Science.gov

Sample records for inherent mercury emissions

  1. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the refinement of the rate constants used in the kinetic mechanism for mercury oxidation. The possible reactions leading to mercury oxidation are reviewed. Rate constants for these reactions are discussed, using both literature sources and detailed estimates. The resulting mechanism represents the best present picture of the overall chlorine homogeneous oxidation chemistry. Application of this mechanism to the data will be explored in the subsequent reporting period. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of two meeting papers presented during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1998a,b).

  2. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06

    Mercury emission compliance presents one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggest that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2}, followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char, or in the air pollution control equipment. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on testing of the kinetic mechanism reported in the previous semiannual report, and the interpretation of data (both ours and literature). This model yields good qualitative agreement with the data and indicates that mercury oxidation occurs during the thermal quench of the combustion gases. The model also suggests that atomic chlorine is the key oxidizing species. The oxidation is limited to a temperature window between 700-400 C that is defined by the overlap of (1) a region of significant superequilibrium Cl concentration, and (2) a region where oxidized mercury is favored by equilibrium. Above 700 C reverse reactions effectively limit oxidized mercury concentrations. Below 400 C, atomic chlorine concentrations are too low to support further oxidation. The implication of these results are that homogeneous oxidation is governed primarily by (1) HCl concentration, (2) quench rate, and (3) background gas composition. Work conducted under the present grant has been the subject of one journal paper that was accepted for publication during the reporting period (Sliger et al., 1999).

  3. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger; David J. Going

    1999-08-06

    Mercury emission compliance is one of the major potential challenges raised by the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments. Simple ways of controlling emissions have not been identified. The variability in the field data suggests that inherent mercury emissions may be reduced if the source of this inherent capture can be identified and controlled. The key mechanisms appear to involve the oxidation of the mercury to Hg{sup 2}, generally producing the more reactive HgCl{sub 2} , followed by its capture by certain components of the fly ash or char. This research focuses on identifying the rate-limiting steps associated with the oxidation step. Work in this reporting period focused on the development and application of a kinetics model to the oxidation data developed in the present program and literature data under MSW conditions. The results indicate that the pathway Hg + Cl = HgCl followed by HgCl + HCl = HgCl{sub 2} + H predominates over Hg + Cl{sub 2} under high-temperature conditions. This primarily occurs because Cl{sub 2} concentrations are too low under the present conditions to contribute significantly.

  4. REDUCTION OF INHERENT MERCURY EMISSIONS IN PC COMBUSTION

    SciTech Connect

    John C. Kramlich; Rebecca N. Sliger

    2000-08-26

    Oxidized mercury has been shown to be more easily removed from power plant flue gas by existing air pollution control equipment (e.g., wet scrubbers) than elemental mercury. The factors that determine how mercury is converted to the oxidized form in practical systems are, however, unknown. The present research focuses on developing an elementary, homogeneous mechanism that describes the oxidation of mercury by chlorine species as it occurs in practical furnaces. The goal is to use this mechanism (1) as a component in an overall homogeneous/heterogeneous mechanism that describes mercury behavior, and (2) to suggest low cost/low impact means of promoting mercury oxidation in furnaces. The results suggest an important role for Hg+Cl {r_arrow} HgCl and HgCl + Cl {r_arrow} HgCl{sub 2}. Here, the Cl is derived by radical attack on HCl in the high-temperature environment. The results suggest that the oxidation occurs during the time that the gases cool to room temperature. The high Cl concentrations from the flame persist into the quench region and provide for the oxidation of Hg to HgCl{sub 2} under lower temperatures where the products are stable. Under this mechanism, no significant HgCl{sub 2} is actually present at the higher temperatures where oxidized mercury is often reported in the literature (e.g., 900 C). Instead, all oxidation occurs as these gases are quenched. The results suggest that means of promoting Cl concentrations in the furnace will increase oxidation.

  5. Anthropogenic mercury emissions in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streets, David G.; Hao, Jiming; Wu, Ye; Jiang, Jingkun; Chan, Melissa; Tian, Hezhong; Feng, Xinbin

    An inventory of mercury emissions from anthropogenic activities in China is compiled for the year 1999 from official statistical data. We estimate that China's emissions were 536 (±236) t of total mercury. This value includes open biomass burning, but does not include natural sources or re-emission of previously deposited mercury. Approximately 45% of the Hg comes from non-ferrous metals smelting, 38% from coal combustion, and 17% from miscellaneous activities, of which battery and fluorescent lamp production and cement production are the largest. Emissions are heaviest in Liaoning and Guangdong Provinces, where extensive smelting occurs, and in Guizhou Province, where there is much small-scale combustion of high-Hg coal without emission control devices. Emissions are gridded at 30×30 min spatial resolution. We estimate that 56% of the Hg in China is released as Hg 0, 32% as Hg 2+, and 12% as Hg p. Particulate mercury emissions are high in China due to heavy burning of coal in residential and small industrial settings without PM controls. Emissions of Hg 2+ from coal-fired power plants are high due to the absence of flue-gas desulfurization units, which tend to dissolve the soluble divalent mercury. Metals smelting operations favor the production of elemental mercury. Much of the Hg is released from small-scale activities in rather remote areas, and therefore the activity levels are quite uncertain. Also, emissions test data for Chinese sources are lacking, causing uncertainties in Hg emission factors and removal efficiencies. Overall, we calculate an uncertainty level of ±44% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions. We recommend field testing of coal combustors and smelters in China to improve the accuracy of these estimates.

  6. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 21 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles. 88.311-93 Section 88.311-93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.311-93 Emissions standards for Inherently...

  7. Geothermal hazards - Mercury emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, S. M.; Siegel, B. Z.

    1975-01-01

    Enthusiasm for intensified geothermal exploration may induce many participants to overlook a long-term potential toxicity hazard possibly associated with the tapping of magmatic steam. The association of high atmospheric Hg levels with geothermal activity has been established both in Hawaii and Iceland, and it has been shown that mercury can be introduced into the atmosphere from fumaroles, hot springs, and magmatic sources. These arguments, extended to thallium, selenium, and other hazardous elements, underscore the need for environmental monitoring in conjunction with the delivery of magmatic steam to the surface.

  8. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2010-04-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the United Kingdom. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  9. Mercury emission from crematories in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaoka, M.; Oshita, K.; Takeda, N.; Morisawa, S.

    2009-12-01

    Anthropogenic sources of mercury emissions have a significant impact on global pollution. Therefore, finding uncharacterised sources and assessing the emissions from these sources are important. However, limited data are available worldwide on mercury emissions from crematories. In Japan, 99.9% of dead bodies are cremated, which is the highest percentage in the world, and more than 1600 crematories are in operation. We thus focused on emissions from crematories in Japan. The number of targeted facilities was seven, and we used continuous emission monitoring to measure the mercury concentrations and investigate mercury behaviour. The total mercury concentrations in stack gases were a few μg/Nm3 (normal cubic meters). Considering the time profile of mercury and its species in cremations, the findings confirmed that the mercury in stack gas originated from dental amalgam. The amount of mercury emissions was calculated using the total concentration and gas flow rate. Furthermore, the annual amount of mercury emission from crematories in Japan was estimated by using the total number of corpses. The emission amount was considerably lower than that estimated in the UK. From statistical analyses on population demographics and measurements, future total emissions from crematories were also predicted. As a result, the amount of mercury emitted by crematories will likely increase by 2.6-fold from 2007 to 2037.

  10. Virtual atmospheric mercury emission network in China.

    PubMed

    Liang, Sai; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Yafei; Xu, Ming; Liu, Weidong

    2014-01-01

    Top-down analysis of virtual atmospheric mercury emission networks can direct efficient demand-side policy making on mercury reductions. Taking China-the world's top atmospheric mercury emitter-as a case, we identify key contributors to China's atmospheric mercury emissions from both the producer and the consumer perspectives. China totally discharged 794.9 tonnes of atmospheric mercury emissions in 2007. China's production-side control policies should mainly focus on key direct mercury emitters such as Liaoning, Hebei, Shandong, Shanxi, Henan, Hunan, Guizhou, Yunnan, and Inner Mongolia provinces and sectors producing metals, nonmetallic mineral products, and electricity and heat power, while demand-side policies should mainly focus on key underlying drivers of mercury emissions such as Shandong, Jiangsu, Zhejiang, and Guangdong provinces and sectors of construction activities and equipment manufacturing. China's interregional embodied atmospheric mercury flows are generally moving from the inland to the east coast. Beijing-Tianjin (with 4.8 tonnes of net mercury inflows) and South Coast (with 3.3 tonnes of net mercury inflows) are two largest net-inflow regions, while North (with 5.3 tonnes of net mercury outflows) is the largest net-outflow region. We also identify primary supply chains contributing to China's virtual atmospheric mercury emission network, which can be used to trace the transfers of production-side and demand-side policy effects. PMID:24479953

  11. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  12. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emissions in Finland

    PubMed

    Mukherjee; Melanen; Ekqvist; Verta

    2000-10-01

    This paper is part of the study of atmospheric emissions of heavy metals conducted by the Finnish Environment Institute in collaboration with the Technical Research Centre of Finland (VTT) under the umbrella of the Finnish Ministry of the Environment. The scope of our study is limited solely to anthropogenic mercury that is emitted directly to the atmosphere. This article addresses emission factors and trends of atmospheric mercury emissions during the 1990s and is based mainly on the database of the Finnish Environmental Administration. In addition, data based on the measurements taken by the VTT regarding emission factors have been used to estimate emissions of mercury from the incineration of waste. The study indicates that the total emission of mercury has decreased from 1140 kg in 1990 to 620 kg in 1997, while industrial and energy production have been on the increase simultaneously. The 45% emission reduction is due to improved gas cleaning equipment, process changes, automation, the installation of flue gas desulfurization process in coal-fired power plants and strict pollution control laws. In the past, some authors have estimated a higher mercury emission in Finland. In this study, it is also observed that there are no big changes in the quality of raw materials. Estimated emission factors can be of great help to management for estimating mercury emissions and also its risk assessment. PMID:11032137

  13. Estimation of vegetative mercury emissions in China.

    PubMed

    Quan, Jiannong; Zhang, Xiaoshan; Shim, Shang Gyoo

    2008-01-01

    Vegetative mercury emissions were estimated within the framework of Biogenic Emission Inventory System (BEIS3 V3.11). In this estimation, the 19 categories of U.S. Geological Survey landcover data were incorporated to generate the vegetation-specific mercury emissions in a 81-km Lambert Conformal model grid covering the total Chinese continent. The surface temperature and cloud-corrected solar radiation from a Mesoscale Meteorological model (MM5) were retrieved and used for calculating the diurnal variation. The implemented emission factors were either evaluated from the measured mercury flux data for forest, agriculture and water, or assumed for other land fields without available flux data. Annual simulations using the MM5 data were performed to investigate the seasonal emission variation. From the sensitivity analysis using two sets of emission factors, the vegetative mercury emissions in China domain were estimated to range from a lower limit of 79 x 10(3) kg/year to an upper limit of 177 x 10(3) kg/year. The modeled vegetative emissions were mainly generated from the eastern and southern China. Using the estimated data, it is shown that mercury emissions from vegetation are comparable to that from anthropogenic sources during summer. However, the vegetative emissions decrease greatly during winter, leaving anthropogenic sources as the major sources of emission. PMID:19143313

  14. Mercury emissions from coal combustion in China

    SciTech Connect

    David G. Streets; Jiming Hao; Shuxiao Wang; Ye Wu

    2009-07-01

    This chapter reviews the magnitude and spatial distribution of mercury emissions from coal combustion in China. Due to the large quantities of coal burned and the relatively low level of technology, particularly in industry, emissions are high. Emissions were stable at about 200-210 Mg during the period 1995-2000, but because of rapid economic growth starting in 2001, mercury emissions grew quickly to a value of 334 Mg in 2005. The annual average growth rate for the period 1995-2005 was 5.1%. The uncertainty in emission estimates is about {+-}35% (95% confidence intervals). Emissions are concentrated in those provinces with high concentrations of mercury in coal (like Guizhou Province) and provinces in which a lot of coal is burned (like Shanxi Province). Because significant amounts of coal are burned in homes and small industrial facilities, without any kind of emission control at all, emissions of particulate mercury are higher in China than in the developed world; the speciation profile nationwide is: 64% Hg{sup II}, 19% Hg{sup p}, and 17% Hg{sup 0}. In the future, growth in mercury emissions is expected to be limited by the application of FGD for SO{sub 2} control and other advanced technologies. Estimates of emissions are hampered by the lack of comprehensive and reliable emissions testing programs in China.

  15. Mercury Emission Measurement at a CFB Plant

    SciTech Connect

    John Pavlish; Jeffrey Thompson; Lucinda Hamre

    2009-02-28

    In response to pending regulation to control mercury emissions in the United States and Canada, several projects have been conducted to perform accurate mass balances at pulverized coal (pc)-fired utilities. Part of the mercury mass balance always includes total gaseous mercury as well as a determination of the speciation of the mercury emissions and a concentration bound to the particulate matter. This information then becomes useful in applying mercury control strategies, since the elemental mercury has traditionally been difficult to control by most technologies. In this instance, oxidation technologies have proven most beneficial for increased capture. Despite many years of mercury measurement and control projects at pc-fired units, far less work has been done on circulating fluidized-bed (CFB) units, which are able to combust a variety of feedstocks, including cofiring coal with biomass. Indeed, these units have proven to be more problematic because it is very difficult to obtain a reliable mercury mass balance. These units tend to have very different temperature profiles than pc-fired utility boilers. The flexibility of CFB units also tends to be an issue when a mercury balance is determined, since the mercury inputs to the system come from the bed material and a variety of fuels, which can have quite variable chemistry, especially for mercury. In addition, as an integral part of the CFB operation, the system employs a feedback loop to circulate the bed material through the combustor and the solids collection system (the primary cyclone), thereby subjecting particulate-bound metals to higher temperatures again. Despite these issues, CFB boilers generally emit very little mercury and show good native capture. The Energy & Environmental Research Center is carrying out this project for Metso Power in order to characterize the fate of mercury across the unit at Rosebud Plant, an industrial user of CFB technology from Metso. Appropriate solids were collected, and

  16. Anthropogenic mercury emission inventory with emission factors and total emission in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jeong-Hun; Park, Jung-Min; Lee, Sang-Bo; Pudasainee, Deepak; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2010-07-01

    Mercury emissions concentrations, emission factors, and the total national emission from major anthropogenic sources in Korea for the year 2007 were estimated. Uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission factors and the total emission from each source types are presented. The annual national mercury emission from major anthropogenic sources for the year 2007, on average was 12.8 ton which ranged from 6.5 to 20.2 ton. Averaged emissions of elemental, oxidized, and particulate mercury were estimated at 8.25 ton, 3.69 ton, and 0.87 ton, respectively. Due to the removal of a major portion of particulate and oxidized mercury species, elemental mercury was dominant in stack emission. About 54.8% of mercury emission was contributed by industrial sources, 45.0% by stationary combustion sources and 0.02% by mobile sources. Thermal power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and incinerators (municipal, industrial, medical, sewage sludge) were the major mercury emitters, contributing about 26%, 25%, 21% and 20%, respectively to the total mercury emission. Other sources (crematory, pulp and paper manufacturing, nonferrous metals manufacturing, glass manufacturing) contributed about 8% of the total emission. Priority should be given in controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, oil refineries, cement kilns and waste incinerators. More measurements including natural and re-emission sources are to be carried out in the future in order to have a clear scenario of mercury emission from the country and to apply effective control measures.

  17. Mercury mass flow in iron and steel production process and its implications for mercury emission control.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Gao, Wei; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-05-01

    The iron and steel production process is one of the predominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study, field tests were conducted to study mercury emission characteristics and mass flows at two iron and steel plants in China. It was found that low-sulfur flue gas from sintering machines could contribute up to 41% of the total atmospheric mercury emissions, and desulfurization devices could remarkably help reduce the emissions. Coal gas burning accounted for 17%-49% of the total mercury emissions, and therefore the mercury control of coal gas burning, specifically for the power plant burning coal gas to generate electricity, was significantly important. The emissions from limestone and dolomite production and electric furnaces can contribute 29.3% and 4.2% of the total mercury emissions from iron and steel production. More attention should be paid to mercury emissions from these two processes. Blast furnace dust accounted for 27%-36% of the total mercury output for the whole iron and steel production process. The recycling of blast furnace dust could greatly increase the atmospheric mercury emissions and should not be conducted. The mercury emission factors for the coke oven, sintering machine and blast furnace were 0.039-0.047gHg/ton steel, and for the electric furnace it was 0.021gHg/ton steel. The predominant emission species was oxidized mercury, accounting for 59%-73% of total mercury emissions to air. PMID:27155436

  18. Mercury Emission Measurement in Coal-Fired Boilers by Continuous Mercury Monitor and Ontario Hydro Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yanqun; Zhou, Jinsong; He, Sheng; Cai, Xiaoshu; Hu, Changxin; Zheng, Jianming; Zhang, Le; Luo, Zhongyang; Cen, Kefa

    2007-06-01

    The mercury emission control approach attaches more importance. The accurate measurement of mercury speciation is a first step. Because OH method (accepted method) can't provide the real-time data and 2-week time for results attained, it's high time to seek on line mercury continuous emission monitors(Hg-CEM). Firstly, the gaseous elemental and oxidized mercury were conducted to measure using OH and CEM method under normal operation conditions of PC boiler after ESP, the results between two methods show good consistency. Secondly, through ESP, gaseous oxidized mercury decrease a little and particulate mercury reduce a little bit, but the elemental mercury is just the opposite. Besides, the WFGD system achieved to gaseous oxidized mercury removal of 53.4%, gaseous overall mercury and elemental mercury are 37.1% and 22.1%, respectively.

  19. [Development of mercury emission inventory from coal combustion in China].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Jing-kun; Hao, Ji-ming; Wu, Ye; Streets, David G; Duan, Lei; Tian, He-zhong

    2005-03-01

    Mercury emission inventory by province from coal combustion in China was developed by combining fuel consumption, mercury content in fuel and emission factors after combustion in this study. The study is intended to provide an understanding of mercury transformation, transportation and deposition in atmosphere, as well as propose measures to control mercury pollution in China. Mercury emission sources were classified into 65 categories by economic sectors, fuel types, boiler types and pollution control technologies. For two different data sets of mercury content in coal the total amounts of mercury released into atmosphere in 2000 in China were estimated at about 161.6 tons and 219.5 tons, respectively. The biggest three source sectors were industry, power plants, and residential use, contributing 46%, 35% and 14% of total mercury emissions, respectively. The shares of elemental mercury (Hg0), oxidized mercury (Hg2+ ) and particulate mercury (Hgp) were 16% , 61% and 23% , respectively. The spatial distribution of mercury emissions from coal combustion in China is not uniform. Henan, Shanxi, Hebei, Liaoning and Jiangsu contributed large amounts of mercury emissions, exceeding 10t x a(- 1). PMID:16004296

  20. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, Michael D.; Schlager, Richard J.; Sappey, Andrew D.; Sagan, Francis J.; Marmaro, Roger W.; Wilson, Kevin G.

    1997-01-01

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber.

  1. Method and apparatus for monitoring mercury emissions

    DOEpatents

    Durham, M.D.; Schlager, R.J.; Sappey, A.D.; Sagan, F.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Wilson, K.G.

    1997-10-21

    A mercury monitoring device that continuously monitors the total mercury concentration in a gas. The device uses the same chamber for converting speciated mercury into elemental mercury and for measurement of the mercury in the chamber by radiation absorption techniques. The interior of the chamber is resistant to the absorption of speciated and elemental mercury at the operating temperature of the chamber. 15 figs.

  2. WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    AN EPA/ORD Workshop on Source Emission and Ambient Air Monitoring of Mercury was held on 9/13-14/99, Bloomington, Minnesota. The purpose of the workshop was to discuss the state-of-the-science in source and ambient air mercury monitoring as well as mercury monitoring research and...

  3. Mercury emissions control technologies for mixed waste thermal treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Chambers, A.; Knecht, M.; Soelberg, N.; Eaton, D.; Roberts, D.; Broderick, T.

    1997-12-31

    EPA has identified wet scrubbing at low mercury feedrates, as well as carbon adsorption via carbon injection into the offgas or via flow through fixed carbon beds, as control technologies that can be used to meet the proposed Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) rule limit for mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators. DOE is currently funding demonstrations of gold amalgamation that may also control mercury to the desired levels. Performance data from a variety of sources was reviewed to determine ranges of achievable mercury control. Preliminary costs were estimated for using these technologies to control mercury emissions from mixed waste incineration. Mercury emissions control for mixed waste incineration may need to be more efficient than for incineration of other hazardous wastes because of higher mercury concentrations in some mixed waste streams. However, mercury control performance data for wet scrubbing and carbon adsorption is highly variable. More information is needed to demonstrate control efficiencies that are achievable under various design and operating conditions for wet scrubbing, carbon adsorption, and gold amalgamation technologies. Given certain assumptions made in this study, capital costs, operating costs, and lifecycle costs for carbon injection, carbon beds, and gold amalgamation generally vary for different assumed mercury feedrates and for different offgas flowrates. Assuming that these technologies can in fact provide the necessary mercury control performance, each of these technologies may be less costly than the others for certain mercury feedrates and the offgas flowrates.

  4. Fugitive Mercury Emissions From Nevada Gold Mines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. B.; Eckley, C. S.; Gustin, M.; Marsik, F.

    2008-12-01

    Mercury (Hg) can be released from point sources at gold mines (e.g. stacks associated with ore processing facilities) as well as from diffuse fugitive sources (e.g. waste rock dumps, heap leaches, etc). Fugitive Hg emissions have not been quantified for active gold mines and as such a large knowledge gap exists concerning the magnitude of total emissions from this source type. This study measured fugitive Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Northern Nevada. To contextualize the magnitude of the mine emissions with respect to those associated with natural surfaces, data were collected from undisturbed areas near the mines that are of similar geologic character. The initial results from this project have shown that there is a large range in surface Hg concentrations and associated emissions to the atmosphere from different surface types within a mine as well as between the two mines. At both mines, the lowest surface Hg concentrations and emissions were associated with the alluvium/overburden waste rock dumps. Surface Hg concentrations and emissions at nearby undisturbed sites were of similar magnitude. Surface concentrations and emissions were substantially higher from active heap leaches. In addition to the difference in fluxes for specific materials, measured emissions must be put within the context of material spatial extent and temporal variability. Here we compare Hg emission contributions from mining and undisturbed materials as a function of space and time (diel and seasonal), and illustrate the need for collection of these types of data in order to reduce uncertainties in understanding air-surface Hg exchange.

  5. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE U.S. PETROLEUM INDUSTRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mercury Study Report to Congress (12/97) describes what is known about the health effects, environmental occurrence, and sources of mercury emissions, but many holes exist in the data. Little is known, for example, about emissions from the gas, oil, and petrochemical industr...

  6. Mercury emission and behavior in primary ferrous metal production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Naomichi; Takaoka, Masaki; Doumoto, Shingo; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Morisawa, Shinsuke; Mizuno, Tadao

    2011-07-01

    Ferrous metal production is thought to be a major mercury emission source because it uses large amounts of coal and iron ore, which contain trace amounts of mercury impurities. However, there is limited information about mercury emissions during the production process. In this study, we focused on the coke-oven process, sintering furnace process, and blast furnace process. We measured the mercury concentration in the raw materials, products, and byproducts to estimate the amount of mercury emitted and to investigate the behavior of mercury during the processes. Average mercury concentrations were 30.8 μg kg -1 in 54 samples of iron ore and 59.9 μg kg -1 in 33 samples of coal. The total mercury used for ferrous metal production in Japan was estimated to be 8.45 tons in 2005, with 4.07 tons from iron ore, 3.76 tons from coal, and 0.478 tons from limestone. Emissions from the sintering process accounted for more than 90% of the total emissions, and mercury in the exhaust gas was reduced using an activated coke tower and desulfurization equipment installed downstream of an electrostatic precipitator. When byproduct gas generated from coke-oven and blast furnace processes were included, mercury emissions estimates based on actual measurements were 4.08 tons y -1 (in 2005). Thus, about 50% of the mercury input in ferrous metal production was emitted to the atmosphere. The emission factor was calculated as 0.0488 g Hg ton -1 for crude steel production. The introduction of activated coke tower or desulfurization equipment in sintering furnace facilities would reduce mercury emissions.

  7. Atmospheric emissions of mercury from Australian point sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter F.

    The UN Global Mercury Assessment (GMA) estimates that atmospheric emissions of mercury from Australian stationary combustion sources were 97.0 tonnes for the year of 1995. This is more than 90% of the estimated emissions from stationary combustion for the whole of North America, and seems abnormally high for a country with a population of around 20 million, in spite of the fact that most of Australia's stationary energy supply is provided by coal. It is also significantly larger than previous estimates of mercury emissions from Australian sources. New estimates of Australian mercury emissions from stationary energy sources, based on both a top down and bottom up approach, are presented. These estimates can be reconciled for black coal fired power stations, but suggest that the bottom up approach (the Australian National Pollutant Inventory) significantly under-estimates emissions from brown coal fired plant, if mercury capture efficiencies in these plants are low, as observed for lignite-fired plant. The major uncertainties in these estimates are the coal mercury content in coals burnt in Australian power stations, and the mercury capture efficiency in particulate control devices used at these stations. Based on these estimates, Australian emissions of mercury from stationary energy are currently 2-8 tonnes/year, significantly lower than the GMA estimate.

  8. Preparation of mercury emissions inventory for eastern North America.

    PubMed

    Walcek, Chris; De Santis, Steven; Gentile, Thomas

    2003-01-01

    Point and area inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions documented by US and Canadian environmental agencies have been aggregated into a single archive for analysis and air pollution modeling work. For 5341 point sources and 1634 aggregated area sources, mercury emissions are apportioned among elemental gaseous [Hg(0)], reactive gaseous[Hg(II)], and particulate [Hg(p)] emissions using speciation factors derived from available monitoring measurements. According to this inventory, 4.82 x 10(5) mol of mercury were emitted in calendar year 1996 in the latitude range 24-51 degrees north, and longitude range 64-91 degrees west, which covers most of North America east of the Mississippi River. Using speciation factors consistent with past emission source studies, we find the relative emission proportions among Hg(0):Hg(II):Hg(p) species are 47:35:18. Maps of the various mercury species' emissions patterns are presented. Gridded emission patterns show local mercury emission extremes associated with individual cement production and municipal incineration facilities, and in contrast to past inventories, population centers do not stand out. Considerable uncertainties are still present in estimating emissions from large point sources, as are methods of apportioning emissions among various mercury species. PMID:12667765

  9. NOVEL MERCURY OXIDANT AND SORBENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have successfully developed novel efficient and cost-effective sorbent and oxidant for removing mercury from power plant flue gases. These sorbent and oxidant offer great promise for controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants burning a wide range of c...

  10. Mercury emissions from coal combustion in Silesia, analysis using geostatistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zasina, Damian; Zawadzki, Jaroslaw

    2015-04-01

    Data provided by the UNEP's report on mercury [1] shows that solid fuel combustion in significant source of mercury emission to air. Silesia, located in southwestern Poland, is notably affected by mercury emission due to being one of the most industrialized Polish regions: the place of coal mining, production of metals, stone mining, mineral quarrying and chemical industry. Moreover, Silesia is the region with high population density. People are exposed to severe risk of mercury emitted from both: industrial and domestic sources (i.e. small household furnaces). Small sources have significant contribution to total emission of mercury. Official and statistical analysis, including prepared for international purposes [2] did not provide data about spatial distribution of the mercury emitted to air, however number of analysis on Polish public power and energy sector had been prepared so far [3; 4]. The distribution of locations exposed for mercury emission from small domestic sources is interesting matter merging information from various sources: statistical, economical and environmental. This paper presents geostatistical approach to distibution of mercury emission from coal combustion. Analysed data organized in 2 independent levels: individual, bottom-up approach derived from national emission reporting system [5; 6] and top down - regional data calculated basing on official statistics [7]. Analysis, that will be presented, will include comparison of spatial distributions of mercury emission using data derived from sources mentioned above. Investigation will include three voivodeships of Poland: Lower Silesian, Opole (voivodeship) and Silesian using selected geostatistical methodologies including ordinary kriging [8]. References [1] UNEP. Global Mercury Assessment 2013: Sources, Emissions, Releases and Environmental Transport. UNEP Chemicals Branch, Geneva, Switzerland, 2013. [2] NCEM. Poland's Informative Inventory Report 2014. NCEM at the IEP-NRI, 2014. http

  11. Diminished mercury emission from waters with duckweed cover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenberg, Jennifer L.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2009-06-01

    Duckweeds (Lemnaceae) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and limits gas exchange at the water-air interface by decreasing the area of open water surface. Experiments were conducted to determine whether duckweed decreases mercury emission by limiting gas diffusion across the water-air interface and attenuating light, or, conversely, enhances emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. Microcosm flux chamber experiments indicate that duckweed decreases mercury emission from the water surface compared to open water controls. Fluxes under duckweed were 17-67% lower than in controls, with lower fluxes occurring at higher percent cover. The decrease in mercury emission suggests that duckweed may limit emission through one of several mechanisms, including limited gas transport across the air-water interface, decreased photoreactions due to light attenuation, and plant-mercury interactions. The results of this experiment were applied to a model lake system to illustrate the magnitude of potential effects on mercury cycling. The mercury retained in the lake as a result of hindered emission may increase bioaccumulation potential in lakes with duckweed cover.

  12. Emissions of airborne toxics from coal-fired boilers: Mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.; Zaromb, S.

    1991-09-01

    Concerns over emissions of hazardous air Pollutants (air toxics) have emerged as a major environmental issue, and the authority of the US Environmental Protection Agency to regulate such pollutants was greatly expanded through the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990. Mercury has been singled out for particular attention because of concerns over possible effects of emissions on human health. This report evaluates available published information on the mercury content of coals mined in the United States, on mercury emitted in coal combustion, and on the efficacy of various environmental control technologies for controlling airborne emissions. Anthracite and bituminous coals have the highest mean-mercury concentrations, with subbituminous coals having the lowest. However, all coal types show very significant variations in mercury concentrations. Mercury emissions from coal combustion are not well-characterized, particularly with regard to determination of specific mercury compounds. Variations in emission rates of more than an order of magnitude have been reported for some boiler types. Data on the capture of mercury by environmental control technologies are available primarily for systems with electrostatic precipitators, where removals of approximately 20% to over 50% have been reported. Reported removals for wet flue-gas-desulfurization systems range between 35 and 95%, while spray-dryer/fabric-filter systems have given removals of 75 to 99% on municipal incinerators. In all cases, better data are needed before any definitive judgments can be made. This report briefly reviews several areas of research that may lead to improvements in mercury control for existing flue-gas-clean-up technologies and summarizes the status of techniques for measuring mercury emissions from combustion sources.

  13. Mercury and halogens in coal--Their role in determining mercury emissions from coal combustion

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.; Senior, Connie L.; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2012-01-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant. In its elemental form, gaseous mercury has a long residence time in the atmosphere, up to a year, allowing it to be transported long distances from emission sources. Mercury can be emitted from natural sources such as volcanoes, or from anthropogenic sources, such as coal-fired powerplants. In addition, all sources of mercury on the Earth's surface can re-emit it from land and sea back to the atmosphere, from which it is then redeposited. Mercury in the atmosphere is present in such low concentrations that it is not considered harmful. Once mercury enters the aquatic environment, however, it can undergo a series of biochemical transformations that convert a portion of the mercury originally present to methylmercury, a highly toxic organic form of mercury that accumulates in fish and birds. Many factors contribute to creation of methylmercury in aquatic ecosystems, including mercury availability, sediment and nutrient load, bacterial influence, and chemical conditions. In the United States, consumption of fish with high levels of methylmercury is the most common pathway for human exposure to mercury, leading the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to issue fish consumption advisories in every State. The EPA estimates that 50 percent of the mercury entering the atmosphere in the United States is emitted from coal-burning utility powerplants. An EPA rule, known as MATS (for Mercury and Air Toxics Standards), to reduce emissions of mercury and other toxic pollutants from powerplants, was signed in December 2011. The rule, which is currently under review, specifies limits for mercury and other toxic elements, such as arsenic, chromium, and nickel. MATS also places limits on emission of harmful acid gases, such as hydrochloric acid and hydrofluoric acid. These standards are the result of a 2010 detailed nationwide program by the EPA to sample stack emissions and thousands of shipments of coal to coal-burning powerplants. The United

  14. Are mercury emissions from geologic sources significant? A status report.

    PubMed

    Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2003-03-20

    Geologic sources of atmospheric mercury include areas of fossil and current geothermal activity, recent volcanic activity, precious and base metal deposits, and organic rich sedimentary rocks. Early estimates of emissions from these sources were not based on measurements of mercury fluxes but implied based on the difference between emissions from anthropogenic point sources and wet/dry deposition estimates. In the past approximately 7 years significant progress has been made in development of methods for the measurement of mercury emissions, definition of those parameters most important in controlling emissions and scaling up emissions from natural source areas. This paper summarizes the work done on scaling of emissions from discrete areas of natural enrichment and from the State of Nevada, which is situated within a global belt of mercury enrichment. Preliminary data indicate that elemental mercury is the predominant (>95%) form of mercury being emitted from these sources. Scaling results suggest that the value used in early models to represent emissions from global mercuriferous belts is too low by at least three times. PMID:12663180

  15. A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2002-01-01

    The first quarter of this project to develop a Cavity Ringdown Spectroscopy mercury continuous emission monitor involved acquisition and verification of the laser system to be used, initial cavity design, and initial software development for signal processing and data acquisition.

  16. [Study on mercury re-emissions during fly ash utilization].

    PubMed

    Meng, Yang; Wang, Shu-Xiao

    2012-09-01

    The amount of fly ash produced during coal combustion is around 400 million tons per year in China. About 65%-68% of fly ash is used in building material production, road construction, architecture and agriculture. Some of these utilization processes include high temperature procedures, which may lead to mercury re-emissions. In this study, experiments were designed to simulate the key process in cement production and steam-cured brick production. A temperature programmed desorption (TPD) method was used to study the mercury transformation in the major utilization processes. Mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization in China was estimated based on the experimental results. It was found that mercury existed as HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2), HgS and HgO in the fly ash. During the cement production process, more than 98% of the mercury in fly ash was re-emitted. In the steam-curing brick manufacturing process, the average mercury re-emission percentage was about 28%, which was dominated by the percentage of HgCl2 (Hg2 Cl2). It is estimated that the mercury re-emission during the fly ash utilization have increased from 4.07 t in 2002 to 9.18 t in 2008, of which cement industry contributes about 96.6%. PMID:23243850

  17. Mercury emission from coal-fired power plants in Poland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glodek, Anna; Pacyna, Jozef M.

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding sources of mercury emission in Poland. Due to the large quantities of coal burned at present, as well as taking into account existing reserves, coal remains the main energy source of energy in Poland. The data on coal consumption in Poland in the past, at present and in the future are discussed in the paper. Information on the content of mercury in Polish coals is presented. Coal combustion processes for electricity and heat production are the main source of anthropogenic mercury emission in Poland. It is expected that the current emissions will decrease in the future due to implementation of efficient control measures. These measures for emission reduction are described in the paper. Results of estimated mercury emission from coal-fired power station situated in the Upper Silesia Region, Poland are investigated. A relationship between mercury emission to the air and the mercury content in the consumed coal in power station equipped with the electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is discussed.

  18. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Test Procedure (FTP), modified for ILEV certification, from 40 CFR part 86, subpart B for LDVs and LDTs and from 40 CFR part 86, subpart M for HDVs. (A) After disabling any and all auxiliary emission... CFR part 86). (B) Conventional Federal Test Procedure. A vehicle with no evaporative emissions...

  19. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.311-93 Emissions... Test Procedure (FTP), modified for ILEV certification, from 40 CFR part 86, subpart B for LDVs and LDTs and from 40 CFR part 86, subpart M for HDVs. (A) After disabling any and all auxiliary...

  20. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.311-93 Emissions... Test Procedure (FTP), modified for ILEV certification, from 40 CFR part 86, subpart B for LDVs and LDTs and from 40 CFR part 86, subpart M for HDVs. (A) After disabling any and all auxiliary...

  1. 40 CFR 88.311-93 - Emissions standards for Inherently Low-Emission Vehicles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) CLEAN-FUEL VEHICLES Clean-Fuel Fleet Program § 88.311-93 Emissions... Test Procedure (FTP), modified for ILEV certification, from 40 CFR part 86, subpart B for LDVs and LDTs and from 40 CFR part 86, subpart M for HDVs. (A) After disabling any and all auxiliary...

  2. AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION (ETV) TESTING OF FOUR MERCURY EMISSION SAMPLING SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    CEMs - Tekran Instrument Corp. Series 3300 and Thermo Electron's Mercury Freedom System Continuous Emission Monitors (CEMs) for mercury are designed to determine total and/or chemically speciated vapor-phase mercury in combustion emissions. Performance for mercury CEMs are cont...

  3. Impacts of Land Cover Change on Biomass Burning Emissions of Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, A.; Wu, S.; Huang, Y.

    2014-12-01

    Mercury is a toxic pollutant in the global environment. It can be deposited from the atmosphere to water bodies where conversion to the highly toxic methyl mercury occurs. Biomass burning is an important source of mercury to the atmosphere with emissions affected by vegetation type and density. We investigate the impacts of 2000-2050 land cover change on biomass burning emissions of mercury associated with the changes in wildfire activities and mercury emission factors. Our results show that the changes in mercury emission factors driven by vegetation change would significantly affect the mercury emissions from biomass burning over some regions, although little change in the global mercury emissions is calculated. Accounting for the changes in wildfire activities driven by land cover change by 2050 leads to an increase by 14% in the global total mercury emissions from biomass burning with even larger regional perturbations.

  4. Diminished Mercury Emission From Water Surfaces by Duckweed (Lemna minor)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wollenberg, J. L.; Peters, S. C.

