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Sample records for inhaled magnesium sulphate

  1. Biological effects of inhaled magnesium sulphate whiskers in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hori, H; Kasai, T; Haratake, J; Ishimatsu, S; Oyabu, T; Yamato, H; Higashi, T; Tanaka, I

    1994-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were exposed to two types of magnesium sulphate whiskers by inhalation for six hours a day, five days a week, for four weeks (sub-chronic study), or for one year (chronic study) to clarify the biological effects of the whiskers. There were few whiskers detected in the rat lungs even at one day after the exposure, suggesting that they are dissolved and eliminated rapidly from the lungs. To measure the clearance rate of the whiskers from the lungs, an intratracheal instillation was performed in golden hamsters. The half life of the whiskers in the lung was determined as 17.6 minutes by temporally measuring the magnesium concentration up to 80 minutes after the instillation. A histopathological examination indicated a frequent occurrence of adenoma and carcinoma in the year after chronic exposure, but it was not significantly different between exposed and control rats. Images Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8044250

  2. Severe hyperkalaemia peripartum with magnesium sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Morton, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A case of severe hyperkalaemia peripartum in the setting of magnesium sulphate infusion is presented. Health professionals involved in the care of high-risk pregnancies should be aware of this rare association.

  3. Magnesium sulphate for fetal neuroprotection: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to assess the cost-effectiveness of administering magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth at < 32+0 weeks gestation is either imminent or threatened for the purpose of fetal neuroprotection. Methods Multiple decision tree models and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were used to compare the administration of magnesium sulphate with the alternative of no treatment. Two separate cost perspectives were utilized in this series of analyses: a health system and a societal perspective. In addition, two separate measures of effectiveness were utilized: cases of cerebral palsy (CP) averted and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs). Results From a health system and a societal perspective, respectively, a savings of $2,242 and $112,602 is obtained for each QALY gained and a savings of $30,942 and $1,554,198 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium sulphate is administered to patients in whom preterm birth is imminent. From a health system perspective and a societal perspective, respectively, a cost of $2,083 is incurred and a savings of $108,277 is obtained for each QALY gained and a cost of $28,755 is incurred and a savings of $1,494,500 is obtained for each case of CP averted when magnesium sulphate is administered to patients in whom preterm birth is threatened. Conclusions Administration of magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth is imminent is a dominant (i.e. cost-effective) strategy, no matter what cost perspective or measure of effectiveness is used. Administration of magnesium sulphate to patients in whom preterm birth is threatened is a dominant strategy from a societal perspective and is very likely to be cost-effective from a health system perspective. PMID:24350635

  4. Local and systemic tolerability of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis.

    PubMed

    Zygmunt, M; Heilmann, L; Berg, C; Wallwiener, D; Grischke, E; Münstedt, K; Spindler, A; Lang, U

    2003-04-25

    An open-label, randomised, parallel-group, study was conducted in three study centres in women with premature labor and indication for a single agent intravenous tocolysis therapy with magnesium sulphate. The aim of this study was to examine the local and general tolerability and side-effects of magnesium sulphate for tocolysis. Furthermore, we tested the tolerability of a ready-for-use magnesium solution. No measurements of efficacy were performed during this study. Initially, patients received a loading dose of 4.0 g magnesium sulphate administered over 30 min. Thereafter, a continuous intravenous infusion of 1-2 g magnesium sulphate per hour up to 21 days was given. Venous score (Maddox), vital signs, adverse events as well as general tolerability (assessed by investigator and patients) and blood parameters were assessed. We showed good local and systemic tolerability of high dose magnesium sulphate for tocolysis. Only seven patients (15%) were withdrawn from the study prematurely due to minor adverse events. Potential serious complications of MgSO(4) such as respiratory arrest or clinically relevant respiratory depression were not observed. The most frequently reported local adverse events were injection site pain, itching, erythema, swelling, induration and palpable venous cord. The most common systemic adverse events considered to be possibly related to the study drugs involved the nervous system (dizziness) followed by the digestive system (nausea, constipation). Systolic and diastolic blood pressure changed only slightly during the treatment. Respiratory rate and body temperature remained stable also. Toxic magnesium levels (>2.5 mmol/l) were not observed. The assessment of the clinical investigators with regard to tolerability was very good or good in 72.5% of the patients. The introduction of the ready-to-use solution has the advantage of eliminating the need to mix the solution prior to administration. This means a lower risk of overdose and

  5. Acute tocolysis for fetal distress: terbutaline versus magnesium sulphate.

    PubMed

    Magann, E F; Cleveland, R S; Dockery, J R; Chauhan, S P; Martin, J N; Morrison, J C

    1993-11-01

    Forty-six women in active labour who developed fetal distress requiring abdominal delivery were randomized to receive 0.25 mg of terbutaline (subcutaneously) or magnesium sulphate as a 4-g bolus (intravenously) to decrease uterine activity. The terbutaline-treated group in contrast to the magnesium sulphate-treated group had reduced uterine activity as measured by Montevideo units (p < 0.002). This decrease in uterine activity was noted more rapidly in all 23 patients who received terbutaline, 1.8 +/- 0.74 minutes compared to 7.5 +/- 2.1 minutes in the 16 of 23 patients (magnesium sulphate-treated women) in whom a decrease in uterine activity occurred (p < 0.001). Umbilical cord arterial blood pH at delivery was less than 7.20 in only 2 of the 23 patients treated with terbutaline versus 7 of the 23 in the magnesium sulphate-treated group. We conclude that terbutaline is an effective and more rapid-acting tocolytic agent to arrest uterine activity prior to delivery for fetal distress. PMID:8179541

  6. The effect of magnesium on partial sulphate removal from mine water as gypsum.

    PubMed

    Tolonen, Emma-Tuulia; Rämö, Jaakko; Lassi, Ulla

    2015-08-15

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of magnesium on the removal efficiency of sulphate as gypsum from mine water. The precipitation conditions were simulated with MINEQL + software and the simulation results were compared with the results from laboratory jar test experiments. Both the simulation and the laboratory results showed that magnesium in the mine water was maintaining sulphate in a soluble form as magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) at pH 9.6. Thus magnesium was preventing the removal of sulphate as gypsum (CaSO4·2H2O). However, change in the lime precipitation pH from 9.6 to 12.5 resulted in magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) precipitation and improved sulphate removal. Additionally, magnesium hydroxide could act as seed crystals for gypsum precipitation or co-precipitate sulphate further enhancing the removal of sulphate from mine water. PMID:26067895

  7. Comparison of physical and inhalation properties of spray-dried and micronized terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Thi, Thanh Huong Hoang; Danède, Florence; Descamps, Marc; Flament, Marie-Pierre

    2008-09-01

    Terbutaline sulphate particles, for use in dry powder inhaler formulations, were prepared by spray-drying, using a Büchi 190 mini spray dryer. Spray-drying conditions were chosen to allow the production of spray-dried terbutaline sulphate with a size similar to micronized terbutaline sulphate, that is to say about 2.9 microm of volume mean diameter. The physical properties and in vitro inhalation behaviour of micronized and spray-dried terbutaline sulphate were compared. X-ray diffraction, DSC, SEM and laser size analysis were investigated. Spray-dying produced spherically shaped particles with amorphous structure. After blending with different lactoses, adhesion and aerodynamic properties were investigated. Evaluation of adhesion was carried out with a mechanical sieve and an Alpine air-jet sieve. The adhesion of terbutaline sulphate on the lactoses tested was lower in the case of the spray-dried drug. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle dose and emitted dose was conducted using a twin stage impactor. The emitted doses and the fine particle doses were higher with the spray-dried terbutaline sulphate. The Alpine air-jet sieve assays showed that there was a correlation between drug separation from a carrier by sieving and that obtained from longer in vitro deposition studies. There was a linear relationship between the adhesion characteristics and the fine particle dose. PMID:18504120

  8. Development of an Inhaled Sustained Release Dry Powder Formulation of Salbutamol Sulphate, an Antiasthmatic Drug.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, C; Sathishkumar, K

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of salbutamol sulphate. The salbutamol sulphate microparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polymer poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) to produce salbutamol sulphate microparticle mixed with carrier respirable grade lactose for oral inhalation of dry powder. The drug content were estimated to produce 1 mg sustained release salbutamol sulphate per dose. Total four formulations K1, K2, K3 and K4 were prepared with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid). The developed formulations were studied for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug relase and Anderson cascade impaction studies. The prepared formulations effectively releases drug for 12 h in diffusion bag studies. Based on dissolution performance the 1:1 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) produces in vitro release 92.57% at 12 h and having particle size of microparticles (D0.5μm) 5.02±0.6 and the pulmonary deposition of dry powder 34.5±3.21 (respiratory fraction in percentage). PMID:27168692

  9. Development of an Inhaled Sustained Release Dry Powder Formulation of Salbutamol Sulphate, an Antiasthmatic Drug

    PubMed Central

    Kumaresan, C.; Sathishkumar, K.

    2016-01-01

    The present research was aimed to develop and characterize a sustained release dry powder inhalable formulation of salbutamol sulphate. The salbutamol sulphate microparticles were prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polymer poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) to produce salbutamol sulphate microparticle mixed with carrier respirable grade lactose for oral inhalation of dry powder. The drug content were estimated to produce 1 mg sustained release salbutamol sulphate per dose. Total four formulations K1, K2, K3 and K4 were prepared with 1:1, 1:2, 1:3, 1:4 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid). The developed formulations were studied for physicochemical properties, in vitro drug relase and Anderson cascade impaction studies. The prepared formulations effectively releases drug for 12 h in diffusion bag studies. Based on dissolution performance the 1:1 ratio of salbutamol sulphate:poly (D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid) produces in vitro release 92.57% at 12 h and having particle size of microparticles (D0.5μm) 5.02±0.6 and the pulmonary deposition of dry powder 34.5±3.21 (respiratory fraction in percentage). PMID:27168692

  10. Lung deposition of budesonide inhaled via Turbuhaler: a comparison with terbutaline sulphate in normal subjects.

    PubMed

    Borgström, L; Bondesson, E; Morén, F; Trofast, E; Newman, S P

    1994-01-01

    We wanted to evaluate whether lung deposition of budesonide and terbutaline sulphate differs, and to determine lung deposition of budesonide inhaled at different peak inspiratory flows, through Turbuhaler. Lung deposition of budesonide, a lipophilic substance, and of terbutaline sulphate, a hydrophilic substance, was therefore compared, after administration via an inspiratory flow-driven, multi-dose, powder inhaler (Turbuhaler, Astra Draco AB) to 10 healthy volunteers. The radionuclide 99mTc was used to label drug particles, and radioactivity, indicating drug deposition, was measured using a gamma camera. Budesonide was inhaled at a normal flow of 58 l.min-1 and at a slow flow of 36 l-min-1. At the faster flow, a mean +/- SD 27.7 +/- 9.5% of the metered dose was deposited in the lung and at the slower flow 14.8 +/- 3.3% was deposited (p < 0.001). Mean lung deposition of terbutaline sulphate inhaled at 57 l.min-1 was 27.0 +/- 7.7%. We conclude that inspiratory flow has an important effect on lung deposition, but water solubility appears to have no effect. PMID:8143834

  11. Comparison of the antinociceptive effect of systemic versus intrathecal magnesium sulphate on spinal morphine analgesia.

    PubMed

    Messeha, Medhat M; Boshra, Vivian

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this work was to compare the possible antinociceptive effect of the intravenous (IV) versus the intrathecal (IT) administration of magnesium sulphate prior to spinal morphine analgesia. This research was conducted in two sets: First; experimentally, to compare the antinociceptive effect of IT magnesium sulphate (375 μg/rat) versus IP magnesium sulphate 100 mg/kg), prior to IT morphine (10 μg/rat). Pain was assessed using Randall-Selitto testing, the hot-plate, and formalin tests. A non-significant difference in the nociceptive threshold was observed between IT and IP magnesium sulphate administration prior to IT morphine in rats. Second: clinically, in patients undergoing orthopedic surgery, who received either an IT mixture of 1 mg of morphine with 3 mL hyperbaric 0.5% bupivacaine, an IT mixture of morphine with bupivacaine and 50 mg of magnesium sulphate, or an IT mixture of morphine bupivacaine plus IV 20 mg/kg of magnesium sulphate as a loading dose over 15 min prior to surgery, followed by infusion at a rate of 10 mg/kg/h. Pain was evaluated using a visual analog pain scale (VAS) score at one hour, 6 h and 12 h postoperatively. The use of IT or IV magnesium sulphate, in addition to the spinal morphine caused a significant decrease in the VAS score in the 6(th) and 12(th) post-operative hours with a non-significant difference between both routes. In conclusion the efficacy of systemic magnesium sulphate to potentiate the analgesic effect of intrathecal morphine is a promising and attractive route of choice for postoperative pain relief during spinal anesthesia. Opioid analgesia could be prolonged and the incidence of motor paralysis, common with the intrathecal route of magnesium sulphate administration, reduced. PMID:27160490

  12. Effect of magnesium sulphate on sugammadex reversal time for neuromuscular blockade: a randomised controlled study.

    PubMed

    Germano Filho, P A; Cavalcanti, I L; Barrucand, L; Verçosa, N

    2015-08-01

    Magnesium potentiates neuromuscular blockade. Sugammadex reverses rocuronium-induced blockade. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pre-treatment with magnesium sulphate on sugammadex reversal time for neuromuscular blockade. Seventy-three patients were randomly assigned to receive magnesium sulphate (40 mg.kg(-1) ) or saline intravenously. After anaesthetic induction, continuous train-of-four monitoring was performed and rocuronium was administered (0.6 mg.kg(-1) ). When a second twitch appeared, the patients received sugammadex (2 mg.kg(-1) ). The median (IQR [range]) reversal time of moderate neuromuscular blockade to a train-of-four ratio of 0.9 facilitated by sugammadex was 115 (93-177.5 [68-315]) s in the magnesium group and 120 (105-140 [70-298]) s in the saline group (p = 0.79). The median (IQR [range]) clinical duration was 45 (35.5-53 [22-102]) min in the magnesium group and 37 (31-43 [19-73]) min in the saline group (p = 0.031). Pre-treatment with magnesium did not significantly affect sugammadex reversal time of moderate neuromuscular blockade induced by rocuronium. PMID:25829048

  13. Accidental intravenous infusion of a large dose of magnesium sulphate during labor: A case report.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Kamal; Al Arebi, Arif; Singh, Indu

    2013-07-01

    During labor and child delivery, a wide range of drugs are administered. Most of these medications are high-alert medications, which can cause significant harm to the patient due to its inadvertent use. Errors could be caused due to unfamiliarity with safe dosage ranges, confusion between similar looking drugs, mislabeling of drugs, equipment misuse, or malfunction and communication errors. We report a case of inadvertent infusion of a large dose of magnesium sulphate in a pregnant woman. PMID:24106365

  14. Effect of inhaled terbutaline sulphate in relation to its deposition in the lungs.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, C; Wollmer, P; Eklundh, G; Jonson, B

    1992-06-01

    We studied the effects of inhaled terbutaline on FEV1 and gas exchange, and the pattern of deposition within the lungs. To document this and to estimate the dose of terbutaline administered to the lungs, [99mTc]DTPA was added to nebulised terbutaline solution. The aerosol was deposited preferentially in large or small airways by using aerosols with different particle mass median diameters (1.5 and 4.8 microns) and different inhalation flow rates (0.25 and 1.0 l/s). The patients inhaled placebo and then three increasing doses of terbutaline (0.006, 0.02 and 0.08 mg to the lungs). Finally, 2 mg terbutaline was inhaled from a metered dose inhaler via a spacer. After each inhalation FEV1, PaO2 and PaCO2 was measured. The inhalation of small particles at a low flow resulted in a fairly uniform lung deposition, while larger particles at a higher flow resulted in heavy central deposition. Penetration index for small and large particles were 1.3 +/- 0.2 and 0.8 +/- 0.3 (P less than 0.001), respectively. In both groups FEV1 increased similarly with each dose, and at 0.02 and 0.08 mg the increase was significant (P less than 0.01). After eight metered doses of terbutaline sulphate (0.25 mg per dose) inhaled via a spacer, there was a further increase in FEV1 (P less than 0.001). Gas exchange did not differ between the two groups but if they were combined the DA-aO2 was significantly lower after metered doses than control (P less than 0.05). Thus, it appears that the site of deposition is not important for the bronchodilator effect of terbutaline, and gas exchange tended to improve with both modes of administration. PMID:1611230

  15. Addition of magnesium sulphate to ropivacaine for spinal analgesia in dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy.

    PubMed

    Adami, C; Casoni, D; Noussitou, F; Rytz, U; Spadavecchia, C

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this blinded, randomised, prospective clinical trial was to determine whether the addition of magnesium sulphate to spinally-administered ropivacaine would improve peri-operative analgesia without impairing motor function in dogs undergoing orthopaedic surgery. Twenty client-owned dogs undergoing tibial plateau levelling osteotomy were randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups: group C (control, receiving hyperbaric ropivacaine by the spinal route) or group M (magnesium, receiving a hyperbaric combination of magnesium sulphate and ropivacaine by the spinal route). During surgery, changes in physiological variables above baseline were used to evaluate nociception. Arterial blood was collected before and after spinal injection, at four time points, to monitor plasma magnesium concentrations. Post-operatively, pain was assessed with a modified Sammarco pain score, a Glasgow pain scale and a visual analogue scale, while motor function was evaluated with a modified Tarlov scale. Assessments were performed at recovery and 1, 2 and 3 h thereafter. Fentanyl and buprenorphine were administered as rescue analgesics in the intra- and post-operative periods, respectively. Plasma magnesium concentrations did not increase after spinal injection compared to baseline. Group M required less intra-operative fentanyl, had lower Glasgow pain scores and experienced analgesia of longer duration than group C (527.0 ± 341.0 min vs. 176.0 ± 109.0 min). However, in group M the motor block was significantly longer, which limits the usefulness of magnesium for spinal analgesia at the investigated dose. Further research is needed to determine a clinically effective dose with shorter duration of motor block for magnesium used as an additive to spinal analgesic agents. PMID:26831174

  16. Deposition and clinical efficacy of terbutaline sulphate from Turbuhaler, a new multi-dose powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Newman, S P; Morén, F; Trofast, E; Talaee, N; Clarke, S W

    1989-03-01

    A radioaerosol technique has been developed in order to assess deposition patterns from a new metered dose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler, Astra Pharmaceuticals). The radionuclide Tc99m dissolved in chloroform was added to a spheronised formulation of micronised terbutaline sulphate and the chloroform was allowed to evaporate. Turbuhaler subsequently delivered 0.5 mg of treated drug per metered dose. In vitro tests with a multistage liquid impinger showed that the fractionation of the drug dose between different particle size bands was similar to the fractionation of radioactivity. In a group of ten asthmatic patients, a mean 14.2% (SEM 2.1) of the drug dose was deposited in the lungs, with 71.6% (3.0) of the dose in the oropharynx. Of the remainder, 13.7% (2.1) was deposited on the mouthpiece, and 0.5% (0.2) recovered from exhaled air. The radiolabel was present in both central and peripheral zones of the lungs. All patients bronchodilated; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) increased from 1.40 (0.24) l to 1.77 (0.24) l (p less than 0.01) 20 min after inhalation. These results suggest that both the distribution of drug and the clinical effect of terbutaline sulphate delivered from Turbuhaler are similar to those from a pressurised metered dose inhaler (MDI). PMID:2731602

  17. Airflows after inhalation of terbutaline sulphate aerosol from a 750-ml spacer for four weeks.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, N E; Hidinger, K G; Rosenhall, L; Hagstad, H; Löfgren, L; Perk, J; Stiksa, G; Ström, K

    1986-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate was administered to 40 adult asthmatic patients via an ordinary metered-dose inhaler (MDI) or one connected to a 750-ml spacer in an open, randomized, crossover study. Spirometry was obtained before the start of the study and again after four weeks of treatment with each inhaler. The patients recorded on a diary card the severity of their asthma symptoms and the peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) in the morning before and after drug administration and in the evening. Preinhalation spirometric values were higher after four weeks with the 750-ml spacer than at the start of the study (P less than or equal to 0.05). Daily morning and evening PEFR values were higher after use of the 750-ml spacer than after use of the ordinary MDI (P less than 0.05). Daily symptom scores were generally low. A significantly better effect (P less than or equal to 0.05) with the 750-ml spacer was achieved only in daytime dyspnea. The investigators conclude that the attachment of a 750-ml spacer to an ordinary metered-dose inhaler can improve the efficacy of terbutaline sulphate in the long-term treatment of asthma. PMID:3698068

  18. Maternal outcomes of magnesium sulphate and diazepam use in women with severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Ethiopia

    PubMed Central

    Kassie, Gizat M.; Negussie, Dereje; Ahmed, Jemal H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Preferred anticonvulsant used to treat and prevent fits in eclampsia currently is magnesium sulphate. Clinical monitoring of tendon reflexes, respiration rate and measuring hourly urine output should be done to ensures safe administration of magnesium sulphate Objective This study was conducted to evaluate maternal outcomes of magnesium sulphate and diazepam use in the management of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in Jimma University Specialized Hospital. Methods A retrospective hospital based cross-sectional comparative study was conducted using data collection format. Data was collected from the hospital delivery care register and patient chart records of all pregnant women who presented with the diagnosis of severe pre-eclampsia and eclampsia in two years and three months period from January, 2010 to April, 2012. Data analysis was done by SPSS version 16.0. A P-value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant in all tests. Results A total of 357 patient charts, 217 from magnesium sulphate and 140 from diazepam treated pregnant women group, were reviewed and analyzed. Three pregnant women from the magnesium sulphate treated group and eleven pregnant women from diazepam treated group had at least one convulsion after taking the drug. Greater proportion of patients in the magnesium sulphate treated group had less than four days postpartum stay as compared to the diazepam treated patients (82.3% versus 66.2%). Seizure occurrence, duration of postpartum hospital stays and birth outcome had a statistically significant association with the type of anticonvulsant used. Conclusions Magnesium sulphate is more effective than diazepam in the management of severe pre-eclamptic and eclamptic pregnant women in terms of seizure prevention, shortening postpartum hospital stay and reducing maternal morbidities. PMID:25035717

  19. The impact of sulphate and magnesium on chloride binding in Portland cement paste

    SciTech Connect

    De Weerdt, K.; Orsáková, D.; Geiker, M.R.

    2014-11-15

    The effect of magnesium and sulphate present in sea water on chloride binding in Portland cement paste was investigated. Ground well hydrated cement paste was exposed to MgCl{sub 2}, NaCl, NaCl + MgCl{sub 2}, MgSO{sub 4} + MgCl{sub 2} and artificial sea water solutions with a range of concentrations at 20 °C. Chloride binding isotherms are determined and pH of the solutions were measured. A selection of samples was examined by SEM-EDS to identify phase changes upon exposure. The experimental data were compared with calculations of a thermodynamic model. Chloride binding from sea water was similar to chloride binding for NaCl solutions. The magnesium content in the sea water lead to a slight decrease in pH, but this did not result in a notable increase in chloride binding. The sulphate present in sea water reduces both chloride binding in C–S–H and AFm phases, as the C–S–H incorporates more sulphates instead of chlorides, and part of the AFm phases converts to ettringite.

  20. Effect of magnesium salts on the sulphation capacity of limestone slurry

    SciTech Connect

    Ozyuguran, A.; Altun-Ciftcioglu, G.; Karatepe, N.; Ersoy-Mericboyu, A.

    2006-09-15

    The effect of different magnesium salts such as MgO, MgSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O and Mg(OH){sub 2} on the total sulphation capacities of limestone slurries prepared from five different limestone samples was investigated. Sulphation reactions of slurries were conducted at a constant temperature of 323 K in a gaseous mixture consisting of 5% O{sub 2}, 10% CO{sub 2}, 0.5% SO{sub 2} and a balance of nitrogen by volume. It was found that the total sulphation capacities of limestone slurries increased with the addition of MgO and Mg(OH){sub 2} salts and decreased with the addition of MgSO{sub 4}.7H{sub 2}O salt. Depending on the chemical composition of the limestone samples the total sulphation capacities of limestone slurries were increased between 22.30% and 75.00% by MgO addition and between 23.70% and 69.00% by Mg(OH){sub 2} addition.

  1. Comparison of salbutamol with normal saline and salbutamol with magnesium sulphate in the treatment of severe acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, S; Sutradhar, S R; Miah, A H; Bari, M A; Hasan, M J; Alam, M K; Tariquzzaman, M; Sarker, C N

    2013-01-01

    This study compared the efficacy and safety of nebulized magnesium sulphate with salbutamol to normal saline with salbutamol as the initial treatment of severe acute asthma patients. The present study was designed as a randomized open controlled clinical trial. The study was conducted Mymensingh Medical College Hospital over a period of 11 months from December 2009 to October 2010. Patients admitted with severe acute asthma having inclusion criteria were the study population. Among 120 study population 60 were in salbutamol with magnesium sulphate group and 60 were in salbutamol with normal saline group. The study finding showed that peak flow at baseline was similar in two groups. At 10 minutes after nebulization, the mean±SD percentage increase in peak flow was greater in magnesium sulphate group (20±4%) than in the normal saline salbutamol group (13±3%). At 20 minutes the percentage increase in peak flow was greater in magnesium sulphate group (35±7%) than in the normal saline salbutamol group (24±6%) p value <0.001. Magnesium sulphate plus salbutamol group reached PEF near to 60% which is not in saline salbutamol group. There was no significant changed in respiratory rate, pulse rate, systolic, diastolic blood pressure and clinical evidence of unwanted adverse effect. PMID:23416800

  2. Dose emission and aerodynamic characterization of the terbutaline sulphate dose emitted from a Turbuhaler at low inhalation flow.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, M E; Assi, K H; Chrystyn, H

    2013-01-01

    Previously, dose emission below 30 L min(-1) through DPI has not been routinely determined. However, during routine use some patients do not achieve 30 L min(-1) inhalation flows. Hence, the aim of the present study was to determine dose emission characteristics for low inhalation flows from terbutaline sulphate Turbuhaler. Total emitted dose (TED), fine particle dose (FPD) and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of terbutaline sulphate Turbuhaler were determined using inhalation flows of 10-60 L min(-1) and inhaled volume of 4 L. TED and FPD increase significantly with the increase of inhalation flows (p <0.05). Flows had more pronounced effect on FPD than TED, thus, faster inhalation increases respirable amount more than it increases emitted dose. MMAD increases with decrease of inhalation flow until flow of 20L min(-1) then it decreases. In vitro flow dependent dose emission has been demonstrated previously for Turbuhaler for flow rates above 30 L min(-1) but is more pronounced below this flow. Minimal FPD below 30 L min(-1) suggests that during routine use at this flow rate most of emitted dose will impact in mouth. Flow dependent dose emission results suggest that Pharmacopoeias should consider the use variety of inhalation flows rather than one that is equivalent to pressure drop of 4 KPa. PMID:21981637

  3. [Effect of inhaled terbutaline sulphate (dry powder, Turbuhaler and nebulizer solution) in children with acute asthma].

    PubMed

    Solé, D; Rizzo, M C; Pimentel, A F; Sano, F; Barreto, B A; Wandalsen, N F; Naspitz, C K

    1995-01-01

    Forty seven children (6-14 years), with an acute mild or moderate attack of asthma (clinical score 3 or FEV1 > 50% of the predicted), were treated with terbutaline sulphate, by inhalation route with a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler - 0,5 mg - group T; N=27, or by a nebulizer 1% solution-in saline-compressed air (6 l/min.) group S; N=20. The children were evaluated at 5, 15, 25 and 30 minutes after the initial treatment. In both groups a significant fall of the clinical score (starting at 15 minutes) (p < 0.05) and a significant improvement of the FEV(1), VC and FEF25-75% (starting at 5 minutes), were observed (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in heart rates, respiratory rates and blood pressure (p > 0.05). At the end of the first treatment, the number of patients with a FEV(1) < 80% was similar in both groups (T = 13/27 and S = 10/20). The same treatment was repeated, and all the children showed a marked improvement, except for one boy of the group T was hospitalized. In conclusion, children with mild or moderate acute attacks of asthma can be treated up to a week with an inhalation of dry powder, resulting in adequate bronchodilatation without important side effects. PMID:14689023

  4. [Occupational lung cancer after inhalation of alkylating compounds: dichlordimethyl ether, monochlordimethyl ether and dimethyl sulphate (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bettendorf, U

    1977-03-18

    A 42-year-old chemist died from extensive pulmonary carcinoma, having inhaled for over seven years dichlordimethyl ether, monochlordimethyl ether and small amounts of dimethyl sulphate. This exposure took place in circumstances which, in animal experiments, have led to the development of cancer. A causal connection between the occupational exposure to these chemicals and carcinogenesis has to be accepted. PMID:844406

  5. Magnesium sulphate as an alternative and safe treatment for severe persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn.

    PubMed Central

    Tolsa, J. F.; Cotting, J.; Sekarski, N.; Payot, M.; Micheli, J. L.; Calame, A.

    1995-01-01

    Eleven newborns admitted consecutively to the neonatal unit with respiratory failure and severe persistent pulmonary hypertension (PPHN) were included in a clinical trial to assess the efficacy of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in the treatment of PPHN. A loading dose of 200 mg/kg MgSO4 was given over 20 minutes, followed by a continuous infusion of 20-150 mg/kg/hour to obtain a magnesium blood concentration between 3.5 and 5.5 mmol/l. Mean (SD) duration of treatment was 75.5 (19.8) hours. No other vasodilatory drug was administered before or during the treatment and patients were not hyperventilated. Mean (SEM) PaO2 values significantly increased from 42.6 (8.8) before treatment to 70.3 (24.1) mm Hg after 24 hours, with no change in pH or PCO2. Oxygen index and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient (A-aDO2) were significantly lower after 24 hours; respectively, 46.8 (15.2) to 28.0 (9.0) and 624.3 (11.3) to 590 (58) mm Hg. Mean airway pressure could be significantly reduced from 19.5 (3.1) to 13.9 (3.9) cm H2O after 72 hours. Mean ventilatory time support was 131 hours and mean total oxygen dependency 10 days. No systemic hypotension nor any other adverse effect were noted. All infants survived and the neurodevelopmental assessment was normal at 6 and 12 months of age. It is concluded that magnesium sulphate is a non-aggressive and low-cost treatment of short duration which is easy to apply. It may have a role in the various treatment of PPHN. PMID:7796235

  6. Magnesium Toxicity-Induced Ileus in a Postpartum Patient Treated for Preeclampsia With Magnesium Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Al-Shoha, Mohammad; Klair, Jagpal S.; Girotra, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Hypermagnesemia is a rare and under-recognized cause of paralytic ileus. We report a case of a 21-year-old primigravida who was managed aggressively for preeclampsia and presented with postpartum paralytic ileus. Detailed history was employed to consider hypermagnesemia-induced ileus as the working diagnosis, and the patient improved with correction of the electrolyte imbalance. Hypermagnesemia-induced lethargy, decreased reflexes, muscle weakness, flaccid paralysis, respiratory muscle paralysis, and cardiac arrest are well-described; however, intestinal smooth muscle dysfunction leading to paralytic ileus has never been reported in the setting of magnesium use for peripartum preeclampsia management. PMID:26203447

  7. Maternal adverse effects of different antenatal magnesium sulphate regimens for improving maternal and infant outcomes: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antenatal magnesium sulphate, widely used in obstetrics to improve maternal and infant outcomes, may be associated with adverse effects for the mother sufficient for treatment cessation. This systematic review aimed to quantify maternal adverse effects attributed to treatment, assess how adverse effects vary according to different regimens, and explore women’s experiences with this treatment. Methods Bibliographic databases were searched from their inceptions to July 2012 for studies of any design that reported on maternal adverse effects associated with antenatal magnesium sulphate given to improve maternal or infant outcomes. Primary outcomes were life-threatening adverse effects of treatment (death, cardiac arrest, respiratory arrest). For randomised controlled trials, data were meta-analysed, and risk ratios (RR) pooled using fixed-effects or random-effects models. For non-randomised studies, data were tabulated by design, and presented as RR, odds ratios or percentages, and summarised narratively. Results A total of 143 publications were included (21 randomised trials, 15 non-randomised comparative studies, 32 case series and 75 reports of individual cases), of mixed methodological quality. Compared with placebo or no treatment, magnesium sulphate was not associated with an increased risk of maternal death, cardiac arrest or respiratory arrest. Magnesium sulphate significantly increased the risk of 'any adverse effects’ overall (RR 4.62, 95% CI 2.42-8.83; 4 trials, 13,322 women), and treatment cessation due to adverse effects (RR 2.77; 95% CI 2.32-3.30; 5 trials, 13,666 women). Few subgroup differences were observed (between indications for use and treatment regimens). In one trial, a lower dose regimen (2 g/3 hours) compared with a higher dose regimen (5 g/4 hours) significantly reduced treatment cessation (RR 0.05; 95% CI 0.01-0.39, 126 women). Adverse effect estimates from studies of other designs largely supported data from randomised

  8. Engineered mannitol ternary additives improve dispersion of lactose-salbutamol sulphate dry powder inhalations.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of novel engineered fine mannitol particles (4.7%, w/w) on the performance of lactose-salbutamol sulphate dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations to obtain promising aerosolisation properties. The results showed that the more elongated the fine mannitol particles, the weaker the drug-carrier adhesion, the better the drug content homogeneity, the higher the amount of drug expected to be delivered to the lower airways and the higher the total DPI formulation desirability. Linear relationships were established showing that mannitol particles with a more elongated shape generated powders with broader size distributions and that were less uniform in shape. The weaker the drug-carrier adhesion, the higher the fine particle fraction of the drug is upon aerosolisation. It is believed that more elongated fine mannitol particles reduce the number of drug-carrier and drug-drug physical contact points and increase the ability of the drug particles to travel into the lower airways. Additionally, a lower drug-carrier contact area, lower drug-carrier press-on forces and easier drug-carrier detachment are suggested in the case of formulations containing more elongated fine mannitol particles. Ternary 'drug-coarse carrier-elongated fine ternary component' DPI formulations were more favourable than both 'drug-coarse carrier' and 'drug-elongated coarse carrier' binary formulations. This study provides a comprehensive approach for formulators to overcome the undesirable properties of dry powder inhalers, as both improved aerosolisation performance and reasonable flow characteristics were obtained using only a small amount of elongated engineered fine mannitol particles. PMID:23591748

  9. The influence of physical properties and morphology of crystallised lactose on delivery of salbutamol sulphate from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Martin, Gary P; Larhrib, Hassan; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Kolosionek, Ewa; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to investigate the mechanistic evaluation of physicochemical properties of new engineered lactose on aerosolisation performance of salbutamol sulphate (SS) delivered from dry powder inhaler (DPI). Different crystallised lactose particles were obtained from binary mixtures of butanol:acetone. The sieved fractions (63-90 μm) of crystallised lactose were characterised in terms of size, shape, flowability, true density and aerosolisation performance (using multiple twin stage impinger (MSLI), Aerolizer(®) inhaler device, and salbutamol sulphate as a model drug). Compared to commercial lactose, crystallised lactose particles were less elongated, covered with fine lactose particles, and had a rougher surface morphology. The crystallised lactose powders had a considerably lower bulk and tap density and poorer flow when compared to commercial lactose. Engineered carrier with better flow showed improved drug content homogeneity, reduced amounts of drug "deposited" on the inhaler device and throat, and a smaller drug aerodynamic diameter upon inhalation. Aerodynamic diameter of salbutamol sulphate increased as lactose aerodynamic diameter decreased (linear, R(2)=0.9191) and/or as fine particle lactose content increased (linear, R(2)=0.8653). Improved drug aerosolisation performance in the case of crystallised lactose particles was attributed to lower drug-carrier adhesion forces due to a rougher surface and higher fine particle content. In conclusion, this work proved that using binary combinations of solvents in crystallisation medium is vital in modification of the physicochemical and micromeritic properties of carriers to achieve a desirable aerosolisation performance from DPI formulations. Among all lactose samples, lactose particles crystallised from pure butanol generated the highest overall DPI formulations desirability. PMID:21962946

  10. Porous magnesium loaded with gentamicin sulphate and in vitro release behavior.

    PubMed

    Li, Qiuyan; Jiang, Guofeng; Wang, Dong; Wang, Huang; Ding, Liang; He, Guo

    2016-12-01

    Our aim was to develop a biocompatible bone repair material that has the advantage of preventing postoperative infections. Finally, the porous magnesium (p-Mg) loaded with gentamicin sulphate (GS-loaded Mg-G) was fabricated. The GS release behavior of the GS-loaded Mg-G in phosphate buffer saline (PBS) was investigated. The effective release time of GS reached to 14days. In addition, the effects of porosity and pore diameter of p-Mg on the GS release behavior of the GS-loaded Mg-G were studied. In the initial burst release stage, the GS release rate of the GS-loaded Mg-G increased with the increasing porosity or the increasing pore diameter of p-Mg. The GS-loaded Mg-G with larger original pore diameter has higher burst release of GS. Moreover, the in vitro antibacterial test of the GS-loaded Mg-G indicated that this biomaterial has obvious antibacterial effect. This study can provide information for p-Mg loaded with drug(s) as functional bone repair materials with drug-delivery capabilities. PMID:27612700

  11. Magnesium sulphate and cardiovascular and cerebrovascular adaptations to asphyxia in preterm fetal sheep.

    PubMed

    Galinsky, Robert; Davidson, Joanne O; Drury, Paul P; Wassink, Guido; Lear, Christopher A; van den Heuij, Lotte G; Gunn, Alistair J; Bennet, Laura

    2016-03-01

    Magnesium sulphate is a standard therapy for eclampsia in pregnancy and is widely recommended for perinatal neuroprotection during threatened preterm labour. MgSO4 is a vasodilator and negative inotrope. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate the effect of MgSO4 on the cardiovascular and cerebrovascular responses of the preterm fetus to asphyxia. Fetal sheep were instrumented at 98 ± 1 days of gestation (term = 147 days). At 104 days, unanaesthetised fetuses were randomly assigned to receive an intravenous infusion of MgSO4 (n = 6) or saline (n = 9). At 105 days all fetuses underwent umbilical cord occlusion for 25 min. Before occlusion, MgSO4 treatment reduced heart rate and increased femoral blood flow (FBF) and vascular conductance compared to controls. During occlusion, carotid and femoral arterial conductance and blood flows were higher in MgSO4-treated fetuses than controls. After occlusion, fetal heart rate was lower and carotid and femoral arterial conductance and blood flows were higher in MgSO4-treated fetuses than controls. Femoral arterial waveform height and width were increased during MgSO4 infusion, consistent with increased stroke volume. MgSO4 did not alter the fetal neurophysiological or nuchal electromyographic responses to asphyxia. These data demonstrate that a clinically comparable dose of MgSO4 increased FBF and stroke volume without impairing mean arterial pressure (MAP) or carotid blood flow (CaBF) during and immediately after profound asphyxia. Thus, MgSO4 may increase perfusion of peripheral vascular beds during adverse perinatal events. PMID:26077461

  12. Effect of surface coating with magnesium stearate via mechanical dry powder coating approach on the aerosol performance of micronized drug powders from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Qi Tony; Qu, Li; Gengenbach, Thomas; Larson, Ian; Stewart, Peter J; Morton, David A V

    2013-03-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of particle surface coating with magnesium stearate on the aerosolization of dry powder inhaler formulations. Micronized salbutamol sulphate as a model drug was dry coated with magnesium stearate using a mechanofusion technique. The coating quality was characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Powder bulk and flow properties were assessed by bulk densities and shear cell measurements. The aerosol performance was studied by laser diffraction and supported by a twin-stage impinger. High degrees of coating coverage were achieved after mechanofusion, as measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Concomitant significant increases occurred in powder bulk densities and in aerosol performance after coating. The apparent optimum performance corresponded with using 2% w/w magnesium stearate. In contrast, traditional blending resulted in no significant changes in either bulk or aerosolization behaviour compared to the untreated sample. It is believed that conventional low-shear blending provides insufficient energy levels to expose host micronized particle surfaces from agglomerates and to distribute guest coating material effectively for coating. A simple ultra-high-shear mechanical dry powder coating step was shown as highly effective in producing ultra-thin coatings on micronized powders and to substantially improve the powder aerosolization efficiency. PMID:23196863

  13. Engineered mannitol as an alternative carrier to enhance deep lung penetration of salbutamol sulphate from dry powder inhaler.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Momin, Mohammed N; Ticehurst, Martyn D; Murphy, John; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2010-09-01

    In this research mannitol particles were prepared by recrystallisation using non-solvent precipitation technique to investigate the effect of engineered carrier particles on their physicochemical properties and the in vitro deposition profiles of a model drug (salbutamol sulphate (SS)) from a dry powder inhaler (DPI). To this end, mannitol aqueous solution (15%, w/v) was added to different ratios of ethanol:water (100:0, 95:5, 90:10 and 85:15) to obtain mannitol particles. These crystallised mannitol particles were analysed in terms of micromeritic properties, morphology, DSC, FT-IR, and in vitro fine particle fraction (FPF) and emitted dose (ED) of SS. The results showed that the elongation ratio of all the recrystallised mannitol batches was higher than the original material giving them a needle-shaped morphology. Salbutamol sulphate deposition profiles from DPI formulation containing recrystallised needle-shaped mannitol showed enhanced performance and better delivery to the lower MSLI stages. The FPF increased from 15.4+/-1.1 to 45.8+/-0.7% when the commercial mannitol was replaced by mannitol crystallised from ethanol:water (90:10). This improvement could be due to the presence of elongated mannitol crystals in formulation blends. Solid state characterisation of engineered mannitol showed that the commercial mannitol was beta-form, mannitol recrystallised from ethanol:water (85:15) was alpha-form and that samples recrystallised in presence of pure ethanol or other ratios of ethanol:water (95:5 and 90:10) were the mixtures of alpha-, beta- and delta-forms. Multi-solvent recrystallisation technique was proved to have potential to produce mannitol crystals suitable for enhanced aerosolisation efficiency. Comparing different crystallised mannitol formulations showed that the final form (the type of polymorph) of the crystallised mannitol does not have a substantial effect on salbutamol sulphate aerosolisation performance. PMID:20537870

  14. Increased cell loss in the human jejunum induced by laxatives (ricinoleic acid, dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate, magnesium sulphate, bile salts).

    PubMed Central

    Bretagne, J F; Vidon, N; L'Hirondel, C; Bernier, J J

    1981-01-01

    Two conjugated bile salts (10 mmol/l sodium glycocholate, 10 mmol/l sodium taurodeoxycholate) and three laxatives (30 mmol/l magnesium sulphate, 10 mmol/l ricinoleic acid, 2 mmol/l dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate) were tested on seven subjects with no intestinal lesions in 14 experiments by intestinal perfusion of the jejunum. A 25 cm segment was studied. Each solution was perfused at the rate of 10 ml/min. Water and electrolyte fluxes, losses of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA), and intestinal cell enzyme activity were measured in the fluids collected. All the laxatives and bile salts tested (except sodium glycocholate) induced water and electrolyte secretion, a rise in intraluminal DNA loss, and enzyme activity. It was possible to establish a significant correlation (p less than 0.001) between the amounts of water fluxes and DNA loss under the effect of dioctyl sodium sulphosuccinate and ricinoleic acid. PMID:6165655

  15. Dry powder inhalers: mechanistic evaluation of lactose formulations containing salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Ticehurst, Martyn; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2012-02-28

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the relationships between physicochemical properties and aerosolisation performance of different grades of lactose. In order to get a wide range of physicochemical properties, various grades of lactose namely Flowlac 100 (FLO), Lactopress anhydrous 250 (LAC), Cellactose 80 (CEL), Tablettose 80 (TAB), and Granulac 200 (GRA) were used. The different lactose grades were carefully sieved to separate 63-90 μm particle size fractions and then characterised in terms of size, shape, density, flowability, and solid state. Formulations were prepared by blending each lactose with salbutamol sulphate (SS) at ratio of 67.5:1 (w/w), and then evaluated in terms of SS content uniformity, lactose-SS adhesion properties, and in vitro aerosolisation performance delivered from the Aerolizer. Sieved lactose grades showed similar particle size distributions (PSDs) and good flow properties but different particle shape, particle surface texture, and particle solid state. Content uniformity assessments indicated that lactose particles with rougher surface produced improved SS homogeneity within DPI formulation powders. Lactose-SS adhesion assessments indicated that lactose particles with more elongated shape and the rougher surface showed smaller adhesion force between lactose and salbutamol sulphate. Lactose powders with higher bulk density and higher tap density produced smaller emission (EM) and higher drug loss (DL) of SS. In vitro aerosolisation for various lactose grades followed the following rank order in terms of deposition performance: GRA>TAB>LAC ≈ CEL>FLO. Linear relationships were established showing that in order to maximize SS delivery to lower airway regions, lactose particles with more elongated shape, more irregular shape, and rougher surface are preferred. Therefore, considerable improvement in DPI performance can be achieved by careful selection of grade of lactose included within DPI formulations. PMID:22197772

  16. The Effect of Solvent Treatment on the Performance of Various Carriers in Dry Powder Inhalations Containing Salbutamol Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Siahai Shadbad, Mohammad Reza; Millen, Leonie; Momin, MN; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s) : It has been suggested that the efficiency of dry poder inhaler (DPI) is generally low. Therefore, the aim of the present research work was to use the solvent treatment of the carrier in DPIformulations to see the possibility of inducing desirable characteristics. Materials and Methods: Lactose sieve fractions of 63-90 µm were submerged in ethanol or 80% v/v ethanol, methanol or propanol. Lactose crystals were then blended with either 1% w/w or 4% w/w salbutamol sulphate using a Turbula mixer. Drug detachment was studied using a multistage liquid. Laser particle size analyzer, DSC, and pycnometer were used to characterize the treated lactose and mannitol samples. SEM was used to study surface morphologies. In case of mannitol as a carrier only ethanol was used as a solvent. Results: SEM images displayed less rugosities and increased surface smoothness after submersion. Although the tomahawk like shape remained fairly constant in most lactose samples, the solvent treatment changed the shape of mannitol particles which was proved by SEM results. Deposition results showed that the type of solvent had an influence on fine particle fraction. In addition, the payload had also a big impact on fine particle fraction values. Generally, treated samples showed better performance compared to untreated samples. Solid state analysis by DSC showed that no major changes occurred in the treated samples compared to untreated samples. Conclusion: The solvent treated method can be used as an approach to improve the performance of carriers such as lactose and mannitol in dry powder inhaler. PMID:23997919

  17. Thermal ink-jet spray freeze-drying for preparation of excipient-free salbutamol sulphate for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Mueannoom, Wunlapa; Srisongphan, Amon; Taylor, Kevin M G; Hauschild, Stephan; Gaisford, Simon

    2012-01-01

    The use of thermal ink-jet spray freeze-drying (TIJ-SFD) to engineer inhalable, excipient-free salbutamol sulphate (SS) particles was assessed. A modified Hewlett-Packard printer was used to atomise aqueous SS solutions into liquid nitrogen. The frozen droplets were freeze-dried. It was found that TIJ-SFD could process SS solutions up to 15%w/v; the porous particles produced had a physical diameter of ca. 35 μm. Next generation impactor (NGI) analysis indicated that the particles had a smaller aerodynamic size (MMAD ranging from 6 to 8.7 μm). Particles prepared from the lowest concentration SS solution were too fragile to withstand aerosolisation, but the 5%w/v solution yielded particles having the best combination of strength and aerodynamic properties. Comparison with a commercial SS formulation (Cyclocap®) showed that the SFD preparation had an almost equivalent FPF (6.4 μm) when analysed with a twin-stage impinger (TSI; 24.0 ± 1.2% and 26.4 ± 2.2%, respectively) and good performance when analysed with NGI (FPF (4.46 μm):16.5 ± 2.0 and 27.7 ± 1.7, respectively). TIJ-SFD appears to be an excellent method to prepare inhalable particles. It is scalable yet allows assessment of the viability of the pulmonary route early in the development since it can be used with very small volumes (<0.5 mL) of solution. PMID:22001519

  18. Interaction of Formulation and Device Factors Determine the In Vitro Performance of Salbutamol Sulphate Dry Powders for Inhalation.

