes, and negative effects on pulmonary function. A significant proportion of exacerbations are unreported and therefore left untreated, leading to a poorer prognosis than those treated. COPD exacerbations are heterogeneous, and various phenotypes have been proposed which differ in biologic basis, prognosis, and response to therapy. Identification of biomarkers could enable phenotype-driven approaches for the management and prevention of exacerbations. For example, several biomarkers of inflammation can help to identify exacerbations most likely to respond to oral corticosteroids and antibiotics, and patients with a frequent exacerbator phenotype, for whom preventative treatment is appropriate. Reducing the frequency of exacerbations would have a beneficial impact on patient outcomes and prognosis. Preventative strategies include modification of risk factors, treatment of comorbid conditions, the use of bronchodilator therapy with long-acting β2-agonists or long-acting muscarinic antagonists, and inhaled corticosteroids. A better understanding of the mechanisms underlying COPD exacerbations will help to optimize use of the currently available and new interventions for preventing and treating exacerbations. PMID:26937187

  19. Asbestos publications

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    NIOSH publications and testimony on the health effects of exposure to asbestos were included in this compilation as full text articles or abstracts. Additional NIOSH publications on asbestos were listed in a bibliography. The information in this report included occupational safety and health guidelines for asbestos from NIOSH; respiratory diseases (asbestosis, lung cancer, mesothelioma); work related lung disease surveillance report; and the NIOSH analytical methods for fibers, asbestos fibers, chrysotile asbestos, and bulk asbestos. Also contained in this report was NIOSH's testimony of January 24, 1991 on OSHA's proposed rule on occupational exposure to asbestos, tremolite, anthophyllite and actinolite; and NIOSH's statement of April 26, 1990 before the Subcommittee on Toxic Substances, Environmental Oversight, Research and Development, Committee on Environment and Public Works.

  20. Comptational comparison of asbestos fibers: Dosimetry model simulations to characterize variabilty and potency (Presentation poster)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhaled asbestos fibers result in respiratory diseases such as asbestosis, lung cancer and mesothelioma, but different asbestos fibers exhibit different potency. We applied a recently developed dosimetry model (Asgharian et al., Poster # 104) that describes th...

  1. Detection of chrysotile asbestos in workers urine

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, M.B.; Hallenbeck, W.H.

    1985-03-01

    Urinary asbestos concentrations were evaluated as an indicator of occupational exposure to chrysotile asbestos via inhalation and ingestion. Detection of asbestos in the urine represents the first step in developing a biological indicator of exposure. Such an indicator could be used to supplement exposure data from workplace air sampling. A biological indicator would be particularly valuable in evaluating workers with intermittent airborne asbestos exposures and in determining if airborne exposure results in penetration of asbestos through the lung or gastro-intestinal tract. Transmission electron microscopy was selected as the most sensitive technique for identification of all sizes of asbestos fibers which might appear in the urine. The levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of five workers were significantly greater than the asbestos concentrations in matched field blanks. Also, the workers urinary asbestos levels were significantly greater than the concentrations found in the control group. Finally, the levels of chrysotile asbestos detected in the urine of two of six controls were significantly greater than those in matched field blanks. Although the project was not specifically designed to correlate urinary and airborne asbestos concentrations, preliminary data indicated that a correlation did not exist between these factors.

  2. Asbestos, the Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGovern, Matthew

    1989-01-01

    Describes structure and use of asbestos; diseases associated with asbestos exposure; legislation and regulations concerning asbestos; training requirements of individuals involved in asbestos abatement; sampling and testing whether a material contains asbestos; and liabilities. (MLF)

  3. [Asbestos related cancers in seamen].

    PubMed

    Filon, Francesca Larese; Negro, Corrado; De Michieli, Paola; Bovenzi, Massimo

    2013-01-01

    Seamen and marine engineers were formerly exposed to asbestos used in gasket, pipes, valves and machinery. Ship motion and vibration can release asbestos in the surrounding space. Asbestos fibres may also be inhaled by workers involved in maintenance operations of vessels built before 1992 in Italy. History of asbestos exposure has been reported by workers and confirmed by a higher prevalence of pleural abnormalities and a significant excess of mesothelioma with a Standardized Incidence Ratio (SIR) ranging between 1.83 and 4.8 as a function of years of exposure. SIR for lung cancer ranged between 1.10 and 1.62. Mesothelioma in seamen and marine engineers represents about 2.5% of the overall Italian mesothelioma cases with a very long latency period (47.6 +/- 9.6 years). There is no epidemiological evidence for an excess risk of mesothelioma in fishermen. PMID:24303696

  4. Efficacy of salbutamol by nebulizer versus metered dose inhaler with home-made non-valved spacer in acute exacerbation of childhood asthma.

    PubMed

    Yasmin, S; Mollah, A H; Basak, R; Islam, K T; Chowdhury, Y S

    2012-01-01

    This study was done to evaluate and to compare the efficacy of jet nebulizer and metered dose inhaler (MDI) with home-made non-valved spacer (HM NVS) to deliver aerosolized salbutamol in acute exacerbation of asthma in children. HM NVS was made by 500ml plastic mineral water bottle. It was perforated at the bottom for the insertion of MDI and proximal end was cut for placing the mouth. This prospective randomized study was conducted in the department of Pediatrics, Dhaka Medical College Hospital, during April 2007 to March 2008 with 50 known cases (2-12 years) of bronchial asthma with acute exacerbation. After randomized enrollment, each patient received three doses of salbutamol either through a jet nebulizer or through a HM NVS. Oxygen saturation (SaO2), wheeze, heart rate, respiratory rate were recorded throughout the treatment period. Data were analyzed with SPSS for Windows 10.0 at p value <0.05 was considered significant. The mean age of patients was 59.8 months in nebulizer group versus 69.4 months in MDI with HM NVS group. Baseline clinical characteristics in nebulizer group were SaO2 87.7±2.5 versus 89.0±1.8 percent, RR 59.2±7.3 vs. 63.2±4.8 per minute, HR 155.4±11.8 versus 149.0±10.8 per minute and wheeze in 22(88.0%) cases versus 21(84.0%) cases respectively (p>0.05). After therapy improvement was noted among the nebulizer group (SaO2 87.7±2.5 vs. 94.3±2.8 percent; RR 59.2±7.3 vs. 39.3±4.9 per minute; HR 155.4±11.8 vs. 151.60±17.3 per minute; wheeze 88% vs. 8%) as well as in the MDI with HM NVS group (SaO2 89.0±1.8 vs. 94.8±1.8 percent; RR 63.2±4.8 vs. 38.7±6.4 per minute; HR 149.0±10.8 vs. 144.5±13.5 per minute; wheeze 84% vs. 16%) [p<0.001; CI:95%]. However, these improvements did not differ significantly between the nebulizer group and HM NVS group (SaO2 94.3±2.8 vs. 94.8±1.8 percent, RR 39.3±4.9 vs. 38.7±6.4 per minute, HR 151.60±17.3 vs. 144.5±13.5 per minute and wheeze persisted in 2(8.0%) cases versus 4(16.0%) cases

  5. Quantification of the pathological response and fate in the lung and pleura of chrysotile in combination with fine particles compared to amosite-asbestos following short-term inhalation exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bernstein, DM; Rogers, RA; Sepulveda, R; Donaldson, K; Schuler, D; Gaering, S; Kunzendorf, P; Chevalier, J; Holm, SE

    2011-01-01

    The marked difference in biopersistence and pathological response between chrysotile and amphibole asbestos has been well documented. This study is unique in that it has examined a commercial chrysotile product that was used as a joint compound. The pathological response was quantified in the lung and translocation of fibers to and pathological response in the pleural cavity determined. This paper presents the final results from the study. Rats were exposed by inhalation 6 h/day for 5 days to a well-defined fiber aerosol. Subgroups were examined through 1 year. The translocation to and pathological response in the pleura was examined by scanning electron microscopy and confocal microscopy (CM) using noninvasive methods.The number and size of fibers was quantified using transmission electron microscopy and CM. This is the first study to use such techniques to characterize fiber translocation to and the response of the pleural cavity. Amosite fibers were found to remain partly or fully imbedded in the interstitial space through 1 year and quickly produced granulomas (0 days) and interstitial fibrosis (28 days). Amosite fibers were observed penetrating the visceral pleural wall and were found on the parietal pleural within 7 days postexposure with a concomitant inflammatory response seen by 14 days. Pleural fibrin deposition, fibrosis, and adhesions were observed, similar to that reported in humans in response to amphibole asbestos. No cellular or inflammatory response was observed in the lung or the pleural cavity in response to the chrysotile and sanded particles (CSP) exposure. These results provide confirmation of the important differences between CSP and amphibole asbestos. PMID:21639706

  6. Asbestos Photos

    MedlinePlus

    ... Denver, Colorado) Tremolite Asbestos. Close Up of Vermiculite Insulation in an Attic (Photo courtesy of EPA) Different ... Vermiculite (Photo courtesy of EPA) Attic Containing Vermiculite Insulation (Photo courtesy of EPA) Top of Page Text ...

  7. Asbestos: No Easy Solutions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Figlio, Mary Ellen

    1979-01-01

    Asbestos in the schools has become a serious problem. Current activity in inspecting for asbestos and plans for corrective action are discussed. Suggestions are offered administrators in choosing contractors for asbestos removal. (MLF)

  8. Asbestos in buildings: what standards are needed

    SciTech Connect

    Ellis, W.; Lieff, M.

    1985-06-01

    The reaction of school jurisdictions over the known hazards of airborne asbestos inhalation points out the need for better standards and inspection requirements. A National Institute of Building Sciences (NIBS) report emphasizes the need for standards in several areas, and a Canadian study concurred on the need for standards even though it found the risk from exposure to asbestos in buildings was not significant. The author notes other laboratory tests and efforts to develop a standard for friable asbestos containing materials and encapsulants for asbestos building materials when a hazard is identified. Consensus standards will provide uniform and coherent procedures for controlling the problem to replace the emotion, confusion, and unnecessary costs of the affected interests.

  9. DEFINITION FOR ASBESTOS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ross, Malcolm; Kuntze, Richard A.; Clifton, Robert A.

    1984-01-01

    A definition of asbestos is proposed. Under this definition, the term asbestos applies to six naturally occurring minerals exploited commercially for their desirable physical properties, which are in part derived from their asbestiform habit. The six minerals are the serpentine mineral chrysotile and the amphibole minerals grunerite asbestos (also referred to as amosite), riebeckite asbestos (also referred to as crocidolite), anthophyllite asbestos, tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. Individual mineral particles, however processed and regardless of their mineral name, are not demonstrated to be asbestos if the length-to-width ratio is less than 20:1.

  10. Grand Rounds: Asbestos-Related Pericarditis in a Boiler Operator

    PubMed Central

    Abejie, Belayneh A.; Chung, Eugene H.; Nesto, Richard W.; Kales, Stefanos N.

    2008-01-01

    Context Occupational and environmental exposures to asbestos remain a public health problem even in developed countries. Because of the long latency in asbestos-related pathology, past asbestos exposure continues to contribute to incident disease. Asbestos most commonly produces pulmonary pathology, with asbestos-related pleural disease as the most common manifestation. Although the pleurae and pericardium share certain histologic characteristics, asbestos-related pericarditis is rarely reported. Case presentation We present a 59-year-old man who worked around boilers for almost 30 years and was eventually determined to have calcific, constrictive pericarditis. He initially presented with an infectious exacerbation of chronic bronchitis. Chest radiographs demonstrated pleural and pericardial calcifications. Further evaluation with cardiac catheterization showed a hemodynamic picture consistent with constrictive pericarditis. A high-resolution computerized tomography scan of the chest demonstrated dense calcification in the pericardium, right pleural thickening and nodularity, right pleural plaque without calcification, and density in the right middle lobe. Pulmonary function testing showed mild obstruction and borderline low diffusing capacity. Discussion Based on the patient’s occupational history, the presence of pleural pathology consistent with asbestos, previous evidence that asbestos can affect the pericardium, and absence of other likely explanations, we concluded that his pericarditis was asbestos-related. Relevance to clinical practice Similar to pleural thickening and plaque formation, asbestos may cause progressive fibrosis of the pericardium. PMID:18197304

  11. Persistent increases in inflammatory cytokines, Akt, and MAPK/ERK pathways after inhalation exposure of rats to Libby amphibole (LA) or amosite: comparison to effects after intratracheal exposure to LA or naturally occurring asbestos.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Human exposure to LA and other mined or processed asbestos increases risk of lung inflammation, fibrosis, and cancer. Health risks from exposure to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are not as well-understood. Mechanisms of long-term toxicity were compared in male F344 rats expo...

  12. Asbestos Surveillance Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    Background on asbestos is presented including the different types and the important medical distinctions between those different types. The four diseases associated with asbestos exposure are discussed: mesothelioma, lung cancer, asbestosis, and benign pleural disorders. The purpose of the LeRC Asbestos Surveillance Program is outlined, and the specifics of the Medical Surveillance Program for Asbestos Monitoring at LeRC are discussed.

  13. Exposure and risks from wearing asbestos mitts

    PubMed Central

    Cherrie, John W; Tindall, Matthew; Cowie, Hilary

    2005-01-01

    Background Very high fibre inhalation exposure has been measured while people were wearing personal protective equipment manufactured from chrysotile asbestos. However, there is little data that relates specifically to wearing asbestos gloves or mitts, particularly when used in hot environments such as those found in glass manufacturing. The aim of this study was to assess the likely personal exposure to asbestos fibres when asbestos mitts were used. Results Three types of work activity were simulated in a small test room with unused mitts and artificially aged mitts. Neither pair of mitts were treated to suppress the dust emission. The measured respirable fibre exposure levels ranged from <0.06 to 0.55 fibres/ml, with no significant difference in fibre exposure between aged and unused mitts. The use of high localised ventilation to simulate convective airflows from a furnace reduced exposure levels by about a factor of five. Differences between tasks were statistically significant, with simulated "rowing" of molten glass lowest and replacement of side seals on the furnace highest. Estimated lifetime cancer risk from 20 years exposure at the upper end of the exposure range measured during the study is less than 22 per 100,000. Conclusion People who wore asbestos mitts were likely to have been exposed to relatively low levels of airborne chrysotile asbestos fibres, certainly much lower than the standards that were accepted in the 1960's and 70's. The cancer risks from this type of use are likely to be very low. PMID:16202137

  14. How to recycle asbestos containing materials (ACM)

    SciTech Connect

    Jantzen, C.M.

    2000-04-11

    The current disposal of asbestos containing materials (ACM) in the private sector consists of sealing asbestos wetted with water in plastic for safe transportation and burial in regulated land fills. This disposal methodology requires large disposal volumes especially for asbestos covered pipe and asbestos/fiberglass adhering to metal framework, e.g. filters. This wrap and bury technology precludes recycle of the asbestos, the pipe and/or the metal frameworks. Safe disposal of ACM at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites, likewise, requires large disposal volumes in landfills for non-radioactive ACM and large disposal volumes in radioactive burial grounds for radioactive and suspect contaminated ACM. The availability of regulated disposal sites is rapidly diminishing causing recycle to be a more attractive option. Asbestos adhering to metal (e.g., pipes) can be recycled by safely removing the asbestos from the metal in a patented hot caustic bath which prevents airborne contamination /inhalation of asbestos fibers. The dissolution residue (caustic and asbestos) can be wet slurry fed to a melter and vitrified into a glass or glass-ceramic. Palex glasses, which are commercially manufactured, are shown to be preferred over conventional borosilicate glasses. The Palex glasses are alkali magnesium silicate glasses derived by substituting MgO for B{sub 2}O{sub 3} in borosilicate type glasses. Palex glasses are very tolerant of the high MgO and high CaO content of the fillers used in forming asbestos coverings for pipes and found in boiler lashing, e.g., hydromagnesite (3MgCO{sub 3} Mg(OH){sub 2} 3H{sub 2}O) and plaster of paris, gypsum (CaSO{sub 4}). The high temperate of the vitrification process destroys the asbestos fibers and renders the asbestos non-hazardous, e.g., a glass or glass-ceramic. In this manner the glass or glass-ceramic produced can be recycled, e.g., glassphalt or glasscrete, as can the clean metal pipe or metal framework.

  15. Defining asbestos: differences between the built and natural environments.

    PubMed

    Gunter, Mickey E

    2010-01-01

    Asbestos - while most think they know what this material is, few understand the current issues surrounding it. Few would also realize that asbestos is the form of a mineral, and even fewer would know that there are different types of asbestos, that not only had different industrial applications, but pose differing health risks when inhaled. Asbestos was in wide-spread use mid-last century in many consumer products, and no doubt saved thousands of lives, but by the latter part of last century concerns over its health risk caused its use to wane, to the point it was removed from many buildings. So in many ways the asbestos story was coming to an end in the 1990s, but two events in the USA - the vermiculite ore produced from Libby, Montana which contained amphibole asbestos and was used in a million homes in the USA as attic insulation and the concern for exposure to asbestos occurring in its natural setting in El Dorado Hills, California led to an increased concern of the potential for low-level environmental exposure to asbestos to the general public. The current dilemma we find ourselves in, especially in the USA, deals with the relationships between our knowledge of handling asbestos and an understanding of its risk potential in the built environment versus the natural environment. And one perfect metaphor for this is the term used by many non-geologists to differentiate asbestos in the built vs natural environment - 'naturally occurring asbestos'. Clearly a misstatement, but only one of many we must deal with as we struggle to understand the risk to humans of natural occurrences of asbestos. This paper will try and address some of these issues centering around those occurring in the USA. PMID:21138165

  16. Variable feed rate mechanism for fluidized bed asbestos generators

    SciTech Connect

    Sussman, R.G.; Gearhart, J.M.; Lippmann, M.