    2007-12-01

    Aquatic plants of the family Lemnaceae (generally referred to as duckweeds) are a widely distributed type of floating vegetation in freshwater systems. Under suitable conditions, duckweeds form a dense vegetative mat on the water surface, which reduces light penetration into the water column and decreases the amount of exposed water surface. These two factors would be expected to reduce mercury emission by limiting a) direct photoreduction of Hg(II), b) indirect reduction via coupled DOC photooxidation-Hg(II) reduction, and c) gas diffusion across the water-air interface. Conversely, previous studies have demonstrated transpiration of Hg(0) by plants, so it is therefore possible that the floating vegetative mat would enhance emission via transpiration of mercury vapor. The purpose of this experiment was to determine whether duckweed limits mercury flux to the atmosphere by shading and the formation of a physical barrier to diffusion, or whether it enhances emission from aquatic systems via transpiration of Hg(0). Deionized water was amended with mercury to achieve a final concentration of approximately 35 ng/L and allowed to equilibrate prior to the experiment. Experiments were conducted in rectangular polystyrene flux chambers with measured UV-B transmittance greater than 60% (spectral cutoff approximately 290 nm). Light was able to penetrate the flux chamber from the sides as well as the top throughout the experiment, limiting the effect of shading by duckweed on the water surface. Flux chambers contained 8L of water with varying percent duckweed cover, and perforated plastic sheeting was used as an abiotic control. Exposures were conducted outside on days with little to no cloud cover. Real time mercury flux was measured using atomic absorption (Mercury Instruments UT-3000). Total solar and ultraviolet radiation, as well as a suite of meteorological parameters, were also measured. Results indicate that duckweed diminishes mercury emission from the water surface

  5. Controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, R.

    2009-07-15

    Increasingly stringent US federal and state limits on mercury emissions form coal-fired power plants demand optimal mercury control technologies. This article summarises the successful removal of mercury emissions achieved with activated carbon injection and boiler bromide addition, technologies nearing commercial readiness, as well as several novel control concepts currently under development. It also discusses some of the issues standing in the way of confident performance and cost predictions. In testing conducted on western coal-fired units with fabric filters or TOXECON to date, ACI has generally achieved mercury removal rates > 90%. At units with ESPs, similar performance requires brominated ACI. Alternatively, units firing western coals can use boiler bromide addition to increase flue gas mercury oxidation and downstream capture in a wet scrubber, or to enhance mercury removal by ACI. At eastern bituminous fired units with ESPs, ACI is not as effective, largely due to SO{sub 3} resulting from the high sulfur content of the coal or the use of SO{sub 3} flue gas conditioning to improve ESP performance. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  6. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2003-06-30

    Previous work on the detection of mercury using the cavity ring-down (CRD) technique has concentrated on the detection and characterization of the desired mercury transition. Interferent species present in flue gas emissions have been tested as well as a simulated flue gas stream. Additionally, work has been done on different mercury species such as the elemental and oxidized forms. The next phase of the effort deals with the actual sampling system. This sampling system will be responsible for acquiring a sample stream from the flue gas stack, taking it to the CRD cavity where it will be analyzed and returning the gas stream to the stack. In the process of transporting the sample gas stream every effort must be taken to minimize any losses of mercury to the walls of the sampling system as well as maintaining the mercury in its specific state (i.e. elemental, oxidized, or other mercury compounds). SRD first evaluated a number of commercially available sampling systems. These systems ranged from a complete sampling system to a number of individual components for specific tasks. SRD engineers used some commercially available components and designed a sampling system suited to the needs of the CRD instrument. This included components such as a pyrolysis oven to convert all forms of mercury to elemental mercury, a calibration air source to ensure mirror alignment and quality of the mirror surfaces, and a pumping system to maintain the CRD cavity pressure from atmospheric pressure (760 torr) down to about 50 torr. SRD also began evaluating methods for the CRD instrument to automatically find the center of a mercury transition. This procedure is necessary as the instrument must periodically measure the baseline losses of the cavity off of the mercury resonance and then return to the center of the transition to accurately measure the mercury concentration. This procedure is somewhat complicated due to the isotopic structure of the 254 nm mercury transition. As a result of

  7. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2003-04-01

    Accurate reporting of mercury concentration requires a detailed model that includes experimental parameters that vary, such as: pressure, temperature, concentration, absorption cross-section, and isotopic structure etc. During this quarter a theoretical model has been developed to model the 253.7 nm mercury transition. In addition, while testing the interferent species SO{sub 2}, SRD was able to determine the absorption cross-section experimentally and add this to the theoretical model. Assuming that the baseline losses are due to the mirror reflectivity and SO{sub 2}, SRD can now determine the concentrations of both mercury and SO{sub 2} from the data taken. For the CRD instrument to perform as a continuous emission monitor it will be required to monitor mercury concentrations over extended periods of time. The stability of monitoring mercury concentrations over time with the CRD apparatus was tested during the past quarter. During a test which monitored the mercury concentration every 2 seconds it was found that the standard deviation, of a signal from about 1.25 ppb Hg, was only 30 ppt. SRD continued interferent gas testing during this past quarter. This included creating a simulated flue gas composed of the gases tested individually by SRD. The detection limits for mercury, although dependent on the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the simulated gas matrix, remained well below the ppb range. It was determined that for the gases tested the only measurable changes in the baseline level occurred for SO{sub 2} and mercury. Speciation studies continued with mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}). This included checking for spectral speciation with both Hg and HgCl{sub 2} present in the CRD cavity. There was no observable spectral shift. Also a pyrolysis oven was incorporated into the gas delivery system both for tests with HgCl{sub 2} as well as atomization of the entire gas stream. The pyrolysis tests conducted have been inconclusive thus far.

  8. Mercury Emission Control Technologies for PPL Montana-Colstrip Testing

    SciTech Connect

    John P. Kay; Michael L. Jones; Steven A. Benson

    2007-04-01

    The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) was asked by PPL Montana LLC (PPL) to provide assistance and develop an approach to identify cost-effective options for mercury control at its coal-fired power plants. The work conducted focused on baseline mercury level and speciation measurement, short-term parametric testing, and week long testing of mercury control technology at Colstrip Unit 3. Three techniques and various combinations of these techniques were identified as viable options for mercury control. The options included oxidizing agents or sorbent enhancement additives (SEAs) such as chlorine-based SEA1 and an EERC proprietary SEA2 with and without activated carbon injection. Baseline mercury emissions from Colstrip Unit 3 are comparatively low relative to other Powder River Basin (PRB) coal-fired systems and were found to range from 5 to 6.5 g/Nm3 (2.9 to 3.8 lb/TBtu), with a rough value of approximately 80% being elemental upstream of the scrubber and higher than 95% being elemental at the outlet. Levels in the stack were also greater than 95% elemental. Baseline mercury removal across the scrubber is fairly variable but generally tends to be about 5% to 10%. Parametric results of carbon injection alone yielded minimal reduction in Hg emissions. SEA1 injection resulted in 20% additional reduction over baseline with the maximum rate of 400 ppm (3 gal/min). Week long testing was conducted with the combination of SEA2 and carbon, with injection rates of 75 ppm (10.3 lb/hr) and 1.5 lb/MMacf (40 lb/hr), respectively. Reduction was found to be an additional 30% and, overall during the testing period, was measured to be 38% across the scrubber. The novel additive injection method, known as novel SEA2, is several orders of magnitude safer and less expensive than current SEA2 injection methods. However, used in conjunction with this plant configuration, the technology did not demonstrate a significant level of mercury reduction. Near-future use of this

  9. INVESTIGATION OF THE LIGHT ENHANCED EMISSION OF MERCURY FROM NATURALLY ENRICHED SUBSTRATES. (R827622E02)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Incident radiation has been reported to facilitate mercury release from soils. In this study the influence of light on mercury emissions from substrates amended with pure synthetic mercury species, and from naturally and anthropogenically mercury-enriched substrates were inves...

  10. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MERCURY CEMS FOR COMBUSTION EMISSIONS MONITORING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Continuous emission montiroing systems (CEMS) for mercury (Hg) are receiving increased attention and focus. Their potential use as a compiance assurance tool is of particular interest. While Hg CEMS are currently used in Europe for compliance purposes, use of Hg CEMS in the Unite...

  11. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; LIPFERT, F.; SUBRAMANIAM, S.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-09-21

    Mercury is a neurotoxin that accumulates in the food chain and is therefore a health concern. The primary human exposure pathway is through fish consumption. Coal-fired power plants emit mercury and there is uncertainty over whether this creates localized hot spots of mercury leading to substantially higher levels of mercury in water bodies and therefore higher exposure. To obtain direct evidence of local deposition patterns, soil and vegetations samples from around three U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of hot spots and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. At all three sites, there was no correlation between modeled mercury deposition and either soil concentrations or vegetation concentrations. It was estimated that less than 2% of the total mercury emissions from these plants deposited within 15 km of these plants. These small percentages of deposition are consistent with the literature review findings of only minor perturbations in environmental levels, as opposed to hot spots, near the plants. The major objective of the sampling studies was to determine if there was evidence for hot spots of mercury deposition around coal-fired power plants. From a public health perspective, such a hot spot must be large enough to insure that it did not occur by chance, and it must increase mercury concentrations to a level in which health effects are a concern in a water body large enough to support a population of subsistence fishers. The results of this study suggest that neither of these conditions has been met.

  12. Modeling study of natural emissions, source apportionment, and emission control of atmospheric mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Suraj K.

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant and is important to understand its cycling in the environment. In this dissertation, a number of modeling investigations were conducted to better understand the emission from natural surfaces, the source-receptor relationship of the emissions, and emission reduction of atmospheric mercury. The first part of this work estimates mercury emissions from vegetation, soil and water surfaces using a number of natural emission processors and detailed (LAI) Leaf Area Index data from GIS (Geographic Information System) satellite products. East Asian domain was chosen as it contributes nearly 50% of the global anthropogenic mercury emissions into the atmosphere. The estimated annual natural mercury emissions (gaseous elemental mercury) in the domain are 834 Mg yr-1 with 462 Mg yr-1 contributing from China. Compared to anthropogenic sources, natural sources show greater seasonal variability (highest in simmer). The emissions are significant, sometimes dominant, contributors to total mercury emission in the regions. The estimates provide possible explanation for the gaps between the anthropogenic emission estimates based on activity data and the emission inferred from field observations in the regions. To understand the contribution of domestic emissions to mercury deposition in the United States, the second part of the work applies the mercury model of Community Multi-scale Air Quality Modeling system (CMAQ-Hg v4.6) to apportion the various emission sources attributing to the mercury wet and dry deposition in the 6 United States receptor regions. Contributions to mercury deposition from electric generating units (EGU), iron and steel industry (IRST), industrial point sources excluding EGU and IRST (OIPM), the remaining anthropogenic sources (RA), natural processes (NAT), and out-of-boundary transport (BC) in domain was estimated. The model results for 2005 compared reasonably well to field observations made by MDN (Mercury Deposition Network

  13. Enhanced control of mercury emissions through modified speciation

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1997-07-01

    In anticipation of possible regulations regarding mercury emissions, research efforts sponsored by DOE, EPRI, and others are investigating the risks posed by mercury emissions, improved techniques for measuring those emissions, and possible control measures. The focus in the control research is on techniques that can be used in conjunction with existing flue-gas-cleanup (FGC) systems in order to minimize additional capital costs and operational complexity. Argonne National Laboratory has supported the DOE Fossil Energy Program for over 15 years with research on advanced environmental control technologies. The emphasis in Argonne`s work has been on integrated systems that combine control of several pollutants. Specific topics have included spray drying for sulfur dioxide and particulate-matter control with high-sulfur coal, combined sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides control technologies, and techniques to enhance mercury control in existing FGC systems. The latter area has focused on low-cost dry sorbents for use with fabric filters or electrostatic precipitators and techniques for improving the capture of mercury in wet flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. This paper presents results from recent work that has studied the effects of several oxidizing agents in combination with typical flue-gas species (e.g., nitrogen oxides and sulfur dioxide) on the oxidation of Hg{sup 0}.

  14. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 2. An inventory of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States. Sab review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The volume of the draft Mercury Study Report to Congress describes mercury emissions from anthropogenic emissions summary estimates national mercury emissions rates by source category for area and point sources including combustion, manufacturing and miscellaneous point sources. Combustion point sources that dominate anthropogenic emissions are these: medical waste incineration, municipal waste combustion, utility boilers, and commercial/industrial boilers. National emission estimates are based on data from a 1990-1993 time-frame. Within the United States, numerous industrial and manufacturing processes contribute mercury emissions to the atmosphere. Sources of uncerainty and variability in these emissions categories are described in this volume. Data needed to improve these estimates are described in this volume.

  15. Mercury emission from a cement factory and its influence on the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuzaki, Norio; Tamura, Ryozo; Hirano, Yuzuru; Mizushima, Yoshio

    Mercury balance was investigated in a cement factory, measuring the mercury concentration in ingredients, fuels, cement and exhaust gases, etc. Daily mercury emission quantity from the factory was estimated to be 1.5 kg, originating mostly from limestone. Gaseous and particulate mercury concentrations in ambient air were 4.1-8.7 ng m -3 and 0.15-0.68 ng m -3, respectively. Particulate mercury concentrations are remarkably higher than the background ones. The influence of mercury emission estimated from the determined mercury levels in the leaves of indicator plants reaches up to 5 km at least from the source. The sum of the mercury quantity deposited from the atmosphere and that taken by leaves of plants in the area within a 5-km radius from the factory was calculated to be about 4% of the entire mercury emitted. The mercury residue was recognized in humus and surface soil in the forest near the factory.

  16. 40 CFR 63.11645 - What are my mercury emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false What are my mercury emission standards... Area Source Category Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11645 What are my mercury emission standards? (a) For existing ore pretreatment processes, you must emit no more than 127 pounds of mercury...

  17. 40 CFR 63.11645 - What are my mercury emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What are my mercury emission standards... Area Source Category Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11645 What are my mercury emission standards? (a) For existing ore pretreatment processes, you must emit no more than 127 pounds of mercury...

  18. 40 CFR 63.11645 - What are my mercury emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 15 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What are my mercury emission standards... Area Source Category Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11645 What are my mercury emission standards? (a) For existing ore pretreatment processes, you must emit no more than 127 pounds of mercury...

  19. 40 CFR 63.11645 - What are my mercury emission standards?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 14 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What are my mercury emission standards... Area Source Category Standards and Compliance Requirements § 63.11645 What are my mercury emission standards? (a) For existing ore pretreatment processes, you must emit no more than 127 pounds of mercury...

  20. Mercury enrichment and its effects on atmospheric emissions in cement plants of China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2014-08-01

    The cement industry is one of the most significant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric mercury emissions worldwide. In this study of three typical Chinese cement plants, mercury in kiln flue gas was sampled using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM), and solid samples were analyzed. Particulate matter recycling, preheating of raw materials, and the use of coal and flue gas desulfurization derived gypsum contributed to emissions of Hg in the air and to accumulation in cement. Over 90% of the mercury input was emitted into the atmosphere. Mercury emission factors were 0.044-0.072 g/t clinker for the test plants. The major species emitted into the atmosphere from cement plants is oxidized mercury, accounting for 61%-91% of the total mercury in flue gas. The results of this study help improve the accuracy of the mercury emission inventory in China and provide useful information for developing mercury controls.

  1. Mapping 1995 global anthropogenic emissions of mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon

    This paper presents maps of anthropogenic Hg emissions worldwide within a 1°×1° latitude/longitude grid system in 1995. As such, the paper is designed for modelers simulating the Hg transport within air masses and Hg deposition to aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. Maps of total Hg emissions and its three main chemical species: elemental gaseous Hg, divalent gaseous Hg, and particle-associated Hg are presented. The main emissions occur in southeast Asia (particularly in China), South Africa, Central and Eastern Europe, and the Eastern United States. These are the regions where coal combustion is the main source of electricity and heat production. Waste incineration adds to these emissions in the Eastern United States. Emissions of total Hg and its three species are quite similar in terms of their (global) spatial distributions. They reflect the worldwide distribution of coal consumption in large power plants, industrial burners, and small combustion units, such as residential and commercial furnaces.

  2. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 2. An inventory of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Keating, M.H.

    1997-12-01

    This volume describes mercury emissions from anthropogenic sources in the United States. The anthropogenic emissions summary estimates national mercury emissions rates by source category for area and point sources including combustion, manufacturing and miscellaneous point sources. Combustion point sources that dominate anthropogenic emissions are medical waste incineration, municipal waste combustion, utility boilers, and commercial/industrial boilers. National emission estimates are based on data from a 1994-1995 time-frame. Sources of uncertainty and variability in these emissions categories are described in this volume. Data needed to improve these estimates are described in this volume.

  3. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Coolbaugh, M.F.; Engle, M.A.; Fitzgerald, B.C.; Keislar, R.E.; Lindberg, S.E.; Nacht, D.M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J.J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, H.; Zehner, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 ??g Hg g-1). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m-2 h-1) to tens of thousands of ng m-2 h-1. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid west-ern United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  4. Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine wastes and surrounding geologically enriched terrains

    SciTech Connect

    Gustin, Mae S.; Coolbaugh, M. F.; Engle, M. A.; Fitzgerald, B. C.; Keislar, R. E.; Lindberg, Steven Eric; Nacht, D. M.; Quashnick, J.; Rytuba, J. J.; Sladek, C.; Zhang, Hong; Zehner, R. E.

    2003-01-01

    Waste rock and ore associated with Hg, precious and base metal mining, and their surrounding host rocks are typically enriched in mercury relative to natural background concentrations (<0.1 {micro}g Hg g{sup -1}). Mercury fluxes to the atmosphere from mineralized areas can range from background rates (0-15 ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}) to tens of thousands of ng m{sup -2} h{sup -1}. Mercury enriched substrate constitutes a long-term source of mercury to the global atmospheric mercury pool. Mercury emissions from substrate are influenced by light, temperature, precipitation, and substrate mercury concentration, and occur during the day and night. Light-enhanced emissions are driven by two processes: desorption of elemental mercury accumulated at the soil:air interface, and photo reduction of mercury containing phases. To determine the need for and effectiveness of regulatory controls on short-lived anthropogenic point sources the contribution of mercury from geologic non-point sources to the atmospheric mercury pool needs to be quantified. The atmospheric mercury contribution from small areas of mining disturbance with relatively high mercury concentrations are, in general, less than that from surrounding large areas of low levels of mercury enrichment. In the arid to semi-arid western United States volatilization is the primary means by which mercury is released from enriched sites.

  5. A Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy Mercury Continuous Emission Monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-12-15

    The Sensor Research & Development Corporation (SRD) has undertaken the development of a Continuous Emissions Monitor (CEM) for mercury based on the technique of Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy (CRD). The project involved building an instrument for the detection of trace levels of mercury in the flue gas emissions from coal-fired power plants. The project has occurred over two phases. The first phase concentrated on the development of the ringdown cavity and the actual detection of mercury. The second phase dealt with the construction and integration of the sampling system, used to carry the sample from the flue stack to the CRD cavity, into the overall CRD instrument. The project incorporated a Pulsed Alexandrite Laser (PAL) system from Light Age Incorporated as the source to produce the desired narrow band 254 nm ultra-violet (UV) radiation. This laser system was seeded with a diode laser to bring the linewidth of the output beam from about 150 GHz to less than 60 MHz for the fundamental beam. Through a variety of non-linear optics the 761 nm fundamental beam is converted into the 254 nm beam needed for mercury detection. Detection of the mercury transition was verified by the identification of the characteristic natural isotopic structure observed at lower cavity pressures. The five characteristic peaks, due to both natural isotopic abundance and hyperfine splitting, provided a unique identifier for mercury. SRD scientists were able to detect mercury in air down below 10 parts-per-trillion by volume (pptr). This value is dependent on the pressure and temperature within the CRD cavity at the time of detection. Sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) absorbs UV radiation in the same spectral region as mercury, which is a significant problem for most mercury detection equipment. However, SRD has not only been able to determine accurate mercury concentrations in the presence of SO{sub 2}, but the CRD instrument can in fact determine the SO{sub 2} concentration as well. Detection of

  6. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.; Keener, T.C.

    2009-09-15

    Mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants are estimated to contribute to approximately 46% of the total US anthropogenic mercury emissions and required to be regulated by maximum achievable control technology (MACT) standards. Dispersion modeling of mercury emissions using the AERMOD model and the industrial source complex short term (ISCST3) model was conducted for two representative coal-fired power plants at Coshocton and Manchester, Ohio. Atmospheric mercury concentrations, dry mercury deposition rates, and wet mercury deposition rates were predicted in a 5 x 5 km area surrounding the Coonesville and JM Stuart coal-fired power plants. In addition, the analysis results of meteorological parameters showed that wet mercury deposition is dependent on precipitation, but dry mercury deposition is influenced by various meteorological factors. 8 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Mercury air-borne emissions from 5 municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z. G.; Feng, X.; Li, P.; Liang, L.; Tang, S. L.; Wang, S. F.; Fu, X. W.; Qiu, G. L.; Shang, L. H.

    2010-01-01

    A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior in this source category, simply because China disposes of bulk MSW by landfilling and a large quantity of mercury enters into landfills. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in landfill gas (LFG) were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate fundamentally affected the magnitude of mercury emissions, resulting in the highest emission rate (as high as 57 651 ng Hg m-2 h-1) at the working face and in un-covered waste areas, and the lowest measured at soil covers and vegetation areas (less than 20 ng Hg m-2 h-1). Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m-3, monomethyl mercury (MMHg) and dimethyl mercury (DMHg) in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m-3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3285 g yr-1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.

  8. Assessment of mercury emissions inventories for the Great Lakes states.

    PubMed

    Murray, Michael; Holmes, S A Stacie A

    2004-07-01

    Anthropogenic mercury (Hg) air emissions for the eight Great Lakes states in 1999-2000 were evaluated by analyzing three inventories. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) National Emissions Inventory (NEI) had the most complete coverage for all states, and total Hg emissions ranged from 4226 lb in Minnesota to 15,828 lb in Pennsylvania. Coal-fired electric utilities accounted for 52.7% of the region's Hg emissions, varying from 20.2% of the total in New York to 67.5% in Ohio. Other important contributors to regional emissions included municipal waste combustion (5.6%), mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants and hazardous-waste incinerators (4% each), stationary internal combustion engines (ICEs) (3.5%), industrial, commercial, and institutional (ICI) boilers (3.3%), and lime manufacturing (3.0%). Although medical waste incineration accounted for just over 1% of regional emissions using the original classifications, the inclusion of health care facilities that may have been inappropriately identified with other sectors would increase the sector to 4.5% of regional emissions (and decrease the stationary ICE sector to 1.4% of the regional total). There were substantial differences for some sectors between the NEI and the Great Lakes Regional Air Toxics Emissions Inventory (GLEI), as well as unexplained differences within inventories between states (particularly for the cement, lime, and asphalt industries, and for lamp breakage). Toxics Release Inventory data for 2000 mainly covered electric utilities, and differences from the NEI were significant for several states. An independent assessment indicates the possibility of underestimated Hg emissions by about twofold for ICI boilers, although data for the sector (in particular concerning fuel oil emissions) are highly uncertain. Limited data indicate the likelihood of significant underestimates of electric arc furnace mercury emissions in the NEI and GLEI inventories. Several measures are here identified for improving

  9. Quantifying Total and Reactive Gaseous Mercury Emissions from the Sulphur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site, Northern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nacht, D. M.; Gustin, M. S.; Engle, M. A.; Zehner, R. E.; Giglini, A. D.

    2001-12-01

    Although it is generally assumed that elemental mercury is the dominant form of mercury (Hg) in the atmosphere, small amounts of Reactive Gaseous Mercury (RGM) have been measured. RGM species are at least 105 times more water soluble, more chemically reactive, and exhibit far greater wet and dry deposition rates than elemental mercury. This study evaluated mercury fluxes to the atmosphere and RGM concentrations at the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine Superfund Site. Mercury emissions were measured from 17 sites on the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine property and 6 locations offsite. Measured mercury fluxes ranged from 14 to 6895 ng m-2 hr-1 and were correlated with substrate mercury concentrations. RGM concentrations were measured with annular denuders at 8 sites on the Sulfur Bank Mercury Mine property and 2 locations offsite. RGM concentrations measured over the background Franciscan Sediments, during the day, ranged from 0.49 to 0.73 ng m-3, while concentrations measured over tailings, during the day, ranged from 1.79 to 75.88 ng m-3. RGM concentrations, measured during three week long sampling trips, ranged from ~ 0.03 to 70.76 % of total Hg concentrations with the highest percentage measured over the waste rock dam and in hydrothermally active areas. In a comparison of the use of annular versus tubular denuders for the measurement of RGM, it was found that they gave similar concentrations however annular denuders yielded less variability. Two Geographic Information System models were used to estimate mercury emissions from the SBMM site. These two models gave a range of 4.2 to 9.4 kg Hg yr-1.

  10. Global mercury emissions from combustion in light of international fuel trading.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yilin; Wang, Rong; Shen, Huizhong; Li, Wei; Chen, Han; Huang, Ye; Zhang, Yanyan; Chen, Yuanchen; Su, Shu; Lin, Nan; Liu, Junfeng; Li, Bengang; Wang, Xilong; Liu, Wenxin; Coveney, Raymond M; Tao, Shu

    2014-01-01

    The spatially resolved emission inventory is essential for understanding the fate of mercury. Previous global mercury emission inventories for fuel combustion sources overlooked the influence of fuel trading on local emission estimates of many countries, mostly developing countries, for which national emission data are not available. This study demonstrates that in many countries, the mercury content of coal and petroleum locally consumed differ significantly from those locally produced. If the mercury content in locally produced fuels were used to estimate emission, then the resulting global mercury emissions from coal and petroleum would be overestimated by 4.7 and 72%, respectively. Even higher misestimations would exist in individual countries, leading to strong spatial bias. On the basis of the available data on fuel trading and an updated global fuel consumption database, a new mercury emission inventory for 64 combustion sources has been developed. The emissions were mapped at 0.1° × 0.1° resolution for 2007 and at country resolution for a period from 1960 to 2006. The estimated global total mercury emission from all combustion sources (fossil fuel, biomass fuel, solid waste, and wildfires) in 2007 was 1454 Mg (1232-1691 Mg as interquartile range from Monte Carlo simulation), among which elementary mercury (Hg(0)), divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(2+)), and particulate mercury (Hg(p)) were 725, 548, and 181 Mg, respectively. The total emission from anthropogenic sources, excluding wildfires, was 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg), with coal combustion contributing more than half. Globally, total annual anthropogenic mercury emission from combustion sources increased from 285 Mg (263-358 Mg) in 1960 to 1040 Mg (886-1248 Mg) in 2007, owing to an increased fuel consumption in developing countries. However, mercury emissions from developed countries have decreased since 2000. PMID:24433051

  11. Historical atmospheric mercury emissions and depositions in North America compared to mercury accumulations in sedimentary records

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, Nicola; Allegrini, Ivo; Keeler, Gerald J.; Nriagu, Jerome O.; Rossmann, Ronald; Robbins, John A.

    Gold and silver production in North America (included United States, Canada and Mexico) released a large amount of mercury to the atmosphere until well into this century when mercury (Hg) amalgamation was replaced by cyanide concentration. Since then, emissions from industries have been the dominant anthropogenic sources of atmospheric Hg in North America as a whole. Past Hg emissions from gold and silver extractions in North America during the 1800s do not show a clear evidence of atmospheric deposition occurred at the coring sites considered in this study. Estimated atmospheric emissions of Hg in North America peaked in 1879 (at about 1708 t yr -1) and 1920 (at about 940 t yr -1), primarily due to Hg emissions from gold and silver mining. After the Great Economic Depression (1929) Hg emissions peaked again in the 1947 (274 t yr -1), in 1970 (325 t yr -1) and in 1989 (330 t yr -1) as result of increased Hg emissions from industrial sources, though improvements in the emissions control technology in United States and Canada have been substantial. Estimates of total atmospheric deposition fluxes of Hg to water and terrestrial receptors were in the range of 14.3-19.8 μg m -2 yr -1 in North America as a whole, and averaged 135 μg m -2 yr -1 (global background + local emissions) in the Great Lakes. These values were in good agreement with recent estimates reported in literature. The comparison of atmospheric Hg deposition fluxes with Hg accumulation rates in sediment cores suggests that atmospheric deposition was the major source of Hg entering the lakes system at coring sites, however, important contributions to Lake Ontario sediment cores sites from 1940 to 1970 were likely originated from local point sources (i.e. direct discharges).

  12. Estimation of mercury emission from different sources to atmosphere in Chongqing, China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dingyong; He, Lei; Wei, Shiqiang; Feng, Xinbin

    2006-08-01

    This investigation presents a first assessment of the contribution to the regional mercury budget from anthropogenic and natural sources in Chongqing, an important industrial region in southwest China. The emissions of mercury to atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in the region were estimated through indirect approaches, i.e. using commonly acceptable emission factors method, which based on annual process throughputs or consumption for these sources. The natural mercury emissions were estimated from selected natural sources by the dynamic flux chamber technique. The results indicated that the anthropogenic mercury emissions totaled approximately 8.85 tons (t), more than 50% of this total originated in coal combustion and 23.7% of this total emission in the industrial process (include cement production, metal smelting and chemical industry). The natural emissions represented approximately 17% of total emissions (1.78 t yr(-1)). The total mercury emission to atmosphere in Chongqing in 2001 was 10.63 t. PMID:16219340

  13. JV Task 98 - Controlling Mercury Emissions for Utilities Firing Lignites from North America

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Benson

    2007-06-15

    This project compiled and summarized the findings and conclusions of research, development, and demonstration projects on controlling mercury from lignite coals. A significant amount of work has been conducted since 1994 on mercury in lignite, mercury measurement in flue gases, sorbent, sorbent enhancement additives, oxidation agent development, and full-scale demonstration of mercury control technologies. This report is focused on providing the lignite industry with an understanding of mercury issues associated with the combustion of lignite, as well as providing vital information on the methods to control mercury emissions in coal-fired power plants.

  14. BBQ charcoal as an important source of mercury emission.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Sudhir Kumar; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Kang, Chang-Hee; Jung, Myung Chae; Yoon, H

    2009-02-15

    In this study, the environmental significance of mercury emission has been investigated with respect to the use of the barbecue (BBQ) charcoal. For this purpose, emission gas samples collected from a total of 11 barbecue charcoal products commonly available in the Korean market were analyzed. All of these products consist of both domestic (4 types) and imported products (7 types from three countries). The emission concentration of Hg varied widely from sample to sample ranging from 114 to 496ngm(-3). The amount of Hg emission appeared to be affected by the diverse nature of raw materials and/or the processes involved in their production. In light of the recent reference exposure limits (REL) of Hg, it can be a potential threat to human health. As such, a proper regulation is desirable from a toxicological viewpoint to reduce the potential risk associated with the use of BBQ charcoal. PMID:18571317

  15. Mercury emissions control by wet FGD systems: EPRI pilot-scale results

    SciTech Connect

    Peterson, J.R.; Hargrove, O.W. Jr.; Seeger, D.M.

    1995-06-01

    This paper presents results from pilot-scale tests that investigated mercury removal across wet limestone flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. The program was conducted at EPRIs Environmental Control Technology Center, located in Barker, NY. The test results showed that mercuric chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) was efficiently removed across the FGD system, while elemental mercury was not collected. The practical implication of this study is that although FGD systems efficiently remove some forms of mercury from flue gas, the overall mercury removal efficiency, and therefore the total mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant equipped with an FGD system, will depend on the chemical form of the mercury in the flue gas. Unfortunately, no validated gas sampling method is available for speciating the different forms of mercury in flue gas. It is, therefore, difficult to predict mercury removal across FGD systems and to interpret any mercury removal data that have been collected.

  16. 76 FR 13851 - National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-14

    ... 19, 2003, EPA promulgated the 2003 Mercury Cell NESHAP (40 CFR part 63, subpart IIIII, 68 FR 70904... proposed in 2008? On June 11, 2008 (73 FR 33257), EPA responded to NRDC's petition for reconsideration. In... supporting them, please see the preamble for the June 11, 2008 proposal (73 FR 33258). The 2008...

  17. Optimizing Technology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-01-31

    Revised maps and associated data show potential mercury, sulfur, and chlorine emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin. Existing coal mining and coal washing practices result in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hot-side ESP, cold-side ESP, or hot-side ESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cold-side ESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum net mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions.

  18. Mercury and plants in contaminated soils. 1: Uptake, partitioning, and emission to the atmosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, T.L.; Gustin, M.S.; Fernandez, G.C.J.; Taylor, G.E. Jr.

    1998-10-01

    The uptake, distribution, and subsequent emission of mercury to the atmosphere were investigated in five plant species (Lepidium latifolium [L.], Artemisia douglasiana [Bess in Hook], Caulanthus sp. [S. Watson], Fragaria vesca [L.], and Eucalyptus globulus [Labill]) with different ecological and physiological attributes. Transfer coefficients for mercury in the soil-plant system were calculated. Plant-to-atmosphere emissions of mercury were determined using a controlled environment gas-exchange system and ranged from 10 to 93 mg/m{sup 2}/h in the light; emissions in the dark were an order of magnitude less. Transfer coefficients for mercury within the soil-plant system increased acropetally (root-to-leaf axis) by orders of magnitude. Estimated mercury emissions from plants in the Carson River Drainage Basin of Nevada over the growing season (0.5 mg/m{sup 2}) add to the previously reported soil mercury emissions (8.5 mg/m{sup 2}), resulting in total landscape emissions of 9 mg/m{sup 2}. For L. latifolium, 70% of the mercury taken up by the roots during the growing season was emitted to the atmosphere. For every one molecule of mercury retained in foliage of L. latifolium, 12 molecules of mercury were emitted. Within this arid ecosystem, mercury emissions are a dominant pathway of the mercury cycle. Plants function as conduits for the interfacial transport of mercury from the geosphere to the atmosphere, and this role is undervalued in models of the behavior of mercury in terrestrial exosystems and in the atmosphere on a global scale.

  19. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Li, G. H.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J. M.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2010-02-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  20. Mercury emission and speciation of coal-fired power plants in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, S.; Zhang, L.; Li, G.; Wu, Y.; Hao, J.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.; Ancora, M. P.

    2009-11-01

    Comprehensive field measurements are needed to understand the mercury emissions from Chinese power plants and to improve the accuracy of emission inventories. Characterization of mercury emissions and their behavior were measured in six typical coal-fired power plants in China. During the tests, the flue gas was sampled simultaneously at inlet and outlet of selective catalyst reduction (SCR), electrostatic precipitators (ESP), and flue gas desulfurization (FGD) using the Ontario Hydro Method (OHM). The pulverized coal, bottom ash, fly ash and gypsum were also sampled in the field. Mercury concentrations in coal burned in the measured power plants ranged from 17 to 385 μg/kg. The mercury mass balances for the six power plants varied from 87 to 116% of the input coal mercury for the whole system. The total mercury concentrations in the flue gas from boilers were at the range of 1.92-27.15 μg/m3, which were significantly related to the mercury contents in burned coal. The mercury speciation in flue gas right after the boiler is influenced by the contents of halogen, mercury, and ash in the burned coal. The average mercury removal efficiencies of ESP, ESP plus wet FGD, and ESP plus dry FGD-FF systems were 24%, 73% and 66%, respectively, which were similar to the average removal efficiencies of pollution control device systems in other countries such as US, Japan and South Korea. The SCR system oxidized 16% elemental mercury and reduced about 32% of total mercury. Elemental mercury, accounting for 66-94% of total mercury, was the dominant species emitted to the atmosphere. The mercury emission factor was also calculated for each power plant.

  1. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-01-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  2. Control of mercury emissions from coal-fired boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.S.; Livengood, C.D.

    1992-09-01

    This project at Argonne is designed to investigate new concepts leading to advanced control technologies for fossil-energy systems. The objective of this new task on air toxics control is to develop new or improved, cost-effective control technology for the abatement of emissions of hazardous air pollutants (HAPs) from fossil-fuel combustion plants and to evaluate the possible effects of any captured species on waste disposal. The HAPs to be investigated initially in this task include mercury and arsenic compounds.

  3. Update of mercury emissions from China's primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q. R.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Song, J. X.; Yang, H.; Meng, Y.

    2012-07-01

    China is the largest anthropogenic mercury emitter in the world, where primary nonferrous metal smelting process is regarded as one of the most significant emission sources. In this study, atmospheric mercury emissions from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters in China during 2000-2010 were estimated using a technology-based methodology with comprehensive consideration of mercury concentration in concentrates, smelting process, mercury removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and installation rate of a certain type of APCD combination. Our study indicated that atmospheric mercury emission from nonferrous metal smelters in 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2010 was 67.6, 100.1 86.7 80.6 and 72.5 t, respectively. In 2010, the mercury in metal concentrates consumed by primary zinc, lead and copper smelters were 543 t. The mercury emitted into atmosphere, fly ash, other solids, waste water and acid was 72.5, 61.5, 2.0, 3774 and 27.2 t, respectively. Mercury retrieved directly from flue gas as byproduct of nonferrous metal smelting was about 2.4 t. The amounts of mercury emitted into atmosphere were 39.4, 30.6 and 2.5 t from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, respectively. The largest amount of mercury was emitted from Gansu province, followed by Henan, Yunnan, Hunan, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi provinces. The average mercury removal efficiency was 90.5%, 71.2% and 91.8% in zinc, lead, and copper smelters, respectively.

  4. Control of mercury emissions from coal fired electric uitlity boilers: An update

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coal-fired power plants in the U.S. are known to be the major anthropogenic source of domestic mercury emissions. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has recently proposed to reduce emissions of mercury from these plants. In March 2005, EPA plans to promulgate final regulat...

  5. PRELIMINARY PERFORMANCE AND COST ESTIMATES OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL OPTIONS FOR ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory


    The paper discusses preliminary performance and cost estimates of mercury emission control options for electric utility boilers. Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, EPA had to determine whether mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants should be regulated. To a...

  6. Annual emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from natural sources in Nevada and California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coolbaugh, M.F.; Gustin, M.S.; Rytuba, J.J.

    2002-01-01

    The impact of natural source emissions on atmospheric mercury concentrations and the biogeochemical cycle of mercury is not known. To begin to assess this impact, mercury emissions to the atmosphere were scaled up for three areas naturally enriched in mercury: the Steamboat Springs geothermal area, Nevada, the New Idria mercury mining district, California, and the Medicine Lake volcano, California. Data used to scale up area emissions included mercury fluxes, measured in-situ using field flux chambers, from undisturbed and disturbed geologic substrates, and relationships between mercury emissions and geologic rock types, soil mercury concentrations, and surface heat flux. At select locations mercury fluxes were measured for 24 h and the data were used to adjust fluxes measured at different times of the day to give an average daily flux. This adjustment minimized daily temporal variability, which is observed for mercury flux because of light and temperature effects. Area emissions were scaled spatially and temporally with GIS software. Measured fluxes ranged from 0.3 to approximately 50 ng m-2 h-1 at undisturbed sites devoid of mercury mineralization, and to greater than 10,000 ng m-2 h-1 from substrates that were in areas of mercury mining. Area-averaged fluxes calculated for bare soil at Steamboat Springs, New Idria, and Medicine Lake of 181, 9.2, and 2 ng m-2 h-1, respectively, are greater than fluxes previously ascribed to natural non-point sources, indicating that these sources may be more significant contributors of mercury to the atmosphere than previously realized.

  7. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, D.D.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; ET AL.

    2004-03-30

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. There are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows (Lopez et al. 2003)). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  8. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 6. An ecological assessment for anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, J.W.

    1997-12-01

    In this volume, an ecological assessment for anthropogenic mercury emissions is developed. Exposures of wildlife species to methylmercury through the aquatic food chain are compared with toxicity data calculated in the development of criteria for the protection of fish-eating avian and mammalian wildlife. Descriptions of mercury impacts on biota are provided in the problem formulation chapter. Estimates are provided of mercury deposition on a local scale in areas near emissions point sources. the distributions of selected fish-consuming wildlife species are overlaid with predicted high mercury areas of high concern (e.g., areas with low-pH surface water) and compared with predicted deposition of anthropogenic mercury emissions. Bioaccumulation factors (BAFs) for mercury in fish vary widely. Field data were used to calculate representive mean BAFs for different trophic levels based on dissolved methylmercury. Methylmercury criteria for the protection of piscivorous avian and mammalian wildlife are provided. This volume of the draft Report analyzes sources of variability and uncertainty in these estimates and identifies data that would strengthen the certainty of these findings.

  9. Atmospheric mercury emissions from waste combustions measured by continuous monitoring devices.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Fumitake; Shimaoka, Takayuki; Kida, Akiko

    2012-06-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions have attracted great attention owing to adverse impact of mercury on human health and the ecosystem. Although waste combustion is one of major anthropogenic sources, estimated emission might have large uncertainty due to great heterogeneity of wastes. This study investigated atmospheric emissions of speciated mercury from the combustions of municipal solid wastes (MSW), sewage treatment sludge (STS), STS with waste plastics, industrial waste mixtures (IWM), waste plastics from construction demolition, and woody wastes using continuous monitoring devices. Reactive gaseous mercury was the major form at the inlet side of air pollution control devices in all combustion cases. Its concentration was 2.0-70.6 times larger than elemental mercury concentration. In particular, MSW, STS, and IWM combustions emitted higher concentration of reactive gaseous mercury. Concentrations of both gaseous mercury species varied greatly for all waste combustions excluding woody waste. Variation coefficients of measured data were nearly equal to or more than 1.0. Emission factors of gaseous elemental mercury, reactive gaseous mercury, and total mercury were calculated using continuous monitoring data. Total mercury emission factors are 0.30 g-Hg/Mg for MSW combustion, 0.21 g-Hg/Mg for STS combustion, 0.077 g-Hg/Mg for STS with waste plastics, 0.724 g-Hg/Mg for industrial waste mixtures, 0.028 g-Hg/Mg for waste plastic combustion, and 0.0026 g-Hg/Mg for woody waste combustion. All emission factors evaluated in this study were comparable or lower than other reported data. Emission inventory using old emission factors likely causes an overestimation. PMID:22788107

  10. Waste Coal Fines Reburn for NOx and Mercury Emission Reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Johnson; Chetan Chothani; Bernard Breen

    2008-04-30

    Injection of coal-water slurries (CWS) made with both waste coal and bituminous coal was tested for enhanced reduction of NO{sub x} and Hg emissions at the AES Beaver Valley plant near Monaca, PA. Under this project, Breen Energy Solutions (BES) conducted field experiments on the these emission reduction technologies by mixing coal fines and/or pulverized coal, urea and water to form slurry, then injecting the slurry in the upper furnace region of a coal-fired boiler. The main focus of this project was use of waste coal fines as the carbon source; however, testing was also conducted using pulverized coal in conjunction with or instead of waste coal fines for conversion efficiency and economic comparisons. The host site for this research and development project was Unit No.2 at AES Beaver Valley cogeneration station. Unit No.2 is a 35 MW Babcock & Wilcox (B&W) front-wall fired boiler that burns eastern bituminous coal. It has low NO{sub x} burners, overfire air ports and a urea-based selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) system for NO{sub x} control. The back-end clean-up system includes a rotating mechanical ash particulate removal and electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber. Coal slurry injection was expected to help reduce NOx emissions in two ways: (1) Via fuel-lean reburning when the slurry is injected above the combustion zone. (2) Via enhanced SNCR reduction when urea is incorporated into the slurry. The mercury control process under research uses carbon/water slurry injection to produce reactive carbon in-situ in the upper furnace, promoting the oxidation of elemental mercury in flue gas from coal-fired power boilers. By controlling the water content of the slurry below the stoichiometric requirement for complete gasification, water activated carbon (WAC) can be generated in-situ in the upper furnace. As little as 1-2% coal/water slurry (heat input basis) can be injected and generate sufficient WAC for mercury

  11. Nevada STORMS project: Measurement of mercury emissions from naturally enriched surfaces

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gustin, M.S.; Lindberg, S.; Marsik, F.; Casimir, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Edwards, G.; Hubble-Fitzgerald, C.; Kemp, R.; Kock, H.; Leonard, T.; London, J.; Majewski, M.; Montecinos, C.; Owens, J.; Pilote, M.; Poissant, L.; Rasmussen, P.; Schaedlich, F.; Schneeberger, D.; Schroeder, W.; Sommar, J.; Turner, R.; Vette, A.; Wallschlaeger, D.; Xiao, Z.; Zhang, H.