    PubMed

    Muddle, Joanna; Murnane, Darragh; Parisini, Irene; Brown, Marc; Page, Clive; Forbes, Ben

    2015-11-01

    A variety of capsule-based dry powder inhalers were used to evaluate formulation-device interaction. The in vitro deposition of salbutamol sulphate (SS) was compared directly to published data for salmeterol xinafoate (SX). A 3(2) factorial design was used to assess the effect of SS formulations with three blends of different grade coarse lactose supplemented with different levels of fine lactose. These formulations were tested for homogeneity and evaluated for their in vitro deposition using Aeroliser, Handihaler and Rotahaler devices. The performance of the SS-lactose formulations differed across the grade of lactose and amount of fine lactose used compared to the same powder compositions blended with SX. SX had a greater fine particle fraction than SS for most of the comparable formulations, probably because of the different cohesiveness of the drugs. A head-to-head comparison of 'matched' SX and SS formulations when aerosolised from the same three devices demonstrated that formulation-device interactions are as critical in determining the in vitro deposition of drug-lactose blends as the identity of the active pharmaceutical ingredient. This work has revealed the limitations of the interpretative value of published in vitro performance data generated with a single device (even at equivalent aerosolisation force), when designing formulations for a different device. PMID:26220184

  19. Comparison of gamma scintigraphy and a pharmacokinetic technique for assessing pulmonary deposition of terbutaline sulphate delivered by pressurized metered dose inhaler.

    PubMed

    Newman, S; Steed, K; Hooper, G; Källén, A; Borgström, L

    1995-02-01

    A comparison has been made of pulmonary deposition of terbutaline sulphate from a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI), measured in 8 healthy male subjects by gamma scintigraphy and by a pharmacokinetic (charcoal-block) method, involving drug recovery in urine. Measurements were carried out with a pMDI at slow (27 l/min) and fast (151 l/min) inhaled flows and with Nebuhaler large volume spacer device (average inhaled flow 17 l/min). Overall, the two methods did not differ significantly in their estimates of whole lung deposition, although values obtained by gamma scintigraphy exceeded those from the charcoal-block method for the pMDI with fast inhalation. The regional distribution of drug within the lungs and deposition in the oropharynx could be assessed by gamma scintigraphy, but not by the charcoal-block method. It is concluded that either method may be used to assess whole lung deposition of terbutaline sulphate from pMDIs, both with and without a spacer, although each method has its own inherent advantages and disadvantages. PMID:7784338

  20. Pre-Study protocol MagPEP: a multicentre randomized controlled trial of magnesium sulphate in the prevention of post-ERCP pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Acute pancreatitis is the most common complication of diagnostic and therapeutic endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). In spite of continuing research, no pharmacologic agent capable of effectively reducing the incidence of ERCP-induced pancreatitis has found its way into clinical practise. A number of experimental studies suggest that intrapancreatic calcium concentrations play an important role in the initiation of intracellular protease activation, an initiating step in the course of acute pancreatitis. Magnesium can act as a calcium-antagonist and counteracts effects in calcium signalling. It can thereby attenuate the intracellular activation of proteolytic digestive enzymes in the pancreas and reduces the severity of experimental pancreatitis when administered either intravenously or as a food supplement. Methods We designed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled phase III study to test whether the administration of intravenous magnesium sulphate before and after ERCP reduces the incidence and the severity of post-ERCP pancreatitis. A total of 502 adult patients with a medical indication for ERCP are to be randomized to receive either 4930 mg magnesium sulphate (= 20 mmol magnesium) or placebo 60 min before and 6 hours after ERCP. The incidence of clinical post-ERCP pancreatitis, hyperlipasemia, pain levels, use of analgetics and length of hospital stay will be evaluated. Conclusions If magnesium sulphate is found to be effective in preventing post-ERCP pancreatitis, this inexpensive agent with limited adverse effects could be used as a routine pharmacological prophylaxis. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN46556454 PMID:23320650

  1. Rhubarb Tannins Extract Inhibits the Expression of Aquaporins 2 and 3 in Magnesium Sulphate-Induced Diarrhoea Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chunfang; Zheng, Yanfang; Xu, Wen; Wang, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Tannins, a group of major active components of Chinese rhubarb and widely distributed in nature, have a significant antidiarrhoeal activity. Aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 play important roles in regulating water transfer during diarrhoea. The present study aims to determine the effect of the total tannins extract of rhubarb on aquaporins (AQPs) 2 and 3 in diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by magnesium sulphate (MgSO4). Our results showed that rhubarb tannins extract (RTE) significantly decreased the faecal water content in colon and evaluation index of defecation of diarrhoea mice. Interestingly, RTE could markedly reduce the mRNA and protein expression levels of AQPs 2 and 3 in apical and lateral mucosal epithelial cells in the colons of diarrhoea mice and HT-29 cells both induced by MgSO4 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, RTE suppressed the production of cyclic monophosphate- (cAMP-) dependent protein kinase A catalytic subunits α (PKA C-α) and phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (p-CREB, Ser133) in MgSO4-induced HT-29 cells. Our data showed for the first time that RTE inhibit AQPs 2 and 3 expression in vivo and in vitro via downregulating PKA/p-CREB signal pathway, which accounts for the antidiarrhoeal effect of RTE. PMID:25215286

  2. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Drug Facts Chat Day: Inhalants Print Can you get high off of ... Cool Order Free Materials National Drugs & Alcohol Chat Day Newsletter Sign up to receive National Drug & Alcohol ...

  3. Magnesium

    MedlinePlus

    ... supplements are available? Magnesium is available in multivitamin-mineral supplements and other dietary supplements . Forms of magnesium ... higher intakes of magnesium have a higher bone mineral density , which is important in reducing the risk ...

  4. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... Alerts Alcohol Club Drugs Cocaine Hallucinogens Heroin Inhalants Marijuana MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly) Methamphetamine Opioids Prescription Drugs & Cold ... Notes Articles Adolescent Cigarette, Alcohol Use Declines as Marijuana Use Rises ( February 2013 ) Program Helps Troubled Boys ...

  5. Comparative Evaluation of Dexmedetomidine and Magnesium Sulphate on Propofol Consumption, Haemodynamics and Postoperative Recovery in Spine Surgery: A Prospective, Randomized, Placebo Controlled, Double-blind Study

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Vinit K.; Mishra, Abhishek; Agrawal, Sanjay; Kumar, Sanjay; Sharma, Sunil; Kumar, Raj

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate have been used in anesthesia as adjuvant to provide hemodynamic stability and anesthetic agents sparing effect. We compared these effects of dexmedetomidine and magnesium sulfate in spine surgeries. Methods: Ninety patients were randomly assigned to three groups. Group D received dexmedetomidine loading dose 1 µg/kg over a period of 15 minutes and maintenance 0.5 µg/kg/h throughout the surgery. Group M received magnesium sulfate loading dose 50 mg/kg over a period of 15 minutes and maintenance 15 mg/kg/h throughout the surgery. Group C received same volume of normal saline. Heart rate (HR) and blood pressure values were recorded at various intervals. The induction and maintenance doses of anesthetics and recovery parameters were also recorded. Results: Heart rate in group D and group M were significantly decreased (p<0.05) during the whole intraoperative period compared to preoperative values. There was a significant difference in HR values between group C, D and M, during the whole intraoperaive period (p<0.05). Blood pressure values were statistically significantly lower in the group D and group M compared to group C after intubation and all time observations of surgery (p<0.05). Both drugs reduced the anesthetic agent’s requirement during surgery. However, the recovery parameters were statistically significant increase with magnesium sulphate compared to dexmedetomidine and control groups. Conclusion: Dexmedetomidine is more effective than magnesium sulfate for maintaining the hemodynamic stability in spine surgeries. Both these drugs also reduce the requirements of anesthetic agents. Recovery from dexmedetomidine is as rapid as control group compared to magnesium sulfate. PMID:27123421

  6. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs for kids in search of a quick high. Many young people ... need to know the dangers. Even inhaling once can disrupt heart rhythms and ...

  7. Magnesium for acute exacerbation of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A systematic review of randomised trials.

    PubMed

    Shivanthan, Mitrakrishnan Chrishan; Rajapakse, Senaka

    2014-04-01

    The efficacy of magnesium sulphate in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) was assessed by conducting a systematic review of published randomized clinical trials through extensive searches in MEDLINE and SCOPUS with no date limits, as well as manual review of journals. Outcome measures varied depending on route(s) of administration of magnesium sulphate and medications co-administered. Risk of bias was evaluated and quality of evidence was graded. Four (4) randomized trials were included. All trials had a moderate risk of bias and were of average methodological quality. Magnesium sulphate given intravenously did not seem to have an immediate bronchodilatory effect; however it appears to potentiate the bronchodilatory effect of inhaled beta-2 agonists. Increase in peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) at 30 and 45 min was greater in those who received magnesium sulphate compared to placebo (P = 0.03), although the mean percentage change in PEFR was just 24%, without significant differences in dyspnoea scores, hospital admission rates, or emergency department readmission rates compared to placebo. Nebulized magnesium sulphate with salbutamol versus nebulized salbutamol with saline placebo showed no significant differences is forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) measured at 90 min after adjustment for baseline FEV1 (P = 0.34) or differences in the need for hospital admission. Combined inhalational and intravenous magnesium sulphate versus intravenous saline placebo and nebulized ipratropium bromide were comparable in terms of hospital admission, intubation and death, but the ipratropium bromide group showed better bronchodilator effect and improvement in arterial blood gas parameters. Overall, trial evidence for trial evidence for magnesium sulphate in acute exacerbation of COPD is poor, and further well-designed trials are needed. PMID:24791169

  8. Potential reproductive health effects and oxidative stress associated with exposure to potassium dichromate (K2Cr2O7) and magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) in male mice

    PubMed Central

    Rasool, Mahmood; Zaigham, Kalsoom; Malik, Arif; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Umm-e-Habiba; Manan, Abdul; Qazi, Mahmood Husain; Asif, Muhammad

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the potential harmful effects of potassium dichromate and magnesium sulphate causing oxidative stress and reproductive toxicity in adult male mice model. Methods: The experimental work was conducted on sixty male mice (Mus musculus) divided into three groups. Mice in group B and C received potassium dichromate and magnesium sulphate of 5.0 and 500 mg/Kg body weight/ml respectively, for sixty days. The blood sample was analyzed to assess oxidative stress and cellular damage. Results: Results showed high malondialdehyde (MDA) and low levels of antioxidant enzymes [catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx)] in both potassium dichromate and magnesium sulphate administrated groups as compared to control group. Reduced number of sperm count and excessive destruction of testicular follicles, including destruction of spermatids, leydig cells and sertoli cells, were also seen in both groups. Conclusion: We concluded from present study that potassium dichromate and magnesium sulphate causes oxidative stress by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and causing DNA damage in testicular cells leading to adverse reproductive abnormalities. PMID:25097524

  9. Magnesium sulphate suppresses fentanyl-induced cough during general anesthesia induction: a double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Hai-Lin; An, Li-Jun; Su, Zhen; Zhang, Yang; Gui, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Fentanyl-induced cough is a common phenomenon during anesthesia induction. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) is reported to have a powerful relaxation of airway smooth muscle. This study is to investigate the effects of prophylactic MgSO4 on the incidence and severity of fentanyl-induced cough. A total of 120 patients, scheduled for elective surgery under general anesthesia, were randomly allocated into three groups (n = 40, each group) and injected with 50 ml normal saline, 30 mg/kg and 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 (diluted with normal saline into 50 ml) in groups I, II and III, respectively. One minute later all patients were injected with 5.0 μg/kg of fentanyl within 5 s. The incidence and severity of cough were recorded 30 s after fentanyl injection. Hemodynamic parameters and plasma magnesium concentration of the patients were also noted. Three patients dropped off the study due to obvious burning sense during injection of 50 mg/kg of MgSO4. Injection with 50 mg/kg of MgSO4 increased plasma magnesium level at the end of its infusion, but the latter still remained within therapeutic range (2-4 mmol/L). The incidence of cough in group I was much higher than those in groups II and III (45.0% vs. 15.0% and 8.1%, P < 0.05). Compared with the group I, both the groups II and III had lower incidence of moderate cough (P < 0.05). There were no differences in the hemodynamic data at three timepoints among the three groups. In conclusion, fentanyl-induced cough may be suppressed effectively and safely by prophylactic 30 mg/kg of MgSO4 during anesthetic induction. PMID:26379945

  10. The influence of carrier roughness on adhesion, content uniformity and the in vitro deposition of terbutaline sulphate from dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Flament, Marie-Pierre; Leterme, Pierre; Gayot, Anne

    2004-05-01

    The aim of this study was to establish a correlation between carrier characteristics and the dispersibility of drug from the blend. The influence of the roughness of a commonly used carrier material, lactose monohydrate, on the adhesion, dose uniformity, and aerodynamic properties of a model drug, terbutaline sulphate was investigated. Evaluation of adhesion was carried out with a mechanical sieve and an Alpine air-jet sieve. For the characterisation of lactose roughness, we used image analysis software. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle dose and emitted dose was obtained using a twin stage impinger. The study with the mechanical sieve demonstrated that at least 60% of drug adheres to lactose. The Alpine air-jet sieve assays showed there was a correlation between drug separation from a carrier by sieving and that obtained from longer in vitro deposition studies. Adhesion, blend homogeneity and stability are related to the surface roughness of the lactose used as carrier. There is a linear relationship between the parameters "fine particle fraction" and "roughness". A compromise between homogeneity and drug liberation must be found: a certain roughness is necessary to allow for drug adhesion and blend homogeneity, but if too high it will prevent drug liberation after inhalation. PMID:15081150

  11. Antidiarrhoeal activity of the methanol extract of the barks of Xylocarpus moluccensis in castor oil- and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea models in mice.

    PubMed

    Uddin, S J; Shilpi, J A; Alam, S M S; Alamgir, M; Rahman, M T; Sarker, S D

    2005-10-01

    The methanol (MeOH) extract of the barks of Xylocarpus moluccensis, and different fractions of this extract were studied for antidiarrhoeal activity using castor oil- and magnesium sulphate-induced diarrhoea models in mice. At the doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg, the MeOH extract showed significant antidiarrhoeal activity in both models. The EtOAc fraction (EAF) and the residual MeOH fraction (RMF) exhibited similar activity using a dose of 250 mg/kg in both models. No antidiarrhoeal activity was observed with the chloroform fraction (CHF) at the test doses. When tested for antibacterial effect, the MeOH extract displayed moderate inhibitory activity against Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholera, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermis, Shigella dysentery, Staphylococcus pyogenes, Salmonella typhi, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobacter aerogenes. While the CHF inhibited the growth of Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus epidermis, Staphylococcus pyogenes and Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the EAF was active against all test organisms except Vibrio cholera and Staphylococcus epidermis. The RMF inhibited the growth of all the test organisms with moderate zone of inhibition. On the basis of these findings, it can be assumed that Xylocarpus moluccensis could be a potential source for novel 'lead' discovery for antidiarrhoeal drug development. PMID:15905054

  12. Magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block in patients scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy under subarachnoid block

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Shelly; Verma, Ravinder Kumar; Singh, Jai; Chaudhary, Sudarshan Kumar; Chandel, Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block has proven to be an effective component of multimodal analgesic regimens for a variety of abdominal procedures. Magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonist has the potential to be an ideal adjuvant in TAP block. We studied the efficacy of MgSO4 as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in TAP block in patients scheduled for total abdominal hysterectomy (TAH) under subarachnoid block (SAB). Methods: Sixty-five women belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status 1 or 2, aged between 35 and 70 years, scheduled for TAH under SAB were recruited. Patients in Group B (n = 32) received 18 mL 0.25% bupivacaine (45 mg) with 2 mL normal saline (NS), whereas those in Group BM (n = 33) received 18 mL 0.25% bupivacaine (45 mg) with 1.5 mL (150 mg) MgSO4 and 0.5 mL NS in the ultrasound (USG)-guided TAP block performed on each side after the completion of the surgery under SAB. They were evaluated for pain at 0, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h, time to first rescue analgesic and duration of postoperative analgesia were noted. Results: The post-operative visual analogue scale (VAS) scores were lower in Group BM at 4, 6 and 12 h (P < 0.05). Mean duration of analgesia was significantly prolonged in Group BM with lesser requirement of rescue analgesic (P < 0.05) up to 12 h. Conclusion: MgSO4 (150 mg) as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in USG-guided TAP block reduces post-operative pain scores, prolongs the duration of analgesia and decreases demands for rescue analgesics. PMID:27053780

  13. Molecular and phenetic characterization of the bacterial assemblage of Hot Lake, WA, an environment with high concentrations of magnesium sulphate, and its relevance to Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kilmer, Brian R.; Eberl, Timothy C.; Cunderla, Brent; Chen, Fei; Clark, Benton C.; Schneegurt, Mark A.

    2014-01-01

    Hot Lake (Oroville, WA) is an athalassohaline epsomite lake that can have precipitating concentrations of MgSO4 salts, mainly epsomite. Little biotic study has been done on epsomite lakes and it was unclear whether microbes isolated from epsomite lakes and their margins would fall within recognized halotolerant genera, common soil genera or novel phyla. Our initial study cultivated and characterized epsotolerant bacteria from the lake and its margins. Approximately 100 aerobic heterotrophic microbial isolates were obtained by repetitive streak-plating in high-salt media including either 10% NaCl or 2 M MgSO4. The collected isolates were all bacteria, nearly evenly divided between Gram-positive and Gram-negative clades, the most abundant genera being Halomonas, Idiomarina, Marinobacter, Marinococcus, Nesterenkonia, Nocardiopsis and Planococcus. Bacillus, Corynebacterium, Exiguobacterium, Kocuria and Staphylococcus also were cultured. This initial study included culture-independent community analysis of direct DNA extracts of lake margin soil using PCR-based clone libraries and 16S rRNA gene phylogeny. Clones assigned to Gram-positive bacterial clades (70% of total clones) were dominated by sequences related to uncultured actinobacteria. There were abundant Deltaproteobacteria clones related to bacterial sulphur metabolisms and clones of Legionella and Coxiella. These epsomite lake microbial communities seem to be divided between bacteria primarily associated with hyperhaline environments rich in NaCl and salinotolerant relatives of common soil organisms. Archaea appear to be in low abundance and none were isolated, despite near-saturated salinities. Growth of microbes at very high concentrations of magnesium and other sulphates has relevance to planetary protection and life-detection missions to Mars, where scant liquid water may form as deliquescent brines and appear as eutectic liquids.

  14. Efficacy and safety of ipratropium bromide/salbutamol sulphate administered in a hydrofluoroalkane metered-dose inhaler for the treatment of COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bhattacharya, Amal; Bhargava, Salil; Singh, Virendra; Talwar, Deepak; Whig, Jagdeep; Rebello, Juliet; Purandare, Shrinivas; Gogtay, Jaideep

    2016-01-01

    Background The use of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) has contributed to the depletion of the stratospheric ozone layer resulting in serious health concerns. Ipratropium bromide/salbutamol sulphate CFC-pressurized metered-dose inhalers (IB/SAL-CFC pMDI) have been in widespread use for many years without any apparent ill consequences. This combination has now been reformulated using the hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) propellant. This study sought to establish the clinical noninferiority of a new HFA-containing IB/SAL pMDI to the conventional IB/SAL-CFC pMDI in subjects with mild/moderate COPD. Methods This was a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group, multicenter study in two consecutive periods: a 14-day run-in period followed by a 85-day treatment period. Eligible mild-to-moderate stable COPD subjects aged 40−75 years were enrolled into the study and entered the run-in period during which subjects withdrew all the bronchodilators, except for salbutamol as rescue medication. Subjects were randomized to 85 days treatment with either IB/SAL-HFA or IB/SAL-CFC, 20 μg qid. Results Of the 290 randomized patients, 249 completed the study. The primary efficacy variable was the change in forced expiratory volume in one second from predose to 60 minutes after dosing on day 85. At the end of the treatment period, the adjusted mean change in forced expiratory volume in one second at 60 minutes was 123 mL in the IB/SAL-HFA pMDI group and 115 mL in the IB/SAL-CFC pMDI group. Because the lower limit of the 95% confidence interval for the between-group difference (−62 mL) was well within the noninferiority margin (−100 mL), the HFA formulation was deemed clinically noninferior to the CFC formulation. This finding was supported by secondary efficacy assessments. Both formulations of IB/SAL were well tolerated during the prolonged multiple dosing. Conclusion It is concluded that IB/SAL-HFA pMDI provides effective bronchodilation of similar degree to that achieved with IB/SAL-CFC p

  15. Magnesium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bechtel, H.; Bulian, W.; Bungardt, K.; Gürs, K.; Gürs, U.; Helling, W.; Kyri, H.; Laue, H. J.; Mahler, W.; Matting, A.; Meyer, F. R.; Mialki, W.; Ritter, F.; Ruge, J.; Saur, G.; Simon, W.; Strnat, K.; Weber, R.; Weigand, H. H.; Weik, H.; Ziesler, H.; Borchers, Heinz; Schmidt, Ernst

    Magnesium wird überwiegend durch Schmelzflußelektrolyse hergestellt. Das dabei anfallende Reinmagnesium hat einen Mg-Gehalt von etwa 99,9%. Hauptbeimengung ist das Eisen; Silizium und Aluminium sind nur in Spuren vorhanden. Der Anwendungsumfang des Reinmagnesiums ist gering; dagegen werden Magnesiumlegierungen zunehmend, insbesondere für den Druckguß verwendet. Neben den bis etwa zum Jahre 1950 allein gebräuchlichen Mg-Mn-, Mg-Al- und Mg-Al-Zn-Legierungen werden heute mehr und mehr die besonders warmfesten Legierungen mit Zusätzen von Zirkon, Thorium und Seltenen Erden hergestellt (siehe dazu auch Abschnitt Seltene Erden). Als Umhüllungsmaterial für Uranstäbe dient die Legierung Magnox A 12, die nach [H 3] neben 1 % Al noch geringe Mengen an Ca und Ba enthält. In den in Deutschland üblichen Kurzzeichen (DIN 1729) werden die chemischen Symbole und der ungefähre Gehalt der wichtigsten Legierungselemente angegeben. Gußlegierungen werden zusätzlich durch ein G (Sandguß oder Kokillenguß) oder ein D (Druckguß) gekennzeichnet (siehe Tab. 5).

  16. Rapid interrogation of the physical and chemical characteristics of salbutamol sulphate aerosol from a pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI).

    PubMed

    Tong, H-J; Fitzgerald, C; Gallimore, P J; Kalberer, M; Kuimova, M K; Seville, P C; Ward, A D; Pope, F D

    2014-12-21

    Individual micron-sized solid particles from a Salamol® pharmaceutical inhaler are stably captured in air using an optical trap for the first time. Raman spectroscopy of the levitated particles allows online interrogation of composition and deliquescent phase change within a high humidity environment that mimics the particle's travel from inhaler to lung. PMID:25329335

  17. Physico-chemical characterisation of surface modified particles for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Stank, Katharina; Steckel, Hartwig

    2013-05-01

    Surface modification of drugs for inhalation is a possibility to influence interparticulate forces. This can be necessary to achieve a sufficient aerosolisation during powder inhalation as the cohesiveness of the micronised drug can be reduced. In addition, the interaction with propellants in pressurised metered dose inhaler can be changed. This can be used to improve the physical stability of the suspension based formulations. A dry particle coating process was used for the alteration of particle surfaces. The blending of micronised salbutamol sulphate (SBS) with different concentrations of magnesium stearate (Mgst) or glycerol monostearate (GMS) was followed by co-milling with an air jet mill. The powder properties were characterised by SEM, EDX, laser diffraction, BET and inverse gas chromatography. Physical mixtures generated by Turbula blending were compared to co-milled samples. A slight particle size reduction was determined. The Mgst deposition on SBS particles was detected by EDX measurements. The dispersive surface energy of SBS is lowered and the energy distribution is more homogenous for the co-milled samples. This study proves the application of co-milling for surface modification in the inhalation area. PMID:23518364

  18. Magnesium in disease

    PubMed Central

    Wanner, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    Although the following text will focus on magnesium in disease, its role in healthy subjects during physical exercise when used as a supplement to enhance performance is also noteworthy. Low serum magnesium levels are associated with metabolic syndrome, Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypertension; consequently, some individuals benefit from magnesium supplementation: increasing magnesium consumption appears to prevent high blood pressure, and higher serum magnesium levels are associated with a lower risk of developing a metabolic syndrome. There are, however, conflicting study results regarding magnesium administration with myocardial infarction with and without reperfusion therapy. There was a long controversy as to whether or not magnesium should be given as a first-line medication. As the most recent trials have not shown any difference in outcome, intravenous magnesium cannot be recommended in patients with myocardial infarction today. However, magnesium has its indication in patients with torsade de pointes and has been given successfully to patients with digoxin-induced arrhythmia or life-threatening ventricular arrhythmias. Magnesium sulphate as an intravenous infusion also has an important established therapeutic role in pregnant women with pre-eclampsia as it decreases the risk of eclamptic seizures by half compared with placebo. PMID:26069818

  19. Inhaled and intravenous treatment in acute severe and life-threatening asthma.

    PubMed

    Sellers, W F S

    2013-02-01

    Management of life-threatening acute severe asthma in children and adults may require anaesthetic and intensive care. The inhaled route for drug delivery is not appropriate when only small respiratory gas volumes are shifted; the i.v. route may be associated with greater side-effects. Magnesium sulphate i.v. has a place in acute asthma management because it is a mild bronchodilator, and has a stabilizing effect on the atria which may attenuate tachycardia occurring after inhaled and i.v. salbutamol. If intubation and ventilation are required, a reduction in bronchoconstriction by any means before and during these procedures should reduce morbidity. This narrative review aims to show strengths and weakness of the evidence, present controversies, and forward opinions of the author. The review contains a practical guide to the setting up, use and efficiency of nebulizers, metered dose inhalers, and spacers (chambers). It also presents a commonsense approach to the management of severe asthmatics in whom delay in bronchodilatation would cause clinical deterioration. When self-inhaled agents have had no effect, i.v. drugs may help avoid intubation and ventilation. The review includes suggestions for the use of inhaled anaesthetics, anaesthetic induction, and brief notes on subsequent ventilation of the lungs. PMID:23234642

  20. Calcium sulphate in ammonium sulphate solution

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sullivan, E.C.

    1905-01-01

    Calcium sulphate, at 25?? C., is two-thirds as soluble in dilute (o.i mol per liter) and twice as soluble in concentrated (3 mois per liter) ammonium sulphate solution as in water. The specific electric conductivity of concentrated ammonium sulphate solutions is lessened by saturating with calcium sulphate. Assuming that dissociation of ammonium sulphate takes place into 2NH4?? and SO4" and of calcium sulphate into Ca and SO4" only, and that the conductivity is a measure of such dissociation, the solubility of calcium sulphate in dilute ammonium sulphate solutions is greater than required by the mass-law. The conductivity of the dilute mixtures may be accurately calculated by means of Arrhenius' principle of isohydric solutions. In the data obtained in these calculations, the concentration of non-dissociated calcium sulphate decreases with increasing ammonium sulphate. The work as a whole is additional evidence of the fact that we are not yet in possession of all the factors necessary for reconciling the mass-law to the behavior of electrolytes. The measurements above described were made in the chemical laboratory of the University of Michigan.

  1. Magnesium Gluconate

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium gluconate is used to treat low blood magnesium. Low blood magnesium is caused by gastrointestinal disorders, prolonged vomiting or ... disease, or certain other conditions. Certain drugs lower magnesium levels as well.This medication is sometimes prescribed ...

  2. Sulphate in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dawson, Paul A; Elliott, Aoife; Bowling, Francis G

    2015-03-01

    Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology. PMID:25746011

  3. Sulphate in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Paul A.; Elliott, Aoife; Bowling, Francis G.

    2015-01-01

    Sulphate is an obligate nutrient for healthy growth and development. Sulphate conjugation (sulphonation) of proteoglycans maintains the structure and function of tissues. Sulphonation also regulates the bioactivity of steroids, thyroid hormone, bile acids, catecholamines and cholecystokinin, and detoxifies certain xenobiotics and pharmacological drugs. In adults and children, sulphate is obtained from the diet and from the intracellular metabolism of sulphur-containing amino acids. Dietary sulphate intake can vary greatly and is dependent on the type of food consumed and source of drinking water. Once ingested, sulphate is absorbed into circulation where its level is maintained at approximately 300 μmol/L, making sulphate the fourth most abundant anion in plasma. In pregnant women, circulating sulphate concentrations increase by twofold with levels peaking in late gestation. This increased sulphataemia, which is mediated by up-regulation of sulphate reabsorption in the maternal kidneys, provides a reservoir of sulphate to meet the gestational needs of the developing foetus. The foetus has negligible capacity to generate sulphate and thereby, is completely reliant on sulphate supply from the maternal circulation. Maternal hyposulphataemia leads to foetal sulphate deficiency and late gestational foetal death in mice. In humans, reduced sulphonation capacity has been linked to skeletal dysplasias, ranging from the mildest form, multiple epiphyseal dysplasia, to achondrogenesis Type IB, which results in severe skeletal underdevelopment and death in utero or shortly after birth. Despite being essential for numerous cellular and metabolic functions, the nutrient sulphate is largely unappreciated in clinical settings. This article will review the physiological roles and regulation of sulphate during pregnancy, with a particular focus on animal models of disturbed sulphate homeostasis and links to human pathophysiology. PMID:25746011

  4. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... you can inhale that can cause acute internal injuries. Particles in the air from fires and toxic ... and lung diseases worse. Symptoms of acute inhalation injuries may include Coughing and phlegm A scratchy throat ...

  5. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using an inhaler and as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Fluticasone ... Flovent® HFA) is usually inhaled twice daily. Fluticasone powder for oral inhalation (Flovent® Diskus) is usually inhaled ...

  6. Magnesium basics

    PubMed Central

    Ketteler, Markus

    2012-01-01

    As a cofactor in numerous enzymatic reactions, magnesium fulfils various intracellular physiological functions. Thus, imbalance in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesaemia as it is seen more often than hypermagnesaemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Measuring total serum magnesium is a feasible and affordable way to monitor changes in magnesium status, although it does not necessarily reflect total body magnesium content. The following review focuses on the natural occurrence of magnesium and its physiological function. The absorption and excretion of magnesium as well as hypo- and hypermagnesaemia will be addressed. PMID:26069819

  7. Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... risk of being hurt in a fall, a fire or a car crash (for example, if your child tries to drive while he or she is high on an inhalant). Inhalants block oxygen flow to the brain and every other organ ...

  8. Magnesium Oxide

    MedlinePlus

    ... repeatedly. Magnesium oxide also is used as a dietary supplement when the amount of magnesium in the diet ... any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring this list with you each ...

  9. Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium hydroxide is used on a short-term basis to treat constipation.This medication is sometimes prescribed ... Magnesium hydroxide come as a tablet and liquid to take by mouth. It usually is taken as ...

  10. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone ... inhaler is not working properly.To use the aerosol inhaler, follow these steps: Remove the cap from ...

  11. Tiotropium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... use the inhaler to breathe in the dry powder contained in the capsules. Tiotropium is usually inhaled ... the inhaler it comes with to inhale the powder in the capsules. Never try to inhale them ...

  12. Sulphate transport in Candida utilis.

    PubMed

    Benítez, J A; Alonso, A; Delgado, J; Kotyk, A

    1983-01-01

    Sulphate uptake by Candida utilis follows Michaelis-Menten type kinetics characterized by a Km of 1.43 mM for sulphate. The process is unidirectional, pH, temperature and energy dependent. Molybdate, selenate, thiosulphate, chromate and sulphite are competitive inhibitors. Dithionite is a mixed-type inhibitor of sulphate uptake. If cells are pre-incubated with sulphate, sulphite, thiosulphate, dithionite or sulphide, sulphate uptake is severely blocked. Inhibition by endogenous sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate was specific for sulphate uptake. Thus, incorporation of extracellular sulphate seems to be under the control of a heterogeneous pool of sulphur compounds. These results are discussed in connection with the regulation of sulphur amino acid biosynthesis in C. utilis. PMID:6682074

  13. Asthma Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... reduce the release of chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) into the atmosphere when taking certain asthma medications. Until recently, most ... hydrofluoroalkane (HFA) inhalers, that do not rob the atmosphere of ozone. “The FDA [Food and Drug Administration] ...

  14. A new multiple dose powder inhaler, (Turbuhaler), compared with a pressurized inhaler in a study of terbutaline in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Persson, G; Gruvstad, E; Ståhl, E

    1988-08-01

    Twelve adult asthmatic patients participated in an open, randomized, cross-over comparison between cumulatively increasing doses of terbutaline sulphate administered via the multiple dose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) or via a pressurized inhaler. Turbuhaler and the pressurized inhaler showed equipotency both with respect to bronchodilatation and side effects. Both treatments produced a significant increase in pulmonary function measurements, forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC). No increase in pulse rate was seen with either treatment but there was an increase in tremor at higher doses with both treatments. Inhalation of beta-agonists via Turbuhaler seems to be an effective way of treating asthma. PMID:3234516

  15. Mometasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... children 12 years of age and older. Mometasone powder for oral inhalation (Asmanex® Twisthaler) is used in ... Mometasone inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Mometasone oral inhalation is usually inhaled ...

  16. Chemical stabilities of isoetharine hydrochloride, metaproterenol sulphate and terbutaline sulphate after mixing with normal saline for respiratory therapy.

    PubMed

    Das Gupta, V; Parasrampuria, J; Gardner, S N

    1988-04-01

    The chemical stabilities of isoetharine hydrochloride inhalation solution, metaproterenol sulphate inhalation solution and terbutaline sulphate injection, after diluting 1 in 10 with sodium chloride 0.9% injection were studied. On storing the solutions in amber-coloured syringes, they were stable for at least 120 days at 5 degrees C. At 25 degrees C they were also stable for 120 days except that isoetharine solution discoloured and lost 7.8% of its potency after 90 days of storage. There was a new peak in the chromatogram from the decomposition product. All other solutions remained clear for 120 days at both temperatures. The initial and final pH values were similar except that after 120 days at both temperatures. The initial and final pH values were similar except that after 120 days at 25 degrees C, the pH value of terbutaline solution had increased from 4.9 to 5.4. PMID:3392129

  17. Emitted dose and lung deposition of inhaled terbutaline from Turbuhaler at different conditions.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E

    2010-05-01

    Turbuhaler has a very high resistance hence patient inhalation flow when using it would be low. The total emitted dose (TED) of 500microg terbutaline sulphate from a Bricanyl Turbuhaler was determined using a range of inhalation flows (10-60L min(-1)) with inhalation volume of 2 and 4L using a DPI sampling apparatus after one and two inhalations. The relative lung and systemic bioavailability of terbutaline from Bricanyl Turbuhaler when used by healthy subjects and COPD patients were determined after one and two inhalations at slow and fast inhalation flows using a novel urinary terbutaline pharmacokinetic method. The TED resulted from the one and two inhalations increased significantly (p<0.05) with the increase of the inhalation flow at both 2 and 4L inhalation volumes. The relative lung and systemic bioavailability after one inhalation at fast inhalation flow were significantly higher (p<0.01) than at slow inhalation flow in both healthy subjects and patients. Also the healthy subjects results were significantly higher (p<0.05) than the COPD patients after one inhalation. However after two inhalations there was no significant difference between slow and fast inhalation flow or healthy subjects and COPD patients. Hence it is essential to inhale twice and as deep and hard as possible from each dose of Turbuhaler for patients with low inspiratory flow and limited inhalation volume as they may not receive much benefit from one inhalation. PMID:20004090

  18. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... inhalation comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using a special inhaler. It is usually used ... to your doctor.Before you use your insulin oral inhaler the first time, read the written instructions ...

  19. Inhaled Asthma Medications

    MedlinePlus

    ... metered – dose inhaler (MDI), which uses a chemical propellant to push the medication out of the inhaler. ... powder inhalers (DPIs) deliver medication without using chemical propellants, but they require a strong and fast inhalation. ...

  20. Inhalation Injuries

    MedlinePlus

    ... increase mortality 30% to 40% when patients with cutaneous burns and inhalation injury are compared with patients ... nasal hairs • Facial burns • Burns around the mouth • Mineral spirits – 104º F – paint thinner, brush cleaner. • Redness, ...

  1. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2010-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 40 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2009. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover, and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  2. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2011-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 54 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2010. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its operation mentioned above.

  3. Magnesium Test

    MedlinePlus

    ... Mg; Mag Formal name: Magnesium Related tests: Calcium , Potassium , Phosphorus , PTH , Vitamin D At a Glance Test ... can, over time, cause persistently low calcium and potassium levels, it may be checked to help diagnose ...

  4. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G [Harriman, TN; Anovitz, Lawrence M [Knoxville, TN; Palmer, Donald A [Oliver Springs, TN; Beard, James S [Martinsville, VA

    2010-02-23

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention further relates to a process for production of magnesium metal or a magnesium compound where an external source of carbon dioxide is not used in any of the reactions of the process. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  5. Effects, side effects and plasma concentrations of terbutaline in adult asthmatics after inhaling from a dry powder inhaler device at different inhalation flows and volumes.

    PubMed

    Engel, T; Scharling, B; Skovsted, B; Heinig, J H

    1992-04-01

    1. The efficacy of a metered dose inhaler (MDI) is highly dependent on the mode of inhalation. The relatively high built-in resistance in the Turbohaler (TBH), a new dry powder inhaler device for inhalation of terbutaline sulphate and budesonide, reduces the flow during inhalation. We compared five different modes of inhalation using the terbutaline TBH in 10 stable asthmatic subjects, who were tested on 5 consecutive days. 2. Measurement of 10 different parameters of pulmonary function indicated that the full bronchodilatory effect of an inhaled dose was already achieved at 5 min after the inhalation. Inspiratory flows through the TBH varying from 34 to 88 l min-1 resulted in comparable bronchodilation, and a previous exhalation to residual volume proved of no value. However, if, prior to inhalation, an exhalation through the device was performed, a substantially reduced effect was seen. 3. Reducing the inspiratory flow to approximately 34 l min-1 produced slightly reduced side effects and lower plasma terbutaline concentrations. PMID:1576070

  6. Levalbuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... by mouth using a nebulizer, and as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. The ... will come in canisters. Each canister of levalbuterol aerosol is designed to provide 200 inhalations. After the ...

  7. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... that affect the lungs and airways). Albuterol inhalation aerosol and powder for oral inhalation is also used to prevent breathing difficulties during exercise. Albuterol inhalation aerosol (Proair HFA, Proventil HFA, Ventolin HFA) is used ...

  8. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... in (inhaled). Common types of abused inhalants are: Aerosols, such as air freshener, deodorant, fabric protector, hair ... a gas from a balloon Dusting: Spraying an aerosol into the nose or mouth Glading: Inhaling air- ...

  9. Production of magnesium metal

    DOEpatents

    Blencoe, James G.; Anovitz, Lawrence M.; Palmer, Donald A.; Beard, James S.

    2012-04-10

    A process of producing magnesium metal includes providing magnesium carbonate, and reacting the magnesium carbonate to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The carbon dioxide is used as a reactant in a second process. In another embodiment of the process, a magnesium silicate is reacted with a caustic material to produce magnesium hydroxide. The magnesium hydroxide is reacted with a source of carbon dioxide to produce magnesium carbonate. The magnesium carbonate is reacted to produce a magnesium-containing compound and carbon dioxide. The magnesium-containing compound is reacted to produce magnesium metal. The invention also relates to the magnesium metal produced by the processes described herein.

  10. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2012-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 57 percent of magnesium compounds produced in the United States in 2011. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties LLC from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from seawater by Premier Magnesia LLC in Florida, from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Magnesia. Intrepid Potash Wendover LLC and Great Salt Lake Minerals Corp. recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from seawater by SPI Pharma Inc. in Delaware and Premier Magnesia in Florida, and by Martin Marietta from its brine operation in Michigan.

  11. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60% of US magnesium compounds production in 2001. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater in Florida by Premier Chemicals. They were also recovered from Michigan well brines by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And Premier Chemicals recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from magnesite in Nevada. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  12. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2004-01-01

    Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Reilly Industries and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah.

  13. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2007-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 52 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production in 2006. Dead-burned magnesia was produced by Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties from well brines in Michigan. Caustic-calcined magnesia was recovered from sea-water by Premier Chemicals in Florida; from well brines in Michigan by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas; and from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals. Intrepid Potash-Wendover and Great Salt Lake Minerals recovered magnesium chloride brines from the Great Salt Lake in Utah. Magnesium hydroxide was produced from brucite by Applied Chemical Magnesias in Texas, from seawater by SPI Pharma in Delaware and Premier Chemicals in Florida, and by Martin Marietta and Rohm and Haas from their operations mentioned above. About 59 percent of the magnesium compounds consumed in the United States was used for refractories that are used mainly to line steelmaking furnaces. The remaining 41 percent was consumed in agricultural, chemical, construction, environmental and industrial applications.

  14. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 63% of US magnesium compounds production during 2000. Premier Services in Florida, Dow Chemical in Michigan, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties, and Rohm & Haas recovered dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias from seawater. And Premier Services' recoveries, in Nevada, were from magnasite.

  15. Influence of flow rate on aerosol particle size distributions from pressurized and breath-actuated inhalers.

    PubMed

    Smith, K J; Chan, H K; Brown, K F

    1998-01-01

    Particle size distribution of delivered aerosols and the total mass of drug delivered from the inhaler are important determinants of pulmonary deposition and response to inhalation therapy. Inhalation flow rate may vary between patients and from dose to dose. The Andersen Sampler (AS) cascade impactor operated at flow rates of 30 and 55 L/min and the Marple-Miller Impactor (MMI) operated at flow rates of 30, 55, and 80 L/min were used in this study to investigate the influence of airflow rate on the particle size distributions of inhalation products. Total mass of drug delivered from the inhaler, fine particle mass, fine particle fraction, percentage of nonrespirable particles, and amount of formulation retained within the inhaler were determined by ultraviolet spectrophotometry for several commercial bronchodilator products purchased in the marketplace, including a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI), breath-actuated pressurized inhaler (BAMDI), and three dry powder inhalers (DPIs), two containing salbutamol sulphate and the other containing terbutaline sulphate. Varying the flow rate through the cascade impactor produced no significant change in performance of the pressurized inhalers. Increasing the flow rate produced a greater mass of drug delivered and an increase in respirable particle mass and fraction from all DPIs tested. PMID:10346666

  16. Magnesium-induced recurarisation after reversal of rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block with sugammadex.

    PubMed

    Unterbuchner, C; Ziegleder, R; Graf, B; Metterlein, T

    2015-04-01

    A 61-year-old woman (57 kg, 171 cm) underwent surgery under general anaesthesia with desflurane 5.8-6.1 vol. % end-tidal, remifentanil 0.2-0.4 μg/kg/min and rocuronium 35 mg (0.61 mg/kg). On return of the second twitch in the train-of-four (TOF) stimulation measured by acceleromyography, sugammadex 120 mg (2.1 mg/kg) was given. After complete neuromuscular recovery, magnesium sulphate 3600 mg (60 mg/kg) was injected intravenously over 5 min to treat atrial fibrillation. This was associated with recurarisation with a nadir [first twitch=25%, TOF ratio (TOFR)=67%] 7 min after the start of the magnesium sulphate infusion (magnesium plasma level: 2.67 mM). A spontaneous twitch value and a TOFR of >90% were observed 45 min after the beginning of the magnesium sulphate infusion under general anaesthesia. Rapid infusion of magnesium sulphate may re-establish a sugammadex-reversed, rocuronium-induced neuromuscular block during general anaesthesia, probably because of the high plasma level of magnesium (2.67 mM). Desflurane and a small fraction of unbound rocuronium may amplify the known muscle relaxing effects of magnesium. Intravenous injection of magnesium sulphate is not recommended in patients after general anaesthesia with neuromuscular relaxants, particularly after sugammadex reversal. Quantitative neuromuscular monitoring should be used for reversing aminosteroid muscle relaxants with sugammadex--particularly in combination with magnesium injection--to prevent post-operative residual curarisation. PMID:25582520

  17. Fluticasone Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... fluticasone aerosol inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  18. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your flunisolide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  19. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... your ciclesonide inhaler while you are near an open flame or a heat source. The inhaler may explode if it is exposed ... Do not store the inhaler near a heat source or an open flame. Protect the inhaler from freezing and direct ...

  20. Zanamivir Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Zanamivir comes as a powder to inhale (breathe in) by mouth. To treat influenza, it is usually inhaled twice daily for 5 days. You should ... plastic inhaler called a Diskhaler (device for inhaling powder) and five Rotadisks (circular foil blister packs each ...

  1. Budesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... tightness, wheezing, and coughing caused by asthma. Budesonide powder for oral inhalation (Pulmicort Flexhaler) is used in ... Budesonide comes as a powder to inhale by mouth using an inhaler and as a suspension to inhale by mouth using a special jet nebulizer ( ...

  2. Ciclesonide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Ciclesonide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth using an inhaler. Ciclesonide is usually inhaled twice a day. Try to use ciclesonide at around ... than usual.The inhaler that comes with ciclesonide aerosol is designed for use only with a canister ...

  3. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Seawater and natural brines accounted for about 60 percent of U.S. magnesium compounds production during 2002. Dead-burned and caustic-calcined magnesias were recovered from seawater by Premier Chemicals in Florida. They were also recovered from well brines in Michigan by Dow Chemical, Martin Marietta Magnesia Specialties and Rohm & Haas. And they were recovered from magnesite in Nevada by Premier Chemicals.

  4. Magnesium compounds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, D.A.

    2006-01-01

    In 2005, seawater and natural brines accounted for 51% of US magnesium compounds production. World magnesia production was estimated to be 14.5 Mt. Most of the production came from China, North Korea, Russia and Turkey. Although no specific production figures are available, Japan and the United States are estimated to account for almost one-half of the world's capacity from seawater and brines.

  5. Chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate are almost isosteric.

    PubMed Central

    Scott, J E

    1991-01-01

    Keratan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate (KS and CS) in the 2-fold helical configurations that are prevalent in solution are of very similar tacticity. The chiral centres, anionic sites and hydrophobic patches are in identical conformations. Only the position of the acetamido group varies from CS to KS, but part of its intramolecular H-bonding potential in CS is retained in KS. The formation of tertiary aggregates, observed in vitro and in tissues, is explicable on these bases. The proposal that KS may be a functional substitute for CS [Scott & Haigh (1988) J. Anat. 158, 95-108] under low-O2 conditions is relevant. PMID:1902086

  6. Magnesium in diet

    MedlinePlus

    Diet - magnesium ... Magnesium is needed for more than 300 biochemical reactions in the body. It helps to maintain normal ... There is ongoing research into the role of magnesium in preventing and managing disorders such as high ...

  7. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    Low magnesium level is a condition in which the amount of magnesium in the blood is lower than normal. The medical ... that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body drops below normal, ...

  8. Indacaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... stop the pieces of capsule from reaching your mouth as you inhale the medication. Very tiny pieces ...