    1985-01-01

    A simple and inexpensive dust feed mechanism has been designed for use with a two-phase fluidized bed generator (FBG). The mechanism is especially useful for generating asbestos aerosols, but may be used with other dusts as well. Using this system, a steady state concentration (39.1 fibers/cc > 5 ..mu..m in length +/- 6.2%) of asbestos aerosol was maintained in an inhalation chamber for five hours. In addition, FBG output concentration was easily adjusted and quickly equilibrated (within 10 minutes). The system provides a good technique for generating asbestos aerosols for day-long animal exposures.

  17. Cigarette smoke, asbestos, and small irregular opacities

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, W.

    1984-08-01

    The long-term inhalation of cigarette smoke is associated with the appearance of diffuse small irregular opacities of mild profusion on chest roentogenograms of some subjects in a limited number of reports. Human histologic and experimental animal studies have shown the presence of pulmonary interstitial fibrosis. The radiographic abnormalities may be explained by interstitial fibrosis, although bronchiolar wall thickening may also be involved. Because asbestos causes diffuse pulmonary fibrosis, the literature was reviewed for evidence concerning an interaction between cigarette smoke and asbestos in the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis. A majority of 14 prevalence studies and 7 cohort studies of asbestos workers with information on smoking habits have shown a positive interaction between the 2 agents. The interaction appears to be additive rather than synergistic. Smoking may exert an effect on the frequency of pulmonary asbestosis by increasing the effective fiber dose retained in the lungs through interference with clearance.

  18. Oxygen radicals and asbestos-mediated disease.

    PubMed Central

    Quinlan, T R; Marsh, J P; Janssen, Y M; Borm, P A; Mossman, B T

    1994-01-01

    Asbestos fibers are potent elaborators of active oxygen species whether by reactions involving iron on the surface of the fiber, or by attempted phagocytosis of fibers by cell types resident in the lung. The link between production of active oxygen species and the pathogenesis of asbestos-mediated disease has been highlighted by studies outlined here exploring the use of antioxidant scavengers which inhibit the cytotoxic effects of asbestos both in vitro and in vivo. The use of antioxidant enzymes ameliorates the induction of certain genes necessary for cell proliferation, such as ornithine decarboxylase, implicating oxidants as causative factors in some abnormal cell replicative events. Based on these observations, antioxidant enzymes likely represent an important lung defense mechanism in response to oxidative stress. In addition, their gene expression in lung or in cells from bronchoalveolar lavage might be a valuable biomarker of chronic inflammation and pulmonary disease after inhalation of oxidants. PMID:7705283

  19. THE NEED TO CONTROL ASBESTOS FIBERS IN POTABLE WATER SUPPLY SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Occupational studies have shown that asbestos is a human carcinogen. Because many inhaled asbestos fibers deposited in the lung are cleared and swallowed, workers are also exposed through ingestion. Of the millions of current and former workers who have been heavily exposed to as...

  20. Novel selective dyeing method for chrysotile asbestos detection in concrete materials.

    PubMed

    Oke, Yoshihiko; Yamasaki, Nakamichi; Amamoto, Go Y; Sasaki, Kazuhiro; Maeta, Naomi; Fujimaki, Hirokazu; Hashida, Toshiyuki

    2008-03-01

    There are a tremendous number of asbestos-containing buildings without any surveys on the presence of asbestos because of the difficulty to detect asbestos in building materials simply and quickly, although a great deal of worldwide effort was put into removing asbestos of which inhalation causes serious diseases. In this study, we newly developed a simple dyeing method to detect chrysotile asbestos, the most commonly used type of asbestos, in asbestos-cement composite materials using magnesium-chelating organic dyes. As an essential process for selective dyeing of chrysotile asbestos, special pretreatment with a calcium-chelating agent was developed to prevent the dyes from reacting with calcium, which is the major component of concrete materials. Our developed selective dyeing method was shown to possess sufficient sensitivity for detecting chrysotile asbestos in an amount greater than 0.1 mass% in concrete specimens, and there was an approximately linear relationship between the area fraction of dyed spots and the mass fraction of chrysotile asbestos. Our results may provide a basis for further development of a simple on-site detection method for chrysotile asbestos in building materials and may facilitate the progress of control and removal of asbestos in the environment. PMID:18441814

  1. Asbestos-related malignancy

    SciTech Connect

    Talcott, J.A.; Antman, K.H.

    1988-05-01

    Asbestos-associated malignancies have received significant attention in the lay and medical literature because of the increasing frequency of two asbestos-associated tumors, lung carcinoma and mesothelioma; the wide distribution of asbestos; its status as a prototype environmental carcinogen; and the many recent legal compensation proceedings, for which medical testimony has been required. The understanding of asbestos-associated carcinogenesis has increased through study of animal models, human epidemiology, and, recently, the application of modern molecular biological techniques. However, the detailed mechanisms of carcinogenesis remain unknown. A wide variety of malignancies have been associated with asbestos, although the strongest evidence for a causal association is confined to lung cancer and mesothelioma. Epidemiological studies have provided evidence that both the type of asbestos fiber and the industry in which the exposure occurs may affect the rates of asbestos-associated cancers. It has been shown that asbestos exerts a carcinogenic effect independent of exposure to cigarette smoking that, for lung cancers, is synergistically enhanced by smoking. Other questions remain controversial, such as whether pulmonary fibrosis necessarily precedes asbestos-associated lung cancer and whether some threshold level of exposure to asbestos (including low-dose exposures that may occur in asbestos-associated public buildings) may be safe. Mesothelioma, the most closely asbestos-associated malignancy, has a dismal natural history and has been highly resistant to therapy. However, investigational multi-modality therapy may offer benefit to some patients. 179 references.

  2. Asbestos in Colorado Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baldwin, Cynthia A.

    This study determined, by means of a random sample, how many of Colorado's public schools have asbestos materials and estimated the potential risk of exposure presented by these materials. Forty-one schools were surveyed. Bulk samples of possible asbestos materials were collected and analyzed using the K-squared Asbestos Screening Test to…

  3. [A Forensic Autopsy Case Applied for Asbestos-Related Disease].

    PubMed

    Makihara, Kosuke; Hamada, Tetsuo; Kasai, Kentaro; Tanaka, Toshiko; Sato, Hiroaki

    2016-03-01

    We had a forensic autopsy case that required additive pathological examination for the asbestos-related lung disease compensatory application afterwards. A man in his sixties with a history of occupational asbestos inhalation who had neither visited a hospital nor received a physical examination received forensic autopsy because of his death from unknown cause. An inmate said, "He developed cough and dyspnea, and died in the progression of the symptoms." The autopsy revealed widespread pleural plaques on both sides of the parietal pleura and multiple tumors in both sides of the lungs. The cause of death was diagnosed as lung cancer. Additional pathological examination was asked by his family to certify that he had suffered from asbestos-related lung disease in order to apply to the Asbestos-related Damage Relief Law. The Japanese criteria of the compensation law of asbestos-related lung cancer is the detection of more than 5,000 asbestos bodies per gram of dry lung tissue, while his number of asbestos bodies was 4,860. Asbestos bodies were reported to be accumulated in the distal lung parenchyma with no pathological changes. The present lung samples were collected from proximal section around the tumor, which might have made the number of asbestos bodies less than the criteria. Both the number of patients suffering from asbestos-related lung disease and the number of forensic autopsy cases have increased in Japan. Collecting lung samples from the appropriate lung section is essential and should be noted when the lung cancer is suspected at forensic autopsy in order to apply for asbestos-related lung disease compensation. PMID:26972947

  4. The clinical management of COPD exacerbations: an update.

    PubMed

    Bonten, Tobias N; Kasteleyn, Marise J; Taube, Christian; Chavannes, Niels H

    2016-01-01

    Clinical management of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) exacerbations is of high importance because exacerbations reduce quality of life, increase mortality and carry high socioeconomic costs. Still, a quarter of patients with an acute exacerbation do not respond adequately to initial exacerbation treatment. Yet, research from recent years has advanced the clinical management of COPD exacerbations. Prediction of exacerbations can be improved by asking patients about their exacerbation history. The duration of oral corticosteroid treatment has been optimized, new oral- and inhalation medication has become available and important knowledge has been gathered about the risks and benefits of inhalation corticosteroids, which we will discuss in this editorial. Still, future research is needed to tailor treatment strategies for specific COPD phenotypes. PMID:26512797

  5. Asbestos in the natural environment

    SciTech Connect

    Schreier, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book consists of six chapters which cover asbestos types and health effects; asbestos properties, mineralogy, distribution, and analysis; asbestos in the aquatic environment; asbestos in the soil environment; asbestos and plant growth; and other environmental concerns. The book is useful and is recommended for those interested in asbestos in soil and water and in a general review of asbestos sources. The book is not recommended for those interested in asbestos sampling and analysis or in a critical review of human health effects resulting from asbestos exposure. 400 refs.

  6. Asbestos Exposure and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... reasons, asbestos has been used widely in many industries. Chemically, asbestos minerals are silicate compounds, meaning they ... Since then, asbestos has been used in many industries. For example, the building and construction industries have ...

  7. 41 CFR 101-42.1102-1 - Asbestos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    .... Inhaling asbestos fibers may cause cancer. Do not release fibers by cutting, crushing, sanding.... OSHA standards for personnel protection are codified at 29 CFR 1910.1001. EPA disposal standards are codified at 40 CFR part 763. (ii) Immediately after excess determination, all items of personal...

  8. ALTERNATIVE APPROACH TO ESTIMATING CANCER POTENCY FOR ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative approach for estimating cancer potency from inhalation exposure to asbestos seeks to improve the methods developed by USEPA (1986). This efforts seeks to modify the the current approach for estimating cancer potency for lung cancer and mesothelioma to account fo...

  9. Bioanalytical techniques for detecting biomarkers of response to human asbestos exposure

    PubMed Central

    Mesaros, Clementina; Worth, Andrew J; Snyder, Nathaniel W; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Vachani, Anil; Albelda, Steven M; Blair, Ian A

    2015-01-01

    Asbestos exposure is known to cause lung cancer and mesothelioma and its health and economic impacts have been well documented. The exceptionally long latency periods of most asbestos-related diseases have hampered preventative and precautionary steps thus far. We aimed to summarize the state of knowledge on biomarkers of response to asbestos exposure. Asbestos is not present in human biological fluids; rather it is inhaled and trapped in lung tissue. Biomarkers of response, which reflect a change in biologic function in response to asbestos exposure, are analyzed. Several classes of molecules have been studied and evaluated for their potential utility as biomarkers of asbestos exposure. These studies range from small molecule oxidative stress biomarkers to proteins involved in immune responses. PMID:26039812

  10. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos aerosolization (or releasability) is the potential for fibrous asbestos structures that are present in a material or on a solid surface to become airborne when the source is disturbed by human activities or natural forces. In turn, the magnitude of the airborne concentra...

  11. Asbestos in the Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Susan

    1984-01-01

    Thousands of schools contain dangerous asbestos which threatens the safety of students and teachers. The Environmental Protection Agency can be contacted to inspect and advise on this problem. Suggestions are offered for school personnel who suspect their school may contain asbestos. (DF)

  12. ASBESTOS PROBLEM RESOLUTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the variety of regulations applicable to asbestos in buildings, ranging from the Clean Air Act to the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act. Remedial actions are discussed (removal, enclosure and encapsulation) and the ongoing research related to those areas ...

  13. All about Asbestos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roy, Ken

    2005-01-01

    Asbestos has been used in the construction of elementary, middle, and high school ceilings, floor tile adhesives, pipe and structural beam insulations, science laboratory benches, wire gauss on ring stands, fume hood panels, general insulation, and more during the 1950s through early 1970s. Why? Primarily asbestos was selected because of its…

  14. Asbestos. LC Science Tracer Bullet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Joanna, Comp.

    Asbestos is a generic term that refers to several silicate materials occurring naturally as fibrous rocks. Insignificant amounts of asbestos fiber can be found in ambient air, but this, and materials containing hard asbestos, usually do not create problems. Soft materials, however, can release high amounts of asbestos fibers into the air, and…

  15. ABCs of Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC.

    Information about asbestos in the schools is provided in this pamphlet. The document describes the nature and dangers of asbestos and the passage of the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act in 1986. The responsibilities of school boards and other school officials to protect students and employees from asbestos exposure are explained as well as…

  16. Asbestos in Scotland.

    PubMed

    Gorman, Thomas; Johnston, Ronnie; McIvor, Arthur; Watterson, Andrew

    2004-01-01

    This paper outlines the asbestos hazard in Scotland and draws upon a systematic oral history project to analyze from the workers' perspective the nature of exposure, the limitations of government regulatory initiatives, and the ramifications of contracting asbestos-related diseases for sufferers and their families. Current issues are investigated, stressing the agency of workers, trade unions, sympathetic local councils, and, especially, the victims' pressure groups. The occupational and environmental health threats of asbestos in Scotland remain significant, although recent E.U.- and U.K.-based decisions to ban further use of asbestos together with active campaigning by local activist groups have helped to reduce them. Mesothelioma mortality rates remain high, due to historic exposures, and much work remains to be done to reduce the number and plight of asbestos-exposed workers. PMID:15281377

  17. The asbestos cancer epidemic.

    PubMed Central

    LaDou, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    The asbestos cancer epidemic may take as many as 10 million lives before asbestos is banned worldwide and exposures are brought to an end. In many developed countries, in the most affected age groups, mesothelioma may account for 1% of all deaths. In addition to mesotheliomas, 5-7% of all lung cancers can be attributed to occupational exposures to asbestos. The asbestos cancer epidemic would have been largely preventable if the World Health Organization (WHO) and the International Labor Organization (ILO) had responded early and responsibly. The WHO was late in recognizing the epidemic and failed to act decisively after it was well under way. The WHO and the ILO continue to fail to address the problem of asbestos mining, manufacturing, and use and world trade of a known human carcinogen. Part of the problem is that the WHO and the ILO have allowed organizations such as the International Commission on Occupational Health (ICOH) and other asbestos industry advocates to manipulate them and to distort scientific evidence. The global asbestos cancer epidemic is a story of monumental failure to protect the public health. PMID:14998741

  18. Predicting asthma exacerbations employing remotely monitored adherence.

    PubMed

    Killane, Isabelle; Sulaiman, Imran; MacHale, Elaine; Breathnach, Aoife; Taylor, Terence E; Holmes, Martin S; Reilly, Richard B; Costello, Richard W

    2016-03-01

    This Letter investigated the efficacy of a decision-support system, designed for respiratory medicine, at predicting asthma exacerbations in a multi-site longitudinal randomised control trial. Adherence to inhaler medication was acquired over 3 months from patients with asthma employing a dose counter and a remote monitoring adherence device which recorded participant's inhaler use: n = 184 (23,656 audio files), 61% women, age (mean ± sd) 49.3 ± 16.4. Data on occurrence of exacerbations was collected at three clinical visits, 1 month apart. The relative risk of an asthma exacerbation for those with good and poor adherence was examined employing a univariate and multivariate modified Poisson regression approach; adjusting for age, gender and body mass index. For all months dose counter adherence was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than remote monitoring adherence. Overall, those with poor adherence had a 1.38 ± 0.34 and 1.42 ± 0.39 (remotely monitored) and 1.25 ± 0.32 and 1.18 ± 0.31 (dose counter) higher relative risk of an exacerbation in model 1 and model 2, respectively. However, this was not found to be statistically significantly different. Remotely monitored adherence holds important clinical information and future research should focus on refining adherence and exacerbation measures. Decision-support systems based on remote monitoring may enhance patient-physician communication, possibly reducing preventable adverse events. PMID:27222733

  19. Some Facts About Asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, R.L.

    2001-01-01

    For information on historic asbestos mines, historic prospects and natural asbestos occurrences in the U.S., see: Eastern U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2005-1189 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/); Central U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2006-1211 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/); Rocky Mountain States ---> Open-File Report 2007-1182 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/); Southwest U.S. ---> Open-File Report 2008-1095 (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/). For commodity statistics and information see: http://minerals.usgs.gov/minerals/pubs/commodity/asbestos/

  20. Differential protein folding and chemical changes in lung tissues exposed to asbestos or particulates.

    PubMed

    Pascolo, Lorella; Borelli, Violetta; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Birarda, Giovanni; Bedolla, Diana E; Salomé, Murielle; Vaccari, Lisa; Calligaro, Carla; Cotte, Marine; Hesse, Bernhard; Luisi, Fernando; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Melato, Mauro; Rizzardi, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and occupational inhalants may induce a large number of pulmonary diseases, with asbestos exposure being the most risky. The mechanisms are clearly related to chemical composition and physical and surface properties of materials. A combination of X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (μFTIR) microscopy was used to chemically characterize and compare asbestos bodies versus environmental particulates (anthracosis) in lung tissues from asbestos exposed and control patients. μXRF analyses revealed heterogeneously aggregated particles in the anthracotic structures, containing mainly Si, K, Al and Fe. Both asbestos and particulates alter lung iron homeostasis, with a more marked effect in asbestos exposure. μFTIR analyses revealed abundant proteins on asbestos bodies but not on anthracotic particles. Most importantly, the analyses demonstrated that the asbestos coating proteins contain high levels of β-sheet structures. The occurrence of conformational changes in the proteic component of the asbestos coating provides new insights into long-term asbestos effects. PMID:26159651