    1999-01-01

    Diffuse anthropogenic and naturally mercury-enriched areas represent long-lived sources of elemental mercury to the atmosphere. The Nevada Study and Tests of the Release of Mercury From Soils (STORMS) project focused on the measurement of mercury emissions from a naturally enriched area. During the project, concurrent measurements of mercury fluxes from naturally mercury-enriched substrate were made September 1-4, 1997, using four micrometeorological methods and seven field flux chambers. Ambient air mercury concentrations ranged from 2 to nearly 200 ng m-3 indicating that the field site is a source of atmospheric mercury. The mean daytime mercury fluxes, during conditions of no precipitation, measured with field chambers were 50 to 360 ng m-2 h-1, and with the micrometeorological methods were 230 to 600 ng m-2 h-1. This wide range in mercury emission rates reflects differences in method experimental designs and local source strengths. Mercury fluxes measured by many field chambers were significantly different (p < 0.05) but linearly correlated. This indicates that field chambers responded similarly to environmental conditions, but differences in experimental design and site heterogeneity had a significant influence on the magnitude of mercury fluxes. Data developed during the field study demonstrated that field flux chambers are ideal for assessment of the physicochemical processes driving mercury flux and development of an understanding of the magnitude of the influence of individual factors on flux. In general, mean mercury fluxes measured with micrometeorological methods during daytime periods were nearly 3 times higher than mean fluxes measured with field flux chambers. Micrometeorological methods allow for derivation of a representative mercury flux occurring from an unconstrained system and provide an assessment of the actual magnitude and variability of fluxes occurring from an area. Copyright 1999 by the American Geophysical Union.

  12. Mercury Production and Use in Colonial Andean Silver Production: Emissions and Health Implications

    PubMed Central

    Hagan, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Colonial cinnabar mining and refining began in Huancavelica, Peru, in 1564. With a local source of mercury, the amalgamation process was adopted to refine silver in Potosí, Bolivia, in the early 1570s. As a result, large quantities of mercury were released into the environment. Objectives: We used archival, primary, and secondary sources to develop the first estimate of mercury emissions from cinnabar refining in Huancavelica and to revise previous estimates of emissions from silver refining in Potosí during the colonial period (1564–1810). Discussion: Although other estimates of historical mercury emissions have recognized Potosí as a significant source, Huancavelica has been overlooked. In addition, previous estimates of mercury emissions from silver refining under-estimated emissions because of unrecorded (contra-band) production and volatilization of mercury during processing and recovery. Archival descriptions document behavioral and health issues during the colonial period that are consistent with known effects of mercury intoxication. Conclusions: According to our calculations, between 1564 and 1810, an estimated 17,000 metric tons of mercury vapor were emitted from cinnabar smelting in Huancavelica, and an estimated 39,000 metric tons were released as vapor during silver refining operations in Potosí. Huancavelica and Potosí combined contributed > 25% of the 196,000 metric tons of mercury vapor emissions in all of Latin America between 1500 and 1800. The historical record is laden with evidence of mercury intoxication consistent with effects recognized today. Our estimates serve as the foundation of investigations of present-day contamination in Huancavelica and Potosí resulting from historical emissions of mercury. PMID:22334094

  13. Radiative Forcing associated with Particulate Carbon Emissions resulting from the Use of Mercury Control Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clack, H.; Penner, J. E.; Lin, G.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury is a persistent, toxic metal that bio-accumulates within the food web and causes neurological damage and fetal defects in humans. The U.S. was the first country to regulate the leading anthropogenic source of mercury into the atmosphere: coal combustion for electric power generation. The U.S. EPA's 2005 Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was replaced and further tightened in 2012 by the Mercury and Air Toxics Standard (MATS), which required existing coal-fired utilities to reduce their mercury emissions by approximately 90% by 2015. Outside the U.S., the Governing Council of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has passed the legally binding Minamata global mercury treaty that compels its signatory countries to prevent and reduce the emission and release of mercury. The most mature technology for controlling mercury emissions from coal combustion is the injection into the flue gas of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents having chemically treated surfaces designed to rapidly oxidize and adsorb mercury. However, such PAC is known to have electrical properties that make it difficult to remove from flue gas via electrostatic precipitation, by far the most common particulate control technology used in countries such as the U.S., India, and China which rely heavily on coal for power generation. As a result, PAC used to control mercury emissions can be emitted into the atmosphere, the sub-micron fraction of which may result in unintended radiative forcing similar to black carbon (BC). Here, we estimate the potential increases in secondary BC emissions, those not produced from combustion but arising instead from the use of injected PAC for mercury emission reduction. We also calculate the radiative forcing associated with these secondary BC emissions by using a global atmospheric chemical transport model coupled with a radiative transfer model.

  14. A Modeling Comparison of Mercury Deposition from Current Anthropogenic Mercury Emission Inventories.

    PubMed

    Simone, Francesco De; Gencarelli, Christian N; Hedgecock, Ian M; Pirrone, Nicola

    2016-05-17

    Human activities have altered the biogeochemical cycle of mercury (Hg) since precolonial times, and anthropogenic activities will continue to perturb the natural cycle of Hg. Current estimates suggest the atmospheric burden is three to five times greater than precolonial times. Hg in the upper ocean is estimated to have doubled over the same period. The Minamata convention seeks to reduce the impact human activities have on Hg releases to the environment. A number of the Articles in the Convention concern the development of detailed inventories for Hg emissions and releases. Using the global Hg chemical transport model, ECHMERIT, the influence of the anthropogenic emission inventory (AMAP/UNEP, EDGAR, STREETS) on global Hg deposition patterns has been investigated. The results suggest that anthropogenic Hg emissions contribute 20-25% to present-day Hg deposition, and roughly two-thirds of primary anthropogenic Hg is deposited to the world's oceans. Anthropogenic Hg deposition is significant in the North Pacific, Mediterranean and Arctic. The results indicate immediate reductions in Hg emissions would produce benefits in the short term, as well as in the long term. The most impacted regions would be suitable to assess changes in Hg deposition resulting from implementation of the Minamata convention. PMID:27120197

  15. Mercury re-emission in flue gas multipollutants simultaneous absorption system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yue; Wang, Qingfeng; Mei, Rongjun; Wang, Haiqiang; Weng, Xiaole; Wu, Zhongbiao

    2014-12-01

    Recently, simultaneous removal of SO2, NOx and oxidized mercury in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) scrubber has become a research focus. Mercury re-emission in traditional WFGD system has been widely reported due to the reduction of oxidized mercury by sulfite ions. However, in multipollutants simultaneous absorption system, the formation of a large quantity of nitrate and nitrite ions as NOx absorption might also affect the reduction of oxidized mercury in the aqueous absorbent. As such, this paper studied the effects of nitrate and nitrite ions on mercury re-emission and its related mechanism. Experimental results revealed that the nitrate ions had neglected effect on mercury re-emission while the nitrite ions could greatly change the mercury re-emission behaviors. The nitrite ions could initially improve the Hg(0)-emission through the decomposition of HgSO3NO2(-), but with a further increase in the concentration, they would then inhibit the reduction of bivalent mercury owing to the formation of Hg-nitrite complex [Hg(NO2)x(2-x)]. In addition, the subsequent addition of Cl(-) could further suppress the Hg(0) emission, where the formation of a stable Hg-SO3-NO2-Cl complex was assumed to be the main reason for such strong inhibition effect. PMID:25360573

  16. Initial estimates of mercury emissions to the atmosphere from global biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Friedli, H R; Arellano, A F; Cinnirella, S; Pirrone, N

    2009-05-15

    The average global annual mercury emission estimate from biomass burning (BMB) for 1997-2006 is 675 +/- 240 Mg/year. This is equivalentto 8% of all currently known anthropogenic and natural mercury emissions. By season, the largest global emissions occur in August and September, the lowest during northern winters. The interannual variability is large and region-specific, and responds to drought conditions. During this particular time period, the largest mercury emissions are from tropical and boreal Asia, followed by Africa and South America. They do not coincide with the largest carbon biomass burning emissions, which originate from Africa. Frequently burning grasslands in Africa and Australia, and agricultural waste burning globally, contribute relatively little to the mercury budget The released mercury from BMB is eventually deposited locally and globally and contributes to the formation of toxic bioaccumulating methyl mercury. Furthermore, increasing temperature in boreal regions, where the largest soil mercury pools reside, is expected to exacerbate mercury emission because of more frequent larger, and more intense fires. PMID:19544847

  17. Inherently low-emission vehicle program, estimated emission benefits and impact on high-occupancy vehicle lanes. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Wyborny, L.

    1992-10-01

    According to the detailed analysis in the report, ILEVs would provide substantial emission reductions compared to LEVs and other conventional vehicles. The evaporative and refueling emissions (vapor emissions) from ILEVs are estimated to be near zero. With the near-elimination of vapor emissions, ILEVs are expected to emit about one-half the volatile organic compound emissions as other LEVs. The report also concludes that ILEVs are expected to result in little or no detrimental effect on traffic flow in HOV lanes. This conclusion was derived from studying the HOV lanes in Los Angeles, Houston, the District of Columbia, and Seattle. Overall, the report concludes that widespread and rapid introduction of ILEVs would generally offer significant air quality benefits to society wherever they are used, and that the prudent use of TCM exemptions and incentives could encourage these purchases without significant impact on the effectiveness of the other programs.

  18. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2004-03-31

    The construction of the sampling system was completed during the past quarter. The sampling system has been built on a 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. The laser system, all the associated optics, and the mounts and hardware needed to couple the UV light into the fiber optic have also been condensed and placed on an identical 3 feet x 4 feet x 2 inch breadboard table. This reduces the footprint of each system for ease of operation at a field test facility. The two systems are only connected with a fiber optic, to bring the UV light to the CRD cavity, and a single coaxial cable used to apply a voltage to the diode seed laser to scan the frequency over the desired mercury transition. SRD software engineers applied a couple of software fixes to correct the problems of the diode seed laser drifting or mode hopping. Upon successful completion of the software fixes another long-term test was conducted. A nearly 3 day long, 24 hours/day, test was run to test out the new subroutines. Everything appeared to work as it should and the mercury concentrations were accurately reported for the entire test, with the exception of a small interval of time when the intensity of the UV light dropped low enough that the program was no longer triggering properly. After adjusting the power of the laser the program returned to proper operation. With the successful completion of a relatively long test SRD software engineer incorporated the new subroutine into an entirely new program. This program operates the CRD instrument automatically as a continuous emissions monitor for mercury. In addition the program also reports the concentration of SO{sub 2} determined in the sample flue gas stream. Various functions, operation of, and a description of the new program have been included with this report. This report concludes the technical work associated with Phase II of the Cavity Ring-Down project for the continuous detection of trace levels of mercury. The project is presently

  19. Mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in Guiyang, southwest China

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, S.L.; Feng, X.B.; Qiu, H.R.; Yin, G.X.; Yang, Z.C.

    2007-10-15

    Although China has been regarded as one of the largest anthropogenic mercury emission source with coal combustion, so far the actual measurements of Hg species and Hg emissions from the combustion and the capture of Hg in Chinese emission control devices were very limited. Aiming at Hg mercury species measurements in Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou province in Southwest China, we studied flue gases of medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler (10-30 t/h) with no control devices, medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler with WFGD and large-scale coal combustion with ESPs using Ontario Hytro method. We obtained mercury emission factors of the three representative coal combustion and estimated mercury emissions in Guiyang in 2003, as well as the whole province from 1986 to 2002. Coal combustion in Guiyang emitted 1898 kg mercury to the atmosphere, of which 36% Hg is released from power plants, 41% from industrial coal combustion, and 23% from domestic users, and 267 kg is Hg{sup P}, 813 kg is Hg{sup 2+} and 817 kg is Hg{sup 0}. Mercury emission in Guizhou province increased sharply from 5.8 t in 1986 to 16.4 t in 2002. With the implementation of national economic strategy of China's Western Development, the annual mercury emission from coal combustion in the province is estimated to be about 32 t in 2015.

  20. Mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in Guiyang, Southwest China.

    PubMed

    Tang, Shunlin; Feng, Xinbin; Qiu, Jianrong; Yin, Guoxun; Yang, Zaichan

    2007-10-01

    Although China has been regarded as one of the largest anthropogenic mercury emission source with coal combustion, so far the actual measurements of Hg species and Hg emissions from the combustion and the capture of Hg in Chinese emission control devices were very limited. Aiming at Hg mercury species measurements in Guiyang, the capital city of Guizhou province in Southwest China, we studied flue gases of medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler (10-30 t/h) with no control devices, medium-to-small-sized industrial steam coal-firing boiler with WFGD and large-scale coal combustion with ESPs using Ontario Hytro method. We obtained mercury emission factors of the three representative coal combustion and estimated mercury emissions in Guiyang in 2003, as well as the whole province from 1986 to 2002. Coal combustion in Guiyang emitted 1898 kg mercury to the atmosphere, of which 36% Hg is released from power plants, 41% from industrial coal combustion, and 23% from domestic users, and 267 kg is Hg(p), 813 kg is Hg(2+) and 817 kg is Hg0. Mercury emission in Guizhou province increased sharply from 5.8 t in 1986 to 16.4 t in 2002. With the implementation of national economic strategy of China's Western Development, the annual mercury emission from coal combustion in the province is estimated to be about 32 t in 2015. PMID:17517388

  1. Characteristics of mercury emission from linear type of spent fluorescent lamp.

    PubMed

    Rhee, Seung-Whee; Choi, Hyo-Hyun; Park, Hun-Su

    2014-06-01

    In order to recycle the linear type of SFL (spent fluorescent lamp), mercury from SFL should be controlled to prevent leaking into the environment. For mercury emission from SFL, mercury concentration is estimated in the parts of SFL such as glass tube, phosphor powder, and base cap using the end-cutting unit. It is also evaluated mercury emission in the effluent gas in the end-cutting unit with changing flow rate. From the results of mercury emission from SFLs, phosphor powder has greater than 80% of mercury amount in SFL and about 15% of mercury amount contained in glass tube. The initial mercury concentration in vapor phase is almost decreased linearly with increasing airflow rate from 0.7 L/min to 1.3 L/min. It is desirable that airflow rate should be high until the concentration of mercury vapor will be stable because the stabilized concentration becomes to be low and the stabilized time goes to be short as increased airflow rate. From KET and TCLP results, finally, phosphor powder should be managed as a hazardous waste but base-cap and glass are not classified as hazardous wastes. PMID:24053901

  2. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wu, Q. R.; Wang, F. Y.; Lin, C.-J.; Zhang, L. M.; Hui, M. L.; Hao, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, municipal solid waste incinerators, and biomass burning. Mercury in coal, ores and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g.,TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non

  3. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury is a trace component of all fossil fuels including natural gas, gas condensates, crude oil, coal, tar sands and other bitumens. The use of fossil hydrocarbons as fuels provides the main opportunity for emissions of the mercury they contain to the atmospheric environment b...

  4. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs.

    PubMed

    Eckelman, Matthew J; Anastas, Paul T; Zimmerman, Julie B

    2008-11-15

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed. PMID:19068849

  5. A NOVEL METHOD FOR THE REMOVAL OF TRACE CONCENTRATION OF ELEMENTAL MERCURY FROM UTILITY EMISSIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Joseph L. Katz

    2002-09-17

    A new technique for removal of elemental mercury from emissions of coal-fired utilities was investigated. The key idea is to selectively photo ionize the mercury atoms. A strong electric field gradient then drags them to the negative plate where they can be collected and removed.

  6. AUTOMATIC INTERFACING SYSTEM FOR SAMPLING TOTAL MERCURY IN STATIONARY SOURCE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An interfacing system to sample total mercury emissions in source streams and suitably condition, dilute, and transport the sample to a mercury measuring instrument was designed, fabricated, and tested. The system consists of three components: a conditioner, a diluter, and a pump...

  7. Spatial assessment of net mercury emissions from the use of fluorescent bulbs

    SciTech Connect

    Matthew J. Eckelman; Paul T. Anastas; Julie B. Zimmerman

    2008-11-15

    While fluorescent lighting is an important technology for reducing electrical energy demand, mercury used in the bulbs is an ongoing concern. Using state and country level data, net emissions of mercury from the marginal use of fluorescent lightbulbs are examined for a base year of 2004 for each of the 50 United States and 130 countries. Combustion of coal for electric power generation is generally the largest source of atmospheric mercury pollution; reduction in electricity demand from the substitution of incandescent bulbs with fluorescents leads to reduced mercury emissions during the use of the bulb. This analysis considers the local mix of power sources, coal quality, thermal conversion efficiencies, distribution losses, and any mercury control technologies that might be in place. Emissions of mercury from production and end-of-life treatment of the bulbs are also considered, providing a life-cycle perspective. Net reductions in mercury over the entire life cycle range from -1.2 to 97 mg per bulb depending on the country. The consequences for atmospheric mercury emissions of several policy scenarios are also discussed. 46 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. TEST METHODS TO DETERMINE THE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM SLUDGE INCINERATION PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Two test methods for mercury are described along with the laboratory and field studies done in developing and validating them. One method describes how to homogenize and analyze large quantities of sewage sludge. The other test method describes how to measure the mercury emission...

  9. Atmospheric mercury emissions in Australia from anthropogenic, natural and recycled sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nelson, Peter F.; Morrison, Anthony L.; Malfroy, Hugh J.; Cope, Martin; Lee, Sunhee; Hibberd, Mark L.; Meyer, C. P. (Mick); McGregor, John

    2012-12-01

    The United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) has begun a process of developing a legally binding instrument to manage emissions of mercury from anthropogenic sources. The UNEP Governing Council has concluded that there is sufficient evidence of significant global adverse impacts from mercury to warrant further international action; and that national, regional and global actions should be initiated as soon as possible to identify populations at risk and to reduce human generated releases. This paper describes the development of, and presents results from, a comprehensive, spatially and temporally resolved inventory of atmospheric mercury emissions from the Australian landmass. Results indicate that the best estimate of total anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere in 2006 was 15 ± 5 tonnes. Three industrial sectors contribute substantially to Australian anthropogenic emissions: gold smelting (˜50%, essentially from a single site/operation), coal combustion in power plants (˜15%) and alumina production from bauxite (˜12%). A diverse range of other sectors contribute smaller proportions of the emitted mercury, but industrial emissions account for around 90% of total anthropogenic mercury emissions. The other sectors include other industrial sources (mining, smelting, and cement production) and the use of products containing mercury. It is difficult to determine historical trends in mercury emissions given the large uncertainties in the data. Estimates for natural and re-emitted emissions from soil, water, vegetation and fires are made using meteorological models, satellite observations of land cover and soil and vegetation type, fuel loading, fire scars and emission factors which account for the effects of temperature, insolation and other environmental variables. These natural and re-emitted sources comfortably exceed the anthropogenic emissions, and comprise 4-12 tonnes per year from vegetation, 70-210 tonnes per year from soils, and 21-63 tonnes

  10. Atmospheric mercury pollution at an urban site in central Taiwan: mercury emission sources at ground level.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Liu, Chia-Kuan; Huang, Ci-Song; Fang, Guor-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    Total gaseous mercury (Hg) (TGM), gaseous oxidized Hg (GOM), and particulate-bound Hg (PBM) concentrations and dry depositions were measured at an urban site in central Taiwan. The concentrations were 6.14±3.91 ng m(-3), 332±153, and 71.1±46.1 pg m(-3), respectively. These results demonstrate high Hg pollution at the ground level in Taiwan. A back trajectory plot shows the sources of the high TGM concentration were in the low atmosphere (<500 m) and approximately 50% of the air masses coming from upper troposphere (>500 m) were associated with low TGM concentrations. This finding implies that Hg is trapped in the low atmosphere and comes from local Hg emission sources. The conditional probability function (CPF) reveals that the plumes of high TGM concentrations come from the south and northwest of the site. The plume from the south comes from two municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs). However, no significant Hg point source is located to the northwest of the site; therefore, the plumes from the northwest are hypothesized to be related to the combustion of agricultural waste. Dry deposition fluxes of Hg measured at this site considerably exceeded those measured in North America. Overall, this area is regarded as a highly Hg contaminated area because of local Hg emission sources. PMID:22316589

  11. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... button batteries. Mercury salts may be used in skin creams and ointments. It's also used in many industries. Mercury in the air settles into water. It can pass through the food chain and build up in ...

  12. Mercury transformation and speciation in flue gases from anthropogenic emission sources: a critical review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Lin, Che-Jen; Zhang, Leiming; Hui, Mulin; Yang, Mei; Su, Haitao; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-01

    Mercury transformation mechanisms and speciation profiles are reviewed for mercury formed in and released from flue gases of coal-fired boilers, non-ferrous metal smelters, cement plants, iron and steel plants, waste incinerators, biomass burning and so on. Mercury in coal, ores, and other raw materials is released to flue gases in the form of Hg0 during combustion or smelting in boilers, kilns or furnaces. Decreasing temperature from over 800 °C to below 300 °C in flue gases leaving boilers, kilns or furnaces promotes homogeneous and heterogeneous oxidation of Hg0 to gaseous divalent mercury (Hg2+), with a portion of Hg2+ adsorbed onto fly ash to form particulate-bound mercury (Hgp). Halogen is the primary oxidizer for Hg0 in flue gases, and active components (e.g., TiO2, Fe2O3, etc.) on fly ash promote heterogeneous oxidation and adsorption processes. In addition to mercury removal, mercury transformation also occurs when passing through air pollution control devices (APCDs), affecting the mercury speciation in flue gases. In coal-fired power plants, selective catalytic reduction (SCR) system promotes mercury oxidation by 34-85 %, electrostatic precipitator (ESP) and fabric filter (FF) remove over 99 % of Hgp, and wet flue gas desulfurization system (WFGD) captures 60-95 % of Hg2+. In non-ferrous metal smelters, most Hg0 is converted to Hg2+ and removed in acid plants (APs). For cement clinker production, mercury cycling and operational conditions promote heterogeneous mercury oxidation and adsorption. The mercury speciation profiles in flue gases emitted to the atmosphere are determined by transformation mechanisms and mercury removal efficiencies by various APCDs. For all the sectors reviewed in this study, Hgp accounts for less than 5 % in flue gases. In China, mercury emission has a higher Hg0 fraction (66-82 % of total mercury) in flue gases from coal combustion, in contrast to a greater Hg2+ fraction (29-90 %) from non-ferrous metal smelting, cement and

  13. A CAVITY RINGDOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter, Ph.D.

    2002-10-01

    Work on the Cavity Ring-Down (CRD) mercury spectrometer this past quarter concentrated on the actual detection of mercury and the beginning of flue gas interference testing. After obtaining the initial mercury signal detection was done at various pressures and concentrations. The Alexandrite laser system used for the CRD spectrometer has a narrow enough linewidth to spectrally resolve the isotopic structure of mercury. This includes both isotopic frequency shifts as well as hyperfine splittings due to a couple of the odd isotopes of mercury. Initial flue gas inteferent testing concentrated on SO{sub 2}, which is expected to cause the greatest interference with mercury detection due to its absorption of ultra-violet light in the same region as that of the mercury atomic line.

  14. Joint EPA/DOE demonstration program for total mercury continuous emissions monitors

    SciTech Connect

    Burns, D.B.; Rauenzahn, H.S.; Stevens, F.M.

    1997-06-01

    Continuous emissions monitoring of mercury from hazardous waste thermal treatment processes is desired for verification of emission compliance, process control, and public safety perception. Continuous real-time monitoring of mercury would permit actual measurement of mercury emissions and permit measurement of real-time (actual) mercury emissions and allow accurate (realistic) human risk assessment from hazardous thermal treatment facility operation. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed regulations that require the use of total mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) on incinerators, boilers, and industrial furnaces that burn hazardous waste. These proposed regulations also include draft performance specifications for mercury CEMs. This paper describes an ongoing joint EPA/DOE program to identify and demonstrate commercially available mercury CEMs that can meet the proposed EPA performance specification and includes initial instrument test results obtained. The complete demonstration consists of a six month performance test of several commercially available total mercury CEMs at a commercial cement kiln that co-fires hazardous waste. During the performance test, several indicators of CEM performance will be evaluated (as required in the proposed performance specification), including; zero and calibration drift, relative accuracy through comparison to EPA manual Reference Methods, calibration error through testing with calibration standards, and specific interference tests. The results of this extensive test program will be used to either confirm availability of mercury CEMs that meet the requirements in the proposed EPA performance specification, provide the necessary data for revision of the proposed mercury CEM performance specification, or reveal the need for further instrument development prior to deployment.

  15. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    Mercury is an element that is found in air, water and soil. It has several forms. Metallic mercury is a shiny, silver-white, ... colorless, odorless gas. It also combines with other elements to form powders or crystals. Mercury is in ...

  16. Model estimate of mercury emission from natural sources in East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shetty, Suraj K.; Lin, Che-Jen; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey

    East Asia is one of the largest source regions that release mercury into the atmosphere. Although extensive studies have been devoted to estimating the anthropogenic mercury emission, little is known about mercury emission from natural sources in the region. In this study, we adapt the algorithms developed previously, coupled with detailed GIS data and satellite LAI products, to estimate mercury emission from natural sources including vegetation, soil, and water surfaces in an East Asian domain containing 164 × 97 grid cells at a spatial resolution of 36 km. Seasonal simulations were performed to project the annual emission quantity. The simulated emission shows strong diurnal and seasonal variations due to meteorology and vegetation coverage. The annual emission in the form of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the domain in 2001 is estimated to be 834 Mg, with 462 Mg contributed from China. The estimated GEM emission is comparable to the reported anthropogenic emission of 575 ± 261 Mg (56% GEM, 32% reactive gaseous mercury, 12% particulate mercury; Wu, Y., Wang, S., Streets, D.G., Hao, J., Chan, M., Jiang, J., 2006. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003. Environmental Science & Technology 40, 5312-5318) in China for the year 2001, and dominates the anthropogenic emission during the warm season. Combining the anthropogenic and natural emission estimates, the total mercury emission from China is 776-1298 Mg, with GEM being in the range of 660-1000 Mg. The latter is similar to the GEM emission quantity inferred from aircraft measurement (765 Mg; Friedli, H.R., Radke, L.F., Prescott, R., Li, P., Woo, J.-H., Carmichael, G.R., 2004. Mercury in the atmosphere around Japan, Korea and China as observed during the 2001 ACE Asia field campaign: measurements, distributions, sources, and implications. Journal of Geophysical Research 109, D19 S25) and modeling estimate (1140 Mg; Pan, L., Chai, T., Carmichael, G.R., Tang, Y., Streets, G

  17. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implication of mercury emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, L.; Hao, J. M.

    2013-05-01

    Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74 ng m-3, 10.1 ± 18.8 pg m-3 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m-3, respectively, about 2-20 times of the background concentration of Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in North China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m-3) and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m-3). In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed with peak levels in late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the atmospheric stratification during nighttime against laminar fluxes during daytime. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from east and southwest to the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF) model indicate that the atmospheric transport predominantly from the northwest

  18. Atmospheric mercury concentration and chemical speciation at a rural site in Beijing, China: implications of mercury emission sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wang, S. X.; Wang, L.; Hao, J. M.

    2013-10-01

    Continuous measurements of atmospheric mercury concentration and speciation play a key role in identifying mercury sources and its behavior in the atmosphere. In this study, speciated atmospheric mercury including gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) and particle-bound mercury (PBM) were continuously measured at Miyun, a rural site in Beijing, China, from December 2008 to November 2009. The average GEM, RGM and PBM concentrations were found to be 3.22 ± 1.74, 10.1 ± 18.8 and 98.2 ± 112.7 pg m-3, respectively, about 2-20 times higher than the background concentration of the Northern Hemisphere. The results indicated that atmospheric mercury concentrations in northern China were highly affected by anthropogenic emissions. The atmospheric mercury showed obvious seasonal variations, with the highest seasonal average GEM concentration in summer (3.48 ng m-3) and the lowest value in winter (2.66 ng m-3). In autumn and winter a diurnal variation of GEM was observed, with peak levels in the late afternoon till midnight. Most of the high RGM concentration values occurred in the afternoon of all seasons due to the higher oxidation. The PBM concentration was higher in early morning of all seasons because of the the temperature inversion that increases in depth as the night proceeds. The ratio of GEM to CO indicates that residential boilers play an important role in the elevation of GEM in winter. The ratio of RGM to O3 could be an indicator of the contribution of local primary sources. The ratio of PBM to PM2.5 reveals that the air mass from the east and southwest of the site in spring and summer carries more atmospheric mercury. The HYSPLIT back-trajectory analysis indicated that the monitoring site is affected by local, regional and interregional sources simultaneously during heavy pollution episodes. The results from the potential source contribution function (PSCF) model indicate that the atmospheric transport predominantly from the northwest

  19. Real-time atomic absorption mercury continuous emission monitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zamzow, Daniel S.; Bajic, Stanley J.; Eckels, David E.; Baldwin, David P.; Winterrowd, Chris; Keeney, Robert

    2003-08-01

    A continuous emission monitor (CEM) for mercury (Hg) in combustor flue gas streams has been designed and tested for the detection of Hg by optical absorption. A sampling system that allows continuous introduction of stack gas is incorporated into the CEM, for the sequential analysis of elemental and total Hg. A heated pyrolysis tube is used in the system to convert oxidized Hg compounds to elemental Hg for analysis of total Hg; the pyrolysis tube is bypassed to determine the elemental Hg concentration in the gas stream. A key component of the CEM is a laboratory-designed and -assembled echelle spectrometer that provides simultaneous detection of all of the emission lines from a Hg pen lamp, which is used as the light source for the optical absorption measurement. This feature allows for on-line spectroscopic correction for interferent gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen dioxide, typically present in combustion stack gas streams, that also absorb at the Hg detection wavelength (253.65 nm). This article provides a detailed description of the CEM system, the characteristics and performance of the CEM, and the results of field tests performed at the Environmental Protection Agency-Rotary Kiln at Research Triangle Park, NC.

  20. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM BRAKE WEAR ASSOCIATED WITH ON-ROAD VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper will focus on brake wear emissions of mercury and trace metals collected from 16 in-use light-duty vehicles (14 gasoline and 2 diesel) on a chassis dynamometer over the course of urban drive cycles.

  1. Global emissions of mercury to the atmosphere in 2005 and their 2020 scenarios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.; Sundseth, Kyrre; Munthe, John; Wilson, Simon; Leaner, Joy

    2010-05-01

    About the three quarters of the total anthropogenic emissions of mercury in the year 2005 estimated to be 1930 tonnes comes from sources where mercury is emitted as a by-product, and the rest is emitted during various applications of mercury. The largest emissions of Hg to the global atmosphere occur from combustion of fossil fuels, mainly coal in utility, industrial, and residential boilers (almost 47 %), followed by artisanal mining (almost 17 %), non-ferrous metal production, including gold production (13.5%) and cement production (about 9.5 %). Doing nothing for the improvement of the Hg emission reductions (so-called Status Quo - SQ scenario) will cause an increase of the emissions in 2020 by almost 100 % compared to the 2020 Extended Emission Control (EXEC) emission reduction scenario. Even larger increase is estimated when the 2020 SQ scenario of Hg emissions is compared with the 2020 Maximum Feasible Technical Reduction (MFTR) emission reduction scenario. The EXEC scenario assumes economic progress at a rate dependent on the future development of industrial technologies and emission control technologies, i.e. mercury-reducing technology currently generally employed throughout Europe and North America would be implemented elsewhere. It further assumes that emissions control measures currently implemented or committed to in Europe to reduce mercury emission to air or water would be implemented around the world. The MFTR scenario assumes implementation of all solutions/ measures leading to the maximum degree of reduction of mercury emissions and its loads discharged to any environment; cost is taken into account but only as a secondary consideration. Emissions of Hg in various industrial sectors, such as cement production and metal manufacturing in the year 2020 can be 2 to 3 times larger if nothing will be done to improve emission control in comparison with the EXEC scenario.

  2. [Characteristic of Mercury Emissions and Mass Balance of the Typical Iron and Steel Industry].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-hui; Zhang, Cheng; Wang, Ding-yong; Luo, Cheng-zhong; Yang, Xi; Xu, Feng

    2015-12-01

    To preliminarily discuss the mercury emission characteristics and its mass balance in each process of the iron and steel production, a typical iron and steel enterprise was chosen to study the total mercury in all employed materials and estimate the input and output of mercury during the steel production process. The results showed that the mercury concentrations of input materials in each technology ranged 2.93-159.11 µg · kg⁻¹ with the highest level observed in ore used in blast furnace, followed by coal of sintering and blast furnace. The mercury concentrations of output materials ranged 3.09-18.13 µg · kg⁻¹ and the mercury concentration of dust was the highest, followed by converter slag. The mercury input and the output in the coking plant were 1346.74 g · d⁻¹ ± 36.95 g · d⁻¹ and 177.42 g · d⁻¹ ± 13.73 g · d⁻¹, respectively. In coking process, mercury mainly came from the burning of coking coal. The sintering process was the biggest contributor for mercury input during the iron and steel production with the mercury input of 1075. 27 g · d⁻¹ ± 60.89 g · d⁻¹ accounting for 68.06% of the total mercury input during this production process, and the ore powder was considered as the main mercury source. For the solid output material, the output in the sintering process was 14.15 g · d⁻¹ ± 0.38 g · d⁻¹, accounting for 22.61% of the total solid output. The mercury emission amount from this studied iron and steel enterprise was estimated to be 553.83 kg in 2013 with the emission factor of 0.092 g · t⁻¹ steel production. Thus, to control the mercury emissions, iron and steel enterprises should combine with production practice, further reduce energy consumption of coking and sintering, or improve the quality of raw materials and reduce the input of mercury. PMID:27011969

  3. Mercury emission and dispersion models from soils contaminated by cinnabar mining and metallurgy.

    PubMed

    Llanos, Willians; Kocman, David; Higueras, Pablo; Horvat, Milena

    2011-12-01

    The laboratory flux measurement system (LFMS) and dispersion models were used to investigate the kinetics of mercury emission flux (MEF) from contaminated soils. Representative soil samples with respect to total Hg concentration (26-9770 μg g(-1)) surrounding a decommissioned mercury-mining area (Las Cuevas Mine), and a former mercury smelter (Cerco Metalúrgico de Almadenejos), in the Almadén mercury mining district (South Central Spain), were collected. Altogether, 14 samples were analyzed to determine the variation in mercury emission flux (MEF) versus distance from the sources, regulating two major environmental parameters comprising soil temperature and solar radiation. In addition, the fraction of the water-soluble mercury in these samples was determined in order to assess how MEF from soil is related to the mercury in the aqueous soil phase. Measured MEFs ranged from less than 140 to over 10,000 ng m(-2) h(-1), with the highest emissions from contaminated soils adjacent to point sources. A significant decrease of MEF was then observed with increasing distance from these sites. Strong positive effects of both temperature and solar radiation on MEF was observed. Moreover, MEF was found to occur more easily in soils with higher proportions of soluble mercury compared to soils where cinnabar prevails. Based on the calculated Hg emission rates and with the support of geographical information system (GIS) tools and ISC AERMOD software, dispersion models for atmospheric mercury were implemented. In this way, the gaseous mercury plume generated by the soil-originated emissions at different seasons was modeled. Modeling efforts revealed that much higher emissions and larger mercury plumes are generated in dry and warm periods (summer), while the plume is smaller and associated with lower concentrations of atmospheric mercury during colder periods with higher wind activity (fall). Based on the calculated emissions and the model implementation, yearly emissions from

  4. Mercury emissions and species during combustion of coal and waste

    SciTech Connect

    Hong Yao; Guangqian Luo; Minghou Xu; Tamotsu Kameshima; Ichiro Naruse

    2006-10-15

    The behaviors of mercury evolution for three types of coal and three types of dried sewage sludge are studied using a thermogravimetric (TG) analyzer. The mercury speciations in the flue gas from coal and sludge combustion are also analyzed by implementing a horizontal electrically heated tube furnace. Furthermore, the kinetic calculations of mercury oxidizing processes are carried out using the software package CHEMKIN in order to interpret the homogeneous mechanism of mercury oxidization. The results obtained show that the sulfur content in the sludge inhibits the evolution of mercury at low temperature if the Cl concentration is high enough. Chlorine enhances mercury evolution in the coal combustion, whereas there is no relationship when the Cl concentration is high. Fixed carbon content plays a role in depression of the mercury evolution. Formation of oxidized mercury (HgCl{sub 2}) does not relate to the chlorine concentration in the raw coal and sludge. Whereas the ash and sulfur content in the sludge affects the Hg oxidization, kinetic calculations show that HgCl, Cl{sub 2}, and HOCl formation is important in producing the oxidized mercury during combustion of coal and sludge at 873 K. A suitable temperature for Hg oxidization when Cl{sub 2} is the oxidization resource is 700-1200 K. 32 refs., 10 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Volcanoes as emission sources of atmospheric mercury in the Mediterranean basin

    PubMed

    Ferrara; Mazzolai; Lanzillotta; Nucaro; Pirrone

    2000-10-01

    Emissions from volcanoes, fumaroles and solfataras as well as contributions from widespread geological anomalies could represent an important source of mercury released to the atmosphere in the Mediterranean basin. Volcanoes located in this area (Etna, Stromboli and Vulcano) are the most active in Europe; therefore, it is extremely important to know their mercury contributions to the regional atmospheric budget. Two main methods are used for the evaluation of volcanic mercury flux: a direct determination of the flux (by measuring in the plume) and an indirect one derived from the determination of the Hg/SO2 (or Hg/S) ratio value, as SO2 emissions are constantly monitored by volcanologists. An attempt to estimate mercury flux from the Vulcano volcano and to establish the Hg/S ratio value has been made along three field campaigns carried out in October 1998, in February and May 1999 sampling several fumaroles. Traditional sampling methods were used to collect both total Hg and S. The average Hg/S ratio value resulted to be 1.2 x 10(-7). From the Hg/S value we derived the Hg/SO2 value, and by assuming that all the volcanoes located in this area have the same Hg/SO2 ratio, mercury emissions from Vulcano and Stromboli were estimated to be in the range 1.3-5.5 kg/year and 7.3-76.6 kg/year respectively, while for Etna mercury flux ranged from 61.8 to 536.5 kg/year. Data reported in literature appear to be overestimated (Fitzgerald WF. Mercury emission from volcanos. In: 4th International conference on mercury as a global pollutant, August 4-8 1996, Hamburg, Germany), volcanic mercury emission does not constitute the main natural source of the metal. PMID:11032141

  6. Global mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic and natural sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, N.; Cinnirella, S.; Feng, X.; Finkelman, R. B.; Friedli, H. R.; Leaner, J.; Mason, R.; Mukherjee, A. B.; Stracher, G. B.; Streets, D. G.; Telmer, K.