  9. Prolonged release terbutaline sulphate microcapsules.

    PubMed

    Manekar, N C; Puranik, P K; Joshi, S B

    1991-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate microcapsules were prepared by coacervation-phase separation induced by solvent evaporation technique. The cellulose acetate phthalate was employed as coating material alone and in combination with ethyl cellulose. The prepared microcapsules were evaluated for their drug content, particle size distribution (microscopic method), flow properties, bulk density and in vitro dissolution. PMID:1798022

  10. Hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Kao, Yung Hsiang; Chong, C H; Ng, W T; Lim, D

    2007-10-01

    Abstract Hydrazine is a hazardous chemical commonly used as a reactant in rocket and jet fuel cells. Animal studies have demonstrated hepatic changes after hydrazine inhalation. Human case reports of hydrazine inhalation hepatotoxicity are rare. We report a case of mild hepatotoxicity following brief hydrazine vapour inhalation in a healthy young man, which resolved completely on expectant management. PMID:17761725

  11. Flunisolide Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Flunisolide comes as an aerosol to inhale by mouth. It usually is inhaled twice daily. Try to use flunisolide at around the same times every ... acting medication than usual.Each canister of flunisolide aerosol is designed to provide 60 or 120 inhalations, ...

  12. Coated particle assemblies for the concomitant pulmonary administration of budesonide and salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Raula, Janne; Rahikkala, Antti; Halkola, Tuomas; Pessi, Jenni; Peltonen, Leena; Hirvonen, Jouni; Järvinen, Kristiina; Laaksonen, Timo; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2013-01-30

    The aims were to prepare stable and well-dispersible pulmonary fine powders composed of combination drugs with different water solubility, to facilitate concomitant release of corticosteroid budesonide and short acting β-agonist salbutamol sulphate and to improve the dissolution of the budesonide. The budesonide nanosuspensions were prepared by a wet milling which were mixed then with salbutamol sulphate, mannitol (bulking material) and leucine (coating material) for the preparation of micron-sized particles by an aerosol flow reactor wherein leucine formed a rough coating layer on particle surface. The stable and intact particle assemblies showed excellent aerosolization performance. The emitted doses from the inhaler, Easyhaler(®), were ~3 mg/dose with a coefficient variation of 0.1, and the fine particle fractions were ~50%. Complete dissolution of budesonide nanocrystals from the particles took place within 20 min with the same rate as salbutamol sulphate. Combining the two formulation technologies enabled the encapsulation of drugs with different solubility into a single, intact particle. The leucine coating provided excellent aerosolization properties which allowed fine powder delivery from the inhaler without carrier particles. This study showed the feasibility of preparing powders for combination therapy that are utilized, for instance, in inhalation therapy. PMID:23200957

  13. THE CONTROL OF SULPHATE ACTIVATION IN BACTERIA.

    PubMed

    WHELDRAKE, J F; PASTERNAK, C A

    1965-07-01

    1. ATP-sulphate adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.4) and ATP-adenylyl sulphate 3'-phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.1.25) of Escherichia coli 9723, E. coli K(12) and Bacillus subtilis 1379 are each repressed by growth in the presence of cystine. Repression of the two enzymes in E. coli 9723 may be co-ordinate. 2. ATP-sulphate adenylyltransferase of Desulphovibrio desulphuricans, in which sulphate reduction is linked to the energy supply of the organism, is not repressed by growth in the presence of inorganic sulphite or cysteine. 3. Leuconostoc mesenteroides lacks all the enzymes between sulphate and cysteine whether grown on cysteine or glutathione. PMID:14343144

  14. Magnesium and sudden death.

    PubMed

    Leary, W P; Reyes, A J

    1983-10-22

    Magnesium deficiency may result from reduced dietary intake of the ion or increased losses in sweat, urine or faeces. Stress potentiates magnesium deficiency, and an increased incidence of sudden death associated with ischaemic heart disease is found in some areas in which soil and drinking water lack magnesium. Furthermore, it has been demonstrated experimentally that reduction of the plasma magnesium level is associated with arterial spasm. Careful studies are required to assess the clinical importance of magnesium and the benefits of magnesium supplementation in man. PMID:6353622

  15. [Inhaled therapy in asthma].

    PubMed

    Plaza Moral, Vicente; Giner Donaire, Jordi

    2016-04-01

    Because of its advantages, inhaled administration of aerosolized drugs is the administration route of choice for the treatment of asthma and COPD. Numerous technological advances in the devices used in inhaled therapy in recent decades have boosted the appearance of multiple inhalers and aerosolized drugs. However, this variety also requires that the prescribing physician is aware of their characteristics. The main objective of the present review is to summarize the current state of knowledge on inhalers and inhaled drugs commonly used in the treatment of asthma. The review ranges from theoretical aspects (fundamentals and available devices and drugs) to practical and relevant aspects for asthma care in the clinical setting (therapeutic strategies, education, and adherence to inhalers). PMID:26683076

  16. Magnesium and anabolic hormones in older men

    PubMed Central

    Maggio, M.; Ceda, G. P.; Lauretani, F.; Cattabiani, C.; Avantaggiato, E.; Morganti, S.; Ablondi, F.; Bandinelli, S.; Dominguez, L. J.; Barbagallo, M.; Paolisso, G.; Semba, R. D.; Ferrucci, L.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Optimal nutritional and hormonal statuses are determinants of successful ageing. The age associated decline in anabolic hormones such as testosterone and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) is a strong predictor of metabolic syndrome, diabetes and mortality in older men. Studies have shown that magnesium intake affects the secretion of total IGF-1 and increase testosterone bioactivity. This observation suggests that magnesium can be a modulator of the anabolic/catabolic equilibrium disrupted in the elderly people. However, the relationship between magnesium and anabolic hormones in men has not been investigated. We evaluated 399 ≥65-year-old men of CHIANTI in a study population representative of two municipalities of Tuscany (Italy) with complete data on testosterone, total IGF-1, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), dehydroepiandrosterone sulphate (DHEAS) and serum magnesium levels. Linear regression models were used to test the relationship between magnesium and testosterone and IGF-1. Mean age of the population was 74.18 ± 6.43 (years ± SD, age range 65.2–92.4). After adjusting for age, magnesium was positively associated with total testosterone (β ± SE, 34.9 ± 10.3; p = 0.001) and with total IGF-1 (β ± SE, 15.9 ± 4.8; p = 0.001). After further adjustment for body mass index (BMI), log (IL-6), log (DHEAS), log (SHBG), log (insulin), total IGF-1, grip strength, Parkinson’s disease and chronic heart failure, the relationship between magnesium and total testosterone remained strong and highly significant (β ± SE, 48.72 ± 12.61; p = 0.001). In the multivariate analysis adjusted for age, BMI, log (IL-6), liver function, energy intake, log (insulin), log (DHEAS), selenium, magnesium levels were also still significantly associated with IGF-1 (β ± SE, 16.43 ± 4.90; p = 0.001) and remained significant after adjusting for total testosterone (β ± SE, 14.4 ± 4.9; p = 0.01). In a cohort of older men, magnesium levels are strongly and

  17. A double-blind comparison between a new multidose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) and metered dose inhaler in children with asthma.

    PubMed

    Hultquist, C; Ahlström, H; Kjellman, N I; Malmqvist, L A; Svenonius, E; Melin, S

    1989-09-01

    Turbuhaler is a ready-loaded multiple dose inhaler which does not require co-ordination between release of dose and inhalation. 57 children with asthma participated in this clinical trial to compare the clinical effect and acceptance of terbutaline sulphate via Turbuhaler with that of metered dose inhaler (MDI). The trial consisted of two parts. In the first part of the study, which made use of a double-blind cross-over design, the clinical effect and number of treatment occasions with Turbuhaler were compared with those of MDI. In the second part, which was open, all patients were treated with Turbuhaler for 2 weeks. At the end of this period the patients were asked to make a subjective assessment of effect and to state their preference. There was no difference in clinical effect and number of treatment occasions between Turbuhaler and MDI. A majority of the patients thought Turbuhaler had the best effect and was easy to use. PMID:2683835

  18. Inhalant Abuse and Dextromethorphan.

    PubMed

    Storck, Michael; Black, Laura; Liddell, Morgan

    2016-07-01

    Inhalant abuse is the intentional inhalation of a volatile substance for the purpose of achieving an altered mental state. As an important, yet underrecognized form of substance abuse, inhalant abuse crosses all demographic, ethnic, and socioeconomic boundaries, causing significant morbidity and mortality in school-aged and older children. This review presents current perspectives on epidemiology, detection, and clinical challenges of inhalant abuse and offers advice regarding the medical and mental health providers' roles in the prevention and management of this substance abuse problem. Also discussed is the misuse of a specific "over-the-counter" dissociative, dextromethorphan. PMID:27338970

  19. The inhalation device influences lung deposition and bronchodilating effect of terbutaline.

    PubMed

    Borgström, L; Derom, E; Ståhl, E; Wåhlin-Boll, E; Pauwels, R

    1996-05-01

    The development of new inhalation devices for asthma drugs raises the issue of the relationship between pulmonary deposition and therapeutic effect of inhaled drugs in patients with obstructive lung diseases. We thus conducted a randomized, double-blind and double-dummy, four-period crossover study in 13 patients with moderate asthma (mean age 36 yr; FEV1 59% of predicted), who inhaled 0.25 and 0.5 mg terbutaline sulphate on separate occasions either via a pressurized metered dose inhaler (pMDI) or Turbuhaler (TBH). Pulmonary deposition was 8.1 +/- 2.7% and 8.3 +/- 2.3%, respectively, of the nominal dose for pMDI and 19.0 +/- 7.3%, and 22.0 +/- 8.1% for TBH. The FEV1 increase after 0.25 mg terbutaline sulphate via TBH was significantly greater than after 0.25 mg via pMDI. No significant differences in FEV1 increase were observed between 0.25 mg via TBH, 0.5 mg via pMDI, or 0.5 mg via TBH. Other lung function variables showed similar dose- and device-related changes. We concluded that: (1) the dose of terbutaline sulphate deposited in the lungs is dependent on which inhalation system is used; (2) TBH delivers about twice the amount of drug to the lungs as the pMDI; and (3) the observed difference in deposition is reflected in the bronchodilating effect. PMID:8630614

  20. Keratan sulphate--a 'reserve' polysaccharide?

    PubMed

    Scott, J E

    1994-04-01

    The early history of keratan sulphate and its proteoglycans is briefly described. Studies were overlooked that could have had a profound influence on later work. Early methods of writing the structures of keratan and chondroitin sulphates obscured the fundamental relationships between them. Both are now seen to be based on the same polymer backbone poly(Gal beta 1:4 Glc beta 1-3). Confusion over the complicated sulphation patterns in keratan sulphate was clarified by the domain structure idea by the group of Helmut Greiling. Keratan sulphate is characteristic of avascular tissues (cartilages, intervertebral discs, corneal stromas) that get their oxygen supplies by diffusion. Stockwell's early idea that the distribution of keratan sulphate in cartilages was a response to the poor supply of oxygen has been generalised, to the hypothesis that keratan sulphate is a functional substitute for chondroitin sulphate under conditions of oxygen lack. The keratan:chondroitin sulphate ratios in discs, corneas of different species, and changes therein with age can be explained on this basis. The biochemical controlling step is probably the NAD:NADH ratio. Keratan sulphate may thus be a 'reserve' polysaccharide, able to do the job of chondroitin sulphate in adverse conditions of oxygen supply. Keratan and chondroitin/dermatan sulphates have similar functions in corneal stroma, and probably in the other connective tissues in which they are found. They swell the collagenous matrix, keeping the fibrils apart. Even more importantly, they probably act as tissue organisers, orienting the fibrils vis-a-vis each other via specific interactions of their proteoglycan protein cores with the fibrils.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8038262

  1. Choline Magnesium Trisalicylate

    MedlinePlus

    Choline magnesium trisalicylate is used to relieve the pain, tenderness, inflammation (swelling), and stiffness caused by arthritis and painful ... used to relieve pain and lower fever. Choline magnesium trisalicylate is in a class of nonsteroidal anti- ...

  2. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  3. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  4. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  5. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  6. 7 CFR 160.10 - Sulphate wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Sulphate wood turpentine. 160.10 Section 160.10... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.10 Sulphate wood turpentine. The designation “sulphate wood... in the sulphate process of cooking wood pulp, and commonly known as sulphate turpentine or...

  7. Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeutic dose delivered by inhaled pharmacological drugs. Howeve...

  8. Magnesium and Space Flight

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4–6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4–6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  9. Magnesium and Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Scott M.; Zwart, Sara R.

    2016-01-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in astronauts before, during, and after space missions, in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female) on 4-6 month space flight missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight, (head-down tilt bed rest, n=27, 35 +/- 7 y). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-hour urinary excretion of magnesium along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-d space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4- to 6-month space missions.

  10. Magnesium and Space Flight.

    PubMed

    Smith, Scott M; Zwart, Sara R

    2015-12-01

    Magnesium is an essential nutrient for muscle, cardiovascular, and bone health on Earth, and during space flight. We sought to evaluate magnesium status in 43 astronauts (34 male, 9 female; 47 ± 5 years old, mean ± SD) before, during, and after 4-6-month space missions. We also studied individuals participating in a ground analog of space flight (head-down-tilt bed rest; n = 27 (17 male, 10 female), 35 ± 7 years old). We evaluated serum concentration and 24-h urinary excretion of magnesium, along with estimates of tissue magnesium status from sublingual cells. Serum magnesium increased late in flight, while urinary magnesium excretion was higher over the course of 180-day space missions. Urinary magnesium increased during flight but decreased significantly at landing. Neither serum nor urinary magnesium changed during bed rest. For flight and bed rest, significant correlations existed between the area under the curve of serum and urinary magnesium and the change in total body bone mineral content. Tissue magnesium concentration was unchanged after flight and bed rest. Increased excretion of magnesium is likely partially from bone and partially from diet, but importantly, it does not come at the expense of muscle tissue stores. While further study is needed to better understand the implications of these findings for longer space exploration missions, magnesium homeostasis and tissue status seem well maintained during 4-6-month space missions. PMID:26670248

  11. Inhalation of chlorine gas.

    PubMed

    Williams, J G

    1997-11-01

    The clinical features of acute chlorine gas inhalation, and its management are reviewed. Current medical views on the chronic effects of an acute overwhelming exposure on lung function (reactive airways dysfunction syndrome), and the more controversial field of lung disease secondary to repeated inhalations of lower concentrations of chlorine gas are discussed. PMID:9519180

  12. Magnesium industry overview

    SciTech Connect

    Clow, B.B.

    1996-10-01

    Magnesium products provide an excellent strength-to-weight ratio, good fatigue strength, high impact strength, good corrosion resistance, high-speed machinability, and good thermal and electrical conductivities. As a result, applications are expanding in almost every industry. Dozens of automotive components are now made of magnesium, including steering wheels, valve covers, and seat frames. Magnesium alloys are also used in computer housings, in-line roller skates, golf clubs, tennis racquets, and baseball bats. Good strength and stiffness at both room and elevated temperatures make magnesium alloys especially valuable for aerospace applications. This article presents an overview of magnesium technology, world production, increasing demand, and recycling.

  13. Magnesium and the Athlete.

    PubMed

    Volpe, Stella Lucia

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral and the second most abundant intracellular divalent cation in the body. It is a required mineral that is involved in more than 300 metabolic reactions in the body. Magnesium helps maintain normal nerve and muscle function, heart rhythm (cardiac excitability), vasomotor tone, blood pressure, immune system, bone integrity, and blood glucose levels and promotes calcium absorption. Because of magnesium's role in energy production and storage, normal muscle function, and maintenance of blood glucose levels, it has been studied as an ergogenic aid for athletes. This article will cover the general roles of magnesium, magnesium requirements, and assessment of magnesium status as well as the dietary intake of magnesium and its effects on exercise performance. The research articles cited were limited from those published in 2003 through 2014. PMID:26166051

  14. The control of sulphate activation in bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Wheldrake, J. F.; Pasternak, C. A.

    1965-01-01

    1. ATP–sulphate adenylyltransferase (EC 2.7.7.4) and ATP–adenylyl sulphate 3′-phosphotransferase (EC 2.7.1.25) of Escherichia coli 9723, E. coli K12 and Bacillus subtilis 1379 are each repressed by growth in the presence of cystine. Repression of the two enzymes in E. coli 9723 may be co-ordinate. 2. ATP–sulphate adenylyltransferase of Desulphovibrio desulphuricans, in which sulphate reduction is linked to the energy supply of the organism, is not repressed by growth in the presence of inorganic sulphite or cysteine. 3. Leuconostoc mesenteroides lacks all the enzymes between sulphate and cysteine whether grown on cysteine or glutathione. PMID:14343144

  15. Inhalation treatment for asthma.

    PubMed Central

    Reiser, J; Warner, J O

    1986-01-01

    Inhaled medication has revolutionised the lives of many children with asthma. Despite this we see many children for whom appropriate inhaled medication has been prescribed but whose symptoms continue to be poorly controlled. In our experience this is often due to poor technique or inappropriately prescribed devices and an inadequate understanding of when and how to use the treatment. The prescribing physician must have a clear idea of the optimal inhalation technique. We have reviewed the standard devices available and our use of them in the treatment of childhood asthma. PMID:3082295

  16. Magnesium in depression.

    PubMed

    Serefko, Anna; Szopa, Aleksandra; Wlaź, Piotr; Nowak, Gabriel; Radziwoń-Zaleska, Maria; Skalski, Michał; Poleszak, Ewa

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium is one of the most essential mineral in the human body, connected with brain biochemistry and the fluidity of neuronal membrane. A variety of neuromuscular and psychiatric symptoms, including different types of depression, was observed in magnesium deficiency. Plasma/serum magnesium levels do not seem to be the appropriate indicators of depressive disorders, since ambiguous outcomes, depending on the study, were obtained. The emergence of a new approach to magnesium compounds in medical practice has been seen. Apart from being administered as components of dietary supplements, they are also perceived as the effective agents in treatment of migraine, alcoholism, asthma, heart diseases, arrhythmias, renal calcium stones, premenstrual tension syndrome etc. Magnesium preparations have an essential place in homeopathy as a remedy for a range of mental health problems. Mechanisms of antidepressant action of magnesium are not fully understood yet. Most probably, magnesium influences several systems associated with development of depression. The first information on the beneficial effect of magnesium sulfate given hypodermically to patients with agitated depression was published almost 100 years ago. Numerous pre-clinical and clinical studies confirmed the initial observations as well as demonstrated the beneficial safety profile of magnesium supplementation. Thus, magnesium preparations seem to be a valuable addition to the pharmacological armamentarium for management of depression. PMID:23950577

  17. Vibrational spectroscopic study of sulphated silk proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monti, P.; Freddi, G.; Arosio, C.; Tsukada, M.; Arai, T.; Taddei, P.

    2007-05-01

    Degummed Bombyx mori ( B. m.) silk fibroin fabric and mutant naked pupa cocoons (Nd-s) consisting of almost pure silk sericin were treated with chlorosulphonic acid in pyridine and investigated by FT-IR and FT-Raman spectroscopies. Untreated silk fibroin and sericin displayed typical spectral features due to characteristic amino acid composition and molecular conformation (prevailing β-sheet with a less ordered structure in sericin). Upon sulphation, the degree of molecular disorder increased in both proteins and new bands appeared. The IR bands at 1049 and 1014 cm -1 were attributed to vibrations of sulphate salts and that at 1385 cm -1 to the νasSO 2 mode of organic covalent sulphates. In the 1300-1180 cm -1 range various contributions of alkyl and aryl sulphate salts, sulphonamides, sulphoamines and organic covalent sulphates, fell. Fibroin covalently bound sulphate groups through the hydroxyl groups of tyrosine and serine, while sericin through the hydroxyl groups of serine, since the δOH vibrations at 1399 cm -1 in IR and at 1408 cm -1 in Raman disappeared almost completely. Finally, the increase of the I850/ I830 intensity ratio of Raman tyrosine doublet in fibroin suggested a change towards a more exposed state of tyrosine residues, in good agreement with the more disordered conformation taken upon sulphation.

  18. Insulin Human Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Insulin inhalation is used in combination with a long-acting insulin to treat type 1 diabetes (condition in which the body does not produce insulin and therefore cannot control the amount of sugar ...

  19. Olodaterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD; a group of diseases that affect the lungs ... Do not use olodaterol inhalation during a sudden COPD attack. Your doctor will prescribe a short-acting ( ...

  20. Pirbuterol Acetate Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... used to prevent and treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic ... the puff; continue to take a full, deep breath. Take the inhaler away from you mouth, hold ...

  1. Albuterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the dose counter go down. Do not waste doses by opening the inhaler unless you are ... refrigerator or at room temperature away from excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Store the ...

  2. Umeclidinium Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  3. Cromolyn Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... difficulties (bronchospasm) caused by exercise, cold and dry air, or by inhaling substances such as pet dander, ... of substances that cause inflammation (swelling) in the air passages of the lungs.

  4. Arformoterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... a short acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) to use during attacks. If you ... Sit upright and place the mouthpiece in your mouth or put on the facemask. Turn on the ...

  5. Substance use - inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... it has been sprayed or put into a paper or plastic bag Ballooning: Inhaling a gas from ... empty soda cans, empty perfume bottles, and toilet paper tubes stuffed with rags or toilet paper soaked ...

  6. Overview of inhalation toxicology.

    PubMed Central

    Dorato, M A

    1990-01-01

    The development of inhalation toxicology as a distinct discipline can be traced back well over one hundred years. The technology has advanced in terms of materials and designs used to construct inhalation chambers and the equipment used to generate controlled test atmospheres of a wide variety of gases, vapors, dusts, and droplets. Consideration of metered dose inhalers, a relatively recent concern, has led to the design of new equipment for administering this unique dosage form. The parameters used to evaluate inhalation toxicity are similar to those used for any other route of administration. In addition, there are some unique procedures for early screening of pulmonary toxicity, especially within a series of related chemicals. Images FIGURE 1. FIGURE 3. FIGURE 7. FIGURE 8. PMID:2200660

  7. Evidence for magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD).

    PubMed

    Caddell, J L

    1996-10-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) has been defined as a requirement for oxygen for more than 28 days because of chronic pulmonary changes, usually in a premature infant. About 50 per cent of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants who weigh 1 kg at birth and who survive 28 days will develop BPD. Since 80 per cent of fetal accretion of magnesium occurs during the third trimester, this population is also at risk for magnesium deficiency. This paper reviews evidence for a role of magnesium deficiency in the pathogenesis of BPD. Pathology in BPD that may be caused or aggravated by magnesium deficiency is noted. Agents or mediators that are increased in BPD and in BPD include: oxygen free radicals; the inflammatory cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 and IL-6, and tumour necrosis factor-alpha; vaso- and bronchoconstrictors thromboxane A2 (TXA2) and serotonin: vasoconstrictor, endothelin-1 (ET-1); and bronchoconstrictor, histamine. Magnesium deficiency increases the susceptibility of cells and tissues to peroxidation, worsens the inflammatory reaction, reduces the immune response, exaggerates catecholamine release in stress, and diminishes energy metabolism. Possibly because of the danger of magnesium toxicity and the difficulty in studying the preterm VLBW neonate, little is known about magnesium supplementation in this group. Such information must be gained through controlled studies on the effect of antepartum exposure to maternally administered magnesium sulphate on the VLBW infant, through carefully monitored postnatal administration of magnesium in an intensive care setting, or through evaluations of combined pre- and postnatal supplementation. PMID:9140865

  8. Patient compliance with inhaled medication: does combining beta-agonists with corticosteroids improve compliance?

    PubMed

    Bosley, C M; Parry, D T; Cochrane, G M

    1994-03-01

    Patient compliance with an inhaled corticosteroid may be greater if it is combined with a beta-agonist. This study compared compliance with an inhaled corticosteroid (budesonide), and a short-acting inhaled beta-agonist (terbutaline sulphate), and a Turbuhaler inhaler containing a combination of the two drugs. In an open, multicentre, parallel group study 102 asthmatic patients were randomly divided into two groups, either receiving the two drugs in separate Turbuhalers or combined into one Turbuhaler. A twice daily regimen was prescribed and a preweighed metered-dose inhaler (MDI) of salbutamol was provided for rescue use. Compliance was measured using the Turbuhaler Inhalation Computer (TIC), which recorded the time and date of each inhalation over a 12 week period. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) measurements were carried out at week 0, 6 and 12. Results from 72 patients were analysed. The average compliance was 60-70%. Treatment was taken as prescribed on 30-40% of the study days, and over-usage occurred on less than 10% of days. Only 15% of patients took the drugs as prescribed for more than 80% of the days. Compliance was no greater in patients using the combined inhalers. Other ways of improving patient self-management need further investigation. PMID:8013609

  9. Comparison of efficacy and ease of handling of salmeterol and terbutaline powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Burdon, J; Droszcz, W; Jones, R; Johnston, P R; Trowell, S J

    1998-03-01

    A multicentre, randomised, open, parallel-group study was performed to compare the efficacy, tolerability and ease of handling of salmeterol xinafoate 50 micrograms twice daily via the Diskus inhaler with terbutaline sulphate 500 micrograms four times daily via the Turbuhaler inhaler. Two hundred and sixty-three patients (aged 18-79 years, baseline FEV1 50-90% predicted, mean PEFR 85% of response to salbutamol) were randomised to treatment with salmeterol (n = 136) or terbutaline (n = 127). A statistically significant difference in favour of salmeterol was seen between treatment groups for the primary efficacy variable, mean morning PEFR (difference in adjusted means 25.4 l/min, p < 0.001). Within the groups randomised to each device, ease of handling assessments favoured the Diskus inhaler over the Turbuhaler inhaler. More patients liked the Diskus inhaler than the Turbuhaler inhaler (98% vs 72%, p < 0.001). The Diskus inhaler received better scores than the Turbuhaler inhaler for all features assessed in the device questionnaire. PMID:9624787

  10. Magnesium in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Lynne M; Ní Fhloinn, Deirdre M; Gaydadzhieva, Gergana T; Mazurkiewicz, Ola M; Leeson, Heather; Wright, Ciara P

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium deficiency is prevalent in women of childbearing age in both developing and developed countries. The need for magnesium increases during pregnancy, and the majority of pregnant women likely do not meet this increased need. Magnesium deficiency or insufficiency during pregnancy may pose a health risk for both the mother and the newborn, with implications that may extend into adulthood of the offspring. The measurement of serum magnesium is the most widely used method for determining magnesium levels, but it has significant limitations that have both hindered the assessment of deficiency and affected the reliability of studies in pregnant women. Thus far, limited studies have suggested links between magnesium inadequacy and certain conditions in pregnancy associated with high mortality and morbidity, such as gestational diabetes, preterm labor, preeclampsia, and small for gestational age or intrauterine growth restriction. This review provides recommendations for further study and improved testing using measurement of red cell magnesium. Pregnant women should be counseled to increase their intake of magnesium-rich foods such as nuts, seeds, beans, and leafy greens and/or to supplement with magnesium at a safe level. PMID:27445320

  11. Pulmonary clearance rate of two chemically different forms of inhaled pertechnetate.

    PubMed

    Walker, P S; Conway, J H; Fleming, J S; Bondesson, E; Borgström, L

    2001-01-01

    Attempts to image the pulmonary deposition site of radiolabeled aerosols delivered by dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and pressurized metered-dose inhalers (pMDIs) using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) have been limited by the rapid pulmonary clearance of radiolabel. To determine whether aqueous solubility of the radiolabel is a significant factor, the pulmonary clearance rates of two chemically different forms of 99mTc were calculated. A dry powder formulation of terbutaline sulphate was radiolabeled for inhalation by Turbuhaler (AstraZeneca) using the water-soluble salt sodium pertechnetate and the water-insoluble salt tetraphenylarsonium pertechnetate. A pilot study was conducted during which two control subjects each inhaled the two radiolabeled aerosols on separate days. Intrasubject clearance rates for the two species were very similar. It was therefore concluded that water insolubility of the pertechnetate salt alone was not enough to extend the lung residency time of the radiolabel. PMID:11681652

  12. The anticarcinogenic effect of magnesium.

    PubMed

    Blondell, J M

    1980-08-01

    Evidence is reviewed supporting a hypothesis of an anticarcinogenic effect of magnesium. Animal studies reported increased cancer in rodents maintained on magnesium deficient diets and a preventive effect for rodents fed excess levels of magnesium. Epidemiologic evidence is presented that magnesium levels in water, food, and air are inversely related to cancer mortality. Magnesium may also have a role in the reduced cancer mortality experienced by people living at high altitudes. Two biologically plausible mechanisms are considered by which magnesium could prevent carcinogenesis. Intracellular magnesium may enhance the fidelity of DNA replication or magnesium on the cell membrane may prevent changes which trigger the carcinogenic process. PMID:7442590

  13. Final report on the safety assessment of aluminum silicate, calcium silicate, magnesium aluminum silicate, magnesium silicate, magnesium trisilicate, sodium magnesium silicate, zirconium silicate, attapulgite, bentonite, Fuller's earth, hectorite, kaolin, lithium magnesium silicate, lithium magnesium sodium silicate, montmorillonite, pyrophyllite, and zeolite.

    PubMed

    Elmore, Amy R

    2003-01-01

    This report reviews the safety of Aluminum, Calcium, Lithium Magnesium, Lithium Magnesium Sodium, Magnesium Aluminum, Magnesium, Sodium Magnesium, and Zirconium Silicates, Magnesium Trisilicate, Attapulgite, Bentonite, Fuller's Earth, Hectorite, Kaolin, Montmorillonite, Pyrophyllite, and Zeolite as used in cosmetic formulations. The common aspect of all these claylike ingredients is that they contain silicon, oxygen, and one or more metals. Many silicates occur naturally and are mined; yet others are produced synthetically. Typical cosmetic uses of silicates include abrasive, opacifying agent, viscosity-increasing agent, anticaking agent, emulsion stabilizer, binder, and suspending agent. Clay silicates (silicates containing water in their structure) primarily function as adsorbents, opacifiers, and viscosity-increasing agents. Pyrophyllite is also used as a colorant. The International Agency for Research on Cancer has ruled Attapulgite fibers >5 microm as possibly carcinogenic to humans, but fibers <5 microm were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. Likewise, Clinoptilolite, Phillipsite, Mordenite, Nonfibrous Japanese Zeolite, and synthetic Zeolites were not classified as to their carcinogenicity to humans. These ingredients are not significantly toxic in oral acute or short-term oral or parenteral toxicity studies in animals. Inhalation toxicity, however, is readily demonstrated in animals. Particle size, fibrogenicity, concentration, and mineral composition had the greatest effect on toxicity. Larger particle size and longer and wider fibers cause more adverse effects. Magnesium Aluminum Silicate was a weak primary skin irritant in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. No gross effects were reported in any of these studies. Sodium Magnesium Silicate had no primary skin irritation in rabbits and had no cumulative skin irritation in guinea pigs. Hectorite was nonirritating to the skin of rabbits in a Draize primary skin

  14. A Curious Case of Inhalation Fever Caused by Synthetic Cannabinoid

    PubMed Central

    Chinnadurai, Thiru; Shrestha, Srijan; Ayinla, Raji

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 29 Final Diagnosis: Inhalation fever induced by synthetic cannabinoid Symptoms: Agitation • smoked synthetic cannabinoid Medication: Ringer’s lactate solution • Ceftriaxone • Azithromycin• Magnesium sulfate • Potassium Phosphate • Levofloxacin • Risperidone Clinical Procedure: Chest radiograph • CBC • urine toxicology Specialty: Pulmonology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: This case report describes inhalation fever as an uncommon pulmonary adverse effect of synthetic cannabinoids. Case Report: A 29-year-old man was brought in for severe agitation after smoking K2, a synthetic cannabinoid. He required multiple doses of lorazepam and haloperidol for sedation. His vital signs were notable for a mild fever and tachycardia. Otherwise, the rest of his exam was unremarkable. The laboratory test was significant for leucocytosis and diffuse reticular-nodular and interstitial infiltrates on chest radiograph. Urine drug toxicology was negative. Interestingly, his symptoms and pulmonary infiltrates on the chest radiograph resolved spontaneously after 24 hours of observation. Conclusions: This patient developed transient pulmonary infiltrates and fever following the synthetic cannabinoid inhalation, as seen in self-limiting inhalation fever. Inhalation fever as a consequence of synthetic cannabinoid has not been described previously and there is a need for further research in this field. PMID:27262587

  15. Day-to-day variation of bronchodilatory response to an inhaled beta-2-stimulant in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, S; Bake, B; Larsson, S

    1987-01-01

    The effect of inhaling 0.25 and 2.0 mg of terbutaline sulphate, a beta-2-stimulant, from a metered dose aerosol was studied in five asthmatic patients during two periods of five days each. During the first period, the patients used a good spontaneous inhalation technique; during the second period, the inhalation technique was optimized and controlled. The variation of basal FEV1 and of the increase (delta FEV1) caused by 0.25 mg of inhaled terbutaline was considerable. The effect was only slightly better and the variation only slightly smaller when the controlled inhalation technique was used. The differences were not significant. In individual patients, there was no or negative correlation between delta FEV1 and the corresponding basal FEV1 value. Accordingly, the most commonly used way of expressing delta FEV1 as a percentage of basal FEV1 value was found to be insensitive. Delta FEV1, expressed as a percentage of the maximum available FEV1 increase on the same day after 2.25 mg terbutaline sulphate, was found to be most sensitive. This way of expressing delta FEV1 will increase the possibilities of detecting differences between treatments in clinical trials. PMID:3453755

  16. Bronchodilatory therapy with nebuhaler: how important is the delay between firing the dose and inhaling?

    PubMed

    Newman, S P; Woodman, G; Morén, F; Clarke, S W

    1988-07-01

    Metered dose inhalers are sometimes used in conjunction with NebuhalerR, a 750 ml holding chamber, but the permissible delay time between actuating the aerosol into Nebuhaler and commencing inhalation is unknown. We have compared in 10 asthmatic patients the bronchodilator responses following inhalations of terbutaline sulphate from Nebuhaler after delays of 1, 5 and 30 seconds and following placebo inhalation. Terbutaline sulphate was administered as 2 puffs, each of 250 micrograms, separated by approximately 15 minutes. After each delay time, terbutaline produced increases in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) and maximum expiratory flow following exhalation of 75% of the forced vital capacity (V max25) significantly greater than those after placebo (P less than 0.01). Changes in PEFR did not vary significantly among the three delay times, but the increases in FEV1 and in V max25 were significantly reduced with 30 seconds' delay. It is concluded that the delay between actuation into Nebuhaler and commencing inhalation can be extended from 1 second to 5 seconds without significant loss of drug efficacy, and that further extension to 30 seconds causes only a small loss of bronchodilatation: hence the delay time is unlikely to be of major importance in clinical practice. PMID:3073806

  17. Acute Inhalation Injury

    PubMed Central

    Gorguner, Metin; Akgun, Metin

    2010-01-01

    Inhaled substances may cause injury in pulmonary epithelium at various levels of respiratory tract, leading from simple symptoms to severe disease. Acute inhalation injury (AII) is not uncommon condition. There are certain high risk groups but AII may occur at various places including home or workplace. Environmental exposure is also possible. In addition to individual susceptibility, the characteristics of inhaled substances such as water solubility, size of substances and chemical properties may affect disease severity as well as its location. Although AII cases may recover in a few days but AII may cause long-term complications, even death. We aimed to discuss the effects of short-term exposures (minutes to hours) to toxic substances on the lungs. PMID:25610115

  18. Zinc sulphate and vitamin E alleviate reproductive toxicity caused by aluminium sulphate in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    Rawi, Sayed M; Seif Al Nassr, Fatma M

    2015-03-01

    This study was designed to investigate the reproductive toxicity of aluminium sulphate and the therapeutic effects of administration of zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination against the toxic effect caused by aluminium (Al) in male albino rats. The animals were divided into five groups: group 1 received distilled water and served as control; group 2 received only aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg body weight (b.w.)); group 3 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) plus zinc sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.); group 4 received aluminium sulphate (50 mg/kg b.w.) and vitamin E (15 mg/kg b.w.); group 5 received aluminium sulphate plus a combination of zinc sulphate and vitamin E in similar doses as above. Doses were administered orally once daily for 45 consecutive days. The results revealed that aluminium sulphate induced significant decrease in body weight gain and testis weight and significant increase in Al level in both serum and testes of male rats. Biochemical analysis showed significant decrease in serum total protein and phospholipids levels, while serum total lipid was significantly elevated post Al treatment. In addition, significant decrease in total protein, phospholipids and cholesterol levels in the testes of Al-treated rats was recorded. The data also showed significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone, leutinizing hormone and follicle stimulating hormone and significant increase in the level of serum prolactin in Al-intoxicated rats. Moreover, histological examination showed that aluminium sulphate caused apparent alterations in the testicular structure of the treated animals. Treatment with zinc sulphate and vitamin E individually or in combination ameliorated the harmful effects of Al, which was proved histopathologically by the noticeable improvement in the testicular tissues. We can conclude that the tested dose of aluminium sulphate induced toxic effect on the reproductive system of male albino rats and the treatment with

  19. Magnesium deficiency: what's our status?

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Low magnesium intake has been implicated in a broad range of cardiometabolic conditions, including diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease. Dietary magnesium and total body magnesium status have a widely-used but imperfect biomarker in serum magnesium. Despite serum magnesium’s limitation...

  20. A multiple dose powder inhaler (Turbuhaler) compared with a conventional aerosol. An acceptance study in asthmatics.

    PubMed

    Osterman, K; Norborg, A M; Stähl, E

    1989-05-01

    Nineteen patients with asthma completed an open, randomized, crossover study in which 0.5 mg terbutaline sulphate was administered either via Turbuhaler or via the metered dose inhaler (MDI) for 2-week periods. The clinical effect of the two treatment forms was comparable; both provided adequate bronchodilator therapy. Patients also considered Turbuhaler and MDI equally effective, with a small preference for the MDI. Turbuhaler seems to be a valuable alternative to bronchodilator MDI therapy. PMID:2735519

  1. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor about how you should take your other oral or inhaled medications for asthma during your treatment with salmeterol and fluticasone inhalation. If you were using a short-acting beta agonist inhaler such as albuterol (Proventil, Ventolin) on a regular basis, your doctor ...

  2. MODELING DEPOSITION OF INHALED PARTICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Modeling Deposition of Inhaled Particles: ABSTRACT

    The mathematical modeling of the deposition and distribution of inhaled aerosols within human lungs is an invaluable tool in predicting both the health risks associated with inhaled environmental aerosols and the therapeut...

  3. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, Alexander F.; Howard, Jack B.; Modestino, Anthony J.; Peters, William A.

    1998-01-01

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400.degree. C. or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products.

  4. Method for production of magnesium

    DOEpatents

    Diaz, A.F.; Howard, J.B.; Modestino, A.J.; Peters, W.A.

    1998-07-21

    A continuous process for the production of elemental magnesium is described. Magnesium is made from magnesium oxide and a light hydrocarbon gas. In the process, a feed stream of the magnesium oxide and gas is continuously fed into a reaction zone. There the magnesium oxide and gas are reacted at a temperature of about 1400 C or greater in the reaction zone to provide a continuous product stream of reaction products, which include elemental magnesium. The product stream is continuously quenched after leaving the reaction zone, and the elemental magnesium is separated from other reaction products. 12 figs.

  5. Magnesium battery disposal characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soffer, Louis; Atwater, Terrill

    1994-12-01

    This study assesses the disposal characteristics of U.S. Army procured military magnesium batteries under current Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) hazardous waste identification regulations administered by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. Magnesium batteries were tested at 100, 50, 10 and 0 percent remaining state of charge. Present findings indicate that magnesium batteries with less than 50 percent remaining charge do not exceed the federal regulatory limit of 5.0 mg/L for chromium. All other RCRA contaminates were below regulatory limits at all levels of remaining charge. Assay methods, findings, disposal requirements and design implications are discussed.

  6. Liposomal formulations for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cipolla, David; Gonda, Igor; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2013-08-01

    No marketed inhaled products currently use sustained release formulations such as liposomes to enhance drug disposition in the lung, but that may soon change. This review focuses on the interaction between liposomal formulations and the inhalation technology used to deliver them as aerosols. There have been a number of dated reviews evaluating nebulization of liposomes. While the information they shared is still accurate, this paper incorporates data from more recent publications to review the factors that affect aerosol performance. Recent reviews have comprehensively covered the development of dry powder liposomes for aerosolization and only the key aspects of those technologies will be summarized. There are now at least two inhaled liposomal products in late-stage clinical development: ARIKACE(®) (Insmed, NJ, USA), a liposomal amikacin, and Pulmaquin™ (Aradigm Corp., CA, USA), a liposomal ciprofloxacin, both of which treat a variety of patient populations with lung infections. This review also highlights the safety of inhaled liposomes and summarizes the clinical experience with liposomal formulations for pulmonary application. PMID:23919478

  7. Inhalants. Specialized Information Service.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Do It Now Foundation, Phoenix, AZ.

    The document presents a collection of articles about inhalant abuse. Article 1 presents findings on the psychophysiological effects related to the use of amyl or butyl nitrate as a "recreational drug." Article 2 suggests a strong association between chronic sniffing of the solvent toulene and irreversible brain damage. Article 3 warns about the…

  8. Isoetharine Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    Isoetharine comes as an aerosol and a solution to inhale by mouth. It is used as needed to relieve symptoms but usually should not be ... proper disposal of your medication. Avoid puncturing the aerosol container, and do not discard it in an ...

  9. The bronchodilator response from inhaled terbutaline is influenced by the mass of small particles: a study on a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler).

    PubMed

    Persson, G; Wirén, J E

    1989-03-01

    This study was carried out to investigate if particles approximately less than 5 microns are optimal when delivered from a dry powder inhaler. It was performed as a cumulative dose response study of twelve asthmatic adults. Three different versions of a dry powder inhaler, Bricanyl Turbuhaler, were studied. Each inhaler delivered 0.5 mg of pure terbutaline sulphate with each dose. Out of this 0.5 mg, they delivered 90 micrograms, 40 micrograms and 5 micrograms, respectively, of particles approximately less than 5 microns with each dose at an inspiratory flow rate of 28 l.min-1. Terbutaline 0.5 mg, 0.5 mg, 1.0 mg and 2.0 mg was inhaled with a 30 min interval between the doses. Forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and forced vital capacity (FVC) were measured 5 and 20 min after each dose. The bronchodilator response was greater with the inhaler delivering 90 micrograms of small particles with each dose than with the inhaler delivering 5 micrograms, thus confirming the importance of small (approximately less than 5 microns) particles. PMID:2731603

  10. Particle engineering using sonocrystallization: salbutamol sulphate for pulmonary delivery.

    PubMed

    Dhumal, Ravindra S; Biradar, Shailesh V; Paradkar, Anant R; York, Peter

    2009-02-23

    The aim of present work was to produce fine elongated crystals of salbutamol sulphate (SS) by sonocrystallization for pulmonary delivery and compare with micronized and spray dried SS (SDSS) for in vitro aerosolization behavior. Application of ultrasound during anti-solvent crystallization resulted in fine elongated crystals (sonocrystallized SS; SCSS) compared to aggregates of large irregular crystals obtained without sonication. Higher sonication amplitude, time, concentration and lower processing temperatures favored formation of smaller crystals with narrow particle size distribution (PSD). SCSS was separated from dispersion by spray drying in the form of loose aggregates (SD-SCSS). The fine particle fraction (FPF) of formulations with coarse lactose carrier in cascade impactor increased from 16.66% for micronized SS to 31.12% for SDSS (obtained by spray drying aqueous SS solution) and 44.21% for SD-SCSS, due to reduced cohesive/adhesive forces and aerodynamic size by virtue of elongated shape of crystals. SD-SCSS was stable without any change in crystallinity and aerodynamic behavior for 3 months at 40 degrees C/75% RH, but amorphous SDSS showed recrystallization with poor aerosolization performance on storage. Sonocrystallization, a rapid and simple technique is reported for production of SS crystals suitable for inhalation delivery. PMID:18996462

  11. Experimental simulations of the photodecomposition of carbonates and sulphates on Mars.

    PubMed

    Mukhin, L M; Koscheev, A P; Dikov YuP; Huth, J; Wänke, H

    1996-01-11

    There is indirect spectroscopic evidence for the presence of sulphates and carbonates on the martian surface, and such minerals are also found in SNC meteorites, which are thought to be of martian origin. But although carbonates are expected to be abundant in the martian regolith, attempts to detect them directly have been unsuccessful. Here we report laboratory studies of the decompostion of calcium carbonate and magnesium sulphate under ultraviolet irradiation, which mimic the conditions under which photodecomposition of surface minerals by solar ultraviolet light might occur on Mars. We find that, even for a low abundance of carbonate minerals in the martian regolith, the rate of CO2 release due to photodecomposition is higher than the rate of CO2 loss from the atmosphere by solar-wind-induced sputtering processes, making this process a potential net source of atmospheric CO2 over time. SO2 is also released from the sulphate, albeit more slowly. The rate of carbonate degradation is high enough to explain the apparent absence of these compounds at the martian surface. PMID:8538763

  12. Asymmetric Membrane Osmotic Capsules for Terbutaline Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Gobade, N. G.; Koland, Marina; Harish, K. H.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  13. Asymmetric membrane osmotic capsules for terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Gobade, N G; Koland, Marina; Harish, K H

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to design an asymmetric membrane capsule, an osmotic pump-based drug delivery system of ethyl cellulose for controlled release of terbutaline sulphate. asymmetric membrane capsules contains pore-forming water soluble additive, sorbitol in different concentrations in the capsule shell membrane, which after coming in contact with water, dissolves, resulting in an in situ formation of a microporous structure. The terbutaline sulphate is a β-adrenoreceptor agonist widely used in the treatment of asthma. The oral dosage regimen of terbutaline sulphate is 5 mg twice or thrice daily, the plasma half-life is approximate 3-4 h and it produces GI irritation with extensive first pass metabolism. Hence, terbutaline sulphate was chosen as a model drug with an aim to develop controlled release system. Different formulations of ethyl cellulose were prepared by phase inversion technique using different concentrations of sorbitol as pore forming agent. It was found that the thickness of the prepared asymmetric membrane capsules was increased with increase in concentration of ethyl cellulose and pore forming agent, i.e. sorbitol. The dye release study in water and 10% sodium chloride solution indicates that, the asymmetric membrane capsules follow osmotic principle to release content. The pores formed due to sorbitol were confirmed by microscopic observation of transverse section of capsule membrane. Data of in vitro release study of terbutaline sulphate from asymmetric membrane capsules indicated that, the capsules prepared with 10% and 12.5% of ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol released as much as 97.44% and 76.27% in 12 h, respectively with zero order release rate. Hence asymmetric membrane capsule of 10% ethyl cellulose and 25% of sorbitol is considered as optimum for controlled oral delivery of terbutaline sulphate. PMID:23204625

  14. Differential expression of specific sulphate transporters underlies seasonal and spatial patterns of sulphate allocation in trees.

    PubMed

    Malcheska, F; Honsel, A; Wildhagen, H; Dürr, J; Larisch, C; Rennenberg, H; Herschbach, C

    2013-07-01

    Sulphate uptake and its distribution within plants depend on the activity of different sulphate transporters (SULTR). In long-living deciduous plants such as trees, seasonal changes of spatial patterns add another layer of complexity to the question of how the interplay of different transporters adjusts S distribution within the plant to environmental changes. Poplar is an excellent model to address this question because its S metabolism is already well characterized. In the present study, the importance of SULTRs for seasonal sulphate storage and mobilization was examined in the wood of poplar (Populus tremula × P. alba) by analysing their gene expression in relation to sulphate contents in wood and xylem sap. According to these results, possible functions of the respective SULTRs for seasonal sulphate storage and mobilization in the wood are suggested. Together, the present results complement the previously published model for seasonal sulphate circulation between leaves and bark and provide information for future mechanistic modelling of whole tree sulphate fluxes. PMID:23278135

  15. Magnesium blood test

    MedlinePlus

    Magnesium - blood ... A blood sample is needed. ... When the needle is inserted to draw blood, some people feel slight pain. Others feel a prick or stinging. Afterward, there may be some throbbing or a slight bruise. This soon ...