  1. A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine.

    PubMed

    Nolan, R P; Langer, A M; Wilson, R

    1999-03-30

    The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals-grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)-have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner's exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

  2. A risk assessment for exposure to grunerite asbestos (amosite) in an iron ore mine

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, R. P.; Langer, A. M.; Wilson, Richard

    1999-01-01

    The potential for health risks to humans exposed to the asbestos minerals continues to be a public health concern. Although the production and use of the commercial amphibole asbestos minerals—grunerite (amosite) and riebeckite (crocidolite)—have been almost completely eliminated from world commerce, special opportunities for potentially significant exposures remain. Commercially viable deposits of grunerite asbestos are very rare, but it can occur as a gangue mineral in a limited part of a mine otherwise thought asbestos-free. This report describes such a situation, in which a very localized seam of grunerite asbestos was identified in an iron ore mine. The geological occurrence of the seam in the ore body is described, as well as the mineralogical character of the grunerite asbestos. The most relevant epidemiological studies of workers exposed to grunerite asbestos are used to gauge the hazards associated with the inhalation of this fibrous mineral. Both analytical transmission electron microscopy and phase-contrast optical microscopy were used to quantify the fibers present in the air during mining in the area with outcroppings of grunerite asbestos. Analytical transmission electron microscopy and continuous-scan x-ray diffraction were used to determine the type of asbestos fiber present. Knowing the level of the miner’s exposures, we carried out a risk assessment by using a model developed for the Environmental Protection Agency. PMID:10097051

  3. Differential protein folding and chemical changes in lung tissues exposed to asbestos or particulates

    PubMed Central

    Pascolo, Lorella; Borelli, Violetta; Canzonieri, Vincenzo; Gianoncelli, Alessandra; Birarda, Giovanni; Bedolla, Diana E.; Salomé, Murielle; Vaccari, Lisa; Calligaro, Carla; Cotte, Marine; Hesse, Bernhard; Luisi, Fernando; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Melato, Mauro; Rizzardi, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Environmental and occupational inhalants may induce a large number of pulmonary diseases, with asbestos exposure being the most risky. The mechanisms are clearly related to chemical composition and physical and surface properties of materials. A combination of X-ray fluorescence (μXRF) and Fourier Transform InfraRed (μFTIR) microscopy was used to chemically characterize and compare asbestos bodies versus environmental particulates (anthracosis) in lung tissues from asbestos exposed and control patients. μXRF analyses revealed heterogeneously aggregated particles in the anthracotic structures, containing mainly Si, K, Al and Fe. Both asbestos and particulates alter lung iron homeostasis, with a more marked effect in asbestos exposure. μFTIR analyses revealed abundant proteins on asbestos bodies but not on anthracotic particles. Most importantly, the analyses demonstrated that the asbestos coating proteins contain high levels of β-sheet structures. The occurrence of conformational changes in the proteic component of the asbestos coating provides new insights into long-term asbestos effects. PMID:26159651

  4. Domestic Asbestos Exposure: A Review of Epidemiologic and Exposure Data

    PubMed Central

    Goswami, Emily; Craven, Valerie; Dahlstrom, David L.; Alexander, Dominik; Mowat, Fionna

    2013-01-01

    Inhalation of asbestos resulting from living with and handling the clothing of workers directly exposed to asbestos has been established as a possible contributor to disease. This review evaluates epidemiologic studies of asbestos-related disease or conditions (mesothelioma, lung cancer, and pleural and interstitial abnormalities) among domestically exposed individuals and exposure studies that provide either direct exposure measurements or surrogate measures of asbestos exposure. A meta-analysis of studies providing relative risk estimates (n = 12) of mesothelioma was performed, resulting in a summary relative risk estimate (SRRE) of 5.02 (95% confidence interval [CI]: 2.48–10.13). This SRRE pertains to persons domestically exposed via workers involved in occupations with a traditionally high risk of disease from exposure to asbestos (i.e., asbestos product manufacturing workers, insulators, shipyard workers, and asbestos miners). The epidemiologic studies also show an elevated risk of interstitial, but more likely pleural, abnormalities (n = 6), though only half accounted for confounding exposures. The studies are limited with regard to lung cancer (n = 2). Several exposure-related studies describe results from airborne samples collected within the home (n = 3), during laundering of contaminated clothing (n = 1) or in controlled exposure simulations (n = 5) of domestic exposures, the latter of which were generally associated with low-level chrysotile-exposed workers. Lung burden studies (n = 6) were also evaluated as a surrogate of exposure. In general, available results for domestic exposures are lower than the workers’ exposures. Recent simulations of low-level chrysotile-exposed workers indicate asbestos levels commensurate with background concentrations in those exposed domestically. PMID:24185840

  5. Asbestos and Cancer Risk

    MedlinePlus

    ... bundles of fibers. These fibers are found in soil and rocks in many parts of the world. ... water through several sources, such as rock or soil erosion, corrosion of asbestos cement pipes, or the ...

  6. Asbestos Removal Case History.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haney, Stanley J.

    1986-01-01

    The engineer for a California school district describes the asbestos removal from the ceilings of El Camino High School. Discusses forming a design team, use of consultants, specifications, relations with contractors, and staff notification. (MLF)

  7. Controlling Asbestos in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EPA Journal, 1979

    1979-01-01

    Spurred by recent medical findings, the Environmental Protection Agency has initiated a program to help educators check their schools for asbestos-containing materials and correct any hazardous conditions which are found. (Author/RE)

  8. The asbestos war.

    PubMed

    Kazan-Allen, Laurie

    2003-01-01

    That asbestos is still being sold despite overwhelming evidence linking it to debilitating and fatal diseases is testament to the effectiveness of a campaign, spear-headed by Canadian interests, to promote a product already banned in many developed countries. Blessed by government and commercial support, asbestos apologists have implemented a long-term coordinated strategy targeting new consumers in Asia, the Far East and Latin America. At industry-backed "conferences" and on government-funded junkets, they spin a web of deceit, telling all who will listen that "chrysotile (white asbestos) can be used safely." The fact that Canada exports over 95% of all the chrysotile it mines suggests that while chrysotile is supposedly safe enough for foreigners, it is not safe enough for Canadians. Asbestos victims in many countries have struggled to gain public recognition of the human cost of asbestos use. In recent years, nongovernmental organizations working with these groups have created a global anti-asbestos virtual network; with the commitment and support of thousands of "virtual members," this network challenges industry's propaganda and exposes the forces that support its cynical attempt to offload this dangerous substance on developing countries. PMID:12967154

  9. [Asbestos and respiratory diseases].

    PubMed

    Scherpereel, Arnaud

    2016-01-01

    Previous occupational asbestos exposure (more rarely environmental or domestic exposure) may induce various pleural and/or pulmonary, benign or malignant diseases, sometimes with a very long latency for malignant mesothelioma (MM). Asbestos has been widely extracted and used in Western countries and in emerging or developing countries, resulting in a peak of MM incidence in France around 2020 and likely in a world pandemic of asbestos-induced diseases. These patients have mostly benign respiratory diseases (pleural plugs) but may also be diagnosed with lung cancer or malignant pleural mesothelioma, and have a global poor outcome. New therapeutic tools (targeted therapies, immunotherapy…) with first promising results are developed. However, it is crucial to obtain a full ban of asbestos use worldwide, and to do a regular follow-up of asbestos-exposed subjects, mostly if they are already diagnosed with benign respiratory diseases. Finally, new cancers (larynx and ovary) were recently added to the list of asbestos-induced tumors. PMID:26822071

  10. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  11. Relative source contributions of diet and air to ingested asbestos exposure.

    PubMed Central

    Rowe, J N

    1983-01-01

    Reliable assessments of the relative contributions of diet (food, beverages, and orally administered drugs) and air (inhaled fibers) to total ingested asbestos exposure are not feasible due to the paucity of quantitative data on the subject. Instead, scenarios for both modes of exposure were developed from the limited information available to give crude estimates of ingestion of asbestos from these routes. They suggest that such sources are potentially significant relative to the contribution of asbestos exposure derived from drinking water. Research recommendations are discussed. PMID:6662081

  12. "Naturally occurring asbestos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cagnard, F.; Lahondère, D.; Blein, O.; Lahfid, A.; Wille, G.

    2012-04-01

    The term asbestos refers to six silicate minerals from amphibole and serpentine groups. By definition, it consists in bundles of thin and flexible long fibers, with high-tensile strength, and chemical and heat resistance. In contrast to asbestos found within commercial products and mining, the specific term ''naturally occurring asbestos'' (NOA) refers to asbestiform minerals occurring within rocks or soils that can be released by human activities or weathering processes. The fact that the exposure to asbestos is related to lung pathologies is now widely demonstrated (e.g. asbestosis, mesothelioma and lung cancer). However, if health risks associated with exposure to NOA exist, they are not yet well documented. The crystallization of natural asbestos occurs in specific Mg-rich lithologies associated with peculiar structural and metamorphic conditions. By recognizing and combining such specific geologic criteria, the presence or the absence of asbestos in bedrock terrains can be reasonably predicted and maps of NOA hazard can be drawn. We present here new results of geological mapping and petrological study concerning the evaluation of the NOA hazard in the Alps and Corsica, in France. The three folds approach consists in (1) a determination of lithologies with potential NOA from a bibliographic compilation and extraction of target zones from a geological geodatabase (2) a geological mapping of the target zones followed by a petrological characterization of sampled asbestiform minerals in the laboratory (optical microscopy, TEM, SEM, and Raman spectroscopy technics), and (3) the drawing of the final map of NOA hazard, at regional-scale. Occurrence criteria can be retained as follows: 1. NOA are abundant in the internal zones of the Alps and Corsica, especially within ophiolitic complexes. Natural asbestos are mostly concentrated within ultramafic rocks but can also occur within basic lithologies such as Mg-metagabbros, metabasalts and meta-pillow-lavas, 2. Asbestos

  13. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos.

    PubMed Central

    Heppleston, A G

    1984-01-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. PMID:6329672

  14. Pulmonary toxicology of silica, coal and asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Heppleston, A.G.

    1984-04-01

    Mineral particles are customarily inhaled as mixtures, though one component may predominate and determine the response. Although the lesions often possess a characteristic structure, according to the main type of particle deposited, morphology affords little indication of pathogenesis. Being a major element in the evolution of dust lesions, macrophage behavior has been examined extensively in vitro after treatment with mineral particles, attention being directed to membrane and biochemical changes; however, no clear lead to the origin of the lesions has emerged. Pulmonary fibrosis, as one of the ultimate consequences of dust accumulation, required a direct in vitro approach in which the products of the macrophage-particle interaction were utilized to provoke collagen formation by fibroblasts in a two-phase system. By this means, silica and asbestos stimulated connective tissue formation and application of the technique to coal dusts appears promising. Coal workers may develop a peculiar type of emphysema in relation to lesions whose fibrous content is comparatively small. Type II alveolar epithelium is also stimulated by inhaled particles and lipid accumulation follows. Alveolar lipidosis interferes with the fibrotic response by preventing contact between macrophage and particles. This phenomenon may account in part for anomalies, apparent in coal workers, between epidemiological findings and dust composition. Carcinogenesis is a well-recognized feature of asbestos exposure, but, as with fibrosis, risk prediction on the basis of in vitro tests of cytotoxicity is premature and may not be valid. 197 references.

  15. Prediction of short term re-exacerbation in patients with acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dong; Peng, Shao-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Bai, Si-Hong; Liu, Hai-Xia; Qu, Jie-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Background The objective of the study is to develop a scoring system for predicting a 90-day re-exacerbation in hospitalized patients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (AECOPD). Methods A total of 176 consecutive hospitalized patients with AECOPD were included. The sociodemographic characteristics, status before acute exacerbation (AE), presentations of and treatment for the current AE, and the re-exacerbation in 90 days after discharge from hospital were collected. Results The re-exacerbation rate in 90 days was 48.9% (86 out of 176). It was associated with the degree of lung function impairment (Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease [GOLD] grades), frequency of AE in the previous year, and parameters of the current AE, including pleural effusion, use of accessory respiratory muscles, inhaled long-acting β-2-agonists, inhaled corticosteroids, controlled oxygen therapy, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, and length of hospital stay, but was not associated with body mass index, modified Medical Research Council scale, or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease assessment test. A subgroup of ten variables was selected and developed into the re-exacerbation index scoring system (age grades, GOLD grades, AE times in the previous year, pleural effusion, use of accessory respiratory muscles, noninvasive mechanical ventilation, controlled oxygen therapy, inhaled long-acting β-2-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids, and length of hospital stay). The re-exacerbation index showed good discrimination for re-exacerbation, with a C-statistic of 0.750 (P<0.001). Conclusion A comprehensive assessment integrating parameters of stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, clinical presentations at exacerbation, and treatment showed a strong predictive capacity for short-term outcome in patients with AECOPD. Further studies are required to verify these findings. PMID:26170655

  16. FFTF Asbestos Location Tracking Program

    SciTech Connect

    Reynolds, J.A.

    1994-09-15

    An Asbestos Location Tracking Program was prepared to list, locate, and determine Asbestos content and to provide baseline {open_quotes}good faith{close_quotes} for yearly condition inspections for the FFTF Plant and buildings and grounds.

  17. Asbestos exposure in buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Gaensler, E.A. )

    1992-06-01

    Asbestos-related diseases are dose-related. Among these, asbestosis has occurred only with the heavy exposures of the past, is a disappearing disease, and is of no concern with the very small exposures from building occupancy. A possibly increased incidence of lung cancer has been included in risk analysis, but probably is also related to high exposure in that both epidemiologic and experimental data suggest a link between the process of alveolar inflammation and fibrogenesis and carcinogenesis. The major concern has been mesothelioma in that it has occurred with much lower household and neighborhood exposure. Additionally, anxiety concerning buildings with ACM has been heightened by finding of friable asbestos in about 20% of public buildings, discovery of environmental asbestos fibers and asbestos bodies in autopsies, and demonstration of a linear relationship between exposure and lung cancer risk in occupational groups, inviting extrapolation to a much lower dose. Legislative and regulatory mandates, promotional activities of abatement companies, adverse court decisions placing the onus of repairs on asbestos manufacturers, and a pandemic of mediagenic disease' all have contributed to panic among building owners, school boards, insurers, and others. In that there is neither clinical nor epidemiologic support for asbestos-related disease from building occupancy, risk estimates have been based on extrapolation from past experience with generally high-dose occupational exposure. However, only a few epidemiologic studies have contained quantitative estimates of exposure, and these have been measured in terms of all particles, with conversion to asbestos fibers uncertain and the fiber type and dimension largely unknown.

  18. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  19. Asbestos-induced endothelial cell activation and injury. Demonstration of fiber phagocytosis and oxidant-dependent toxicity.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J G; Gray, L D; Dodson, R F; Callahan, K S

    1988-10-01

    Vascular endothelial cell injury is important in the development of a variety of chronic interstitial lung disorders. However, the involvement of such injury in the inflammatory response associated with the inhalation of asbestos fibers is unclear and the mechanism of asbestos fiber cytotoxicity remains unknown. In the present study, human umbilical vein endothelial cells were challenged with amosite asbestos and several parameters of cellular function were examined. Electron microscopic examination revealed that endothelial cell exposure to asbestos resulted in active phagocytosis of these particulates. Biochemical evidence of dose-dependent asbestos-mediated endothelial cell activation was indicated by increased metabolism of arachidonic acid. For example, amosite asbestos (500 micrograms/ml) produced a ninefold increase in prostacyclin (PGI2) levels over those levels in non-exposed cells. Incubation of human endothelial cells with asbestos fibers induced specific 51Cr release in both a dose- and time-dependent fashion indicative of cellular injury. Injury induced by amosite asbestos was not significantly attenuated by treatment of the endothelial cell monolayer with either the iron chelator deferoxamine, which prevents hydroxyl radical (.OH) formation, or by the superoxide anion (O2-) scavenger, superoxide dismutase. However, significant dose-dependent protection was observed with the hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) scavenger, catalase. Chelation of elemental iron present within amosite asbestos fibers by deferoxamine produced a 33% reduction in asbestos cytotoxicity, suggesting a potential role for hydroxyl radical-mediated injury via the iron-catalyzed Haber-Weiss reaction.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:3202471

  20. Superfund Record of Decision (EPA Region 9): Coalinga Asbestos Mine, Fresno County, CA. (Second remedial action), September 1990. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-09-21

    The 557-acre Coalinga Asbestos Mine site, a former asbestos processing area and chromite mine, comprises part of the Johns Manville Coalinga Asbestos Mill site in western Fresno County, California. This rural mountainous area is used primarily for recreational purposes. From 1962 to 1974, asbestos ore from several local mines was processed and sorted onsite, and the resulting asbestos mill tailings were periodically bulldozed into an intermittent stream channel. Subsequently, from 1975 to 1977, a chromite milling operation was conducted onsite. Tailings were often washed downstream during periods of stream flow, and the resuspension of asbestos fibers from the tailings into the air produced a significant inhalation hazard. As a result of these activities, approximately 450,000 cubic yards of mill tailings and asbestos ore remain onsite within a large tailing pile. In 1980 and 1987, State investigations indicated that the site was contributing a significant amount of asbestos into the surface water. The site will be remediated as two Operable Units (OU). The Record of Decision (ROD) addresses the remedial action for OU2, the Johns Manville Coalinga Asbestos Mill Area. The primary contaminant of concern affecting the surface water is asbestos.