    2010-02-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date assessment of global mercury emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources. On an annual basis, natural sources account for 5207 Mg of mercury released to the global atmosphere, including the contribution from re-emission processes, which are emissions of previously deposited mercury originating from anthropogenic and natural sources, and primary emissions from natural reservoirs. Anthropogenic sources, which include a large number of industrial point sources, are estimated to account for 2320 Mg of mercury emitted annually. The major contributions are from fossil-fuel fired power plants (810 Mg yr-1), artisanal small scale gold mining (400 Mg yr-1), non-ferrous metals manufacturing (310 Mg yr-1), cement production (236 Mg yr-1), waste disposal (187 Mg yr-1) and caustic soda production (163 Mg yr-1). Therefore, our current estimate of global mercury emissions suggests that the overall contribution from natural sources (primary emissions+re-emissions) and anthropogenic sources is nearly 7527 Mg per year, the uncertainty associated with these estimates are related to the typology of emission sources and source regions.

  7. Global mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic and natural sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, N.; Cinnirella, S.; Feng, X.; Finkelman, R. B.; Friedli, H. R.; Leaner, J.; Mason, R.; Mukherjee, A. B.; Stracher, G. B.; Streets, D. G.; Telmer, K.

    2010-07-01

    This paper provides an up-to-date assessment of global mercury emissions from anthropogenic and natural sources. On an annual basis, natural sources account for 5207 Mg of mercury released to the global atmosphere, including the contribution from re-emission processes, which are emissions of previously deposited mercury originating from anthropogenic and natural sources, and primary emissions from natural reservoirs. Anthropogenic sources, which include a large number of industrial point sources, are estimated to account for 2320 Mg of mercury emitted annually. The major contributions are from fossil-fuel fired power plants (810 Mg yr-1), artisanal small scale gold mining (400 Mg yr-1), non-ferrous metals manufacturing (310 Mg yr-1), cement production (236 Mg yr-1), waste disposal (187 Mg yr-1) and caustic soda production (163 Mg yr-1). Therefore, our current estimate of global mercury emissions suggests that the overall contribution from natural sources (primary emissions + re-emissions) and anthropogenic sources is nearly 7527 Mg per year, the uncertainty associated with these estimates are related to the typology of emission sources and source regions.

  8. Assessment of atmospheric mercury emission reduction measures relevant for application in Poland

    SciTech Connect

    Hlawiczka, S.; Fudala, J.

    2008-03-15

    Fuel combustion for heat and power generation, together with cement production, were the most significant sources of anthropogenic atmospheric mercury emission in Poland in 2003, with 57 and 27% of Hg emission, respectively. It was found that in Poland, Hg emission reduction measures need to be focused on the energy generation sector. Sorbent injection upstream of an electrostatic precipitator or fabric filter, mercury oxidation upstream of a wet or dry flue gas desulphurisation installation, together with Hg capture on sorbents, should be considered as priority in Polish conditions. This refers mainly to fuel combustion processes but also to the production of cement. For economic reasons it seems advisable that, apart from activated carbons as sorbents, application of zeolites obtained from power plant fly ash should also be considered. Application of primary methods seems to be very promising in Polish conditions, although they should be considered rather as an additional option apart from sorbent injection as the best option. Switching from coal to liquid and gaseous fuels shows the highest potential for reducing Hg emission. For chlorine production using the mercury cell electrolysis method, strict monitoring of Hg emissions and good housekeeping of Hg releasing processes seems a promising approach, but the main activity should focus on changing mercury-based technologies into membrane cell methods. Emission abatement potential for the atmospheric mercury in Poland has been roughly assessed, showing that in perspective of 2015, the emission could be reduced to about 25% of the anthropogenic atmospheric Hg emission in 2003.

  9. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J.E. Locke

    2005-11-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dryer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the seventh in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 1,300 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing three percent sulfur. The unit was equipped with an ESP and a limestone-based wet FGD to control particulate and SO2 emissions, respectively. At the time of sampling an SCR was not installed on this unit. Four sampling tests were performed in September 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the ESP outlet (FGD inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. The results show that the FGD inlet flue gas oxidized:elemental mercury ratio was roughly 2:1, with 66% oxidized mercury and 34% elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a coal

  10. Emissions of air-borne mercury from five municipal solid waste landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Z.-G.; Feng, X.; Li, P.; Liang, L.; Tang, S.-L.; Wang, S.-F.; Fu, X.-W.; Qiu, G.-L.; Shang, L.-H.

    2010-04-01

    China disposes of bulk Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by landfilling, resulting in a large quantity of mercury that enters landfills through waste. A detailed study on atmospheric mercury emissions from MSW landfills in China is necessary to understand mercury behavior from this source. Between 2003 and 2006, mercury airborne emissions through different pathways, as well as mercury speciation in Landfill Gas (LFG) were measured at 5 MSW landfills in Guiyang and Wuhan, China. The results showed that mercury content in the substrate increased the magnitude of mercury emissions, with the highest emission rate measured at the working face and in uncovered waste areas, and the lowest measured near soil covers and vegetated areas. Meteorological parameters, especially solar radiation, influenced the diurnal pattern of mercury surface-air emissions. Total Gaseous Mercury (TGM) in LFG varied from 2.0 to 1406.0 ng m-3, Monomethyl Mercury (MMHg) and Dimethyl Mercury (DMHg) in LFG averaged at 1.93 and 9.21 ng m-3, and accounted for 0.51% and 1.79% of the TGM in the LFG, respectively. Total mercury emitted from the five landfills ranged from 17 to 3300 g yr-1, with the highest from the working face, then soil covering, and finally the vent pipes.

  11. Characterization of Mercury Emissions from ASGM Goldshop Activities in Peru

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg), used in artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) practices, is recognized as a significant source of Hg release to the environment and is a major area of focus of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) Global Mercury Partnership. Hg is used to bind (form a...

  12. Intercontinental transport and deposition patterns of atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Wang, H.-H.; Liu, J.-F.; Zhang, W.; Hu, D.; Chen, C.; Wang, X.-J.

    2013-09-01

    Global policies that regulate anthropogenic mercury emissions to the environment require quantitative and comprehensive source-receptor relationships for mercury emissions, transport and deposition among major continental regions. In this study, we use the GEOS-Chem model to establish source-receptor relationships among eleven major continental regions worldwide. Source-receptor relationships for surface mercury concentrations (SMC) show that some regions (e.g. East Asia, the Indian subcontinent and Europe) should be responsible for their local surface Hg(II) and Hg(P) concentrations because of near-field transport and deposition contributions from their local anthropogenic emissions (up to 64% and 71% for Hg(II) and Hg(P), respectively, over East Asia). We define region of primary influence (RPI) and region of secondary influence (RSI) to establish intercontinental influence patterns. Results indicate that East Asia is SMC RPI for almost all other regions, while Europe, Russia and the Indian subcontinent also make some contributions to SMC over some receptor regions because they are dominant RSI source regions. Source-receptor relationships for mercury deposition show that approximately 16% and 17% of dry and wet deposition, respectively, over North America originate from East Asia, indicating that trans-pacific transport of East Asian emissions is the major foreign source of mercury deposition in North America. Europe, Southeast Asia and the Indian subcontinent are also important mercury deposition sources for some receptor regions because they are dominant RSI. We also quantify seasonal variation on mercury deposition contributions over other regions from East Asia. Results show that mercury deposition (including dry and wet) contributions from East Asia over the Northern Hemisphere receptor regions (e.g. North America, Europe, Russia, Middle East and Middle Asia) vary seasonally, with the maximum values in summer and minimum values in winter. The opposite

  13. Intercontinental transport and deposition patterns of atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Wang, H. H.; Liu, J. F.; Tong, Y. D.; Ou, L. B.; Zhang, W.; Hu, D.; Chen, C.; Wang, X. J.

    2014-09-01

    Global policies that regulate anthropogenic mercury emissions to the environment require quantitative and comprehensive source-receptor relationships for mercury emissions, transport and deposition among major continental regions. In this study, we use the GEOS-Chem global chemical transport model to establish source-receptor relationships among 11 major continental regions worldwide. Source-receptor relationships for surface mercury concentrations (SMC) show that some regions (e.g., East Asia, the Indian subcontinent, and Europe) should be responsible for their local surface Hg(II) and Hg(P) concentrations due to near-field transport and deposition contributions from their local anthropogenic emissions (up to 64 and 71% for Hg(II) and Hg(P), respectively, over East Asia). We define the region of primary influence (RPI) and the region of secondary influence (RSI) to establish intercontinental influence patterns. Results indicate that East Asia is the SMC RPI for almost all other regions, while Europe, Russia, and the Indian subcontinent also make some contributions to SMC over some receptor regions because they are dominant RSI source regions. Source-receptor relationships for mercury deposition show that approximately 16 and 17% of dry and wet deposition, respectively, over North America originate from East Asia, indicating that transpacific transport of East Asian emissions is the major foreign source of mercury deposition in North America. Europe, Southeast Asia, and the Indian subcontinent are also important mercury deposition sources for some receptor regions because they are the dominant RSIs. We also quantify seasonal variation on mercury deposition contributions over other regions from East Asia. Results show that mercury deposition (including dry and wet) contributions from East Asia over the Northern Hemisphere receptor regions (e.g., North America, Europe, Russia, the Middle East, and Middle Asia) vary seasonally, with the maximum values in summer and

  14. Top-down constraints on atmospheric mercury emissions and implications for global biogeochemical cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Selin, N. E.; Soerensen, A. L.; Angot, H.; Artz, R.; Brooks, S.; Brunke, E.-G.; Conley, G.; Dommergue, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Holsen, T. M.; Jaffe, D. A.; Kang, S.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Magand, O.; Marumoto, K.; Pfaffhuber, K. A.; Ren, X.; Sheu, G.-R.; Slemr, F.; Warneke, T.; Weigelt, A.; Weiss-Penzias, P.; Wip, D. C.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-02-01

    We perform global-scale inverse modeling to constrain present-day atmospheric mercury emissions and relevant physio-chemical parameters in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We use Bayesian inversion methods combining simulations with GEOS-Chem and ground-based Hg0 observations from regional monitoring networks and individual sites in recent years. Using optimized emissions/parameters, GEOS-Chem better reproduces these ground-based observations, and also matches regional over-water Hg0 and wet deposition measurements. The optimized global mercury emission to the atmosphere is ~5.8 Gg yr-1. The ocean accounts for 3.2 Gg yr-1 (55% of the total), and the terrestrial ecosystem is neither a net source nor a net sink of Hg0. The optimized Asian anthropogenic emission of Hg0 (gas elemental mercury) is 650-1770 Mg yr-1, higher than its bottom-up estimates (550-800 Mg yr-1). The ocean parameter inversions suggest that dark oxidation of aqueous elemental mercury is faster, and less mercury is removed from the mixed layer through particle sinking, when compared with current simulations. Parameter changes affect the simulated global ocean mercury budget, particularly mass exchange between the mixed layer and subsurface waters. Based on our inversion results, we re-evaluate the long-term global biogeochemical cycle of mercury, and show that legacy mercury becomes more likely to reside in the terrestrial ecosystem than in the ocean. We estimate that primary anthropogenic mercury contributes up to 23% of present-day atmospheric deposition.

  15. Top-down constraints on atmospheric mercury emissions and implications for global biogeochemical cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Selin, N. E.; Soerensen, A. L.; Angot, H.; Artz, R.; Brooks, S.; Brunke, E.-G.; Conley, G.; Dommergue, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Holsen, T. M.; Jaffe, D. A.; Kang, S.; Kelley, P.; Luke, W. T.; Magand, O.; Marumoto, K.; Pfaffhuber, K. A.; Ren, X.; Sheu, G.-R.; Slemr, F.; Warneke, T.; Weigelt, A.; Weiss-Penzias, P.; Wip, D. C.; Zhang, Q.

    2015-06-01

    We perform global-scale inverse modeling to constrain present-day atmospheric mercury emissions and relevant physiochemical parameters in the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. We use Bayesian inversion methods combining simulations with GEOS-Chem and ground-based Hg0 observations from regional monitoring networks and individual sites in recent years. Using optimized emissions/parameters, GEOS-Chem better reproduces these ground-based observations and also matches regional over-water Hg0 and wet deposition measurements. The optimized global mercury emission to the atmosphere is ~ 5.8 Gg yr-1. The ocean accounts for 3.2 Gg yr-1 (55 % of the total), and the terrestrial ecosystem is neither a net source nor a net sink of Hg0. The optimized Asian anthropogenic emission of Hg0 (gas elemental mercury) is 650-1770 Mg yr-1, higher than its bottom-up estimates (550-800 Mg yr-1). The ocean parameter inversions suggest that dark oxidation of aqueous elemental mercury is faster, and less mercury is removed from the mixed layer through particle sinking, when compared with current simulations. Parameter changes affect the simulated global ocean mercury budget, particularly mass exchange between the mixed layer and subsurface waters. Based on our inversion results, we re-evaluate the long-term global biogeochemical cycle of mercury, and show that legacy mercury becomes more likely to reside in the terrestrial ecosystem than in the ocean. We estimate that primary anthropogenic mercury contributes up to 23 % of present-day atmospheric deposition.

  16. Mercury emissions from cement-stabilized dredged material.

    PubMed

    Goodrow, Sandra M; Miskewitz, Robert; Hires, Richard I; Eisenreich, Steven J; Douglas, W Scott; Reinfelder, John R

    2005-11-01

    Upland placement of dredged materials from navigation channels in the New York/New Jersey Harbor is currently being used to manage sediments deemed inappropriate for open water disposal. Although upland placement sites are equipped with engineering controls (leachate collection and/or barrier walls), little is known of the potential impacts of this approach to air quality. The aim of this study was to estimate the flux of mercury to the atmosphere from New York/New Jersey Harbor stabilized dredged material (SDM) that was used for land reclamation at a site in northeastern New Jersey. Total gaseous mercury (TGM) was measured at a site receiving SDM in August and October 2001 and May and November 2002. TGM was also monitored at an urban reference site 3.5 km west of the SDM site in September 2001 and from February 2002 to July 2002 and from October 2002 to February 2003. The concentration of TGM at the urban reference site averaged 2.2 +/- 1.1 ng m(-3), indicating some local contribution to the Northern Hemisphere background. TGM concentrations exhibited seasonality with the highest values in summer (3.3 +/- 2.1 ng m(-3) in June 2002) and the lowest in winter (1.7 +/- 0.6 ng m(-3) in January 2003). TGM concentrations at the SDM placement site ranged from 2 to 7 ng m(-3) and were significantly higher (p < 0.001) than those at the urban reference site. Sediment-air fluxes of Hg at the SDM placement site estimated by the micrometeorological technique ranged from -13 to 1040 ng m(-2) h(-1) (sediment to air fluxes being positive) and were significantly correlated to solar radiation (r2 = 0.81). The estimated contribution of Hg emissions from land-applied SDM to local TGM concentrations was found to be negligible (<4%). However, the estimated annual volatilization rate of TGM atthe SDM site (130 kg y(-1))was comparable to those of other industrial sources in New Jersey (140-450 kg y(-1)). PMID:16294853

  17. OPTIMIZING TECHNOLOGY TO REDUCE MERCURY AND ACID GAS EMISSIONS FROM ELECTRIC POWER PLANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2005-10-01

    Maps showing potential mercury, sulfur, chlorine, and moisture emissions for U.S. coal by county of origin were made from publicly available data (plates 1, 2, 3, and 4). Published equations that predict mercury capture by emission control technologies used at U.S. coal-fired utilities were applied to average coal quality values for 169 U.S. counties. The results were used to create five maps that show the influence of coal origin on mercury emissions from utility units with: (1) hot-side electrostatic precipitator (hESP), (2) cold-side electrostatic precipitator (cESP), (3) hot-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (hESP/FGD), (4) cold-side electrostatic precipitator with wet flue gas desulfurization (cESP/FGD), and (5) spray-dry adsorption with fabric filter (SDA/FF) emission controls (plates 5, 6, 7, 8, and 9). Net (lower) coal heating values were calculated from measured coal Btu values, and estimated coal moisture and hydrogen values; the net heating values were used to derive mercury emission rates on an electric output basis (plate 10). Results indicate that selection of low-mercury coal is a good mercury control option for plants having hESP, cESP, or hESP/FGD emission controls. Chlorine content is more important for plants having cESP/FGD or SDA/FF controls; optimum mercury capture is indicated where chlorine is between 500 and 1000 ppm. Selection of low-sulfur coal should improve mercury capture where carbon in fly ash is used to reduce mercury emissions. Comparison of in-ground coal quality with the quality of commercially mined coal indicates that existing coal mining and coal washing practice results in a 25% reduction of mercury in U.S. coal before it is delivered to the power plant. Further pre-combustion mercury reductions may be possible, especially for coal from Texas, Ohio, parts of Pennsylvania and much of the western U.S.

  18. Mercury Emission From Plants Depends on Reduction by Ascorbate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halbach, S.; Ernst, D.; Fleischmann, F.; Battke, F.

    2007-12-01

    The importance of vegetation for the ecological Hg cycle has been recognized recently. One step in this cycle is the poorly understood phytogenic reduction of dissolved Hg(II) to volatile Hg(0) which had initially been reported for common reed growing on Hg-contaminated sediments. The hitherto unknown mechanism of this reduction was the objective of our investigations. Young barley and European-beech plants were cultivated for 24 h and 2 days, respectively, on a sterile hydroponic medium containing 20-40 µM HgCl2. Within 10 min after seclusion in a closed exposure system, the Hg(0) emission from the encapsulated aerial part of the plants reached 10 times the control value in a plant-free system and was proportional to the Hg(II) concentration in the medium. At 20 µM Hg(II) in the medium, a flux of 12.8 µg Hg(0)/m2/h was estimated for beech leaves. The phytogenic Hg(II) reduction was further examined by addition of powderized homogenates from deep-frozen leaves (barley, beech, Arabidopsis thaliana) or from needles (Norway spruce) to solutions of 1-5 µM Hg(II). These samples consistently produced a strong transient Hg(0) release at neutral pH that was even reinforced in alkaline medium and vanished at acidic pH. The very same pH dependence was observed after addition of pure L(+)-ascorbate (AA) instead of plant material to the HgCl2 solutions, whereas the reductants NADPH and GSH produced only little or no Hg(0), respectively. At neutral and alkaline pH, the Hg(II)-reducing capacity of spruce needle homogenates was 2 - 4 times that of beech leaves, which paralleled a 6-fold difference in AA concentrations. Homogenates from whole wildtype-plants of Arabidopsis reduced 8-times more Hg(II) than those from the AA-deficient mutant vtc1-1 (AA concentration 30% of wild type). A comparison of literature data on AA concentrations revealed for wetland plants a range from 0.3 µmol/g DW (Phragmites communis) over 15.0 (Typha latifolia) to < 34.1 (Spartina altiflora), and

  19. Update of mercury emissions from China's primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, 2000-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Q. R.; Wang, S. X.; Zhang, L.; Song, J. X.; Yang, H.; Meng, Y.

    2012-11-01

    China is the largest anthropogenic mercury emitter in the world, where primary nonferrous metal smelting is regarded as one of the most significant emission sources. In this study, atmospheric mercury emissions from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters in China between 2000-2010 were estimated using a technology-based methodology with comprehensive consideration of mercury concentration in concentrates, smelting processes, mercury removal efficiencies of air pollution control devices (APCDs) and the application percentage of a certain type of APCD combinations. Our study indicated that atmospheric mercury emissions from nonferrous metal smelters in 2000, 2003, 2005, 2007 and 2010 were 67.6, 100.1, 86.7, 80.6 and 72.5 t, respectively. In 2010, the amounts of mercury emitted into atmosphere were 39.4 ± 31.5, 30.6 ± 29.1, and 2.5 ± 1.1 t from primary zinc, lead and copper smelters, respectively. The largest amount of mercury was emitted from the Gansu province, followed by Henan, Yunnan, Hunan, Inner Mongolia and Shaanxi provinces. Hg2+, Hg0 and Hgp emissions from zinc smelters were 25.6, 11.8 and 1.97 t, respectively. The emissions percentages of Hg2+ and Hg0 were almost the same from lead and copper smelters. The average mercury removal efficiency was 90.5 ± 52.5%, 71.2 ± 63.7% and 91.8 ± 40.7% in zinc, lead, and copper smelters, respectively.

  20. Development of novel activated carbon-based adsorbents for the control of mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Radisav D. Vidic

    1999-03-01

    In addition to naturally occurring mercury sources, anthropogenic activities increase the mercury loading to the environment. Although not all produced mercury is dissipated directly into the environment, only minor portions of the total production are stocked or recycled, and the rest of the mercury and its compounds is finally released in some way into atmosphere, surface waters and soil, or ends in landfills dumps, and refuse. Since mercury and its compounds are highly toxic, their presence in the environment constitutes potential impact on all living organisms, including man. The first serious consequence of industrial mercury discharges causing neurological disorder even death occurred in Minimata, Japan in 1953. Systematic studies showed that mercury poisoning is mainly found in fish-eating populations. However, various levels of mercury are also found in food other than fish. During the past several decades, research has been conducted on the evaluation of risks due to exposure to mercury and the development of control technologies for mercury emissions. In 1990, the Clean Air Act Amendments listed mercury, along with 10 other metallic species, as a hazardous air pollutant (HAP). This has further stimulated research for mercury control during the past several years. The impact of mercury on humans, sources of mercury in the environment, current mercury control strategies and the objective of this research are discussed in this section.

  1. Emissions, Monitoring and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Kumar Sellakumar; Craig Cormylo

    2007-08-01

    The Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) identified a need to re-test stack gas emissions from power plants that burn subbituminous coal relative to compliance with the EPA mercury control regulations for coal-fired plants. In addition, the SEC has also identified the specialized monitoring needs associated with mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEM). The overall objectives of the program were to develop and demonstrate solutions for the unique emission characteristics found when burning subbituminous coals. The program was executed in two phases; Phase I of the project covered mercury emission testing programs at ten subbituminous coal-fired plants. Phase II compared the performance of continuous emission monitors for mercury at subbituminous coal-fired power plants and is reported separately. Western Research Institute and a number of SEC members have partnered with Eta Energy and Air Pollution Testing to assess the Phase I objective. Results of the mercury (Hg) source sampling at ten power plants burning subbituminous coal concluded Hg emissions measurements from Powder River Basin (PBR) coal-fired units showed large variations during both ICR and SEC testing. Mercury captures across the Air Pollution Control Devices (APCDs) present much more reliable numbers (i.e., the mercury captures across the APCDs are positive numbers as one would expect compared to negative removal across the APCDs for the ICR data). Three of the seven units tested in the SEC study had previously shown negative removals in the ICR testing. The average emission rate is 6.08 lb/TBtu for seven ICR units compared to 5.18 lb/TBtu for ten units in the SEC testing. Out of the ten (10) SEC units, Nelson Dewey Unit 1, burned a subbituminous coal and petcoke blend thus lowering the total emission rate by generating less elemental mercury. The major difference between the ICR and SEC data is in the APCD performance and the mercury closure around the APCD. The average mercury removal values

  2. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2002-12-31

    SRD tested a number of different length cavities during this past quarter. Continuous transmission was observed with cavity lengths from 65 to 12 cm. The 65 cm cavity was replaced with a 39 cm cavity for work performed during this quarter. Flue gas components were tested for background absorptions and any interference with the determination of accurate mercury concentrations. Sulfur dioxide was found to absorb fairly strongly in the region of the mercury transition, but the Cavity Ring-Down (CRD) instrument was still able to detect mercury at subparts-per-billion by volume (ppb) levels. Additional flue gases tested included H{sub 2}O, CO, CO{sub 2}, NO, NO{sub 2}. None of these flue gas constituents showed any observable absorption in the ultraviolet region near the atomic mercury transition. Work was also initiated in speciation studies. In particular mercury chloride (HgCl{sub 2}) was tested. A mercury signal was detected from a gas stream containing HgCl{sub 2}. SRD was not able to determine definitively if there exists a spectral shift great enough to separate HgCl{sub 2} from elemental mercury in these initial tests.

  3. Global emission of mercury to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in 2005 and projections to 2020

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pacyna, E. G.; Pacyna, J. M.; Sundseth, K.; Munthe, J.; Kindbom, K.; Wilson, S.; Steenhuisen, F.; Maxson, P.

    2010-07-01

    This paper presents the 2005 global inventory of anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere component of the work that was prepared by UNEP and AMAP as a contribution to the UNEP report Global Atmospheric Mercury Assessment: Sources, Emissions and Transport ( UNEP Chemicals Branch, 2008). It describes the methodology applied to compile emissions data on the two main components of the inventory - the 'by-product' emissions and the 'intentional use' emissions - and to geospatially distribute these emissions estimates to produce a gridded dataset for use by modelers, and the results of this work. It also presents some initial results of work to develop (simplified) scenario emissions inventories for 2020 that can be used to investigate the possible implications of actions to reduce mercury emissions at the global scale.

  4. Economic analysis of atmospheric mercury emission control for coal-fired power plants in China.

    PubMed

    Ancora, Maria Pia; Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Schreifels, Jeremy; Hao, Jiming

    2015-07-01

    Coal combustion and mercury pollution are closely linked, and this relationship is particularly relevant in China, the world's largest coal consumer. This paper begins with a summary of recent China-specific studies on mercury removal by air pollution control technologies and then provides an economic analysis of mercury abatement from these emission control technologies at coal-fired power plants in China. This includes a cost-effectiveness analysis at the enterprise and sector level in China using 2010 as a baseline and projecting out to 2020 and 2030. Of the control technologies evaluated, the most cost-effective is a fabric filter installed upstream of the wet flue gas desulfurization system (FF+WFGD). Halogen injection (HI) is also a cost-effective mercury-specific control strategy, although it has not yet reached commercial maturity. The sector-level analysis shows that 193 tons of mercury was removed in 2010 in China's coal-fired power sector, with annualized mercury emission control costs of 2.7 billion Chinese Yuan. Under a projected 2030 Emission Control (EC) scenario with stringent mercury limits compared to Business As Usual (BAU) scenario, the increase of selective catalytic reduction systems (SCR) and the use of HI could contribute to 39 tons of mercury removal at a cost of 3.8 billion CNY. The economic analysis presented in this paper offers insights on air pollution control technologies and practices for enhancing atmospheric mercury control that can aid decision-making in policy design and private-sector investments. PMID:26141885

  5. Identifying and characterizing major emission point sources as a basis for geospatial distribution of mercury emissions inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steenhuisen, Frits; Wilson, Simon J.

    2015-07-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that poses threats to ecosystem and human health. Due to its global transport, mercury contamination is found in regions of the Earth that are remote from major emissions areas, including the Polar regions. Global anthropogenic emission inventories identify important sectors and industries responsible for emissions at a national level; however, to be useful for air transport modelling, more precise information on the locations of emission is required. This paper describes the methodology applied, and the results of work that was conducted to assign anthropogenic mercury emissions to point sources as part of geospatial mapping of the 2010 global anthropogenic mercury emissions inventory prepared by AMAP/UNEP. Major point-source emission sectors addressed in this work account for about 850 tonnes of the emissions included in the 2010 inventory. This work allocated more than 90% of these emissions to some 4600 identified point source locations, including significantly more point source locations in Africa, Asia, Australia and South America than had been identified during previous work to geospatially-distribute the 2005 global inventory. The results demonstrate the utility and the limitations of using existing, mainly public domain resources to accomplish this work. Assumptions necessary to make use of selected online resources are discussed, as are artefacts that can arise when these assumptions are applied to assign (national-sector) emissions estimates to point sources in various countries and regions. Notwithstanding the limitations of the available information, the value of this procedure over alternative methods commonly used to geo-spatially distribute emissions, such as use of 'proxy' datasets to represent emissions patterns, is illustrated. Improvements in information that would facilitate greater use of these methods in future work to assign emissions to point-sources are discussed. These include improvements to both national

  6. Mercury emissions from municipal solid waste combustors. An assessment of the current situation in the United States and forecast of future emissions

    SciTech Connect

    1993-05-01

    This report examines emissions of mercury (Hg) from municipal solid waste (MSW) combustion in the United States (US). It is projected that total annual nationwide MSW combustor emissions of mercury could decrease from about 97 tonnes (1989 baseline uncontrolled emissions) to less than about 4 tonnes in the year 2000. This represents approximately a 95 percent reduction in the amount of mercury emitted from combusted MSW compared to the 1989 mercury emissions baseline. The likelihood that routinely achievable mercury emissions removal efficiencies of about 80 percent or more can be assured; it is estimated that MSW combustors in the US could prove to be a comparatively minor source of mercury emissions after about 1995. This forecast assumes that diligent measures to control mercury emissions, such as via use of supplemental control technologies (e.g., carbon adsorption), are generally employed at that time. However, no present consensus was found that such emissions control measures can be implemented industry-wide in the US within this time frame. Although the availability of technology is apparently not a limiting factor, practical implementation of necessary control technology may be limited by administrative constraints and other considerations (e.g., planning, budgeting, regulatory compliance requirements, etc.). These projections assume that: (a) about 80 percent mercury emissions reduction control efficiency is achieved with air pollution control equipment likely to be employed by that time; (b) most cylinder-shaped mercury-zinc (CSMZ) batteries used in hospital applications can be prevented from being disposed into the MSW stream or are replaced with alternative batteries that do not contain mercury; and (c) either the amount of mercury used in fluorescent lamps is decreased to an industry-wide average of about 27 milligrams of mercury per lamp or extensive diversion from the MSW stream of fluorescent lamps that contain mercury is accomplished.

  7. Mercury emissions and coal-fired power plants: Understanding the problems and identifying solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, S.E.

    1997-12-31

    Electric utility emissions contribute to an array of air quality concerns, most notably ground-level ozone, acid deposition, global warming, and fine particulate pollution. More recently, electric utility emissions of air toxics such as mercury have been linked to serious ecological health effects, especially in fish-eating birds. Another issue that is gaining attention is that of eutrophication in marine waters from nitrogen oxide emissions. Coal-fired power plants warrant special consideration, particularly in regards to mercury. Coal-fired power plants currently represent over 30% of controllable anthropogenic emissions in the US and are expected to emit nearly half of all anthropogenic emissions in the US by 2010. However, because the human health threshold for mercury is not known with certainty and mercury control technologies such as activated carbon injection are extremely expensive, mercury emissions from electric utilities have not been addressed in the US through either regulation or voluntary initiatives. The Center is beginning to evaluate the viability of no- or low-regrets measures that may be more consistent with the current state of the science on human and ecological health effects. The Center is also looking at options to reduce eutophication. Specifically, the Center has: hosted a workshop to assess the viability of low-cost mercury control options for electric utilities, developed a proposal to undertake a mercury banking initiative, worked to reduce compliance costs associated with multiple and conflicting regulations, and investigated the potential benefits and workability of NOx trading between air and water sources These activities are described in greater detail in the Center`s paper.

  8. Impacts of the Minamata Convention for Mercury Emissions from Coal-fired Power Generation in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giang, A.; Stokes, L. C.; Streets, D. G.; Corbitt, E. S.; Selin, N. E.

    2014-12-01

    We explore the potential implications of the recently signed United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from coal-fired power generation in Asia, and the impacts of these emissions changes on deposition of mercury worldwide by 2050. We use qualitative interviews, document analysis, and engineering analysis to create plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention, taking into account both technological and political factors. We translate these scenarios into possible emissions inventories for 2050, based on IPCC development scenarios, and then use the GEOS-Chem global transport model to evaluate the effect of these different technology choices on mercury deposition over geographic regions and oceans. We find that China is most likely to address mercury control through co-benefits from technologies for SO2, NOx, and particulate matter (PM) capture that will be required to attain its existing air quality goals. In contrast, India is likely to focus on improvements to plant efficiency such as upgrading boilers, and coal washing. Compared to current technologies, we project that these changes will result in emissions decreases of approximately 140 and 190 Mg/yr for China and India respectively in 2050, under an A1B development scenario. With these emissions reductions, simulated average gross deposition over India and China are reduced by approximately 10 and 3 μg/m2/yr respectively, and the global average concentration of total gaseous mercury (TGM) is reduced by approximately 10% in the Northern hemisphere. Stricter, but technologically feasible, requirements for mercury control in both countries could lead to an additional 200 Mg/yr of emissions reductions. Modeled differences in concentration and deposition patterns between technology suites are due to differences in both the mercury removal efficiency of technologies and their resulting stack speciation.

  9. DIVALENT INORGANIC REACTIVE GASEOUS MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A MERCURY CELL CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT AND ITS IMPACT ON NEAR FIELD ATMOSPHERIC DRY DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The emission of inorganic divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) from a mercury cell chlor-alkali plant (MCCAP) cell building and the impact on near field (100 km) dry deposition was investigated as part of a larger collaborative study between EPA, University of Michigan, Oak ...

  10. Radio-interferometric imaging of the subsurface emissions from the planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. O.; Zeilik, M.; Gisler, G. R.; Borovsky, J. E.; Baker, D. N.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of total and polarized intensities from Mercury's subsurface layers have been mapped using VLA observations. The first detection of a hot pole along the Hermean equator is reported and modeled as black-body reradiation from preferential diurnal heating. These observations appear to rule out any internal sources of heat within Mercury. Polarized emission from the limb of the planet is also found, and is understood in terms of the dielectric properties of the Hermean surface.

  11. Removing mercury from coal emissions: options for ash-friendly technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Sager, J.

    2009-07-01

    The article gives a brief description of techniques to remove mercury emitted from coal-fired power plants and discusses environmental considerations associated with the effect of emission controls on coal fly ash. Techniques covered include use of injected mercury sorbents (activated carbon, metal oxide catalysts, MerCAP{trademark} and MercScreen{trademark}) and fuel cleaning. Technologies currently being researched are mentioned. 8 refs.

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND EVALUATION OF MERCURY CEMS FOR COMBUSTION EMISSIONS MONITORING: SYMPOSIUM/CONFERENCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-P-625 Ryan*, J.V. Development and Evaluation of Mercury CEMS for Combustion Emissions Monitoring. 17th Annual Waste and Quality Assurance Symp., Arlington, VA, 08/12/01. 2001. EPA/600/A-01/079 (NTIS PB2002-100290). 08/06/2001 Continuous emission montiroing systems (C...

  13. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control following the release of "Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units--Final Report to Congress" in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPA's December 2000 de...

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT. OVERALL STUDY DESIGN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses a detailed emissions measurement campaign that was conducted over a 9-day period within a mercury (Hg) cell chlor-alkali plant in the southeastern United States (U.S.). The principal focus of this study was to measure fugitive (non-ducted) airborne Hg emission...

  15. The influence of ozone on atmospheric emissions of gaseous elemental mercury and reactive gaseous mercury from substrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, M.A.; Sexauer, Gustin M.; Lindberg, S.E.; Gertler, A.W.; Ariya, P.A.

    2005-01-01

    Experiments were performed to investigate the effect of ozone (O 3) on mercury (Hg) emission from a variety of Hg-bearing substrates. Substrates with Hg(II) as the dominant Hg phase exhibited a 1.7 to 51-fold increase in elemental Hg (Hgo) flux and a 1.3 to 8.6-fold increase in reactive gaseous mercury (RGM) flux in the presence of O3-enriched clean (50 ppb O3; 8 substrates) and ambient air (up to ???70 ppb O3; 6 substrates), relative to clean air (oxidant and Hg free air). In contrast, Hgo fluxes from two artificially Hgo-amended substrates decreased by more than 75% during exposure to O3-enriched clean air relative to clean air. Reactive gaseous mercury emissions from Hg o-amended substrates increased immediately after exposure to O 3 but then decreased rapidly. These experimental results demonstrate that O3 is very important in controlling Hg emissions from substrates. The chemical mechanisms that produced these trends are not known but potentially involve heterogenous reactions between O3, the substrate, and Hg. Our experiments suggest they are not homogenous gas-phase reactions. Comparison of the influence of O3 versus light on increasing Hgo emissions from dry Hg(II)-bearing substrates demonstrated that they have a similar amount of influence although O3 appeared to be slightly more dominant. Experiments using water-saturated substrates showed that the presence of high-substrate moisture content minimizes reactions between atmospheric O3 and substrate-bound Hg. Using conservative calculations developed in this paper, we conclude that because O3 concentrations have roughly doubled in the last 100 years, this could have increased Hgo emissions from terrestrial substrates by 65-72%. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Characterization, mapping, and mitigation of mercury vapour emissions from artisanal mining gold shops.

    PubMed

    Cordy, Paul; Veiga, Marcello; Crawford, Ben; Garcia, Oseas; Gonzalez, Victor; Moraga, Daniel; Roeser, Monika; Wip, Dennis

    2013-08-01

    Artisanal miners sell their gold to shops that are usually located in the urban core, where the mercury-gold amalgam is burned to evaporate the mercury that was added during ore processing. People living and working near these gold shops are exposed to intermittent and extreme concentrations of mercury vapour. In the urban centres of Segovia, Colombia, and Andacollo, Chile, the average concentrations measured by mobile mercury vapour analyzer transects taken repeatedly over several weeks were 1.26 and 0.338μgm(-3), respectively. By World Health Organization standards, these towns are exposed to significant health hazard, and globally, the millions of miners, as well as non-miners who live near gold shops, are at serious risk of neurological and renal deficits. Measurements taken in Suriname, Ecuador and Peru reveal this to be a widespread phenomenon with unique regional variations and myriad attempts at remediation. Maps of average mercury concentrations show the spatial distribution of the hazard in relation to residential buildings and schools. Measurements from towers show the temporal variability of mercury concentrations, and suggest that large quantities of mercury are available for long-range atmospheric transport. Mercury mapping in Segovia in 2011 suggest a 10% reduction in airborne mercury concentrations over 2010, despite a 30% increase in gold production. This is attributable to the adoption of retorts by miners and regulations banning new processing centres to the rural periphery. This is the first full description of artisanal mining gold shop practices and of the character, quantity, and remediation of mercury emissions within urban mining centres. PMID:23541941

  17. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; S. C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2006-01-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that these data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the ninth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on Unit 1 at Plant 7, a 566 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 3.6% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions

  18. Mercury

    MedlinePlus

    ... be found in: Batteries Chemistry labs Some disinfectants Folk remedies Red cinnabar mineral Organic mercury can be ... heart tracing Fluids through a vein (by IV) Medicine to treat symptoms The type of exposure will ...

  19. Mercury (Hg) emissions from domestic biomass combustion for space heating.

    PubMed

    Huang, Jiaoyan; Hopke, Philip K; Choi, Hyun-Deok; Laing, James R; Cui, Huailue; Zananski, Tiffany J; Chandrasekaran, Sriraam Ramanathan; Rattigan, Oliver V; Holsen, Thomas M

    2011-09-01

    Three mercury (Hg) species (gaseous elemental mercury (GEM), gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), and fine particulate-bound mercury (PBM(2.5))) were measured in the stack of a small scale wood combustion chamber at 400°C, in the stack of an advanced wood boiler, and in two areas influenced by wood combustion. The low temperature process (lab-scale) emitted mostly GEM (∼99% when burning wood pellets and ∼95% when burning unprocessed wood). The high temperature wood boiler emitted a greater proportion of oxidized Hg (approximately 65%) than the low temperature system. In field measurements, mean PBM(2.5) concentrations at the rural and urban sites in winter were statistically significantly higher than in warmer seasons and were well correlated with Delta-C concentrations, a wood combustion indictor measured by an aethalometer (UV-absorbable carbon minus black carbon). Overall the results suggest that wood combustion may be an important source of oxidized mercury (mostly in the particulate phase) in northern climates in winter. PMID:21620435

  20. Subnanogram determination of inorganic and organic mercury by helium-microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Fukushi, K. ); Willie, S.N.; Sturgeon, R.E. )

    1993-02-01

    Inorganic and organic mercury were determined by helium-microwave induced plasma-atomic emission spectrometry following cold vapor generation. Whereas only inorganic mercury was reduced by stannous ion in an acidic medium, both inorganic and organic mercury (total mercury) were reduced by stannous ion in the presence of cupric ion in a basic medium. Organic mercury was determined as the difference between total and inorganic mercury. Detection limits for inorganic and organic mercury were 11 and 10 pg, respectively. The accuracy of the proposed method was verified through the determination of inorganic, total and organic mercury in two marine biological standard reference materials, DORM-1 and TORT-1. 21 refs., 1 fig., 4 tabs.