  16. Magnesium for automotive applications

    SciTech Connect

    VanFleteren, R.

    1996-05-01

    Die cast magnesium parts are rapidly replacing steel and aluminum structural components in automotive applications, as design engineers seek to reduce assembly costs, raise fuel efficiency, and improve safety. Dozens of automotive components are now die cast from magnesium alloys, including seat stanchions, valve covers, steering wheels, and a variety of steering column components. Because of their excellent castability, complex magnesium die castings can sometimes consolidate several components and eliminate assembly steps. Highly ductile magnesium alloys such as AM60B (6% aluminum) and AM50A (5% aluminum) are important in helping to meet automotive industry crash-energy requirements for car seating and steering components. AZ91D (9% aluminum, 1% zinc) alloys are making removable rear seats in new minivans much easier to handle.

  17. Low magnesium level

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the body that convert or use energy ( metabolism ). When the level of magnesium in the body ... Walls RM, et al., eds. Rosen's Emergency Medicine: Concepts and Clinical Practice . 8th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier ...

  18. Rechargeable Magnesium Power Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koch, Victor R.; Nanjundiah, Chenniah; Orsini, Michael

    1995-01-01

    Rechargeable power cells based on magnesium anodes developed as safer alternatives to high-energy-density cells like those based on lithium and sodium anodes. At cost of some reduction in energy density, magnesium-based cells safer because less susceptible to catastrophic meltdown followed by flames and venting of toxic fumes. Other advantages include ease of handling, machining, and disposal, and relatively low cost.

  19. Interstellar magnesium abundances

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, M. J.; Dufton, P. L.; Hibbert, A.; York, D. G.

    1984-01-01

    An improved evaluation of the Mg II 1240 A doublet oscillator strength is used in conjunction with recently published Copernicus observations to derive accurate Mg II column densities toward 74 stars. These imply an average of 40 percent of interstellar magnesium is in the gaseous phase. Magnesium depletion is examined as a function of various interstellar extinction and density parameters, and the results are briefly discussed in terms of current depletion theories.

  20. Magnesium for Future Autos

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Luo, Alan A.; Sadayappan, Kumar; Shi, Wenfang

    2008-10-01

    In the quest for better fuel economy and improved environmental performance, magnesium may well become a metal of choice for constructing lighter, more efficient vehicles. Magnesium is the lightest structural metal, yet it has a high strength-to-weight ratio makes it comparable to steel in many applications. The world’s automakers already use magnesium for individual components. But new alloys and processing methods are needed before the metal can become economically and technologically feasible as a major automotive structural material. This article will explore the formation, challenges and initial results of an international collaboration—the Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project—that is leveraging the expertise and resources of Canada, China and the United States to advance the creation of magnesium-intensive vehicles. The MFERD project aims to develop the enabling technologies and knowledge base that will lead to a vehicles that are 50-60 percent lighter, equally affordable, more recyclable and of equal or better quality when compared to today’s vehicles. Databases of information also will be captured in models to enable further alloy and manufacturing process optimization. Finally, a life-cycle analysis of the magnesium used will be conducted.

  1. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, A.

    1988-01-21

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  2. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    DOEpatents

    Mayer, Anton

    1988-01-01

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/aluminum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  3. Electrodeposition of magnesium and magnesium/aluminum alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Mayer, A.

    1988-10-18

    Electrolytes and plating solutions for use in processes for electroplating and electroforming pure magnesium and alloys of aluminum and magnesium and also electrodeposition processes. An electrolyte of this invention is comprised of an alkali metal fluoride or a quaternary ammonium halide, dimethyl magnesium and/or diethyl magnesium, and triethyl aluminum and/or triisobutyl aluminum. An electrolyte may be dissolved in an aromatic hydrocarbon solvent to form a plating solution. The proportions of the component compounds in the electrolyte are varied to produce essentially pure magnesium or magnesium/alumnum alloys having varying selected compositions.

  4. Food hypersensitivity by inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Daniel A; Bahna, Sami L

    2009-01-01

    Though not widely recognized, food hypersensitivity by inhalation can cause major morbidity in affected individuals. The exposure is usually more obvious and often substantial in occupational environments but frequently occurs in non-occupational settings, such as homes, schools, restaurants, grocery stores, and commercial flights. The exposure can be trivial, as in mere smelling or being in the vicinity of the food. The clinical manifestations can vary from a benign respiratory or cutaneous reaction to a systemic one that can be life-threatening. In addition to strict avoidance, such highly-sensitive subjects should carry self-injectable epinephrine and wear MedicAlert® identification. Asthma is a strong predisposing factor and should be well-controlled. It is of great significance that food inhalation can cause de novo sensitization. PMID:19232116

  5. Oilfield scales: controls on precipitation and crystal morphology of barite (barium sulphate)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, A. I. R.; Wogelius, R. A.; Vaughan, D. J.

    2003-04-01

    The precipitation and subsequent build up of barite (barium sulphate) inside extraction tubing presents a costly problem for off shore oil wells which use seawater to mobilize oil during hydrocarbon recovery. Mixing of reservoir formation water containing Ba2+ ions and seawater containing SO_42- ions results in barite precipitation within the reservoir well-bore region and piping. Great effort has been expended in designing strategies to minimize scale formation but details of the reaction mechanism and sensitivity to thermodynamic variables are poorly constrained. Furthermore, few detailed studies have been carried out under simulated field conditions. Hence an experimental programme was designed to study barite formation under environmentally relevant conditions with control of several system variables during the precipitation reaction. Synthetic sea-water and formation-water brines containing sodium sulphate and barium chloride, respectively, were mixed to induce BaSO_4 precipitation. Experiments were carried out at high temperature (100^oC) and high pressure (500 bars) in double rocking autoclave bombs. Barite formation as a function of the addition of calcium, magnesium, and a generic phosphonate based scale inhibitor was investigated whilst maintaining constant pH, temperature and ionic strength (0.5159). Additional experiments were performed at ambient conditions for comparison. Data concerning nucleation, growth rates, and crystal morphology were obtained. ICP-AES data from the supernatant product solutions showed considerable variation in quantity of barium sulphate precipitated as a function of the listed experimental variables. For example, ESEM analysis of barium sulphate crystals showed a dramatic shift in crystal habit from the typical tabular habit produced in control experiments; experiments performed in the presence of foreign cations produced more equant crystals, while those experiments completed in the presence of the phosphonate scale inhibitor

  6. Technosphere inhaled insulin (Afrezza).

    PubMed

    Rendell, M

    2014-12-01

    Technosphere® insulin uses a unique carrier -fumaryl diketopiperazine (FDKP)- which adsorbs insulin to form microparticles to permit delivery to the alveoli by inhalation. Toxicity studies have been entirely negative. The pulmonary absorption of insulin is very rapid, and the disappearance time is shorter than for subcutaneously delivered rapid-acting insulins. As a result, after inhalation, there is a rapid drop in glucose levels which subsequently return to normal in a shorter time than after subcutaneous insulin administration. Consequently, there is a lower incidence of hypoglycemic reactions. Pulmonary function studies have shown a small, reversible decrease in FEV1, and pulmonary imaging studies have shown no adverse effect. The inhalation of Technosphere insulin can produce a cough in up to 27% of patients. The cough has resulted in discontinuance in as many as 9% of users. Technosphere insulin has been approved for use in type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Long-term studies of pulmonary safety and surveillance for malignancy will be performed in the future. Studies to assess the optimal time dosing regimen are needed. PMID:25588086

  7. Uncovering the Relationship between Sulphation Patterns and Conformation of Iduronic Acid in Heparan Sulphate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Thieker, David F.; Guerrini, Marco; Woods, Robert J.; Liu, Jian

    2016-07-01

    The L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residue is a critically important structural component in heparan sulphate polysaccharide for the biological functions. The pyranose ring of IdoA is present in 1C4-chair, 2SO-skew boat, and less frequently, in 4C1-chair conformations. Here, we analyzed the conformation of IdoA residue in eight hexasaccharides by NMR. The data demonstrate a correlation between the conformation of IdoA and sulphations in the surrounding saccharide residues. For the 2-O-sulpho IdoA residue, a high degree of sulphation on neighboring residues drives ring dynamics towards the 2SO-skew boat conformer. In contrast, the nonsulphated IdoA residue is pushed towards the 1C4-chair conformer when the neighboring residues are highly sulphated. Our data suggest that the conformation of IdoA is regulated by the sulphation pattern of nearby saccharides that is genetically controlled by the heparan sulphate biosynthetic pathway.

  8. Uncovering the Relationship between Sulphation Patterns and Conformation of Iduronic Acid in Heparan Sulphate

    PubMed Central

    Hsieh, Po-Hung; Thieker, David F.; Guerrini, Marco; Woods, Robert J.; Liu, Jian

    2016-01-01

    The L-iduronic acid (IdoA) residue is a critically important structural component in heparan sulphate polysaccharide for the biological functions. The pyranose ring of IdoA is present in 1C4-chair, 2SO-skew boat, and less frequently, in 4C1-chair conformations. Here, we analyzed the conformation of IdoA residue in eight hexasaccharides by NMR. The data demonstrate a correlation between the conformation of IdoA and sulphations in the surrounding saccharide residues. For the 2-O-sulpho IdoA residue, a high degree of sulphation on neighboring residues drives ring dynamics towards the 2SO-skew boat conformer. In contrast, the nonsulphated IdoA residue is pushed towards the 1C4-chair conformer when the neighboring residues are highly sulphated. Our data suggest that the conformation of IdoA is regulated by the sulphation pattern of nearby saccharides that is genetically controlled by the heparan sulphate biosynthetic pathway. PMID:27412370

  9. How to Use Metered-Dose Inhalers

    MedlinePlus

    ... methods really work, and people who use these methods may continue to use their inhalers after the inhalers are empty.Some inhalers come with a counter that shows the number of sprays that remain in the inhaler. If your inhaler ...

  10. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium phosphate. 184.1434 Section 184.1434 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Magnesium phosphate includes both magnesium phosphate, dibasic, and magnesium phosphate, tribasic. Magnesium phosphate, dibasic...

  11. Absorption of magnesium from orally administered magnesium sulfate in man.

    PubMed

    Morris, M E; LeRoy, S; Sutton, S C

    1987-01-01

    The use of magnesium sulfate (Epsom salt) as a cathartic in patients with impaired renal function can lead to severe toxicity due to hypermagnesemia. Although toxicity is uncommon in healthy subjects, little is known concerning the extent of absorption of magnesium after a cathartic dose of magnesium sulfate. The bioavailability of magnesium following a large oral dose of magnesium sulfate in normal volunteers was examined in the present investigation. Baseline 24-hour urinary excretion rates of magnesium and creatinine were determined over 3 consecutive days in 6 healthy men. The oral administration of 13.9 g (56.5 mmoles) magnesium sulfate U.S.P., in 4 equal hourly increments, resulted in the urinary excretion (corrected for baseline excretion rate) of 4.0 +/- 2.9% (mean +/- SD) of the dose of magnesium during the first 24 hours and 6.9 +/- 7.0% of the dose during a 72-hour interval. Magnesium sulfate administration had no effect on the 24-hour urinary excretion rate of creatinine. The baseline excretion rate of magnesium was significantly correlated with that of creatinine (r = 0.875) and inorganic sulfate (r = 0.921). All of the subjects experienced mild or moderate diarrhea. Therefore, magnesium is absorbed to a limited and variable extent in healthy adults following a cathartic dose of magnesium sulfate. PMID:3430654

  12. Influence of carrier on the performance of dry powder inhalers.

    PubMed

    Saint-Lorant, G; Leterme, P; Gayot, A; Flament, M P

    2007-04-01

    The aim of this work is to study carriers which can become alternatives to monohydrate lactose in dry powder inhalers and to consider particle parameters that influence adhesion between drug and carrier in dry powder inhalers. Different forms of mannitol, lactose and maltitol were mixed with either terbutaline sulphate or formoterol fumarate. The blends were submitted to different adhesion tests where drug detachment from the carrier was obtained either through mechanical vibration or by aspiration. Parameters like particle shape, roughness, amorphous content and cristalline form may affect interactions between drug and carrier. In our case, crystallized forms of the carrier offered lower adhesion but better release of the active ingredient than spray-dried forms. The crystallized mannitol produced maximal fine particle dose. The blends of the mannitols and the two active ingredients gave different results. The two techniques used to assess the adhesion of drugs to carrier particles provide complementary information about drug/carrier interactions and detachment. The mechanical sieving allows to assess blend stability and the air-jet sieving makes it possible to determine how easily the drug separates from carrier. For the drugs tested, the results of fine particle doses are in agreement with the Alpine air-jet sieve results. The tests used are helpful for the choice of a new carrier in the field of the development of new carriers for dry powder inhalers. PMID:17113733

  13. Improvement of inhaler efficacy by home-made spacer.

    PubMed

    Sritara, P; Janvitayanuchit, S

    1993-12-01

    The delivery of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler (MDI) was reported to be more efficient with a spacer. Hence, a home-made spacer modified from a 950 ml low cost plastic bottle, was compared with a MDI and with a 750 ml imported spacer (Nebuhaler). On three consecutive days, at the same time of day, 20 adult patients with chronic asthma inhaled two puffs of terbutaline sulphate (0.5 mg), delivered from MDI alone, MDI with a 750 ml Nebuhlaer and MDI with a home-made spacer. The following measurements were made: forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), forced vital capacity (FVC) and pulse rate. These measurements were carried out immediately before and at 5, 20, 60 min after inhalation of terbutaline. FEV1 was significantly increased (P < 0.05) at 5, 20 and 60 min after administration of terbutaline with MDI via either spacers than with MDI alone but no significant difference was observed between Nebuhaler and the home-made spacer. FVC and pulse rate showed no significant change with each method of administration. In conclusion, terbutaline delivered by MDI and home-made spacer was more effective in bronchodilatation than by MDI alone and was just as effective as MDI and Nebuhaler. The home-made spacer therefore offers a simple, inexpensive and more effective method for delivering aerosol drug. PMID:7798822

  14. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose

    MedlinePlus

    The combination of calcium carbonate and magnesium is commonly found in antacids. These medicines provide heartburn relief. Calcium carbonate with magnesium overdose occurs when someone takes more than the ...

  15. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    MedlinePlus

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  16. Formation of sulphate ion during the dehydration of sulphited vegetables.

    PubMed

    Wedzicha, B L; Herrera-Viloria, J C

    1991-01-01

    A reverse isotope dilution procedure was used to measure the formation of sulphate ion during the air dehydration of sulphited cabbage, carrot and potato at 80 degrees C. The conversion of sulphite to sulphate was found to be of first order with respect to sulphite. The formation of sulphate in the vegetables during dehydration accounts for only part of the sulphate in the dehydrated products; the remainder comes from the scald liquor. The technique for sulphate determination is critically evaluated and the observed yields discussed. PMID:1812014

  17. Corrosion in Magnesium and a Magnesium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akavipat, Sanay

    Magnesium and a magnesium alloy (AZ91C) have been ion implanted over a range of ions energies (50 to 150 keV) and doses (1 x 10('16) to 2 x 10('17) ions/cm('2)) to modify the corrosion properties of the metals. The corrosion tests were done by anodic polarization in chloride -free and chloride-containing aqueous solutions of a borated -boric acid with a pH of 9.3. Anodic polarization measurements showed that some implantations could greatly reduce the corrosion current densities at all impressed voltages and also increased slightly the pitting potential, which indicated the onset of the chloride attack. These improvements in corrosion resistance were caused by boron implantations into both types of samples. However, iron implantations were found to improve only the magnesium alloy. To study the corrosion in more detail, Scanning Auger Microprobe Spectrometer (SAM), Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) with an X-ray Energy Spectrometry (XES) attachment, and Transmission Electron Microscope (TEM) measurements were used to analyze samples before, after, and at various corrosion stages. In both the unimplanted pure magnesium and AZ91C samples, anodic polarization results revealed that there were three active corrosion stages (Stages A, C, and E) and two passivating stages (Stages B and D). Examination of Stages A and B in both types of samples showed that only a mild, generalized corrosion had occurred. In Stage C of the TD samples, a pitting breakdown in the initial oxide film was observed. In Stage C of the AZ91C samples, galvanic and intergranular attack around the Mg(,17)Al(,12) intermetallic islands and along the matrix grain boundaries was observed. Stage D of both samples showed the formation of a thick, passivating oxygen containing, probably Mg(OH)(,2) film. In Stage E, this film was broken down by pits, which formed due to the presence of the chloride ions in both types of samples. Stages A through D of the unimplanted samples were not seen in the boron or iron

  18. Stereoselective sulphate conjugation of racemic terbutaline by human liver cytosol.

    PubMed

    Walle, T; Walle, U K

    1990-07-01

    1. The enantioselectivity of the sulphation of racemic terbutaline by phenolsulphotransferases was examined in vitro using cytosol from human livers (n = 3) and [35S]-3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulphate (PAP35S) as the sulphate donor. 2. The radioactive sulphate conjugate formed was isolated by h.p.l.c. and its enantiomers were separated intact by h.p.l.c. after chiral derivatization. 3. Sulphation of racemic terbutaline occurred with the same apparent Km value for both enantiomers (270 microM). The extent of sulphation of the (+)-enantiomer was double that of the (-)-enantiomer, solely due to a difference in their apparent Vmax values. 4. Sulphation of racemic prenalterol, a structural analogue of terbutaline, also showed a two-fold preference for the (+)-enantiomer. 5. These findings suggest that enantioselective sulphate conjugation of chiral phenolic sympathomimetic amine drugs may lead to enantioselective pharmacokinetics that should be considered in the clinical use of these drugs. PMID:2390423

  19. Carcinogenicity of inhaled nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Roller, Markus

    2009-07-01

    Large epidemiological studies in the United States have shown a statistical association between air concentration of the fine dust fraction PM(2.5) in the general environment and increased risk of lung cancer. A quantitative risk assessment for lung cancer based on these studies corresponds to risk estimates based on studies at workplaces with exposure to diesel engine emissions; its magnitude cannot be explained by the known carcinogenicity of organic substances or metals adsorbed to the insoluble particle core. Carcinogenic effects of diesel particles were observed after inhalation in rats independently in several studies. The surprisingly strong effect of diesel particles was partially attributed to their small size. This hypothesis was corroborated by inhalation studies with synthetic nanoparticles virtually free of organic compounds. IARC found sufficient evidence for the carcinogenicity of carbon black and of titanium dioxide in experimental animals. Long-term studies by the method of intratracheal instillation confirmed the carcinogenic effects in rats for an even broader spectrum of synthetic nanoparticles. Non-positive studies with hamsters are not valid because hamsters did not develop lung tumors after inhalation of some known human carcinogens. In recent years, the number of publications reporting in vitro genotoxicity of TiO(2) and of carbon black nanomaterials has increased. Overall, there is clear positive evidence for carcinogenicity in rats, together with supporting evidence from human data of structurally related substances. Therefore, the European Union (EU) criteria for category 2 of carcinogenic substances appear to be fulfilled for bio-durable nanoparticles consisting of matter without known significant specific toxicity. PMID:19558247

  20. Sulphation by cultured cells. Cysteine, cysteinesulphinic acid and sulphite as sources for proteoglycan sulphate.

    PubMed Central

    Humphries, D E; Silbert, C K; Silbert, J E

    1988-01-01

    Bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, bovine aortic endothelial cells, and IMR-90 human embryonic lung fibroblasts were tested to determine their ability to use cysteine or cysteine metabolites as a source of sulphate (SO4). Cells were incubated in SO4-depleted medium containing [3H]glucosamine plus 0.2 mM-cystine, 0.3 mM-cysteinesulphinic acid or 0.3 mM-sulphite (SO3). The [3H]chondroitin sulphate produced by the different cells was found to vary considerably in degree of sulphation under these conditions. One line of smooth-muscle cells utilized cysteine effectively as a SO4 source and thus produced chondroitin sulphate which was highly sulphated. IMR-90 fibroblasts produced partly sulphated chondroitin sulphate under these conditions, while another smooth-muscle cell line could not utilize cysteine, but could utilize cysteinesulphinic acid as a partial SO4 source. In contrast with the above cells, endothelial cells could not use cysteine or cysteinesulphinic acid as a source of SO4 and produced chondroitin with almost no SO4. All of the cells were able to utilize SO3. Incubation of the cells in the SO4-depleted medium containing [35S]cysteine confirmed that only the first line of smooth-muscle cells could convert significant amounts of [35S]cysteine to 35SO4. Furthermore, the addition of 0.4 mM inorganic SO4 did not inhibit the production of SO4 from cysteine by these cells. Images Fig. 2. PMID:3138971

  1. Sulphation by cultured cells. Cysteine, cysteinesulphinic acid and sulphite as sources for proteoglycan sulphate.

    PubMed

    Humphries, D E; Silbert, C K; Silbert, J E

    1988-05-15

    Bovine aortic smooth-muscle cells, bovine aortic endothelial cells, and IMR-90 human embryonic lung fibroblasts were tested to determine their ability to use cysteine or cysteine metabolites as a source of sulphate (SO4). Cells were incubated in SO4-depleted medium containing [3H]glucosamine plus 0.2 mM-cystine, 0.3 mM-cysteinesulphinic acid or 0.3 mM-sulphite (SO3). The [3H]chondroitin sulphate produced by the different cells was found to vary considerably in degree of sulphation under these conditions. One line of smooth-muscle cells utilized cysteine effectively as a SO4 source and thus produced chondroitin sulphate which was highly sulphated. IMR-90 fibroblasts produced partly sulphated chondroitin sulphate under these conditions, while another smooth-muscle cell line could not utilize cysteine, but could utilize cysteinesulphinic acid as a partial SO4 source. In contrast with the above cells, endothelial cells could not use cysteine or cysteinesulphinic acid as a source of SO4 and produced chondroitin with almost no SO4. All of the cells were able to utilize SO3. Incubation of the cells in the SO4-depleted medium containing [35S]cysteine confirmed that only the first line of smooth-muscle cells could convert significant amounts of [35S]cysteine to 35SO4. Furthermore, the addition of 0.4 mM inorganic SO4 did not inhibit the production of SO4 from cysteine by these cells. PMID:3138971

  2. Parent's Guide to Preventing Inhalant Abuse

    MedlinePlus

    ... conditioning coolants. How can you tell if a young person is an inhalant abuser? If someone is ... youths involved with inhalant abuse. How does a young person who abuses inhalants die? There are many ...

  3. About Steroids (Inhaled and Oral Corticosteroids)

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose-inhalers ( inhaled steroids ), oral forms (pills or syrups) , injections (shots) and intravenous (IV) solutions. Healthcare providers ... slowly decreased. Inhaled steroids and steroid pills and syrups are often prescribed for people with a chronic ...

  4. Accidental condom inhalation.

    PubMed

    Arya, C L; Gupta, Rajnish; Arora, V K

    2004-01-01

    A 27-year-old lady presented with persistent cough, sputum and fever for the preceding six months. Inspite of trials with antibiotics and anti-tuberculosis treatment for the preceeding four months, her symptoms did not improve. A subsequent chest radiograph showed non-homogeneous collapse-consolidation of right upper lobe. Videobronchoscopy revealed an inverted bag like structure in right upper lobe bronchus and rigid bronchoscopic removal with biopsy forceps confirmed the presence of a condom. Detailed retrospective history also confirmed accidental inhalation of the condom during fellatio. PMID:14870871

  5. Nature of sulphated macromolecules in mouse Reichert's membrane. Evidence for tyrosine O-sulphate in basement-membrane proteins.

    PubMed Central

    Paulsson, M; Dziadek, M; Suchanek, C; Huttner, W B; Timpl, R

    1985-01-01

    Seven different sulphated macromolecules were detected in 6 M-guanidinium chloride extracts of metabolically [35S]sulphate-labelled mouse Reichert's membrane and were partially separated. Polypeptide bands of apparent Mr 50 000, 150 000 (tentatively identified as entactin) and 170 000 contained essentially tyrosine O-sulphate as the labelled component. Most of the radioactive sulphate was incorporated into three different proteoglycans, which could be separated by chromatography and density-gradient centrifugation before and after enzymic degradation. Enzymic analysis of glycosaminoglycans and of protein cores by immunoassays identified these components as low-density and high-density forms of heparan sulphate proteoglycan and a high-density form of chondroitin sulphate or dermatan sulphate proteoglycan. Images Fig. 2. PMID:4074325

  6. Magnesium Research and Technology Development

    SciTech Connect

    Nyberg, Eric A.; Joost, William; Smith, Mark T.

    2009-12-30

    The Magnesium Research and Technical Development (MR&TD) project supports efforts to increase using magnesium in automotive applications, including improving technology, lowering costs and increasing the knowledge needed to enable alloy and manufacturing process optimization. MR&TD supports the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE)/United States Automotive Materials Partnership (USAMP) Magnesium Front End Research and Development (MFERD) project in collaboration with China and Canada. The MR&TD projects also maintains the magnesium bibliographic database at magnesium.pnl.gov.

  7. Development of liposomal salbutamol sulfate dry powder inhaler formulation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen-Hua; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Wu, Heng; Wong, Yuen-Fan; Zhao, Zhong-Zhen; Liu, Liang

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to develop a formulation of liposomal salbutamol sulfate (SBS) dry powder inhaler (DPI) for the treatment of asthma. Liposomes of high encapsulation efficiency (more than 80%) were prepared by a vesicular phospholipid gel (VPG) technique. SBS VPG liposomes were subjected to lyophilization using different kinds of cryoprotectants in various mass ratios. Coarse lactose (63-106 microm) in different mass ratios was used as a carrier. Magnesium stearate (0.5%) was added as a lubricator. The dry liposomal powders were then crushed by ball milling and sieved through a 400-mesh sieve to control the mean particle size at about 10 microm. The effects of different kinds of cryoprotectants and the amount of lactose carrier on the fine particle fraction (FPF) of SBS were investigated. The results showed that the developed formulation of liposomal dry powder inhaler was obtained using lactose as a cryoprotectant with a mass ratio of lyophilized powder to carrier lactose at 1 : 5; 0.5% magnesium stearate was used as a lubricator. The value of FPF for SBS was 41.51+/-2.22% for this formulation. Sustained release of SBS from the VPG liposomes was found in the in vitro release study. The study results offer the promising possibility of localized pulmonary liposomal SBS delivery in the anhydrous state. PMID:20190418

  8. Human liver steroid sulphotransferase sulphates bile acids.

    PubMed Central

    Radominska, A; Comer, K A; Zimniak, P; Falany, J; Iscan, M; Falany, C N

    1990-01-01

    The sulphation of bile acids is an important pathway for the detoxification and elimination of bile acids during cholestatic liver disease. A dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) sulphotransferase has been purified from male and female human liver cytosol using DEAE-Sepharose CL-6B and adenosine 3',5'-diphosphate-agarose affinity chromatography [Falany, Vazquez & Kalb (1989) Biochem. J. 260, 641-646]. Results in the present paper show that the DHEA sulphotransferase, purified to homogeneity, is also reactive towards bile acids, including lithocholic acid and 6-hydroxylated bile acids, as well as 3-hydroxylated short-chain bile acids. The highest activity towards bile acids was observed with lithocholic acid (54.3 +/- 3.6 nmol/min per mg of protein); of the substrates tested, the lowest activity was detected with hyodeoxycholic acid (4.2 +/- 0.01 nmol/min per mg of protein). The apparent Km values for the enzyme are 1.5 +/- 0.31 microM for lithocholic acid and 4.2 +/- 0.73 microM for taurolithocholic acid. Lithocholic acid also competitively inhibits DHEA sulphation by the purified sulphotransferase (Ki 1.4 microM). No evidence was found for the formation of bile acid sulphates by sulphotransferases different from the DHEA sulphotransferase during purification work. The above results suggest that a single steroid sulphotransferase with broad specificity encompassing neutral steroids and bile acids exists in human liver. PMID:2268288

  9. Bovine aortic chondroitin sulphate- and dermatan sulphate-containing proteoglycans. Isolation, fractionation and chemical characterization.

    PubMed Central

    Kapoor, R; Phelps, C F; Cöster, L; Fransson, L A

    1981-01-01

    1. Guanidinium chloride (4M) in the presence of proteinase inhibitors extracted 90% of bovine aorta galactosaminoglycans as proteoglycans that were subsequently purified by ion-exchange and gel chromatography. 2. Fractionation of the calcium salts of the purified proteoglycans with increasing concentration of ethanol yielded fractions PG-25 (28%), PG-35 (45%) and PG-50 (37%). 3. Fraction PG-50 contained proteochondroitin 6-sulphate, whereas fractions PG-25 and PG-35 were proteodermatan sulphates of greatly different carbohydrate composition; the molar proportions of L-iduronate-N-acetylgalactosamine 4-sulphate, D-glucuronate-N-acetyl-galactosamine 4-sulphate and D-glucuronate-N-acetylgalactosamine 6-sulphate were 75: 18 :7 in fraction PG-25 and 14 :46 :40 in fraction PG-35. 4. The presence of alternating or mixed sequences with L-iduronate- and D-glucuronate-containing repeating disaccharides was indicated by the formation of tetrasaccharides after chondroitinase AC digestion (single L-iduronate residues) and by the release of fragments containing four or five consecutive D-glucuronate-N-acetylgalactosamine repeats after periodate oxidation and alkaline elimination. 5. The amino acid compositions of fractions PG-25 and PG-35 were similar and markedly different from that of fraction PG-50, which also contained more side chains. PMID:6798960

  10. Mephedrone inhalation causes pneumomediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Graham, Ruth; Bowen, Nia; Singh, Joy

    2014-01-01

    A 17-year-old male patient presented to A&E with swelling on the right side of his neck, extending to below the clavicle, associated with neck pain and dysphonia. On examination, subcutaneous supraclavicular and chest wall emphysema was noted. Clinical observations and bloods were normal. A chest X-ray and subsequent CT of the thorax showed evidence of pneumomediastinum and subcutaneous emphysema. The patient denied any history of trauma but admitted to inhalation of mephedrone 3 days previously. The patient was discussed with the regional cardiothoracic unit who advised conservative management. He was treated prophylactically with antibiotics and was initially kept nil by mouth, but diet was introduced 24 h later. He remained well, his dysphonia resolved and his subcutaneous emphysema improved. He was discharged after 3 days. He has not attended any formal follow-up but was well when contacted by phone. PMID:24614784

  11. Toxic inhalational exposures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Tze-Ming Benson; Malli, Harjoth; Maslove, David M; Wang, Helena; Kuschner, Ware G

    2013-01-01

    Respirable toxicants are a spectrum of irritant and nonirritant gases, vapors, fumes, and airborne particles that can be entrained into the body through the respiratory tract, resulting in exposures that cause pulmonary injury and/or systemic disease. Sources of respirable toxicants include structural fires, industrial accidents, domestic mishaps, and intentional releases of injurious agents on the battleground (warfare) or in civilian settings (acts of terrorism). Acute toxic inhalational exposures may result in respiratory failure, multisystem organ dysfunction, and death. Management of victims includes assessment and protection of the airway, monitoring and treatment of systemic toxicity, and delivery of exposure-specific and nonspecific therapies that improve outcomes. Treatments may include antidotes, hyperbaric oxygen, and other nonspecific life-supporting interventions. PMID:22232204

  12. Mechanisms and regulation of renal magnesium transport.

    PubMed

    Houillier, Pascal

    2014-01-01

    Magnesium's most important role is in the release of chemical energy. Although most magnesium is stored outside of the extracellular fluid compartment, the regulated value is blood magnesium concentration. Cellular magnesium and bone magnesium do not play a major role in the defense of blood magnesium concentration; the major role is played by the kidney, where the renal tubule matches the urinary magnesium excretion and the net entry of magnesium into the extracellular fluid. In the kidney, magnesium is reabsorbed in the proximal tubule, the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, and the distal convoluted tubule. Magnesium absorption is mainly paracellular in the proximal tubule and in the thick ascending limb of the loop of Henle, whereas it is transcellular in the distal convoluted tubule. Several hormones and extracellular magnesium itself alter the distal tubular handling of magnesium, but the hormone(s) regulating extracellular magnesium concentration remains unknown. PMID:24512082

  13. Inhaled Hydrogen Sulfide

    PubMed Central

    Volpato, Gian Paolo; Searles, Robert; Yu, Binglan; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Bloch, Kenneth D.; Ichinose, Fumito; Zapol, Warren M.

    2010-01-01

    Background Breathing hydrogen sulfide (H2S) has been reported to induce a suspended animation–like state with hypothermia and a concomitant metabolic reduction in rodents. However, the impact of H2S breathing on cardiovascular function remains incompletely understood. In this study, the authors investigated the cardiovascular and metabolic effects of inhaled H2S in a murine model. Methods The impact of breathing H2S on cardiovascular function was examined using telemetry and echocardiography in awake mice. The effects of breathing H2S on carbon dioxide production and oxygen consumption were measured at room temperature and in a warmed environment. Results Breathing H2S at 80 parts per million by volume at 27°C ambient temperature for 6 h markedly reduced heart rate, core body temperature, respiratory rate, and physical activity, whereas blood pressure remained unchanged. Echocardiography demonstrated that H2S exposure decreased both heart rate and cardiac output but preserved stroke volume. Breathing H2S for 6 h at 35°C ambient temperature (to prevent hypothermia) decreased heart rate, physical activity, respiratory rate, and cardiac output without altering stroke volume or body temperature. H2S breathing seems to induce bradycardia by depressing sinus node activity. Breathing H2S for 30 min decreased whole body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production at either 27° or 35°C ambient temperature. Both parameters returned to baseline levels within 10 min after the cessation of H2S breathing. Conclusions Inhalation of H2S at either 27° or 35°C reversibly depresses cardiovascular function without changing blood pressure in mice. Breathing H2S also induces a rapidly reversible reduction of metabolic rate at either body temperature. PMID:18362598

  14. Inhaled matters of the heart

    PubMed Central

    Zaky, Ahmed; Ahmad, Aftab; Dell’Italia, Louis J; Jahromi, Leila; Reisenberg, Lee Ann; Matalon, Sadis; Ahmad, Shama

    2015-01-01

    Inhalations of atmospheric pollutants, especially particulate matters, are known to cause severe cardiac effects and to exacerbate preexisting heart disease. Heart failure is an important sequellae of gaseous inhalation such as that of carbon monoxide. Similarly, other gases such as sulphur dioxide are known to cause detrimental cardiovascular events. However, mechanisms of these cardiac toxicities are so far unknown. Increased susceptibility of the heart to oxidative stress may play a role. Low levels of antioxidants in the heart as compared to other organs and high levels of reactive oxygen species produced due to the high energetic demand and metabolic rate in cardiac muscle are important in rendering this susceptibility. Acute inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases is often fatal. Severe respiratory injury and distress occurs upon inhalation of halogens gases, such as chlorine and bromine; however, studies on their cardiac effects are scant. We have demonstrated that inhalation of high concentrations of halogen gases cause significant cardiac injury, dysfunction, and failure that can be critical in causing mortalities following exposures. Our studies also demonstrated that cardiac dysfunction occurs as a result of a direct insult independent of coexisting hypoxia, since it is not fully reversed by oxygen supplementation. Therefore, studies on offsite organ effects of inhaled toxic gases can impact development of treatment strategies upon accidental or deliberate exposures to these agents. Here we summarize the knowledge of cardiovascular effects of common inhaled toxic gases with the intent to highlight the importance of consideration of cardiac symptoms while treating the victims. PMID:26665179

  15. Inhaled antibiotics: dry or wet?

    PubMed

    Tiddens, Harm A W M; Bos, Aukje C; Mouton, Johan W; Devadason, Sunalene; Janssens, Hettie M

    2014-11-01

    Dry powder inhalers (DPIs) delivering antibiotics for the suppressive treatment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in cystic fibrosis patients were developed recently and are now increasingly replacing time-consuming nebuliser therapy. Noninferiority studies have shown that the efficacy of inhaled tobramycin delivered by DPI was similar to that of wet nebulisation. However, there are many differences between inhaled antibiotic therapy delivered by DPI and by nebuliser. The question is whether and to what extent inhalation technique and other patient-related factors affect the efficacy of antibiotics delivered by DPI compared with nebulisers. Health professionals should be aware of the differences between dry and wet aerosols, and of patient-related factors that can influence efficacy, in order to personalise treatment, to give appropriate instructions to patients and to better understand the response to the treatment after switching. In this review, key issues of aerosol therapy are discussed in relation to inhaled antibiotic therapy with the aim of optimising the use of both nebulised and DPI antibiotics by patients. An example of these issues is the relationship between airway generation, structural lung changes and local concentrations of the inhaled antibiotics. The pros and cons of dry and wet modes of delivery for inhaled antibiotics are discussed. PMID:25323242

  16. Nondestructive spot test method for magnesium and magnesium alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, M. L. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A method for spot test identification of magnesium and various magnesium alloys commonly used in aerospace applications is described. The spot test identification involves color codes obtained when several drops of 3 M hydrochloric acid are placed on the surface to be tested. After approximately thirty seconds, two drops of this reacted acid is transferred to each of two depressions in a spot plate for additions of other chemicals with subsequent color changes indicating magnesium or its alloy.

  17. Highly Soluble Alkoxide Magnesium Salts for Rechargeable Magnesium Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, Chen; Guo, Bingkun; Jiang, Deen; Custelcean, Radu; Mahurin, Shannon Mark; Sun, Xiao-Guang; Dai, Sheng

    2014-01-01

    A unique class of air-stable and non-pyrophoric magnesium electrolytes has been developed based on alkoxide magnesium compounds. The crystals obtained from this class of electrolytes exhibit a unique structure of tri-magnesium cluster, [Mg3Cl3(OR)2(THF)6]+ [(THF)MgCl3] . High reversible capacities and good rate capabilities were obtained in Mg-Mo6S8 batteries using these new electrolytes at both 20 and 50 oC.

  18. Magnesium fluoride recovery method

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; McKenzie, Donald E.

    1989-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium fluoride substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is contacted with an acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a particulate solid product. The particulate solid product is separated from the liquid and treated at least two more times with acid to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium fluoride substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than about 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with a particularly preferred embodiment of the invention a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the acid treatment and preferably the acid is sulfuric acid having a strength of about 1.0 Normal.

  19. CELLULAR MAGNESIUM HOMEOSTASIS

    PubMed Central

    Romani, Andrea M.P.

    2011-01-01

    Magnesium, the second most abundant cellular cation after potassium, is essential to regulate numerous cellular functions and enzymes, including ion channels, metabolic cycles, and signaling pathways, as attested by more than 1000 entries in the literature. Despite significant recent progress, however, our understanding of how cells regulate Mg2+ homeostasis and transport still remains incomplete. For example, the occurrence of major fluxes of Mg2+ in either direction across the plasma membrane of mammalian cells following metabolic or hormonal stimuli has been extensively documented. Yet, the mechanisms ultimately responsible for magnesium extrusion across the cell membrane have not been cloned. Even less is known about the regulation in cellular organelles. The present review is aimed at providing the reader with a comprehensive and up-to-date understanding of the mechanisms enacted by eukaryotic cells to regulate cellular Mg2+ homeostasis and how these mechanisms are altered under specific pathological conditions. PMID:21640700

  20. Constraining magnesium cycling in marine sediments using magnesium isotopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Higgins, J. A.; Schrag, D. P.

    2010-09-01

    Magnesium concentrations in deep-sea sediment pore-fluids typically decrease down core due to net precipitation of dolomite or clay minerals in the sediments or underlying crust. To better characterize and differentiate these processes, we have measured magnesium isotopes in pore-fluids and sediment samples from Ocean Drilling Program sites (1082, 1086, 1012, 984, 1219, and 925) that span a range of oceanographic settings. At all sites, magnesium concentrations decrease with depth. At sites where diagenetic reactions are dominated by the respiration of organic carbon, pore-fluid δ 26Mg values increase with depth by as much as 2‰. Because carbonates preferentially incorporate 24Mg (low δ 26Mg), the increase in pore-fluid δ 26Mg values at these sites is consistent with the removal of magnesium in Mg-carbonate (dolomite). In contrast, at sites where the respiration of organic carbon is not important and/or weatherable minerals are abundant, pore-fluid δ 26Mg values decrease with depth by up to 2‰. The decline in pore-fluid δ 26Mg at these sites is consistent with a magnesium sink that is isotopically enriched relative to the pore-fluid. The identity of this enriched magnesium sink is likely clay minerals. Using a simple 1D diffusion-advection-reaction model of pore-fluid magnesium, we estimate rates of net magnesium uptake/removal and associated net magnesium isotope fractionation factors for sources and sinks at all sites. Independent estimates of magnesium isotope fractionation during dolomite precipitation from measured δ 26Mg values of dolomite samples from sites 1082 and 1012 are very similar to modeled net fractionation factors at these sites, suggesting that local exchange of magnesium between sediment and pore-fluid at these sites can be neglected. Our results indicate that the magnesium incorporated in dolomite is 2.0-2.7‰ depleted in δ 26Mg relative to the precipitating fluid. Assuming local exchange of magnesium is minor at the rest of the

  1. Treatment of diplomonad intestinal parasites with magnesium sulphate at a commercial rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) facility

    PubMed Central

    St-Hilaire, Sophie; Price, Derek; Taylor, Shawna; Groman, David

    2015-01-01

    Rainbow trout (average weight of 2 g) in fresh water experienced high mortality and were infected with a diplomonad intestinal parasite. Tanks of fish experienced an immediate reduction in mortality after an in-feed treatment with 3% Epsom salts for 2 d. Treatments had to be applied several times, but in each case there was a similar reduction in mortality. PMID:26246637

  2. Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans of human articular cartilage. The properties of dermatan sulphate proteoglycans I and II.

    PubMed Central

    Roughley, P J; White, R J

    1989-01-01

    Dermatan sulphate proteoglycans were purified from juvenile human articular cartilage, with a yield of about 2 mg/g wet wt. of cartilage. Both dermatan sulphate proteoglycan I (DS-PGI) and dermatan sulphate proteoglycan II (DS-PGII) were identified and the former was present in greater abundance. The two proteoglycans could not be resolved by agarose/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, but could be resolved by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis, which indicated average Mr values of 200,000 and 98,000 for DS-PGI and DS-PGII respectively. After digestion with chondroitin ABC lyase the Mr values of the core proteins were 44,000 for DS-PGI and 43,000 and 47,000 for DS-PGII, with the smaller core protein being predominant in DS-PGII. Sequence analysis of the N-terminal 20 amino acid residues reveals the presence of a single site for the potential substitution of dermatan sulphate at residue 4 of DS-PGII and two such sites at residues 5 and 10 for DS-PGI. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. PMID:2590169

  3. Diet-induced hypercholesterolemia imparts structure-function changes to erythrocyte chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate.

    PubMed

    Kiran, G; Srikanth, C B; Salimath, P V; Nandini, C D

    2015-09-01

    Hypercholesterolemia is one of the factors contributing to cardiovascular problems. Erythrocytes are known to contribute its cholesterol to atherosclerotic plaque. Our earlier study showed that erythrocytes overexpress chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate (CS/DS), a linear co-polymer, during diabetes which resulted in increased cytoadherence to extracellular matrix (ECM) components. This study was carried out to determine whether diet-induced hypercholesterolemia had any effect on erythrocyte CS/DS and impacted cytoadherence to ECM components. Unlike in diabetes, diet-induced hypercholesterolemia did not show quantitative changes in erythrocyte CS/DS but showed difference in proportion of un-sulphated and 4-O-sulphated disaccharides. Erythrocytes from hypercholesterolemic rats showed increased adhesion to ECM components which was abrogated to various extents when subjected to chondroitinase ABC digestion. However, isolated CS/DS chains showed a different pattern of binding to ECM components indicating that orientation of CS/DS chains could be playing a role in binding. PMID:25862809

  4. Mineral of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2005-01-01

    Magnesium, often confused with last month’s mineral of the month manganese, is valued primarily because of its light weight and high strength-to-weight ratio. Magnesium is the eighth most abundant element and constitutes about 2 percent of the Earth’s crust. It is the third most plentiful element dissolved in seawater, with a concentration averaging 0.13 percent. Magnesium is found in over 60 minerals, and also is recovered from seawater, wells, and lake brines and bitterns.

  5. Low brain magnesium in migraine

    SciTech Connect

    Ramadan, N.M.; Halvorson, H.; Vande-Linde, A.; Levine, S.R.; Helpern, J.A.; Welch, K.M.

    1989-10-01

    Brain magnesium was measured in migraine patients and control subjects using in vivo 31-Phosphorus Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy. pMg and pH were calculated from the chemical shifts between Pi, PCr and ATP signals. Magnesium levels were low during a migraine attack without changes in pH. We hypothesize that low brain magnesium is an important factor in the mechanism of the migraine attack.

  6. Fluticasone and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  7. Fluticasone and Salmeterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... in the dose counter go down. Do not waste doses by closing or tilting the inhaler, playing ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  8. Umeclidinium and Vilanterol Oral Inhalation

    MedlinePlus

    ... the inhaler without using your dose, you will waste the medication. The counter will count down by ... at room temperature and away from sunlight, excess heat and moisture (not in the bathroom). Throw away ...

  9. Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000036.htm Foreign object - inhaled or swallowed To use the sharing features ... please enable JavaScript. If you breathe a foreign object into your nose, mouth, or respiratory tract, it ...

  10. Tinospora cordifolia consumption ameliorates changes in kidney chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Chilkunda, Nandini D; Salimath, Paramahans V

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is known to alter kidney extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Chondroitin sulphate (CS)/dermatan sulphate (DS), an ECM component, which plays an essential role in kidney is altered during diabetes. The focus of this study has been to examine the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) consumption, a potent plant widely used to treat diabetes, on kidney CS/DS. Experimentally induced diabetic rats were fed with diet containing TC at 2·5 and 5 % levels and the effect of it on kidney CS/DS was examined. The CS/DS content and CS:heparan sulphate ratio which was decreased during diabetic condition were ameliorated in TC-fed groups. Disaccharide composition analysis of CS/DS by HPLC showed that decreases in 'E' units and degree of sulphation were modulated in 5 % TC-fed groups. Apparent molecular weight of purified CS/DS from the control rat kidney was found to be 38 kDa which was decreased to 29 kDa in diabetic rat kidney. Rats in 5 % TC-fed groups showed chain length of 38 kDa akin to control rats. Expression of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1, dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 and N-acetylgalactosamine 4 sulphate 6-O-sulfotransferase, enzymes involved in the synthesis of 'E' units which was reduced during diabetic condition, was significantly contained in the 5 % TC-fed group. Purified CS/DS from 5 % TC-fed group was able to bind higher amounts of ECM components, namely type IV collagen and laminin, when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The present results demonstrate that consumption of a diet containing TC at the 5 % level modulates changes in kidney CS/DS which were due to diabetes. PMID:25191554

  11. Tinospora cordifolia consumption ameliorates changes in kidney chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Joladarashi, Darukeshwara; Chilkunda, Nandini D.; Salimath, Paramahans V.

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is known to alter kidney extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Chondroitin sulphate (CS)/dermatan sulphate (DS), an ECM component, which plays an essential role in kidney is altered during diabetes. The focus of this study has been to examine the effect of Tinospora cordifolia (TC) consumption, a potent plant widely used to treat diabetes, on kidney CS/DS. Experimentally induced diabetic rats were fed with diet containing TC at 2·5 and 5 % levels and the effect of it on kidney CS/DS was examined. The CS/DS content and CS:heparan sulphate ratio which was decreased during diabetic condition were ameliorated in TC-fed groups. Disaccharide composition analysis of CS/DS by HPLC showed that decreases in ‘E’ units and degree of sulphation were modulated in 5 % TC-fed groups. Apparent molecular weight of purified CS/DS from the control rat kidney was found to be 38 kDa which was decreased to 29 kDa in diabetic rat kidney. Rats in 5 % TC-fed groups showed chain length of 38 kDa akin to control rats. Expression of chondroitin 4-O-sulfotransferase-1, dermatan 4-O-sulfotransferase-1 and N-acetylgalactosamine 4 sulphate 6-O-sulfotransferase, enzymes involved in the synthesis of ‘E’ units which was reduced during diabetic condition, was significantly contained in the 5 % TC-fed group. Purified CS/DS from 5 % TC-fed group was able to bind higher amounts of ECM components, namely type IV collagen and laminin, when compared with untreated diabetic rats. The present results demonstrate that consumption of a diet containing TC at the 5 % level modulates changes in kidney CS/DS which were due to diabetes. PMID:25191554

  12. Magnesium metabolism: a brief review.

    PubMed Central

    Paymaster, N. J.