  1. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS HEALTH ASSESSMENT UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Recent data from population studies strengthened the association of asbestos with disease. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are the most important asbestos-related causes of death. The data suggest that the excess risk of lung cancer from asbestos exposure is proportional to cumulati...

  2. Asbestos: From Beginning to End.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McMullin, Richard C.; Cain, Gary K.

    In conjunction with a bond proposal for energy related items, the North County Public Schools (Missouri) undertook the task of removing friable asbestos Missouri school district undertook the task of removing friable asbestos from schools. Specifications for asbestos abatement prepared by the district administrative office were reviewed by the…

  3. Asbestos: The Case for Encapsulation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russek, William F.

    1980-01-01

    Encapsulation has proven to be the safest, surest, and most permanent method of treating sprayed asbestos on ceilings and walls. Federal aid is available to help pay for inspection of school buildings for asbestos and for asbestos removal. (Author/MLF)

  4. A Report on Asbestos Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centifonti, Gary J.; Gerber, Donald R.

    1997-01-01

    A series of studies in New Jersey schools documented asbestos abatement and management activities in 17 schools representing 20 abatement sites. Findings demonstrate that school officials must increase their awareness of asbestos issues, improve the oversight of asbestos abatement and management programs, and improve lines of communication among…

  5. Legal Issues in Asbestos Litigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Because asbestos exposure poses a serious health threat to school children, Congress enacted the Asbestos School Hazard Detection and Control Act in 1980, authorizing federal funds for local programs to locate and remove asbestos-containing materials. No funds have been made available as yet, however, and two-thirds of the affected schools have…

  6. Asbestos in Schools: A Dilemma.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    Asbestos, a mineral known to cause cancer in humans, is present in an unknown number of schools where it may be hazardous to the health of students and employees. Although the Federal Government has programs designed to address the asbestos situation, it has not determined in what specific circumstances asbestos is a hazard. Therefore, State and…

  7. Autoimmunity and Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Pfau, Jean C.; Serve, Kinta M.; Noonan, Curtis W.

    2014-01-01

    Despite a body of evidence supporting an association between asbestos exposure and autoantibodies indicative of systemic autoimmunity, such as antinuclear antibodies (ANA), a strong epidemiological link has never been made to specific autoimmune diseases. This is in contrast with another silicate dust, crystalline silica, for which there is considerable evidence linking exposure to diseases such as systemic lupus erythematosus, systemic sclerosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Instead, the asbestos literature is heavily focused on cancer, including mesothelioma and pulmonary carcinoma. Possible contributing factors to the absence of a stronger epidemiological association between asbestos and autoimmune disease include (a) a lack of statistical power due to relatively small or diffuse exposure cohorts, (b) exposure misclassification, (c) latency of clinical disease, (d) mild or subclinical entities that remain undetected or masked by other pathologies, or (e) effects that are specific to certain fiber types, so that analyses on mixed exposures do not reach statistical significance. This review summarizes epidemiological, animal model, and in vitro data related to asbestos exposures and autoimmunity. These combined data help build toward a better understanding of the fiber-associated factors contributing to immune dysfunction that may raise the risk of autoimmunity and the possible contribution to asbestos-related pulmonary disease. PMID:24876951

  8. Asbestos substitutes: A closer look at potential health hazards

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, G.E.

    1987-01-01

    It appears that, with the possible exception of some relatively minor, specialized uses, the need for asbestos in industrial and consumer products has come to an end. Although there are apparent cost or performance penalties in some applications, adequate substitute materials have been found. It seems likely that these penalties will diminish with time. The existence of asbestos materials in older structures, however, will require continued vigilance. Although no material is completely safe under all conditions of exposure, the health hazards of many asbestos substitutes are relatively minor. Mica and perlite are low hazard materials, unless the perlite has >1% free silica. Vermiculite is presumed to be of low hazard potential, unless it is contaminated with asbestos fibers. Ordinary fibrous glass is one of the most common substitute materials, and it is of low inhalation hazard. Ultrafine glass fibers may be hazardous, but their use is thus far limited to special applications. Mineral wools are considered to be of low hazard by an acknowledged authority, ACGIH; however, some mineral wools have a high fraction of thin fibers, and these may be of higher hazard potential. Thin ceramic fiber material is presumed by many to be as hazardous as the asbestos it replaces, but a recently-completed animal study found no excess cancers. The uses of carbon fiber material are highly specialized, and there is little information on health effects as yet. Organic fibers appear to be of very low hazard potential. 8 refs.

  9. [Contribution to importance of asbestos in the epidemiology of bronchial cancer].

    PubMed

    Sturm, W

    1982-01-01

    Today asbestos is the most important professional carcinogenic agent of the respiratory tract. Asbestos caused bronchial cancer doesn't differ from its well-known morphology, progress and prognosis, but almost it is starting earlier. Fibrous form of asbestos represents its determinant potency. Carcinogenic fibres are about or below 1 micron in diameter and part of them can't be seen in light optical systems. Curious bodies may be missed sometimes also. A cancerogenic limit of asbestos concentration can't be quoted exactly now. Asbestos exposition during 60 contacting days or more are able to induce cancer. Cancerogenesis itself is during 20-30 years until clinical manifestation on an average. If the exposition is started in the youth, the period of latency is shortened distinctly. Tobacco smoke inhalations increase the carcinogenic effectiveness multiplicatively. In the districts of Magdeburg and Halle (GDR) more than 10% of the bronchial cancers are expected to be induced by asbestos. On the other hand only about 3% of the adults have had asbestos contacts at any former time. This is a raising of risk to at least triple rate.--It is necessary to realize all demands on technical prophylaxis of occupational asbestos exposition. PMID:7148029

  10. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  11. Asbestos screening process

    SciTech Connect

    1994-07-01

    The paper discusses and demonstrates a simple asbestos screening test developed by Kupel and Kim. Standard tests to determine asbestos content in building materials cost up to $500.00 to perform. With 2 simple tests and kit devised by two men, anyone can perform these tests that now cost 25 cents each. And they are accurate. If positive results are obtained, the materials are sent to the lab for analysis. The two tests consist of use of acids, bases and reagents to test for iron and manganese content.

  12. Glovebags handle asbestos abatement

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, K.

    1997-12-01

    Regulations from OSHA mean that industry can use glovebags to perform many asbestos maintenance operations in less time, at less cost, and with less chance of personnel being exposed. The regulations became effective July 10, 1995, with some clarifications issued since that date. The standards allow glovebags to be used in maintenance operations or removal of asbestos from straight runs of pipe without any size limitations. They can also be used on elbows and other connections if the glovebags are designed for a particular configuration. The paper discusses potential savings, construction activities, procedures that must be followed when using glovebags, and training.

  13. Plasma vitrification of asbestos fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Camacho, S.L.

    1995-12-31

    Asbestos is a mineral in the form of long, thread-like fibers. Asbestos fibers have been among the best insulators of pipes, boilers, ducts, tanks, etc., in buildings, ships, and industrial furnaces. Over 150,000 metric tons of asbestos were consumed in the United States in 1984. The Environmental Protection Agency has declared asbestos fibers a known human carcinogen. And today, asbestos insulators are being replaced by manmade non-hazardous fibers. Millions of tons of replaced asbestos fiber insulators are in storage, awaiting the demonstration of effective alternative disposal technologies. Plasma vitrification has been demonstrated during May, June and July 1995 as a viable, cost-effective, safe technology for asbestos fiber disposal. A low-mass plasma arc heater is submerged under the waste asbestos insulating materials, and the intense heat of the plasma flame heats and melts the fibers. The by-product is dark, non-hazardous glass pellets. The vitrification process renders the asbestos waste safe for use as road construction aggregates or other fill materials. This paper will describe the results of start-up of a 1 ton-per-hour Plasma Mobile Asbestos Vitrification (MAV) Plant at a DOD Site in Port Clinton, Ohio. The Plasma MAV Plant is being demonstrated for the on-site disposal of 1.5 million pounds of Amosite asbestos fibers.

  14. Focus on asbestos; Choosing insurance

    SciTech Connect

    DeVito, E.D. )

    1989-01-01

    any asbestos abatement process carries with it some hazards to health. The process of asbestos removal often involves heavy demolition as well as complex area isolation and air engineering procedures. If not planned, monitored and performed correctly, asbestos control work can spread significant amounts of airborne asbestos contamination through a building. Persons who visit or re-occupy such a contaminated building may later seek legal redress against the contractor, architect, building owner and others who are alleged to be responsible for injuries ultimately related to faulty asbestos abatement work. This paper reports that, for this reason, asbestos contractors, building owners, real estate managers, architects and others involved in asbestos abatement work need to be concerned about the adequacy of their insurance coverage.

  15. Nonpulmonary outcomes of asbestos exposure.

    PubMed

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be "limited." The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  16. Nonpulmonary Outcomes of Asbestos Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Bunderson-Schelvan, Melisa; Pfau, Jean C.; Crouch, Robert; Holian, Andrij

    2011-01-01

    The adverse pulmonary effects of asbestos are well accepted in scientific circles. However, the extrapulmonary consequences of asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review the potential for asbestos to produce diseases of the peritoneum, immune, gastrointestinal (GIT), and reproductive systems are explored as evidenced in published, peer-reviewed literature. Several hundred epidemiological, in vivo, and in vitro publications analyzing the extrapulmonary effects of asbestos were used as sources to arrive at the conclusions and to establish areas needing further study. In order to be considered, each study had to monitor extrapulmonary outcomes following exposure to asbestos. The literature supports a strong association between asbestos exposure and peritoneal neoplasms. Correlations between asbestos exposure and immune-related disease are less conclusive; nevertheless, it was concluded from the combined autoimmune studies that there is a possibility for a higher-than-expected risk of systemic autoimmune disease among asbestos-exposed populations. In general, the GIT effects of asbestos exposure appear to be minimal, with the most likely outcome being development of stomach cancer. However, IARC recently concluded the evidence to support asbestos-induced stomach cancer to be “limited.” The strongest evidence for reproductive disease due to asbestos is in regard to ovarian cancer. Unfortunately, effects on fertility and the developing fetus are under-studied. The possibility of other asbestos-induced health effects does exist. These include brain-related tumors, blood disorders due to the mutagenic and hemolytic properties of asbestos, and peritoneal fibrosis. It is clear from the literature that the adverse properties of asbestos are not confined to the pulmonary system. PMID:21534087

  17. Asbestos in commercial cosmetic talcum powder as a cause of mesothelioma in women

    PubMed Central

    Gordon, Ronald E; Fitzgerald, Sean; Millette, James

    2014-01-01

    Background: Cosmetic talcum powder products have been used for decades. The inhalation of talc may cause lung fibrosis in the form of granulomatose nodules called talcosis. Exposure to talc has also been suggested as a causative factor in the development of ovarian carcinomas, gynecological tumors, and mesothelioma. Purpose: To investigate one historic brand of cosmetic talcum powder associated with mesothelioma in women. Methods: Transmission electron microscope (TEM) formvar-coated grids were prepared with concentrations of one brand of talcum powder directly, on filters, from air collections on filters in glovebox and simulated bathroom exposures and human fiber burden analyses. The grids were analyzed on an analytic TEM using energy-dispersive spectrometer (EDS) and selected-area electron diffraction (SAED) to determine asbestos fiber number and type. Results: This brand of talcum powder contained asbestos and the application of talcum powder released inhalable asbestos fibers. Lung and lymph node tissues removed at autopsy revealed pleural mesothelioma. Digestions of the tissues were found to contain anthophyllite and tremolite asbestos. Discussion: Through many applications of this particular brand of talcum powder, the deceased inhaled asbestos fibers, which then accumulated in her lungs and likely caused or contributed to her mesothelioma as well as other women with the same scenario. PMID:25185462

  18. Arizona's School Asbestos Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charette, Mike L.

    1982-01-01

    The state of Arizona Department of Education operates a successful program to remove asbestos-containing building materials from schools, drawing from the expertise of the Department of Health Services, Bureau of Environmental Hygiene and Sanitation, Bureau of Waste Control, and eliciting cooperation of school officials. Includes an asbestos…

  19. Libby Amphibole asbestos

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    EPA / 635 / R - 11 / 002F www.epa.gov / iris TOXICOLOGICAL REVIEW OF LIBBY AMPHIBOLE ASBESTOS In Support of Summary Information on the Integrated Risk Information System ( IRIS ) December 2014 ( Note : This document is an assessment of the noncancer and cancer health effects associated with the inha

  20. Airborne asbestos in public buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Chesson, J.; Hatfield, J.; Schultz, B.; Dutrow, E.; Blake, J. )

    1990-02-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency sampled air in 49 government-owned buildings (six buildings with no asbestos-containing material, six buildings with asbestos-containing material in generally good condition, and 37 buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material). This is the most comprehensive study to date of airborne asbestos levels in U.S. public buildings during normal building activities. The air outside each building was also sampled. Air samples were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy using a direct transfer preparation technique. The results show an increasing trend in average airborne asbestos levels; outdoor levels are lowest and levels in buildings with damaged asbestos-containing material are highest. However, the measured levels and the differences between indoors and outdoors and between building categories are small in absolute magnitude. Comparable studies from Canada and the UK, although differing in their estimated concentrations, also conclude that while airborne asbestos levels may be elevated in buildings that contain asbestos, levels are generally low. This conclusion does not eliminate the possibility of higher airborne asbestos levels during maintenance or renovation that disturbs the asbestos-containing material.

  1. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of being hurt in a fall, a fire or a car crash (for example, if your child tries to drive while he or she is high on an inhalant). Inhalants block oxygen flow to the brain and every other organ ...

  2. Examination of Susceptibility to Libby Amphibole Asbestos-Induced Injury in Rat Models of Cardiovascular Disease

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although cardiovascular disease (CVD) is considered a risk factor for the exacerbation of air pollution health effects, no studies have been done assessing the influence of the disease on the development of lung injury induced by asbestos exposure. In this study we examined lung ...

  3. Seasonal Risk Factors for Asthma Exacerbations among Inner City Children

    PubMed Central

    Teach, Stephen J.; Gergen, Peter J.; Szefler, Stanley J.; Mitchell, Herman E.; Calatroni, Agustin; Wildfire, Jeremy; Bloomberg, Gordon; Kercsmar, Carolyn; Liu, Andrew H.; Makhija, Melanie; Matsui, Elizabeth; Morgan, Wayne; O'Connor, George; Busse, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Exacerbations of asthma remain common even in children and adolescents despite optimal medical management. Identification of host risk factors for exacerbations is incomplete, particularly for seasonal episodes. Objective Define host risk factors for asthma exacerbations unique to their season of occurrence. Methods This is a retrospective analysis of patients aged 6-20 years who comprised the control groups of the Asthma Control Evaluation trial and the Inner City Anti-IgE Therapy for Asthma trial. Univariate and multivariate models were constructed to determine if patient demographic and historical factors, allergic sensitization, fractional exhaled nitric oxide, spirometric measurements, asthma control, and treatment requirements were associated with seasonal exacerbations. Results The analysis included 400 patients (54.5% male; 59.0% African American; median age 13 years). Exacerbations occurred in 37.5% of participants over the periods of observation and were most common in the fall (28.8% of participants). In univariate analysis, impaired pulmonary function was significantly associated with greater odds of exacerbations for all seasons, as was an exacerbation in the previous season for all seasons except spring. In multivariate analysis, exacerbation in the previous season was the strongest predictor in fall and winter while a higher requirement for inhaled corticosteroids was the strongest predictor in spring and summer. The multivariate models had the best predictive power for fall exacerbations (30.5% variance attributed). Conclusions Among a large cohort of inner city children with asthma, patient risk factors for exacerbations vary by season. Thus, individual patient information may be beneficial in strategies to prevent these seasonal events. Clinical Implications Inner city children remain at risk for asthma exacerbations despite appropriate therapy. Because their risk factors vary by season, strategies to prevent them may need to differ as

  4. In vitro depression of human lymphocyte mitogen response (phytohaemagglutinin) by asbestos fibres.

    PubMed Central

    Barbers, R G; Shih, W W; Saxon, A

    1982-01-01

    Asbestosis is a fibrotic lung disease associated with chronic inhalation of asbestos dust. The response of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBM) to phytohaemagglutinin (PHA) in asbestosis patients has been reported to be impaired, suggesting a disturbance in the cell-mediated response of chronically exposed individuals. We demonstrated that PHA responses of normal PBM are also depressed when exposed to various forms of asbestos fibres in vitro. Furthermore, we showed the primary effect of the fibres to be on lymphoid (non-adherent) populations rather than monocytes (adherent cells). Exposure as brief as 1 hr affected the subsequent PHA response of the cells. This effect did not appear to involve suppressor cell activation nor was it mediated by soluble factors. Our findings therefore offer an explanation for the alterations in the cellular immune response observed in humans as a result of lymphoid cells coming into transient contact with inhaled asbestos fibres residing in the lung. Images Fig. 6 PMID:7116687

  5. STATUS ASSESSMENT OF TOXIC CHEMICALS: ASBESTOS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report outlines the mining, milling, uses, and health effects of asbestos. Its major applications are in asbestos cement products, floor tiles, electrical equipment, brake linings, and flame resistant compositions. Impaired human health from industrial exposure to asbestos i...