  1. Evaluation of Mercury Emissions from Coal-Fired Facilities with SCR and FGD Systems

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; J. E. Locke

    2006-02-01

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)--wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The principal purpose of this work is to develop a better understanding of the potential mercury removal ''co-benefits'' achieved by NO{sub x}, and SO{sub 2} control technologies. It is expected that this data will provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. Ultimately, this insight could help to design and operate SCR and FGD systems to maximize mercury removal. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of SCR catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on mercury speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for mercury capture. This document, the tenth in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on two 468 MW units burning bituminous coal containing 1.3-1.7% sulfur. Unit 2 is equipped with an SCR, ESP, and wet FGD to control NO{sub x}, particulate, and SO{sub 2} emissions, respectively. Unit 1

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME II. APPENDICES F-J: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-236b Kinsey*, J.S. Characterization of Mercury Emissions at a Chlor-alkali Plant, Volume II. Appendices F-J. 01/28/2002 The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consume...

  3. Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, G. J.; Scott, E. R. D.

    2003-12-01

    Mercury is an important part of the solar system puzzle, yet we know less about it than any other planet, except Pluto. Mercury is the smallest of the terrestrial planets (0.05 Earth masses) and the closest to the Sun. Its relatively high density (5.4 g cm -3) indicates that it has a large metallic core (˜3/4 of the planet's radius) compared to its silicate mantle and crust. The existence of a magnetic field implies that the metallic core is still partly molten. The surface is heavily cratered like the highlands of the Moon, but some areas are smooth and less cratered, possibly like the lunar maria (but not as dark). Its surface composition, as explained in the next section, appears to be low in FeO (only ˜3 wt.%), which implies that either its crust is anorthositic (Jeanloz et al., 1995) or its mantle is similarly low in FeO ( Robinson and Taylor, 2001).The proximity of Mercury to the Sun is particularly important. In one somewhat outmoded view of how the solar system formed, Mercury was assembled in the hottest region close to the Sun so that virtually all of the iron was in the metallic state, rather than oxidized to FeO (e.g., Lewis, 1972, 1974). If correct, Mercury ought to have relatively a low content of FeO. This hypothesis also predicts that Mercury should have high concentrations of refractory elements, such as calcium, aluminum, and thorium, and low concentrations of volatile elements, such as sodium and potassium, compared to the other terrestrial planets.Alternative hypotheses tell a much more nomadic and dramatic story of Mercury's birth. In one alternative view, wandering planetesimals that might have come from as far away as Mars or the inner asteroid belt accreted to form Mercury (Wetherill, 1994). This model predicts higher FeO and volatile elements than does the high-temperature model, and similar compositions among the terrestrial planets. The accretion process might have been accompanied by a monumental impact that stripped away much of the

  4. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 1995 to 2003

    SciTech Connect

    Ye Wu; Shuxiao Wang; David G. Streets; Jiming Hao; Melissa Chan; Jingkun Jiang

    2006-09-01

    We have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China for 1995 through 2003. It is estimated that total Hg emissions from all anthropogenic sources increased at an average annual rate of 2.9% during the period 1995-2003, reaching 696 ({+-}307) t in 2003, with a speciation split of 395 t of Hg{sup 0}, 230 t of Hg{sup 2+}, and 70 t of particulate mercury, Hg{sup p}. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion continue to be the two leading mercury sources in China, as nonferrous metals production and coal consumption keep increasing. Nonferrous metals smelting and coal combustion together contributed {approximately}80% of total Hg emissions during the past decade. Hg emissions from coal combustion increased from 202 t in 1995 to 257 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 3.0%. Among all of the coal consumption sectors, the power sector is the leading one in Hg emissions growth, up by 5.9% annually. Hg emissions from nonferrous metals smelting increased from 230 t in 1995 to 321 t in 2003 at an average annual rate of 4.2%. Although Hg emissions related to gold smelting decreased since 1996, other nonferrous metals such as zinc, lead, and copper contributed significant Hg growth at annual rates of 8.5%, 13.0%, and 6.9%, respectively. At provincial level, the trends of Hg emissions show significant variation. The uncertainty level decreased from {+-}78% (95% confidence interval) in the estimate of total emissions in 1995, to {+-}44% in 2003. This is primarily attributed to the decreased emissions from those Hg sources with the largest uncertainty in both activity levels and emission factors, such as artisanal gold smelting, mercury mining, and battery/fluorescent lamp production. 36 refs., 2 figs., 4 tabs.

  5. Atmospheric mercury emissions from China's primary nonferrous metal (Zn, Pb and Cu) smelting during 1949-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xuejie; Hu, Dan; Wang, Huanhuan; Chen, Long; Xie, Han; Zhang, Wei; Deng, Chunyan; Wang, Xuejun

    2015-02-01

    Primary nonferrous metal smelting is one of the most significant anthropogenic mercury emission sources. A spatially resolved mercury emission inventory over a long time span is essential for assessment of mercury source attribution and mercury transport modeling. In this study, based on updated technology-based emission factors, the atmospheric mercury emissions originating from primary zinc, lead and copper smelting in China were calculated. The inventory indicated that the total mercury emission from nonferrous metal smelting in China was 14.65 Mg in 2010, lower than the estimations in previous studies. The contributions of point and non-point sources were 23.3% and 76.7%, respectively. In 2010, the mercury emission from primary zinc, lead and copper smelting was 7.49, 6.05 and 1.10 Mg, respectively, and the Hg2+, Hg0 and HgP emissions were 8.10, 6.16 and 0.75 Mg, respectively. Spatially, the province with the largest emission was Sichuan, followed by Henan, Gansu, Shaanxi, Hunan and Yunnan provinces. The historical emissions were estimated based on dynamic emission factors that take the temporal technology changes into consideration. During 1949-2010, the cumulative mercury emission from China's nonferrous metal smelting was 323.0 Mg, of which the emission from lead smelting accounted for 44.6%, followed by zinc smelting (32.8%) and copper smelting (22.6%). From 1949 to 2010, the contribution of mercury emission from zinc smelting increased from 1.4% to 53.7%, while that from lead smelting showed a decreasing trend. For copper smelting, its contribution reached the maximum (40.1%) in 1987.

  6. Processes influencing the emission of mercury from soils: A conceptual model

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Lindberg, S.E.

    1999-09-01

    In contrast to recent rapid growth in the field data on mercury flux over soils, our knowledge and understanding of the emission processes and controlling mechanisms still remains limited. Many processes could control emission of mercury from soils. The emission processes may involve both Hg(0) and Hg(II) pools, both homogeneous and heterogeneous distributions and reactions, and both dark and light processes. The physical and chemical controlling processes mainly involve (1) distribution of different mercury species among different soil phases, largely associated with adsorption and desorption of Hg(0) and Hg(II) species, and (2) mercury redox reactions in soils, some of which could be induced by sunlight, especially in the UV. The distribution (sorption versus desorption) of Hg(0) in soils could be the rate-limiting process in the case where Hg(0) is the dominant mercury pool, and the redox reactions could be rate-limiting in the case where Hg(II) is the major pool. Various hypothetical scenarios of Hg(0) and Hg(II) transformation in soils are discussed here. However, the specific processes that actually occur in soils under natural conditions are far from clear and need to be identified and quantified in future research.

  7. Polar firn air reveals large-scale impact of anthropogenic mercury emissions during the 1970s

    PubMed Central

    Faïn, Xavier; Ferrari, Christophe P.; Dommergue, Aurélien; Albert, Mary R.; Battle, Mark; Severinghaus, Jeff; Arnaud, Laurent; Barnola, Jean-Marc; Cairns, Warren; Barbante, Carlo; Boutron, Claude

    2009-01-01

    Mercury (Hg) is an extremely toxic pollutant, and its biogeochemical cycle has been perturbed by anthropogenic emissions during recent centuries. In the atmosphere, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM; Hg°) is the predominant form of mercury (up to 95%). Here we report the evolution of atmospheric levels of GEM in mid- to high-northern latitudes inferred from the interstitial air of firn (perennial snowpack) at Summit, Greenland. GEM concentrations increased rapidly after World War II from ≈1.5 ng m−3 reaching a maximum of ≈3 ng m−3 around 1970 and decreased until stabilizing at ≈1.7 ng m−3 around 1995. This reconstruction reproduces real-time measurements available from the Arctic since 1995 and exhibits the same general trend observed in Europe since 1990. Anthropogenic emissions caused a two-fold rise in boreal atmospheric GEM concentrations before the 1970s, which likely contributed to higher deposition of mercury in both industrialized and remotes areas. Once deposited, this toxin becomes available for methylation and, subsequently, the contamination of ecosystems. Implementation of air pollution regulations, however, enabled a large-scale decline in atmospheric mercury levels during the 1980s. The results shown here suggest that potential increases in emissions in the coming decades could have a similar large-scale impact on atmospheric Hg levels. PMID:19805267

  8. LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE MONTICELLO COAL FIRED POWER PLANT.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; ADAMS, J.; MILIAN, L.; SUBRAMANIAN, S.; FEAGIN, L.; WILLIAMS, J.; BOYD, A.

    2006-10-31

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as currently proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury ''hot spots'', using two types of evidence. First, the world-wide literature was searched for reports of deposition around mercury sources, including coal-fired power plants. Second, soil samples from around two mid-sized U.S. coal-fired power plants were collected and analyzed for evidence of ''hot spots'' and for correlation with model predictions of deposition. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (A) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (B) sediment increments of 18-30%, (C) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (D) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg(0) in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg deposition and fish content

  9. A CAVITY RING-DOWN SPECTROSCOPY MERCURY CONTINUOUS EMISSION MONITOR

    SciTech Connect

    Christopher C. Carter

    2003-09-30

    The work performed during this quarter by SRD scientists and engineers focused on a number of tasks. The initial acquisition of some hardware needed and the actual construction of the sampling system have begun. This sampling system will contain the pyrolysis oven to atomize the sample gas stream needed for total gaseous mercury measurements, the CRD cavity to acquire the ring-down signal needed to obtain the mercury concentration, various tubing, and temperature and pressure measurement equipment. The amount of tubing and valves have been cut to a minimum to try and reduce the resident time the sample flue gas stream is in the sampling system and minimize the possibility that the gases in the sample gas stream will react with the elements of the sampling system and change the component mixture contained in the flue gas. In an effort to minimize the equipment that needs to be close to the actual sampling port, SRD scientists decided to fiber optically couple the laser to the CRD cavity. However, the ultra-violet (UV) light needed for the mercury transition presents a problem as fiber optics can be solarized by the UV radiation thereby changing the transmission characteristics. SRD has obtained a solarization-resistant fiber. SRD scientists were then able to couple the UV laser light into the fiber and inject the output of the fiber into the CRD cavity and obtain a ring-down signal. Long-term effects of the UV radiation on the fiber optic are being monitored to detect any change in the transmission of the laser light to the cavity. Additional requirements of the mercury CRD monitor will be to not only monitor the mercury concentration continuously but also perform the measurements over extended periods of time. SRD has extended some previously performed shorter-term studies to longer time intervals. The results of these initial long-term studies are very promising.

  10. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 5. An ecological assessment of anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States. Sab review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, J.W.

    1996-06-01

    In this volume of the draft Mercury Study Report to Congress, an ecological assessment for anthropogenic mercury emissions is developed. The assessment follows the U.S. EPA Framework for Ecological Assessment: problem formulation; presentation of a conceptual model describing airborne mercury accumulation in aquatic biota, biomagnification in the aquatic food chain; and analysis of exposure of wildlife species to methylmercury through consumption of fish and shellfish. Exposures of wildlife species to methylmercury through the aquatic food chain are compared with toxicity data calculated in the development of criteria for the protection of fish-eating avian and mammalian wildlife. Descriptions of mercury impacts on biota are provided in the problem formulation chapter. Estimates are provided of mercury deposition on a local scale in areas near emissions point sources. The distributions of selected fish-consuming wildlife species are overlaid with predicted high mercury areas of high concern (e.g., areas with low-pH surface water) and compared with predicted deposition of anthropogenic mercury emissions.

  11. Local Impacts of Mercury Emissions from the Three Pennsylvania Coal Fired Power Plants.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan,T.; Adams,J.; Bender, M.; Bu, C.; Piccolo, N.; Campbell, C.

    2008-02-01

    The Clean Air Interstate Rule (CAIR) and the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) as proposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) when fully implemented will lead to reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants by 70 percent to fifteen tons per year by 2018. The EPA estimates that mercury deposition would be reduced 8 percent on average in the Eastern United States. The CAMR permits cap-and-trade approach that requires the nationwide emissions to meet the prescribed level, but do not require controls on each individual power plant. This has led to concerns that there may be hot-spots of mercury contamination near power plants. Partially because of this concern, many states including Pennsylvania have implemented, or are considering, state regulations that are stricter on mercury emissions than those in the CAMR. This study examined the possibility that coal-fired power plants act as local sources leading to mercury 'hot spots'. Soil and oak leaf samples from around three large U.S. coal-fired power plants in Western Pennsylvania were collected and analyzed for evidence of 'hot spots'. These three plants (Conemaugh, Homer City, and Keystone) are separated by a total distance of approximately 30 miles. Each emits over 500 pounds of mercury per year which is well above average for mercury emissions from coal plants in the U.S. Soil and oak leaf sampling programs were performed around each power plant. Sampling rings one-mile apart were used with eight or nine locations on each ring. The prevailing winds in the region are from the west. For this reason, sampling was conducted out to 10 miles from the Conemaugh plant which is southeast of the others. The other plants were sampled to a distance of five miles. The objectives were to determine if local mercury hot spots exist, to determine if they could be attributed to deposition of coal-fired power plant emissions, and to determine if they correlated with wind patterns. The study found the following

  12. Mapping the spatial distribution of global anthropogenic mercury atmospheric emission inventories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Simon J.; Steenhuisen, Frits; Pacyna, Jozef M.; Pacyna, Elisabeth G.

    This paper describes the procedures employed to spatially distribute global inventories of anthropogenic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere, prepared by Pacyna, E.G., Pacyna, J.M., Steenhuisen, F., Wilson, S. [2006. Global anthropogenic mercury emission inventory for 2000. Atmospheric Environment, this issue, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2006.03.041], and briefly discusses the results of this work. A new spatially distributed global emission inventory for the (nominal) year 2000, and a revised version of the 1995 inventory are presented. Emissions estimates for total mercury and major species groups are distributed within latitude/longitude-based grids with a resolution of 1×1 and 0.5×0.5°. A key component in the spatial distribution procedure is the use of population distribution as a surrogate parameter to distribute emissions from sources that cannot be accurately geographically located. In this connection, new gridded population datasets were prepared, based on the CEISIN GPW3 datasets (CIESIN, 2004. Gridded Population of the World (GPW), Version 3. Center for International Earth Science Information Network (CIESIN), Columbia University and Centro Internacional de Agricultura Tropical (CIAT). GPW3 data are available at http://beta.sedac.ciesin.columbia.edu/gpw/index.jsp). The spatially distributed emissions inventories and population datasets prepared in the course of this work are available on the Internet at www.amap.no/Resources/HgEmissions/

  13. Technology demonstration for reducing mercury emissions from small-scale gold refining facilities.

    SciTech Connect

    Habegger, L. J.; Fernandez, L. E.; Engle, M.; Bailey, J. L.; Peterson, D. P.; MacDonell, M. M.; U.S. Environmental Protection Agency

    2008-06-30

    Gold that is brought from artisanal and small-scale gold mining areas to gold shops for processing and sale typically contains 5-40% mercury. The uncontrolled removal of the residual mercury in gold shops by using high-temperature evaporation can be a significant source of mercury emissions in urban areas where the shops are located. Emissions from gold shop hoods during a burn can exceed 1,000 mg/m{sup 3}. Because the saturation concentration of mercury vapor at operating temperatures at the hood exhaust is less than 100 mg/m{sup 3}, the dominant component of the exhaust is in the form of aerosol or liquid particles. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), with technical support from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne), has completed a project to design and test a technology to remove the dominant aerosol component in the emissions from gold shops. The objective was to demonstrate a technology that could be manufactured at low cost and by using locally available materials and manufacturing capabilities. Six prototypes designed by Argonne were locally manufactured, installed, and tested in gold shops in Itaituba and Creporizao, Brazil. The initial prototype design incorporated a pebble bed as the media for collecting the mercury aerosols, and a mercury collection efficiency of over 90% was demonstrated. Though achieving high efficiencies, the initial prototype was determined to have practical disadvantages such as excessive weight, a somewhat complex construction, and high costs (>US$1,000). To further simplify the construction, operation, and associated costs, a second prototype design was developed in which the pebble bed was replaced with slotted steel baffle plates. The system was designed to have flexibility for installation in various hood configurations. The second prototype with the baffle plate design was installed and tested in several different hood/exhaust systems to determine the optimal installation configuration. The significance of

  14. Effectiveness of Emission Controls to Reduce the Atmospheric Concentrations of Mercury.

    PubMed

    Castro, Mark S; Sherwell, John

    2015-12-15

    Coal-fired power plants in the United States are required to reduce their emissions of mercury (Hg) into the atmosphere to lower the exposure of Hg to humans. The effectiveness of power-plant emission controls on the atmospheric concentrations of Hg in the United States is largely unknown because there are few long-term high-quality atmospheric Hg data sets. Here, we present the atmospheric concentrations of Hg and sulfur dioxide (SO2) measured from 2006 to 2015 at a relatively pristine location in western Maryland that is several (>50 km) kilometers downwind of power plants in Ohio, Pennsylvania, and West Virginia. Annual average atmospheric concentrations of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), SO2, fine particulate mercury (PBM2.5), and gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) declined by 75%, 75%, 43%, and 13%, respectively, and were strongly correlated with power-plant Hg emissions from the upwind states. These results provide compelling evidence that reductions in Hg emissions from power plants in the United States had their intended impact to reduce regional Hg pollution. PMID:26606506

  15. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY AND MULTIPOLLUTANT EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of both powdered activated carbon (PAC) and multipollutant control technologies that may be useful in controlling mercury emissions. Based on currently available data, cost estimates for PAC injection range are 0.03-3.096 ...

  16. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT: STUDY ORGANIZATION AND IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the organization and implementation of a detailed emissions measurement campaign conducted over a 2-week period at the Olin Corporation's mercury chlor-alkali plant in Augusta, GA. (NOTE: Since data analysis is continuing, study results will be provided later...

  17. EMISSION TEST REPORT, OMSS FIELD TEST ON CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of a parametric evaluation of powdered activated carbon for control of mercury (Hg) emission from a municipal waste combustion (MWC) equipped with a lime spray spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SD/FF). he primary test objectives were to evaluat the ...

  18. EMISSION TEST REPORT, OMSS FIELD TEST ON CARBON INJECTION FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report discusses results of a parametric evaluation of powdered activated carbon for control of mercury (Hg) emission from a municipal waste cornbustor (MWC) equipped with a lime spray dryer absorber/fabric filter (SD/FF). The primary test objectives were to evaluate the effe...

  19. CONTROL OF DIOXIN, FURAN, AND MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM MUNICIPAL WASTE COMBUSTORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is a significant public and scientific concern over the potential risks of air pollution emissions from municipal waste combustors (MWCs). The primary pollutants of concern are polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDDs/PCDFs), and mercury (Hg). Depending on...

  20. INVESTIGATION OF SELECTIVE CATALYTIC REDUCTION IMPACT ON MERCURY SPECIATION UNDER SIMULATED NOX EMISSION CONTROL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Selective catalytic reduction (SCR) technology is being increasingly applied for controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) from coal-fired boilers. Some recent field and pilot studies suggest that the operation of SCR could affect the chemical form of mercury in the coal com...

  1. EVALUATION OF THE EFFECT OF SCR ON MERCURY SPECIATION AND EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents the results of an investigation on the impact that selective catalytic reduction (SCR) has on both the total emissions and the speciation of mercury (Hg). SCR systems can be used as multipollutant technologies if they enhance Hg conversion/capture. Previous pil...

  2. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME II. APPENDICES F-J

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  3. Spatial variability of mercury emissions from soils in a southeastern US urban environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gabriel, Mark C.; Williamson, Derek G.; Brooks, Steve; Zhang, Hong; Lindberg, Steve

    2005-10-01

    We quantified gaseous mercury (Hg0) fluxes over soil surfaces in an urban setting during the winters of 2003 and 2004 across the metropolitan area of Tuscaloosa, AL. The objective was to provide a first inspection of the local spatial variability of mercury flux in an urban area. Flux sampling took place on bare, undisturbed, soil surfaces within four evenly spaced landuse areas of Tuscaloosa: industrial, commercial, residential, and mixed landuse. Median total gaseous mercury fluxes (ng/m2 h) from each site were as follows: 4.45 (residential site), 1.40 (industrial site), 2.14 (commercial site), and 0.87 (mixed landuse site). Using non-parametric statistical analyses, the residential and mixed landuse sites were found to be statistically different from the overall median flux. Landuse and soil type are the suspected factors primarily controlling the observed spatially variable fluxes. The presence of statistically different fluxes over soil surfaces on a local scale in this preliminary study warrants additional investigation, particularly during the spring and summer seasons when terrestrial mercury emission is the highest. Providing such information will help develop better estimates of mercury emission from urban areas and, ultimately, lead to more accurate and useful spatially relevant inventories.

  4. Mercury speciation and emission from municipal solid waste incinerators in the Pearl River Delta, South China.

    PubMed

    Chen, Laiguo; Liu, Ming; Fan, Ruifang; Ma, Shexia; Xu, Zhencheng; Ren, Mingzhong; He, Qiusheng

    2013-03-01

    The potential for Hg release during municipal solid waste incineration (MSWI) is attracting increased attention due to high volume of municipal waste being treated by incineration in China. Emission amounts have been estimated using emission factors developed for other countries. To fine tune our emission estimate total mercury (THg) and mercury speciation were measured using isokinetic sampling in eight plants, of which six used grate furnace combustor (GFC) and two circulation fluidized bed combustors (CFBCs). Results showed that average THg concentration (19.5 ± 13.6 μg/Nm) in flue gas at the facilities that used CFBC was significantly lower than that at those using GFC (51.4 ± 28.3 μg/Nm, p=0.002). Gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM), gaseous elemental mercury (GEM, Hg), and particulate mercury (Hg) represented 95.5 ± 3.8%, 4.1 ± 3.9% and 0.4 ± 0.3% in GFC, and 63.8 ± 8.6%, 33.6 ± 10.5% and 2.6 ± 1.9% in CFBC, respectively. The measured average THg emission factor for the 8 MSWI plants was 208 ± 130 mg/t in the Pearl River Delta (PRD) region, with 217 ± 158 mg/t and 188 ± 17.7 mg/t were from GFC and CFBC, respectively. Using the average emission factor the estimated total mercury emissions from MSWI were 4.67 ± 2.91 t in China, and 770 ± 65.5 kg in the PRD region in 2010. Of these, 4240 ± 210 kg, 408 ± 231 kg and 14.8 ± 14.1 kg, and 688 ± 37 kg, 78.9 ± 40.6 kg and 3.2 ± 3.0 kg were GOM, Hg, and Hg, respectively. Mercury emissions will continue to increase as the amounts of MSW being incinerated increases. PMID:23410861

  5. Assessing and Managing Methylmercury Risks Associated With Power Plant Mercury Emissions in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Charnley, Gail

    2006-01-01

    Abstract and Introduction Abstract Until the Clean Air Mercury Rule was signed in March 2005, coal-fired electric utilities were the only remaining, unregulated major source of industrial mercury emissions in the United States. Proponents of coal-burning power plants assert that methylmercury is not a hazard at the current environmental levels, that current technologies for limiting emissions are unreliable, and that reducing mercury emissions from power plants in the United States will have little impact on environmental levels. Opponents of coal-burning plants assert that current methylmercury exposures from fish are damaging to the developing nervous system of infants, children, and the fetus; that current technology can significantly limit emissions; and that reducing emissions will reduce exposure and risk. One concern is that local mercury emissions from power plants may contribute to higher local exposure levels, or “hot spots.” The impact of the Mercury Rule on potential hot spots is uncertain due to the highly site-specific nature of the relationship between plant emissions and local fish methylmercury levels. The impact on the primary source of exposure in the United States, ocean fish, is likely to be negligible due to the contribution of natural sources and industrial sources outside the United States. Another debate centers on the toxic potency of methylmercury, with the scientific basis of the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA's) recommended exposure limit questioned by some and defended by others. It is likely that the EPA's exposure limit may be appropriate for combined exposure to methylmercury and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), but may be lower than the available data suggest is necessary to protect children from methylmercury alone. Mercury emissions from power plants are a global problem. Without a global approach to developing and implementing clean coal technologies, limiting US power plant emissions alone will have little

  6. Trend analysis from 1970 to 2008 and model evaluation of EDGARv4 global gridded anthropogenic mercury emissions.

    PubMed

    Muntean, Marilena; Janssens-Maenhout, Greet; Song, Shaojie; Selin, Noelle E; Olivier, Jos G J; Guizzardi, Diego; Maas, Rob; Dentener, Frank

    2014-10-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) provides a time-series of man-made emissions of greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970 to 2008. Mercury is included in EDGARv4.tox1, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources in the database. With an average annual growth rate of 1.3% since 1970, EDGARv4 estimates that the global mercury emissions reached 1,287 tonnes in 2008. Specifically, gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) (Hg(0)) accounted for 72% of the global total emissions, while gaseous oxidised mercury (GOM) (Hg(2+)) and particle bound mercury (PBM) (Hg-P) accounted for only 22% and 6%, respectively. The less reactive form, i.e., Hg(0), has a long atmospheric residence time and can be transported long distances from the emission sources. The artisanal and small-scale gold production, accounted for approximately half of the global Hg(0) emissions in 2008 followed by combustion (29%), cement production (12%) and other metal industry (10%). Given the local-scale impacts of mercury, special attention was given to the spatial distribution showing the emission hot-spots on gridded 0.1°×0.1° resolution maps using detailed proxy data. The comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry over four decades indicates reductions of 46% and 93%, respectively. Combined, the improved technologies and mitigation measures in these sectors accounted for 401.7 tonnes of avoided mercury emissions in 2008. A comparison shows that EDGARv4 anthropogenic emissions are nearly equivalent to the lower estimates of the United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP)'s mercury emissions inventory for 2005 for most sectors. An evaluation of the EDGARv4 global mercury emission inventory, including mercury speciation, was performed using the GEOS-Chem global 3-D mercury model. The model can generally

  7. CARBON BED MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FOR MIXED WASTE TREATMENT

    SciTech Connect

    Nick Soelberg; Joe Enneking

    2010-11-01

    Mercury has had various uses in nuclear fuel reprocessing and other nuclear processes, and so is often present in radioactive and mixed (both radioactive and hazardous according tohe Resource Conservation and Recovery Act) wastes. Depending on regulatory requirements, the mercury in the off-gas must be controlled with sometimes very high efficiencies. Compliance to the Hazardous Waste Combustor (HWC) Maximum Achievable Control Technology (MACT) standards can require off-gas mercury removal efficiencies up to 99.999% for thermally treating some mixed waste streams. Several test programs have demonstrated this level of off-gas mercury control using fixed beds of granular sulfur-impregnated activated carbon. Other results of these tests include: (a) The depth of the mercury control mass transfer zone was less than 15-30 cm for the operating conditions of these tests, (b) MERSORB® carbon can sorb Hg up to 19 wt% of the carbon mass, and (c) the spent carbon retained almost all (98 – 99.99%) of the Hg; but when even a small fraction of the total Hg dissolves, the spent carbon can fail the TCLP test when the spent carbon contains high Hg concentrations. Localized areas in a carbon bed that become heated through heat of adsorption, to temperatures where oxidation occurs, are referred to as “bed hot spots.” Carbon bed hot spots must be avoided in processes that treat radioactive and mixed waste. Key to carbon bed hot spot mitigation are (a) designing for sufficient gas velocity, for avoiding gas flow maldistribution, and for sufficient but not excessive bed depth, (b) monitoring and control of inlet gas flowrate, temperature, and composition, (c) monitoring and control of in-bed and bed outlet gas temperatures, and (d) most important, monitoring of bed outlet CO concentrations. An increase of CO levels in the off-gas downstream of the carbon bed to levels about 50-100 ppm higher than the inlet CO concentration indicate CO formation in the bed, caused by carbon bed

  8. Inverse modeling of atmospheric mercury emissions using a global chemical transport model and surface observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, S.; Selin, N. E.

    2012-12-01

    We use inverse modeling in combination with worldwide observational data to constrain atmospheric mercury fluxes and associated uncertainties from anthropogenic and natural sources. Though atmospheric transport is a critical pathway of global mercury transport, large uncertainties exist in estimating the magnitudes and temporal variabilities of mercury emissions to the atmosphere from both natural and anthropogenic processes. Previous estimations have primarily used a so-called "bottom-up" approach, which extrapolates the few direct measurements to larger regions or uses simplified process models to estimate fluxes. Here, we apply a "top-down" or inverse modeling approach. Worldwide surface observations of total gaseous mercury (TGM) and simulations from a global chemical transport model (GEOS-Chem version 9-01-02 with a 2 by 2.5 degree horizontal resolution) are combined to estimate mercury fluxes. Time-invariant anthropogenic emission and seasonally varying fluxes (e.g., ocean evasion, biomass burning, and soil volatilization) are optimally estimated by Kalman filter between 2005 and 2009 at a monthly time resolution. The reference source spatial distributions are shown in Figure 1. We collected data from 16 measurement sites with high precision and frequency, covering most active stations during our period of study. The observations and reference model outputs at 4 representative sites are compared in Figure 2. We test the inverse model by comparing model-measurement fits between the reference model and optimized emissions.igure 1. Mercury reference source spatial distributions. Annually averaged patterns are shown in log scale. igure 2. Comparison of TGM monthly mean observations between observations (black, shown with standard deviations) and reference model results (red) at 4 representative sites.

  9. Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gault, D. E.; Burns, J. A.; Cassen, P.; Strom, R. G.

    1977-01-01

    Prior to the flight of the Mariner 10 spacecraft, Mercury was the least investigated and most poorly known terrestrial planet (Kuiper 1970, Devine 1972). Observational difficulties caused by its proximity to the Sun as viewed from Earth caused the planet to remain a small, vague disk exhibiting little surface contrast or details, an object for which only three major facts were known: 1. its bulk density is similar to that of Venus and Earth, much greater than that of Mars and the Moon; 2. its surface reflects electromagnetic radiation at all wavelengths in the same manner as the Moon (taking into account differences in their solar distances); and 3. its rotation period is in 2/3 resonance with its orbital period. Images obtained during the flyby by Mariner 10 on 29 March 1974 (and the two subsequent flybys on 21 September 1974 and 16 March 1975) revealed Mercury's surface in detail equivalent to that available for the Moon during the early 1960's from Earth-based telescopic views. Additionally, however, information was obtained on the planet's mass and size, atmospheric composition and density, charged-particle environment, and infrared thermal radiation from the surface, and most significantly of all, the existence of a planetary magnetic field that is probably intrinsic to Mercury was established. In the following, this new information is summarized together with results from theoretical studies and ground-based observations. In the quantum jumps of knowledge that have been characteristic of "space-age" exploration, the previously obscure body of Mercury has suddenly come into sharp focus. It is very likely a differentiated body, probably contains a large Earth-like iron-rich core, and displays a surface remarkably similar to that of the Moon, which suggests a similar evolutionary history.

  10. Emission of mercury monobromide exciplex in gas-discharge plasma based on mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with sulfur hexafluoride and helium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malinina, A. A.; Shuaibov, A. K.

    2011-02-01

    We present the results of investigations of an emission of a mercury monobromide exciplex in gas-discharge plasma of an atmospheric pressure barrier discharge based on a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor, sulfur hexafluoride, and helium. We optimized the emission power of mercury monobromide exciplexes with respect to the partial pressures of the working mixture. An average emission power of 0.42 W (λmax = 502 nm) is achieved in a cylindrical emission source with a small working volume (0.8 cm3) at a pumping pulse repetition rate of 6 kHz. We determined electron energy distribution functions, transport characteristics, specific discharge power losses for electron processes, electron concentration and temperature, as well as rate constants of elastic and inelastic scattering of electrons by components of the working mixture in relation to the ratio of the field strength to the total concentration of components of the working mixture. We discuss processes that increase the population of the mercury monobromide exciplex. Gas-discharge plasma created in a mixture of mercury dibromide vapor with sulfur hexafluoride and helium can be used as a working medium of an emission source in the blue-green spectral range for the use in scientific research in biotechnology, photonics, and medicine, as well as for creating indicator gas-discharge panels.

  11. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With... Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With the... operating limits: If you demonstrate compliance with applicable mercury and/or total selected...

  12. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With... Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With the... operating limits: If you demonstrate compliance with applicable mercury and/or total selected...

  13. 40 CFR Table 3 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Process Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With... Heaters With Mercury Emission Limits and Boilers and Process Heaters That Choose To Comply With the... operating limits: If you demonstrate compliance with applicable mercury and/or total selected...

  14. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-221 Wilhelm, S.M. Mercury in Petroleum and Natural Gas: Estimation of Emissions from Production Processing, and Combustion. 07/19/2001 The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed i...

  15. MODELING ASSESSMENT OF TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION PATTERNS OF MERCURY AIR EMISSIONS FROM THE U.S. AND CANADA

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 1997, the U.S. EPA submitted the Mercury Study Report to Congress which included a regional-scale modeling assessment of the transport and deposition of U.S. air emissions of mercury. This modeling was performed with a modified version of the Regional Lagrangian Mode...

  16. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J. A. Withum; S.C. Tseng; J. E. Locke

    2004-10-31

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) is evaluating the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP) - wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber--fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL is determining mercury speciation and removal at 10 coal-fired facilities. The objectives are (1) to evaluate the effect of SCR on mercury capture in the ESP-FGD and SDA-FF combinations at coal-fired power plants, (2) evaluate the effect of catalyst degradation on mercury capture; (3) evaluate the effect of low load operation on mercury capture in an SCR-FGD system, and (4) collect data that could provide the basis for fundamental scientific insights into the nature of mercury chemistry in flue gas, the catalytic effect of SCR systems on Hg speciation and the efficacy of different FGD technologies for Hg capture. This document, the second in a series of topical reports, describes the results and analysis of mercury sampling performed on a 330 MW unit burning a bituminous coal containing 1.0% sulfur. The unit is equipped with a SCR system for NOx control and a spray dryer absorber for SO{sub 2} control followed by a baghouse unit for particulate emissions control. Four sampling tests were performed in March 2003. Flue gas mercury speciation and concentrations were determined at the SCR inlet, air heater outlet (ESP inlet), and at the stack (FGD outlet) using the Ontario Hydro method. Process stream samples for a mercury balance were collected to coincide with the flue gas measurements. Due to mechanical problems with the boiler feed water pumps, the actual gross output was between 195 and 221 MW during the tests. The results showed that the SCR/air heater combination oxidized nearly 95% of the elemental mercury. Mercury removal, on a

  17. Estimates of increased black carbon emissions from electrostatic precipitators during powdered activated carbon injection for mercury emissions control.

    PubMed

    Clack, Herek L

    2012-07-01

    The behavior of mercury sorbents within electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is not well-understood, despite a decade or more of full-scale testing. Recent laboratory results suggest that powdered activated carbon exhibits somewhat different collection behavior than fly ash in an ESP and particulate filters located at the outlet of ESPs have shown evidence of powdered activated carbon penetration during full-scale tests of sorbent injection for mercury emissions control. The present analysis considers a range of assumed differential ESP collection efficiencies for powdered activated carbon as compared to fly ash. Estimated emission rates of submicrometer powdered activated carbon are compared to estimated emission rates of particulate carbon on submicrometer fly ash, each corresponding to its respective collection efficiency. To the extent that any emitted powdered activated carbon exhibits size and optical characteristics similar to black carbon, such emissions could effectively constitute an increase in black carbon emissions from coal-based stationary power generation. The results reveal that even for the low injection rates associated with chemically impregnated carbons, submicrometer particulate carbon emissions can easily double if the submicrometer fraction of the native fly ash has a low carbon content. Increasing sorbent injection rates, larger collection efficiency differentials as compared to fly ash, and decreasing sorbent particle size all lead to increases in the estimated submicrometer particulate carbon emissions. PMID:22663136

  18. Flow Analysis of the Mercury Associated with Nonferrous Ore Concentrates: Implications on Mercury Emissions and Recovery in China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingru; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Hui, Mulin; Wang, Fengyang; Hao, Jiming

    2016-02-16

    This study investigated the flow of mercury (Hg) associated with zinc (Zn), lead (Pb), and copper (Cu) concentrates and provided new insights on the Hg emissions and recovery in both metals-production and wastes-disposal processes in China. Total Hg input from concentrates consumed in China reached 1005.4 t, of which 31.7% was dumped as discarded slags and 2.3% was stabilized (permanent storage). Approximately 202.1 t of Hg was directly emitted to air, water, and soil. More specifically, metals production processes emitted 100.4 t Hg to air. Wastes disposal processes contributed to an additional 47.8 t of atmospheric Hg emissions (which were ignored in most emission inventories) and 32.7 and 21.3 t of Hg to water and soil, respectively. At the same time, out of the 62.6 t of recovered Hg, 95.2% was reclaimed from acid slags. Interim storage of 398.9 t of Hg also highlights the significance of acid slags as potential Hg recovery sources due to the global ban on primary Hg production. The uncertainty ranges (confidence interval: 10%-90%) for Hg emissions to air, water, and soil and for Hg recovery were (-75%, 89%), (-96%, + 111%), (-120%, + 149%), and (-78%, 92%), respectively. PMID:26776914

  19. Updated emission inventories for speciated atmospheric mercury from anthropogenic sources in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Wang, Shuxiao; Wang, Long; Wu, Ye; Duan, Lei; Wu, Qingru; Wang, Fengyang; Yang, Mei; Yang, Hai; Hao, Jiming; Liu, Xiang

    2015-03-01

    China is the largest contributor to global atmospheric mercury (Hg), and accurate emission inventories in China are needed to reduce large gaps existing in global Hg mass balance estimates and assess Hg effects on various ecosystems. The China Atmospheric Mercury Emission (CAME) model was developed in this study using probabilistic emission factors generated from abundant on-site measurements and literature data. Using this model, total anthropogenic Hg emissions were estimated to be continuously increasing from 356 t in 2000 to 538 t in 2010 with an average annual increase rate of 4.2%. Industrial coal combustion, coal-fired power plants, nonferrous metal smelting, and cement production were identified to be the dominant Hg emission sources in China. The ten largest contributing provinces accounted for nearly 60% of the total Hg emissions in 2010. Speciated Hg emission inventory was developed over China with a grid-resolution of 36 × 36 km, providing needed emission fields for Hg transport models. In this new inventory, the sectoral Hg speciation profiles were significantly improved based on the latest data from field measurements and more detailed technology categorization. The overall uncertainties of the newly developed inventory were estimated to be in the range of -20% to +23%. PMID:25655106

  20. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pirrone, N.; Costa, P.; Pacyna, J. M.; Ferrara, R.

    This report discusses past, current and projected mercury emissions to the atmosphere from major industrial sources, and presents a first assessment of the contribution to the regional mercury budget from selected natural sources. Emissions (1995 estimates) from fossil fuels combustion (29.8 t yr -1) , cement production (28.8 t yr -1) and incineration of solid wastes (27.6 t yr -1) , all together account for about 82% of the regional anthropogenic total (105.7 t yr -1) . Other industrial sources in the region are smelters (4.8 t yr -1) , iron-steel plants (4.8 t yr -1) and other minor sources (chlor-alkali plants, crematoria, chemicals production) that have been considered together in the miscellaneous category (9.6 t yr -1) . Regional emissions from anthropogenic sources increased at a rate of 3% yr-1 from 1983 to 1995 and are projected to increase at a rate of 1.9% yr-1 in the next 25 years, if no improvement in emission control policy occurs. On a country-by-country basis, France is the leading emitter country with 22.6 t yr -1 followed by Turkey (16.1 t yr -1) , Italy (11.4 t yr -1) , Spain (9.1 t yr -1) , the former Yugoslavia 7.9 ( t yr -1) , Morocco (6.9 t yr -1) , Bulgaria (6.8 t yr -1) , Egypt (6.1 t yr -1) , Syria (3.6 t yr -1) , Libya (2.9 t yr -1) , Tunisia (2.8 t yr -1) and Greece (2.7 t yr -1) , whereas the remaining countries account for less than 7% of the regional total. The annual emission from natural sources is 110 t yr -1, although this figure only includes the volatilisation of elemental mercury from surface waters and emissions from volcanoes, whereas the contribution due to the degassing of mercury from top soil and vegetation has not been included in this first assessment. Therefore, natural and anthropogenic sources in the Mediterranean region release annually about 215 t of mercury, which represents a significant contribution to the total mercury budget released in Europe and to the global atmosphere.