    1976-01-01

    The important role played by the magnesium ion in the body is not generally recognized. The action of numerous enzyme systems critical to cellular metabolism is regulated by it and it contributes importantly to macromolecular structure. Magnesium defiency occurs more often than is generally suspected; magnesium excess, though uncommon, is of special interest to the anaesthetist because it produces a curare-like effect on neuromuscular transmission. It is hoped that this brief review of magnesium metabolism will draw attention to its importance and relevance in everyday practice. PMID:942168

  13. In vitro characterisation of terbutaline sulphate particles prepared by thermal ink-jet spray freeze drying.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Garima; Mueannoom, Wunlapa; Buanz, Asma B M; Taylor, Kevin M G; Gaisford, Simon

    2013-04-15

    Thermal ink-jet spray freeze-drying (TIJ-SFD) was used to produce inhalable particles of terbutaline sulphate, the aerosolisation properties of which were compared to the commercial Bricanyl formulation. Scanning electron micrograph images showed the particles to be spherical, highly porous and suitable for aerosolisation from a simple, capsule-based dry-powder device (Cyclohaler) without the need for additional excipients. Particle size was dependent upon the concentration of solution jetted, as well as the distance between the print head and the surface of the liquid nitrogen. Starting with a 5% (w/v) solution and maintaining this distance at 3cm produced spherical, porous particles of volume median diameter (VMD) 14.1 ± 0.8 μm and mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 4.0 ± 0.6 μm. The fine particle fraction (proportion of aerosol with MMAD ≤ 4.46 μm) was 22.9 ± 3.3%, which compared favourably with that of the marketed dry powder inhaler formulation of terbutaline (Bricanyl Turbohaler; 25.7 ± 3.8%), tested under the same conditions. These findings show that TIJ-SFD is a useful tool to predict the viability of a DPI formulation during preformulation physicochemical characterisation. PMID:23454848

  14. Effect of crystallisation conditions and feedstock morphology on the aerosolization performance of micronised salbutamol sulphate.

    PubMed

    Shariare, M H; de Matas, M; York, P

    2011-08-30

    Salbutamol sulphate (SS) used in dry powder inhalers requires drug particles in the respirable size range of 1-5 μm to achieve a suitable therapeutic effect. The aim of this study was therefore to determine strategies for controlling drug substance characteristics pre and post-crystallisation to facilitate the production of micronised SS with desirable particle attributes for optimal delivery as an inhaled aerosol. SS batches were crystallised using an antisolvent method to produce a range of crystal morphologies. Air jet milling was then used to reduce the size of crystallised SS particles. Starting materials and micronised batches of SS were characterised in the solid state using a range of techniques with subsequent assessment of aerosol properties. Assessment of the aerodynamic characteristics of micronised SS delivered by DPI (without any carrier) indicated that fine particle fraction and emitted dose as a percentage of the total recovered dose were dependent on the quality attributes of the micronised SS, which were directly linked to the degree of imperfections and the morphology of the crystalline feedstock used in micronisation. Aerosolization performance of micronised SS can be optimised by manipulation of feedstock characteristics through crystal engineering and through definition of optimal processing conditions for micronisation. PMID:21683128

  15. [Comparative effects of terbutaline sulphate and ipratropium bromide on the respiratory system (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Villate Navarro, J I; Sobradillo Peña, V; Atxotequi Iaraoligoitia, V; Salaverri Nalda, A; Orive Martínez, C

    1980-04-10

    Bronchodilator action of two pharmacologically different drugs have been compared. Ipratropium bromide (Sch 1000) is a synthetic atropine derivative and terbutaline sulphate is a beta-stimulating agent. Twelve asthmatic patients and eight patients with chronic bronquitis received terbutaline 0.50 mg. and ipratropium 0.04 mg by aerosol inhalation. Both drugs were given at random on a consecutive-day schedule. All patients were clinically stable before treatment (basal FEV/VC less than 60 percent). Total lung capacity (TLC) forced expiratory volume (FEV), SRaw, and V'/V curves before and at 15, 60, 120, and 240 minutes after the produce administration were registered. Presence of side-effects was also checked. An intensive bronchodilator action was observed either after inhalation of ipratropium bromide or terbutaline, but statistical studies showed no significant differences between both drugs in relation to intensity and duration of their actions. Sch 1000 caused similar bronchodilator effects in all cases; a more intense effect in patients with chronic bronchitis could not be noticed. Evaluation of V'/V curve, and especially its relation to a same pulmonary volume, pointed out that both drugs act upon small respiratory airways. Advance side-effects were not present. PMID:6446008

  16. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  17. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  18. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  19. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  20. Sulphate Adsorption in Soils of North and Northeast Iran.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Gypsum (CaSO4.2H2O) is used in agriculture both as a source of calcium (Ca) and sulphate (SO4) and as an amendment to improve soil structure. The effect of gypsum on the adsorption of SO4 in irrigated and nonirrigated soils was examined. Almost all of the indigenous sulphate (SO4) in a range of Gole...

  1. 21 CFR 520.62 - Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. 520.62 Section 520.62 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Aminopentamide hydrogen sulphate tablets. (a) Chemical name. 4-(Dimethylamino)-2,2-diphenylvaleramide...

  2. Modification of chromate toxicity by sulphate in duckweeds (Lemnaceae).

    PubMed

    Appenroth, Klaus-J; Luther, Alexandra; Jetschke, Gottfried; Gabrys, Halina

    2008-09-17

    Two duckweed species, Spirodela polyrhiza and Lemna minor, were used to measure the toxicity of chromate (100 microM) at three levels of sulphate (13 microM, low sulphate=LS; 410 microM, normal sulphate=NS; 10,000 microM, high sulphate=HS). Growth rates calculated on the basis of dry weight, chlorophyll and carotenoid content were all reduced by chromate. This inhibition was the strongest under LS conditions and the weakest under HS conditions. Thus, sulphate decreases chromate toxicity-which conforms with its influence on chromate uptake reported previously (Kaszycki, P., Gabrys, H., Appenroth, K.-J., Jaglarz, A., Sedziwy, S., Walczak, T., Koloczek, H., 2005. Exogenously applied sulphate as a tool to investigate transport and reduction of chromate in the duckweed Spirodela polyrhiza. Plant Cell Environ. 28, 260-269). The three levels of sulphate were also applied during pre-cultivation of both species for 2 weeks and the consequences for chromate toxicity were tested thereafter. When S. polyrhiza was pre-cultivated in NS medium, the growth inhibition by chromate was approximately 80% of the control (no chromate) in the subsequently applied LS medium, and approximately 50% in HS. L. minor showed similar relationships but a lower overall chromate sensitivity. In comparison to the plants pre-treated in NS medium, those pre-treated in LS were more sensitive whereas those pre-treated in HS were less sensitive toward chromate. The present data demonstrate that chromate is taken up into cells of the two duckweed species by sulphate transporter(s). The rather weak influence of sulphate on chromate toxicity indicates that chromate binds to the transporters much stronger than sulphate. Moreover, the relative effects of sulphate on the chromate toxicity remain very similar regardless of pre-treatment. This confirms the conclusion from uptake experiments that pre-treatment with different levels of sulphate changes the number of sulphate transporters but their affinity remains

  3. Influence of the lactose grade within dry powder formulations of fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate.

    PubMed

    Le, V N P; Bierend, H; Robins, E; Steckel, H; Flament, M P

    2012-01-17

    Dry powder formulations are often composed of fine drug particles and coarser carrier particles, typically alpha-lactose monohydrate. However, the performance of a powder formulation may be highly dependent on the lactose quality and source. This study investigated the characteristics of lactose that influence the drug-to-carrier interaction and the performance of lactose-based dry powder inhaler formulations. The selected lactoses differed in the preparation processes and the content of fine lactose particles. Efficiency testing was done using fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate as model drugs. Inverse gas chromatography was used to determine the surface heterogeneity distribution of different energy sites of the lactose and to understand the mechanism by which the fine carrier particles can improve the performance of dry powder inhalers. To assess the adhesion of respirable-sized drug to carrier particles, a simple method was developed based on aspiration and considering the whole blend as it is used in dry powder inhalers. When the percentage of fine lactose is high, a lower quantity of drug adheres to the lactose and/or the adhesion force is also lower. This was confirmed by the aerosolization assays done in the TSI (twin stage impinger). A correlation was observed between adhesion characteristics and inertial impaction. For both drugs, the fine particle fractions were highest in blends that present a greater proportion of lactose fine particles. A fairly good correlation between the fine particle fractions of both drugs and the peak max value and the AUC (area under curve) were found by inverse gas chromatography. With higher fine particle fraction values, which correspond to higher content of fines, the peak maxima determined by inverse gas chromatography were shifted to higher adsorption potentials, which supports the agglomeration hypothesis. PMID:22036653

  4. Magnesium Hall Thruster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szabo, James J.

    2015-01-01

    This Phase II project is developing a magnesium (Mg) Hall effect thruster system that would open the door for in situ resource utilization (ISRU)-based solar system exploration. Magnesium is light and easy to ionize. For a Mars- Earth transfer, the propellant mass savings with respect to a xenon Hall effect thruster (HET) system are enormous. Magnesium also can be combusted in a rocket with carbon dioxide (CO2) or water (H2O), enabling a multimode propulsion system with propellant sharing and ISRU. In the near term, CO2 and H2O would be collected in situ on Mars or the moon. In the far term, Mg itself would be collected from Martian and lunar regolith. In Phase I, an integrated, medium-power (1- to 3-kW) Mg HET system was developed and tested. Controlled, steady operation at constant voltage and power was demonstrated. Preliminary measurements indicate a specific impulse (Isp) greater than 4,000 s was achieved at a discharge potential of 400 V. The feasibility of delivering fluidized Mg powder to a medium- or high-power thruster also was demonstrated. Phase II of the project evaluated the performance of an integrated, highpower Mg Hall thruster system in a relevant space environment. Researchers improved the medium power thruster system and characterized it in detail. Researchers also designed and built a high-power (8- to 20-kW) Mg HET. A fluidized powder feed system supporting the high-power thruster was built and delivered to Busek Company, Inc.

  5. Sulphate release from building rubble of WWII

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mekiffer, Beate; Wessolek, Gerd; Vogeler, Iris; Brettholle, Mareike

    2010-05-01

    Sulphate concentration in the upper aquifer of Berlin, Germany is increasing continuously since 40 years. In downtown Berlin they particular exceed the precaution values of drinking water ordinance. We assume that the main source of sulphate in the groundwater is technogenic material, which is part of building rubble from WW II bombing. Nearly 115 Mio t of this material have been deposited in Berlin. Our aim is, ­ to identify rubble components which contain S and to quantify the S-pool of this material ­ to identify factors, influencing the release of SO4 and ­ to predict sulphate release from building rubble of WW II We analyzed total and water soluble S of various components and the fine earth fraction of the soils containing the rubble. We investigated the influence of physical and chemical parameters on the release of SO4 using unsaturated column experiments (With an automatic percolation system). Thereby, the particle size, the flow rate and the pH of the solution has been varied. Among the components, slag shows the highest total S-contents of up to 0,7% . Lignite Coal-ashes from Lusatia, Germany are also rich in SO4. The total S of brick varies between 0,01% and 0,3%. Mortar shows S-Values between 0,08 and 0,12%. In 75% of all samples show total S of less than 0,14%. There was no significant correlation between total S-amount and water-soluble SO4, which is caused by different chemical compounds in the samples. In the percolation experiments technogenic components with grain size <2mm cause a higher density, resulting in a lower percolation velocity. The concentration of ions in the according leachate is higher than in the leachate of coarse fraction (2 - 20mm). Gypsum-rich material (10%) released constant SO4 -concentration over the whole experiment. Slag-rich material released high initial SO4-concentrations which then fastly decreased. We concluded, that the kind of technogenic component and its grain size strongly influences the release of SO4 to the

  6. Sulphate release from construction and demolition material in soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abel, Stefan; Wessolek, Gerd

    2013-04-01

    In Berlin and many other cities soils are heavily influenced by anthropogenic activities and deposited substrates. A widespread technical substrate in technosols is construction and demolition material from residential and industrial buildings. Existing rubble landfills without sealing facilities pose threats to ground water quality. In the central city of Berlin rising sulphate concentrations of groundwaters (up to 1200 mg/L) are measured since more than two decades. Previous studies point out that the high sulphate concentrations are mainly attributed to World War II rubble. The major part of debris was deposited in form of landfills and contains approximately 0.3 wt% gypsum. The scope of our research is to determine mechanisms of sulphate release from debris material, interactions between sulphate release, soil hydraulic properties and potential sinks of sulphur. To estimate equilibrium concentration and kinetics of sulphate release of various debris components batch and column experiments are conducted. The same method is applied to determine potential adsorptive character of common debris components. To analyse the impacts of soil hydraulic properties on sulphate leaching we carry out soil column experiments with defined upper and lower boundary conditions, varying water flow velocity and induced preferential flow. Simultaneously we monitor sulphate concentration of soil leachate in a 2 m³ lysimeter. First results of the batch experiments show that gypsum from broken stucco is the main source of sulphate in the observed technosols. Other components as mortar and slag show a quite low sulphate release. Similar results are found within the column experiments. For brigs medium and strongly time dependent sulphate release is determined. Concentrations up to 1500 mg/L are measured in the soil leachate from the lysimeter.

  7. Pneumoconiosis after sericite inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Algranti, E; Handar, A; Dumortier, P; Mendonca, E; Rodrigues, G; Santos, A; Mauad, T; Dolhnikoff, M; De Vuyst, P; Saldiva, P; Bussacos, M

    2005-01-01

    Aims: To investigate and describe the radiological, clinical, and pathological changes in miners and millers exposed to sericite dust with mineralogical characteristics of inhaled dust. Methods: The working premises were visited to examine the sericite processing and to classify the jobs according to make qualitative evaluation. Respirable dust was collected and the amount of crystalline silica and particle size distribution were measured. Forty four workers were examined by a standard questionnaire for respiratory symptoms, spirometry, and chest x ray. Material from an open lung biopsy was reviewed for histopathological and mineralogical analysis, together with sericite samples from the work site to compare the mineral characteristics in lung lesions and work area. Results: Respirable dust contained 4.5–10.0% crystalline silica. Particle size distribution showed a heavy burden of very fine particles (23–55%) with a mean diameter of <0.5 µm. Mean age of sericite miners was 41.0 (11.9) and mean number of years of exposure was 13.5 (10.1). In 52.3% of workers (23/44), chest radiographs presented a median category of 1/0 or above, and 18.2% (8/44) had a reduced FEV1. There was a significant association between exposure indices and x ray category. Histological studies of the lung biopsy showed lesions compatible with mixed dust fibrosis with no silicotic nodules. x Ray diffraction analysis of the lung dust residue and the bulk samples collected from work area showed similar mineralogical characteristics. Muscovite and kaolinite were the major mineral particle inclusions in the lung. Conclusion: Exposure to fine sericite particles is associated with the development of functional and radiological changes in workers inducing mixed dust lesions, which are distinct histologically from silicosis. PMID:15723874

  8. Magnesium in Prevention and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Gröber, Uwe; Schmidt, Joachim; Kisters, Klaus

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is the fourth most abundant mineral in the body. It has been recognized as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymatic reactions, where it is crucial for adenosine triphosphate (ATP) metabolism. Magnesium is required for DNA and RNA synthesis, reproduction, and protein synthesis. Moreover, magnesium is essential for the regulation of muscular contraction, blood pressure, insulin metabolism, cardiac excitability, vasomotor tone, nerve transmission and neuromuscular conduction. Imbalances in magnesium status—primarily hypomagnesemia as it is seen more common than hypermagnesemia—might result in unwanted neuromuscular, cardiac or nervous disorders. Based on magnesium’s many functions within the human body, it plays an important role in prevention and treatment of many diseases. Low levels of magnesium have been associated with a number of chronic diseases, such as Alzheimer’s disease, insulin resistance and type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular disease (e.g., stroke), migraine headaches, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). PMID:26404370

  9. Magnesium substitution in brushite cements.

    PubMed

    Alkhraisat, Mohammad Hamdan; Cabrejos-Azama, Jatsue; Rodríguez, Carmen Rueda; Jerez, Luis Blanco; Cabarcos, Enrique López

    2013-01-01

    The use of magnesium-doped ceramics has been described to modify brushite cements and improve their biological behavior. However, few studies have analyzed the efficiency of this approach to induce magnesium substitution in brushite crystals. Mg-doped ceramics composed of Mg-substituted β-TCP, stanfieldite and/or farringtonite were reacted with primary monocalcium phosphate (MCP) in the presence of water. The cement setting reaction has resulted in the formation of brushite and newberyite within the cement matrix. Interestingly, the combination of SAED and EDX analyses of single crystal has indicated the occurrence of magnesium substitution within brushite crystals. Moreover, the effect of magnesium ions on the structure, and mechanical and setting properties of the new cements was characterized as well as the release of Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) ions. Further research would enhance the efficiency of the system to incorporate larger amounts of magnesium ions within brushite crystals. PMID:25428098

  10. Steroid hormone sulphation in lead workers.

    PubMed Central

    Apostoli, P; Romeo, L; Peroni, E; Ferioli, A; Ferrari, S; Pasini, F; Aprili, F

    1989-01-01

    The metabolism of steroid hormones has been investigated in 10 workers exposed to lead and in 10 non-exposed subjects to determine whether lead interferes with the first or second phase reactions of steroid hormone biotransformation, or both. In the exposed workers blood lead concentrations (PbB) ranged from 45 to 69 micrograms/100 ml; in the controls PbB was less than 25 micrograms/100 ml. No statistical differences were found for the total amount of the urinary hormone metabolites, but a drop of about 50% was observed for the sulphated portion. It is suggested that lead interferes with the mechanisms of sulphoconjugation through an effect on the cytosol enzymes sulphotransferase and sulphokinase. PMID:2930732

  11. Heparan sulphate proteoglycans in glia and in the normal and injured CNS: expression of sulphotransferases and changes in sulphation.

    PubMed

    Properzi, Francesca; Lin, Rachel; Kwok, Jessica; Naidu, Murali; van Kuppevelt, Toin H; Ten Dam, Gerdy B; Camargo, Luiz M; Raha-Chowdhury, Ruma; Furukawa, Yoko; Mikami, Tadahisa; Sugahara, Kazuyuki; Fawcett, James W

    2008-02-01

    Heparan sulphate proteoglycans (HSPGs) have multiple functions relevant to the control of the CNS injury response, particularly in modulating the effects of growth factors and localizing molecules that affect axon growth. We examined the pattern of expression and glycanation of HSPGs in the normal and damaged CNS, and in astrocytes and oligodendrocyte precursors because of their participation in the injury reaction. The composition of HS glycosaminoglycan (GAG) chains was analysed by biochemical analysis and by the binding of antibodies that recognize sulphated epitopes. We also measured levels of HS sulphotransferases and syndecans. Compared with oligodendrocytes, oligodendrocyte precursors have more 2-O-sulphation in their HS GAG. This is accompanied by higher expression of the enzyme responsible for 2-O-sulphation, HS 2-O-sulphotransferase (HS2ST) and a fall in syndecan-1. Astrocytes treated with tumour growth factor (TGF)alpha or TGFbeta to mimic the injury response showed upregulation of syndecan-1 and HS2ST correlating with an increase in 2-O-sulphate residues in their HS GAGs. This also correlated with increased staining with AO4B08 anti-GAG antibody that recognizes high sulphation, and reduced staining with RB4EA12 recognizing low sulphation. After injury to the adult rat brain there was an overall increase in the quantity of HSPG around the injury site, mRNA for HS2ST was increased, and the changes in staining with sulphation-specific antibodies were consistent with an increase in 2-O-sulphated HS. Syndecan-1 was upregulated in astrocytes. The major injury-related change, seen in injured brain and cultured glia, was an increase in 2-O-sulphated HS and increased syndecan-1, suggesting novel approaches to modulating scar formation. PMID:18279312

  12. Synthesis of magnesium diboride by magnesium vapor infiltration process (MVIP)

    DOEpatents

    Serquis, Adriana C.; Zhu, Yuntian T.; Mueller, Frederick M.; Peterson, Dean E.; Liao, Xiao Zhou

    2003-01-01

    A process of preparing superconducting magnesium diboride powder by heating an admixture of solid magnesium and amorphous boron powder or pellet under an inert atmosphere in a Mg:B ratio of greater than about 0.6:1 at temperatures and for time sufficient to form said superconducting magnesium diboride. The process can further include exposure to residual oxygen at high synthesis temperatures followed by slow cooling. In the cooling process oxygen atoms dissolved into MgB.sub.2 segregated to form nanometer-sized coherent Mg(B,O) precipitates in the MgB.sub.2 matrix, which can act as flux pinning centers.

  13. Ultrasound-assisted synthesis of magnesium hydroxide nanoparticles from magnesium.

    PubMed

    Baidukova, Olga; Skorb, Ekaterina V

    2016-07-01

    Acoustic cavitation in water provides special kinetic and thermodynamic conditions for chemical synthesis and nanostructuring of solids. Using cavitation phenomenon, we obtained magnesium hydroxide from pure magnesium. This approach allows magnesium hydroxide to be synthesized without the requirement of any additives and non-aqueous solvents. Variation of sonochemical parameters enabled a total transformation of the metal to nanosized brucite with distinct morphology. Special attention is given to the obtaining of platelet-shaped, nanometric and de-agglomerated powders. The products of the synthesis were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electron diffraction (ED), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). PMID:26964968

  14. Zinc toxicology following particulate inhalation.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Ross G

    2008-04-01

    The current mini-review describes the toxic effects of zinc inhalation principally in the workplace and associated complications with breathing and respiration. The International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health Criteria were used to specifically select articles. Most of the commercial production of zinc involves the galvanizing of iron and the manufacture of brass. The recommended daily allowance for adults is 15 mg zinc/day. Metal fume fever associated with inhalation of fumes of ZnO is characterized by fatigue, chills, fever, myalgias, cough, dyspnea, leukocytosis, thirst, metallic taste and salivation. ZnCl(2) inhalation results in edema in the alveolar surface and the protein therein the lavage fluid is elevated. Particular pathological changes associated with zinc intoxication include: pale mucous membranes; jaundice; numerous Heinz bodies; and marked anemia. Adequate ambient air monitors for permissible exposure limits, excellent ventilation and extraction systems, and approved respirators are all important in providing adequate protection. PMID:20040991

  15. Concrete under sulphate attack: an isotope study on sulphur sources.

    PubMed

    Mittermayr, Florian; Bauer, Christoph; Klammer, Dietmar; Böttcher, Michael E; Leis, Albrecht; Escher, Peter; Dietzel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The formation of secondary sulphate minerals such as thaumasite, ettringite and gypsum is a process causing severe damage to concrete constructions. A major key to understand the complex reactions, involving concrete deterioration is to decipher the cause of its appearance, including the sources of the involved elements. In the present study, sulphate attack on the concrete of two Austrian tunnels is investigated. The distribution of stable sulphur isotopes is successfully applied to decipher the source(s) of sulphur in the deteriorating sulphate-bearing minerals. Interestingly, δ(34)S values of sulphate in local groundwater and in the deteriorating minerals are mostly in the range from+14 to+27 ‰. These δ(34)S values match the isotope patterns of regional Permian and Triassic marine evaporites. Soot relicts from steam- and diesel-driven trains found in one of the tunnels show δ(34)S values from-3 to+5 ‰, and are therefore assumed to be of minor importance for sulphate attack on the concretes. In areas of pyrite-containing sedimentary rocks, the δ(34)S values of sulphate from damaged concrete range between-1 and+11 ‰. The latter range reflects the impact of sulphide oxidation on local groundwater sulphate. PMID:22321257

  16. Keratan sulphate in rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, and inflammatory diseases.

    PubMed Central

    Spector, T D; Woodward, L; Hall, G M; Hammond, A; Williams, A; Butler, M G; James, I T; Hart, D J; Thompson, P W; Scott, D L

    1992-01-01

    Serum concentrations of antigenic keratan sulphate determined by an enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with a monoclonal antibody were studied in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), osteoarthritis, ankylosing spondylitis, other inflammatory diseases, and a large control group of women without arthritis. Mean keratan sulphate concentrations were low in 117 women with RA compared with 227 female control subjects matched for age drawn from a community survey. There were significant correlations between serum keratan sulphate concentrations in patients with RA and serum C reactive protein and the erythrocyte sedimentation rate. Serum keratan sulphate concentrations were also low in 29 men and women with ankylosing spondylitis and 29 patients with arthritis and high concentrations of C reactive protein. In 98 women undergoing an operation for benign breast disease there were decreases in serum keratan sulphate concentrations after the operation which correlated with doses in serum C reactive protein. No differences were found in keratan sulphate concentrations in 137 women with osteoarthritis compared with controls. Within the group with osteoarthritis there were no differences for the various joint groups and there was no obvious correlation with radiographic severity or progression. These findings suggest serum keratan sulphate is unlikely to be useful as a diagnostic marker in osteoarthritis or RA but indicate a role for inflammation in the regulation of cartilage loss. PMID:1444626

  17. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O, CAS... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... mineral bischofite. It is prepared by dissolving magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate in...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and... Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No. 1309-48-4... powder (light) or a relatively dense white powder (heavy) by heating magnesium hydroxide or...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2, CAS... a white precipitate by the addition of sodium hydroxide to a water soluble magnesium salt or...

  1. Mineral resource of the month: magnesium

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kramer, Deborah A.

    2012-01-01

    Magnesium is the eighthmost abundant element in Earth’s crust, and the second-most abundant metal ion in seawater. Although magnesium is found in more than 60 minerals, only brucite, dolomite, magnesite and carnallite are commercially important for their magnesium content. Magnesium and its compounds also are recovered from seawater, brines found in lakes and wells, and bitterns (salts).

  2. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... salt or by hydration of reactive grades of magnesium oxide. (b) The ingredient meets the specifications... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Magnesium...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium oxide (MgO, CAS Reg. No... light magnesium oxide. Heating the salts under more rigorous conditions (1200 °C for 12 hours)...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... magnesium oxide, hydroxide, or carbonate with sulfuric acid and evaporating the solution to crystallization... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4·7H2O,...

  5. Role of Cellular Magnesium in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Long, Samantha; Romani, Andrea MP

    2015-01-01

    Magnesium is required for many of the major organs to function and plays a crucial role in human and mammalian physiology. Magnesium is essential for the structure of bones and teeth, acts as a cofactor for more than 300 enzymes in the body, including binding to ATP for kinase reactions, and affects permeability of excitable membranes and neuromuscular transmission. Despite these essential roles, much is still unknown about magnesium physiology and homeostasis. Currently, nutritionists believe that the general population intakes insufficient magnesium daily through the diet. The effects of magnesium deficiency are, for the most part undetected, and simple, widespread assessments of magnesium intake remain unavailable for humans. Many of the patients admitted to hospitals or medical care facilities are unaware of their low magnesium levels. Moreover, because magnesium is predominantly an intracellular cation (>99%), serum magnesium levels remain a poor predictor of tissue magnesium content and availability. This review will discuss the effects of magnesium deficiency in various pathologies affecting the human population. The underlying causes for magnesium depletion in major physiological systems will be examined along with the involved signaling pathways and the main roles of magnesium homeostasis. Where possible (e.g. alcoholism), the implications of administering supplemental magnesium will be discussed. Ultimately, this review will advocate for the necessity of identifying easy and reproducible methods to assess serum and cellular magnesium levels and to identify magnesium deficiency in order to alleviate related pathological conditions. PMID:25839058

  6. Purification and characterization of heparan sulphate proteoglycan from bovine brain.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Y; Yu, G; Gunay, N S; Linhardt, R J

    1999-01-01

    A heparan sulphate proteoglycan was purified from adult bovine brain tissues and its structure was characterized. The major heparan sulphate proteoglycan from whole bovine brain had a molecular mass of >200 kDa on denaturing SDS/PAGE and a core protein size of 66 kDa following the removal of glycosaminoglycan chains. Fractionation on DEAE-Sephacel showed that this proteoglycan consisted of three major forms having high, intermediate and low overall charge. All core proteins were identical in size and reacted with heparan sulphate proteoglycan-stub antibody and an antibody made to a synthetic peptide based on rat glypican. The three forms of proteoglycans had identical peptide maps and their amino acid compositional analysis did not match any of the known glypicans. The internal sequence of a major peptide showed only 37.5% sequence similarity with human glypican 5. The glycosaminoglycan chain sizes of the three forms of this proteoglycan, determined after beta-elimination by PAGE, were identical. The disaccharide compositional analysis on the heparan sulphate chains from the three forms of the proteoglycan, determined by treatment with a mixture of heparin lyases followed by high-resolution capillary electrophoresis, showed that they differed primarily by degree of sulphation. The most highly sulphated proteoglycan isolated had a disaccharide composition similar to heparan sulphate glycosaminoglycans found in brain tissue. Based on their sensitivity to low pH nitrous acid treatment, the N-sulphate groups in these proteoglycans were found to be primarily in the smaller glycosaminoglycan chains. The heparan sulphate proteoglycans were also heavily glycosylated with O-linked glycans and no glycosylphosphatidylinositol anchor could be detected. PMID:10585858

  7. Anaphylaxis induced by lentil inhalation.

    PubMed

    Ayşenur, Kaya; Akan, Ayşegül; Mustafa, Erkoçoğlu; Müge, Toyran; Kocabaş, Can Naci

    2012-06-01

    Anaphylaxis is a rapid onset serious allergic reaction which may be fatal. Foods are the most common allergens leading to anaphylaxis especially for childhood. Most of the food-induced anaphylactic reactions take place after ingestion of the allergic food and only a few cases exist with anaphylactic reactions induced by inhalation of foods such as peanut, soybean and lupine. The case we present is unusual in that an 8 1/2-year-old boy developed anaphylaxis with the inhalation of steam from boiling lentils. PMID:22830298

  8. There are two major types of skeletal keratan sulphates.

    PubMed Central

    Nieduszynski, I A; Huckerby, T N; Dickenson, J M; Brown, G M; Tai, G H; Morris, H G; Eady, S

    1990-01-01

    High-field 1H-n.m.r.-spectroscopic studies supported by chemical carbohydrate analyses show that skeletal keratan sulphates (KS-II) of bovine origin may be sub-classified into two groups. Keratan sulphate chains from articular and intervertebral-disc cartilage (KS-II-A) contain two structural features, namely alpha(1----3)-fucose and alpha(2----6)-linked N-acetyl-neuraminic acid residues, that are absent from keratan sulphates from tracheal or nasal-septum cartilage (KS-II-B). PMID:2222415

  9. Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine and recovery of barium as a barium salt mixture.

    PubMed

    Vadapalli, Viswanath R K; Zvimba, John N; Mulopo, Jean; Motaung, Solly

    2013-01-01

    Sulphate removal from sodium sulphate-rich brine using barium hydroxide and recovery of the barium salts has been investigated. The sodium sulphate-rich brine treated with different dosages of barium hydroxide to precipitate barium sulphate showed sulphate removal from 13.5 g/L to less than 400 mg/L over 60 min using a barium to sulphate molar ratio of 1.1. The thermal conversion of precipitated barium sulphate to barium sulphide achieved a conversion yield of 85% using coal as both a reducing agent and an energy source. The recovery of a pure mixture of barium salts from barium sulphide, which involved dissolution of barium sulphide and reaction with ammonium hydroxide resulted in recovery of a mixture of barium carbonate (62%) and barium hydroxide (38%), which is a critical input raw material for barium salts based acid mine drainage (AMD) desalination technologies. Under alkaline conditions of this barium salt mixture recovery process, ammonia gas is given off, while hydrogen sulfide is retained in solution as bisulfide species, and this provides basis for ammonium hydroxide separation and recovery for reuse, with hydrogen sulfide also recoverable for further industrial applications such as sulfur production by subsequent stripping. PMID:23485244

  10. Magnesium and hearing.

    PubMed

    Cevette, Michael J; Vormann, Jürgen; Franz, Kay

    2003-01-01

    The last several decades have revealed clinical and experimental data regarding the importance of magnesium (Mg) in hearing. Increased susceptibility to noise damage, ototoxicity, and auditory hyperexcitability are linked to states of Mg deficiency. Evidence for these processes has come slowly and direct effects have remained elusive because plasma Mg levels do not always correlate with its deficiency. Despite the major progress in the understanding of cochlear mechanical and auditory nerve function, the neurochemical and pharmacologic role of Mg is not clear. The putative mechanism suggests that Mg deficiency may contribute to a metabolic cellular cascade of events. Mg deficiency leads to an increased permeability of the calcium channel in the hair cells with a consequent over influx of calcium, an increased release of glutamate via exocytosis, and over stimulation of NMDA receptors on the auditory nerve. This paper provides a current overview of relevant Mg metabolism and deficiency and its influence on hearing. PMID:12940704

  11. Magnesium: Engineering the Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, X. B.; Yang, H. Y.; Abbott, T. B.; Easton, M. A.; Birbilis, N.

    2012-06-01

    Magnesium (Mg) and its alloys provide numerous benefits as lightweight materials; however, industrial deployment of Mg in most instances requires anticorrosion coatings. Engineering the Mg surface is an area that has been undergoing intense research recently. Surface engineering commences with the "pretreatment" step, which can be used to modify the surface composition and morphology, resulting in surface enrichment or depletion of alloying elements. Following this, electrochemical plating (including electro- and electroless plating) and conversion coatings have emerged as common means of coating Mg. In this study, we present the key aspects relating to the science and technology associated with pretreatment, electrochemical plating, and conversion coatings. This is followed by experimental examples of engineered surfaces of industrial relevance.

  12. Talcum induced pneumoconiosis following inhalation of adulterated marijuana, a case report

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Talcosis, a granulomatous inflammation of the lungs caused by inhalation of talcum dust, is a rare form of pneumoconiosis. Besides inhalative occupational exposure, intravenous abuse of adulterated drugs is a major cause for this condition. Minerals such as talcum (magnesium silicate) and sand (predominant silicon dioxide) are used to increase both volume and weight of illicit substances. In intravenous heroin-abuse, talcosis is a well-known complication. Here we describe a case of talcosis caused by inhalative abuse of adulterated marijuana. Clinical history A 29-year old man presented with persistent fever, dyspnea and cervical emphysema. He admitted consumption of 'cut' marijuana for several years, preferentially by water pipe smoking. Morphologic findings Lung-biopsies showed chronic interstitial lung disease, anthracotic pigments and birefringent material. Energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy revealed silicon-containing particles (1-2 μm) and fine aluminum particles (< 1 μm), magnesium and several other elements forming a spectrum compatible with the stated water pipe smoking of talcum-adulterated marijuana. Conclusions The exacerbated chronic interstitial lung disease in a 29-year old patient could be attributed to his prolonged abuse of talcum-adulterated marjuana by histopathology and x-ray spectroscopy. Since cannabis consumption is widely spread among young adults, it seems to be justified to raise attention to this form of interstitial pulmonary disease. Virtual slides The virtual slide(s) for this article can be found here: http://www.diagnomx.eu/vs/krause/html/start.html. PMID:22420484

  13. Design of the Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial [ISRCTN19943732

    PubMed Central

    Bradford, Andrew; Lees, Kennedy

    2000-01-01

    The Intravenous Magnesium Efficacy in Acute Stroke (IMAGES) trial is a multicentre,randomised, placebo-controlled trial of magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) funded by the UK Medical Research Council. When complete, it will be the largest single neuroprotective study undertaken to date. Conscious patients presenting within 12 h of acute stroke with limb weakness are eligible. The primary outcome measure is combined death and disability as measured using the Barthel Index at 90-day follow up. By randomizing 2700 patients, the study will have 84% power to detect a 5.5% absolute reduction in the primary end-point. By April 2000, 86 centres were participating, with representation in Canada, USA, Europe, South America, Singapore and Australia. So far, 1206 patients have been randomised, of whom 37% were treated within 6 h. Overall 3-month mortality was 20% and the primary outcome event rate was 43%. The study is ongoing and centres worldwide are encouraged to participate. PMID:11714436

  14. William TG Morton's early ether inhalers: a tale of three inhalers and their inscriptions.

    PubMed

    Haridas, R P

    2009-07-01

    Three ether inhalers with inscriptions stating that they had been used in early ether anaesthesia were found. All three inhalers were initially linked to WTG Morton. Two of the inhalers were probably among several types of inhalers used by Morton. The third inhaler was found to have been incorrectly attributed to Morton. It was first used by John Foster Brewster Flagg, a dentist in Philadelphia. PMID:19705631

  15. Age-related changes in the sulphation of the chondroitin sulphate linkage region from human articular cartilage aggrecan.

    PubMed Central

    Lauder, R M; Huckerby, T N; Brown, G M; Bayliss, M T; Nieduszynski, I A

    2001-01-01

    The chondroitin sulphate (CS) linkage regions have been isolated from human articular cartilage aggrecan (from 10- to 72-year-olds) by chondroitin ABC endolyase digestion and size-exclusion chromatography. Linkage region hexasaccharides have been characterized and their abundance estimated by high-pH anion-exchange chromatography. The basic structure for the CS linkage region oligosaccharides identified from human aggrecan is as follows: DeltaUA(beta1-3)GalNAc[0S/4S/6S](beta1-4)GlcA(beta1-3)Gal[0S/6S](beta1-3)Gal(beta1-4)Xyl, where DeltaUA represents 4,5-unsaturated hexuronic acid, 4S and 6S represent an O-ester sulphate group on C-4 and C-6 respectively, and 0S represents zero sulphation. There are significant age-related changes in the abundance of the various N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc) sulphation forms identified, occurring up to approx. 20 years old. During the period from 10 to 20 years old the level of GalNAc 6-sulphation at the linkage region increases from approx. 43% to approx. 75%, while there is a corresponding reduction in unsulphated (approx. 30% to approx. 20%) and 4-sulphated (approx. 25% to approx. 6%) GalNAc residues. There is also an increase in the incidence of linkage region galactose 6-sulphation (approx. 2% to approx. 10%) which was only observed in linkage regions with GalNAc 6-sulphation. Beyond 20 years old there are few changes in the relative abundance of these GalNAc sulphation variants; however, there is a slight increase in the abundance of 6-sulphation between approx. 20 years old and approx. 40 years old and a slight decrease in its abundance beyond approx. 40 years old. Our data show that in the majority of chains from tissues of all ages the GalNAc residue closest to the linkage region is 6-sulphated, but the level of GalNAc 6-sulphation within the linkage region is lower than the average level observed within the repeat region. PMID:11513754

  16. Parental Influence on Inhalant Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Alina; Hopkins, Gary; McBride, Duane; Vanderwaal, Curt; Pepper, Sara; Mackey, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine the dynamics of the relationship between parents and their adolescent children and their association with lifetime and past-month inhalant usage. The population studied was seventh- through ninth-grade students in rural Idaho (N = 570). The authors found a small, but consistent, significant inverse…

  17. TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    ETD-02-047 (Martonen) GPRA # 10108

    TARGETED DELIVERY OF INHALED PROTEINS
    T. B. Martonen1, J. Schroeter2, Z. Zhang3, D. Hwang4, and J. S. Fleming5
    1Experimental Toxicology Division, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Research Triangle Park...

  18. Inhalant Use in Florida Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siqueira, Lorena; Crandall, Lee A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: To determine (1) the prevalence of use, (2) risk and protective factors for use of inhalants in Florida youth. Methods: The Florida Youth Substance Abuse Survey 2004 is a comprehensive assessment of youth substance abuse attitudes and practices obtained by sampling youth from sixty-five counties. Results: The sample consisted of 60,345…

  19. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE METHODOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodology Document is expected to provide guidance on the development of the basic toxicological foundations for deriving reference values for human health effects, focusing on the hazard identification and dose-response aspects of the ...

  20. Fucose content of keratan sulphates from bovine articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Tai, G H; Brown, G M; Morris, H G; Huckerby, T N; Nieduszynski, I A

    1991-01-01

    Alkaline-borohydride-reduced keratan sulphate chains were isolated from bovine articular cartilage (6-8-year-old animals). Nine keratan sulphate fractions of increasing molecular weight were prepared by gel-permeation chromatography on a calibrated column of TSK 30 XL. The samples were analysed for fucose and galactose contents (% by wt. of keratan sulphate) and fucose/galactose ratio. The fucose content increased with molecular size, but the galactose content remained constant. It was concluded that the alpha(1----3)-linked fucose [Thornton, Morris, Cockin, Huckerby, Nieduszynski, Carlstedt, Hardingham & Ratcliffe (1989) Biochem. J. 260, 277-282] was located within the poly-N-acetyl-lactosamine repeat sequence of articular-cartilage keratan sulphate. PMID:1991030

  1. Effect of carrier particle shape on dry powder inhaler performance.

    PubMed

    Kaialy, Waseem; Alhalaweh, Amjad; Velaga, Sitaram P; Nokhodchi, Ali

    2011-12-12

    The aim of this study was to characterise the aerosolisation properties of salbutamol sulphate (SS) from dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulations containing different carrier products. The difference in the elongation ratio (ER) of the different carriers was highlighted. Different set of carriers, namely commercial mannitol (CM), commercial lactose (CL), cooling crystallised mannitol (CCM), acetone crystallised mannitol (ACM) and ethanol crystallised mannitol (ECM) were used and inspected in terms of size, shape, density, crystal form, flowability, and in vitro aerosolisation performance using Multi Stage Liquid Impinger (MSLI) and Aerolizer inhaler device. Solid-state and morphological characterization showed that CM product was in pure β-form having particles with smaller ER (CM: ER=1.62 ± 0.04) whereas ACM and ECM mannitol particles were in pure α form with higher ER (ACM: ER=4.83 ± 0.18, ECM: ER=5.89 ± 0.19). CCM product crystallised as mixtures of β-form and δ-form and showed the largest variability in terms of particle shape, size, and DPI performance. Linear relationships were established showing that carrier products with higher ER have smaller bulk density (D(b)), smaller tap density (D(t)), higher porosity (P), and poorer flow properties. In vitro aerosolisation assessments showed that the higher the ER of the carrier particles the greater the amounts of SS delivered to lower airway regions indicating enhanced DPI performance. Yet, DPI performance enhancement by increasing carrier ER reached a "limit" as increasing carrier ER from 4.83±0.18 (ACM) to 5.89±0.19 (ECM) did not significantly alter fine particle fraction (FPF) of SS. Also, carrier particles with higher ER were disadvantageous in terms of higher amounts of SS remained in inhaler device (drug loss) and deposited on throat. Linear relationship was established (r(2)=0.87) showing that the higher the carrier ER the lower the drug emission (EM) upon inhalation. Moreover, poorer flowability for

  2. Vaporization study of sodium sulphate — potassium sulphate binary system by Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armatys, K.; Miller, M.; Matraszek, A.; Wolter, A.

    2011-06-01

    The vaporization of samples of different chemical and phase compositions in the Na2SO4-K2SO4 system was investigated over the temperature range 1100 K-1400 K by the use of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry. The gaseous species Na(g), Na2SO4(g), K(g), K2SO4(g), SO2(g), O2(g) and NaKSO4(g) were identified in the vapour over the samples investigated. The thermodynamic activities of sulphates in the examined system at 1350 K were obtained, which allowed calculating the chemical composition of the vapours present in the high temperature zone of cement kilns.

  3. Magnesium status and digoxin toxicity.

    PubMed Central

    Young, I S; Goh, E M; McKillop, U H; Stanford, C F; Nicholls, D P; Trimble, E R

    1991-01-01

    1. Eighty-one hospital patients receiving digoxin were separated into groups with and without digoxin toxicity using clinical criteria. Serum digoxin, sodium, potassium, calcium, creatinine, magnesium and monocyte magnesium concentrations were compared. 2. Subjects with digoxin toxicity had impaired colour vision (P less than 0.0001, Farnsworth-Munsell 100 hue test) and increased digoxin levels (1.89 (1.56-2.21) vs 1.34 (1.20-1.47) nmol l-1, P less than 0.01) (mean (95% confidence limits], though there was considerable overlap between two groups. 3. Subjects with digoxin toxicity had lower levels of serum magnesium (0.80 (0.76-0.84) vs 0.88 (0.85-0.91) mmol l-1, P less than 0.01) and monocyte magnesium (6.40 (5.65-7.16) vs 8.76 (7.81-9.71) mg g-1 DNA, P less than 0.01), but there were no significant differences in other biochemical parameters. A greater proportion of toxic subjects were receiving concomitant diuretic therapy (20/21 vs 37/60, P less than 0.05). 4. Magnesium deficiency was the most frequently identified significant electrolyte disturbance in relation to digoxin toxicity. In the presence of magnesium deficiency digoxin toxicity developed at relatively low serum digoxin concentrations. PMID:1768564

  4. Enhancement of indirect sulphation of limestone by steam addition.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Michael C; Manovic, Vasilije; Anthony, Edward J; Macchi, Arturo

    2010-11-15

    The effect of water (H₂O(g)) on in situ SO₂ capture using limestone injection under (FBC) conditions was studied using a thermobalance and tube furnace. The indirect sulphation reaction was found to be greatly enhanced in the presence of H₂O(g). Stoichiometric conversion of samples occurred when sulphated with a synthetic flue gas containing 15% H₂O(g) in under 10 h, which is equivalent to a 45% increase in conversion as compared to sulphation without H₂O(g). Using gas pycnometry and nitrogen adsorption methods, it was shown that limestone samples sulphated in the presence of H₂O(g) undergo increased particle densification without any significant changes to pore area or volume. The microstructural changes and observed increase in conversion were attributed to enhanced solid-state diffusion in CaO/CaSO₄ in the presence of H₂O(g). Given steam has been shown to have such a strong influence on sulphation, whereas it had been previously regarded as inert, may prompt a revisiting of the classically accepted sulphation models and phenomena. These findings also suggest that steam injection may be used to enhance sulfur capture performance in fluidized beds firing low-moisture fuels such as petroleum coke. PMID:20958025

  5. Impact of inhalation therapy on oral health

    PubMed Central

    Godara, Navneet; Godara, Ramya; Khullar, Megha

    2011-01-01

    Inhalation therapy has been employed as the mainstay of the treatment in chronic respiratory diseases such as asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Beta-2 agonists, anticholinergic bronchodilators, inhaled corticosteroids, and sodium cromoglycate are often used alone or in combination in an inhaled form. Studies have shown that inhaled drugs used in the treatment have some adverse effects on the oral health based on their dosage, frequency, and duration of use. Several oral conditions such as xerostomia, dental caries, candidiasis, ulceration, gingivitis, periodontitis, and taste changes have been associated with inhalation therapy. Since the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases is rising, it is important to provide optimal oral care to the individuals receiving inhalation therapy. This article will review the influence of inhaled drugs on the oral health of individuals and adequate management and prevention of the same. PMID:22084541

  6. [Effects of Instruction on Inhalation Techniques Using iPads - Web Application "Inhalation Lessons"].