  6. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases?

    MedlinePlus

    ... the NHLBI on Twitter. What Are Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases? Asbestos-related lung diseases are diseases caused ... peritoneum (PER-ih-to-NE-um). Asbestos-Related Lung Diseases Figure A shows the location of the ...

  7. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone ... inhaler is not working properly.To use the aerosol inhaler, follow these steps: Remove the cap from ...

  8. Tiotropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the inhaler to breathe in the dry powder contained in the capsules. Tiotropium is usually inhaled ... the inhaler it comes with to inhale the powder in the capsules. Never try to inhale them ...

  9. Real-time detection of airborne asbestos by light scattering from magnetically re-aligned fibers.

    PubMed

    Stopford, Christopher; Kaye, Paul H; Greenaway, Richard S; Hirst, Edwin; Ulanowski, Zbigniew; Stanley, Warren R

    2013-05-01

    Inadvertent inhalation of asbestos fibers and the subsequent development of incurable cancers is a leading cause of work-related deaths worldwide. Currently, there is no real-time in situ method for detecting airborne asbestos. We describe an optical method that seeks to address this deficiency. It is based on the use of laser light scattering patterns to determine the change in angular alignment of individual airborne fibers under the influence of an applied magnetic field. Detection sensitivity estimates are given for both crocidolite (blue) and chrysotile (white) asbestos. The method has been developed with the aim of providing a low-cost warning device to trades people and others at risk from inadvertent exposure to airborne asbestos. PMID:23669992

  10. Risk factors associated with asbestos-related diseases: a community-based case–control study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Asbestos is a first level carcinogen. However, few epidemiological studies analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and follow up these conditions in the general population. Pleural mesothelioma, caused by inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, is the most representative asbestos-related disease. The objectives of this study are to analyse the risk and protective factors associated with asbestos-related diseases and to investigate the incidence of new clinical manifestations in patients already diagnosed with some form of ARD. Methods/Design We have designed a matched case–control study with follow up of both cohorts from a population of a health district of the Barcelona province that has been exposed to asbestos for a period of 90 years. Discussion A better understanding of asbestos-related diseases should improve i) the clinical and epidemiological follow up of patients with this condition; ii) the design of new treatment strategies; iii) and the development of preventive activities. At the end of the study, the two cohorts created in this study (affected cases and healthy controls) will constitute the basis for future research. PMID:23915043

  11. Biopersistence and potential adverse health impacts of fibrous nanomaterials: what have we learned from asbestos?

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Vanesa C.; Pietruska, Jodie R.; Miselis, Nathan R.; Hurt, Robert H.; Kane, Agnes B.

    2010-01-01

    Human diseases associated with exposure to asbestos fibers include pleural fibrosis and plaques, pulmonary fibrosis (asbestosis), lung cancer, and diffuse malignant mesothelioma. The critical determinants of fiber bioactivity and toxicity include not only fiber dimensions, but also shape, surface reactivity, crystallinity, chemical composition, and presence of transition metals. Depending on their size and dimensions, inhaled fibers can penetrate the respiratory tract to the distal airways and into the alveolar spaces. Fibers can be cleared by several mechanisms, including the mucociliary escalator, engulfment, and removal by macrophages, or through splitting and chemical modification. Biopersistence of long asbestos fibers can lead to inflammation, granuloma formation, fibrosis, and cancer. Exposure to synthetic carbon nanomaterials, including carbon nanofibers and carbon nanotubes (CNTs), is considered a potential health hazard because of their physical similarities with asbestos fibers. Respiratory exposure to CNTs can produce an inflammatory response, diffuse interstitial fibrosis, and formation of fibrotic granulomas similar to that observed in asbestos-exposed animals and humans. Given the known cytotoxic and carcinogenic properties of asbestos fibers, toxicity of fibrous nanomaterials is a topic of intense study. The mechanisms of nanomaterial toxicity remain to be fully elucidated, but recent evidence suggests points of similarity with asbestos fibers, including a role for generation of reactive oxygen species, oxidative stress, and genotoxicity. Considering the rapid increase in production and use of fibrous nanomaterials, it is imperative to gain a thorough understanding of their biologic activity to avoid the human health catastrophe that has resulted from widespread use of asbestos fibers. PMID:20049814

  12. History of asbestos related disease

    PubMed Central

    Bartrip, P

    2004-01-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  13. History of asbestos related disease.

    PubMed

    Bartrip, P W J

    2004-02-01

    The first medical article on the hazards of asbestos dust appeared in the British Medical Journal in 1924. Following inquiries by Edward Merewether and Charles Price, the British government introduced regulations to control dangerous dust emissions in UK asbestos factories. Until the 1960s these appeared to have addressed the problem effectively. Only then, with the discoveries that mesothelioma was an asbestos related disease and that workers other than those employed in the dustiest parts of asbestos factories were at risk, were the nature and scale of the hazard reassessed. In Britain, America, and elsewhere new and increasingly strict regulations were enacted. PMID:14970292

  14. [Diagnosis and therapy of COPD exacerbation].

    PubMed

    Bauer, T T; Nilius, G; Grüning, W; Rasche, K

    2012-04-01

    The acute exacerbation of COPD (AECOPD) is a life-threatening clinical situation. This review summarizes the definition of AECOPD, the severity assessment, typical clinical signs and symptoms, and refers to clinical pitfalls of diagnosis and therapy. Important aspects of clinical history and physical examination in severe exacerbations are reported. The necessary accompanying examinations like chest X-ray, blood gas analysis, ECG and echocardiography and their differential diagnosis as well as therapeutic significance are described. The most important lab examinations are summarized and controversial parameters, e.g., procalcitonin, are commented upon. The differentiated need for a microbiological sputum screening is emphasized. The authors place special weight on the essential components of the therapeutic management of severe AECOPD. Practical aspects of uncontrolled oxygen therapy, drug selection, and application form of inhalative acute therapy, dose, and duration of glucocorticoids, the indication for antibiotics, mechanical ventilation, and also opiates are summarized. PMID:22476704

  15. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  16. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  17. [Expectations after ban on asbestos].

    PubMed

    Sarić, Marko

    2009-11-01

    This article brings a brief review of asbestos exposure and asbestos-related diseases in Croatia in view of the asbestos ban. The first cases of asbestosis were diagnosed in workers from an asbestos-cement factory in 1961. Between 1990 and 2007, 403 cases of asbestosis had been registered as occupational disease: 300 with parenchymal fibrosis and the rest with parenchymal and pleural changes, or pleural plaques. As a rule, asbestos-related changes were diagnosed at an early stage thanks to regular checkups of the exposed workers. Pleural plaques, considered to be the consequence of asbestos exposure, were also occasionally found in subjects who lived in areas with asbestos processing plants, but were not occupationally exposed. Early epidemiological studies on respiratory and gastrointestinal tract tumours in areas with an asbestos processing plant (1994) and an asbestos-cement plant (1995, 1996) focused on the occurrence of malignant tumours in persons exposed to asbestos at work or in the environment. More recently, the focus has shifted to the malignant pleural mesotelioma (MPM). An epidemiological study published in 2002 showed that the MPM incidence was significantly higher in the coastal area than in the rest of the country. About two thirds of patients with the tumour were occupationally exposed to asbestos. This uneven distribution of the tumour incidence is obviously related to shipbuilding and other industrial sources of asbestos exposure located in the coastal Croatia. Sources of environmental exposure to asbestos also have to be taken into account. The second part of this article ventures into the issues ahead of us, after asbestos has been banned in the country. The long latency period of cancers, and particularly of asbestos-related mesothelioma, implies that the incidence of this tumour will not drop over the next few decades. In Croatia, the average annual rate of MPM between 1991 and 2006 was 40, and ranged between 20 in 1991 to 61 in 1999. In 2006

  18. Urinary asbestos fibers and inorganic particles in past asbestos workers.

    PubMed

    Zaina, Sara; Mastrangelo, Giuseppe; Ballarin, Maria Nicoletta; Scoizzato, Luca; Carradori, Giorgio; Fedeli, Ugo; Capella, Silvana; Belluso, Elena

    2016-05-01

    To assess the validity of the procedure as a test of asbestos exposure, we compared urinary asbestos fibers with occupational and environmental exposure data in a random sample of 48 subjects with high past asbestos exposure. Occupational and environmental exposure was estimated on questionnaire, pleural plaques were diagnosed with computed tomography, and inorganic fibers and particles were identified by scanning electron microscope with an energy-dispersive spectrometry. Few urinary asbestos fibers (in 15% of workers and 17% of cases with pleural plaques) and high amount of urinary silicate (particularly nonfibrous particles) were detected. Asbestos undergoes dissolution in lung tissues, but the secondary minerals are largely unknown. These materials, possibly nonfibrous silicates or metals, could be excreted with urine. Therefore, another study including a control group is warranted to discriminate the occupational origin of minerals in the urine. PMID:25455013

  19. DRAFT ASBESTOS HEALTH ASSESSMENT UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Data developed since the early 1970's from large population studies with long follow-up strengthen the association of asbestos exposure to disease. Lung cancer and mesothelioma are the most important asbestos-related causes of death among exposed individuals. The accumulated data...

  20. Asbestos Abatement in Oklahoma Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    The intent of this paper is to provide the information necessary to develop and implement an acceptable asbestos removal plan. The information is taken from current (September 1980) federal and state regulations and recommendations. The information describing asbestos removal operations is organized chronologically to simplify using this document…

  1. Asbestos Abatement--Practical Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedrel, Roy A.

    Illinois Senate Bill 1644, the recently passed "Asbestos Abatement Act," requires all schools in the state, public and private alike, to remove friable asbestos by whichever comes first: July 1, 1989, or 3 years following the establishment of a system for state funding for corrective action. This document addresses practical considerations in…

  2. Asbestos Abatement: Start to Finish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makruski, Edward D.

    1984-01-01

    An EPA survey of the largest school districts in the nation revealed that over 50 percent have not inspected for asbestos and two-thirds have failed to notify parents adequately. Seven steps are therefore provided for successful asbestos abatement, in anticipation of tougher regulations now under consideration. (TE)

  3. Iron in asbestos chemistry and carcinogenicity

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, J.A.; Aust, A.E.

    1995-01-01

    This article reviews the various aspects regarding the carcinogenicity of asbestos and associated reactions catalyzed by iron. Attention is focused on the following: structure of asbestos; physical properties of asbestos involved in carcinogenesis; reactions catalyzed by iron; reactions catalyzed by asbestos; fiber inactivation; physiological effects; and mutations and cancer. 183 refs.

  4. Calcium Free Asbestos for Fuel Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Snitzer, B. A.

    1983-01-01

    Organic-acid salt removes unwanted calcium without weakening asbestos. Asbestos mixed with disodium ethylene diamine tetraacetic acid (disodium EDTA) in water and agitated for 2 hours. After disodium EDTA solution is drained away, asbestos contains only 0.02 to 0.1 percent calcium. Fiber structure of asbestos unaffected.

  5. The relationship between fibrosis and cancer in experimental animals exposed to asbestos and other fibers.

    PubMed Central

    Davis, J M; Cowie, H A

    1990-01-01

    The association between occupational asbestos exposure and the development of both pulmonary fibrosis or asbestosis and pulmonary carcinomas is well documented. It has been suggested that the two pathological conditions are associated with asbestos-related carcinomas developing from areas of asbestosis and not occurring when exposure has been too low to produce this type of pulmonary scarring. Experimental inhalation studies so far published have not been designed to examine this association specifically, but many publications have reported that asbestos samples producing high levels of fibrosis is experimental animals are also very carcinogenic. Samples of asbestos or man-made fibers that produce little fibrosis also produce few tumors. These works are reviewed. In order to examine the association between fibrosis and tumor production in more detail, groups of animals with and without pulmonary tumors and with individual fibrosis measurements were assembled from a number of inhalation studies undertaken over a period of years at this Institute. It was found that animals with pulmonary tumors had almost double the amount of pulmonary fibrosis as animals of similar age that did not. In a few of the animals where tumors were found at an early stage of development, their origin from fibrotic areas could be confirmed, although in most cases where tumor deposits were widespread this was not possible. Experimental confirmation of the site of origin of most pulmonary tumors in asbestos-treated rats would require new studies with rats examined specifically at an age when early tumors would be expected. PMID:2272327

  6. Asbestos/NESHAP adequately wet guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    The Asbestos NESHAP requires facility owners and/or operators involved in demolition and renovation activities to control emissions of particulate asbestos to the outside air because no safe concentration of airborne asbestos has ever been established. The primary method used to control asbestos emissions is to adequately wet the Asbestos Containing Material (ACM) with a wetting agent prior to, during and after demolition/renovation activities. The purpose of the document is to provide guidance to asbestos inspectors and the regulated community on how to determine if friable ACM is adequately wet as required by the Asbestos NESHAP.

  7. Asbestos/NESHAP regulated asbestos-containing-materials guidance

    SciTech Connect

    Shafer, R.; Throwe, S.; Salgado, O.; Garlow, C.; Hoerath, E.

    1990-12-01

    In the initial Asbestos NESHAP rule promulgated in 1973, a distinction was made between building materials that would readily release asbestos fibers when damaged or disturbed and those materials that were unlikely to result in significant fiber release. The terms friable and nonfriable were used to make this distinction. EPA has since determined that, if severely damaged, otherwise nonfriable materials can release significant amounts of asbestos fibers. Regulated Asbestos-Containing Material (RACM) is (a) friable asbestos material, (b) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that has become friable, (c) Category 1 nonfriable ACM that will be or has been subjected to sanding, grinding, cutting, or abrading, or (d) Category 2 nonfriable ACM that has a high probability of becoming or has become crumbled, pulverized, or reduced to powder by the forces expected to act on the material in the course of demolition or renovation operations. The purpose of the document is to assist asbestos inspectors and the regulated community in determining whether or not a material is RACM and thus subject to the Asbestos NESHAP.

  8. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. It is usually used ... to your doctor.Before you use your insulin oral inhaler the first time, read the written instructions ...

  9. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... metered – dose inhaler (MDI), which uses a chemical propellant to push the medication out of the inhaler. ... powder inhalers (DPIs) deliver medication without using chemical propellants, but they require a strong and fast inhalation. ...

  10. Asbestos products, hazards, and regulation.

    PubMed

    Castleman, Barry

    2006-01-01

    Asbestos is present in the United States in a multitude of products used in past decades, and in some products that continue to be imported and domestically produced. We have limited information on the hazards posed by some of these individual products and no information at all on most of them. Legal discovery of corporate documents has shed some light on the use of asbestos in some products and exposures from asbestos in others, sometimes adding considerably to what was in the published literature. But liability concerns have motivated corporate efforts to curtail governmental public health guidance on long-recognized hazards to workers. Liability considerations have also evidently led, in the case of asbestos brake linings, to the support of publication in the scientific literature of review articles denying in the 21st century what had been widely accepted and established in health policy in the 20th century. This report is an effort to illustrate the suppression and emergence of scientific knowledge in a climate of regulation and liability. Examples discussed are vinyl-asbestos flooring, feminine hygiene products, automotive friction materials, and asbestos contamination of other minerals such as talc and vermiculite. Global efforts to deal with the hazards of continuing marketing of asbestos products are also discussed. PMID:16878394

  11. Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arcot, Divya K.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure to particular hazardous materials in a work environment is dangerous to the employees who work directly with or around the materials as well as those who come in contact with them indirectly. In order to maintain a national standard for safe working environments and protect worker health, the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has set forth numerous precautionary regulations. NASA has been proactive in adhering to these regulations by implementing standards which are often stricter than regulation limits and administering frequent health risk assessments. The primary objective of this project is to create the infrastructure for an Asbestos Exposure Assessment Database specific to NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) which will compile all of the exposure assessment data into a well-organized, navigable format. The data includes Sample Types, Samples Durations, Crafts of those from whom samples were collected, Job Performance Requirements (JPR) numbers, Phased Contrast Microscopy (PCM) and Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) results and qualifiers, Personal Protective Equipment (PPE), and names of industrial hygienists who performed the monitoring. This database will allow NASA to provide OSHA with specific information demonstrating that JSC s work procedures are protective enough to minimize the risk of future disease from the exposures. The data has been collected by the NASA contractors Computer Sciences Corporation (CSC) and Wyle Laboratories. The personal exposure samples were collected from devices worn by laborers working at JSC and by building occupants located in asbestos-containing buildings.