  1. Gaseous mercury emissions from soil following forest loss and land use changes: Field experiments in the United States and Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Anthony; Fostier, Anne H.; Orta, Olivia R.; dos Santos, Jose Carlos; Gittings, Michael

    2014-10-01

    Forest ecosystems are a sink of atmospheric mercury, trapping the metal in the canopy, and storing it in the forest floor after litter fall. Fire liberates a portion of this mercury; however, little is known about the long-term release of mercury post deforestation. We conducted two large-scale experiments to study this phenomenon. In upstate New York, gaseous mercury emissions from soil were monitored continually using a Teflon dynamic surface flux chamber for two-weeks before and after cutting of the canopy on the edge of a deciduous forest. In Brazil, gaseous mercury emissions from soil were monitored in an intact Ombrophilous Open forest and an adjacent field site both before and after the field site was cleared by burning. In the intact forest, gaseous mercury emissions from soil averaged -0.73 ± 1.84 ng m-2 h-1 (24-h monitoring) at the New York site, and 0.33 ± 0.09 ng m-2 h-1 (daytime-only) at the Brazil site. After deforestation, gaseous mercury emissions from soil averaged 9.13 ± 2.08 ng m-2 h-1 in New York and 21.2 ± 0.35 ng m-2 h-1 at the Brazil site prior to burning. Gaseous mercury emissions averaged 74.9 ± 0.73 ng m-2 h-1 after burning of the cut forest in Brazil. Extrapolating our data, measured over several weeks to months, to a full year period, deforested soil is estimated to release an additional 2.30 g ha-1 yr-1 of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere in the Brazilian experiment and 0.41 g ha-1 yr-1 in the New York experiment. In Brazil, this represents an additional 50% of the mercury load released during the fire itself.

  2. Mercury emission trend influenced by stringent air pollutants regulation for coal-fired power plants in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pudasainee, Deepak; Kim, Jeong-Hun; Seo, Yong-Chil

    2009-12-01

    Regulatory control of mercury emission from anthropogenic sources has become a global concern in the recent past. Coal-fired power plants are one of the largest sources of anthropogenic mercury emission into the atmosphere. This paper summarizes the current reducing trend of mercury emission as co-beneficial effect by more stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants with introducing test results from the commercial coal-fired facilities and suggesting a guideline for future regulatory development in Korea. On average, mercury emission concentrations ranged 16.3-2.7 μg Sm -3, 2.4-1.1 μg Sm -3, 3.1-0.7 μg Sm -3 from anthracite coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitator (ESP), bituminous coal-fired power plants with ESP + flue gas desulphurization (FGD) and bituminous coal-fired power plants with selective catalytic reactor (SCR) + cold side (CS) - ESP + wet FGD, respectively. Among the existing air pollution control devices, the best configuration for mercury removal in coal-fired power plants was SCR + CS - ESP + wet FGD, which were installed due to the stringent regulation changes to control primary air pollutants emission such as SO 2, NOx and dust. It was estimated that uncontrolled and controlled mercury emission from coal-fired power plants as 10.3 ton yr -1 and 3.2 ton yr -1 respectively. After the installation of ESP, FGD and SCR system, following the enforcement of the stringent regulation, 7.1 ton yr -1 of mercury emission has been reduced (nearly 69%) from coal-fired power plants as a co-benefit control. Based on the overall study, a sample guideline including emission limits were suggested which will be applied to develop a countermeasure for controlling mercury emission from coal-fired power plants.

  3. Improvement of sensitivity of electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury using acetic acid medium.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, R

    2012-05-15

    A method has been developed to improve the sensitivity of the electrolyte cathode discharge atomic emission spectrometry (ELCAD-AES) for mercury determination. Effects of various low molecular weight organic solvents at different volume percentages as well as at different acid molarities on the mercury signal were investigated using ELCAD-AES. The addition of few percent of organic solvent, acetic acid produced significant enhancement in mercury signal. Acetic acid of 5% (v/v) with the 0.2M acidity has been found to give 500% enhancement for mercury signal in flow injection mode. Under the optimized parameters the repeatability, expressed as the percentage relative standard deviation of spectral peak area for mercury with 5% acetic acid was found to be 10% for acid blank solution and 5% for 20 ng/mL mercury standard based on multiple measurements with a multiple sample loading in flow injection mode. Limit of detection of this method was determined to be 2 ng/mL for inorganic mercury. The proposed method has been validated by determining mercury in certified reference materials, Tuna fish (IAEA-350) and Aquatic plant (BCR-060). Accuracy of the method for the mercury determination in the reference materials has been found to be between 3.5% and 5.9%. This study enhances the utility of ELCAD-AES for various types of biological and environmental materials to quantify total mercury at very low levels. PMID:22483872

  4. Impact of Oxy-Fuel Conditions on Elemental Mercury Re-Emission in Wet Flue Gas Desulfurization Systems.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Miranda, Nuria; Lopez-Anton, M Antonia; Torre-Santos, Teresa; Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Martínez-Tarazona, M Rosa

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluates some of the variables that may influence mercury retention in wet flue gas desulfurization (WFGD) plants, focusing on oxy-coal combustion processes and differences when compared with atmospheres enriched in N2. The main drawback of using WFGD for mercury capture is the possibility of unwanted reduction of dissolved Hg(2+), leading to the re-emission of insoluble elemental mercury (Hg(0)), which decreases efficiency. To acquire a better understanding of the mercury re-emission reactions in WFGD systems, this work analyses different variables that influence the behavior of mercury in slurries obtained from two limestones, under an oxy-combustion atmosphere. The O2 supplied to the reactor, the influence of the pH, the concentration of mercury in the gas phase, and the enhancement of mercury in the slurry were the variables considered. The study was performed at laboratory scale, where possible reactions between the components in the scrubber can be individually evaluated. It was found that in an oxy-combustion atmosphere (mostly CO2), the re-emission of Hg(0) is lower than under a N2-enriched atmosphere, and the mercury is mainly retained as Hg(2+) in the liquid phase. PMID:27329988

  5. Highly elevated emission of mercury vapor due to the spontaneous combustion of refuse in a landfill

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Sommar, Jonas; Li, Zhonggen; Feng, Xinbin; Lin, Che-Jen; Li, Guanghui

    2013-11-01

    Refuse disposal (e.g., landfilling and incineration) have been recognized as a significant anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emission globally. However, in-situ measurements of Hg emission from landfill or refuse dumping sites where fugitive spontaneous combustion occurs have not been reported. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0) concentration and emission flux were observed near spontaneous combustions of refuse at a landfill site in southwestern China. Ambient Hg0 concentrations above the refuse surface ranged from 42.7 ± 20.0 to 396.4 ± 114.2 ng m-3, up to 10 times enhancement due to the spontaneous burning. Using a box model with Hg0 data obtained from 2004 to 2013, we estimated that the Hg0 emission from refuse was amplified by 8-40 times due to spontaneous combustion. A micrometeorological flux measurement system based on relaxed eddy accumulation was configured downwind of the combustion sites to quantify the Hg0 emission. Extremely large turbulent deposition fluxes (up to -128.6 μg m-2 h-1, 20 min average) were detected during periods of high Hg0 concentration events over the measurement footprint. The effect of temperature, moisture and light on the air-surface exchange of Hg0 exchange was found to be masked by the overwhelming deposition of Hg0 from the enriched air from the refuse combustion plumes. This research reveals that mercury emission from the landfill refuse can be boosted by fugitive spontaneous combustion of refuse. The emission represents an anthropogenic source that has been overlooked in Hg inventory estimates.

  6. Atlantic mercury emission determined from continuous analysis of the elemental mercury sea-air concentration difference within transects between 50°N and 50°S

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuss, J.; Zülicke, C.; Pohl, C.; Schneider, B.

    2011-09-01

    Mercury in the environment deserves serious concern because of the mobility of volatile elemental mercury (Hg0) in the atmosphere, in combination with the harmful effect of Hg compounds on human health and the ecosystem. A major source of global atmospheric mercury is presumed to be oceanic Hg0 emission. However, available Hg0 surface water data to reliably estimate the ocean's mercury emissions are sparse. In this study, high-resolution surface water and air measurements of Hg0 were carried out between Europe and South Africa in November 2008 and between South America and Europe in April-May 2009. On each cruise a strong enrichment of Hg0 in tropical surface water was determined that apparently followed the seasonal shift of the Intertropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). A combination of a high Hg0 production rate constant and the actual low wind speeds, which prevented emission, probably caused the accumulation of Hg0 in surface waters of the ITCZ. Hg0 emissions in the tropics were significant only if wind speed variability on a monthly scale was considered, in which case the observed significant decline of total Hg in tropical surface waters during the northern winter could be explained. In the midlatitudes, increased autumn Hg0 emissions were calculated for November in the Northern Hemisphere and for May in the Southern Hemisphere; conversely, emissions were low during both the northern and the southern spring. Mercury removal from surface waters by Hg0 emission and sinking particles was comparable to its supply through wet and dry deposition.

  7. A summary of measured mercury emissions from two municipal landfills in Florida

    SciTech Connect

    Lindberg, S.E.; Price, J.L.

    1998-12-31

    Large quantities of mercury have been placed in municipal landfills from a wide array of sources including fluorescent lights, batteries, electrical switches, thermometers, and general waste. Despite its known volatility, longevity, and toxicity in the environment, the fate of this mercury has not been widely studied. Using automated flux chambers and atmospheric sampling, the authors quantified the primary sources of Hg vapor releases to the atmosphere at two municipal landfill operations in south Florida for 8 days in April, 1997. These pathways included landfill gas (LFG) releases from passive and active vent systems, passive emissions from landfill surface covers of different ages (including CH{sub 4} hot spots), and emissions from daily activities on a working face. Mercury vapor was released to the atmosphere at readily detectable rates from all sources measured. Emission rates ranged from {approximately} 1--20 ng m-2 h-1 over aged surface covers, from {approximately} 6--2400 ng/h from LFG vents and flares, and from {approximately} 5--60 mg/h at the working face. In general the fluxes increased from older to newer landfills, from fresh to aged cover, and from passive to active vented systems. They estimate that atmospheric Hg releases from municipal landfill operations in the state of Florida are on the order of 10 kg/y, or <1% of the estimated total anthropogenic Hg releases to air in this region.

  8. Mercury in coal and the impact of coal quality on mercury emissions from combustion systems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Senior, C.L.; Quick, J.C.

    2006-01-01

    The proportion of Hg in coal feedstock that is emitted by stack gases of utility power stations is a complex function of coal chemistry and properties, combustion conditions, and the positioning and type of air pollution control devices employed. Mercury in bituminous coal is found primarily within Fe-sulfides, whereas lower rank coal tends to have a greater proportion of organic-bound Hg. Preparation of bituminous coal to reduce S generally reduces input Hg relative to in-ground concentrations, but the amount of this reduction varies according to the fraction of Hg in sulfides and the efficiency of sulfide removal. The mode of occurrence of Hg in coal does not directly affect the speciation of Hg in the combustion flue gas. However, other constituents in the coal, notably Cl and S, and the combustion characteristics of the coal, influence the species of Hg that are formed in the flue gas and enter air pollution control devices. The formation of gaseous oxidized Hg or particulate-bound Hg occurs post-combustion; these forms of Hg can be in part captured in the air pollution control devices that exist on coal-fired boilers, without modification. For a given coal type, the capture efficiency of Hg by pollution control systems varies according to type of device and the conditions of its deployment. For bituminous coal, on average, more than 60% of Hg in flue gas is captured by fabric filter (FF) and flue-gas desulfurization (FGD) systems. Key variables affecting performance for Hg control include Cl and S content of the coal, the positioning (hot side vs. cold side) of the system, and the amount of unburned C in coal ash. Knowledge of coal quality parameters and their effect on the performance of air pollution control devices allows optimization of Hg capture co-benefit. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gaseous mercury emissions from unsterilized and sterilized soils: the effect of temperature and UV radiation.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyun-Deok; Holsen, Thomas M

    2009-05-01

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from the soils taken from two different sites (deciduous and coniferous forests) in the Adirondacks were measured in outdoor and laboratory experiments. Some of the soil samples were irradiated to eliminate biological activity. The result from the outdoor measurements with different soils suggests the Hg emission from the soils is partly limited by fallen leaves covering the soils which helps maintain relatively high soil moisture and limits the amount of heat and solar radiation reaching the soil surface. In laboratory experiments exposure to UV-A (365 nm) had no significant effect on the Hg emissions while the Hg emissions increased dramatically during exposure to UV-B (302 nm) light suggesting UV-B directly reduced soil-associated Hg. Overall these results indicate that for these soils biotic processes have a relatively constant and smaller influence on the Hg emission from the soil than the more variable abiotic processes. PMID:19155110

  10. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources in Europe in 2000 and their scenarios until 2020.

    PubMed

    Pacyna, Elisabeth G; Pacyna, Jozef M; Fudala, Janina; Strzelecka-Jastrzab, Ewa; Hlawiczka, Stanislaw; Panasiuk, Damian

    2006-10-15

    The paper reviews the current state of knowledge regarding European emissions of mercury and presents estimates of European emissions of mercury to the atmosphere from anthropogenic sources for the year 2000. This information was then used as a basis for Hg emission scenario development until the year 2020. Combustion of coal in power plants and residential heat furnaces generates about half of the European emissions being 239 tonnes. The coal combustion is followed by the production of caustic soda with the use of the Hg cell process (17%). Major points of mercury emission generation in the mercury cell process include: by-product hydrogen stream, end box ventilation air, and cell room ventilation air. This technology is now being changed to other caustic soda production technologies and further reduction of Hg emissions is expected in this connection. The third category on the list of the largest Hg emitters in Europe is cement production (about 13%). The largest emissions were estimated for Russia (the European part of the country), contributing with about 27% to the European emissions, followed by Poland, Germany, Spain, Ukraine, France, Italy and the United Kingdom. Most of these countries use coal as a major source of energy in order to meet the electricity and heat demands. In general, countries in the Central and Eastern Europe generated the main part of the European emissions in 2000. Emission reductions between 20% and 80% of the 2000 emission amounts can be obtained by the year 2020, as estimated by various scenarios. PMID:16887169

  11. MercNet: A national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schmeltz, D.; Evers, D.C.; Driscoll, C.T.; Artz, R.; Cohen, M.; Gay, D.; Haeuber, R.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Mason, R.; Morris, K.; Wiener, J.G.

    2011-01-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA).

  12. MercNet: a national monitoring network to assess responses to changing mercury emissions in the United States.

    PubMed

    Schmeltz, David; Evers, David C; Driscoll, Charles T; Artz, Richard; Cohen, Mark; Gay, David; Haeuber, Richard; Krabbenhoft, David P; Mason, Robert; Morris, Kristi; Wiener, James G

    2011-10-01

    A partnership of federal and state agencies, tribes, industry, and scientists from academic research and environmental organizations is establishing a national, policy-relevant mercury monitoring network, called MercNet, to address key questions concerning changes in anthropogenic mercury emissions and deposition, associated linkages to ecosystem effects, and recovery from mercury contamination. This network would quantify mercury in the atmosphere, land, water, and biota in terrestrial, freshwater, and coastal ecosystems to provide a national scientific capability for evaluating the benefits and effectiveness of emission controls. Program development began with two workshops, convened to establish network goals, to select key indicators for monitoring, to propose a geographic network of monitoring sites, and to design a monitoring plan. MercNet relies strongly on multi-institutional partnerships to secure the capabilities and comprehensive data that are needed to develop, calibrate, and refine predictive mercury models and to guide effective management. Ongoing collaborative efforts include the: (1) development of regional multi-media databases on mercury in the Laurentian Great Lakes, northeastern United States, and eastern Canada; (2) syntheses and reporting of these data for the scientific and policy communities; and (3) evaluation of potential monitoring sites. The MercNet approach could be applied to the development of other monitoring programs, such as emerging efforts to monitor and assess global mercury emission controls. PMID:21901443

  13. Identifying Anthropogenic Emissions of Atmospheric Mercury and Methane in Urban Houston Using Measurements from A Mobile Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, X.; Laine, P. L.; Talbot, R. W.; Lefer, B. L.; Flynn, J. H.; Sive, B. C.

    2013-12-01

    The Houston area is heavily polluted with more than 400 refineries and other industrial facilities in the surrounding regions. From our 2-year continuous measurements at this area, we observed frequent occurrences of large peaks in both atmospheric mercury and methane. The highest elemental mercury level we observed was 27,327 ppqv, and the highest CH4 level reached 25 ppmv. We found that some mercury spikes occurred simultaneously with peaks in CH4, CO, CO2, and NO. Many high mercury episodes showed different features of CO, CO2, CH4, NOx and SO2, indicating contributions from different sources. To identify and quantify the sources of mercury and methane in this area, a mobile van equipped with mercury instruments together with CH4, CO2, δ13CH4, δ13CO2 (Picarro G2201-i), and CO, O3, and NOx will be used to sample the emissions from surrounding oil refineries facilities, natural gas processing plants, coal-fired power plants, sewage treatment plants, landfills, petrochemical manufacturing facilities, etc. A Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer is also equipped in the mobile van to measure some VOCs species, such as benzene, toluene, isoprene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, methanol, acetone, MVK, MEK+MACR, C8 aromatics. The CH4 isotopic and VOCs signatures, and the ratios of mercury versus important species (i.e., CO and CO2) will help us to identify the mercury and methane sources, to investigate the methane leakage problem from natural gas operations, and improve the mercury and methane emission inventories in Houston area. We believe this study will also provide important information on industrial emissions that are missing from the EPA National Emission Inventory.

  14. Atmospheric Mercury in the Barnett Shale Area, Texas: Implications for Emissions from Oil and Gas Processing.

    PubMed

    Lan, Xin; Talbot, Robert; Laine, Patrick; Torres, Azucena; Lefer, Barry; Flynn, James

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions in the Barnett Shale area were studied by employing both stationary measurements and mobile laboratory surveys. Stationary measurements near the Engle Mountain Lake showed that the median mixing ratio of total gaseous mercury (THg) was 138 ppqv (140 ± 29 ppqv for mean ± S.D.) during the June 2011 study period. A distinct diurnal variation pattern was observed in which the highest THg levels appeared near midnight, followed by a monotonic decrease until midafternoon. The influence of oil and gas (ONG) emissions was substantial in this area, as inferred from the i-pentane/n-pentane ratio (1.17). However, few THg plumes were captured by our mobile laboratory during a ∼3700 km survey with detailed downwind measurements from 50 ONG facilities. One compressor station and one natural gas condensate processing facility were found to have significant THg emissions, with maximum THg levels of 963 and 392 ppqv, respectively, and the emissions rates were estimated to be 7.9 kg/yr and 0.3 kg/yr, respectively. Our results suggest that the majority of ONG facilities in this area are not significant sources of THg; however, it is highly likely that a small number of these facilities contribute a relatively large amount of emissions in the ONG sector. PMID:26218013

  15. Quantifying the effects of China's pollution control on atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, H.

    2014-12-01

    China has conducted series of air pollution control policies to reduce the pollutant emissions. Although not specifically for mercury (Hg), those policies are believed to have co-benefits on atmospheric Hg emission control. On the basis of field-tests data and updated information of energy conservation and emission control, we have developed multiple-year inventories of anthropogenic mercury emissions in China from 2005 to 2012. Three scenarios (scenario 0(S0), scenario 1(S1), scenario 2(S2)) with different emission controls and energy path are designed for prediction of the future Hg emissions for the country. In particular, comprehensive assessments has been conducted to evaluate the evolution of emission factors, recent emission trends, effects of control measures as well as the reliability of our results. The national total emissions of anthropogenic Hg are estimated to increase from 679.0 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 749.8 t in 2012, with the peak at 770.6 t in 2011. The annual growth rate of emissions can then be calculated at 2.1% during 2005-2011, much lower than that of energy consumption or economy of the country. Coal combustion, gold metallurgy and nonferrous metal smelting are the most significant Hg sources of anthropogenic origin, accounting together for 85% of national total emissions. Tightened air pollution controls in China should be important reasons for the smooth emission trends. Compared with 2005, 299 t Hg were reduced in 2010 from power plants, iron and steel smelting, nonferrous-smelting and cement production, benefiting from the improvement of control measures for those sectors. The speciation of Hg emissions is relatively stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55%, 9% and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp respectively. Integrating the policy commitments on energy saving, different from the most conservative case S0, S2 shares the same energy path with S1, but includes more stringent emission control. Under those scenarios, we

  16. Experiences in long-term evaluation of mercury emission monitoring systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chin-Min Cheng; Hung-Ta Lin; Qiang Wang; Chien-Wei Chen; Chia-Wei Wang; Ming-Chung Liu; Chi-Kuan Chen; Wei-Ping Pan

    2008-09-15

    Six mercury continuous emission monitoring (CEM) systems provided by two leading mercury (Hg) CEM system manufacturers were tested at five coal combustion utilities. The linearity, response time, day-to-day stability, efficiency of the Hg speciation modules, and ease of use were evaluated by following procedures specified in the Code of Federal Regulation Title 40 Part 75 (40 CFR Part 75). Mercury monitoring results from Hg CEM systems were compared to an EPA-recognized reference method. A sorbent trap sampling system was also evaluated in this study to compare the relative accuracy to the reference method as well as to Hg CEM systems. A conceptual protocol proposed by U.S. EPA (Method 30A) for using an Hg CEM system as the reference method for the Hg relative accuracy (RA) test was also followed to evaluate the workability of the protocol. This paper discusses the operational experience obtained from these field studies and the remaining challenges to overcome while using Hg CEM systems and the sorbent trap method for continuous Hg emission monitoring. 3 refs., 5 figs., 11 tabs.

  17. Trends of anthropogenic mercury emissions from 1970-2008 using the global EDGARv4 database: the role of increasing emission mitigation by the energy sector and the chlor-alkali industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muntean, M.; Janssens-Maenhout, G.; Olivier, J. G.; Guizzardi, D.; Dentener, F. J.

    2012-12-01

    The Emission Database for Global Atmospheric Research (EDGAR) describes time-series of emissions of man-made greenhouse gases and short-lived atmospheric pollutants from 1970-2008. EDGARv4 is continuously updated to respond to needs of both the scientific community and environmental policy makers. Mercury, a toxic pollutant with bioaccumulation properties, is included in the forthcoming EDGARv4.3 release, thereby enriching the spectrum of multi-pollutant sources. Three different forms of mercury have been distinguished: gaseous elemental mercury (Hg0), divalent mercury compounds (Hg2+) and particulate associated mercury (Hg-P). A complete inventory of mercury emission sources has been developed at country level using the EDGAR technology-based methodology together with international activity statistics, technology-specific abatement measures, and emission factors from EMEP/EEA (2009), USEPA AP 42 and the scientific literature. A comparison of the EDGAR mercury emission data to the widely used UNEP inventory shows consistent emissions across most sectors compared for the year 2005. The different shares of mercury emissions by region and by sector will be presented with special emphasis on the region-specific mercury emission mitigation potential. We provide a comprehensive ex-post analysis of the mitigation of mercury emissions by respectively end-of-pipe abatement measures in the power generation sector and technology changes in the chlor-alkali industry between 1970 and 2008. Given the local scale impacts of mercury, we have paid special attention to the spatial distribution of emissions. The default EDGAR Population proxy data was only used to distribute emissions from the residential and solid waste incineration sectors. Other sectors use point source data of power plants, industrial plants, gold and mercury mines. The 2008 mercury emission distribution will be presented, which shows emissions hot-spots on a 0.1°x0.1°resolution gridmap.

  18. New insight into atmospheric mercury emissions from zinc smelters using mass flow analysis.

    PubMed

    Wu, Qingru; Wang, Shuxiao; Hui, Mulin; Wang, Fengyang; Zhang, Lei; Duan, Lei; Luo, Yao

    2015-03-17

    The mercury (Hg) flow paths from three zinc (Zn) smelters indicated that a large quantity of Hg, approximately 38.0-57.0% of the total Hg input, was stored as acid slag in the landfill sites. Approximately 15.0-27.1% of the Hg input was emitted into water or stored as open-dumped slags, and 3.3-14.5% of the Hg input ended in sulfuric acid. Atmospheric Hg emissions, accounting for 1.4-9.6% of the total Hg input, were from both the Zn production and waste disposal processes. Atmospheric Hg emissions from the waste disposal processes accounted for 40.6, 89.6, and 94.6% of the total atmospheric Hg emissions of the three studied smelters, respectively. The Zn production process mainly contributed to oxidized Hg (Hg2+) emissions, whereas the waste disposal process generated mostly elemental Hg (Hg0) emissions. When the emissions from these two processes are considered together, the emission proportion of the Hg2+ mass was 51, 46, and 29% in smelters A, B, and C, respectively. These results indicated that approximately 10.8±5.8 t of atmospheric Hg emissions from the waste disposal process were ignored in recent inventories. Therefore, the total atmospheric Hg emissions from the Zn industry of China should be approximately 50 t. PMID:25661177

  19. An assessment of mercury emissions and health risks from a coal-fired power plant

    SciTech Connect

    Fthenakis, V.M.; Lipfert, F.; Moskowitz, P.

    1994-12-01

    Title 3 of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAA) mandated that the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) evaluate the need to regulate mercury emissions from electric utilities. In support of this forthcoming regulatory analysis the U.S. DOE, sponsored a risk assessment project at Brookhaven (BNL) to evaluate methylmercury (MeHg) hazards independently. In the US MeHg is the predominant way of exposure to mercury originated in the atmosphere. In the BNL study, health risks to adults resulting from Hg emissions from a hypothetical 1,000 MW coal-fired power plant were estimated using probabilistic risk assessment techniques. This study showed that the effects of emissions of a single power plant may double the background exposures to MeHg resulting from consuming fish obtained from a localized area near the power plant. Even at these more elevated exposure levels, the attributable incidence in mild neurological symptoms was estimated to be quite small, especially when compared with the estimated background incidence in the population. The current paper summarizes the basic conclusions of this assessment and highlights issues dealing with emissions control and environmental transport.

  20. Mercury Deposition and Emission under the Forest Canopy in the Adirondacks of New York

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, H.; Holsen, T. M.

    2009-05-01

    This study investigated mercury input, output, cycling, and interactions between deposition and emission at the Huntington Wildlife Forest of Newcomb, New York during 2005 and 2006. Total Hg wet deposition and deciduous throughfall were collected using modified MIC-B precipitation collectors. The volume-weighted mean (VWM) total Hg concentration in throughfall (6.6 ng L-1) was higher than in precipitation (4.9 ng L-1), while the total cumulative Hg flux in throughfall (12.0 ug m-2) was very similar to precipitation (11.6 ug m-2) due to relatively lower precipitation depths in throughfall. The total deposited cumulative flux in precipitation and deciduous throughfall were very similar (11.6 ug m-2 and 12.0 ug m-2, respectively) because the higher concentrations in throughfall were offset by smaller throughfall depths. The emission flux of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) from the forest floor was measured using a polycarbonate dynamic flux chamber (DFC). The Hg emission flux ranged between -2.5 ng m-2 hr-1 and 27.2 ng m-2 hr-1. The measured Hg emission flux was highest in spring, and summer, and lowest in winter. During leaf-off periods, the Hg emission flux was highly dependent on solar radiation and less dependent on temperature. During leaf-on periods, the Hg emission flux was fairly constant because the forest canopy was shading the forest floor. The empirical models estimated the cumulative emission flux was 7.0 ug Hg0 m-2 year-1.

  1. Analysis of Strategies for Multiple Emissions from Electric Power SO2, NOX, CO2, Mercury and RPS

    EIA Publications

    2001-01-01

    At the request of the Subcommittee, the Energy Information Administration prepared an initial report that focused on the impacts of reducing power sector NOx, SO2, and CO2 emissions. The current report extends the earlier analysis to add the impacts of reducing power sector mercury emissions and introducing renewable portfolio standard (RPS) requirements.

  2. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/SR-01/109)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report provides additional information on mercury (Hg) emissions control, following release of Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units
    Final Report to Congress, in February 1998. Chapters 1-3 describe EPAs December 2000 deci...

  3. Trends in anthropogenic mercury emissions estimated for South Africa during 2000-2006

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masekoameng, K. Elizabeth; Leaner, Joy; Dabrowski, J.

    2010-08-01

    Recent studies suggest an increase in mercury (Hg) emissions to the global environment, particularly as a result of anthropogenic activities. This has prompted many countries to complete Hg emission inventories, based on country-specific Hg sources. In this study, information on annual coal consumption and Hg-containing commodities produced in South Africa, was used to estimate Hg emissions during 2000-2006. Based on the information, the UNEP toolkit was used to estimate the amount of Hg released to air and general waste from each activity; using South Africa specific and toolkit based emission factors. In both atmospheric and solid waste releases, coal-fired power plants were estimated to be the largest contributors of Hg emissions, viz. 27.1 to 38.9 tonnes y -1 in air, and 5.8 to 7.4 tonnes y -1 in waste. Cement production was estimated to be the second largest atmospheric Hg emission contributor (2.2-3.9 tonnes y -1), while coal gasification was estimated to be the second largest Hg contributor in terms of general waste releases (2.9-4.2 tonnes y -1). Overall, there was an increase in total atmospheric Hg emissions from all activities, estimated at ca. 34 tonnes in 2000, to 50 tonnes in 2006, with some fluctuations between the years. Similarly, the total Hg emissions released to general waste was estimated to be 9 tonnes in 2000, with an increase to 12 tonnes in 2006.

  4. Mysterious diel cycles of mercury emission from soils held in the dark at constant temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hong; Kuiken, Todd; Lindberg, Steven Eric

    2008-01-01

    It is well known that mercury (Hg) emission from soils is largely controlled by solar radiation and soil temperature, exhibiting diel cycles that closely follow diel variations of solar radiation. To study soil Hg emission processes, we conducted experiments by measuring soil Hg emission fluxes under controlled conditions in the laboratory with a dynamic flux chamber using outside ambient air as flushing air. Unexpectedly, we observed consistent, recurring diel cycles of Hg emissions from dry soils held at constant temperature in the dark in our laboratory. The peaks of the emissions also seemed subject to some seasonal variation and to respond to local weather conditions with lower flux peaks in wintertime and on cloudy or rainy days. Finally, much lower soil Hg emission fluxes were observed in the presence of Hg-free zero air than in the presence of outside ambient air. It is hypothesized that some unidentified air-borne substance(s) in the ambient air might be responsible for the observed diel cycles of soil Hg emission. Further elaborate mechanistic investigations are clearly needed to test the initial working hypotheses and uncover the cause for this interesting, mysterious phenomenon. The present work and recent finding of enhancement of Hg emissions from soil and mineral particles by O3 seem to point to a research need to probe the possible role of near-ground atmospheric chemistry in Hg air/soil exchange.

  5. Volcanic emissions of mercury to the atmosphere: global and regional inventories.

    PubMed

    Nriagu, Jerome; Becker, Christian

    2003-03-20

    A comprehensive, time-averaged inventory of subaerial emissions of mercury from volcanoes that were active between 1980 and 2000 is derived based on the Hg/SO(2) ratios of the exhalations. Worldwide flux of mercury from volcanic eruptions is estimated to be 57 t/year while the flux from degassing activities is 37.6 t/year. After correcting for 'unmeasured' SO(2) emissions, the total global flux of Hg to the atmosphere is estimated to be 112 t/year. There are regional differences in average emissions during the 20-year period, with the estimated fluxes being 29 t/year in South and Central America, 27 t/year in Southeast Asia; 24 t/year in North America (including Hawaii), 4.1 t/year in Australia, 3.4 t/year in Japan and northern Asia, 3.1 t/year in Europe and western Asia and 2.3 t/year in Africa. PMID:12663167

  6. Subsurface emissions from Mercury - VLA radio observations at 2 and 6 centimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ledlow, Michael J.; Zeilik, Michael; Burns, Jack O.; Gisler, Galen R.; Zhao, Jun-Hui; Baker, Daniel N.

    1992-01-01

    Radio observations of Mercury made with the VLA; once in 1986, and on two dates in February of 1988 are presented. These observations are the first to spatially map both hot regions associated with the theoretical hot poles. These 'hot poles' are separated by 180 deg and are a result of the unusual diurnal heating from Mercury's 3/2 spin-orbit resonance and eccentric orbit. The highest resolution data maps areas of the planet as small as 330 km. Maps of total intensity, brightness temperature, polarized intensity, fractional polarization, depolarization, and spectral index are included. It is found that the subsurface thermal emissions from Mercury are characteristic of blackbody reradiation from the solar insolation over a diurnal cycle. These observations to produce full-disk thermophysical models are used. The one-dimensional, time-dependent heat-diffusion equation for all observed disk elements at each epoch in order to constrain thermophsyical parameters and properties of the subsurface material are solved. Using typical lunar values for several of the parameters, it is possible to reproduce the temperature morphology and most of the observed temperature values. It is found that the best-fit models require a substantial contribution of the heat transport in the subsurface to be radiative in nature. The primary difficulty in the models is in predicting the observed temperature differences as a function of frequency.

  7. Scaling of atmospheric mercury emissions from three naturally enriched areas: Flowery Peak, Nevada; Peavine Peak, Nevada; and Long Valley Caldera, California.

    PubMed

    Engle, Mark A; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2002-05-01

    With the development of analytical capabilities that allow for almost real time measurement of mercury concentrations in air, the fluxes of mercury between environment compartments is being more carefully scrutinized. Recent advances have demonstrated that the mercury cycle is much more complicated than previously realized. This study quantified the mercury emissions from three areas with low levels of mercury enrichment associated with precious and base metal mineralization and recent volcanic/geothermal activity. Area emissions were calculated using Geographic Information System technology, and in situ derived mercury fluxes and those parameters found to statistically be dominant in controlling emissions. The most important controls on emission strengths were found to be geologic while environmental parameters such as light and temperature were found to drive the diel pattern typically observed for mercury emissions. Calculated area averaged emissions were 18.5, 10.0, and 13.6 ng/m2 h for the Flowery Peak, NV, Peavine Peak, NV, and Long Valley Caldera, CA areas, respectively. These emissions are an order of magnitude higher than values applied in global models for natural sources. This study, along with other recent work, demonstrates that natural sources may contribute more mercury than previously recognized to the atmospheric mercury pool. PMID:12083719

  8. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy.

    PubMed

    Fantozzi, L; Ferrara, R; Dini, F; Tamburello, L; Pirrone, N; Sprovieri, F

    2013-08-01

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000ngm(-2)h(-1)) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250ngm(-2)h(-1)) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500ngm(-2)h(-1), which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28°C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. PMID:23477569

  9. Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jacob, Daniel J.; Horowitz, Hannah M.; Chen, Long; Amos, Helen M.; Krabbenhoft, David P.; Slemr, Franz; St. Louis, Vincent L.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2016-01-01

    Observations of elemental mercury (Hg0) at sites in North America and Europe show large decreases (∼1–2% y−1) from 1990 to present. Observations in background northern hemisphere air, including Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) aircraft flights, show weaker decreases (<1% y−1). These decreases are inconsistent with current global emission inventories indicating flat or increasing emissions over that period. However, the inventories have three major flaws: (i) they do not account for the decline in atmospheric release of Hg from commercial products; (ii) they are biased in their estimate of artisanal and small-scale gold mining emissions; and (iii) they do not properly account for the change in Hg0/HgII speciation of emissions from coal-fired utilities after implementation of emission controls targeted at SO2 and NOx. We construct an improved global emission inventory for the period 1990 to 2010 accounting for the above factors and find a 20% decrease in total Hg emissions and a 30% decrease in anthropogenic Hg0 emissions, with much larger decreases in North America and Europe offsetting the effect of increasing emissions in Asia. Implementation of our inventory in a global 3D atmospheric Hg simulation [GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System-Chemistry)] coupled to land and ocean reservoirs reproduces the observed large-scale trends in atmospheric Hg0 concentrations and in HgII wet deposition. The large trends observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of Hg from commercial products as well as the cobenefit from SO2 and NOx emission controls on coal-fired utilities. PMID:26729866

  10. Observed decrease in atmospheric mercury explained by global decline in anthropogenic emissions.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yanxu; Jacob, Daniel J; Horowitz, Hannah M; Chen, Long; Amos, Helen M; Krabbenhoft, David P; Slemr, Franz; St Louis, Vincent L; Sunderland, Elsie M

    2016-01-19

    Observations of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) at sites in North America and Europe show large decreases (∼ 1-2% y(-1)) from 1990 to present. Observations in background northern hemisphere air, including Mauna Loa Observatory (Hawaii) and CARIBIC (Civil Aircraft for the Regular Investigation of the atmosphere Based on an Instrument Container) aircraft flights, show weaker decreases (<1% y(-1)). These decreases are inconsistent with current global emission inventories indicating flat or increasing emissions over that period. However, the inventories have three major flaws: (i) they do not account for the decline in atmospheric release of Hg from commercial products; (ii) they are biased in their estimate of artisanal and small-scale gold mining emissions; and (iii) they do not properly account for the change in Hg(0)/Hg(II) speciation of emissions from coal-fired utilities after implementation of emission controls targeted at SO2 and NOx. We construct an improved global emission inventory for the period 1990 to 2010 accounting for the above factors and find a 20% decrease in total Hg emissions and a 30% decrease in anthropogenic Hg(0) emissions, with much larger decreases in North America and Europe offsetting the effect of increasing emissions in Asia. Implementation of our inventory in a global 3D atmospheric Hg simulation [GEOS-Chem (Goddard Earth Observing System-Chemistry)] coupled to land and ocean reservoirs reproduces the observed large-scale trends in atmospheric Hg(0) concentrations and in Hg(II) wet deposition. The large trends observed in North America and Europe reflect the phase-out of Hg from commercial products as well as the cobenefit from SO2 and NOx emission controls on coal-fired utilities. PMID:26729866

  11. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME I. REPORT AND APPENDICES A-E: PROJECT REPORT/SUMMARY

    EPA Science Inventory

    NRMRL-RTP-236a Kinsey*, J.S. Characterization of Mercury Emissions at a Chlor-alkali Plant, Volume I. Report and Appendices A-E. 01/28/2002 The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is ...

  12. Identification of mercury emissions from forest fires, lakes, regional and local sources using measurements in Milwaukee and an inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Schauer, J. J.

    2012-05-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury is a global pollutant that can lead to serious health concerns via deposition to the biosphere and bio-accumulation in the food chain. Hourly measurements between June 2004 and May 2005 in an urban site (Milwaukee, WI) show elevated levels of mercury in the atmosphere with numerous short-lived peaks as well as longer-lived episodes. The measurements are analyzed with an inverse model to obtain information about mercury emissions. The model is based on high resolution meteorological simulations (WRF), hourly back-trajectories (WRF-FLEXPART) and forward grid simulations (CAMx). The hybrid formulation combining back-trajectories and grid simulations is used to identify potential source regions as well as the impacts of forest fires and lake surface emissions. Uncertainty bounds are estimated using a bootstrap method on the inversions. Comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory (NEI) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) shows that emissions from coal-fired power plants are properly characterized, but emissions from local urban sources, waste incineration and metal processing could be significantly under-estimated. Emissions from the lake surface and from forest fires were found to have significant impacts on mercury levels in Milwaukee, and to be underestimated by a factor of two or more.

  13. Estimation of mercury emissions from forest fires, lakes, regional and local sources using measurements in Milwaukee and an inverse method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Wiedinmyer, C.; Schauer, J. J.

    2012-10-01

    Gaseous elemental mercury is a global pollutant that can lead to serious health concerns via deposition to the biosphere and bio-accumulation in the food chain. Hourly measurements between June 2004 and May 2005 in an urban site (Milwaukee, WI) show elevated levels of mercury in the atmosphere with numerous short-lived peaks as well as longer-lived episodes. The measurements are analyzed with an inverse model to obtain information about mercury emissions. The model is based on high resolution meteorological simulations (WRF), hourly back-trajectories (WRF-FLEXPART) and a chemical transport model (CAMx). The hybrid formulation combining back-trajectories and Eulerian simulations is used to identify potential source regions as well as the impacts of forest fires and lake surface emissions. Uncertainty bounds are estimated using a bootstrap method on the inversions. Comparison with the US Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory (NEI) and Toxic Release Inventory (TRI) shows that emissions from coal-fired power plants are properly characterized, but emissions from local urban sources, waste incineration and metal processing could be significantly under-estimated. Emissions from the lake surface and from forest fires were found to have significant impacts on mercury levels in Milwaukee, and to be underestimated by a factor of two or more.