    PubMed

    Kogawa, Noriko; Ito, Reiko; Gon, Yasuhiro; Maruoka, Shuichiro; Hashimoto, Shu

    2015-12-01

    Instruction on inhalation techniques for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease(COPD)and asthma patients being treated with inhalants have sufficient therapeutic effects and are important to maintain adherence. However, problems continue to exist, including time constraints of medical staff that have a large number of patients and a lack of knowledge on inhalation instruction methods. A web application,"Inhalation Lessons,'for the iPad has been developed. It explains inhalation methods, and consists of videos and review tests. Instruction on inhalation techniques was performed using this application for patients that use Diskus, and the effects were examined. As a result, there are significant improvements in the inhalation techniques of patients after viewing the"Inhalation Lessons'application. Uniform instruction on inhalation techniques can be performed even in the field of homecare. PMID:26809400

  7. Magnesium and fetal growth

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, K.

    1988-01-01

    Fetal growth retardation and premature labor are major problems in perinatal medicine today and account for a great deal of the observed fetal morbidity. While the neonatal death rate has steadily declined over the past decade, there has been a lack of concommitant decrease in these two leading problems. Magnesium (Mg/sup ++/) plays a major role in both of these areas of concern. The fact that it is used as a treatment for premature labor has led investigators to look at low Mg/sup ++/ as a possible cause of this poorly understood phenomenon. The second major cause of small for gestational age infants is intrauterine growth retardation, a condition which may be of either fetal or maternal origin. In either case, Mg/sup ++/ may be implicated since it exerts a strong influence on the underlying pathophysiology of placental failure and maternal hypertension. Both of these conditions are mediated by vascular and platelet hyperactivity as well as by and increase in the ration of thromboxane to prostacyclin. Studies in both the human and animal species are beginning to show how Mg/sup ++/ interacts in these conditions to produce such a damaging fetal outcome. The recent use of Doppler velocimetry of the developing fetus has shown reduced fetal vascular and maternal uterine vascular compliance as early as 14 weeks of gestation in those who would be so affected.

  8. The effect of oral inorganic sulphate on the metabolism of 4-hydroxyphenethylamine (tyramine) in man: tyramine O-sulphate measurement in human urine (Short Communication)

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Ivor; Mitchell, Paul D.

    1974-01-01

    1. Urinary excretion of tyramine O-sulphate in six normal human subjects after an oral dose of 125mg of tyramine hydrochloride alone, and with a supplement of Na2SO4, was determined by using chromatographic and electrophoretic separations followed by spectrophotofluorimetry. 2. In every case the excretion of tyramine O-sulphate was increased significantly after sulphate supplementation. PMID:4441371

  9. Inhalation therapy in mechanical ventilation

    PubMed Central

    Maccari, Juçara Gasparetto; Teixeira, Cassiano; Gazzana, Marcelo Basso; Savi, Augusto; Dexheimer-Neto, Felippe Leopoldo; Knorst, Marli Maria

    2015-01-01

    Patients with obstructive lung disease often require ventilatory support via invasive or noninvasive mechanical ventilation, depending on the severity of the exacerbation. The use of inhaled bronchodilators can significantly reduce airway resistance, contributing to the improvement of respiratory mechanics and patient-ventilator synchrony. Although various studies have been published on this topic, little is known about the effectiveness of the bronchodilators routinely prescribed for patients on mechanical ventilation or about the deposition of those drugs throughout the lungs. The inhaled bronchodilators most commonly used in ICUs are beta adrenergic agonists and anticholinergics. Various factors might influence the effect of bronchodilators, including ventilation mode, position of the spacer in the circuit, tube size, formulation, drug dose, severity of the disease, and patient-ventilator synchrony. Knowledge of the pharmacological properties of bronchodilators and the appropriate techniques for their administration is fundamental to optimizing the treatment of these patients. PMID:26578139

  10. Inhaled Therapies for Pulmonary Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hill, Nicholas S; Preston, Ioana R; Roberts, Kari E

    2015-06-01

    The inhaled route has a number of attractive features for treatment of pulmonary hypertension, including delivery of drug directly to the target organ, thus enhancing pulmonary specificity and reducing systemic adverse effects. It can also improve ventilation/perfusion matching by dilating vessels supplying ventilated regions, thus improving gas exchange. Furthermore, it can achieve higher local drug concentrations at a lower overall dose, potentially reducing drug cost. Accordingly, a number of inhaled agents have been developed to treat pulmonary hypertension. Most in current use are prostacyclins, including epoprostenol, which has been cleared for intravenous applications but is used off-label in acute care settings as a continuously nebulized medication. Aerosolized iloprost and treprostinil are both prostacyclins that have been cleared by the FDA to treat pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Both require frequent administration (6 and 4 times daily, respectively), and both have a tendency to cause airway symptoms, including cough and wheeze, which can lead to intolerance. These agents cannot be used to substitute for the infused routes of prostacyclin because they do not permit delivery of medication at high doses. Inhaled nitric oxide (INO) is cleared for the treatment of primary pulmonary hypertension in newborns. It is also used off-label to test acute vasoreactivity in PAH during right-heart catheterization and to treat acute right-heart failure in hospitalized patients. In addition, some studies on long-term application of INO either have been recently completed with results pending or are under consideration. In the future, because of its inherent advantages in targeting the lung, the inhaled route is likely to be tested using a variety of small molecules that show promise as PAH therapies. PMID:26070575

  11. Recognition and prevention of inhalant abuse.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Carrie E; Loomis, Glenn A

    2003-09-01

    Inhalant abuse is a prevalent and often overlooked form of substance abuse in adolescents. Survey results consistently show that nearly 20 percent of children in middle school and high school have experimented with inhaled substances. The method of delivery is inhalation of a solvent from its container, a soaked rag, or a bag. Solvents include almost any household cleaning agent or propellant, paint thinner, glue, and lighter fluid. Inhalant abuse typically can cause a euphoric feeling and can become addictive. Acute effects include sudden sniffing death syndrome, asphyxia, and serious injuries (e.g., falls, burns, frostbite). Chronic inhalant abuse can damage cardiac, renal, hepatic, and neurologic systems. Inhalant abuse during pregnancy can cause fetal abnormalities. Diagnosis of inhalant abuse is difficult and relies almost entirely on a thorough history and a high index of suspicion. No specific laboratory tests confirm solvent inhalation. Treatment is generally supportive, because there are no reversal agents for inhalant intoxication. Education of young persons and their parents is essential to decrease experimentation with inhalants. PMID:13678134

  12. [Significance of inhaled environmental allergens].

    PubMed

    Zochert, J

    1983-01-01

    Whereas the importance of pollen as inhalative allergens has been largely investigated and is generally known, the experience in the frequency and the role of the sensibilization with air-borne fungi is relatively limited. In 720 patients with Asthma bronchiale the degree of sensitization has been tested with various extracts of air-borne fungi of SSW Dresden (mould mixture, aspergillin, mucor, cladosporium and penicillium and alternaria). The most frequent and also the strongest reactions were found with alternaria and the smallest part of positive skin reactions with penicillium. An isolated sensitization with mould has been demonstrated in 20 per cent of the cases. In 60 per cent of the tested patients a manifest mould allergy was shown by means of the Inhalative Allergen Test, the most favourable correlation between Intracutaneous Test (ICT) and Inhalative Test (IAT) was found with alternaria (76%). A conformance between ICT and basophils degranulation test (BDT) was stated in 69% of the cases. The aim should be comparable tests with allergen extracts without irritative effects and qualitative measurements of air-borne fungi. PMID:6649704

  13. Magnesium silicide intermetallic alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Gh.; Gill, H. S.; Varin, R. A.

    1993-11-01

    Methods of induction melting an ultra-low-density magnesium silicide (Mg2Si) intermetallic and its alloys and the resulting microstructure and microhardness were studied. The highest quality ingots of Mg2Si alloys were obtained by triple melting in a graphite crucible coated with boron nitride to eliminate reactivity, under overpressure of high-purity argon (1.3 X 105 Pa), at a temperature close to but not exceeding 1105 °C ± 5 °C to avoid excessive evaporation of Mg. After establishing the proper induction-melting conditions, the Mg-Si binary alloys and several Mg2Si alloys macroalloyed with 1 at. pct of Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, Zn, Mn, Cr, and Fe were induction melted and, after solidification, investigated by optical microscopy and quantitative X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Both the Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectic in the binary alloys exhibited a small but systematic increase in the Si content as the overall composition of the binary alloy moved closer toward the Mg2Si line compound. The Vickers microhardness (VHN) of the as-solidified Mg-rich and Si-rich eutectics in the Mg-Si binary alloys decreased with increasing Mg (decreasing Si) content in the eutectic. This behavior persisted even after annealing for 75 hours at 0.89 pct of the respective eutectic temperature. The Mg-rich eutectic in the Mg2Si + Al, Ni, Co, Cu, Ag, and Zn alloys contained sections exhibiting a different optical contrast and chemical composition than the rest of the eutectic. Some particles dispersed in the Mg2Si matrix were found in the Mg2Si + Cr, Mn, and Fe alloys. The EDS results are presented and discussed and compared with the VHN data.

  14. Magnesium/Calcium Competition at Excitable Membranes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Belzer, Bill; Fry, Panni

    1998-01-01

    Considers some consequences of altering intracellular calcium supply by magnesium concentration changes. Focuses on using this procedure as an exercise with allied health students as they witness therapeutic uses of magnesium and other calcium entry inhibitors. (DDR)

  15. Lightweight magnesium-lithium alloys show promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. T.; Cataldo, C. E.

    1964-01-01

    Evaluation tests show that magnesium-lithium alloys are lighter and more ductile than other magnesium alloys. They are being used for packaging, housings, containers, where light weight is more important than strength.

  16. Two linkage-region fragments isolated from skeletal keratan sulphate contain a sulphated N-acetylglucosamine residue.

    PubMed Central

    Dickenson, J M; Huckerby, T N; Nieduszynski, I A

    1990-01-01

    Peptido-keratan sulphate fragments were isolated from the nucleus pulposus of bovine intervertebral discs (6-year-old animals) after chondroitin ABC lyase digestion followed by digestion of A1D1 proteoglycans by diphenylcarbamoyl chloride-treated trypsin and gel-permeation chromatography on Sepharose CL-6B. Treatment of these peptido-keratan sulphate fragments with alkaline NaB3H4 yielded keratan sulphate chains with [3H]galactosaminitol end-labels, and these chains were further purified by gel-permeation chromatography on Sephadex G-50 and ion-exchange chromatography on a Pharmacia Mono-Q column in order to exclude any contamination with O-linked oligosaccharides. The chains were then treated with keratanase, and the digest was chromatographed on a Bio-Gel P-4 column followed by anion-exchange chromatography on a Nucleosil 5 SB column. Two oligosaccharides, each representing 18% of the recovered radiolabel, were examined by 500 MHz 1H-n.m.r. spectroscopy, and shown to have the following structures: [formula: see text] The structure of oligosaccharide (I) confirms the N-acetylneuraminylgalactose substitution at position 3 of N-acetylgalactosamine in the keratan sulphate-protein linkage region found by Hopwood & Robinson [(1974) Biochem. J. 141, 57-69] but additionally shows the presence of a 6-sulphated N-acetylglucosamine. Electron micro-probe analysis specifically confirmed the presence of sulphur in this sample. This sulphate ester group differentiates the keratan sulphate linkage region from similar structures derived from O-linked oligosaccharides [Lohmander, De Luca, Nilsson, Hascall, Caputo, Kimura & Heinegård (1980) J. Biol. Chem. 255, 6084-6091]. PMID:2142881

  17. Bioavailability of sulphate and dihydrochloride salts of quinine.

    PubMed

    Sowunmi, A; Salako, L A; Ogunbona, F A

    1994-09-01

    A comparative bioavailability of three formulations of quinine was performed in 6 healthy male adult Africans after intravenous infusion of 600mg quinine hydrochloride in 0.9% saline over 4 hours and after single oral doses of 600mg quinine sulphate capsule, 600mg quinine dihydrochloride plain tablet and 600mg quinine sulphate sugar coated tablet. The drugs were given according to a randomised cross-over design. The quinine sulphate coated tablet was found to contain no quinine. There was no statistical significant difference (P > 0.05) in the plasma Cmax, tmax, AUC and Ka values between the quinine sulphate capsule and quinine dihydrochloride plain tablet, although a considerable degree of inter- and intra-individual variability in the pharmacokinetic parameters was observed. The absolute bioavailability was 64.5 and 64.3% for the quinine sulphate capsule and the quinine dihydrochloride plain tablet respectively. The non-detection of quinine in the sugar coated tablet (obtained from Nigeria) confirms the presence of fake circulating antimalarial drugs in the country. PMID:7604754

  18. Solid-state rechargeable magnesium battery

    DOEpatents

    Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun; Liu, Tianbiao; Li, Guosheng

    2016-09-06

    Embodiments of a solid-state electrolyte comprising magnesium borohydride, polyethylene oxide, and optionally a Group IIA or transition metal oxide are disclosed. The solid-state electrolyte may be a thin film comprising a dispersion of magnesium borohydride and magnesium oxide nanoparticles in polyethylene oxide. Rechargeable magnesium batteries including the disclosed solid-state electrolyte may have a coulombic efficiency .gtoreq.95% and exhibit cycling stability for at least 50 cycles.

  19. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium...

  20. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  1. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate by the addition of...

  2. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  3. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as magnesium carbonate hydroxide. It is a...

  4. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1440 - Magnesium stearate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium stearate. 184.1440 Section 184.1440 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1440 Magnesium stearate. (a) Magnesium stearate (Mg(C17H34COO)2, CAS Reg. No. 557-04-0) is the magnesium salt of stearic acid. It is produced as a white precipitate...

  6. The Skeletal Effects of Inhaled Glucocorticoids.

    PubMed

    Sutter, Stephanie A; Stein, Emily M

    2016-06-01

    The skeletal effects of inhaled glucocorticoids are poorly understood. Children with asthma treated with inhaled glucocorticoids have lower growth velocity, bone density, and adult height. Studies of adults with asthma have reported variable effects on BMD, although prospective studies have demonstrated bone loss after initiation of inhaled glucocorticoids in premenopausal women. There is a dose-response relationship between inhaled glucocorticoids and fracture risk in asthmatics; the risk of vertebral and non-vertebral fractures is greater in subjects treated with the highest doses in the majority of studies. Patients with COPD have lower BMD and higher fracture rates compared to controls, however, the majority of studies have not found an additional detrimental effect of inhaled glucocorticoids on bone. While the evidence is not conclusive, it supports using the lowest possible dose of inhaled glucocorticoids to treat patients with asthma and COPD and highlights the need for further research on this topic. PMID:27091558

  7. Air permeability of powder: a potential tool for Dry Powder Inhaler formulation development.

    PubMed

    Le, V N P; Robins, E; Flament, M P

    2010-11-01

    Dry Powder Inhalers have drawn great attention from pharmaceutical scientists in recent years in particular those consisting of low-dose micronized drug particles associated with larger carrier particles and called interactive mixtures. However, there is little understanding of the relation between bulk powder properties such as powder structure and its aerodynamic dispersion performance. The aim of this work was to develop a simple method to measure the air permeability of interactive mixtures used in Dry Powder Inhalers by using Blaine's apparatus--a compendial permeameter and to relate it to the aerodynamic behaviour. The study was done with fluticasone propionate and terbutaline sulphate as drug models that were blended with several lactoses having different particle size distribution thus containing different percentages of fine particle lactose. The quality of the blends was examined by analysing the drug content uniformity. Aerodynamic evaluation of fine particle fraction was obtained using a Twin Stage Impinger. A linear correlation between a bulk property--air permeability of packed powder bed--and the fine particle fraction of drug was observed for the tested drugs. The air permeability reflects the quantity of the free particle fraction in the interparticulate spaces of powder bed that leads to fine particle fraction during fluidization in air flow. A theoretical approach was developed in order to link the air permeability of powder bed and drag force acting on powders during aerosolization process. The permeability technique developed in this study provides a potential tool for screening Dry Powder Inhaler formulations at the development stage. PMID:20854906

  8. Dislocation Creep in Magnesium Calcite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, L.; Xiao, X.; Evans, B. J.

    2003-12-01

    To investigate the effect of dissolved Mg on plastic deformation of calcite, we performed triaxial deformation experiments on synthetic calcite with varying amount of Mg content. Mixtures of powders of calcite and dolomite were isostatically hot pressed (HIP) at 850° C and 300 MPa confining pressure for different intervals (2 to 20hrs) resulting in homogeneous aggregates of high-magnesium calcite; Mg content varied from 0.07 to 0.17 mol%. Creep tests were performed at differential stresses from 20 to 160 MPa at 700 to 800° C. Grain sizes before and after deformation were determined from the images obtained from scanning electron microscope (SEM) and optical microscope. Grain sizes are in the range of 5 to 20 microns depending on the HIP time, and decrease with increasing magnesium content. Both BSE images and chemical analysis suggest that all dolomite are dissolved and the Mg distribution is homogeneous through the sample, after 2 hrs HIP. At stresses below 40 MPa, the samples deformed in diffusion region (Coble creep), as described previously by Herwegh. The strength decreases with increasing magnesium content, owing to the difference of grain size. At stresses above 80 MPa, the stress exponent is greater than 3, indicating an increased contribution of dislocation creep. The transition between diffusion to dislocation creep occurs at higher stresses for the samples with higher magnesium content and smaller grain size. Preliminary data suggests a slight increase in strength with increasing magnesium content, but more tests are needed to verify this effect. In a few samples, some strain weakening may have been evident. The activation energy in the transition region (at 80 MPa) is ˜200 KJ/mol with no dependence on magnesium content, agreeing with previous measurements of diffusion creep in natural and synthetic marbles.

  9. Misuse of xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation.

    PubMed

    Anand, Jacek Sein; Salamon, Marek; Habrat, Boguslaw; Scinska, Anna; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw

    2008-12-01

    Six male prisoners who misused xylometazoline nasal drops by inhalation were interviewed by a prison physician in 2006. The prisoners received xylometazoline drops during regular visits in the prison ambulatory service. In order to get the medication, the subjects reported false symptoms of rhinosinusitis and allergic reactions. Psychoactive effects of inhaled xylometazoline were described as "stimulation," "excitation," and "feeling of strength." Although preliminary, our findings suggest that topical adrenergic decongestants can produce rewarding effects when administered by inhalation. PMID:19085441

  10. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  12. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  13. 21 CFR 201.71 - Magnesium labeling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium labeling. 201.71 Section 201.71 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.71 Magnesium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the magnesium...

  14. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  15. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  16. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  17. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 76 FR 69284 - Pure Magnesium From China

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-08

    ... COMMISSION Pure Magnesium From China Determination On the basis of the record \\1\\ developed in the subject... order on pure magnesium from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... USITC Publication 4274 (October 2011), entitled Pure Magnesium from China: Investigation No....

  19. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  20. Synthesis of superconducting magnesium diboride objects

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-08-15

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  1. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  2. Synthesis Of Superconducting Magnesium Diboride Objects.

    DOEpatents

    Finnemore, Douglas K.; Canfield, Paul C.; Bud'ko, Sergey L.; Ostenson, Jerome E.; Petrovic, Cedomir; Cunningham, Charles E.; Lapertot, Gerard

    2003-07-08

    A process to produce magnesium diboride objects from boron objects with a similar form is presented. Boron objects are reacted with magnesium vapor at a predetermined time and temperature to form magnesium diboride objects having a morphology similar to the boron object's original morphology.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  4. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  5. 21 CFR 184.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 184.1431 Section 184.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Magnesium...

  6. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  7. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  8. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a) Product. Magnesium oxide. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  10. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  11. Magnesium, Inflammation, and Obesity in Chronic Disease

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    About 60% of U.S. adults do not consume the Estimated Average Intake for magnesium, but widespread pathological conditions attributed to magnesium deficiency have not been reported. However, low magnesium status has been associated with numerous pathological conditions characterized as having a chr...

  12. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  13. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  15. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  17. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  18. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  19. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  20. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  1. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  2. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. 21 CFR 582.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 582.1428 Section 582.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1428 Magnesium hydroxide. (a) Product. Magnesium hydroxide. (b) Conditions of use....

  4. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  5. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  6. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  7. 21 CFR 582.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 582.1425 Section 582.1425 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Product. Magnesium carbonate. (b) Conditions of use....

  8. 21 CFR 582.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 582.2437 Section 582.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Magnesium silicate. (a) Product. Magnesium silicate. (b) Tolerance. 2 percent. (c) Limitations,...

  9. 21 CFR 582.5443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 582.5443 Section 582.5443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5443 Magnesium sulfate. (a) Product. Magnesium sulfate. (b) Conditions of use....

  10. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  11. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  12. 21 CFR 582.5434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium phosphate. 582.5434 Section 582.5434 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5434 Magnesium phosphate. (a) Product. Magnesium phosphate (di- and tribasic)....

  13. [Inhalation of nitric oxide - dependence: case report

    PubMed

    Carvalho, W B; Matsumoto, T; Horita, S M; Almeida, N M; Martins, F R

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Describe the hemodynamic response with rebound of pulmonary hypertension after withdrawal of inhaled nitric oxide (NO) in a pediatric patient with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). METHODS: Case report of a child with ARDS and pulmonary hypertension evaluated through ecocardiografic with dopller, receiving inhaled NO for a period of 21 days. RESULTS: There was a decrease of the pulmonary artery pressure (PAP) from 52 mmHg to 44 mmHg after the initial titulation of NO inhalation dose. After the withdrawal of inhaled NO an elevation of PAP was observed (55 mmHg). It was necessary to reinstall the inhaled NO to obtain a more appropriate value (34 mmHg). A new attempt of interruption of the inhaled NO after prolonged inhalation (20 days) resulted in a new clinic worsening and increase of PAP, with the indication to reinstall the inhaled NO. In the 24th day of permanence in the intensive care unit the patient died due to multiple organ dysfunction. CONCLUSIONS: The possibility of pulmonary hypertension rebound after withdrawal of inhaled NO is a complication that may have important clinical implications for patients who need a prolonged treatment with NO. This case report emphasizes these implications. PMID:14647690

  14. Corrosion Performance of Inconel 625 in High Sulphate Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Azzura

    2016-05-01

    Inconel 625 (UNS N06625) is a type of nickel-chromium-molybdenum alloy with excellent corrosion resistance in a wide range of corrosive media, being especially resistant to pitting and crevice corrosion. However, in aggressive environment, Inconel 625 will suffer corrosion attack like other metals. This research compared the corrosion performance of Inconel 625 when exposed to higher sulphate content compared to real seawater. The results reveal that Inconel 625 is excellent in resist the corrosion attack in seawater. However, at increasing temperature, the corrosion resistance of this metal decrease. The performance is same in seawater with high sulphate content at increasing temperature. It can be concluded that sulphate promote perforation on Inconel 625 and become aggressive agents that accelerate the corrosion attack.

  15. Immunohistochemical identification of heparan sulphate proteoglycan in secondary systemic amyloidosis.

    PubMed Central

    Norling, B; Westermark, G T; Westermark, P

    1988-01-01

    The distribution of proteoglycans in kidneys from patients with secondary (AA) systemic amyloidosis was investigated. Antisera reacting with the protein cores of chondroitin sulphate proteoglycan (CSPG), dermatan sulphate proteoglycan (DSPG) and heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) were used in conjunction with the peroxidase-antiperoxidase (PAP) method. HSPG was the only proteoglycan found to be specifically localized to the amyloid deposits. The staining was most intense on the endothelial side of the deposits in both the glomeruli and in the vessel walls. No staining was observed after absorption of the HSPG antiserum with a fraction of the amyloid preparations, corresponding in size to that reported for glomerular HSPG. The possible role of HSPG and endothelial cells in the pathogenesis of the amyloid deposits is discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:3052949

  16. The alkali-labile linkage between keratan sulphate and protein

    PubMed Central

    Hopwood, John J.; Robinson, H. Clem

    1974-01-01

    Keratan sulphate was isolated from adult intervertebral disc in 90% yield by sequential digestion of the whole tissue with papain, Pronase and Proteus vulgaris chondroitin sulphate lyase. Treatment of this preparation with alkali cleaved a glycosidic bond between N-acetylgalactosamine and threonine and produced, by an alkali-catalysed `peeling' reaction, an unsaturated derivative of N-acetylgalactosamine which reacted as a chromogen in the Morgan–Elson reaction, but remained covalently bonded to the keratan sulphate chain. This derivative was reduced and labelled by alkaline NaB3H4. The substituent at position 3 of N-acetylgalactosamine in the keratan sulphate–protein linkage was identified as a disaccharide, N-acetylneuraminylgalactose, which was isolated from the reaction mixture after alkali treatment. PMID:4281652

  17. The ecology and biotechnology of sulphate-reducing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Muyzer, Gerard; Stams, Alfons J M

    2008-06-01

    Sulphate-reducing bacteria (SRB) are anaerobic microorganisms that use sulphate as a terminal electron acceptor in, for example, the degradation of organic compounds. They are ubiquitous in anoxic habitats, where they have an important role in both the sulphur and carbon cycles. SRB can cause a serious problem for industries, such as the offshore oil industry, because of the production of sulphide, which is highly reactive, corrosive and toxic. However, these organisms can also be beneficial by removing sulphate and heavy metals from waste streams. Although SRB have been studied for more than a century, it is only with the recent emergence of new molecular biological and genomic techniques that we have begun to obtain detailed information on their way of life. PMID:18461075

  18. Magnesium Diboride Current Leads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panek, John

    2010-01-01

    A recently discovered superconductor, magnesium diboride (MgB2), can be used to fabricate conducting leads used in cryogenic applications. Dis covered to be superconducting in 2001, MgB2 has the advantage of remaining superconducting at higher temperatures than the previously used material, NbTi. The purpose of these leads is to provide 2 A of electricity to motors located in a 1.3 K environment. The providing environment is a relatively warm 17 K. Requirements for these leads are to survive temperature fluctuations in the 5 K and 11 K heat sinks, and not conduct excessive heat into the 1.3 K environment. Test data showed that each lead in the assembly could conduct 5 A at 4 K, which, when scaled to 17 K, still provided more than the required 2 A. The lead assembly consists of 12 steelclad MgB2 wires, a tensioned Kevlar support, a thermal heat sink interface at 4 K, and base plates. The wires are soldered to heavy copper leads at the 17 K end, and to thin copper-clad NbTi leads at the 1.3 K end. The leads were designed, fabricated, and tested at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Institut foer Technische Physik before inclusion in Goddard's XRS (X-Ray Spectrometer) instrument onboard the Astro-E2 spacecraft. A key factor is that MgB2 remains superconducting up to 30 K, which means that it does not introduce joule heating as a resistive wire would. Because the required temperature ranges are 1.3-17 K, this provides a large margin of safety. Previous designs lost superconductivity at around 8 K. The disadvantage to MgB2 is that it is a brittle ceramic, and making thin wires from it is challenging. The solution was to encase the leads in thin steel tubes for strength. Previous designs were so brittle as to risk instrument survival. MgB2 leads can be used in any cryogenic application where small currents need to be conducted at below 30 K. Because previous designs would superconduct only at up to 8 K, this new design would be ideal for the 8-30 K range.

  19. Microwave assisted synthesis of nano sized sulphate doped hydroxyapatite

    SciTech Connect

    Alshemary, Ammar Z.; Goh, Yi-Fan; Akram, Muhammad; Razali, Ili Rabihah; Abdul Kadir, Mohammed Rafiq; Hussain, Rafaqat

    2013-06-01

    Highlights: ► Phase pure nano-sized sulphur doped hydroxyapatite has been synthesized. ► TEM analysis confirmed formation of needle shaped structure. ► Lattice parameters and cell volume increased with increase in sulphate doping. ► Crystallite size decreased as sulphate content inside the structure increased. ► Degree of crystallinity decreased with increase in sulphate substitution. - Abstract: Inorganic sulphate is required by all mammalian cells to function properly, it is the fourth most abundant anion in the human plasma. Sulphate ions are the major source of sulphur which is considered an important element for sustenance of life as it is present in the essential amino and is required by cells to function properly. In this study we have successfully substituted sulphate ions (SO{sub 4}{sup 2−}) into hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6−x}(SO{sub 4}){sub x}(OH){sub 2−x}) lattice via ion exchange process with phosphate group. Concentration of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions was varied between X = 0.05–0.5, using (Ca (NO{sub 3}){sub 2}·4H{sub 2}O), ((NH{sub 4}){sub 2}HPO{sub 4}) and (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}) as starting materials. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform IR spectroscopy (FTIR), showed that the substitution of SO{sub 4}{sup 2−} ions into the lattice resulted in peak broadening and reduced peak height due to the amorphous nature and reduced crystallinity of the resulting HA powder. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and field emission electron microscopy (FESEM) analysis confirmed the formation of needle shaped particles of 41 nm size with homogenous and uniform distribution of element within the HA structure.

  20. Methane production and emission from peat. the influence of anions (sulphate, nitrate) from acid rain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watson, Andrea; Nedwell, David B.

    The influence of sulphate concentrations on the production and emission of methane in two contrasting peat sites was determined. Seasonal changes in sulphate concentrations appeared to influence the amount of organic carbon oxidised to carbon dioxide by sulphate reduction at both peat sites. For the majority of the year at both sites the amount of carbon mineralised through sulphate reduction exceeded that being transformed to methane by methanogenic bacteria, except when sulphate reduction became sulphate limited. In order to sustain the high sulphate reduction rates measured in the peat sulphide formed from dissimilatory sulphate reduction must be reoxidised rapidly to sulphate within the peat. Laboratory experiments showed that addition of 500 μM sulphate and 100 μM nitrate to peat samples significantly inhibited methanogenesis. Sulphate appeared to be the more important inhibitor of methanogenesis since inhibition of methane formation occurred with additions of sulphate reflecting in situ concentrations. Supplements of either acetate and/or hydrogen in combination with molybdate to peat samples revealed that methanogenesis was hydrogen limited and that the majority of active methanogens were hydrogen-utilising methanogens. Methanogenesis in peat samples appeared to be dependant on sulphate reducing bacteria for provision of substrates. Great Dun Fell, receiving the largest sulphate loading, had the lower rates of microbial activity (methane formation and sulphate reduction rates) than Ellergower, which received less than half the annual sulphate deposition of Great Dun Fell. This implied that some other factor—possibly organic matter lability, was limiting microbial rates of methane formation and sulphate reduction at Great Dun Fell.

  1. [The significance of magnesium in orthopedics. V. Magnesium in osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Ditmar, R; Steidl, L

    1989-04-01

    The authors submit an investigation of 60 patients with senile, post-menopausal and drug-induced osteoporosis. Using the method of absorption spectrophotometry, they found a reduced level of Mg in red blood cells in 63.6% of senile, 66.7% postmenopausal and only in 22.2% drug-induced osteoporoses. Also the mean level of red cell magnesium was significantly lower in the group of senile (1.94 mmol) and postmenopausal (1.85 mmol) osteoporosis as compared with drug-induced osteoporosis (2.25 mmol). The authors revealed moreover that the level of red cell magnesium in the former two groups declines in proportion to the severity of osteoporosis and correlates thus with the clinical and X-ray finding. For treatment of osteoporisis the authors used magnesium lactate alone (in 37 patients) and combined with sodium fluoride (in 23 patients). In the majority of patients they had very favourable results. Based on laboratory and therapeutic results, consistent with data in the experimental literature, the authors assume that magnesium as a catalyst of bone metabolism and as one of the most important factors controlling the formation of bone matrix and its mineralization plays a significant role in the aetiopathogenesis of senile and postmenopausal osteoporosis. The authors assume that Mg deficiency which is increasing in recent years in soil as well as in foodstuffs and water may be the main cause of the increasing number of patients with osteoporosis in civilized countries. Magnesium should have its firm place not only in therapy but also in prevention of the majority of osteoporosis. PMID:2750424

  2. Inhalant abuse: youth at risk.

    PubMed

    Ahern, Nancy R; Falsafi, Nasrin

    2013-08-01

    Inhalant abuse is a significant problem affecting many people, particularly youth. The easy availability of products containing volatile substances (e.g., aerosol sprays, cleaning products, paint) provides opportunity for mind-altering experiences. Unfortunately, serious complications such as brain, cardiovascular, liver, and renal damage or even death may ensue. Adolescents perceive the risk as low, and parents may be unaware of the risks. Health care providers, particularly psychiatric nurses, should undertake strategies of prevention, assessment, and treatment of this challenging problem. PMID:23786241

  3. Microbial colonization in impact-generated hydrothermal sulphate deposits, Haughton impact structure, and implications for sulphates on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parnell, J.; Lee, P.; Cockell, C. S.; Osinski, G. R.

    2004-07-01

    Hydrothermal gypsum deposits in the Haughton impact structure, Devon Island, Canada, contain microbial communities in an endolithic habitat within individual gypsum crystals. Cyanobacterial colonies occur as masses along cleavage planes, up to 5 cm from crystal margins. The crystals are transparent, so allow transmission of light for photosynthesis, while affording protection from dehydration and wind. The colonies appear to have modified their mineral host to provide additional space as they expanded. The colonies are black due to UV-screening pigments. The relative ease with which microbial colonization may be detected and identified in impact-generated sulphate deposits at Haughton suggests that analogous settings on other planets might merit future searches for biosignatures. The proven occurrence of sulphates on the Martian surface suggests that sulphate minerals should be a priority target in the search for life on Mars.

  4. Major Minerals - Calcium, Magnesium, Phosphorus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Calcium, magnesium and phosphorus are essential elements critically important for the function of the musculoskeletal system, including the formation and transduction of energy and the maintenance of healthy bone. The major calcium concern for physically active healthy middle-aged adults is to consu...

  5. Investigations on particle surface characteristics vs. dispersion behaviour of L-leucine coated carrier-free inhalable powders.

    PubMed

    Raula, Janne; Thielmann, Frank; Naderi, Majid; Lehto, Vesa-Pekka; Kauppinen, Esko I

    2010-01-29

    Aerosol microparticles of salbutamol sulphate are gas-phase coated with an amino acid L-leucine. Depending of the saturated state of L-leucine, the coating is formed by the surface diffusion of L-leucine molecules within a droplet or by the physical vapour deposition (PVD) of L-leucine or by the combination thereof. The PVD coated particles showed excellent aerosolization characteristics in a carrier-free powder delivery from an inhaler. The aerosolization of the fine powders is compared with surface energy parameters analysed by inverse gas chromatography (IGC). The dispersion testing is conducted by a Inhalation Simulator using a fast inhalation profile with inhalation flow rate of 67 l min(-1). It is found that the powder emission is affected by the morphology, surface roughness (asperity size and density) of the particles and acidity of particle surface. The latter affects the dispersion and dose repeatability of fine powder in a case if L-leucine content is high enough. However, there is no direct correlation between dispersive surface energies and aerosolization performances of the powders. Crucial factors for the improved aerosolization rely weakly on surface acid-base properties but strongly on particle morphology and fine-scale surface roughness. PMID:19879344

  6. Monitoring of sulphate attack on hardened cement paste studied by synchrotron XRD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stroh, J.; Meng, B.; Emmerling, F.

    2015-10-01

    The complex matter of external sulphate attack on cement-based construction materials is still not completely understood. The concentration of sulphate is a crucial factor for the formation of secondary phases and phase transitions of cement hydrates due to sulphate ingress into the microstructure. The sulphate attack on building materials for high and low sulphate concentrations was monitored by laboratory experiments. Hardened cement paste consisting of ordinary Portland cement (CEM I) were exposed to aqueous solutions of sodium sulphate for 18 months. Three sample compositions were used for this research, including different supplementary cementitious materials (SCM). The phase composition was determined for different time spans by high resolution synchrotron X-ray diffraction. Cross sections of exposed cement prisms were investigated as a representation of the microstructural profile. Based on the data, a temporal and spatial determination of the stages of the sulphate attack and the deterioration course was possible. Cement matrices blended with slag showed the highest resistance against sulphate attack.

  7. A SEARCH FOR MAGNESIUM IN EUROPA'S ATMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Hoerst, S. M.; Brown, M. E.

    2013-02-20

    Europa's tenuous atmosphere results from sputtering of the surface. The trace element composition of its atmosphere is therefore related to the composition of Europa's surface. Magnesium salts are often invoked to explain Galileo Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer spectra of Europa's surface, thus magnesium may be present in Europa's atmosphere. We have searched for magnesium emission in the Hubble Space Telescope Faint Object Spectrograph archival spectra of Europa's atmosphere. Magnesium was not detected and we calculate an upper limit on the magnesium column abundance. This upper limit indicates that either Europa's surface is depleted in magnesium relative to sodium and potassium, or magnesium is not sputtered as efficiently resulting in a relative depletion in its atmosphere.

  8. 40 CFR 798.2450 - Inhalation toxicity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inhalation toxicity. 798.2450 Section 798.2450 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) TOXIC SUBSTANCES CONTROL ACT (CONTINUED) HEALTH EFFECTS TESTING GUIDELINES Subchronic Exposure § 798.2450 Inhalation toxicity. (a) Purpose. In the assessment...

  9. How to use an inhaler - with spacer

    MedlinePlus

    ... out through your mouth. After using your inhaler, rinse your mouth with water, gargle, and spit. This helps reduce side effects from your medicine. Keep your inhaler clean Look at the ... mouthpiece. Rinse only the mouthpiece and cap in warm water. ...

  10. Tips for Teens: The Truth about Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... site at www. whitehousedrugpolicy. gov. No.Even though household products like glue and air freshener have legal,useful ... A. A. Q.Since inhalants are found in household products,aren’t they safe? Q.Can inhalants make ...

  11. Inhaled antimicrobial therapy - barriers to effective treatment.

    PubMed

    Weers, Jeffry

    2015-05-01

    Inhaled antibiotics dramatically improve targeting of drug to the site of respiratory infections, while simultaneously minimizing systemic exposure and associated toxicity. The high local concentrations of antibiotic may enable more effective treatment of multi-drug resistant pathogens. This review explores barriers to effective treatment with inhaled antibiotics. In addition, potential opportunities for improvements in treatment are reviewed. PMID:25193067

  12. Nanotechnology and pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols.

    PubMed

    Patel, A R; Vavia, P R

    2007-02-01

    Pharmaceutical inhalation aerosols have been playing a crucial role in the health and well being of millions of people throughout the world for many years. The technology's continual advancement, the ease of use and the more desirable pulmonary-rather-than-needle delivery for systemic drugs has increased the attraction for the pharmaceutical aerosol in recent years. But administration of drugs by the pulmonary route is technically challenging because oral deposition can be high, and variations in inhalation technique can affect the quantity of drug delivered to the lungs. Recent advances in nanotechnology, particularly drug delivery field have encouraged formulation scientists to expand their reach in solving tricky problems related to drug delivery. Moreover, application of nanotechnology to aerosol science has opened up a new category of pharmaceutical aerosols (collectively known as nanoenabled-aerosols) with added advantages and effectiveness. In this review, some of the latest approaches of nano-enabled aerosol drug delivery system (including nano-suspension, trojan particles, bioadhesive nanoparticles and smart particle aerosols) that can be employed successfully to overcome problems of conventional aerosol systems have been introduced. PMID:17375556

  13. Toxicological Assessment of Noxious Inhalants

    PubMed Central

    Kleinsasser, N. H.; Sassen, A. W.; Wallner, B. W.; Staudenmaier, R.; Harréus, U. A.; Richter, E.

    2004-01-01

    In the past centuries mankind has been exposed to various forms of air pollution not only at his occupational but also in his social environment. He mainly gets exposed with these pollutants through the respiratory organs and partially absorbs them into the body. Many of these airborne substances can be harmful for humans and some of them may account for tumorigenic effects. The following essay describes the main features of toxicological assessment of inhalative environmental and workplace xenobiotics. The essay also explains relevant characteristics and limit values of noxious compounds and gases and depicts modern testing methods. To this end, emphasis is given on methods characterizing the different stages of tumorigenic processes. Various test systems have been developed which can be used in vivo, ex vivo or in vitro. They are to a great part based on the evidence of changes in DNA or particular genes of cells. Among others they have highlighted the impact of interindividual variability on enzymatic activation of xenobiotics and on susceptibility of the host to tumor diseases. Unfortunately, for many inhalative environmental noxious agents no sufficient risk profiles have been developed. The completion of these profiles should be the goal of toxicological assessment in order to allow reasonable socioeconomic or individual-based risk reduction. PMID:22073045

  14. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... that your kids will use drugs such as marijuana or LSD. But you may not realize the dangers of substances in your own home. Household products such as glues, hair sprays, paints and lighter fluid can be drugs ...

  15. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... for the wide variety of substances—including solvents, aerosols, gases, and nitrites—that are rarely, if ever, ... a glue bottle or a marking pen), spray aerosols (such as computer cleaning dusters) directly into their ...

  16. Inhalants

    MedlinePlus

    ... electronic contact cleaner Aerosols are sprays that contain propellants and solvents. They include: Spray paint, hair spray, ... burn injuries Freon (difluoroethane substitutes) Refrigerant and aerosol propellant Sudden sniffing death Breathing problems and death (from ...

  17. Microencapsulation of terbutaline sulphate by the solvent evaporation technique.

    PubMed

    Manekar, N C; Puranik, P K; Joshi, S B

    1992-01-01

    Terbutaline sulphate microcapsules were prepared by coacervation-phase separation (solvent evaporation) technique using ethyl cellulose as a coating material. Acetone, ethyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol were employed as solvents for coating material. Microcapsules were evaluated for their drug content, particle size distribution (microscopic method), flow properties, bulk density, in vitro dissolution, drug release kinetics and surface characteristics (scanning electron microscopy). PMID:1403496

  18. Stability of Ceftiofur Sodium and Cefquinome Sulphate in Intravenous Solutions

    PubMed Central

    Jelińska, Anna; Bębenek, Marcelina

    2014-01-01

    Stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate in intravenous solutions was studied. Chromatographic separation and quantitative determination were performed by using a high-performance liquid chromatography with UV-DAD detection. During the stability study, poly(vinylchloride) minibags were filled with a solution containing 5 mg of ceftiofur sodium or cefquinome sulphate and diluted to 0.2 mg/mL with suitable intravenous solution depending on the test conditions. The solutions for the study were protected from light and stored at room temperature (22°C), refrigerated (6°C), frozen (−20°C) for 30 days, and then thawed at room temperature. A comparison of results obtained at 22°C and 6°C for the same intravenous solutions showed that temperature as well as components of solutions and their concentration had an influence on the stability of ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate. It was found that ceftiofur sodium and cefquinome sulphate dissolved in intravenous solutions used in this study may be stored at room temperature and at 6°C for up to 48 h. PMID:25025091

  19. Characterisation of chlorophyll a solubilised in sodium lauryl sulphate micelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Sapre, A. V.; Mittal, Jai P.

    1980-01-01

    Poisson statistics has been applied to the problem of solubilisation of chlorophyll a in sodium lauryl sulphate micelles. Dilution experiments have been carried out to support the finding that each unit of chlorophyll a contributing to the 740 nm band contains just one chlorophyll a molecule.

  20. Impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols on the terrestrial carbon cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eliseev, Alexey V.

    2015-01-01

    Tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) may oxidise the photosynthesising tissues if they are taken up by plants. A parameterisation of this impact of tropospheric sulphate aerosols (TSAs) on the terrestrial gross primary production is suggested. This parameterisation is implemented into the global Earth system model developed at the A.M. Obukhov Institute of the Atmospheric Physics, Russian Academy of Sciences (IAP RAS CM). With this coupled model, the simulations are performed which are forced by common anthropogenic and natural climate forcings based on historical reconstructions followed by the RCP 8.5 scenario. The model response to sulphate aerosol loading is subdivided into the climatic (related to the influence of TSA on the radiative transport in the atmosphere) and ecological (related to the toxic influence of sulphate aerosol on terrestrial plants) impacts. We found that the former basically dominates over the latter on a global scale and modifies the responses of the global vegetation and soil carbon stocks to external forcings by 10%. At a regional scale, however, ecological impact may be as much important as the climatic one.

  1. On the polylactose nature of chondroitin and keratan sulphates

    PubMed Central

    Scott, John E.

    1994-01-01

    The recognition that keratan and chondroitin sulphates are based on the same polylactose backbone simplifies the study of heteroduplex formation between them, suggests insights into structure–function relationships in tissues, and permits new definitions of the linkage regions. PMID:8129722

  2. Anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating on AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanying; Wu, Guangming; Zhao, Qing; Zhang, Yun-Hong; Xing, Guangjian; Li, Donglin

    2009-09-01

    Magnesium alloys are potential biodegradable biomaterials in orthopedic surgery. However, the rapid degradation rate has limited their application in biomedical field. A great deal of studies have been done to improve the resistance of magnesium alloys. In this article, An anticorrosive magnesium hydroxide coating with a thickness of approximately 100μm was formed on an AZ31 magnesium alloy by hydrothermal method. The morphology of the coatings were observed by an optical microscope and SEM. And the samples were soaked in hank's solution (37°C) to investigate the corrosion resistance. Magnesium alloy AZ31 with magnesium hydroxide coatings present superior corrosion resistance than untreated samples.

  3. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

    2006-01-01

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxy-sulpahte green rust GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2( {text{SO}}_{{text{4}}} ^{{2 - }} ) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  4. Monitoring structural transformation of hydroxy-sulphate green rust in the presence of sulphate reducing bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelmoula, M.; Zegeye, A.; Jorand, F.; Carteret, C.

    The activities of bacterial consortia enable organisms to maximize their metabolic capabilities. This article assesses the synergetic relationship between iron reducing bacteria (IRB), Shewanella putrefaciens and sulphate reducing bacteria (SRB) Desulfovibrio alaskensis. Thus, the aim of this study was first to form a biogenic hydroxysulpahte green rust GR2(SO{4/2-}) through the bioreduction of lepidocrocite by S. putrefaciens and secondly to investigate if sulfate anions intercalated in the biogenic GR2(SO{4/2-}) could serve as final electron acceptor for a sulfate reducing bacterium, D. alaskensis. The results indicate that the IRB lead to the formation of GR2(SO{4/2-}) and this mineral serve as an electron acceptor for SRB. GR2(SO{4/2-}) precipitation and its transformation was demonstrated by using X-ray diffraction (DRX), Mössbauer spectroscopy (TMS) and transmission electron spectroscopy (TEM). These observations point out the possible acceleration of steel corrosion in marine environment in presence of IRB/SRB consortia.

  5. Proline residues in two tightly coupled helices of the sulphate transporter, SHST1, are important for sulphate transport.

    PubMed Central

    Shelden, M C; Loughlin, P; Tierney, M L; Howitt, S M

    2001-01-01

    The sulphate transporter SHST1, from Stylosanthes hamata, features three tightly coupled transmembrane helices which include proline residues that are conserved in most related transporters. We used site-directed mutagenesis and expression of the mutant transporters in yeast to test whether these proline residues are important for function. Four proline residues were replaced by both alanine and leucine. Only one of these proline residues, Pro-144, was essential for sulphate transport. However, mutation of either Pro-133 or Pro-160 resulted in a severe decrease in sulphate transport activity; this was due more to a decrease in transport activity than to a decrease in the amount of mutant SHST1 in the plasma membrane. These results suggest that all three proline residues are important for transport, and that the conformation of the three tightly coupled helices may play a critical role in sulphate transport. We also show that SHST1 undergoes a post-translational modification that is required for trafficking to the plasma membrane. PMID:11368789

  6. Inhalation injury: epidemiology, pathology, treatment strategies

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Lung injury resulting from inhalation of smoke or chemical products of combustion continues to be associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Combined with cutaneous burns, inhalation injury increases fluid resuscitation requirements, incidence of pulmonary complications and overall mortality of thermal injury. While many products and techniques have been developed to manage cutaneous thermal trauma, relatively few diagnosis-specific therapeutic options have been identified for patients with inhalation injury. Several factors explain slower progress for improvement in management of patients with inhalation injury. Inhalation injury is a more complex clinical problem. Burned cutaneous tissue may be excised and replaced with skin grafts. Injured pulmonary tissue must be protected from secondary injury due to resuscitation, mechanical ventilation and infection while host repair mechanisms receive appropriate support. Many of the consequences of smoke inhalation result from an inflammatory response involving mediators whose number and role remain incompletely understood despite improved tools for processing of clinical material. Improvements in mortality from inhalation injury are mostly due to widespread improvements in critical care rather than focused interventions for smoke inhalation. Morbidity associated with inhalation injury is produced by heat exposure and inhaled toxins. Management of toxin exposure in smoke inhalation remains controversial, particularly as related to carbon monoxide and cyanide. Hyperbaric oxygen treatment has been evaluated in multiple trials to manage neurologic sequelae of carbon monoxide exposure. Unfortunately, data to date do not support application of hyperbaric oxygen in this population outside the context of clinical trials. Cyanide is another toxin produced by combustion of natural or synthetic materials. A number of antidote strategies have been evaluated to address tissue hypoxia associated with cyanide exposure. Data

  7. Isolation of sulphate transport defective mutants of Candida utilis: further evidence for a common transport system for sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate.