  12. Long-term effects of carbon containing engineered nanomaterials and asbestos in the lung: one year postexposure comparisons

    PubMed Central

    Yanamala, Naveena; Kisin, Elena R.; Tkach, Alexey V.; Murray, Ashley R.; Hubbs, Ann; Chirila, Madalina M.; Keohavong, Phouthone; Sycheva, Lyudmila P.; Kagan, Valerian E.; Castranova, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The hallmark geometric feature of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNT) and carbon nanofibers (CNF), high length to width ratio, makes them similar to a hazardous agent, asbestos. Very limited data are available concerning long-term effects of pulmonary exposure to SWCNT or CNF. Here, we compared inflammatory, fibrogenic, and genotoxic effects of CNF, SWCNT, or asbestos in mice 1 yr after pharyngeal aspiration. In addition, we compared pulmonary responses to SWCNT by bolus dosing through pharyngeal aspiration and inhalation 5 h/day for 4 days, to evaluate the effect of dose rate. The aspiration studies showed that these particles can be visualized in the lung at 1 yr postexposure, whereas some translocate to lymphatics. All these particles induced chronic bronchopneumonia and lymphadenitis, accompanied by pulmonary fibrosis. CNF and asbestos were found to promote the greatest degree of inflammation, followed by SWCNT, whereas SWCNT were the most fibrogenic of these three particles. Furthermore, SWCNT induced cytogenetic alterations seen as micronuclei formation and nuclear protrusions in vivo. Importantly, inhalation exposure to SWCNT showed significantly greater inflammatory, fibrotic, and genotoxic effects than bolus pharyngeal aspiration. Finally, SWCNT and CNF, but not asbestos exposures, increased the incidence of K-ras oncogene mutations in the lung. No increased lung tumor incidence occurred after 1 yr postexposure to SWCNT, CNF, and asbestos. Overall, our data suggest that long-term pulmonary toxicity of SWCNT, CNF, and asbestos is defined, not only by their chemical composition, but also by the specific surface area and type of exposure. PMID:24213921

  13. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  14. Progress and New Problems Mark Your Battle Against School Asbestos.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Kathleen

    1985-01-01

    Reviews a survey of asbestos in the schools and the status of asbestos regulations enforcement policy. Reviews the status of asbestos litigation and recovery of abatement costs. Provides suggestions for choosing asbestos abatement contractors. (MD)

  15. Prevention of Acute Exacerbations of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bourbeau, Jean; Diekemper, Rebecca L.; Ouellette, Daniel R.; Goodridge, Donna; Hernandez, Paul; Curren, Kristen; Balter, Meyer S.; Bhutani, Mohit; Camp, Pat G.; Celli, Bartolome R.; Dechman, Gail; Dransfield, Mark T.; Fiel, Stanley B.; Foreman, Marilyn G.; Hanania, Nicola A.; Ireland, Belinda K.; Marchetti, Nathaniel; Marciniuk, Darcy D.; Mularski, Richard A.; Ornelas, Joseph; Stickland, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: COPD is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States as well as throughout the rest of the world. An exacerbation of COPD (periodic escalations of symptoms of cough, dyspnea, and sputum production) is a major contributor to worsening lung function, impairment in quality of life, need for urgent care or hospitalization, and cost of care in COPD. Research conducted over the past decade has contributed much to our current understanding of the pathogenesis and treatment of COPD. Additionally, an evolving literature has accumulated about the prevention of acute exacerbations. METHODS: In recognition of the importance of preventing exacerbations in patients with COPD, the American College of Chest Physicians (CHEST) and Canadian Thoracic Society (CTS) joint evidence-based guideline (AECOPD Guideline) was developed to provide a practical, clinically useful document to describe the current state of knowledge regarding the prevention of acute exacerbations according to major categories of prevention therapies. Three key clinical questions developed using the PICO (population, intervention, comparator, and outcome) format addressed the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD: nonpharmacologic therapies, inhaled therapies, and oral therapies. We used recognized document evaluation tools to assess and choose the most appropriate studies and to extract meaningful data and grade the level of evidence to support the recommendations in each PICO question in a balanced and unbiased fashion. RESULTS: The AECOPD Guideline is unique not only for its topic, the prevention of acute exacerbations of COPD, but also for the first-in-kind partnership between two of the largest thoracic societies in North America. The CHEST Guidelines Oversight Committee in partnership with the CTS COPD Clinical Assembly launched this project with the objective that a systematic review and critical evaluation of the published literature by clinical experts and researchers in

  16. Asthma Outcomes: Exacerbations

    PubMed Central

    Fuhlbrigge, Anne; Peden, David; Apter, Andrea J.; Boushey, Homer A.; Camargo, Carlos; Gern, James; Heymann, Peter W.; Martinez, Fernando D.; Mauger, David; Teague, William G.; Blaisdell, Carol

    2013-01-01

    Background The goals of asthma treatment include preventing recurrent exacerbations. Yet there is no consensus about the terminology for describing or defining “exacerbation,” or about how to characterize an episode’s severity. Objective National Institutes of Health (NIH) institutes and other federal agencies convened an expert group to propose how asthma exacerbation should be assessed as a standardized asthma outcome in future asthma clinical research studies. Methods We utilized comprehensive literature reviews and expert opinion to compile a list of asthma exacerbation outcomes, and classified them as either core (required in future studies), supplemental (used according to study aims and standardized), or emerging (requiring validation and standardization). This work was discussed at an NIH-organized workshop in March 2010 and finalized in September 2011. Results No dominant definition of “exacerbation” was found. The most widely used definitions included 3 components, all related to treatment, rather than symptoms: (1) systemic use of corticosteroids, (2) asthma-specific emergency department visits or hospitalization, and (3) use of short-acting β-agonists (SABAs) as quick-relief (sometimes referred to as “rescue” or “reliever”) medications. Conclusions The working group participants propose that the definition of “asthma exacerbation” be “a worsening of asthma requiring the use of systemic corticosteroids to prevent a serious outcome.” As core outcomes, they propose inclusion and separate reporting of several essential variables of an exacerbation. Further, they propose the development of a standardized, component-based definition of “exacerbation” with clear thresholds of severity for each component. PMID:22386508

  17. Asbestos bodies in bronchoalveolar lavage in relation to asbestos bodies and asbestos fibres in lung parenchyma.

    PubMed

    Karjalainen, A; Piipari, R; Mäntylä, T; Mönkkönen, M; Nurminen, M; Tukiainen, P; Vanhala, E; Anttila, S

    1996-05-01

    In Finland, unlike other countries, anthophyllite asbestos has been widely used due to its domestic production in 1918-1975. In this particular context, the aim of the present study was to analyse the relationship between asbestos bodies (ABs) in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid and the concentration of ABs and the different amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue. Sixty five BAL lung tissue sample pairs from patients with pulmonary disease were analysed. The concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and lung tissue was determined with optical microscopy, and the concentration, type and dimensions of asbestos fibres in lung tissue with scanning electron microscopy. There was a significant correlation between the concentrations of ABs in BAL fluid and in lung tissue (r = 0.72; p < 0.001), between the concentrations of ABs and amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.73; p < 0.001), and between the concentration of ABs in BAL fluid and the concentration of amphibole asbestos fibres in lung tissue (r = 0.64; p < 0.001). In patients who had been exposed mainly to commercial anthophyllite, significantly higher concentrations of ABs were observed per total pulmonary amphibole fibre burden, as compared to patients whose main exposure was to crocidolite/amosite. The anthophyllite fibres in lung tissue were longer than the crocidolite/amosite fibres. The relationship between asbestos body counts in lung tissue and in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid was similar to previous international observations. When using the asbestos body count to predict the underlying total pulmonary amphibole asbestos burden in Finnish patients, however, it should be borne in mind that the relationship between the two parameters seems to be different with anthophyllite as compared to crocidolite/amosite fibres. PMID:8793463

  18. Asbestos-Induced Gastrointestinal Cancer: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seok Jo; Williams, David; Cheresh, Paul; Kamp, David W

    2016-01-01

    Asbestos-related diseases, such as malignancies and asbestosis, remain a significant occupational and public health concern. Asbestos is still widely used in many developing countries despite being a recognized carcinogen that has been banned over 50 countries. The prevalence and mortality from asbestos-related diseases continue to pose challenges worldwide. Many countries are now experiencing an epidemic of asbestos-related disease that is the legacy of occupational exposure during the 20th century because of the long latency period (up to 40 years) between initial asbestos exposure and exhibition of disease. However, the gastrointestinal (GI) cancers resulting from asbestos exposure are not as clearly defined. In this review, we summarize some of the recent epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases and then focus on the evidence implicating asbestos in causing GI malignancies. We also briefly review the important new pathogenic information that has emerged over the past several years that may account for asbestos-related gastrointestinal cancers. All types of asbestos fibers have been implicated in the mortality and morbidity from GI malignancies but the collective evidence to date is mixed. Although the molecular basis of GI cancers arising from asbestos exposure is unclear, there have been significant advances in our understanding of mesothelioma and asbestosis that may contribute to the pathophysiology underlying asbestos-induced GI cancers. The emerging new evidence into the pathogenesis of asbestos toxicity is providing insights into the molecular basis for developing novel therapeutic strategies for asbestos-related diseases in future management. PMID:27158561

  19. Lung cinescintigraphy in the dynamic assessment of ventilation and mucociliary clearance of asbestos cement workers.

    PubMed Central

    Di Lorenzo, L; Mele, M; Pegorari, M M; Fratello, A; Zocchetti, C; Capozzi, D

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To verify in vivo whether lung cinescintigraphy confirms the effect of asbestos on the patency of the smallest airways and on the efficiency of mucociliary clearance in asbestos cement workers. METHODS: 39 male subjects were examined: 30 asbestos cement workers and nine workers never exposed to occupational respiratory irritants. All subjects had a chest radiograph (International Labour Organisation (ILO) 1980); standard questionnaire on chronic bronchitis; spirometry; arterial blood gas analysis; carbon monoxide transfer factor (TLcosb); pulmonary O2 and CO2 ductances (DuO2, DuCO2); electrocardiogram; and lung cinescintigraphy after radioaerosol inhalation for the measurement of mucociliary clearance time in vivo in the smallest ciliated airways and for the assessment of radioaerosol deposition in alveoli (alveolar deposition index). RESULTS: Apart from nine non-exposed subjects, the 30 asbestos cement workers were so classified on the basis of chest radiography: nine of them as healthy exposed, 10 with pleural plaques, and 11 with asbestosis. The four groups had similar ages, work seniority, and smoking habits. Exercise dyspnoea was significantly more frequent in asbestos cement workers. Lung function variables of workers with effects related to asbestos were significantly lower than the other two groups. The PaO2, TLcOsb and DuO2 mean values were significantly lower in exposed workers than non-exposed. The mean PacO2 value was significantly higher in the asbestosis group than in the other three groups. Workers with effects related to asbestos showed a significantly lower alveolar deposition index and a significantly higher mucociliary clearance time than the other two groups. Subjects with asbestosis showed similar differences from those with pleural plaques. CONCLUSIONS: Lung cinescintigraphy confirms in vivo the effects of asbestos on bronchiolar and alveolar patency and on efficiency of mucociliary clearance in the smallest ciliated airways

  20. Clinical efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation capsules inhaled by Cyclohaler compared with Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler.

    PubMed

    Vink-van Wijngaarden, T; Blom-Ross, M E; Lansdorp, D; Goedhart, D M; Eelhart, J; Guelen, P J; de Vos, D

    1998-09-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation powder inhaled by Rotahaler (Becotide Rotacaps, Glaxo Wellcome) and by Cyclohaler (Beclomethasone Cyclocaps, Pharmachemie). Both the Cyclohaler and the Rotahaler are single-dose dry powder inhalation devices for inhalation capsules. 182 asthma patients stabilized on inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate 800 micrograms daily, were randomly assigned to treatment with 800 micrograms beclomethasone dipropionate inhaled by Rotahaler (91 patients) or Cyclohaler (91 patients) in a double-blind manner, using the double-dummy method. It was shown that the asthma remained stable during the 16-week study period with both preparations. There were no statistically significant differences in the pulmonary parameters (morning PEF, evening PEF, FEV1). The test/reference ratio of the morning PEF (99.5%, CI 93.0% - 106.5%) was well within the equivalence interval, which had been set a priori from 85% to 117.6%. There were no marked differences between the Cyclocaps and Rotacaps group in symptom scores and adverse events. A total of 12 patients had an asthma exacerbation: 8 exacerbations occurred in the Rotahaler group and 4 in the Cyclohaler group. The difference was not statistically significant. The use of rescue medication was somewhat higher in the Rotahaler group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Significantly more patients (17 patients) withdrew from the study in the Rotahaler group than in the Cyclohaler group (5 patients). In conclusion, there was no difference in asthma control of patients treated with Beclomethasone Cyclocaps inhaled by Cyclohaler and Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler. Both preparations are therapeutically equivalent. PMID:9760014

  1. In Vitro Dissolution of Libby Amphibole, Amosite Asbestos, and MMVF Using Acid and Synthetic Lung Fluid Media.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Toxicity of inhaled fibers is dependent in part on biopersistence due to changes in size distribution after deposition and clearance in the respiratory tract. To model this in vivo behavior, respirable (PM2.5) Libby amphibole (LA) and amosite asbestos, and a reference material gl...

  2. ASBESTOS AND RELATED DURABLE FIBERS: TOO UBIQUITOUS, TOO PERSISTENT, TOO COMPLEX TO PUT HEALTH RISKS TO REST?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Asbestos was used for centuries before its health risks become publicly known. Health concerns for non-occupational exposures rose at EPA's inception and these concerns quickly expanded to include risks from inhalation and ingestion of durable mineral and synthetic fibers that ...

  3. Comparative effectiveness of long term drug treatment strategies to prevent asthma exacerbations: network meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Gemperli, Armin; Cohen, Judith; Rubinstein, Sidney M; Sterk, Peter J; Reddel, Helen K; Jüni, Peter; ter Riet, Gerben

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the comparative effectiveness and safety of current maintenance strategies in preventing exacerbations of asthma. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis using Bayesian statistics. Data sources Cochrane systematic reviews on chronic asthma, complemented by an updated search when appropriate. Eligibility criteria Trials of adults with asthma randomised to maintenance treatments of at least 24 weeks duration and that reported on asthma exacerbations in full text. Low dose inhaled corticosteroid treatment was the comparator strategy. The primary effectiveness outcome was the rate of severe exacerbations. The secondary outcome was the composite of moderate or severe exacerbations. The rate of withdrawal was analysed as a safety outcome. Results 64 trials with 59 622 patient years of follow-up comparing 15 strategies and placebo were included. For prevention of severe exacerbations, combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting β agonists as maintenance and reliever treatment and combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting β agonists in a fixed daily dose performed equally well and were ranked first for effectiveness. The rate ratios compared with low dose inhaled corticosteroids were 0.44 (95% credible interval 0.29 to 0.66) and 0.51 (0.35 to 0.77), respectively. Other combined strategies were not superior to inhaled corticosteroids and all single drug treatments were inferior to single low dose inhaled corticosteroids. Safety was best for conventional best (guideline based) practice and combined maintenance and reliever therapy. Conclusions Strategies with combined inhaled corticosteroids and long acting β agonists are most effective and safe in preventing severe exacerbations of asthma, although some heterogeneity was observed in this network meta-analysis of full text reports. PMID:24919052

  4. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  5. Minerals yearbook, 1990: Asbestos. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Virta, R.L.

    1990-01-01

    The first stage of a regulation enacted by the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) that phases out the use of asbestos went into effect on August 27, 1990. Health and liability issues continued to be a major factor in determining the economic stability of several former producers of asbestos products. The number of firms that produce asbestos-containing products continued to decline in response to these issues. Domestic asbestos production increased slightly from that of 1989, but consumption decreased 25%, from 55,306 to 41,348 tons. Asbestos was consumed domestically for roofing products, 37%; friction products, 26%; asbestos-cement pipe, 15%; packing and gaskets, 8%; and other, 14%.

  6. AMI cautions against attacks on asbestos replacements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-07-01

    The asbestos industry claims that alternative materials pose risks comparable to asbestos are not only unfounded, they have users of substitutes by limiting the options available if asbestos is banned. EPA will determine if the millions of tons of asbestos still imported into the US each year represents an unreasonable risk. Risk involves issues of toxicity and exposure. There are no data indicating that alternatives are comparable to asbestos. Rather, the information we do have shows that alternative materials are safe substitutes for asbestos.

  7. Asbestos exposure and neoplasia

    SciTech Connect

    Selikoff, I.J.; Churg, J.; Hammond, E.C.

    1984-07-06

    Builiding trades insulation workers have relatively light, intermittent, exposure to asbestos. Of 632 insulation workers, who entered the trade before 1943 and were traced through 1962, forty-five died of cancer of the lung or pleura, whereas only 6.6 such deaths were expected. Three of the pleural tumors were mesotheliomas; there was also one peritoneal mesothelioma. Four mesotheliomas in a total of 255 deaths is an exceedingly high incidence for such a rare tumor. In addition, an unexpectedly large number of men died of cancer of the stomach, colon, or rectum (29 compared with 9.4 expected). Other cancers were not increased; 20.5 were expected, 21 occurred. Twelve men died of asbestosis. This landmark article appeared originally in this journal 188:22-26, 1964.

  8. Managing asbestos: Ten costly sins

    SciTech Connect

    Denson, F.A.; Onderick, W.A.

    1993-01-01

    This article describes how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. Asbestos management is one of the toughest jobs facing a plant or environmental engineer today; even seasoned engineers can make mistakes. Much confusion exists about how best to manage this issue, especially in plant settings. Whether the company is small, medium, or large, asbestos has the power to steal from profits if not managed properly. To help POWER readers examine their current asbestos management programs, here are 10 common errors that could be stopped or avoided by practicing preventive techniques. The 10 costly sins presented are not mutually exclusive, and they certainly are not all-inclusive. They are offered as a way to stimulate ideas on how to build an ongoing, continuous, and improved asbestos management program. These include Sin 1: No written policy. Sin 2: Lack of corporate guidance. Sin 3: Not complying with regulations. Sin 4: Not worrying about other respirable fibers. Sin 5: Lawsuits--not culpable. Sin 6: No visible emissions, no problems. Sin 7: Managing asbestos manually.