  14. Mercury deposition and re-emission pathways in boreal forest soils investigated with Hg isotope signatures.

    PubMed

    Jiskra, Martin; Wiederhold, Jan G; Skyllberg, Ulf; Kronberg, Rose-Marie; Hajdas, Irka; Kretzschmar, Ruben

    2015-06-16

    Soils comprise the largest terrestrial mercury (Hg) pool in exchange with the atmosphere. To predict how anthropogenic emissions affect global Hg cycling and eventually human Hg exposure, it is crucial to understand Hg deposition and re-emission of legacy Hg from soils. However, assessing Hg deposition and re-emission pathways remains difficult because of an insufficient understanding of the governing processes. We measured Hg stable isotope signatures of radiocarbon-dated boreal forest soils and modeled atmospheric Hg deposition and re-emission pathways and fluxes using a combined source and process tracing approach. Our results suggest that Hg in the soils was dominantly derived from deposition of litter (∼90% on average). The remaining fraction was attributed to precipitation-derived Hg, which showed increasing contributions in older, deeper soil horizons (up to 27%) indicative of an accumulation over decades. We provide evidence for significant Hg re-emission from organic soil horizons most likely caused by nonphotochemical abiotic reduction by natural organic matter, a process previously not observed unambiguously in nature. Our data suggest that Histosols (peat soils), which exhibit at least seasonally water-saturated conditions, have re-emitted up to one-third of previously deposited Hg back to the atmosphere. Re-emission of legacy Hg following reduction by natural organic matter may therefore be an important pathway to be considered in global models, further supporting the need for a process-based assessment of land/atmosphere Hg exchange. PMID:25946594

  15. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Yan Cao; Hongcang Zhou; Junjie Fan; Houyin Zhao; Tuo Zhou; Pauline Hack; Chia-Chun Chan; Jian-Chang Liou; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150{sup o}C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650{sup o}C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be responsible for the reduction of gaseous chlorine and, consequently, limited mercury emissions reduction during cofiring. 36 refs., 3 figs. 1 tab.

  16. Study on the reduction of atmospheric mercury emissions from mine waste enriched soils through native grass cover in the Mt. Amiata region of Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Fantozzi, L.; Dini, F.; Tamburello, L.; Pirrone, N.; Sprovieri, F.

    2013-08-15

    Atmospheric mercury emissions from mine-waste enriched soils were measured in order to compare the mercury fluxes of bare soils with those from other soils covered by native grasses. Our research was conducted near Mt. Amiata in central Italy, an area that was one of the largest and most productive mining centers in Europe up into the 1980s. To determine in situ mercury emissions, we used a Plexiglas flux chamber connected to a portable mercury analyzer (Lumex RA-915+). This allowed us to detect, in real time, the mercury vapor in the air, and to correlate this with the meteorological parameters that we examined (solar radiation, soil temperature, and humidity). The highest mercury flux values (8000 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on bare soils during the hours of maximum insulation, while lower values (250 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}) were observed on soils covered by native grasses. Our results indicate that two main environmental variables affect mercury emission: solar radiation intensity and soil temperature. The presence of native vegetation, which can shield soil surfaces from incident light, reduced mercury emissions, a result that we attribute to a drop in the efficiency of mercury photoreduction processes rather than to decreases in soil temperature. This finding is consistent with decreases in mercury flux values down to 3500 ng m{sup −2} h{sup −1}, which occurred under cloudy conditions despite high soil temperatures. Moreover, when the soil temperature was 28 °C and the vegetation was removed from the experimental site, mercury emissions increased almost four-fold. This increase occurred almost immediately after the grasses were cut, and was approximately eight-fold after 20 h. Thus, this study demonstrates that enhancing wild vegetation cover could be an inexpensive and effective approach in fostering a natural, self-renewing reduction of mercury emissions from mercury-contaminated soils. -- Highlights: ► Mercury air/surface exchange

  17. Preliminary estimates of performance and cost of mercury emission control technology applications on electric utility boilers: An update

    SciTech Connect

    Srivastava, R.K.; Staudt, J.E.; Jozewicz, W.

    2005-07-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency has recently proposed a reduction in mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. There are two broad approaches under development to controlling mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility boilers. (1) powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection; and (2) multipollutant control, in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and new sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and particulate matter (PM) control devices. To help inform the recent EPA rulemaking proposal, estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with the above mercury control approaches were developed. This work presents these estimates. Estimates of cost for PAC injection range from 0.003 to 3.096 mills/kWb. In general, the higher costs are associated with the plants using spray dryers and electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) or plants using hot-side ESPs, which represent a minority of power plants. Excluding these plants, cost estimates range between 0.003 and 1.903 mills/kWh. At the low end of the cost ranges, 0.003 mills/kWb, it is assumed that no additional control technologies are needed, but mercury monitoring will be necessary. In these cases, high mercury removal may be the result of the type of NOx and SO{sub 2} control measures currently used, such as combinations of selective catalytic reduction and wet flue gas desulfurization or spray drier absorbers with fabric filters on bituminous coal-fired boilers. Because mercury control approaches are under development at present, cost and performance estimates are preliminary and are expected to be refined as mercury control technologies are matured to commercial status. Factors that may affect the performance of these technologies include speciation of mercury in flue gas, the characteristics of the sorbent, and the type(s) of PM, NOx, and SO, controls used.

  18. Mercury Emission Inventory Analysis in Wisconsin using Inverse Modeling and Meso-scale Particle Trajectories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Foy, B.; Schauer, J. J.

    2011-12-01

    Speciated measurements of mercury concentrations were performed at a rural and urban site in Wisconsin for year-long time periods with an hourly time resolution. These are used to evaluate existing emission inventories with an inverse method based on hourly back-trajectories. WRF-Flexpart reverse particle trajectories are calculated at the local to regional scale for every data point in the time series. In addition, we perform forward Eulerian simulations of biomass burning impacts at the receptor site. A least-squares inversion on both the forward impacts and the gridded back-trajectories is used to identify potential source locations and emission factors. Error analysis is performed using bootstrapping on the input grids and time series. Results suggest a combination of impacts from local, regional and biomass burning sources.

  19. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS LOCAL IMPACTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN, T.M.; BOWERMAN, B.; ADAMS, J.; LIPFERT, F.; MORRIS, S.M.; BANDO, A.; PENA, R.; BLAKE, R.

    2005-12-01

    A thorough quantitative understanding of the processes of mercury emissions, deposition, and translocation through the food chain is currently not available. Complex atmospheric chemistry and dispersion models are required to predict concentration and deposition contributions, and aquatic process models are required to predict effects on fish. However, there are uncertainties in all of these predictions. Therefore, the most reliable method of understanding impacts of coal-fired power plants on Hg deposition is from empirical data. A review of the literature on mercury deposition around sources including coal-fired power plants found studies covering local mercury concentrations in soil, vegetation, and animals (fish and cows). There is strong evidence of enhanced local deposition within 3 km of the chlor-alkali plants, with elevated soil concentrations and estimated deposition rates of 10 times background. For coal-fired power plants, the data show that atmospheric deposition of Hg may be slightly enhanced. On the scale of a few km, modeling suggests that wet deposition may be increased by a factor of two or three over background. The measured data suggest lower increases of 15% or less. The effects of coal-fired plants seem to be less than 10% of total deposition on a national scale, based on emissions and global modeling. The following summarizes our findings from published reports on the impacts of local deposition. In terms of excesses over background the following increments have been observed within a few km of the plant: (1) local soil concentration Hg increments of 30%-60%, (2) sediment increments of 18-30%, (3) wet deposition increments of 11-12%, and (4) fish Hg increments of about 5-6%, based on an empirical finding that fish concentrations are proportional to the square root of deposition. Important uncertainties include possible reductions of RGM to Hg{sub 0} in power plant plumes and the role of water chemistry in the relationship between Hg

  20. Radiative forcing associated with particulate carbon emissions resulting from the use of mercury control technology.

    PubMed

    Lin, Guangxing; Penner, Joyce E; Clack, Herek L

    2014-09-01

    Injection of powdered activated carbon (PAC) adsorbents into the flue gas of coal fired power plants with electrostatic precipitators (ESPs) is the most mature technology to control mercury emissions for coal combustion. However, the PAC itself can penetrate ESPs to emit into the atmosphere. These emitted PACs have similar size and optical properties to submicron black carbon (BC) and thus could increase BC radiative forcing unintentionally. The present paper estimates, for the first time, the potential emission of PAC together with their climate forcing. The global average maximum potential emissions of PAC is 98.4 Gg/yr for the year 2030, arising from the assumed adoption of the maximum potential PAC injection technology, the minimum collection efficiency, and the maximum PAC injection rate. These emissions cause a global warming of 2.10 mW m(-2) at the top of atmosphere and a cooling of -2.96 mW m(-2) at the surface. This warming represents about 2% of the warming that is caused by BC from direct fossil fuel burning and 0.86% of the warming associated with CO2 emissions from coal burning in power plants. Its warming is 8 times more efficient than the emitted CO2 as measured by the 20-year-integrated radiative forcing per unit of carbon input (the 20-year Global Warming Potential). PMID:25093939

  1. Mercury emissions from coal combustion: modeling and comparison of Hg capture in a fabric filter versus an electrostatic precipitator.

    PubMed

    Scala, Fabrizio; Clack, Herek L

    2008-04-01

    Mercury emissions from coal combustion must be reduced, in response to new air quality regulations in the U.S. Although the most mature control technology is adsorption across a dust cake of powdered sorbent in a fabric filter (FF), most particulate control in the U.S. associated with coal combustion takes the form of electrostatic precipitation (ESP). Using recently developed models of mercury adsorption within an ESP and within a growing sorbent bed in a FF, parallel analyses of elemental mercury (Hg(0)) uptake have been conducted. The results show little difference between an ESP and a FF in absolute mercury removal for a low-capacity sorbent, with a high-capacity sorbent achieving better performance in the FF. Comparisons of fractional mercury uptake per-unit-pressure-drop provide a means for incorporating and comparing the impact of the much greater pressure drop of a FF as compared to an ESP. On a per-unit-pressure-drop basis, mercury uptake within an ESP exhibited better performance, particularly for the low-capacity sorbent and high mass loadings of both sorbents. PMID:17703878

  2. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 3. An assessment of exposure from anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States. Sab review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, G.E.

    1996-06-01

    This volume of the draft Report presents an assessment of exposure to emitted mercury from both inhalation and ingestion routes. Modeling includes long-range transport analysis (Regional Lagrangian Model of Air Pollution) and exposure assessment of local deposition of mercury from anthropogenic emissions sources (COMPDEP) aquatic and terrestrial fate models and exposure models presented originally in Methodology for Assessing Health Risks Associated with Indirect Exposure to Combustor Emissions. A parallel assessment of mercury exposure from fish and shellfish for the general U.S. population and for subpopulations anticipated to ingest higher quantities of fish (e.g., anglers, members of some Native American tribes, and some ethnic groups) was conducted based on dietary survey data. Comparison are made of dietary intake of fish and of methylmercury for humans and for various species of fish-eating birds and mammals. Specific information on the analysis is presented in the Appendices; in particular details of the models, descriptions of model parameters, justifications and details of human fish consumption analyses.

  3. Estimating mercury emissions resulting from wildfire in forests of the Western United States.

    PubMed

    Webster, Jackson P; Kane, Tyler J; Obrist, Daniel; Ryan, Joseph N; Aiken, George R

    2016-10-15

    Understanding the emissions of mercury (Hg) from wildfires is important for quantifying the global atmospheric Hg sources. Emissions of Hg from soils resulting from wildfires in the Western United States was estimated for the 2000 to 2013 period, and the potential emission of Hg from forest soils was assessed as a function of forest type and soil-heating. Wildfire released an annual average of 3100±1900kg-Hgy(-1) for the years spanning 2000-2013 in the 11 states within the study area. This estimate is nearly 5-fold lower than previous estimates for the study region. Lower emission estimates are attributed to an inclusion of fire severity within burn perimeters. Within reported wildfire perimeters, the average distribution of low, moderate, and high severity burns was 52, 29, and 19% of the total area, respectively. Review of literature data suggests that that low severity burning does not result in soil heating, moderate severity fire results in shallow soil heating, and high severity fire results in relatively deep soil heating (<5cm). Using this approach, emission factors for high severity burns ranged from 58 to 640μg-Hgkg-fuel(-1). In contrast, low severity burns have emission factors that are estimated to be only 18-34μg-Hgkg-fuel(-1). In this estimate, wildfire is predicted to release 1-30gHgha(-1) from Western United States forest soils while above ground fuels are projected to contribute an additional 0.9 to 7.8gHgha(-1). Land cover types with low biomass (desert scrub) are projected to release less than 1gHgha(-1). Following soil sources, fuel source contributions to total Hg emissions generally followed the order of duff>wood>foliage>litter>branches. PMID:26897612

  4. PRELIMINARY ESTIMATES OF PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: AN UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper presents estimates of performance levels and related costs associated with controlling mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants using either powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection or multipollutant control in which Hg capture is enhanced in existing and ne...

  5. CHARACTERIZATION OF FUGITIVE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM THE CELL BUILDING AT A U.S. CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses an extensive measurement campaign that was conducted of the fugitive (non-ducted) airborne elemental mercury [Hg(0)] emissions from the cell building of a chlor-alkali plant (CAP) located in the southeastern United States. The objectives of this study were to ...

  6. CONTROL OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS: INTERIM REPORT (EPA/600/R-01/109)

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. This report, produced by EPA fs Office of Research and Development (ORD), National Risk Management Resea...

  7. MEASUREMENT OF TOTAL SITE MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT USING OPEN-PATH UV-DOAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2003, the EPA promulgated the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants for mercury cell chlor-alkali plants. In February 2004, the Natural Resources Defense Council filed petitions on the final rule in U.S. district court citing, among other issues, th...

  8. CHARACTERIZATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS AT A CHLOR-ALKALI PLANT, VOLUME I. REPORT AND APPENDICES A-E

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of a characterization of mercury (Hg) emissions at a chlor-alkali plant. Up to 160 short tons (146 Mg) of Hg is consumed by the chlor-alkali industry each year. Very little quantitative information is currently available however, on the actual Hg losses f...

  9. Mercury Emission Ratios from Coal-Fired Power Plants in the Southeastern United States during NOMADSS.

    PubMed

    Ambrose, Jesse L; Gratz, Lynne E; Jaffe, Daniel A; Campos, Teresa; Flocke, Frank M; Knapp, David J; Stechman, Daniel M; Stell, Meghan; Weinheimer, Andrew J; Cantrell, Christopher A; Mauldin, Roy L

    2015-09-01

    We use measurements made onboard the National Science Foundation's C-130 research aircraft during the 2013 Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) experiment to examine total Hg (THg) emission ratios (EmRs) for six coal-fired power plants (CFPPs) in the southeastern U.S. We compare observed enhancement ratios (ERs) with EmRs calculated using Hg emissions data from two inventories: the National Emissions Inventory (NEI) and the Toxics Release Inventory (TRI). For four CFPPs, our measured ERs are strongly correlated with EmRs based on the 2011 NEI (r(2) = 0.97), although the inventory data exhibit a -39% low bias. Our measurements agree best (to within ±32%) with the NEI Hg data when the latter were derived from on-site emissions measurements. Conversely, the NEI underestimates by approximately 1 order of magnitude the ERs we measured for one previously untested CFPP. Measured ERs are uncorrelated with values based on the 2013 TRI, which also tends to be biased low. Our results suggest that the Hg inventories can be improved by targeting CFPPs for which the NEI- and TRI-based EmRs have significant disagreements. We recommend that future versions of the Hg inventories should provide greater traceability and uncertainty estimates. PMID:26161912

  10. Emissions of mercury in Southern Africa derived from long-term observations at Cape Point, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kock, H. H.; Labuschagne, C.; Slemr, F.

    2012-05-01

    Mercury emissions in South Africa have so far been estimated only by a bottom-up approach from activities and emission factors for different processes. In this paper we derive GEM/CO (GEM being gaseous elemental mercury, Hg0), GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios from plumes observed during long-term monitoring of these species at Cape Point between March 2007 and December 2009. The average observed GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios were 2.40 ± 2.65 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 47), 62.7 ± 80.2 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 44), 3.61 ± 4.66 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 46), 35.6 ± 25.4 ppb ppm-1 (n = 52), 20.2 ± 15.5 ppb ppm-1 (n=48), and 0.876 ± 1.106 ppb ppm-1 (n=42), respectively. The observed CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios agree within the combined uncertainties of the observations and emissions with the ratios calculated from EDGAR (version 4.2) CO2, CO, and CH4 inventories for South Africa and Southern Africa (South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique) in 2007 and 2008 (inventories for 2009 are not available yet). Total elemental mercury emission of 13.1, 15.2, and 16.1 t Hg yr-1 are estimated independently using the GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, and GEM/CH4 emission ratios and the annual mean CO, CO2, and CH4 emissions, respectively, of South Africa in 2007 and 2008. The average of these independent estimates of 14.8 ± 1.5 t GEM yr-1 is much less than the total emission of 257 t Hg yr-1 from older inventories. Considering that emission of GEM represents only 50-78% of all mercury emissions, our estimates come close to the total mercury emission estimates ranging between 40-50 t Hg yr-1 from more recent inventories.

  11. Scaling non-point-source mercury emissions from two active industrial gold mines: influential variables and annual emission estimates.

    PubMed

    Eckley, C S; Gustin, M; Miller, M B; Marsik, F

    2011-01-15

    Open-pit gold mines encompass thousands of hectares of disturbed materials that are often naturally enriched in mercury (Hg). The objective of this study was to estimate annual non-point-source Hg emissions from two active gold mines in Nevada. This was achieved by measuring diel and seasonally representative Hg fluxes from mesocosms of materials collected from each mine. These measurements provided a framework for scaling emissions over space and time at each mine by identifying the important variables correlated with Hg flux. The validity of these correlations was tested by comparisons with measurements conducted in situ at the mines. Of the average diel fluxes obtained in situ (92 daily flux measurements), 81% were within the 95% prediction limits of the regressions developed from the laboratory-derived data. Some surfaces at the mines could not be simulated in the laboratory setting (e.g., material actively leached by cyanide solution and tailings saturated with cyanide solution), and as such in situ data were applied for scaling. Based on the surface areas of the materials and environmental conditions at the mines during the year of study, non-point-source Hg releases were estimated to be 19 and 109 kg·year(-1). These account for 56% and 14%, respectively, of the overall emissions from each mine (point + nonpoint sources). Material being heap-leached and active tailings impoundments were the major contributors to the releases (>60% combined) suggesting that as mining operations cease, releases will decline. PMID:21142061

  12. Optimizing Techology to Reduce Mercury and Acid Gas Emissions from Electric Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffrey C. Quick; David E. Tabet; Sharon Wakefield; Roger L. Bon

    2004-01-31

    More than 56,000 coal quality data records from five public data sets have been selected for use in this project. These data will be used to create maps showing where coals with low mercury and acid-gas emissions might be found for power plants classified by air-pollution controls. Average coal quality values, calculated for 51,156 commercial coals by U.S. county-of-origin, are listed in the appendix. Coal moisture values are calculated for commercially shipped coal from 163 U.S. counties, where the raw assay data (including mercury and chlorine values) are reported on a dry basis. The calculated moisture values are verified by comparison with observed moisture values in commercial coal. Moisture in commercial U.S. coal shows provincial variation. For example, high volatile C bituminous rank coal from the Interior province has 3% to 4% more moisture than equivalent Rocky Mountain province coal. Mott-Spooner difference values are calculated for 4,957 data records for coals collected from coal mines and exploration drill holes. About 90% of the records have Mott-Spooner difference values within {+-}250 Btu/lb.

  13. Recent trends in anthropogenic mercury emission in the northeast United States - article no. D14316

    SciTech Connect

    Sigler, J.M.; Lee, X.

    2006-07-28

    We combine wintertime measurements of total gaseous mercury (TGM) with a combustion tracer (carbon dioxide) at a background site in Connecticut to investigate changes in regional Hg emission from 1999/2000 through 2003/2004. This method allows timelier flux estimates than inventory approaches. We find a 20% decrease in emission between 1999/2000 and 2003/2004, although the rate has increased since 2001/2002. Air trajectory analysis reveals a source region of Hg influencing the site that encompasses most of the mid-Atlantic and New England states, and Maryland and Delaware, with small interannual variation. The significant interannual changes in Hg emission therefore cannot be fully explained by climatological changes. Inventory calculations of Hg flux from the regional electric power sector show significant correlation with the emission trend derived from the atmospheric measurements, suggesting that the power sector strongly influences the regional Hg flux to the atmosphere. However, averaged over the five winters, the Hg flux from the power sector was 47-75% of the atmospheric flux, which is assumed to be {gt} 95% elemental Hg. If 50% or more of Hg emitted by power sources is speciated and deposits locally, the power sector can account for only 23-40% of the observed elemental Hg flux to the atmosphere. Possible explanations include conversion of some reactive Hg emitted by power plants to elemental Hg, underestimation of inventory emissions from sources outside the power sector, the possibility that emissions from municipal and medical waste combustion have not been curbed to the EPA targeted level, or that a combination of these factors exists.

  14. Impacts of the Minamata convention on mercury emissions and global deposition from coal-fired power generation in Asia.

    PubMed

    Giang, Amanda; Stokes, Leah C; Streets, David G; Corbitt, Elizabeth S; Selin, Noelle E

    2015-05-01

    We explore implications of the United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from Asian coal-fired power generation, and resulting changes to deposition worldwide by 2050. We use engineering analysis, document analysis, and interviews to construct plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention. We translate these scenarios into emissions projections for 2050, and use the GEOS-Chem model to calculate global mercury deposition. Where technology requirements in the Convention are flexibly defined, under a global energy and development scenario that relies heavily on coal, we project ∼90 and 150 Mg·y(-1) of avoided power sector emissions for China and India, respectively, in 2050, compared to a scenario in which only current technologies are used. Benefits of this avoided emissions growth are primarily captured regionally, with projected changes in annual average gross deposition over China and India ∼2 and 13 μg·m(-2) lower, respectively, than the current technology case. Stricter, but technologically feasible, mercury control requirements in both countries could lead to a combined additional 170 Mg·y(-1) avoided emissions. Assuming only current technologies but a global transition away from coal avoids 6% and 36% more emissions than this strict technology scenario under heavy coal use for China and India, respectively. PMID:25851589

  15. Impacts of the Minamata Conventionon on Mercury Emissions and Global Deposition from Coal-Fired Power Generation in Asia

    SciTech Connect

    Giang, Amanda; Stokes, Leah C.; Streets, David G.; Corbitt, Elizabeth S.; Selin, Noelle E.

    2015-05-05

    We explore implications of the United Nations Minamata Convention on Mercury for emissions from Asian coal-fired power generation, and resulting changes to deposition worldwide by 2050. We use engineering analysis, document analysis, and interviews to construct plausible technology scenarios consistent with the Convention. We translate these scenarios into emissions projections for 2050, and use the GEOS-Chem model to calculate global mercury deposition. Where technology requirements in the Convention are flexibly defined, under a global energy and development scenario that relies heavily on coal, we project similar to 90 and 150 Mg.y(-1) of avoided power sector emissions for China and India, respectively, in 2050, compared to a scenario in which only current technologies are used. Benefits of this avoided emissions growth are primarily captured regionally, with projected changes in annual average gross deposition over China and India similar to 2 and 13 mu g.m(-2) lower, respectively, than the current technology case. Stricter, but technologically feasible, mercury control requirements in both countries could lead to a combined additional 170 Mg.y(-1) avoided emissions. Assuming only current technologies but a global transition away from coal avoids 6% and 36% more emissions than this strict technology scenario under heavy coal use for China and India, respectively.

  16. Estimation of total annual mercury emissions from cement manufacturing facilities in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Won, Jong Hyun; Lee, Tai Gyu

    2012-12-01

    This study examined mercury (Hg) emissions from cement manufacturing facilities in Korea. Hg concentrations in stack gases from a kiln at the largest cement manufacturing facility (CMF) in Korea were measured using three different methods: a wet-chemical method and on-line measurements with two different types of conversion systems (SnCl2 and thermal) attached in front of each analyzer. The Hg concentrations of the feedstocks and fuels were then analyzed to determine the total amount of Hg input into CMFs and how much each material contributed to the Hg input. The total annual Hg input into all CMFs in Korea was estimated to be 1.71 tons, while the total annual Hg emissions estimated from the stack-gas measurement was 1.17-1.53 tons, indicating that 68-89% of total Hg input is released into the atmosphere. Therefore, more stringent regulation and effective control technologies should be applied to the CMFs to reduce Hg emissions.

  17. MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM GASOLINE AND DIESEL POWERED ON-ROAD VEHICLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Measurements of elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0), divalent reactive gaseous mercury (RGM), and particulate phase mercury (Hg(p)) were made from 14 gasoline and 2 diesel powered in-use light-duty vehicles on a chassis dynamometer. All vehicles were tested under both cold and hot st...

  18. THE IMPORTANCE OF EMISSIONS SPECIATION TO THE ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPORT AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The atmospheric pathway of the global mercury cycle is believed to be the main source of mercury contamination to aquatic eco-systems throughout the United States and in most other nations where direct disposal of mercury to water has been largely eliminated. Although the spatia...

  19. Emissions of carbon species, organic polar compounds, potassium, and mercury from prescribed burning activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Y.; Obrist, D.; Zielinska, B.; Gerler, A.

    2012-04-01

    Biomass burning is an important emission source of pollutants to the atmosphere, but few studies have focused on the chemical composition of emissions from prescribed burning activities. Here we present results from a sampling campaign to quantify particulate-phase emissions from various types of prescribed fires including carbon species (Elemental Carbon: EC; Organic Carbon: OC; and Total Carbon: TC); polar organic compounds (12 different compounds and four functional classes); water-soluble potassium (K+); and mercury (Hg). We measured emissions from the following types of prescribed biomass burning in the Lake Tahoe basin located on the California/Nevada border: (i) log piles stacked and dried in the field; (ii) log piles along with green understory vegetation; and (iii) understory green vegetation and surface litter; further emissions were collected from burns conducted in a wood stove: (iv) dried wooden logs; (v) green foliage of understory vegetation collected from the field; and (vi) surface organic litter collected from the field; finally, samples were also taken from (vii) ambient air in residential areas during peak domestic wood combustion season. Results show that OC/EC ratios of prescribed burns in the field ranged from 4 to 10, but lower values (around 1) were observed in controlled stove fires. These results are consistent with an excess of OC emissions over EC found in wildfires. OC/EC ratios, however, showed clear separations between controlled wood stove combustion (higher EC) and prescribed burns in the field (lower EC). We attribute this difference to a higher combustion temperatures and dominance of flaming combustion in wood stove fires. OC positively and linearly correlated to the sum of polar organic compounds across all burn types (r2 of 0.82). The most prevalent group of polar compounds emitted during prescribed fires was resin acids (dehydroabietic, pimaric, and abietic acids), followed by levoglucosan plus mannositol. Negligible

  20. Emissions of mercury in southern Africa derived from long-term observations at Cape Point, South Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kock, H. H.; Labuschagne, C.; Slemr, F.

    2012-08-01

    Mercury emissions in South Africa have so far been estimated only by a bottom-up approach from activities and emission factors for different processes. In this paper we derive GEM/CO (GEM being gaseous elemental mercury, Hg0), GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios from plumes observed during long-term monitoring of these species at Cape Point between March 2007 and December 2009. The average observed GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, GEM/CH4, CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios were 2.40 ± 2.65 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 47), 62.7 ± 80.2 pg m-3 ppm-1 (n = 44), 3.61 ± 4.66 pg m-3 ppb-1 (n = 46), 35.6 ± 25.4 ppb ppm-1 (n = 52), 20.2 ± 15.5 ppb ppm-1 (n = 48), and 0.876 ± 1.106 ppb ppb-1 (n = 42), respectively. The observed CO/CO2, CH4/CO2, and CH4/CO emission ratios agree within the combined uncertainties of the observations and emissions with the ratios calculated from EDGAR (version 4.2) CO2, CO, and CH4 inventories for South Africa and southern Africa (South Africa, Lesotho, Swaziland, Namibia, Botswana, Zimbabwe, and Mozambique) in 2007 and 2008 (inventories for 2009 are not available yet). Total elemental mercury emission of 13.1, 15.2, and 16.1 t Hg yr-1 are estimated independently using the GEM/CO, GEM/CO2, and GEM/CH4 emission ratios and the annual mean CO, CO2, and CH4 emissions, respectively, of South Africa in 2007 and 2008. The average of these independent estimates of 14.8 t GEM yr-1 is much less than the total emission of 257 t Hg yr-1 shown by older inventories which are now considered to be wrong. Considering the uncertainties of our emission estimate, of the emission inventories, and the fact that emission of GEM represents 50-78 % of all mercury emissions, our estimate is comparable to the currently cited GEM emissions in 2004 and somewhat smaller than emissions in 2006. A further increase of mercury emissions due to increasing electricity consumption will lead to a more pronounced difference. A quantitative assessment of the difference

  1. DEPOSITION AND EMISSION OF GASEOUS MERCURY TO AND FROM LAKE MICHIGAN DURING THE LAKE MICHIGAN MASS BALANCE STUDY (JULY, 1994 - OCTOBER, 1995)

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents measurements of dissolved gaseous mercury (DGM) concentrations in Lake Michigan and the application of a mechanistic approach to estimate deposition and emission fluxes of gaseous mercury (Hg2+ and Hg0) to and from Lake Michigan. Measurements of DGM concentr...

  2. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    This technical note describes a United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) measurement project to determine elemental mercury (Hg0) emissions from a mercury cell chlor-alkali (MCCA) facility in the southeastern U.S. during a 53-day monitoring campaign in the fall of...

  3. Evaluation of Five Phase Digitally Controlled Rotating Field Plasma Source for Photochemical Mercury Vapor Generation Optical Emission Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Matusiewicz, Henryk; Ślachciński, Mariusz; Pawłowski, Paweł; Portalski, Marek

    2015-01-01

    A new sensitive method for total mercury determination in reference materials using a 5-phase digitally controlled rotating field plasma source (RFP) for optical emission spectrometry (OES) was developed. A novel synergic effect of ultrasonic nebulization (USN) and ultraviolet-visible light (UV-Vis) irradiation when used in combination was exploited for efficient Hg vapor generation. UV- and Vis-based irradiation systems were studied. It was found that the most advantageous design was an ultrasonic nebulizer fitted with a 6 W mercury lamp supplying a microliter sample to a quartz oscillator, converting liquid into aerosol at the entrance of the UV spray chamber. Optimal conditions involved using a 20% v/v solution of acetic acid as the generation medium. The mercury cold vapor, favorably generated from Hg(2+) solutions by UV irradiation, was rapidly transported into a plasma source with rotating field generated within the five electrodes and detected by digitally controlled rotating field plasma optical emission spectrometry (RFP-OES). Under optimal conditions, the experimental concentration detection limit for the determination, calculated as the concentration giving a signal equal to three times the standard deviation of the blank (LOD, 3σblank criterion, peak height), was 4.1 ng mL(-1). The relative standard deviation for samples was equal to or better than 5% for liquid analysis and microsampling capability. The methodology was validated through determination of mercury in three certified reference materials (corresponding to biological and environmental samples) (NRCC DOLT-2, NRCC PACS-1, NIST 2710) using the external aqueous standard calibration techniques in acetic acid media, with satisfactory recoveries. Mercury serves as an example element to validate the capability of this approach. This is a simple, reagent-saving, cost-effective and green analytical method for mercury determination. PMID:26460362

  4. Development of dry control technology for emissions of mercury in flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Hann S.; Wu, Jiann M.; Livengood, C.D.

    1995-06-01

    In flue gases from coal-combustion systems, mercury in either the elemental state or its chloride form (HgCl{sub 2}) can be predominant among all the possible mercury species present; this predominance largely depends on the chlorine-to-mercury ratio in the coal feeds. Conventional flue-gas cleanup technologies are moderately effective in controlling HgCl{sub 2} but are very poor at controlling elemental mercury. Experiments were conducted on the removal of elemental mercury vapor by means of a number of different types of sorbents, using a fixed-bed adsorption system. Of the four commercial activated carbons evaluated, the sulfur-treated carbon sample gives the best removal performance, with good mercury-sorption capacities. Promising removal results also have been obtained with low-cost minerals after chemical treatments. These inorganic sorbents could potentially be developed into a cost-effective alternative to activated carbons for mercury removal.

  5. 500 years of mercury production: global annual inventory by region until 2000 and associated emissions.

    PubMed

    Hylander, Lars D; Meili, Markus

    2003-03-20

    Since pre-industrial times, anthropogenic emissions of Hg have at least doubled global atmospheric Hg deposition rates. In order to minimize environmental and human health effects, efforts have been made to reduce Hg emissions from industries and power plants, while less attention has been paid to Hg mining. This paper is a compilation of available data on primary Hg production and associated emissions with regional and annual resolution since colonial times. Globally, approximately one million tons of metallic Hg has been extracted from cinnabar and other ores during the past five centuries, half already before 1925. Roughly half has been used for mining of gold and silver, but the annual Hg production peaked during a short period of recent industrial uses. Comparison with total historic Hg deposition from global anthropogenic emissions (0.1-0.2 Mtons) suggests that only a few percent of all mined Hg have escaped to the atmosphere thus far. While production of primary Hg has changed dramatically over time and among mines, the global production has always been dominant in the region of the mercuriferous belt between the western Mediterranean and central Asia, but appears to be shifting to the east. Roughly half of the registered Hg has been extracted in Europe, where Spanish mines alone have contributed one third of the world's mined Hg. Approximately one fourth has been mined in the Americas, and most of the remaining registered Hg in Asia. However, the Asian figures may be largely underestimated. Presently, the dominant Hg mines are in Almadén in Spain (236 t of Hg produced in 2000), Khaydarkan in Kyrgyzstan (550 t), Algeria (estimated 240 t) and China (ca. 200 t). Mercury by-production from mining of other metals (e.g. copper, zinc, gold, silver) in 2000 includes 48 t from Peru, 45 t from Finland and at least 15 t from the USA. Since 1970, the recorded production of primary Hg has been reduced by almost an order of magnitude to approximately 2000 t in the year

  6. Mercury emissions during cofiring of sub-bituminous coal and biomass (chicken waste, wood, coffee residue, and tobacco stalk) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor.

    PubMed

    Cao, Yan; Zhou, Hongcang; Fan, Junjie; Zhao, Houyin; Zhou, Tuo; Hack, Pauline; Chan, Chia-Chun; Liou, Jian-Chang; Pan, Wei-Ping

    2008-12-15

    Four types of biomass (chicken waste, wood pellets, coffee residue, and tobacco stalks) were cofired at 30 wt % with a U.S. sub-bituminous coal (Powder River Basin Coal) in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor. A cyclone, followed by a quartz filter, was used for fly ash removal during tests. The temperatures of the cyclone and filter were controlled at 250 and 150 degrees C, respectively. Mercury speciation and emissions during cofiring were investigated using a semicontinuous mercury monitor, which was certified using ASTM standard Ontario Hydra Method. Test results indicated mercury emissions were strongly correlative to the gaseous chlorine concentrations, but not necessarily correlative to the chlorine contents in cofiring fuels. Mercury emissions could be reduced by 35% during firing of sub-bituminous coal using only a quartz filter. Cofiring high-chlorine fuel, such as chicken waste (Cl = 22340 wppm), could largely reduce mercury emissions by over 80%. When low-chlorine biomass, such as wood pellets (Cl = 132 wppm) and coffee residue (Cl = 134 wppm), is cofired, mercury emissions could only be reduced by about 50%. Cofiring tobacco stalks with higher chlorine content (Cl = 4237 wppm) did not significantly reduce mercury emissions. This was also true when limestone was added while cofiring coal and chicken waste because the gaseous chlorine was reduced in the freeboard of the fluidized bed combustor, where the temperature was generally below 650 degrees C without addition of the secondary air. Gaseous speciated mercury in flue gas after a quartz filter indicated the occurrence of about 50% of total gaseous mercury to be the elemental mercury for cofiring chicken waste, but occurrence of above 90% of the elemental mercury for all other cases. Both the higher content of alkali metal oxides or alkali earth metal oxides in tested biomass and the occurrence of temperatures lower than 650 degrees C in the upper part of the fluidized bed combustor seemed to be

  7. Increases in mercury emissions from desert soils in response to rainfall and irrigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindberg, S. E.; Zhang, H.; Gustin, M.; Vette, A.; Marsik, F.; Owens, J.; Casimir, A.; Ebinghaus, R.; Edwards, G.; Fitzgerald, C.; Kemp, J.; Kock, H. H.; London, J.; Majewski, M.; Poissant, L.; Pilote, M.; Rasmussen, P.; Schaedlich, F.; Schneeberger, D.; Sommar, J.; Turner, R.; WallschläGer, D.; Xiao, Z.

    1999-09-01

    As part of an international Hg flux intercomparison at the Steamboat Springs, Nevada, geothermal area, several dynamic soil flux chambers and micrometeorological gradient systems were operated over desert soils in early September 1997. A series of unanticipated convective rain cells impacted the site with the first rainfall in ˜90 days, and the initial 4-cm rainfall increased soil moisture from ˜0.01 to 0.06% (vol/vol). Several chambers were operating prior to the events, and two were deployed over wet soils following rainfall. Rainfall resulted in an immediate and steep rise in ambient air Hg concentrations and soil Hg emissions which persisted for 12-24 hours. Fluxes increased most quickly and to a greater degree over the wettest soils, and the rate of increase was related to chamber design and flushing rate. The flux response was also apparent in the micrometeorological data. In general, soil emissions increased by an order of magnitude following the rain, and reached levels ˜6 times above those at the same time the previous day. These fluxes were significantly correlated with temperature, radiation, humidity, wind speed, and soil moisture. After drying for ˜40 hours, selected soil plots were manually irrigated with low-Hg-distilled water. Mercury emissions responded similarly across the three treated sites, uniformly increasing from ˜60 ng m-2 h-1 pretreatment to ˜650 ng m-2 h-1 posttreatment, which was a factor of ˜6 higher than adjacent control soils. Possible causes of the increases in flux include soil gas displacement, desorption of Hg° by water molecules, and desorption of Hg(II) and subsequent reduction in solution. The kinetics of the flux response, combined with local soil and climatic conditions, suggest that Hg emissions were responding primarily to soil moisture and solar radiation. These data have interesting implications for the role of changing regional climates on biogeochemical cycling of Hg.

  8. Patterns of mercury dispersion from local and regional emission sources, rural Central Wisconsin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, A.; Olson, M.L.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Tate, M.T.; Engle, M.A.

    2010-01-01

    Simultaneous real-time changes in mercury (Hg) speciation ?????" reactive gaseous Hg (RGM), elemental Hg (Hg??), and fine particulate Hg (Hg-PM2.5), were determined from June to November 2007, in ambient air at three locations in rural Central Wisconsin. Known Hg emission sources within the airshed of the monitoring sites include: 1) a 1114 megawatt (MW) coal-fired electric utility generating station; 2) a Hg-bed chlor-alkali plant; and 3) a smaller (465 MW) coal-burning electric utility. Monitoring sites, showing sporadic elevation of RGM, Hg?? and Hg-PM 2.5, were positioned at distances of 25, 50 and 100 km northward of the larger electric utility. A series of RGM events were recorded at each site. The largest, on 23 September, occurred under prevailing southerly winds, with a maximum RGM value (56.8 pg m-3) measured at the 100 km site, and corresponding elevated SO2 (10.41 ppbv; measured at 50 km site). The finding that RGM, Hg??, and Hg-PM2.5 are not always highest at the 25 km site, closest to the large generating station, contradicts the idea that RGM decreases with distance from a large point source. This may be explained if: 1) the 100 km site was influenced by emissions from the chlor-alkali facility or by RGM from regional urban sources; 2) the emission stack height of the larger power plant promoted plume transport at an elevation where the Hg is carried over the closest site; or 3) RGM was being generated in the plume through oxidation of Hg??. Operational changes at each emitter since 2007 should reduce their Hg output, potentially allowing quantification of the environmental benefit in future studies.