    PubMed

    García, M; Benítez, J; Delgado, J; Kotyk, A

    1983-01-01

    Selenate-resistant mutants of Candida utilis were isolated. They did not take up sulphate while incorporation of an organic sulphur source, such as L-methionine, was similar to the wild-type strain. They grew poorly on sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate and, as expected, grew well on methionine. Sulphite reductase activities of the mutants were similar to the wild type strain. The properties of these mutants support the view of a common transport system for sulphate, sulphite and thiosulphate. PMID:6682073

  8. Respiratory disorders associated with heavy inhalation exposure to dolomite dust

    PubMed Central

    Neghab, M; Abedini, R; Soltanzadeh, A; Iloon Kashkooli, A; Ghayoomi, S M A

    2012-01-01

    Background Although dolomite is classified as a relatively non-toxic, nuisance dust, little information exists as to its potential to produce respiratory disorders following occupational exposure. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to evaluate the possible effects, if any, of heavy inhalation exposure to this chemical on the prevalence of respiratory symptoms, functional impairments and radiographic abnormalities of the lungs. Methods The study population consisted of a group of 39 exposed subjects engaged in digging and excavating activities that were in operation for building a local dam, as well as 40 healthy non-exposed employees that served as the referent group. Subjects were interviewed and respiratory symptoms questionnaires, as suggested by the American Thoracic Society (ATS), were completed for them. Thereafter, they underwent chest X-ray and lung function tests. Additionally, using routine gravimetric techniques, personal dust monitoring for airborne inhalable and respirable dust was carried out at different dusty work sites. Finally to determine the chemical composition of the dust, it was analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) technique. Results XRF revealed that the major component (50.52%) of the dust was calcium magnesium carbonate, dolomite. Additionally, levels of exposure to inhalable and respirable dust were estimated to be 51.7±24.31 and 23.0±18.11mg/m3, respectively. Statistical analysis of the data showed that symptoms such as regular cough, phlegm, wheezing, productive cough and shortness of breath were significantly (p<0.05) more prevalent among exposed workers. Similarly, the ratio of FEV1/FVC in exposed subjects was significantly different from that of non-exposed individuals. In contrast, no significant abnormalities were observed in the chest radiographs of both groups. Conclusions In conclusion, while these data cast doubt on the notion that dolomite is a harmless chemical, they provide evidence in favour of the proposition that

  9. [Influence of inhaler and fine particle on efficacy of inhalation therapy in COPD].

    PubMed

    Sliwiński, Paweł; Chazan, Ryszarda; Dąbrowiecki, Piotr; Jahnz-Różyk, Karina; Mróz, Robert; Pirożyński, Michał

    2014-01-01

    Orally inhaled products delivered via inhalation exert their effect directly to the target organ. This allows to administer a very low dose of a drug compared with an oral route with similar clinical effect and significantly reduced toxicity. However inhalation therapy is also limited by several factors. Delivery of the desired dose of the drug to the airways depends on a type of the inhaler - pressurised metered-dose inhaler (pMDI) or dry powder inhaler (DPI), inhaler characteristics (low or high internal resistance, diameter of particles and distribution of the generated aerosol fine particles), thermal conditions of air, and ability of patient to generate sufficient inspiratory flow (for DPI) or to coordinate actuation with inhalation (for pMDI). Unlike pMDIs, DPIs are breath- -actuated, hence avoiding the need for the patient to coordinate actuation with inspiration. Furthermore, DPIs are propellant-free and do not produce the cold sensation on inhalation. Currently available DPIs vary widely in design, operating characteristics and performance. And poor inhalation technique may compromise treatment efficacy. Hence, there is a clear need for a careful selection of DPIs for different patient groups, including children, elderly patients and those with severe airway obstruction. PMID:24793155

  10. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, Richard L.; Grantham, LeRoy F.

    1987-01-01

    A method of obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  11. Method for magnesium sulfate recovery

    DOEpatents

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.

    1987-08-25

    A method is described for obtaining magnesium sulfate substantially free from radioactive uranium from a slag containing the same and having a radioactivity level of at least about 7,000 pCi/gm. The slag is ground to a particle size of about 200 microns or less. The ground slag is then contacted with a concentrated sulfuric acid under certain prescribed conditions to produce a liquid product and a solid product. The particulate solid product and a minor amount of the liquid is then treated to produce a solid residue consisting essentially of magnesium sulfate substantially free of uranium and having a residual radioactivity level of less than 1,000 pCi/gm. In accordance with the preferred embodiment of the invention, a catalyst and an oxidizing agent are used during the initial acid treatment and a final solid residue has a radioactivity level of less than about 50 pCi/gm.

  12. Sulphation of proteochondroitin and 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside-chondroitin formed by mouse mastocytoma cells cultured in sulphate-deficient medium.

    PubMed

    Silbert, J E; Sugumaran, G; Cogburn, J N

    1993-11-15

    Mouse mastocytoma cells were cultured in medium containing [3H]GlcN and concentrations of [35S]sulphate varying from 0.01 to 0.5 mM. Intracellular [35S]sulphate incorporation increased severalfold from the lowest concentrations, reaching a maximum at 0.1-0.2 mM, whereas incorporation of [3H]hexosamine remained constant at all sulphate concentrations. Proteo[3H]-chondroitin [35S]sulphate was isolated and incubated with chondroitin ABC lyase, yielding 35S-labelled and/or 3H-labelled delta Di-0S and delta Di-4S disaccharide products. The increasing percentage of delta Di-4S was consistent with the increasing sulphate incorporation at each higher [35S]sulphate concentration. Examination of proteochondroitin [35S]sulphate size by Sepharose CL-6B chromatography indicated a range consistent with various numbers of glycosaminoglycan chains on the protease-resistant serglycin core protein. Alkali-cleaved chondroitin [35S]sulphate products indicated similar size distributions at all sulphate concentrations with no indication of preferential sulphation being related to smaller or larger size. DEAE-cellulose chromatography of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate glycosaminoglycans indicated a random undersulphation as [35S]sulphate concentration was lowered. Addition of 4-methylumbelliferyl beta-D-xyloside to the cultures resulted in a 2-2.5-fold stimulation of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate synthesis with formation of beta-xyloside-[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate which was much smaller, as estimated by Sepharose CL-6B chromatography, than the decreased amount of [3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate derived from proteo[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate. Much higher concentrations of sulphate were necessary to produce sulphation of the beta-xyloside-[3H]chondroitin comparable with that of proteo[3H]-chondroitin, as indicated by chondroitin ABC lyase products and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. The specific radioactivities of the [3H]GalN in the proteo[3H]chondroitin [35S]sulphate and beta-xyloside-[3

  13. Dynamics of airflow in a short inhalation

    PubMed Central

    Bates, A. J.; Doorly, D. J.; Cetto, R.; Calmet, H.; Gambaruto, A. M.; Tolley, N. S.; Houzeaux, G.; Schroter, R. C.

    2015-01-01

    During a rapid inhalation, such as a sniff, the flow in the airways accelerates and decays quickly. The consequences for flow development and convective transport of an inhaled gas were investigated in a subject geometry extending from the nose to the bronchi. The progress of flow transition and the advance of an inhaled non-absorbed gas were determined using highly resolved simulations of a sniff 0.5 s long, 1 l s−1 peak flow, 364 ml inhaled volume. In the nose, the distribution of airflow evolved through three phases: (i) an initial transient of about 50 ms, roughly the filling time for a nasal volume, (ii) quasi-equilibrium over the majority of the inhalation, and (iii) a terminating phase. Flow transition commenced in the supraglottic region within 20 ms, resulting in large-amplitude fluctuations persisting throughout the inhalation; in the nose, fluctuations that arose nearer peak flow were of much reduced intensity and diminished in the flow decay phase. Measures of gas concentration showed non-uniform build-up and wash-out of the inhaled gas in the nose. At the carina, the form of the temporal concentration profile reflected both shear dispersion and airway filling defects owing to recirculation regions. PMID:25551147

  14. Substrate and method for the formation of continuous magnesium diboride and doped magnesium diboride wire

    DOEpatents

    Suplinskas, Raymond J.; Finnemore, Douglas; Bud'ko, Serquei; Canfield, Paul

    2007-11-13

    A chemically doped boron coating is applied by chemical vapor deposition to a silicon carbide fiber and the coated fiber then is exposed to magnesium vapor to convert the doped boron to doped magnesium diboride and a resultant superconductor.

  15. Method for removing magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys with engineered scavenger compound

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, W.D.; Jong, B.W.

    1994-12-31

    The invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using an engineered scanvenger compound. In particular, the invention relates to a method for removal and production of high purity magnesium from aluminum-magnesium alloys using the engineered scanvenger compound (ESC) lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2). The removal of magnesium from the aluminum-magnesium alloys is performed at about 600-750 C in a molten salt bath of KCl or KCl-MgCl2 using lithium titanate (Li2O3TiO2) as the engineered scavenger compound (ESC). Electrode deposition of magnesium from the loaded ESC onto a stainless steel electrode is accomplished in a second step, and provides a clean magnesium electrode deposit for recycling. The second step also prepares the ESC for reuse.

  16. Lightweight Heat Pipes Made from Magnesium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenfeld, John N.; Zarembo, Sergei N.; Eastman, G. Yale

    2010-01-01

    Magnesium has shown promise as a lighter-weight alternative to the aluminum alloys now used to make the main structural components of axially grooved heat pipes that contain ammonia as the working fluid. Magnesium heat-pipe structures can be fabricated by conventional processes that include extrusion, machining, welding, and bending. The thermal performances of magnesium heat pipes are the same as those of equal-sized aluminum heat pipes. However, by virtue of the lower mass density of magnesium, the magnesium heat pipes weigh 35 percent less. Conceived for use aboard spacecraft, magnesium heat pipes could also be attractive as heat-transfer devices in terrestrial applications in which minimization of weight is sought: examples include radio-communication equipment and laptop computers.

  17. IMPROVED MAGNESIUM OXIDE SLIP CASTING METHOD

    DOEpatents

    Stoddard, S.D.; Nuckolls, D.E.

    1963-12-31

    A process for making an aqueous magnesium oxide slip casting slurry comprising the steps of mixing finely ground fused magnesium oxide with water, milling the slurry for at least 30 hours at a temperature of 2-10 deg C (the low temperature during milling inhibiting the formation of hydrated magnesium oxide), discharging the slurry from the mill, adding hydrochloric acid as a deflocculent, and adding a scum inhibitor is presented. (AEC)

  18. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1425 - Magnesium carbonate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Magnesium carbonate. 184.1425 Section 184.1425... Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1425 Magnesium carbonate. (a) Magnesium carbonate (molecular formula approximately (MgCO3)4·Mg(OH)2·5H2O, CAS Reg. No. 39409-82-0) is also known as...

  20. The relationship between drug concentration, mixing time, blending order and ternary dry powder inhalation performance.

    PubMed

    Jones, Matthew D; Santo, João G F; Yakub, Bilal; Dennison, Mansa; Master, Husein; Buckton, Graham

    2010-05-31

    Some studies have shown that the mixing order of drug, fines and coarse carrier in a ternary dry powder inhaler (DPI) formulation affects fine particle delivery; others have seen no difference. This was investigated by examining the influence of salbutamol sulphate concentration (0.5-4.5%(w)/(w)), mixing time and blending order (drug and lactose carrier first, then lactose fines; versus fines and carrier first, then drug) on formulation in vitro fine particle delivery. With 15 min of mixing, there was no effect of drug concentration or blending order on fine particle fraction (FPF). With 30 min of mixing, lower drug concentrations produced larger FPFs with the fines and carrier first blending order. Higher drug concentrations resulted in equal performance between the blending orders. With 60 min of mixing, the drug and carrier first blending order resulted in larger a FPF at 0.5%(w)/(w) salbutamol sulphate. The previous conflicting studies used a mixing time of 30 min; these results suggest that their conflicting results may have been due to the use of different drug concentrations. The complexity in the whole dataset suggests that blending order studies are of limited use for the investigation of the mechanism behind the effects of fines. PMID:20211715

  1. Natural versus anthropogenic inhalable aerosol chemistry of transboundary East Asian atmospheric outflows into western Japan.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Teresa; Kojima, Tomoko; Querol, Xavier; Alastuey, Andrés; Amato, Fulvio; Gibbons, Wes

    2012-05-01

    The eastward transport of aerosols exported from mainland Asia strongly influences air quality in the Japanese archipelago. The bulk of the inhalable particulate matter (PM(10)) in these intrusions comprises either natural, desert-derived minerals (mostly supermicron silicates) or anthropogenic pollutants (mostly submicron sulphates), in various states of mixing. We analyse PM(10) collected in Kumamoto, SW Japan, during three contrasting types of aerosol intrusions, the first being dominated by desert PM which became increasingly mixed with anthropogenic components as time progressed, the second being a relatively minor event mixing fine, distal desert PM with anthropogenic materials, and the third being dominated by anthropogenic pollutants. Whereas the chemistry of the natural mineral component is characterised by "crustal" elements (Si, Al, Fe, Mg, K, Li, P, Sc, V, Rb, Sr, Zr, Th, lanthanoids), the anthropogenic component is rich in secondary inorganic compounds and more toxic metallic elements (NH(4)(+), SO(4)(2-), As, Pb, Cd, Cu, Zn, Sn, Bi, Sb, and Ge). Some desert-dust (Kosa) intrusions are more calcareous than others, implicating geologically different source areas, and contain enhanced levels of NO(3)(-), probably as supermicron Ca(NO(3))(2) particles produced by chemical reaction between NOx pollutants (mostly from industry and traffic) and carbonate during atmospheric transport. The overall trace element chemistry of aerosol intrusions into Kumamoto shows low V/Rb, low NO(3)(-)/SO(4)(2-), enhanced As levels, and unfractionated La/Ce values, which are all consistent with anthropogenic sources including coal emissions rather than those derived from the refining and combustion of oil fractionates. Geographically dispersed, residual sulphatic plumes of this nature mix with local traffic (revealed by OC and EC concentrations) and industrial emissions and dissipate only slowly, due to the dominance of submicron accumulation mode PM which is atmospherically

  2. Clinical efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation capsules inhaled by Cyclohaler compared with Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler.

    PubMed

    Vink-van Wijngaarden, T; Blom-Ross, M E; Lansdorp, D; Goedhart, D M; Eelhart, J; Guelen, P J; de Vos, D

    1998-09-01

    The study was undertaken to compare the efficacy and safety of beclomethasone dipropionate inhalation powder inhaled by Rotahaler (Becotide Rotacaps, Glaxo Wellcome) and by Cyclohaler (Beclomethasone Cyclocaps, Pharmachemie). Both the Cyclohaler and the Rotahaler are single-dose dry powder inhalation devices for inhalation capsules. 182 asthma patients stabilized on inhaled beclomethasone dipropionate 800 micrograms daily, were randomly assigned to treatment with 800 micrograms beclomethasone dipropionate inhaled by Rotahaler (91 patients) or Cyclohaler (91 patients) in a double-blind manner, using the double-dummy method. It was shown that the asthma remained stable during the 16-week study period with both preparations. There were no statistically significant differences in the pulmonary parameters (morning PEF, evening PEF, FEV1). The test/reference ratio of the morning PEF (99.5%, CI 93.0% - 106.5%) was well within the equivalence interval, which had been set a priori from 85% to 117.6%. There were no marked differences between the Cyclocaps and Rotacaps group in symptom scores and adverse events. A total of 12 patients had an asthma exacerbation: 8 exacerbations occurred in the Rotahaler group and 4 in the Cyclohaler group. The difference was not statistically significant. The use of rescue medication was somewhat higher in the Rotahaler group, but the difference did not reach statistical significance. Significantly more patients (17 patients) withdrew from the study in the Rotahaler group than in the Cyclohaler group (5 patients). In conclusion, there was no difference in asthma control of patients treated with Beclomethasone Cyclocaps inhaled by Cyclohaler and Becotide Rotacaps inhaled by Rotahaler. Both preparations are therapeutically equivalent. PMID:9760014

  3. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  4. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  5. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  6. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  7. 21 CFR 862.1495 - Magnesium test system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... magnesium levels in serum and plasma. Magnesium measurements are used in the diagnosis and treatment of hypomagnesemia (abnormally low plasma levels of magnesium) and hypermagnesemia (abnormally high plasma levels...

  8. Substrate specificities of mouse heparan sulphate glucosaminyl 6-O-sulphotransferases.

    PubMed

    Smeds, Emanuel; Habuchi, Hiroko; Do, Anh-Tri; Hjertson, Eva; Grundberg, Helena; Kimata, Koji; Lindahl, Ulf; Kusche-Gullberg, Marion

    2003-06-01

    Glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate interacts with a variety of proteins, such as growth factors, cytokines, enzymes and inhibitors and, thus, influences cellular functions, including adhesion, motility, differentiation and morphogenesis. The interactions generally involve saccharide domains in heparan sulphate chains, with precisely located O-sulphate groups. The 6-O-sulphate groups on glucosamine units, supposed to be involved in various interactions of functional importance, occur in different structural contexts. Three isoforms of the glucosaminyl 6-O-sulphotransferase (6-OST) have been cloned and characterized [H. Habuchi, M. Tanaka, O. Habuchi, K. Yoshida, H. Suzuki, K. Ban and K. Kimata (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 2859-2868]. We have studied the substrate specificities of the recombinant enzymes using various O-desulphated poly- and oligo-saccharides as substrates, and using adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phospho[(35)S]sulphate as sulphate donor. All three enzymes catalyse 6-O-sulphation of both -GlcA-GlcNS- and -IdoA-GlcNS- (where GlcA represents D-glucuronic acid, NS the N-sulphate group and IdoA the L-iduronic acid) sequences, with preference for IdoA-containing targets, with or without 2-O-sulphate substituents. 6-OST1 showed relatively higher activity towards target sequences lacking 2-O-sulphate, e.g. the -GlcA-GlcNS- disaccharide unit. Sulphation of such non-O-sulphated acceptor sequences was generally favoured at low acceptor polysaccharide concentrations. Experiments using partially O-desulphated antithrombin-binding oligosaccharide as the acceptor revealed 6-O-sulphation of N-acetylated as well as 3-O-sulphated glucosamine residues with each of the three 6-OSTs. We conclude that the three 6-OSTs have qualitatively similar substrate specificities, with minor differences in target preference. PMID:12611590

  9. Substrate specificities of mouse heparan sulphate glucosaminyl 6-O-sulphotransferases.

    PubMed Central

    Smeds, Emanuel; Habuchi, Hiroko; Do, Anh-Tri; Hjertson, Eva; Grundberg, Helena; Kimata, Koji; Lindahl, Ulf; Kusche-Gullberg, Marion

    2003-01-01

    Glycosaminoglycan heparan sulphate interacts with a variety of proteins, such as growth factors, cytokines, enzymes and inhibitors and, thus, influences cellular functions, including adhesion, motility, differentiation and morphogenesis. The interactions generally involve saccharide domains in heparan sulphate chains, with precisely located O-sulphate groups. The 6-O-sulphate groups on glucosamine units, supposed to be involved in various interactions of functional importance, occur in different structural contexts. Three isoforms of the glucosaminyl 6-O-sulphotransferase (6-OST) have been cloned and characterized [H. Habuchi, M. Tanaka, O. Habuchi, K. Yoshida, H. Suzuki, K. Ban and K. Kimata (2000) J. Biol. Chem. 275, 2859-2868]. We have studied the substrate specificities of the recombinant enzymes using various O-desulphated poly- and oligo-saccharides as substrates, and using adenosine 3'-phosphate 5'-phospho[(35)S]sulphate as sulphate donor. All three enzymes catalyse 6-O-sulphation of both -GlcA-GlcNS- and -IdoA-GlcNS- (where GlcA represents D-glucuronic acid, NS the N-sulphate group and IdoA the L-iduronic acid) sequences, with preference for IdoA-containing targets, with or without 2-O-sulphate substituents. 6-OST1 showed relatively higher activity towards target sequences lacking 2-O-sulphate, e.g. the -GlcA-GlcNS- disaccharide unit. Sulphation of such non-O-sulphated acceptor sequences was generally favoured at low acceptor polysaccharide concentrations. Experiments using partially O-desulphated antithrombin-binding oligosaccharide as the acceptor revealed 6-O-sulphation of N-acetylated as well as 3-O-sulphated glucosamine residues with each of the three 6-OSTs. We conclude that the three 6-OSTs have qualitatively similar substrate specificities, with minor differences in target preference. PMID:12611590

  10. Chitosan hydrogels for chondroitin sulphate controlled release: an analytical characterization.

    PubMed

    Bianchera, Annalisa; Salomi, Enrico; Pezzanera, Matteo; Ruwet, Elisabeth; Bettini, Ruggero; Elviri, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical characterization of chitosan scaffolds obtained by freeze-gelation toward the uptake and the controlled release of chondroitin sulphate (CS), as cartilage repair agent, under different pH conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and liquid chromatography-UV spectrophotometry (LC-UV) techniques were exploited to obtain qualitative and quantitative descriptions of polymer and drug behaviour in the biomaterial. As for morphology, SEM analysis allowed the evaluation of scaffold porosity in terms of pore size and distribution both at the surface (Feret diameter 58 ± 19 μm) and on the cross section (Feret diameter 106 ± 51 μm). LC and ATR-FTIR evidenced a pH-dependent CS loading and release behaviour, strongly highlighting the role of electrostatic forces on chitosan/chondroitin sulphate interactions. PMID:25614850

  11. Chitosan Hydrogels for Chondroitin Sulphate Controlled Release: An Analytical Characterization

    PubMed Central

    Bianchera, Annalisa; Salomi, Enrico; Pezzanera, Matteo; Ruwet, Elisabeth; Bettini, Ruggero; Elviri, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    This paper provides an analytical characterization of chitosan scaffolds obtained by freeze-gelation toward the uptake and the controlled release of chondroitin sulphate (CS), as cartilage repair agent, under different pH conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR), and liquid chromatography-UV spectrophotometry (LC-UV) techniques were exploited to obtain qualitative and quantitative descriptions of polymer and drug behaviour in the biomaterial. As for morphology, SEM analysis allowed the evaluation of scaffold porosity in terms of pore size and distribution both at the surface (Feret diameter 58 ± 19 μm) and on the cross section (Feret diameter 106 ± 51 μm). LC and ATR-FTIR evidenced a pH-dependent CS loading and release behaviour, strongly highlighting the role of electrostatic forces on chitosan/chondroitin sulphate interactions. PMID:25614850

  12. INTERSPECIES MODELING OF INHALED PARTICLE DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    To evaluate the potential toxic effects of ambient contaminants or therapeutic effects of airborne drugs, inhalation exposure experiments can be performed with surrogate laboratory animals. erein, an interspecies particle deposition theory is presented for physiologically based p...

  13. Nitrous Oxide and the Inhalation Anesthetics

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Daniel E; Rosenberg, Morton

    2008-01-01

    Nitrous oxide is the most commonly used inhalation anesthetic in dentistry and is commonly used in emergency centers and ambulatory surgery centers as well. When used alone, it is incapable of producing general anesthesia reliably, but it may be combined with other inhalation and/or intravenous agents in deep sedative/general anesthestic techniques. However, as a single agent, it has impressive safety and is excellent for providing minimal and moderate sedation for apprehensive dental patients. To gain a full appreciation of the pharmacology, physiologic influences, and proper use of nitrous oxide, one must compare it with other inhalation anesthetics. The purpose of this CE article is to provide an overview of inhalation anesthetics in general and to address nitrous oxide more specifically in comparison. PMID:19108597

  14. REGIONAL DEPOSITION OF INHALED REACTIVE GASES

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical concept in inhalation toxicology involves the determination of dose as the first component for providing a perspective to judge the applicability of various toxicological results to human exposure conditions. Available experimental data for reactive gases were reviewed...

  15. Inhaled insulin: too soon to be forgotten?

    PubMed

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Papanas, Nikolaos; Kouliatsis, Georgios; Spyratos, Dionysis; Zarogoulidis, Kostas; Maltezos, Efstratios

    2011-10-01

    Inhalation is a potentially viable route of administration for numerous agents. In diabetes mellitus, the need for frequent injections to achieve ideal glycemic control remains a significant limitation for initiating and complying with insulin therapy in a large number of patients. To overcome this barrier, inhaled insulin was developed. The inhalation form of regular human insulin has been tested and administered in a large number of trials. Respiratory capacity was evaluated in patients with normal lung parenchyma in whom inhaled insulin was administered without complications. However, issues like cost, bulky device, fear for lung safety, and the small number of studies in subjects with underlying respiratory disease prevented widespread use of this new mode of delivery. In the present review, we will suggest a number of methods that could be applied in this form of administration to maximize drug absorption and fully exploit the advantages of this route of administration. PMID:21689020

  16. The precipitation of potassium aluminium sulphate from aqueous solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mullin, J. W.; Žáček, S.

    1981-06-01

    A precipitation study has been made with potassium aluminium sulphate (potash alum) produced by mixing aqueous solutions of its constituent salts. Rates of nucleation, as indicated by the induction period, were measured for both agitated and non-agitated solutions over the temperature range 15-35°C. Nucleation rates increase with increases in agitation, temperature and supersaturation, but the latter has the dominant effect, as predicted by classical nucleation theory. The temperature-dependence of the interfacial tension is evaluated.

  17. Sulphate and desertification signals in Middle Eastern temperature trends

    SciTech Connect

    Nasrallah, H.A.; Balling, R.C. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Analysis of Middle Eastern annual temperature anomalies over the past 40 years reveals statistically significant warming over this time period of 0.07 C per decade. The warming is most pronounced over the spring season and least apparent in the winter season. Spatial analysis reveals a positive relationship between Middle Eastern warming and the degree of human-induced desertification and a negative relationship between local warming and the atmospheric concentration of sulphate.

  18. Animal models of smoke inhalation induced injuries.

    PubMed

    David, Poon; Dunsford, Denny; Lu, Jia; Moochhala, Shabbir

    2009-01-01

    Smoke inhalation injury is the leading cause of mortality from structural fires, as a result of complications such as systemic inflammatory response syndrome and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, which can be caused by a localized or systemic response. In this review, the pathophysiology of smoke inhalation injury, along with the characteristics found in clinical settings, common animal models, current treatment methods and future potential therapeutics are discussed. PMID:19273376

  19. Amorphous powders for inhalation drug delivery.

    PubMed

    Chen, Lan; Okuda, Tomoyuki; Lu, Xiang-Yun; Chan, Hak-Kim

    2016-05-01

    For inhalation drug delivery, amorphous powder formulations offer the benefits of increased bioavailability for poorly soluble drugs, improved biochemical stability for biologics, and expanded options of using various drugs and their combinations. However, amorphous formulations usually have poor physicochemical stability. This review focuses on inhalable amorphous powders, including the production methods, the active pharmaceutical ingredients and the excipients with a highlight on stabilization of the particles. PMID:26780404

  20. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-Eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9-1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  1. Properties of fractionated chondroitin sulphate from ox nasal septa

    PubMed Central

    Wasteson, Åke

    1971-01-01

    1. Chondroitin sulphate was isolated from bovine nasal septa by precipitation with cetylpyridinium chloride after digestion of the tissue with papain. 2. The material was divided into two portions, one of which was partially degraded with testicular hyaluronidase. 3. Untreated and hyaluronidase-digested material were fractionated into a total of eleven subfractions by gel chromatography on Sephadex G-200 and Sephadex G-100 respectively. 4. Chemical analyses indicated that the composition of all the fractions was similar to that of chondroitin sulphate. However, electrophoresis revealed a charge-inhomogeneity in the low-molecular-weight fractions obtained after hyaluronidase digestion. 5. The physicochemical properties of the subfractions were investigated by sedimentation-velocity, diffusion and sedimentation-equilibrium studies, osmometry, viscometry and gel chromatography. The individual fractions were essentially monodisperse and showed molecular weights ranging from 2400 to 36000. 6. The relationship between the intrinsic viscosity and the molecular weight was [η]=5.0×10−6×M1.14, indicating that the chondroitin sulphate molecules assume a shape intermediate between that of a random coil and a stiff rod. 7. The relationship between the sedimentation constant and the molecular weight (>104) was s020,w=2.3×10−2×M0.44. PMID:5123881

  2. Physicochemical properties, cytotoxicity, and antimicrobial activity of sulphated zirconia nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mftah, Ae; Alhassan, Fatah H; Al-Qubaisi, Mothanna Sadiq; El Zowalaty, Mohamed Ezzat; Webster, Thomas J; Sh-eldin, Mohammed; Rasedee, Abdullah; Taufiq-Yap, Yun Hin; Rashid, Shah Samiur

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticle sulphated zirconia with Brønsted acidic sites were prepared here by an impregnation reaction followed by calcination at 600°C for 3 hours. The characterization was completed using X-ray diffraction, thermal gravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, Brunner-Emmett-Teller surface area measurements, scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. Moreover, the anticancer and antimicrobial effects were investigated for the first time. This study showed for the first time that the exposure of cancer cells to sulphated zirconia nanoparticles (3.9–1,000 μg/mL for 24 hours) resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of cell growth, as determined by (4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Similar promising results were observed for reducing bacteria functions. In this manner, this study demonstrated that sulphated zirconia nanoparticles with Brønsted acidic sites should be further studied for a wide range of anticancer and antibacterial applications. PMID:25632233

  3. Following mechanical activation of salbutamol sulphate during ball-milling with isothermal calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Gaisford, Simon; Dennison, Mansa; Tawfik, Mahmoud; Jones, Matthew D

    2010-06-30

    Formulation of actives for pulmonary delivery with dry powder inhaler devices frequently requires a particle size reduction step. The high-energy forces imparted to a material during milling, as well as reducing particle size, can cause a significant change in physicochemical properties, in particular mechanical activation of the surface (manifested as generation of amorphous regions) which can affect formulated product performance. It is not clear whether particle size reduction occurs prior to, or concomitantly with, generation of amorphous content. In this study the formation of amorphous content with time in crystalline salbutamol sulphate was quantified with isothermal gas perfusion calorimetry as the sample was ball-milled. The data showed that the most particle size reduction occurred initially (d(0.5) dropping from 12.83+/-0.4 to 4.2+/-0.4 within 5 min). During this time period, no detectable amorphous content was observed. Between 5 and 15 min milling time the particle size distribution remained relatively constant but the amorphous content increased non-linearly with time. After 20 min milling time the particle size increased slightly. The data suggest that particle size reduction occurs initially upon application of a force to the crystal. Once maximum particle size reduction has occurred the crystal absorbs the force being applied and the crystal lattice becomes disordered. After extended milling the conditions in the ball mill (heat and/or humidity) may cause crystallisation of some of the amorphous material resulting in particle-particle fusion. It would appear that the ball-milling process could be optimised to achieve the desired particle size distribution but without any loss of crystalline structure. PMID:20385222

  4. The TMS Magnesium Committee: Committed to the Advancement of Global Magnesium Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Sillekens, Wim H.; Nyberg, Eric A.

    2011-04-21

    The TMS Magnesium Committee was established in the year 2000 as a spin-off of the Reactive Metals Committee, triggered by the strong global growth of magnesium being used in a variety of structural lightweight applications since the mid-1990’s. Since then the committee has seen a distinct development in terms of size, participation and focus. The article at hand outlines this development by recapitulating the output of its two main activities: the annual Magnesium Technology Symposia and the JOM Special Issues dedicated to magnesium research and development. Further records on the Magnesium Committee are available from the committee homepage (accessible through http://members.tms.org).

  5. Assessing inhalation injury in the emergency room

    PubMed Central

    Tanizaki, Shinsuke

    2015-01-01

    Respiratory tract injuries caused by inhalation of smoke or chemical products are related to significant morbidity and mortality. While many strategies have been built up to manage cutaneous burn injuries, few logical diagnostic strategies for patients with inhalation injuries exist and almost all treatment is supportive. The goals of initial management are to ensure that the airway allows adequate oxygenation and ventilation and to avoid ventilator-induced lung injury and substances that may complicate subsequent care. Intubation should be considered if any of the following signs exist: respiratory distress, stridor, hypoventilation, use of accessory respiratory muscles, blistering or edema of the oropharynx, or deep burns to the face or neck. Any patients suspected to have inhalation injuries should receive a high concentration of supplemental oxygen to quickly reverse hypoxia and to displace carbon monoxide from protein binding sites. Management of carbon monoxide and cyanide exposure in smoke inhalation patients remains controversial. Absolute indications for hyperbaric oxygen therapy do not exist because there is a low correlation between carboxyhemoglobin levels and the severity of the clinical state. A cyanide antidote should be administered when cyanide poisoning is clinically suspected. Although an ideal approach for respiratory support of patients with inhalation injuries do not exist, it is important that they are supported using techniques that do not further exacerbate respiratory failure. A well-organized strategy for patients with inhalation injury is critical to reduce morbidity and mortality. PMID:27147888

  6. Chemical sulphate removal for treatment of construction and demolition debris leachate.

    PubMed

    Kijjanapanich, Pimluck; Annachhatre, Ajit P; Esposito, Giovanni; Lens, Piet N L

    2014-08-01

    Construction and demolition debris (CDD) is a product of construction, renovation or demolition activities. It has a high gypsum content (52.4% of total gypsum), concentrated in the CDD sand (CDDS) fraction. To comply with the posed limit of the maximum amount of sulphate present in building sand, excess sulphate needs to be removed. In order to enable reuse of CDDS, a novel treatment process is developed based on washing of the CDDS to remove most of the gypsum, and subsequent sulphate removal from the sulphate-rich CDDS leachate. This study aims to assess chemical techniques, i.e. precipitation and adsorption, for sulphate removal from the CDDS leachate. Good sulphate removal efficiencies (up to 99.9%) from the CDDS leachate can be achieved by precipitation with barium chloride (BaCl2) and lead(II) nitrate (Pb(NO3)2). Precipitation with calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium carbonate (CaCO3) and calcium oxide (CaO) gave less efficient sulphate removal. Adsorption of sulphate to aluminium oxide (Al2O3) yielded a 50% sulphate removal efficiency, whereas iron oxide-coated sand as adsorbent gave only poor (10%) sulphate removal efficiencies. PMID:24956793

  7. Inhaling to mitigate exhaled bioaerosols.

    PubMed

    Edwards, David A; Man, Jonathan C; Brand, Peter; Katstra, Jeffrey P; Sommerer, K; Stone, Howard A; Nardell, Edward; Scheuch, Gerhard

    2004-12-14

    Humans commonly exhale aerosols comprised of small droplets of airway-lining fluid during normal breathing. These "exhaled bioaerosols" may carry airborne pathogens and thereby magnify the spread of certain infectious diseases, such as influenza, tuberculosis, and severe acute respiratory syndrome. We hypothesize that, by altering lung airway surface properties through an inhaled nontoxic aerosol, we might substantially diminish the number of exhaled bioaerosol droplets and thereby provide a simple means to potentially mitigate the spread of airborne infectious disease independently of the identity of the airborne pathogen or the nature of any specific therapy. We find that some normal human subjects expire many more bioaerosol particles than other individuals during quiet breathing and therefore bear the burden of production of exhaled bioaerosols. Administering nebulized isotonic saline to these "high-producer" individuals diminishes the number of exhaled bioaerosol particles expired by 72.10 +/- 8.19% for up to 6 h. In vitro and in vivo experiments with saline and surfactants suggest that the mechanism of action of the nebulized saline relates to modification of the physical properties of the airway-lining fluid, notably surface tension. PMID:15583121

  8. Intestinal circulation during inhalation anesthesia

    SciTech Connect

    Tverskoy, M.; Gelman, S.; Fowler, K.C.; Bradley, E.L.

    1985-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the influence of inhalational agents on the intestinal circulation in an isolated loop preparation. Sixty dogs were studied, using three intestinal segments from each dog. Selected intestinal segments were pumped with aortic blood at a constant pressure of 100 mmHg. A mixture of /sub 86/Rb and 9-microns spheres labeled with /sup 141/Ce was injected into the arterial cannula supplying the intestinal loop, while mesenteric venous blood was collected for activity counting. A very strong and significant correlation was found between rubidium clearance and microsphere entrapment (r = 0.97, P less than 0.0001). Nitrous oxide anesthesia was accompanied by a higher vascular resistance (VR), lower flow (F), rubidium clearance (Cl-Rb), and microspheres entrapment (Cl-Sph) than pentobarbital anesthesia, indicating that the vascular bed in the intestinal segment was constricted and flow (total and nutritive) decreased. Halothane, enflurane, and isoflurane anesthesia were accompanied by a much lower arteriovenous oxygen content difference (AVDO/sub 2/) and oxygen uptake than pentobarbital or nitrous oxide. Compared with pentobarbital, enflurane anesthesia was not accompanied by marked differences in VR, F, Cl-Rb, and Cl-Sph; halothane at 2 MAC decreased VR and increased F and Cl-Rb while isoflurane increased VR and decreased F. alpha-Adrenoceptor blockade with phentolamine (1 mg . kg-1) abolished isoflurane-induced vasoconstriction, suggesting that the increase in VR was mediated via circulating catecholamines.

  9. Photoelastic properties of magnesium fluoride

    SciTech Connect

    Chung, S.; Carleton, H.R.

    1980-05-01

    Magnesium fluoride (MgF/sub 2/) has the rutile crystal structure with a tetragonal space lattice (P4/mnm). The crystal is uniaxial positive with n/sub omega/ = 1.378 and n/sub epsilon/ = 1.390 for sodium D light. A single crystal of MgF/sub 2/ grown by the Materials Research Corporation was used in this study. The crystal was approximately 1 cm/sup 3/ with polished faces in the (001), (110), and (anti 110) crystal planes as verified by the back-reflection Laue method. Sample preparations and measurements are described.

  10. Exoelectron emission from magnesium surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klar, F.; Bansmann, J.; Glaefeke, H.; Fitting, H.-J.; Meiwes-Broer, K.-H.

    1999-12-01

    Clean magnesium surfaces were created by evaporating Mg onto silicon wafers. When exposing the Mg surface to a low oxygen partial pressure, an exoelectron emission (EEE) is observed after a time delay of the order of several hours after evaporation. On a much shorter time scale, similar effects in exoemission from Mg and alkali metals have been observed previously. The results are discussed within a 'potential emission' model of exoelectrons during oxygen capture at the pure Mg surface, but extending the model by including an escape mechanism. A macroscopic quantitative description of the model is given, which is in good agreement with our measurements.

  11. 21 CFR 184.1443 - Magnesium sulfate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium sulfate. 184.1443 Section 184.1443 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1443 Magnesium sulfate. (a)...

  12. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a)...

  13. 21 CFR 184.1428 - Magnesium hydroxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium hydroxide. 184.1428 Section 184.1428 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DIRECT FOOD SUBSTANCES AFFIRMED AS GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Listing of Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1428 Magnesium hydroxide....

  14. 21 CFR 582.1431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.1431 Section 582.1431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE General Purpose Food Additives § 582.1431 Magnesium oxide. (a)...

  15. 21 CFR 582.5431 - Magnesium oxide.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium oxide. 582.5431 Section 582.5431 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements 1 § 582.5431 Magnesium oxide. (a)...

  16. Nanostructured magnesium increases bone cell density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Lucy; Webster, Thomas J.

    2012-12-01

    Magnesium has attracted some attention in orthopedics due to its biodegradability and mechanical properties. Since magnesium is an essential natural mineral for bone growth, it can be expected that as a biomaterial, it would support bone formation. However, upon degradation in the body, magnesium releases OH- which results in an alkaline pH that can be detrimental to cell density (for example, osteoblasts or bone forming cells). For this reason, modification of magnesium may be necessary to compensate for such detrimental effects to cells. This study created biologically inspired nanoscale surface features on magnesium by soaking magnesium in various concentrations of NaOH (from 1 to 10 N) and for various periods of time (from 10 to 30 min). The results provided the first evidence of increased roughness, surface energy, and consequently greater osteoblast adhesion, after 4 h as well as density up to 7 days on magnesium treated with any concentration of NaOH for any length of time compared to untreated controls. For these reasons, this study suggests that soaking magnesium in NaOH could be an inexpensive, simple and effective manner to promote osteoblast functions for numerous orthopedic applications and, thus, should be further studied.

  17. Surface Analytical Methods Applied to Magnesium Corrosion.

    PubMed

    Dauphin-Ducharme, Philippe; Mauzeroll, Janine

    2015-08-01

    Understanding magnesium alloy corrosion is of primary concern, and scanning probe techniques are becoming key analytical characterization methods for that purpose. This Feature presents recent trends in this field as the progressive substitution of steel and aluminum car components by magnesium alloys to reduce the overall weight of vehicles is an irreversible trend. PMID:25826577

  18. 21 CFR 182.2437 - Magnesium silicate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Magnesium silicate. 182.2437 Section 182.2437 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Anticaking Agents § 182.2437 Magnesium silicate. (a) Product....

  19. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  20. Imparting passivity to vapor deposited magnesium alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfe, Ryan C.

    Magnesium has the lowest density of all structural metals. Utilization of low density materials is advantageous from a design standpoint, because lower weight translates into improved performance of engineered products (i.e., notebook computers are more portable, vehicles achieve better gas mileage, and aircraft can carry more payload). Despite their low density and high strength to weight ratio, however, the widespread implementation of magnesium alloys is currently hindered by their relatively poor corrosion resistance. The objective of this research dissertation is to develop a scientific basis for the creation of a corrosion resistant magnesium alloy. The corrosion resistance of magnesium alloys is affected by several interrelated factors. Among these are alloying, microstructure, impurities, galvanic corrosion effects, and service conditions, among others. Alloying and modification of the microstructure are primary approaches to controlling corrosion. Furthermore, nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium via physical vapor deposition allows for the formation of single-phase magnesium alloys with supersaturated concentrations of passivity-enhancing elements. The microstructure and surface morphology is also modifiable during physical vapor deposition through the variation of evaporation power, pressure, temperature, ion bombardment, and the source-to-substrate distance. Aluminum, titanium, yttrium, and zirconium were initially chosen as candidates likely to impart passivity on vapor deposited magnesium alloys. Prior to this research, alloys of this type have never before been produced, much less studied. All of these metals were observed to afford some degree of corrosion resistance to magnesium. Due to the especially promising results from nonequilibrium alloying of magnesium with yttrium and titanium, the ternary magnesium-yttrium-titanium system was investigated in depth. While all of the alloys are lustrous, surface morphology is observed under the scanning

  1. Comparative efficacy of ropivacaine and levobupivacaine in combined femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve block with adjuvant magnesium for post-operative analgesia

    PubMed Central

    Khairnar, Prakash; Agarwal, Munisha; Verma, Uttam Chandra; Kumar, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Patients with burns may require multiple surgeries, but poor general condition and underlying protein energy malnutrition make them unsuitable candidates for general or spinal anaesthesia. This study evaluated the role of magnesium sulphate as an adjuvant with levobupivacaine and ropivacaine used in combined femoral and lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (LFCN) blocks in burn patients with relative sparing of thigh portion. Methods: This prospective, randomised, double-blind study included 54 adult patients of 18–65 years age, undergoing split-thickness skin graft harvest from the thigh, allotted to three equal groups of 18 each. Group L patients received femoral nerve (FN) block with 15 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine and 8 mL for LFCN block; Group LM patients received 14 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine along with 1.0 mL of 15% magnesium sulphate for FN block, 7.5 mL of 0.5% levobupivacaine with 0.5 mL of 15% of magnesium sulphate to LFCN block and Group R patients received 15 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine for FN block and 8 mL of 0.5% ropivacaine for LFCN block. Time to block onset and complete surgical block, duration of analgesia, total analgesic dose and the overall analgesia satisfaction score were measured in the first 24 h post-operatively. Quantitative data were analysed with ANOVA and qualitative data subjected to Chi-square tests. Intergroup comparison was performed with independent t-test. Results: The duration of post-operative analgesia did not differ with the addition of magnesium (P = 0.610). Time to onset of the block was significantly decreased with the addition of magnesium (P = 0.0341), but time to complete surgical block onset was similar across the groups. Conclusion: Both ropivacaine and levobupivacaine have good perioperative analgesic efficacy. Magnesium as an analgesia adjuvant with levobupivacaine does not prolong the duration of post-operative analgesia. PMID:27601742

  2. Inhalant Initiation and the Relationship of Inhalant Use to the Use of Other Substances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shamblen, Stephen R.; Miller, Ted

    2012-01-01

    Conventional wisdom suggests that inhalant use is primarily isolated to youthful experimentation; however, a growing body of evidence suggests that inhalant use (a) occurs after use of common substances of experimentation (e.g., alcohol, marijuana), (b) can persist into later life, and (c) is associated with severe consequences. The current study…

  3. Extracellular killing of inhaled pneumococci in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Coonrod, J.D.; Marple, S.; Holmes, G.P.; Rehm, S.R.

    1987-12-01

    Early clearance of inhaled Staphylococcus aureus is believed to be caused by phagocytosis by alveolar macrophages. In murine models inhaled pneumococci are cleared even more rapidly than S. aureus. Conventional opsonins appear to play no role in this clearance, and recently it has been shown that murine alveolar lining material contains free fatty acids and other soluble factors that are directly bactericidal for pneumococci. To determine whether non-phagocytic factors are involved in pneumococcal clearance, we compared the site of killing of inhaled pneumococci and S. aureus in rats using histologic methods and bronchoalveolar lavage. Spontaneous lysis of pneumococci was prevented by use of autolysin-defective pneumococci or by substitution of ethanolamine for choline in the cell wall. Histologic studies showed that the percent of inhaled staphylococci associated with alveolar macrophages always exceeded the percent of staphylococci cleared, whereas there was little association of pneumococci with macrophages during clearance. Analysis of the intracellular or extracellular location of iron 59 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of rats that had inhaled aerosols of /sup 59/Fe-labeled bacteria suggested that staphylococci were killed predominantly in macrophages and pneumococci in the extracellular space. When /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci or staphylococci were ingested and killed by macrophages in vitro, the /sup 59/Fe remained with the macrophages, suggesting that the extracellular location of /sup 59/Fe during pneumococcal killing in vivo was not caused by rapid turnover of /sup 59/Fe in macrophages. Studies of the site of killing of inhaled type 25 pneumococci labeled exclusively in the cell wall with carbon 14-ethanolamine confirmed the results obtained with /sup 59/Fe-labeled pneumococci. Thus, early killing of inhaled pneumococci, unlike staphylococci, appears to take place outside of macrophages.

  4. Olfactory deposition of inhaled nanoparticles in humans

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Guilherme J. M.; Schroeter, Jeffry D.; Kimbell, Julia S.