  9. Prospective study of asbestos-related diseases incidence cases in primary health care in an area of Barcelona province

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Asbestos related diseases include a number of conditions due to inhalation of asbestos fibres at work, at home or in the environment, such as pleural mesothelioma, asbestosis and calcified pleural plaques. Few epidemiological studies have established the incidence of asbestos related diseases in our area. The present proposal is based on a retrospective study externally funded in 2005 that is currently taking place in the same area and largely carried out by the same research team. The aim of the study is to achieve a comprehensive and coordinated detection of all new cases of Asbestos Related Diseases presenting to primary care practitioners. Methods/design This is a multicentre, multidisciplinary and pluri-institutional prospective study. Setting 12 municipalities in the Barcelona province within the catchment area of the health facilities that participate in the study. Sample This is a population based study, of all patients presenting with diseases caused by asbestos in the study area. Measurements A clinical and epidemiological questionnaire will be filled in by the trained researchers after interviewing the patients and examining their clinical reports. Discussion Data on the incidence of the different Asbestos Related Diseases in this area will be obtained and the most plausible exposure source and space-time-patient profile will be described. The study will also improve the standardization of patient management, the coordination between health care institutions and the development of preventive activities related with asbestos exposure and disease. PMID:20412567

  10. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    PubMed

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. PMID:26711092

  11. Oversight Hearings on Asbestos Health Hazards to Schoolchildren. Hearings before the Subcommittee on Elementary, Secondary, and Vocational Education of the Committee on Education and Labor. House of Representatives, Ninety-Sixth Congress, First Session on H.R. 1435 and H.R. 1524 (January 8, 16, and February 22, 1979).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and Labor.

    Testimony and prepared statements presented during three days of hearings in January and February, 1979, concern the problems of asbestos in school buildings. Medical research indicates that the inhalation of asbestos dust vastly increases a person's chances of contacting fatal diseases such as lung cancer, mesothelioma, and asbestosis. Asbestos…

  12. Reported historic asbestos mines, historic asbestos prospects, and other natural occurrences of asbestos in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Clinkenbeard, John P.

    2011-01-01

    The map (Plate.pdf), pamphlet (Pamphlet.pdf), and the accompanying datasets in this report provide information for 290 sites in California where asbestos occurs in natural settings, using descriptions found in the geologic literature. Data on location, mineralogy, geology, and relevant literature for each asbestos site are provided. Using the map and digital data in this report, the user can examine the distribution of previously reported asbestos and their geological characteristics in California. This report is part of an ongoing study by the U.S. Geological Survey to identify and map sites where asbestos mineralization occurs in the United States, which includes similar maps and datasets of natural asbestos localities within the Eastern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2005/1189/), the Central United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1211/), the Rocky Mountain States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2007/1182/), the Southwestern United States (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2008/1095/), and the Northwestern United States (Oregon and Washington) (http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2010/1041/). These reports are intended to provide State and local government agencies and other stakeholders with geologic information on reported asbestos mineralization in the United States.

  13. Environmental projects. Volume 4: Asbestos survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kushner, L.

    1988-01-01

    The Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex (GDSCC), near Barstow, California, operates in support of six large parabolic dish antennas. Many of the buildings and structures at the GDSCC were erected before it became known that asbestos posed a hazard to human health. Thus, because of concern with asbestos, two field surveys were conducted at the GDSCC in October/November 1986 and in September 1987 to locate, classify, and quantify all asbestos-containing materials in buildings, structures, roofs and boilers. The report describes the results of the two surveys and describes methods for both asbestos management and asbestos abatement. The surveys found that GDSCC practices involving asbestos are conscientious and forward-thinking. A program, due to start in FY 1988 and to be completed in FY 1990, is planned to remove all friable (easily pulverized) asbestos-containing materials discovered during the two field surveys for asbestos at the GDSCC.

  14. FEDERAL REGULATIONS RELEVANT TO ASBESTOS POLLUTION CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Health effects and epidemiological studies have established that breathing asbestos fibers can cause asbestosis, lung and other organ cancers, and mesothelioma. This has led to publication by EPA's Office of Toxic Substances of guidance for minimizing airborne asbestos exposure i...

  15. Model curriculum for asbestos abatement workers

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    These slides are part of a 4-day-course intended for those persons seeking accreditation as asbestos abatement workers. The course presents a straight forward, easy-to-read approach to learning the basics of asbestos abatement.

  16. Asbestos in Schools--A Special Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    School Business Affairs, 1988

    1988-01-01

    A magazine insert contains six short articles that deal with school district compliance with the Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA). Display advertisements by asbestos-related firms accompany the insert. (MLF)

  17. Reinforcement of polymeric structures with asbestos fibrils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rader, C. A.; Schwartz, A. M.

    1970-01-01

    Investigation determines structural potential of asbestos fibrils. Methods are developed for dispersing macrofibers of the asbestos into colloidal-sized ultimate fibrils and incorporating these fibrils in matrices without causing reagglomeration.

  18. Asbestos use and carcinogenicity in Germany and a comparison with animal studies.

    PubMed

    Pott, F

    1994-08-01

    The centralized structure of economic affairs in the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) and the isolation from the free market led to the situation that imported asbestos was almost exclusively chrysotile. More than 90% came from the Kiembay mining area in the Ural Mountains, and about 7% was long-fibre chrysotile from Canada. Sturm and co-workers detected 1082 mesothelioma cases from 1960 to 1990 in the counties of Magdeburg and Halle. In 843 of these cases an exposure to asbestos was evident. Seventy-two cases were exposed to chrysotile only. Suspected exposure to amphiboles imported before World War II or to fibre contained in talc could not be substantiated. Up to now, there have been no analyses of lung fibre burdens from such cases. Reviewing the carcinogenicity studies in rats performed by inhalation or intra-cavitary injection of chrysotile, amosite and crocidolite fibres, the results give no clear indication of a lower carcinogenic potency per chrysotile fibre than per amphibole fibre if equal fibre numbers and fibre sizes are applied, although the chrysotile content of the lungs is relatively low. Also the mesothelioma rates after inhalation exposure to extremely high concentrations of the different asbestos fibre types are similar for chrysotile and the amphiboles and in the region of 5%. Compared with the asbestos-related cancer rates in chrysotile textile workers, rats have to be exposed to a more than 100-fold higher fibre concentration than humans to induce the same lung tumour incidence. PMID:7978982

  19. LOW-DOSE AIRBORNE ENDOTOXIN EXPOSURE ENHANCES BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS TO INHALED ALLERGEN IN ATOPIC ASTHMATICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Endotoxin exposure has been associated with both protection against development of TH2-immune responses during childhood and exacerbation of asthma in persons who already have allergic airway inflammation.1 Occupational and experimental inhalation exposures to endotoxin have been...

  20. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  1. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  2. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of phosphoric acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a source of fluoride ions. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  3. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  4. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a tetrafluoroborate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  5. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  6. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a boron tetrafluoride salt, free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  7. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate salt, and free of or having only small amounts of an inorganic acid, an inorganic acid salt or a mixture thereof. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  8. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, J.

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed. The composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  9. Composition and method to remove asbestos

    DOEpatents

    Block, Jacob

    1998-05-19

    A composition for transforming a chrysotile asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material is disclosed, wherein the composition comprises water, at least about 30% by weight of an inorganic acid, and from about 0.1 to about 4% by weight of a hexafluorosilicate of ammonia, an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. A method of transforming the asbestos-containing material into a non-asbestos material using the present composition also is disclosed.

  10. Asbestos: Geology, Mineralogy, Mining, and Uses

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2002-01-01

    The term asbestos is a generic designation referring usually to six types of naturally occurring mineral fibers that are or have been commercially exploited. These fibers belong to two mineral groups: serpentines and amphiboles. The serpentine group contains a single asbestiform variety: chrysotile; five asbestiform varieties of amphiboles are known: anthophyllite asbestos, grunerite asbestos (amosite), riebeckite asbestos (crocidolite), tremolite asbestos, and actinolite asbestos. These fibrous minerals share several properties which qualify them as asbestiform fibers: they are found in bundles of fibers which can be easily separated from the host matrix or cleaved into thinner fibers; the fibers exhibit high tensile strengths, they show high length: diameter (aspect) ratios, from a minimum of 20 up to greater than 1000; they are sufficiently flexible to be spun; and macroscopically, they resemble organic fibers such as cellulose. Since asbestos fibers are all silicates, they exhibit several other common properties, such as incombustibility, thermal stability, resistance to biodegradation, chemical inertia toward most chemicals, and low electrical conductivity. The term asbestos has traditionally been attributed only to those varieties that are commercially exploited. The industrial applications of asbestos fibers have now shifted almost exclusively to chrysotile. Two types of amphiboles, commonly designated as amosite and crocidolite are no longer mined. The other three amphibole varieties, anthophyllite asbestos, actinolite asbestos, and tremolite asbestos, have no significant industrial applications presently.

  11. Alternative Asbestos Control Method (AACM), Washington

    EPA Science Inventory

    This presentation describes the status to date of the Alternative Asbestos Control Method research, which is intended as a possible alternative technology for use in the demolition of buildings that contain asbestos and are covered under the regulatory requirements of the Asbesto...

  12. Earth mineral resource of the month: asbestos

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Virta, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    The article discusses the characteristics and feature of asbestos. According to the author, asbestos is a generic name for six needle-shaped minerals that possess high tensile strengths, flexibility, and resistance to chemical and thermal degradation. These minerals are actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, chrysolite, crocilodite and tremolite. Asbestos is used for strengthening concrete pipe, plastic components, and gypsum plasters.

  13. Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) Operation Manual

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Releasable Asbestos Field Sampler (RAFS) is a field instrument that provides an in-situ measurement of asbestos releasability from consistent and reproducible mechanical agitation of the source material such as soil. The RAFS was designed to measure concentration (asbestos st...

  14. The epidemiology of asbestos-related diseases.

    PubMed

    Niklinski, Jacek; Niklinska, Wieslawa; Chyczewska, Elzbieta; Laudanski, Jerzy; Naumnik, Wojciech; Chyczewski, Lech; Pluygers, Eric

    2004-08-01

    Asbestos has been recognised as a potential health hazard since the 1940s. Of the two major species of asbestos; white asbestos (chrysotile) and blue asbestos (crocidolite), both of which are hazardous. The workers at extraction facilities are at the greatest risk of exposure to asbestos and, therefore, the development of asbestos-related diseases, commonly mesothelioma. However, other individuals at a high risk of exposure include asbestos-cement workers, insulation workers and ship-yard workers. Environmental exposure to asbestos can occur as a result of living in areas either characterised by natural outcrops of asbestos or asbestos-related materials, or those close to asbestos-producing or -using plants. Unfortunately, man-made fibre alternatives to asbestos, such as rock and slag-wool and glass wool, have also been shown to have a detrimental effect on human health. A characteristic of mesothelioma is that there is a long latency period (20-30 years) before the signs and symptoms of the disease become apparent. In addition, diagnosis of the disease can be difficult. The use of biological markers, such as tissue polypeptide antigen, may play a useful role in the early detection of the disease in individuals at risk. PMID:15261426

  15. OVERVIEW ON ALTERNATIVE ASBESTOS CONTROL METHOD RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The alternative asbestos control method (AACM) is an experimental approach to building demolition. Unlike the NESHAP method, the AACM allows some regulated asbestos-containing material to remain in the building and a surfactant-water solution is used to suppress asbestos fibers ...

  16. Uncle Sam Flunks Asbestos Control in Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gough, Michael

    1988-01-01

    Discusses the problem of using asbestos to insulate heating and air-conditioning systems in schools and mixing asbestos into ceiling plaster for fireproofing and noise control. Suggests that the Environmental Protection Agency's plan for asbestos removal may be causing problems where none exist. (TW)

  17. Asbestos Training Curriculum Project. [Draft Copy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharman, Ron

    This package contains two types of asbestos training materials: (1) an instructor's guide for "Asbestos in the Home: A Homeowner's Course"; and (2) "Asbestos Abatement Certification: Small-Scale Worker Student Manual," a 16-hour course, with instructor's guide. The instructor's guide for the 6-hour homeowner's course contains eight sections that…

  18. Asbestos Imperative: What You Must Do.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    AGB Reports, 1986

    1986-01-01

    Under federal regulation, all friable asbestos must be removed from buildings before undertaking major renovation or demolition. The American Council on Education is filing a national voluntary class action suit to recover from asbestos manufacturers the costs of removing asbestos-containing materials. (MLW)

  19. Thermal removal of asbestos pipeline coating

    SciTech Connect

    Stevens, W.H.

    1997-03-01

    A heat (thermal) technique, not previously used in the US for removing external pipe coating was used to remove asbestos-wrapped coating from 17 miles of 24-inch-diameter pipe. The process was conducted in compliance with all asbestos and air quality regulations, and produced asbestos-free pipe at timely and cost-effective rates.

  20. Asbestos Testing: Is the EPA Misleading You?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levins, Hoag

    1983-01-01

    Experts warn that only electron microscopes can see the smaller fibers of asbestos that are known to cause the most cancers, though the Environmental Protection Agency still endorses optical microscopes for asbestos removal verification. Asbestos testing methods are explained and sources of information are provided. (MLF)

  1. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using a nebulizer, and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. The ... will come in canisters. Each canister of levalbuterol aerosol is designed to provide 200 inhalations. After the ...

  2. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  3. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... in (inhaled). Common types of abused inhalants are: Aerosols, such as air freshener, deodorant, fabric protector, hair ... a gas from a balloon Dusting: Spraying an aerosol into the nose or mouth Glading: Inhaling air- ...

  4. Risk Assessment of Baby Powder Exposure through Inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Min Chaul; Park, Jung Duck; Choi, Byung Soon; Park, So Young; Kim, Dong Won; Chung, Yong Hyun; Hisanaga, Naomi

    2011-01-01

    This study was conducted to assess the exposure risk through inhalation to baby powder for babies and adults under simulated conditions. Baby powder was applied to a baby doll and the amount of baby powder consumed per application was estimated. The airborne exposure to baby powder during application was then evaluated by sampling the airborne baby powder near the breathing zones of both the baby doll and the person applying the powder (the applicator). The average amount of baby powder consumed was 100 mg/application, and the average exposure concentration of airborne baby powder for the applicator and baby doll was 0.00527 mg/m3 (range 0.00157~0.01579 mg/m3) and 0.02207 mg/m3 (range 0.00780~ 0.04173 mg/m3), respectively. When compared with the Occupational Exposure Limit of 2 mg/m3 set by the Korean Ministry of Labor and the Threshold Limit Value (TLV) of 2 mg/m3 set by the ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists), the exposure concentrations were much lower. Next, the exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was estimated and the exposure risk was assessed based on the lung asbestos contents in normal humans. As a result, the estimated lung asbestos content resulting from exposure to asbestos-containing baby powder was found to be much lower than that of a normal Korean with no asbestos-related occupational history. PMID:24278563

  5. Inflammation-Related IL1β/IL1R Signaling Promotes the Development of Asbestos-Induced Malignant Mesothelioma.

    PubMed

    Kadariya, Yuwaraj; Menges, Craig W; Talarchek, Jacqueline; Cai, Kathy Q; Klein-Szanto, Andres J; Pietrofesa, Ralph A; Christofidou-Solomidou, Melpo; Cheung, Mitchell; Mossman, Brooke T; Shukla, Arti; Testa, Joseph R

    2016-05-01

    Exposure to asbestos is causally associated with the development of malignant mesothelioma, a cancer of cells lining the internal body cavities. Malignant mesothelioma is an aggressive cancer resistant to all current therapies. Once inhaled or ingested, asbestos causes inflammation in and around tissues that come in contact with these carcinogenic fibers. Recent studies suggest that inflammation is a major contributing factor in the development of many types of cancer, including malignant mesothelioma. The NALP3/NLRP3 inflammasome, including the component ASC, is thought to be an important mediator of inflammation in cells that sense extracellular insults, such as asbestos, and activate a signaling cascade resulting in release of mature IL1β and recruitment of inflammatory cells. To determine if inflammasome-mediated inflammation contributes to asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma, we chronically exposed Asc-deficient mice and wild-type littermates to asbestos and evaluated differences in tumor incidence and latency. The Asc-deficient mice showed significantly delayed tumor onset and reduced malignant mesothelioma incidence compared with wild-type animals. We also tested whether inflammation-related release of IL1β contributes to tumor development in an accelerated mouse model of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma. Nf2(+/-);Cdkn2a(+/-) mice exposed to asbestos in the presence of anakinra, an IL1 receptor (IL1R) antagonist, showed a marked delay in the median time of malignant mesothelioma onset compared with similarly exposed mice given vehicle control (33.1 weeks vs. 22.6 weeks, respectively). Collectively, these studies provide evidence for a link between inflammation-related IL1β/IL1R signaling and the development of asbestos-induced malignant mesothelioma. Furthermore, these findings provide rationale for chemoprevention strategies targeting IL1β/IL1R signaling in high-risk, asbestos-exposed populations. Cancer Prev Res; 9(5); 406-14. ©2016 AACR

  6. Fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes: The health impact of ‘asbestos-like’ fibres

    PubMed Central

    MIOZZI, EDOARDO; RAPISARDA, VENERANDO; MARCONI, ANDREA; COSTA, CHIARA; POLITO, IRENE; SPANDIDOS, DEMETRIOS A.; LIBRA, MASSIMO; FENGA, CONCETTINA

    2016-01-01

    Several decades have passed since Wagner et al demonstrated a causal link between asbestos fibre inhalation and the development of pleural mesothelioma in 1960. It was later suggested that pleural plaques are a benign consequence of exposure to these fibres. Most recently, a significant association between exposure to asbestos and cancer diagnosed at various sites, such as the peritoneum, stomach, pharynx, colon and ovaries has been demonstrated. The great concerns about public health that arose from the scientific evidence presented above have led to the banning of asbestos in several countries. Over the years, the suspicion that particles with a high aspect ratio may have asbestos-like pathogenicity has been supported by increasing evidence. Natural occurring minerals, as well as man-made fibres, have proven capable of inducing either chronic inflammation of serous membranes, or, in some cases, the development of peritoneal and pleural mesothelioma. The pathogenic role of both fluoro-edenite and carbon nanotubes, two ‘asbestos-like’ fibres is summarized and discussed in this review. The data presented herein support the notion that occupational exposure to these two types of fibre contributes to the development of different types of cancer. PMID:26889212

  7. Re-evaluation of Non-regulatory Asbestos Group Minerals for Regulatory Agencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogan, M.; Dogan, A.

    2013-05-01

    There are established rules and regulations for some asbestos group minerals - amphibole group minerals of actinolite, amosite, anthophyllite, crocidolite, tremolite; and serpentine group minerals of chrysotile- called "regulatory". There are also "non-regulatory" naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) group minerals as constituent of rocks and soil, including richterite, winchite, fluoro-edenite, balangeroite, carlosturanite, gageite, arfvedsonite, and magnesio-arfvedsonite. Strong evidences for carcinogenicity of these NOA minerals in later cohorts of cancer patients demonstrated the risks associated with these minerals. In addition, although the chrysotile asbestos regulated by some organizations such as WHO, World Trade Organization, United Nations, US EPA, International Labour Organization, and EU Countries; however, controversies still continue surrounding the use of chrysotile. Determinations of polymineralic fibrous veins, mixed particles, amphibole cleavage fragments, and genetic predisposition are also important issues (i.e. Dogan et al., 2006).Therefore, accurate characterizations of chemical composition, morphology, structure, and defects are necessary in order to find out mechanism(s) of carcinogenicity of all asbestos group minerals. Calculation methods of chemical composition are still under debate because of assumption of no vacancies at any sites and intergrowth of minerals. Substitution(s) may cause deviations from the ideal chemical formula and wide variations in chemical compositions. Detail morphological and chemical quantification of individual asbestos group minerals in micro- and nano-scale may help to evaluate its true carcinogenetic mechanism(s), and consequently prevention and possibly treatment of related diseases. we propose that nonregulatory asbestos minerals and the chrysotile should be re-evaluated. The amount of fibers inhaled, in terms of weight percent and number, need also be re-evaluated by mineralogists. Finally, Regulatory

  8. MECHANISMS OF ACTION OF INHALED FIBERS, PARTICLES AND NANOPARTICLES IN LUNG AND CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    ABSTRACT: A symposium on the mechanisms of action of inhaled airborne particulate matter (PM),pathogenic particles and fibers such as silica and asbestos, and nanomaterials, defined as synthetic particles or fibers less than 100 nm in diameter, was held on October 27 and 28,
    ...

  9. Pharmacological strategies to reduce exacerbation risk in COPD: a narrative review.

    PubMed

    Miravitlles, Marc; D'Urzo, Anthony; Singh, Dave; Koblizek, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Identifying patients at risk of exacerbations and managing them appropriately to reduce this risk represents an important clinical challenge. Numerous treatments have been assessed for the prevention of exacerbations and their efficacy may differ by patient phenotype. Given their centrality in the treatment of COPD, there is strong rationale for maximizing bronchodilation as an initial strategy to reduce exacerbation risk irrespective of patient phenotype. Therefore, in patients assessed as frequent exacerbators (>1 exacerbation/year) we propose initial bronchodilator treatment with a long-acting muscarinic antagonist (LAMA)/ long-acting β2-agonist (LABA). For those patients who continue to experience >1 exacerbation/year despite maximal bronchodilation, we advocate treating according to patient phenotype. Based on currently available data on adding inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) to a LABA, ICS might be added to a LABA/LAMA combination in exacerbating patients who have an asthma-COPD overlap syndrome or high blood eosinophil counts, while in exacerbators with chronic bronchitis, consideration should be given to treating with a phosphodiesterase (PDE)-4 inhibitor (roflumilast) or high-dose mucolytic agents. For those patients who experience frequent bacterial exacerbations and/or bronchiectasis, addition of mucolytic agents or a macrolide antibiotic (e.g. azithromycin) should be considered. In all patients at risk of exacerbations, pulmonary rehabilitation should be included as part of a comprehensive management plan. PMID:27613392

  10. The carcinogenicity of chrysotile asbestos

    SciTech Connect

    Harington, J.S. )

    1991-12-31

    In in vitro test systems, chrysotile is markedly toxic, causes chromosomal aberrations, and is capable of inducing morphological and preneoplastic transformation. In carefully designed animal experiments, chrysotile produces lung cancer and mesothelioma as effectively as do the amphiboles tested. Human population studies do not refute these experimental results. Chrysotile asbestos is carcinogenic to humans, especially for the induction of lung cancer and mesothelioma in exposed populations. For cancers of other sites, with the exception of laryngeal and possibly gastrointestinal cancer, the evidence for association with exposure to all forms of asbestos, including chrysotile, is not yet adequate for evaluation.48 references.

  11. Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Mewes, B.S.

    1993-09-01

    The Hanford Site Asbestos Abatement Plan (Plan) lists priorities for asbestos abatement activities to be conducted in Hanford Site facilities. The Plan is based on asbestos assessment information gathered in fiscal year 1989 that evaluated all Hanford Site facilities for the presence and condition of asbestos. Of those facilities evaluated, 414 contain asbestos-containing materials and are classified according to the potential risk of asbestos exposure to building personnel. The Plan requires that asbestos condition update reports be prepared for all affected facilities. The reporting is completed by the asbestos coordinator for each of the 414 affected facilities and transmitted to the Plan manager annually. The Plan manager uses this information to reprioritize future project lists. Currently, five facilities are determined to be Class Al, indicating a high potential for asbestos exposure. Class Al and B1 facilities are the highest priority for asbestos abatement. Abatement of the Class A1 and Bl facilities is scheduled through fiscal year 1997. Removal of asbestos in B1 facilities will reduce the risk for further Class ``A`` conditions to arise.

  12. [Disposal of waste containing asbestos in Croatia].

    PubMed

    Mladineo, Vinko

    2009-11-01

    In order to ensure systematic disposal of asbestos waste in the whole of Croatia, its government has mandated the Environmental Protection and Energy Efficiency Fund to implement emergency measures to collect and dispose of asbestos-containing construction waste. This requires a construction of 45 special disposal containers in the existing municipal waste landfills and contracting collection of asbestos-containing construction waste. By now, the Fund has disposed of 8000 m3 of asbestos cement waste, recovered five dumps with asbestos-containing construction waste, reclaimed a location contaminated by asbestos in Vranjic, and has continued to recover the land at the premises of factory Salonit in bankruptcy, which had been producing corrugated asbestos sheets before the ban. In collaboration with several non-governmental organisations, the Fund has started an educational campaign to protect the environment. PMID:20853773

  13. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27147888

  14. Naturally Occurring Asbestos in Washington State: Swift Creek at the Intersection of Science, Law, and Risk Perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melious, J. O.

    2012-12-01

    In the northwestern corner of Washington state, a large landslide on Sumas Mountain deposits more than 100,000 cubic yards of soil containing asbestos fibers and heavy metals into Swift Creek every year. Engineers predict that asbestos-laden soils will slide into Swift Creek for at least the next 400 years. Swift Creek joins the Sumas River, which crosses the border into Canada, serving as an international delivery system for asbestos-laden soils. When the rivers flood, as happens regularly, they deliver asbestos into field, yards, and basements. The tools available to address the Swift Creek situation are at odds with the scope and nature of the problem. Asbestos regulation primarily addresses occupational settings, where exposures can be estimated. Hazardous waste regulation primarily addresses liability for abandoned waste products from human activities. Health and environmental issues relating to naturally occurring asbestos (NOA) are fundamentally different from either regulatory scheme. Liability is not a logical lever for a naturally occurring substance, the existence of which is nobody's fault, and exposures to NOA in the environment do not necessarily resemble occupational exposures. The gaps and flaws in the legal regime exacerbate the uncertainties created by uncertainties in the science. Once it is assumed that no level of exposure is safe, legal requirements adopted in very different contexts foreclose the options for addressing the Swift Creek problem. This presentation will outline the applicable laws and how they intersect with issues of risk perception, uncertainty and politics in efforts to address the Swift Creek NOA site.

  15. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Ciclesonide is usually inhaled twice a day. Try to use ciclesonide at around ... than usual.The inhaler that comes with ciclesonide aerosol is designed for use only with a canister ...

  16. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Zanamivir comes as a powder to inhale (breathe in) by mouth. To treat influenza, it is usually inhaled twice daily for 5 days. You should ... plastic inhaler called a Diskhaler (device for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each ...

  17. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  18. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  19. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  20. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in ... Budesonide comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler and as a suspension to inhale by mouth using a special jet nebulizer ( ...

  1. Legal Aspects of Asbestos Abatement. Responses to the Threat of Asbestos-Containing Materials in School Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Kristin

    Exposure to asbestos in the air poses serious health threats, particularly to children. The use of asbestos in schools after World War II may have exposed millions of persons before regulations controlling asbestos use began appearing in the 1970s. Federal efforts to reduce exposure to asbestos have included passage of the Asbestos School Hazard…

  2. OXALATE DEPOSITION ON ASBESTOS BODIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The clinical and histopathologic findings in three patients with a deposition of calcium oxalate crystals on ferruginous bodies after occupational exposure to asbestos are provided. In addition, we test the hypothesis that this oxalate can be generated through a nonenzymatic o...

  3. Three-dimensional Numerical Simulation of Gas-particulate Flow around Breathing Human and Particulate Inhalation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yasuhiro; Okubo, Masaaki; Yamamoto, Toshiaki

    2006-05-01

    It is important to predict the environment around the breathing human because inhalation of virus (avian influenza, SARS) is recently severe worldwide problem, and air pollution caused by diesel emission particle (DEP) and asbestos attract a great deal of attention. In the present study, three-dimensional numerical simulation was carried out to predict unsteady flows around a breathing human and how suspended particulate matter (SPM, diameter˜1 μm) reaches the human nose in inhalation and exhalation. In the calculation, we find out smaller breathing angle and the closer distance between the human nose and pollutant region are effective in the inhalation of SPM.

  4. Exposure to particulate hexavalent chromium exacerbates allergic asthma pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, Brent C.; Constant, Stephanie L.; Patierno, Steven R.; Jurjus, Rosalyn A.; Ceryak, Susan M.

    2012-02-15

    Airborne hexavalent chromate, Cr(VI), has been identified by the Environmental Protection Agency as a possible health threat in urban areas, due to the carcinogenic potential of some of its forms. Particulate chromates are produced in many different industrial settings, with high levels of aerosolized forms historically documented. Along with an increased risk of lung cancer, a high incidence of allergic asthma has been reported in workers exposed to certain inhaled particulate Cr(VI) compounds. However, a direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma has not been established. We recently showed that inhaled particulate Cr(VI) induces an innate neutrophilic inflammatory response in BALB/c mice. In the current studies we investigated how the inflammation induced by inhaled particulate Cr(VI) might alter the pathology of an allergic asthmatic response. We used a well-established mouse model of allergic asthma. Groups of ovalbumin protein (OVA)-primed mice were challenged either with OVA alone, or with a combination of OVA and particulate zinc chromate, and various parameters associated with asthmatic responses were measured. Co-exposure to particulate Cr(VI) and OVA mediated a mixed form of asthma in which both eosinophils and neutrophils are present in airways, tissue pathology is markedly exacerbated, and airway hyperresponsiveness is significantly increased. Taken together these findings suggest that inhalation of particulate forms of Cr(VI) may augment the severity of ongoing allergic asthma, as well as alter its phenotype. Such findings may have implications for asthmatics in settings in which airborne particulate Cr(VI) compounds are present at high levels. -- Highlights: ► Allergic asthma correlated with exposure to certain inhaled particulate chromates. ► Direct causal association between Cr(VI) and allergic asthma not established. ► Cr exacerbated pathology and airway hyperresponsiveness in an OVA-challenged mouse. ► Particulate Cr

  5. Comparative Proteomics and Pulmonary Toxicity of Instilled Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes, Crocidolite Asbestos and Ultrafine Carbon Black in Mice

    SciTech Connect

    Teeguarden, Justin G.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Waters, Katrina M.; Murray, Ashley; Kisin, Elena; Varnum, Susan M.; Jacobs, Jon M.; Pounds, Joel G.; Zangar, Richard C.; Shvedova, Anna

    2011-03-01

    Reflecting their exceptional potential to advance a range of biomedical, aeronautic, and other industrial products, carbon nanotube (CNT) production, and the potential for human exposure to aerosolized CNT’s, is increasing. CNT’s have toxicologically significant structural and chemical similarities to asbestos, and have repeatedly been shown to cause pulmonary inflammation, granuloma formation and fibrosis after inhalation/instillation/aspiration exposure in rodents, a pattern of effects similar to those observed following exposure to asbestos. To determine the degree to which responses to SWCNT and asbestos are similar or different, the pulmonary response of C57BL/6 mice to repeated exposure to SWCNT, crocidolite asbestos and ultrafine carbon black (UFCB) were compared using high-throughput global HPLC-FTICR-MS proteomics, histopathology and BAL cytokine analyses. Mice were exposed to material suspensions (40 μg/mouse) twice a week, for 3 weeks by pharyngeal aspiration. Histologically, the incidence and severity of inflammatory and fibrotic responses were greatest in mice treated with SWCNT. SWCNT treatment affected the greatest changes in abundance of identified lung tissue proteins. The trend in number of proteins affected (SWCNT (376)>asbestos (231)>UFCB (184)) followed the potency of these materials in 3 biochemical assays of inflammation (cytokines). SWCNT treatment uniquely affected the abundance of 109 proteins, but these proteins largely represent cellular processes affected by asbestos treatment as well, further evidence of broad similarity in the tissue-level response to asbestos and SWCNT. Two high sensitivity markers of inflammation, one (S100a9) observed in humans exposed to asbestos, were found and may be promising biomarkers of human response to SWCNT exposure.

  6. AIRBORNE ASBESTOS CONCENTRATIONS DURING BUFFING OF RESILIENT FLOOR TILE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although asbestos-containing resilient floor tiles are considered nonfriable, the frictional forces exerted on the tile during routine maintenance operations can generate asbestos-containing structures. tudy was conducted to determine the level of airborne asbestos concentrations...

  7. Asbestos in the Schools: Health Hazard for the Eighties.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews asbestos removal legislation and four appropriate abatement methods. Advises school districts to assist principals to develop constructive asbestos management plans and conduct workshops relevant to the health hazards of asbestos. (MLF)

  8. Inhaled crocidolite mutagenicity in lung DNA.

    PubMed Central

    Rihn, B; Coulais, C; Kauffer, E; Bottin, M C; Martin, P; Yvon, F; Vigneron, J C; Binet, S; Monhoven, N; Steiblen, G; Keith, G

    2000-01-01

    We used transgenic mice carrying the lacI reporter gene to study the mutagenesis potential of asbestos crocidolite. The animals were exposed by nose-only inhalation to an aerosol containing 5.75 mg/m(3) crocidolite dust for 6 hr/day and 5 consecutive days. After 1, 4, and 12 weeks, we examined four end points: the cytology of bronchoalveolar lavage, the lung load of crocidolite, the hydrophobic DNA adducts, and the mutations in the lacI reporter gene. Twelve weeks after exposure, nearly 10% of the inhaled fibers remained in the lung (227 +/- 103 ng/mg lung). There was evidence of a typical inflammatory response consisting of multinucleate macrophages at weeks 4 and 12, whereas immediately after the exposure, we observed numerous polymorphonuclear neutrophils. The mutant frequency significatively increased during the fourth week after the exposure: 13.5 [time] 10(-5) in the exposed group versus 6. 9 10(-5) in the control group. The induction factor, defined by the ratio of checked mutants of exposed mice to checked mutants of control mice, was 1.96. The mutation spectrum of control lung DNA and exposed lung DNA was similar, suggesting the possible involvement of a DNA repair decrease in crocidolite-treated animals. We used the (32)P-postlabeling method and did not detect any increase of either 5 mC or bulky adduct in treated mice. This is the first study that demonstrates asbestos mutagenicity in vivo after a nose-only inhalation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10753093

  9. EVALUATION OF ASBESTOS LEVELS IN TWO SCHOOLS BEFORE AND AFTER ASBESTOS REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report presents a statistical evaluation of airborne asbestos data collected at two schools before and after removal of asbestos-containing material (ACM). Although the monitoring data, are not totally consistent with new Asbestos Hazard Emergency Response Act (AHERA) requir...

  10. Diesel Exhaust Inhalation Increases Cardiac Output, Bradyarrhythmias, and Parasympathetic Tone in Aged Heart Failure-Prone Rats

    EPA Science Inventory

    Acute air pollutant inhalation is linked to adverse cardiac events and death, and hospitalizations for heart failure. Diesel exhaust (DE) is a major air pollutant suspected to exacerbate preexisting cardiac conditions, in part, through autonomic and electrophysiologic disturbance...