    2016-01-01

    Context Inhaled nanoparticles can migrate to the brain via the olfactory bulb, as demonstrated in experiments in several animal species. This route of exposure may be the mechanism behind the correlation between air pollution and human neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. Objectives This manuscript aims to (1) estimate the dose of inhaled nanoparticles that deposit in the human olfactory epithelium during nasal breathing at rest and (2) compare the olfactory dose in humans with our earlier dose estimates for rats. Materials and methods An anatomically-accurate model of the human nasal cavity was developed based on computed tomography scans. The deposition of 1–100 nm particles in the whole nasal cavity and its olfactory region were estimated via computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations. Our CFD methods were validated by comparing our numerical predictions for whole-nose deposition with experimental data and previous CFD studies in the literature. Results In humans, olfactory dose of inhaled nanoparticles is highest for 1–2 nm particles with approximately 1% of inhaled particles depositing in the olfactory region. As particle size grows to 100 nm, olfactory deposition decreases to 0.01% of inhaled particles. Discussion and conclusion Our results suggest that the percentage of inhaled particles that deposit in the olfactory region is lower in humans than in rats. However, olfactory dose per unit surface area is estimated to be higher in humans due to their larger minute volume. These dose estimates are important for risk assessment and dose-response studies investigating the neurotoxicity of inhaled nanoparticles. PMID:26194036

  5. Tape casting of magnesium oxide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ayala, Alicia; Corral, Erica L.; Loehman, Ronald E.; Bencoe, Denise Nora; Reiterer, Markus; Shah, Raja A.

    2008-02-01

    A tape casting procedure for fabricating ceramic magnesium oxide tapes has been developed as a method to produce flat sheets of sintered MgO that are thin and porous. Thickness of single layer tapes is in the range of 200-400 {micro}m with corresponding surface roughness values in the range of 10-20 {micro}m as measured by laser profilometry. Development of the tape casting technique required optimization of pretreatment for the starting magnesium oxide (MgO) powder as well as a detailed study of the casting slurry preparation and subsequent heat treatments for sintering and final tape flattening. Milling time of the ceramic powder, plasticizer, and binder mixture was identified as a primary factor affecting surface morphology of the tapes. In general, longer milling times resulted in green tapes with a noticeably smoother surface. This work demonstrates that meticulous control of the entire tape casting operation is necessary to obtain high-quality MgO tapes.

  6. Effect of Disease Severity in Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease on Inhaler-Specific Inhalation Profiles Through the ELLIPTA® Dry Powder Inhaler

    PubMed Central

    de Backer, Wilfried; Hamilton, Melanie; Cahn, Anthony; Preece, Andrew; Kelleher, Dennis; Baines, Amanda; Moore, Alison; Brealey, Noushin; Moynihan, Jackie

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Two studies were undertaken to characterize the maximal effort inhalation profiles of healthy subjects and patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) through a moderate-resistance dry powder inhaler (DPI). Correlations between inhaler-specific inhalation characteristics and inhaler-independent lung function parameters were investigated. Methods: Healthy subjects (n = 15), patients with mild, moderate, or severe asthma (n = 45), and patients with mild, moderate, severe, or very-severe COPD (n = 60) were included in the studies. Inhalation pressure drop versus time profiles were recorded using an instrumented ELLIPTA® DPI or bespoke resistor component with equivalent resistivity. Inhaler-independent lung function assessments included pharyngometry, spirometry, plethysmography, and diffusion. Results: For the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles, the mean maximal effort peak inspiratory flow rates (PIFRs) varied across the subgroups from 65.8–110.6 L/min (range: 41.6–142.9). Peak pressure drop, PIFR, inhaled volume, and average inhalation flow rate (primary endpoints) did not differ markedly between healthy subjects and patients with asthma or mild COPD. Moderate, severe, and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated lower mean peak pressure drops, PIFRs and inhaled volumes, which tended to decrease with increasing COPD severity. Severe and very-severe COPD patients demonstrated shorter mean inhalation times compared with all other participants. Inhaler-independent lung function parameters were consistent with disease severity, and statistically significant (p < 0.05) strong correlations (R > 0.7) with components of the inhaler-specific inhalation profiles were observed in the COPD cohort; correlations in the asthma cohort tended to be weaker. Conclusions: All participants achieved a maximal effort PIFR ≥ 41.6 L/min through the moderate resistance of the ELLIPTA inhaler. Patients with asthma

  7. Process development for elemental recovery from PGM tailings by thermochemical treatment: Preliminary major element extraction studies using ammonium sulphate as extracting agent.

    PubMed

    Mohamed, Sameera; van der Merwe, Elizabet M; Altermann, Wladyslaw; Doucet, Frédéric J

    2016-04-01

    Mine tailings can represent untapped secondary resources of non-ferrous, ferrous, precious, rare and trace metals. Continuous research is conducted to identify opportunities for the utilisation of these materials. This preliminary study investigated the possibility of extracting major elements from South African tailings associated with the mining of Platinum Group Metals (PGM) at the Two Rivers mine operations. These PGM tailings typically contain four major elements (11% Al2O3; 12% MgO; 22% Fe2O3; 34% Cr2O3), with lesser amounts of SiO2 (18%) and CaO (2%). Extraction was achieved via thermochemical treatment followed by aqueous dissolution, as an alternative to conventional hydrometallurgical processes. The thermochemical treatment step used ammonium sulphate, a widely available, low-cost, recyclable chemical agent. Quantification of the efficiency of the thermochemical process required the development and optimisation of the dissolution technique. Dissolution in water promoted the formation of secondary iron precipitates, which could be prevented by leaching thermochemically-treated tailings in 0.6M HNO3 solution. The best extraction efficiencies were achieved for aluminium (ca. 60%) and calcium (ca. 80%). 35% iron and 32% silicon were also extracted, alongside chromium (27%) and magnesium (25%). Thermochemical treatment using ammonium sulphate may therefore represent a promising technology for extracting valuable elements from PGM tailings, which could be subsequently converted to value-added products. However, it is not element-selective, and major elements were found to compete with the reagent to form water-soluble sulphate-metal species. Further development of this integrated process, which aims at achieving the full potential of utilisation of PGM tailings, is currently underway. PMID:26923300

  8. Effect of addition of magnesium to local anesthetics for peribulbar block: A prospective randomized double-blind study

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, R; Sharma, A; Ray, BR; Chandiran, R; Chandralekha, C; Sinha, R

    2016-01-01

    Background: Magnesium sulphate has been used along with local anesthetics in different regional blocks and found to be effective in decreasing the time of onset of the block and increasing the duration of the block. Objective: To evaluate the effect of addition of magnesium sulfate to standard local anesthetics mixture on the time for onset of the globe and lid akinesia for peribulbar block in ophthalmic surgeries. Materials and Methods: Sixty patients with American Society of Anesthesiologists status I to III undergoing ophthalmic surgery under peribulbar block were included in this study. Patients were randomized into two groups. Both the groups received 4.5 ml of 2% lidocaine, 4.5 ml of 0.5% bupivacaine with150 IU hyaluronidase. Group NS received normal saline 1 ml in the peribulbar block and Group MS, magnesium sulfate 50 mg in 1 ml normal saline. The onset of akinesia, satisfactory block and complications were observed by an independent observer. Results: Demographic data was statistically similar. In the Group NS at 3, 5, 10 and 15 min after the block, complete akinesia was seen in 0, 2, 11 and 28 patients respectively. In the Group MS, at 3, 5, 10 and 15 min after the block, complete akinesia was seen in 13, 23, 27 and 28 patients respectively. Patients received magnesium sulfate showed the statistically significant rapid onset of lid and globe akinesia than the control group till 10 min (P < 0.000). None of the patients needed a supplementary block and had complications during the surgery. Conclusion: Addition of 50 mg of magnesium sulfate to the lidocaine-bupivacaine mixture for peribulbar block decreases the onset of akinesia without any obvious side effect. PMID:26955313

  9. Deposition and biokinetics of inhaled nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Particle biokinetics is important in hazard identification and characterization of inhaled particles. Such studies intend to convert external to internal exposure or biologically effective dose, and may help to set limits in that way. Here we focus on the biokinetics of inhaled nanometer sized particles in comparison to micrometer sized ones. The presented approach ranges from inhaled particle deposition probability and retention in the respiratory tract to biokinetics and clearance of particles out of the respiratory tract. Particle transport into the blood circulation (translocation), towards secondary target organs and tissues (accumulation), and out of the body (clearance) is considered. The macroscopically assessed amount of particles in the respiratory tract and secondary target organs provides dose estimates for toxicological studies on the level of the whole organism. Complementary, microscopic analyses at the individual particle level provide detailed information about which cells and subcellular components are the target of inhaled particles. These studies contribute to shed light on mechanisms and modes of action eventually leading to adverse health effects by inhaled nanoparticles. We review current methods for macroscopic and microscopic analyses of particle deposition, retention and clearance. Existing macroscopic knowledge on particle biokinetics and microscopic views on particle organ interactions are discussed comparing nanometer and micrometer sized particles. We emphasize the importance for quantitative analyses and the use of particle doses derived from real world exposures. PMID:20205860

  10. Magnesium bicarbonate as an in situ uranium lixiviant

    SciTech Connect

    Sibert, J.W.

    1984-09-25

    In the subsurface solution mining of mineral values, especially uranium, in situ, magnesium bicarbonate leaching solution is used instead of sodium, potassium and ammonium carbonate and bicarbonates. The magnesium bicarbonate solution is formed by combining carbon dioxide with magnesium oxide and water. The magnesium bicarbonate lixivant has four major advantages over prior art sodium, potassium and ammonium bicarbonates.

  11. The biochemistry of aromatic amines. 2-Formamido-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate, a metabolite of 2-naphthylamine

    PubMed Central

    Boyland, E.; Manson, D.

    1966-01-01

    1. 2-Formamido-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate is excreted by dogs and rats dosed with 2-naphthylamine or with 2-amino-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate and was isolated from dog urine. 2. 2-Formamido-1-naphthol, naphtho[2,1-d]oxazole and N-formyl-2-naphthylhydroxylamine are excreted as (2-formamido-1-naphthyl glucosid)uronic acid. 2-Formamidonaphthalene is converted into conjugates of 2-amino-6-naphthol and 2-amino-8-naphthol, but 2-methylaminonaphthalene is excreted as 2-amino-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate and its N-methyl and N-formyl derivatives and (2-amino-1-naphthyl glucosid)uronic acid. 3. 2-Methylamino-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate is converted into 2-formamido-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate and 2-amino-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate on charcoal. 2-Amino-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate and formaldehyde react on charcoal to yield 2-methylamino- and 2-formamido-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate. 4. 2-Formamido-1-naphthol, 2-formamido-1-naphthyl hydrogen sulphate, N-formyl-2-naphthylhydroxylamine and N-formyl-2-naphthylhydroxylamine-O-sulphonic acid were synthesized. PMID:5965337

  12. The synthesis of dermatan sulphate proteoglycans by fetal and adult human articular cartilage.

    PubMed Central

    Melching, L I; Roughley, P J

    1989-01-01

    Non-aggregating dermatan sulphate proteoglycans can be extracted from both fetal and adult human articular cartilage. The dermatan sulphate proteoglycans appear to be smaller in the adult, this presumably being due to shorter glycosaminoglycan chains, and these chains contain a greater proportion of their uronic acid residues as iduronate. Both the adult and fetal dermatan sulphate proteoglycans contain a greater amount of 4-sulphation than 6-sulphation of the N-acetylgalactosamine residues, in contrast with the aggregating proteoglycans, which always show more 6-sulphation on their chondroitin sulphate chains. In the fetus the major dermatan sulphate proteoglycan to be synthesized is DS-PGI, though DS-PGII is synthesized in reasonable amounts. In the adult, however, DS-PGI synthesis is barely detectable relative to DS-PGII, which is still synthesized in substantial amounts. Purification of the dermatan sulphate proteoglycans from adult cartilage is hampered by the presence of degradation products derived from the large aggregating proteoglycans, which possess similar charge, size and density properties, but which can be distinguished by their ability to interact with hyaluronic acid. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2775229

  13. Isotopic modelling of the significance of bacterial sulphate reduction for phenol attenuation in a contaminated aquifer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spence, Michael J.; Bottrell, Simon H.; Thornton, Steven F.; Lerner, David N.

    2001-12-01

    A Triassic sandstone aquifer polluted with a mixture of phenolic hydrocarbons has been investigated by means of high-resolution groundwater sampling. Samples taken at depth intervals of 1 m have revealed the presence of a diving pollutant plume with a sharply defined upper margin. Concentrations of pollutant phenols exceed 4 g/l in the plume core, rendering it sterile but towards the diluted upper margin evidence for bacterial sulphate reduction (BSR) has been obtained. Groundwaters have been analysed for both δ34S-SO 4 and δ18O-SO 4. Two reservoirs have been identified with distinct sulphate-oxygen isotope ratios. Groundwater sulphate ( δ18O-SO 4=3-5‰) outside the plume shows a simple linear mixing trend with an isotopically uniform pollutant sulphate reservoir ( δ18O-SO 4=10-12‰) across the plume margin. The sulphur isotope ratios do not always obey a simple mixing relation, however, at one multilevel borehole, enrichment in 34SO 4 at the plume margin is inversely correlated with sulphate concentration. This and the presence of 34S-depleted dissolved sulphide indicate that enrichment in 34SO 4 is the result of bacterial sulphate reduction. δ34S analysis of trace hydrogen sulphide within the plume yielded an isotope enrichment factor ( ɛ) of -9.4‰ for present-day bacterial sulphate reduction. This value agrees with a long-term estimate (-9.9‰) obtained from a Rayleigh model of the sulphate reduction process. The model was also used to obtain an estimate of the pre-reduction sulphate concentration profile with depth. The difference between this and the present-day profiles then gave a mass balance for sulphate consumption. The organic carbon mineralisation that would account for this sulphate loss is shown to represent only 0.1‰ of the phenol concentration in this region of the plume. Hence, the contribution of bacterial sulphate reduction to biodegradation has thus far been small. The highest total phenolic concentration (TPC) at which there is

  14. Stable isotopic evidence for anaerobic maintained sulphate discharge in a polythermal glacier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ansari, A. H.

    2016-03-01

    To understand the sources and sinks of sulphate and associated biogeochemical processes in a High Arctic environment, late winter snowpacks, the summer melt-waters and rock samples were collected and analysed for major ions and stable isotope tracers (δ18O, δ34S). The SO42bar/Clbar ratio reveal that more than 87% of sulphate (frequently > 95%) of total sulphate carried by the subglacial runoff and proglacial streams was derived from non-snowpack sources. The proximity of non-snowpack sulphate δ34S (∼8-19‰) to the δ34S of the major rocks in the vicinity (∼-6 to +18‰) suggest that the non-snowpack sulphate was principally derived from rock weathering. Furthermore, Ca2++Mg2+/SO42ˉ molar shows that sulphate acquisition in the meltwaters was controlled by two major processes: 1) coupled-sulphide carbonate weathering (molar ratio ∼ 2) and, 2) re-dissolution of secondary salts (molar ratio ∼ 1). The δ34S-SO4 = +19.4‰ > δ34S-S of rock, accompanied by increased sulphate concentration also indicates an input from re-dissolution of secondary salts. Overall, δ18O composition of these non-snowpack sulphate (-11.9 to -2.2‰) mostly stayed below the threshold δ18O value (-6.7 to -3.3‰) for minimum O2 condition, suggesting that certain proportion of sulphate was regularly supplied from anaerobic sulphide oxidation.

  15. Bronchodilating effect of intravenous magnesium sulfate in bronchial astham

    SciTech Connect

    Okayama, H.; Aikawa, T.; Okayama, M.; Sasaki, H.; Mue, S.; Takishima, T.

    1987-02-27

    The bronchodilating effect of magnesium sulfate (MgSO/sub 4/) was studied in ten asthmatic patients with mild attacks. In five patients, 0.5 mmol/min of MgSO/sub 4/ was administered intravenously for 20 minutes, and the time courses of respiratory resistance, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume at 1 s were studied. In another five patients, MgSO/sub 4/ dose-response curves were obtained. Soon after administration began, MgSO/sub 4/ relieved bronchoconstriction in a dose-dependent manner. Maximum responses of respiratory resistance, forced vital capacity, and forced expiratory volume were 71%, 117%, and 118% of initial values, respectively, and were similar to the effects of additional albuterol inhalation. The infusion of MgSO/sub 4/ also improved dyspnea and piping rales in three other asthmatic patients with a severe attack. The authors conclude that intravenous infusion of MgSO/sub 4/ produces a rapid and marked bronchodilation in both mild and severe asthma and may be a unique bronchodilating agent.

  16. Unintended consequences of atmospheric injection of sulphate aerosols.

    SciTech Connect

    Brady, Patrick Vane; Kobos, Peter Holmes; Goldstein, Barry

    2010-10-01

    Most climate scientists believe that climate geoengineering is best considered as a potential complement to the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, rather than as an alternative to it. Strong mitigation could achieve the equivalent of up to -4Wm{sup -2} radiative forcing on the century timescale, relative to a worst case scenario for rising CO{sub 2}. However, to tackle the remaining 3Wm{sup -2}, which are likely even in a best case scenario of strongly mitigated CO{sub 2} releases, a number of geoengineering options show promise. Injecting stratospheric aerosols is one of the least expensive and, potentially, most effective approaches and for that reason an examination of the possible unintended consequences of the implementation of atmospheric injections of sulphate aerosols was made. Chief among these are: reductions in rainfall, slowing of atmospheric ozone rebound, and differential changes in weather patterns. At the same time, there will be an increase in plant productivity. Lastly, because atmospheric sulphate injection would not mitigate ocean acidification, another side effect of fossil fuel burning, it would provide only a partial solution. Future research should aim at ameliorating the possible negative unintended consequences of atmospheric injections of sulphate injection. This might include modeling the optimum rate and particle type and size of aerosol injection, as well as the latitudinal, longitudinal and altitude of injection sites, to balance radiative forcing to decrease negative regional impacts. Similarly, future research might include modeling the optimum rate of decrease and location of injection sites to be closed to reduce or slow rapid warming upon aerosol injection cessation. A fruitful area for future research might be system modeling to enhance the possible positive increases in agricultural productivity. All such modeling must be supported by data collection and laboratory and field testing to enable iterative modeling to increase the

  17. Monitoring Biodegradation of Magnesium Implants with Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Daoli; Wang, Tingting; Guo, Xuefei; Kuhlmann, Julia; Doepke, Amos; Dong, Zhongyun; Shanov, Vesselin N.; Heineman, William R.

    2016-04-01

    Magnesium and its alloys exhibit properties such as high strength, light weight, and in vivo corrosion that make them promising candidates for the development of biodegradable metallic implant materials for bone repair, stents and other medical applications. Sensors have been used to monitor the corrosion of magnesium and its alloys by measuring the concentrations of the following corrosion products: magnesium ions, hydroxyl ions and hydrogen gas. The corrosion characterization system with home-made capillary pH and Mg2+ microsensors has been developed for real-time detection of magnesium corrosion in vitro. A hydrogen gas sensor was used to monitor the corrosion of magnesium by measuring the concentration of the hydrogen gas reaction product in vivo. The high permeability of hydrogen through skin allows transdermal monitoring of the biodegradation of a magnesium alloy implanted beneath the skin by detecting hydrogen gas at the skin surface. The sensor was used to map hydrogen concentration in the vicinity of an implanted magnesium alloy.

  18. Magnesium based degradable biomaterials: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Xue-Nan; Li, Shuang-Shuang; Li, Xiao-Ming; Fan, Yu-Bo

    2014-09-01

    Magnesium has been suggested as a revolutionary biodegradable metal for biomedical applications. The corrosion of magnesium, however, is too rapid to match the rates of tissue healing and, additionally, exhibits the localized corrosion mechanism. Thus it is necessary to control the corrosion behaviors of magnesium for their practical use. This paper comprehensively reviews the research progress on the development of representative magnesium based alloys, including Mg-Ca, Mg-Sr, Mg-Zn and Mg-REE alloy systems as well as the bulk metallic glass. The influence of alloying element on their microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion behaviors is summarized. The mechanical and corrosion properties of wrought magnesium alloys are also discussed in comparison with those of cast alloys. Furthermore, this review also covers research carried out in the field of the degradable coatings on magnesium alloys for biomedical applications. Calcium phosphate and biodegradable polymer coatings are discussed based on different preparation techniques used. We also compare the effect of different coatings on the corrosion behaviors of magnesium alloys substrate.

  19. Vapor Inhalation of Alcohol in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gilpin, Nicholas W.; Richardson, Heather N.; Cole, Maury; Koob, George F.

    2008-01-01

    Alcohol dependence constitutes a neuroadaptive state critical for understanding alcoholism, and various methods have been utilized to induce alcohol dependence in animals, one of which is alcohol vapor exposure. Alcohol vapor inhalation provides certain advantages over other chronic alcohol exposure procedures that share the ultimate goal of producing alcohol dependence in rats. Chronic alcohol vapor inhalation allows the experimenter to control the dose, duration, and pattern of alcohol exposure. Also, this procedure facilitates testing of somatic and motivational aspects of alcohol dependence. Chronic exposure to alcohol vapor produces increases in alcohol-drinking behavior, increases in anxiety-like behavior, and reward deficits in rats. Alcohol vapor inhalation as a laboratory protocol is flexible, and the parameters of this procedure can be adjusted to accommodate the specific aims of different experiments. This unit describes the options available to investigators using this procedure for dependence induction, when different options are more or less appropriate, and the implications of each. PMID:18634001

  20. Inhalation injury: a decade without progress.

    PubMed

    Sobel, J B; Goldfarb, I W; Slater, H; Hammell, E J

    1992-01-01

    Despite major advances in the management of patients with critical burn injuries, inhalation injury continues to be a major determinant of death resulting from burn injuries. Two cohort groups of victims with burn and inhalation injuries, separated by a decade, were retrospectively reviewed in an effort to determine the impact of newer treatment modalities. Patients were categorized as being at "high" or "low" risk on the basis of primary and secondary diagnostic criteria. Despite a statistically significant decrease in the percent of total body surface injury, no change in mortality rate was noted between the two groups. The advent of sophisticated diagnostic and management techniques does not appear to have decreased the mortality rate associated with inhalation injury. PMID:1452592

  1. Magnesium doping of boron nitride nanotubes

    DOEpatents

    Legg, Robert; Jordan, Kevin

    2015-06-16

    A method to fabricate boron nitride nanotubes incorporating magnesium diboride in their structure. In a first embodiment, magnesium wire is introduced into a reaction feed bundle during a BNNT fabrication process. In a second embodiment, magnesium in powder form is mixed into a nitrogen gas flow during the BNNT fabrication process. MgB.sub.2 yarn may be used for superconducting applications and, in that capacity, has considerably less susceptibility to stress and has considerably better thermal conductivity than these conventional materials when compared to both conventional low and high temperature superconducting materials.

  2. Magnesium-lithium casting alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Latenko, V. P.; Silchenko, T. V.; Tikhonov, V. A.; Maltsev, V. P.; Korablin, V. P.

    1974-01-01

    The strength properties of magnesium-lithium alloys at room, low, and high temperatures are investigated. It is found that the alloys may have practical application at ambient temperatures up to 100 C, that negative temperatures have a favorable influence on the alloy strength, and that cyclic temperature variations have practically no effect on the strength characteristics. The influence of chemical coatings on corrosion resistance of the MgLi alloys is examined. Several facilities based on pressure casting machines, low-pressure casting machines, and magnetodynamic pumps were designed for producing MgLi alloy castings. Results were obtained for MgLi alloys reinforced with fibers having a volumetric content of 15%.

  3. Inhaled Antibiotics for Lower Airway Infections

    PubMed Central

    Quon, Bradley S.; Goss, Christopher H.

    2014-01-01

    Inhaled antibiotics have been used to treat chronic airway infections since the 1940s. The earliest experience with inhaled antibiotics involved aerosolizing antibiotics designed for parenteral administration. These formulations caused significant bronchial irritation due to added preservatives and nonphysiologic chemical composition. A major therapeutic advance took place in 1997, when tobramycin designed for inhalation was approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for use in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) with chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection. Attracted by the clinical benefits observed in CF and the availability of dry powder antibiotic formulations, there has been a growing interest in the use of inhaled antibiotics in other lower respiratory tract infections, such as non-CF bronchiectasis, ventilator-associated pneumonia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, mycobacterial disease, and in the post–lung transplant setting over the past decade. Antibiotics currently marketed for inhalation include nebulized and dry powder forms of tobramycin and colistin and nebulized aztreonam. Although both the U.S. Food and Drug Administration and European Medicines Agency have approved their use in CF, they have not been approved in other disease areas due to lack of supportive clinical trial evidence. Injectable formulations of gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, ceftazidime, and amphotericin are currently nebulized “off-label” to manage non-CF bronchiectasis, drug-resistant nontuberculous mycobacterial infections, ventilator-associated pneumonia, and post-transplant airway infections. Future inhaled antibiotic trials must focus on disease areas outside of CF with sample sizes large enough to evaluate clinically important endpoints such as exacerbations. Extrapolating from CF, the impact of eradicating organisms such as P. aeruginosa in non-CF bronchiectasis should also be evaluated. PMID:24673698

  4. Boron Clusters as Highly Stable Magnesium-Battery Electrolytes**

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W

    2014-01-01

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electrolytes is very high. PMID:24519845

  5. Boron clusters as highly stable magnesium-battery electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Carter, Tyler J; Mohtadi, Rana; Arthur, Timothy S; Mizuno, Fuminori; Zhang, Ruigang; Shirai, Soichi; Kampf, Jeff W

    2014-03-17

    Boron clusters are proposed as a new concept for the design of magnesium-battery electrolytes that are magnesium-battery-compatible, highly stable, and noncorrosive. A novel carborane-based electrolyte incorporating an unprecedented magnesium-centered complex anion is reported and shown to perform well as a magnesium-battery electrolyte. This finding opens a new approach towards the design of electrolytes whose likelihood of meeting the challenging design targets for magnesium-battery electrolytes is very high. PMID:24519845

  6. An advanced and detailed in vitro validation procedure for the radiolabeling of carrier-free terbutaline sulphate dry powder.

    PubMed

    Walker, P S; Petterson, G L; Bondesson, E; Conway, J H

    2001-01-01

    The aerodynamic properties of 99mTc radiolabeled carrier-free terbutaline sulphate (TBS) have been thoroughly investigated following delivery by Turbuhaler (AstraZeneca Lund, Sweden). A full and detailed radiolabeling procedure is also reported. The in vitro radiolabel validation was performed to determine whether TBS radiolabeled in this way would be representative of the commercially available product Bricanyl Turbuhaler during clinical trials. The results indicated that variations in aerodynamic properties had been introduced and that the radiolabel would slightly underestimate the fine particle fraction of Bricanyl, but would nonetheless act as a suitable marker in vivo. Assumptions regarding the aerodynamic properties of doses likely to be received by clinical trial subjects were also examined. This has been achieved by extending the validation procedures beyond those usually reported to include dose number, time, and homogeneity dependent studies. It was found that doses extracted for testing purposes and simulated patient doses extracted shortly afterward had similar properties. Doses extracted 2 h after initial testing also had similar properties to the test doses. These results suggested that data from the test doses could be used for quality control purposes, would be representative of the doses to be received by clinical trial subjects, and that a short delay between initial testing and trial subject inhalation would be acceptable. PMID:11681654

  7. INHALATION EXPOSURE-RESPONSE ASSESSMENTS FOR FIVE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inhalation exposure-response assessments for five chemicals (acrolein, ethylene oxide, hexachlorocyclopentadiene, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene) for less-than-lifetime durations are being developed to inform the development of the Inhalation Exposure-Response Analysis Methodolog...

  8. Cow Dung Ingestion and Inhalation Dependence: A Case Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairkar, Praveen; Tiple, Prashant; Bang, Govind

    2009-01-01

    Although abuse of several unusual inhalants had been documented, addiction to cow dung fumes or their ashes has not been reported in medical literature as yet. We are reporting a case of cow dung dependence in ingestion and inhalational form.

  9. Fewer Inhaled Steroids May Be OK for Asthmatic Children

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159083.html Fewer Inhaled Steroids May Be OK for Asthmatic Children Study suggests ... 2016 FRIDAY, May 27, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Inhaled steroid therapy is commonly used to treat asthmatic children ...

  10. [Inhaled corticosteroids: Which regimens are appropriate?].

    PubMed

    Giovannini-Chami, L; Piccini-Bailly, C; Albertini, M

    2016-06-01

    Inhaled corticosteroids are the cornerstone of asthma management. Inhaled corticosteroid regimens differ slightly in various international guidelines on asthma management but are based on the principles of continuous treatment and titration to the lowest effective dose. Several recent studies, nevertheless, appear to demonstrate the potential value of preemptive or "pro re nata" regimens in infants and children. These studies were included in GINA 2015 for children 5 years of age and younger in whom discontinuous treatment is proposed as a second-line option. Should we change our practices after a critical reading of these studies? PMID:27133372

  11. The pathophysiology of smoke inhalation injury.

    PubMed Central

    Stephenson, S F; Esrig, B C; Polk, H C; Fulton, R L

    1975-01-01

    The consequences of near-lethal smoke inhalation in dogs were studied for a 72-hour period following injury. Progressive hypoxemia and decrease in compliance developed. Severe respiratory distress and frank pulmonary edema were not encountered. Respiratory insufficiecy was related more to alterations in ventilation perfusion ratios than to alveolar destruction. These data were related to clinical observations made by others. No deterioration of lung function was seen with crystalloid overload imposed upon smoke inhalation. The presence of bacterial infection in dogs surviving beyond 24 hours appears pathogenically significant. Images Fig. 8. Fig. 10. PMID:242281

  12. Formation of magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) cement pastes using sodium hexametaphosphate

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Tingting; Vandeperre, Luc J.; Cheeseman, Christopher R.

    2014-11-15

    Magnesium silicate hydrate (M-S-H) gel is formed by the reaction of brucite with amorphous silica during sulphate attack in concrete and M-S-H is therefore regarded as having limited cementing properties. The aim of this work was to form M-S-H pastes, characterise the hydration reactions and assess the resulting properties. It is shown that M-S-H pastes can be prepared by reacting magnesium oxide (MgO) and silica fume (SF) at low water to solid ratio using sodium hexametaphosphate (NaHMP) as a dispersant. Characterisation of the hydration reactions by x-ray diffraction and thermogravimetric analysis shows that brucite and M-S-H gel are formed and that for samples containing 60 wt.% SF and 40 wt.% MgO all of the brucites react with SF to form M-S-H gel. These M-S-H cement pastes were found to have compressive strengths in excess of 70 MPa.

  13. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Xiaofei Guan; Peter A. Zink; Uday B. Pal; Adam C. Powell

    2012-01-01

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.% Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the magnesium content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapor. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium.

  14. Magnesium Recycling of Partially Oxidized, Mixed Magnesium-Aluminum Scrap Through Combined Refining and Solid Oxide Membrane (SOM) Electrolysis Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Guan, Xiaofei; Zink, Peter; Pal, Uday

    2012-03-11

    Pure magnesium (Mg) is recycled from 19g of partially oxidized 50.5wt.%Mg-Aluminum (Al) alloy. During the refining process, potentiodynamic scans (PDS) were performed to determine the electrorefining potential for magnesium. The PDS show that the electrorefining potential increases over time as the Mg content inside the Mg-Al scrap decreases. Up to 100% percent of magnesium is refined from the Mg-Al scrap by a novel refining process of dissolving magnesium and its oxide into a flux followed by vapor phase removal of dissolved magnesium and subsequently condensing the magnesium vapors in a separate condenser. The solid oxide membrane (SOM) electrolysis process is employed in the refining system to enable additional recycling of magnesium from magnesium oxide (MgO) in the partially oxidized Mg-Al scrap. The combination of the refining and SOM processes yields 7.4g of pure magnesium; could not collect and weigh all of the magnesium recovered.

  15. The USAMP magnesium powertrain cast components project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, Bob R.

    2002-02-01

    Despite the demonstrated ability of magnesium alloys to significantly reduce weight at acceptable costs in many areas of an automobile, powertrain components have not benefited from this metal, primarily because the high-temperature alloys that are required for engines and transmissions are too expensive. However, the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Automotive Materials Partnership have launched a project to evaluate several new, potentially low-cost magnesium alloys, design several pre-competitive power-train components for the best alloy properties, cast and dynamometer or vehicle test the components in assembled powertrains, develop a powertrain magnesium alloy design database and common alloy specification, and identify andpromote the funding of fundamental research into improved magnesium alloys and casting processes.

  16. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  17. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  18. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... phosphoric acid. (b) Magnesium phosphate, dibasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which is incorporated by reference. Copies...

  19. 21 CFR 184.1434 - Magnesium phosphate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 179, which is incorporated by reference. Magnesium phosphate, tribasic, meets the specifications of the Food Chemicals Codex, 3d Ed. (1981), p. 180, which...

  20. Mathematics Achievement and Inhalant Allergy in Middle School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burchfield, Patricia Crosby; Easterday, Kenneth E.

    1991-01-01

    This study of 137 students in grades 6 through 8 found no significant differences between the mean scores of sixth and seventh grade students with and without inhalant allergies on a mathematics concepts subtest, but found that eighth grade students with inhalant allergies performed better than eighth grade students without inhalant allergies.…

  1. Physical Symptoms and Psychological Distress among Inhalant Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joe, George W.; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Among 110 Mexican-American adolescents with varying drug use histories, self-reported physical health problems were not related to inhalant use history, but blood analyses indicated a relationship between extensive inhalant use and liver problems. Psychological distress symptoms were related to inhalant use and physical symptoms. Contains 23…

  2. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  3. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  4. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  5. 49 CFR 172.555 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. 172.555 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Placarding § 172.555 POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD placard must be as follows: ER22JY97.025 (b) In addition...

  6. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  7. 49 CFR 172.429 - POISON INHALATION HAZARD label.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. 172.429 Section... REQUIREMENTS, AND SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.429 POISON INHALATION HAZARD label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON INHALATION HAZARD label must be as follows: ER22JY97.023 (b) In addition to...

  8. Nuclear reactor shield including magnesium oxide

    DOEpatents

    Rouse, Carl A.; Simnad, Massoud T.

    1981-01-01

    An improvement in nuclear reactor shielding of a type used in reactor applications involving significant amounts of fast neutron flux, the reactor shielding including means providing structural support, neutron moderator material, neutron absorber material and other components as described below, wherein at least a portion of the neutron moderator material is magnesium in the form of magnesium oxide either alone or in combination with other moderator materials such as graphite and iron.

  9. Hydrogen in magnesium palladium thin layer structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kruijtzer, G. L.

    2008-02-01

    In this thesis, the study of hydrogen storage, absorption and desorption in magnesium layers is described. The magnesium layers have a thickness of 50-500 nm and are covered by a palladium layer which acts as a hydrogen dissociation/association catalyst. The study was preformed under ultra high vacuum conditions to avoid oxygen contamination. The main analysis techniques were RBS, ERD and TDS.

  10. Purification and N-terminal amino acid sequence of a chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate proteoglycan isolated from intima/media preparations of human aorta.

    PubMed

    Stöcker, G; Meyer, H E; Wagener, C; Greiling, H

    1991-03-01

    A proteoglycan (PG) was purified to homogeneity from intima/media preparations of human aorta specimens by the following chromatographic steps: Sepharose Q anion exchange, Sepharose CL-4B size exclusion, hydroxyapatite, MonoQ anion exchange and TSK G 4000 SW size exclusion. The purity of the preparation was established by SDS/PAGE using direct staining by silver or Dimethylmethylene Blue, as well as by Western blots of biotin-labelled samples. The electrophoretic mobility of the native PG was less than that of a 200,000-Mr standard protein. After treatment with chondroitin sulphate lyase ABC, a core protein of Mr 15,000 was revealed. The Mr of the glycosaminoglycan (GAG) peptides was less than 24,000, by comparison with a keratan sulphate peptide. The composition of the GAG chains was determined by differential digestion of the PG by chondroitin sulphate lyases AC/ABC or chondroitin sulphate lyase AC alone followed by anion-exchange chromatography of the resulting disaccharides. The GAG chains are composed of approximately one-third of dermatan sulphate and two-thirds chondroitin sulphate disaccharide units. The sequence of the 20 N-terminal amino acids is identical with the sequence previously reported for PG I isolated from human developing bone [Fisher, Termine & Young (1989) J. Biol. Chem. 264, 4571-4576]. The assignment of glycosylation sites to the serine residues in positions 5 and 10 was confirmed. The findings indicate that the chondroitin sulphate/dermatan sulphate PG is a major PG in intima/media preparations of human aorta and represents a biglycan-type PG. PMID:1848758

  11. Massive Volcanic SO2 Oxidation and Sulphate Aerosol Deposition in Cenozoic North America

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volcanic eruptions release a large amount of sulphur dioxide (SO2) into the atmosphere. SO2 is oxidized to sulphate and can subsequently form sulphate aerosol, which can affect the Earth's radiation balance, biologic productivity and high-altitude ozone co...

  12. Light microscopic histochemical and immunohistochemical localisation of sulphated glycosaminoglycans in the rooster comb and wattle tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Nakano, T; Imai, S; Koga, T; Sim, J S

    1996-01-01

    Comb and wattle tissues, which consist of layers of epidermis, dermis and central connective tissue, are known to contain sulphated glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) including dermatan sulphate and chondroitin sulphate-dermatan sulphate copolymers. Little is known about distribution of these CAGs in each tissue. The objective of this study was to localise sulphated GAGS in the comb and wattle tissues from mature roosters. Monoclonal antibodies 6D6, CS-56 and AH12 specific to dermatan sulphate proteoglycan (decorin), chondroitin sulphate and keratan sulphate, respectively, were used. In both tissues, 6D6 epitope was found to be more concentrated in the superficial layer of dermis and the central connective tissue than in the intermediate layer of dermis containing fibromucoid tissue. The staining pattern for 6D6 epitope was similar to that for collagen fibres. In contrast, CS-56 epitope was uniformly distributed in most parts of the dermis and the central connective tissue. The stratum germinativum in the epidermis was the major tissue showing positive staining with AH12, haematoxylin and safranin-O. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 PMID:8982840

  13. Sequence analysis of heparan sulphate indicates defined location of N-sulphated glucosamine and iduronate 2-sulphate residues proximal to the protein-linkage region.

    PubMed Central

    Turnbull, J E; Gallagher, J T

    1991-01-01

    A strategy that we originally used to identify an N-acetylated domain adjacent to the protein-linkage sequence of heparan sulphate proteoglycan (HSPG) [Lyon, Steward, Hampson & Gallagher (1987) Biochem. J. 242, 493-498] has been adapted for analysis of the location of GlcNSO3-HexA and GlcNSO3(+/- 6S)-IdoA(2S) units most proximal to the core protein. [3H]Glucosamine-labelled HSPG from human skin fibroblasts was depolymerized by using HNO2 or heparinase under conditions that allowed cleavage of all susceptible linkages. The degraded PG was coupled to Sepharose beads through the protein component, enabling specific recovery of protein-linked resistant oligosaccharides. These were released by treatment with alkaline borohydride and analysed by gel filtration and gradient PAGE. This strategy allowed investigation of the sequence of sugar residues along the chain relative to a common reference point (i.e. the reducing end of the chain). HNO2 scission confirmed the presence of a well-defined N-acetylated sequence predominantly 9-12 disaccharide units in length proximal to the core protein. Heparinase scission produced two classes of oligosaccharides (Mr approx. 7000 and 15,000) with the general formula: IdoA(2S)-GlcNSO3-[HexA-GlcNR]n-HexA-GlcNSO3-[Hex A-GlcNAc]9 12-GlcA-Gal-Gal-Xyl in which the average value for n is 1-2 for the 7000-Mr species and approx. 22 for the 15,000-Mr species. The latter oligosaccharides extend to about one-third of the total length of the HS chains (Mr approx. 45,000). HNO2 scission of these oligosaccharides enabled hypothetical models for their sequence to be proposed. The general arrangement of N-sulphated and N-acetylated disaccharides between the proximal GlcNSO3 and terminal IdoA(2S) residues of the 15,000-Mr fragment was similar to that in the original polysaccharide, suggesting the possibility of a tandemly repeating pattern in the sequence of HS. Images Fig. 3. PMID:1859357

  14. Dispersibility of lactose fines as compared to API in dry powders for inhalation.

    PubMed

    Thalberg, Kyrre; Åslund, Simon; Skogevall, Marcus; Andersson, Patrik

    2016-05-17

    This work investigates the dispersion performance of fine lactose particles as function of processing time, and compares it to the API, using Beclomethasone Dipropionate (BDP) as model API. The total load of fine particles is kept constant in the formulations while the proportions of API and lactose fines are varied. Fine particle assessment demonstrates that the lactose fines have higher dispersibility than the API. For standard formulations, processing time has a limited effect on the Fine Particle Fraction (FPF). For formulations containing magnesium stearate (MgSt), FPF of BDP is heavily influenced by processing time, with an initial increase, followed by a decrease at longer mixing times. An equation modeling the observed behavior is presented. Surprisingly, the dispersibility of the lactose fines present in the same formulation remains unaffected by mixing time. Magnesium analysis demonstrates that MgSt is transferred to the fine particles during the mixing process, thus lubrication both BDP and lactose fines, which leads to an increased FPF. Dry particle sizing of the formulations reveals a loss of fine particles at longer mixing times. Incorporation of fine particles into the carrier surfaces is believed to be behind this, and is hence a mechanism of importance as regards the dispersion performance of dry powders for inhalation. PMID:26965200

  15. Continuous Inhalation of Ipratropium Bromide for Acute Asthma Refractory to β2-agonist Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mastropietro, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    To present the case of a patient with persistent bronchospasm, refractory to treatment with β2-agonists, that resolved promptly with continuous inhalation of large dose (1000 mcg/hr) ipratropium bromide, and to discuss the possibility of tolerance to β2-agonists as the cause for his failure to respond to adrenergic medications. The patient had received multiple doses of albuterol, as well as subcutaneous terbutaline (0.3 mg), intravenous magnesium sulfate (1 g) and intravenous dexamethasone (10 mg) prior to his admission to the intensive care unit. He remained symptomatic despite systemic intravenous steroids, continuous intravenous terbutaline (up to 0.6 mcg/kg/min), and continuous nebulized albuterol (up to 20 mg/hr for 57 hr) followed by 49 hours of continuous levalbuterol (7 mg/hr). Due to the lack of response, all β2-agonists were discontinued at 106 hours post-admission, and he was started on large dose ipratropium bromide (1000 mcg/hr) by continuous nebulization. Clinical improvement was evident within 1 hour and complete resolution of his symptoms within 4 hours. Continuous inhalation of large dose ipratropium bromide may be an effective regimen for the treatment of patients hospitalized with acute asthma who are deemed to be nonresponsive and/or tolerant to β2-agonist therapy. PMID:25859173

  16. Continuous Inhalation of Ipratropium Bromide for Acute Asthma Refractory to β2-agonist Treatment.

    PubMed

    Koumbourlis, Anastassios C; Mastropietro, Christopher

    2015-01-01

    To present the case of a patient with persistent bronchospasm, refractory to treatment with β2-agonists, that resolved promptly with continuous inhalation of large dose (1000 mcg/hr) ipratropium bromide, and to discuss the possibility of tolerance to β2-agonists as the cause for his failure to respond to adrenergic medications. The patient had received multiple doses of albuterol, as well as subcutaneous terbutaline (0.3 mg), intravenous magnesium sulfate (1 g) and intravenous dexamethasone (10 mg) prior to his admission to the intensive care unit. He remained symptomatic despite systemic intravenous steroids, continuous intravenous terbutaline (up to 0.6 mcg/kg/min), and continuous nebulized albuterol (up to 20 mg/hr for 57 hr) followed by 49 hours of continuous levalbuterol (7 mg/hr). Due to the lack of response, all β2-agonists were discontinued at 106 hours post-admission, and he was started on large dose ipratropium bromide (1000 mcg/hr) by continuous nebulization. Clinical improvement was evident within 1 hour and complete resolution of his symptoms within 4 hours. Continuous inhalation of large dose ipratropium bromide may be an effective regimen for the treatment of patients hospitalized with acute asthma who are deemed to be nonresponsive and/or tolerant to β2-agonist therapy. PMID:25859173

  17. Immunological Response to Biodegradable Magnesium Implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pichler, Karin; Fischerauer, Stefan; Ferlic, Peter; Martinelli, Elisabeth; Brezinsek, Hans-Peter; Uggowitzer, Peter J.; Löffler, Jörg F.; Weinberg, Annelie-Martina

    2014-04-01

    The use of biodegradable magnesium implants in pediatric trauma surgery would render surgical interventions for implant removal after tissue healing unnecessary, thereby preventing stress to the children and reducing therapy costs. In this study, we report on the immunological response to biodegradable magnesium implants—as an important aspect in evaluating biocompatibility—tested in a growing rat model. The focus of this study was to investigate the response of the innate immune system to either fast or slow degrading magnesium pins, which were implanted into the femoral bones of 5-week-old rats. The main alloying element of the fast-degrading alloy (ZX50) was Zn, while it was Y in the slow-degrading implant (WZ21). Our results demonstrate that degrading magnesium implants beneficially influence the immune system, especially in the first postoperative weeks but also during tissue healing and early bone remodeling. However, rodents with WZ21 pins showed a slightly decreased phagocytic ability during bone remodeling when the degradation rate reached its maximum. This may be due to the high release rate of the rare earth-element yttrium, which is potentially toxic. From our results we conclude that magnesium implants have a beneficial effect on the innate immune system but that there are some concerns regarding the use of yttrium-alloyed magnesium implants, especially in pediatric patients.

  18. Investigation on Intermolecular Interaction in Supersaturation State of Cadmium Sulphate Mixed Zinc tris-THIOUREA Sulphate Solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muley, G. G.; Naik, A. B.; Gambhire, A. B.

    2014-06-01

    Zinc tris-thiourea sulphate (ZTS) is a well known nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal widely used for various NLO applications. The NLO, physical and chemical properties can be modified by adding impurities and/or modifying crystal growth conditions. The impurities present in the growth solution and growth conditions can affect the crystal growth parameters at great extent. Thus, the study on the nature of intermolecular interaction with the dopant in the solution during crystal growth process becomes important. In the present investigation, the ultrasonic velocity was measured in the aqueous solutions of pure and cadmium sulphate mixed ZTS in the supersaturation state at 313.15 K. The thermodynamic parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, inter molecular free length, acoustic impedance and relative associations have been calculated from the ultrasonic data and densities of water and solutions at 313.15 K, and the nature of intermolecular interaction has been discussed. FT-IR spectra of all mixtures in the solid form at room temperature were recorded and the shifts in the absorption peaks corresponding to the functional groups of ZTS have been reported.

  19. Correlation analysis between sulphate content and leaching of sulphates in recycled aggregates from construction and demolition wastes.

    PubMed

    Barbudo, Auxi; Galvín, Adela P; Agrela, Francisco; Ayuso, Jesús; Jiménez, Jose Ramón

    2012-06-01

    In some recycled aggregates applications, such as component of new concrete or roads, the total content of soluble sulphates should be measured and controlled. Restrictions are usually motivated by the resistance or stability of the new structure, and in most cases, structural concerns can be remedied by the use of techniques such as sulphur-resistant cements. However, environmental risk assessment from recycling and reuse construction products is often forgotten. The purpose of this study is to analyse the content of soluble sulphate on eleven recycled aggregates and six samples prepared in laboratory by the addition of different gypsum percentages. As points of reference, two natural aggregates were tested. An analysis of the content of the leachable amount of heavy metals regulated by European regulation was included. As a result, the correlation between solubility and leachability data allow suggest a limiting gypsum amount of 4.4% on recycled aggregates. This limit satisfies EU Landfill Directive criteria, which is currently used as reference by public Spanish Government for recycled aggregates in construction works. PMID:22410435

  20. THE METABOLISM OF NALED INHALED BY RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Naled (Dibrom) was prepared with a (14)carbon label in the 1-ethyl position. The labeled compound was administered in appropriate formulation vehicles to female rats by the inhalation, oral or intraperitoneal routes. Treated animals were either placed in metabolism cages and thei...