  9. Factors affecting the measurement of mercury emissions from soils with flux chambers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    WallschläGer, Dirk; Turner, Ralph R.; London, Jacqueline; Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kock, Hans H.; Sommar, Jonas; Xiao, Zifan

    1999-09-01

    Air-surface exchange of mercury (Hg) above an arid geothermal area was measured with three parallel flux chamber experiments. The different experimental designs were intercompared with each other, with regard to the magnitude of the measured Hg fluxes and their response to environmental changes. Qualitatively, the measured Hg fluxes agreed well throughout the diurnal cycle, and in their response to environmental events and experimental manipulations, but quantitatively, there were significant discrepancies between the individual flux results. On average, the three designs yielded Hg fluxes agreeing within a factor of 2, but even more pronounced differences were observed during midday high emission periods and during apparent nighttime deposition events. The chamber flushing rate appears to have a very significant impact on the measured fluxes and on the response behavior to environmental change. This study demonstrates that both experimental differences and small-scale regional variability introduce large uncertainty in the estimation of natural Hg air-surface exchange by different flux chamber techniques. Also, the impact of environmental parameters on Hg air-surface exchange was studied. Rain events led to a strong increase in the Hg emissions, even when the covered soil remained dry, suggesting that the apparent chamber footprint is larger than the actually covered area. Exclusion of sunlight led to decreases in Hg emissions. Statistical analysis revealed the strongest correlations between the measured Hg fluxes and radiation and wind speed. Weaker correlations were observed with air and soil temperature and wind direction (probably due to local Hg sources). Fluxes were also inversely correlated with relative humidity.

  10. Airborne Observations of Mercury Emissions from the Chicago/Gary Urban/Industrial Area during the 2013 NOMADSS Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gratz, L.; Ambrose, J. L., II; Jaffe, D. A.; Knote, C. J.; Jaegle, L.; Selin, N. E.; Campos, T. L.; Flocke, F. M.; Reeves, J. M.; Stechman, D. M.; Stell, M. H.; Weinheimer, A. J.; Knapp, D. J.; Montzka, D.; Tyndall, G. S.; Mauldin, L.; Cantrell, C. A.; Apel, E. C.; Hornbrook, R. S.; Blake, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric emissions from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area significantly enhance ambient mercury (Hg) concentrations and lead to increased levels of atmospheric mercury deposition within the Lake Michigan Basin (Gratz et al., 2013a; Gratz et al., 2013b; Landis and Keeler, 2002; Landis et al., 2002; Vette et al., 2002). In this study we use airborne observations of total atmospheric Hg (THg) collected over Lake Michigan during summer 2013 as part of the Nitrogen, Oxidants, Mercury, and Aerosol Distributions, Sources, and Sinks (NOMADSS) field campaign to quantify the outflow of total atmospheric Hg from the Chicago/Gary urban/industrial area. We use concurrent airborne measurements of THg, carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), and sulfur dioxide (SO2) to calculate measured enhancement ratios (ER) and thus characterize Chicago/Gary emissions. We determine the observed THg/CO ER in outflow from Chicago/Gary to be 2.11x10-7 mol mol-1, which is comparable to values reported in the literature for other major U.S. urban/industrial areas (Radke et al., 2007; Talbot et al., 2008; Weiss-Penzias et al., 2013). We also employ the FLEXPART Lagrangian transport and dispersion model to simulate air mass transport during plume encounters. We convolve the emissions of each species from the 2011 U.S. EPA National Emissions Inventory (NEI) with the FLEXPART-modeled air mass transport to compare our observations to inventoried emission ratios (EmR). We find that the inventoried THg/CO EmRs are biased low by -63% to -67% compared to the observed ERs for the Chicago/Gary area. This suggests that there are many small emission sources that are not fully accounted for within the inventory, and/or that the re-emission of legacy Hg is a significant source of THg to the atmosphere in this region.

  11. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution controls on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2015-04-01

    China's anthropogenic emissions of atmospheric mercury (Hg) are effectively constrained by national air pollution control and energy efficiency policies. In this study, improved methods, based on available data from domestic field measurements, are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement by various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of (1) flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems in power generation; (2) precalciner kilns with fabric filters (FF) in cement production; (3) mechanized coking ovens with electrostatic precipitators (ESP) in iron and steel production; and (4) advanced production technologies in nonferrous metal smelting. Investigation reveals declining trends in emission factors for each of these sources, which together drive a much slower growth of total Hg emissions than the growth of China's energy consumption and economy, from 679 metric tons (t) in 2005 to 750 t in 2012. In particular, estimated emissions from the above-mentioned four source types declined 3% from 2005 to 2012, which can be attributed to expanded deployment of technologies with higher energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates. Emissions from other anthropogenic sources are estimated to increase by 22% during the period. The species shares of total Hg emissions have been stable in recent years, with mass fractions of around 55, 39, and 6% for gaseous elemental Hg (Hg0), reactive gaseous mercury (Hg2+), and particle-bound mercury (Hgp), respectively. The higher estimate of total Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited simulation of atmospheric chemistry and transport. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, a 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions from 2012 to 2030, to below 600 t, is expected at the most. While growth in Hg emissions has been gradually constrained, uncertainties quantified by Monte Carlo simulation for recent years have increased

  12. Mercury - Thermal emission at radio wavelengths. I - 3.3- and 28-mm observed brightness temperatures and periodicities therein

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epstein, E. E.; Andrew, B. H.

    1985-01-01

    The thermal radio emission from Mercury at 3.3 mm and 28 mm was measured over a period of several years, and the results of a statistical analysis of the data are reported. The disk-average brightness temperature is reported as a function of longitude, and other periodicities are reported. The range of values of the thermophysical parameters is constrained by comparing the data with models.

  13. POTENTIAL HEALTH RISK REDUCTION ARISING FROM REDUCED MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS.

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, T. M.; Lipfert, F. W.; Morris, S. C.; Moskowitz, P. D.

    2001-09-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has announced plans to regulate mercury (Hg) emissions from coal-fired power plants. EPA has not prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. To address this issue, Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) with support from the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (DOE FE) prepared a quantitative assessment of the reduction in human health risk that could be achieved through reduction in coal plant emissions of Hg. The primary pathway for Hg exposure is through consumption of fish. The most susceptible population to Hg exposure is the fetus. Therefore the risk assessment focused on consumption of fish by women of child-bearing age. Dose response factors were generated from studies on loss of cognitive abilities (language skills, motor skills, etc.) by young children whose mothers consumed large amounts of fish with high Hg levels. Population risks were estimated for the general population in three regions of the country, (the Midwest, Northeast, and Southeast) that were identified by EPA as being heavily impacted by coal emissions. Three scenarios for reducing Hg emissions from coal plants were considered: (1) A base case using current conditions; (2) A 50% reduction; and, (3) A 90% reduction. These reductions in emissions were assumed to translate linearly into a reduction in fish Hg levels of 8.6% and 15.5%, respectively. Population risk estimates were also calculated for two subsistence fisher populations. These groups of people consume substantially more fish than the general public and, depending on location, the fish may contain higher Hg levels than average. Risk estimates for these groups were calculated for the three Hg levels used for the general population analyses. Analysis shows that the general population risks for exposure of the fetus to Hg are small. Estimated risks under current conditions (i.e., no

  14. Gold nanospikes based microsensor as a highly accurate mercury emission monitoring system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabri, Ylias M.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Tardio, James; Bansal, Vipul; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2014-10-01

    Anthropogenic elemental mercury (Hg0) emission is a serious worldwide environmental problem due to the extreme toxicity of the heavy metal to humans, plants and wildlife. Development of an accurate and cheap microsensor based online monitoring system which can be integrated as part of Hg0 removal and control processes in industry is still a major challenge. Here, we demonstrate that forming Au nanospike structures directly onto the electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) using a novel electrochemical route results in a self-regenerating, highly robust, stable, sensitive and selective Hg0 vapor sensor. The data from a 127 day continuous test performed in the presence of volatile organic compounds and high humidity levels, showed that the sensor with an electrodeposted sensitive layer had 260% higher response magnitude, 3.4 times lower detection limit (~22 μg/m3 or ~2.46 ppbv) and higher accuracy (98% Vs 35%) over a Au control based QCM (unmodified) when exposed to a Hg0 vapor concentration of 10.55 mg/m3 at 101°C. Statistical analysis of the long term data showed that the nano-engineered Hg0 sorption sites on the developed Au nanospikes sensitive layer play a critical role in the enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of the developed sensor towards Hg0 vapor.

  15. Gold nanospikes based microsensor as a highly accurate mercury emission monitoring system

    PubMed Central

    Sabri, Ylias M.; Ippolito, Samuel J.; Tardio, James; Bansal, Vipul; O'Mullane, Anthony P.; Bhargava, Suresh K.

    2014-01-01

    Anthropogenic elemental mercury (Hg0) emission is a serious worldwide environmental problem due to the extreme toxicity of the heavy metal to humans, plants and wildlife. Development of an accurate and cheap microsensor based online monitoring system which can be integrated as part of Hg0 removal and control processes in industry is still a major challenge. Here, we demonstrate that forming Au nanospike structures directly onto the electrodes of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) using a novel electrochemical route results in a self-regenerating, highly robust, stable, sensitive and selective Hg0 vapor sensor. The data from a 127 day continuous test performed in the presence of volatile organic compounds and high humidity levels, showed that the sensor with an electrodeposted sensitive layer had 260% higher response magnitude, 3.4 times lower detection limit (~22 μg/m3 or ~2.46 ppbv) and higher accuracy (98% Vs 35%) over a Au control based QCM (unmodified) when exposed to a Hg0 vapor concentration of 10.55 mg/m3 at 101°C. Statistical analysis of the long term data showed that the nano-engineered Hg0 sorption sites on the developed Au nanospikes sensitive layer play a critical role in the enhanced sensitivity and selectivity of the developed sensor towards Hg0 vapor. PMID:25338965

  16. PREPARATION AND EVALUATION OF MODIFIED LIME AND SILICA-LIME SORBENTS FOR MERCURY VAPOR EMISSIONS CONTROL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses current efforts to improve the uptake of mercury species by increasing active sites and adding oxidative species to the sorbent. (NOTE: Previous work showed that mercury chloride vapor is readily absorbed by calcium-based sorbents as an acid gas in environmen...

  17. Mercury Emission from Co-Combustion of Sludge and Coal in a CFB Incinerator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Y. F.; Zhao, C. S.; Wu, C. J.; Wang, Y. J.

    An experimental study on co-combustion of sludge and coal were conducted in a circulating fluidized bed incinerator with the dense bed cross section area of 0.23m×0.23m and the height of 7m. The mercury mass balance was measured and the distribution of mercury speciation in flue gas was discussed. Effects of major operational parameters such as Ca/S molar ratio, desulfurization sorbents, excess air coefficient, co-combustion temperature, and SO2 and NOx concentrations on the distribution of mercury speciation in flue gas, mercury in fly ash and slag were investigated during the co-combustion process. The results show that majority of mercury goesinto the fluegas in which the elemental mercury is the major speciation. Ca-based sorbent can remove Hg2+ in flue gas effectively, in which CaO has better mercury removal effect than CaCO3. The content of Hg2+ in flue gas increases with increasing of the concentration of SO2 and NOx in flue gas. It can also be concluded that the excessair coefficient exerts dominant influences on mercury speciation among the flue gas, fly ash and bottom ash.

  18. Assessing the emission sources of atmospheric mercury in wet deposition across Illinois.

    PubMed

    Gratz, Lynne E; Keeler, Gerald J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Dvonch, J Timothy

    2013-03-15

    From August 4, 2007 to August 31, 2009, we collected event-based precipitation samples for mercury (Hg) and trace element analyses at four sites in Illinois (IL), USA. The objectives of these measurements were to quantify Hg wet deposition across the state, and to assess the contributions to Hg in precipitation from major local and regional emission sources. Monitoring sites were located, from north to south, in Chicago, Peoria, Nilwood, and Carbondale, IL. Measurements from these four sites demonstrated that a clear spatial gradient in Hg wet deposition was not evident across the state. Each site received>10μgm(-2) of Hg wet deposition annually, and these observed values were comparable to annual Hg wet deposition measurements from other event-based precipitation monitoring sites in source-impacted areas of the Midwestern U.S. We applied the multivariate statistical receptor model, Positive Matrix Factorization (EPA PMF v3.0), to the measured Hg and trace element wet deposition amounts at the four sites. Results suggested that 50% to 74% of total Hg wet deposition at each site could be attributed to coal combustion emissions. The other source signatures identified in the precipitation compositions included cement manufacturing, mixed metal smelting/waste incineration, iron-steel production, and a phosphorus source. We also applied a hybrid receptor model, Quantitative Transport Bias Analysis (QTBA), to the Hg wet deposition datasets to identify the major source regions associated with the measured values. The calculated QTBA probability fields suggested that transport from urban/industrial areas, such as Chicago/Gary, St. Louis, and the Ohio River Valley, resulted in some of the highest estimated event-based Hg wet deposition amounts at the four sites (potential mass transfer of up to 0.32μgm(-2)). The combined application of PMF and QTBA supported the hypothesis that local and regional coal combustion was the largest source of Hg wet deposition in Illinois

  19. Emission factor and balance of mercury in fish farms in an artificial reservoir in NE Brazil.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Karen Figueiredo; Lacerda, Luiz Drude; Peres, Tiago Farias; Bezerra, Moises Fernandes; Dias, Francisco José da Silva

    2015-11-01

    This paper estimated the mercury (Hg), emission factor, and mass balance from caged fish farming in the Castanhão Reservoir, NE Brazil, based on monitoring of a typical farm of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus). The total Hg input to the farm reached 1.45 gHg ha(-1) year(-1), from which 0.21 gHg ha(-1) year(-1) was exported out as fish biomass, ultimately resulting in an emission factor of 1.24 gHg ha(-1) year(-1) for the reservoir or approximately 8.27 mgHg ton fish(-1) year(-1) produced. Most of the input came from aquafeeds with concentrations varying from 1.4 to 31.1 ng g(-1), depending on the type of aquafeed. The Hg concentrations in fish were very low and varied from 1.0 to 2.9 ng g(-1). These values are two orders of magnitude lower than the legal limit for human consumption. The estimated total annual discharge of Hg from farming into the reservoir is 174 g for 18,000 tons of fish produced and may reach 387 g when the reservoir reaches its total capacity (40,000 tons), which is expected to occur in 2020. The mass balance, considering the deposition and accumulation rates, showed that approximately 40% of the total Hg input accumulate in farm sediments (0.72 g ha(-1) year(-1)), which is approximately 60% of the deposition rate estimated through the sediment traps and suggests that 0.54 gHg ha(-1) year(-1) could eventually be transported out of the farm to the reservoir. Notwithstanding these facts, the total annual input of Hg from fish farming to the Castanhão Reservoir is less than 1.0% of the total input from anthropogenic sources. PMID:26233746

  20. Inherent Stability of Helicopters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crocco, G Arturo

    1923-01-01

    The equilibrium, in still air, of a "stationary" helicopter (i.e., of one having neither vertical nor translational velocity, but a tendency to remain practically motionless within restricted limits of space) presents some difficulty in practice and justifies a theoretical investigation of its "inherent stability," i.e., independent of the pilot.

  1. Mercury emission from terrestrial background surfaces in the eastern USA. Part I: Air/surface exchange of mercury within a southeastern deciduous forest (Tennessee) over one year

    SciTech Connect

    Kuiken, Todd; Zhang, Hong; Gustin, Mae S.; Lindberg, Steven Eric

    2008-03-01

    This study focused on the development of a seasonal data set of the Hg air/surface exchange over soils associated with low Hg containing surfaces in a deciduous forest in the southern USA. Data were collected every month for 11 months in 2004 within Standing Stone State Forest in Tennessee using the dynamic flux chamber method. Mercury air/surface exchange associated with the litter covered forest floor was very low with the annual mean daytime flux being 0.4 0.5 ng m-2 h-1 (n = 301). The daytime Hg air/surface exchange over the year oscillated between emission (81% of samples with positive flux) and deposition (19% of samples with negative flux). A seasonal trend of lower emission in the spring and summer (closed canopy) relative to the fall and winter (open canopy) was observed. Correlations were found between the air/surface exchange and certain environmental factors on specific days sampled but not collectively over the entire year. The very low magnitude of Hg air/surface exchange as observed in this study suggests that an improved methodology for determining and reporting emission fluxes is needed when the values of fluxes and chamber blanks are both very low and comparable. This study raises questions and points to a need for more research regarding how to scale the Hg air/surface exchange for surfaces with very low emissions.

  2. Nitrogen oxides, sulfur trioxide, and mercury emissions during oxy-fuel fluidized bed combustion of Victorian brown coal.

    PubMed

    Roy, Bithi; Chen, Luguang; Bhattacharya, Sankar

    2014-12-16

    This study investigates, for the first time, the NOx, N2O, SO3, and Hg emissions from combustion of a Victorian brown coal in a 10 kWth fluidized bed unit under oxy-fuel combustion conditions. Compared to air combustion, lower NOx emissions and higher N2O formation were observed in the oxy-fuel atmosphere. These NOx reduction and N2O formations were further enhanced with steam in the combustion environment. The NOx concentration level in the flue gas was within the permissible limit in coal-fired power plants in Victoria. Therefore, an additional NOx removal system will not be required using this coal. In contrast, both SO3 and gaseous mercury concentrations were considerably higher under oxy-fuel combustion compared to that in the air combustion. Around 83% of total gaseous mercury released was Hg(0), with the rest emitted as Hg(2+). Therefore, to control harmful Hg(0), a mercury removal system may need to be considered to avoid corrosion in the boiler and CO2 separation units during the oxy-fuel fluidized-bed combustion using this coal. PMID:25402169

  3. Atmospheric mercury emissions from substrates and fumaroles associated with three hydrothermal systems in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Engle, Mark A.; Gustin, Mae S.; Goff, Fraser; Counce, Dale; Janik, Cathy J.; Bergfeld, Deborah; Rytuba, James J.

    2006-01-01

    This paper quantifies atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions from substrates and fumaroles associated with three hydrothermal systems: Lassen Volcanic Center, California (LVC); Yellowstone Caldera, Wyoming (YC); and Dixie Valley, Nevada (DV). Substrate Hg fluxes were measured using field chamber methods at thermal and nonthermal sites. The highest Hg fluxes (up to 541 ng m−2 h−1) were measured at thermal active areas. Fluxes from altered and unaltered nonthermal sites were <10 ng m−2 h−1 and were comparable to those measured in natural low-Hg background regions for YC and DV, and at LVC they were slightly elevated. Similarly, reactive gaseous mercury concentrations were higher in thermal active areas. Using a Geographic Information System framework for scaling, estimated area-average Hg emissions from substrates were 0.9–3.8 ng m−2 h−1 at LVC, 0.8–2.8 ng m−2 h−1 at YC, and 0.4–0.5 ng m−2 h−1 at DV. At LVC, nonthermal areas were the primary substrate source of atmospheric Hg (>98%). At YC, substrate Hg emissions were dominated (50 to 90%) by acidically altered thermal areas. Substrate emissions at DV were low and primarily from nonthermal areas (66% to 75%). Fumarole emissions at LVC (91–146 kg yr−1) and YC (0.18–1.6 kg yr−1 for Mud Volcano) were estimated by applying Hg:H2O and Hg:CO2 ratios in hydrothermal gas samples to H2O and CO2 emissions. Applying total area-average emissions from substrates and thermal features at LVC, YC, and DV to similar systems across the conterminous United States, yearly atmospheric Hg emissions from active hydrothermal systems are projected to be 1.3–2.1 Mg.

  4. Rhodamine functionalized magnetic core-shell nanocomposite: an emission "Off-On" sensing system for mercury ion detection and extraction.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Wu, Yan; Ma, Wuze

    2015-03-01

    This paper reported a core-shell structured composite with superparamagnetic ferroferric oxide as the inner core and silica molecular sieve as the outer shell. A rhodamine based sensing dye was covalently grafted into the highly ordered tunnels of silica molecular sieve, so that mercury ion sensing and extraction could be achieved from this composite. This probe loaded core-shell structure was characterized by electron microscopy images, X-ray diffraction patterns, infrared spectra, thermogravimetry and N2 adsorption/desorption measurement. This composite showed increased emission with increasing mercury ion concentration, along with high sensitivity and good selectivity. Linear response and good regenerating performance were also observed from this composite. PMID:25506652

  5. Laboratory tests on mercury emission monitoring with resonating gold-coated silicon cantilevers.

    PubMed

    Drelich, Jaroslaw; White, Calvin L; Xu, Zhenghe

    2008-03-15

    To measure extremely low concentrations of mercury vapor in gases as encountered in flue gases of coal-fired power plants, accurate and reliable online and/or portable mercury detection systems are needed. As discussed in this communication, resonating silicon-based cantilevers coated with thin films of gold change their resonant frequency when exposed to mercury vapors and could serve as the basis for such sensing devices. Two different types of commercial AFM cantilevers, which differed by physical dimensions and surface finish, were coated with a 10 nm film of gold and were tested in streams of argon containing mercury. The argon flow rates ranged from 5.7 to 57.4 ml/min, carrying mercury vapors at concentrations between 37 and 700 microg/m3. The results show that smaller cantilevers (approximately 140 microm x 40 microm x 4 microm) with a resonant frequency of 270-275 kHz were sensitive to less than 10 picograms of mercury, whereas larger cantilevers (approximately 245 microm x 50 microm x 7 microm) with a resonant frequency of 155-165 kHz have a sensitivity about 10 times lower. The results indicate that the kinetics of mercury capture by the gold coating follows a simple power law-correlation with the mass change (delta m) being proportional to t(n), where t is the capture time and n depends strongly on the concentration of mercury in the gas. It is also demonstrated that the mercury can be stripped off the gold coating by heating to 350 degrees C, which would allowthe cantilevers to be regenerated and reused. PMID:18409639

  6. EVALUATION OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL-FIRED FACILITIES WITH SCR AND FGD SYSTEMS

    SciTech Connect

    J.A. Withum

    2006-03-07

    CONSOL Energy Inc., Research & Development (CONSOL), with support from the U.S. Department of Energy, National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE) and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), evaluated the effects of selective catalytic reduction (SCR) on mercury (Hg) capture in coal-fired plants equipped with an electrostatic precipitator (ESP)-wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) combination or a spray dyer absorber-fabric filter (SDA-FF) combination. In this program CONSOL determined mercury speciation and removal at 10 bituminous coal-fired facilities; at four of these facilities, additional tests were performed on units without SCR, or with the existing SCR bypassed. This project final report summarizes the results and discusses the findings of the body of work as a whole. Eleven Topical Reports were issued (prior to this report) that describe in great detail the sampling results at each of the ten power plants individually. The results showed that the SCR-FGD combination removed a substantial fraction of mercury from flue gas. The coal-to-stack mercury removals ranged from 65% to 97% for the units with SCR and from 53% to 87% for the units without SCR. There was no indication that any type of FGD system was more effective at mercury removal than others. The coal-to-stack mercury removal and the removal in the wet scrubber were both negatively correlated with the elemental mercury content of the flue gas and positively correlated with the scrubber liquid chloride concentration. The coal chlorine content was not a statistically significant factor in either case. Mercury removal in the ESP was positively correlated with the fly ash carbon content and negatively correlated with the flue gas temperature. At most of the units, a substantial fraction (>35%) of the flue gas mercury was in the elemental form at the boiler economizer outlet. After passing through the SCR-air heater combination very little of the total mercury (<10%) remained in the elemental form in

  7. THE LOCAL IMPACTS OF MERCURY EMISSIONS FROM COAL FIRED POWER PLANTS ON HUMAN HEALTH RISK. PROGRESS REPORT FOR THE PERIOD OF MARCH 2003 - MARCH 2003.

    SciTech Connect

    SULLIVAN,T.M.LIPFERT,F.D.MORRIS,S.M.

    2003-05-01

    This report presents a follow-up to previous assessments of the health risks of mercury that BNL performed for the Department of Energy. Methylmercury is an organic form of mercury that has been implicated as the form of mercury that impacts human health. A comprehensive risk assessment report was prepared (Lipfert et al., 1994) that led to several journal articles and conference presentations (Lipfert et al. 1994, 1995, 1996). In 2001, a risk assessment of mercury exposure from fish consumption was performed for 3 regions of the U.S (Northeast, Southeast, and Midwest) identified by the EPA as regions of higher impact from coal emissions (Sullivan, 2001). The risk assessment addressed the effects of in utero exposure to children through consumption of fish by their mothers. Two population groups (general population and subsistence fishers) were considered. Three mercury levels were considered in the analysis, current conditions based on measured data, and hypothetical reductions in Hg levels due to a 50% and 90% reduction in mercury emissions from coal fired power plants. The findings of the analysis suggested that a 90% reduction in coal-fired emissions would lead to a small reduction in risk to the general population (population risk reduction on the order of 10{sup -5}) and that the population risk is born by less than 1% of the population (i.e. high end fish consumers). The study conducted in 2001 focused on the health impacts arising from regional deposition patterns as determined by measured data and modeling. Health impacts were assessed on a regional scale accounting for potential percent reductions in mercury emissions from coal. However, quantitative assessment of local deposition near actual power plants has not been attempted. Generic assessments have been performed, but these are not representative of any single power plant. In this study, general background information on the mercury cycle, mercury emissions from coal plants, and risk assessment are

  8. Emissions, Monitoring, and Control of Mercury from Subbituminous Coal-Fired Power Plants - Phase II

    SciTech Connect

    Alan Bland; Jesse Newcomer; Allen Kephart; Volker Schmidt; Gerald Butcher

    2008-10-31

    Western Research Institute (WRI), in conjunction with Western Farmers Electric Cooperative (WFEC), has teamed with Clean Air Engineering of Pittsburgh PA to conduct a mercury monitoring program at the WEFC Hugo plant in Oklahoma. Sponsored by US Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement DE-FC-26-98FT40323, the program included the following members of the Subbituminous Energy Coalition (SEC) as co-sponsors: Missouri Basin Power Project; DTE Energy; Entergy; Grand River Dam Authority; and Nebraska Public Power District. This research effort had five objectives: (1) determine the mass balance of mercury for subbituminous coal-fired power plant; (2) assess the distribution of mercury species in the flue gas (3) perform a comparison of three different Hg test methods; (4) investigate the long-term (six months) mercury variability at a subbituminous coal-fired power plant; and (5) assess operation and maintenance of the Method 324 and Horiba CEMS utilizing plant personnel.

  9. MERCURY MULTI-YEAR PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    A 1997 EPA Mercury Study Report to Congress discussed the magnitude of mercury emissions in the United States, and concluded that a plausible link exists between human activities that release mercury from industrial and combustion sources in the United States and methyl mercury c...

  10. A study of the influence of Hg(6(3)P2) population in a low-pressure discharge on mercury ion emission at 194.2 nm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maleki, L.; Blasenheim, B. J.; Janik, G. R.

    1990-01-01

    A low-pressure mercury-argon discharge, similar to the type existing in the mercury lamp for the trapped-ion standard, is probed with a new technique of laser spectroscopy to determine the influence of the Hg(6 3P(sub 2)) population on discharge emission. The discharge is excited with inductively coupled rf power. Variations in the intensity of emission lines in the discharge were examined as lambda = 546.1 nm light from a continuous wave (CW) laser excited the Hg(6 3P(sub 2)) to (7 3S (sub 1)) transition. The spectrum of the discharge viewed in the region of laser irradiation showed increased emission in lambda = 546.1, 435.8, 404.7, 253.7, and 194.2 nm lines. Other lines in Hg I exhibited a decrease in emission. When the discharge was viewed outside the region of laser irradiation, all lines exhibited an increased emission. Based on these results, it is concluded that the dominant mechanism for the excitation of higher lying levels of mercury is the the electron-impact excitation via the 3P(sub 2) level. The depopulation of this metastable is also responsible for the observed increase in the electron temperature when the laser irradiates the discharge. It is also concluded that the 3P(sub 2) metastable level of mercury does not play a significant role in the excitation of the 3P(sub 1/2) level of mercury ion.

  11. DIETARY METHYL MERCURY EXPOSURE IN AMERICAN KESTRELS; PILOT STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Anthropogenic mercury emissions have increased atmospheric mercury levels about threefold since the advent of industrial activity. Atmospheric deposition is the primary source of mercury in the environment hence mercury contamination has increased in similar fashion. Methyl mercu...

  12. Mercury study report to Congress. Volume 6. Characterization of human health and wildlife risks from anthropogenic mercury emissions in the United States. Sab review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Mahaffey, K.R.; Schoeny, R.; Rice, G.E.; Keating, M.H.

    1996-06-01

    The volume of the draft Mercury Study Report to Congress characterizes risk for mercury emitted to the environment from anthropogenic sources. The characterization volume describes human and wildlife health effects of mercury exposure with accompanying analysis of uncertainty in quantitative risk estimates. Exposure pathways for selected human and wildlife populations to mercury are considered, again accompanied by a discussion of uncertainty. The size of the fish-eating U.S. population and quantities of mercury consumed in fish are estimated, as are the number of maternal-fetal pairs for whom maternal fish consumption is projected to exceed levels identified to be of concern. Literature reports of mercury concentrations in tissues of fish-eating wildlife species are presented. The sizes of selected wildlife populations identified as potentially exposed to quantities of methylmercury associated with adverse health effects are estimated. An overall characterization of risk of mercury to human subpopulations and selected fish-consuming wildlife species is developed.

  13. Airborne emissions of mercury from municipal solid waste. I: new measurements from six operating landfills in Florida.

    PubMed

    Lindberg, Steve E; Southworth, George R; Bogle, Mary Anna; Biasing, T J; Owens, Jim; Roy, Kelly; Zhang, Hong; Kuiken, Todd; Price, Jack; Reinhart, Debra; Sfeir, Hala

    2005-07-01

    Mercury-bearing material enters municipal landfills from a wide array of sources, including fluorescent lights, batteries, electrical switches, thermometers, and general waste; however, the fate of mercury (Hg) in landfills has not been widely studied. Using automated flux chambers and downwind atmospheric sampling, we quantified the primary pathways of Hg vapor releases to the atmosphere at six municipal landfill operations in Florida. These pathways included landfill gas (LFG) releases from active vent systems, passive emissions from landfill surface covers, and emissions from daily activities at each working face (WF). We spiked the WF at two sites with known Hg sources; these were readily detected downwind, and were used to test our emission modeling approaches. Gaseous elemental mercury (Hg(O)) was released to the atmosphere at readily detectable rates from all sources measured; rates ranged from approximately 1-10 ng m(-2) hr(-1) over aged landfill cover, from approximately 8-20 mg/hr from LFG flares (LFG included Hg(O) at microg/m3 concentrations), and from approximately 200-400 mg/hr at the WF. These fluxes exceed our earlier published estimates. Attempts to identify specific Hg sources in excavated and sorted waste indicated few readily identifiable sources; because of effective mixing and diffusion of Hg(O), the entire waste mass acts as a source. We estimate that atmospheric Hg releases from municipal landfill operations in the state of Florida are on the order of 10-50 kg/yr, substantially larger than our original estimates, but still a small fraction of current overall anthropogenic losses. PMID:16111125

  14. A Simple Approach for Measuring Emission Patterns of Vapor Phase Mercury under Temperature-Controlled Conditions from Soil

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Yoon, Hye-On; Jung, Myung-Chae; Oh, Jong-Min; Brown, Richard J. C.

    2012-01-01

    In an effort to study the possible effects of climate change on the behavior of atmospheric mercury (Hg), we built a temperature–controlled microchamber system to measure its emission from top soils. To this end, mercury vapour emission rates were investigated in the laboratory using top soil samples collected from an urban area. The emissions of Hg, when measured as a function of soil temperature (from ambient levels up to 70°C at increments of 10°C), showed a positive correlation with rising temperature. According to the continuous analyses of the Hg vapor given off by the identical soil samples, evasion rate diminished noticeably with increasing number of repetitions. The experimental results, if examined in terms of activation energy (Ea), showed highly contrasting patterns between the single and repetitive runs. Although the results of the former exhibited Ea values smaller than the vaporization energy of Hg (i.e., <14 Kcal mol−1), those of the latter increased systematically with increasing number of repetitions. As such, it is proposed that changes in the magnitude of Ea values can be used as a highly sensitive criterion to discriminate the important role of vaporization from other diverse (biotic/abiotic) processes occurring in the soil layer. PMID:22927791

  15. Multivariate optimization of mercury determination by flow injection-cold vapor generation-inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Vanessa Cristina Gonçalves; Grassi, Marco Tadeu; de Campos, Mônica Soares; Peralta-Zamora, Patricio Guillermo; Abate, Gilberto

    2012-10-01

    In this work a procedure for mercury determination by Flow Injection-Cold Vapor Generation-Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectrometry (FI-CVG-ICP OES) has been developed. The system uses a small homemade glass separator constructed to drive the Hg vapor to the plasma. An evolutionary operation factorial design was used to evaluate the optimal experimental conditions for mercury vapor generation, aiming at the low consumption of reagents, the improvement of the analytical signal and consequently greater sensitivity. The procedure allowed the determination of mercury and showed excellent linearity for the concentration range from 0.50 μg L(-1) to 100.0 μg L(-1), with Limits of Detection (LOD) and Quantification (LOQ) of 0.11 μg L(-1) and 0.36 μg L(-1), respectively, and a sampling rate of 36 analyses per hour. The optimized procedure showed good accuracy and precision, and the method was validated by the analysis of two certified reference materials: Buffalo River Sediment (NIST 2704) and human hair (IAEA 085). A good agreement with the certified values was achieved, with recovery values of 99% and 98% and relative standard deviation close to 2%. PMID:22870503

  16. EPA/ORD WORKSHOP ON SOURCE EMISSION AND AMBIENT AIR MONITORING OF MERCURY. OPENING & CLOSING REMARKS AND OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Mercury Monitoring Workshop was developed because mercury contamination, both nationally and internationally, has long been recognized as a growing problem for both humans and ecosystems. Mercury is released to the environment from a variety of human (anthropogenic) sources i...

  17. Grating-assisted spectrally-narrowed emissions from an organic slab crystal excited with a mercury lamp.

    PubMed

    Hotta, Shu; Sakurai, Yoichi; Okuda, Yuki; Mikit, Tomoharu; Matsunaga, Kazuyuki; Hirato, Fumio; Yamao, Takeshi; Jinnai, Hiroshi

    2010-01-01

    We report spectrally-narrowed emissions that take place from an organic semiconductor slab crystal of 2,5-bis(4-biphenylyl)thiophene (BP1T) under a low excitation-intensity regime. These emissions are caused with a mercury lamp that operates on a household power supply with an electric current approximately 1 A. The BP1T slab crystal is equipped with a distributed Bragg reflector. To complete this structure the slab crystal is attached to a diffraction grating that is engraved on a surface of a quartz glass substrate. The diffraction gratings have precisely been formed using a focused ion beam with a nanometer-defined precision. The spectral narrowing accompanied by the emission intensity increment is related to the strong mode-coupling between the forward electromagnetic wave and the backward (i.e., reflected) wave within the grating zone. Using a laser we also carried out the emission measurements on the BP1T crystals under a high excitation-intensity regime. The emissions are characterized as the longitudinal multimode laser oscillation, enabling us to determine the group refractive index of 4.56 for the BP1T slab crystal. Under both the low and high excitation-intensity regimes excitons are dominant species of the emission. Their participation in the spectrally-narrowed emissions is briefly discussed. PMID:20352875

  18. Testing and modeling the influence of reclamation and control methods for reducing nonpoint mercury emissions associated with industrial open pit gold mines.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae S

    2013-06-01

    Industrial gold mining is a significant source of mercury (Hg) emission to the atmosphere. To investigate ways to reduce these emissions, reclamation and dust and mercury control methods used at open pit gold mining operations in Nevada were studied in a laboratory setting. Using this information along with field data, and building off previous work, total annual Hg emissions were estimated for two active gold mines in northern Nevada. Results showed that capping mining waste materials with a low-Hg substrate can reduce Hg emissions from 50 to nearly 100%. The spraying of typical dust control solutions often results in higher Hg emissions, especially as materials dry after application. The concentrated application of a dithiocarbamate Hg control reagent appears to reduce Hg emissions, but further testing mimicking the actual distribution of this chemical within an active leach solution is needed to make a more definitive assessment. PMID:23858994

  19. Emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous mercury at the largest active landfill in Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wei; Li, Zhonggen; Chai, Xiaoli; Hao, Yongxia; Lin, Che-Jen; Sommar, Jonas; Feng, Xinbin

    2013-11-01

    The emission characteristics and air-surface exchange of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Laogang landfill in Shanghai, China, the largest active landfill in Asia, has been investigated during two intensive field campaigns in 2011 and 2012. The mercury (Hg) content in municipal solid waste (MSW) varied widely from 0.19 to 1.68 mg kg-1. Over the closed cell in the landfill, the mean ambient air GEM concentration was virtually indistinguishable from the hemispherical background level (1.5-2.0 ng m-3) while the concentration downwind of ongoing landfill operation (e.g. dumping, burying and compacting of MSW) was clearly elevated. GEM emission through landfill gas (LFG) was identified as a significant source. GEM concentrations in LFGs collected from venting pipes installed in different landfill cells varied widely from 3.0 to 1127.8 ng m-3. The GEM concentrations were found negatively correlated to the age of LFG cells, suggesting GEM released through LFG declined readily with time. The GEM emission from this source alone was estimated to be 1.23-1.73 mg h-1. GEM emission from cover soil surfaces was considerably lower and at a scale comparable to that of background soil surfaces. This is in contrast to earlier reports showing enhanced GEM emissions from landfill surfaces in Southern China, probably due to the difference in soil Hg content and gas permeability characteristics of soils at different sites. Vertical concentration profiles of GEM in the interstitial gas of buried MSW were sampled, perhaps for the first time, which exhibited a wide spatial variability (4.9-713.1 ng m-3) in the 3-year-old landfill cell investigated. GEM emission from landfill operation was estimated to be 290-525 mg h-1 using a box model. This suggests that GEM degassing from Laogang landfill is quantitatively largely dominated by emissions from daily landfilling operations with a much smaller contribution from LFG venting and insignificant (bi-directional fluxes near zero) contribution

  20. Dual-emission fluorescent sensor based on AIE organic nanoparticles and Au nanoclusters for the detection of mercury and melamine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niu, Caixia; Liu, Qiuling; Shang, Zhehai; Zhao, Liu; Ouyang, Jin

    2015-04-01

    A novel dual-emission ratiometric fluorescence probe is designed and developed by linking two parts, positively charged aggregation-induced emission (AIE) organic fluorescence nanoparticles (OFNs) as the reference and negatively charged Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) as the response, by electrostatic attraction for the first time. This probe can be used for not only visual but quantitative determination of Hg2+ as well as melamine, because red fluorescence of Au NCs can be quenched by mercury ions and recovered by melamine, due to the strong affinity metallophilic Hg2+-Au interaction and stronger affinity Hg2+-N. During this process, the green fluorescence of AIE-OFNs remains constant owing to the protection of ε-polylysine (ε-Ply). In addition, the prepared dual-emission ratiometric fluorescence probe has good biocompatibility, indicating the potential of the probe in applications of biological imaging and detection. The results revealed that this dual-emission ratiometric fluorescence probe broadens the application of AIE-based organic fluorescent nanoparticles, and presents a new method to prepare more sensitive, biocompatible, and visual ratiometric fluorescent probes.A novel dual-emission ratiometric fluorescence probe is designed and developed by linking two parts, positively charged aggregation-induced emission (AIE) organic fluorescence nanoparticles (OFNs) as the reference and negatively charged Au nanoclusters (Au NCs) as the response, by electrostatic attraction for the first time. This probe can be used for not only visual but quantitative determination of Hg2+ as well as melamine, because red fluorescence of Au NCs can be quenched by mercury ions and recovered by melamine, due to the strong affinity metallophilic Hg2+-Au interaction and stronger affinity Hg2+-N. During this process, the green fluorescence of AIE-OFNs remains constant owing to the protection of ε-polylysine (ε-Ply). In addition, the prepared dual-emission ratiometric fluorescence probe

  1. Evaluating the effects of China's pollution control on inter-annual trends and uncertainties of atmospheric mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Y.; Zhong, H.; Zhang, J.; Nielsen, C. P.

    2014-10-01

    China's atmospheric mercury (Hg) emissions of anthropogenic origin have been effectively restrained through the national policy of air pollution control. Improved methods based on available field measurements are developed to quantify the benefits of Hg abatement through various emission control measures. Those measures include increased use of flue gas desulfurization (FGD) and selective catalyst reduction (SCR) systems for power sector, precalciners with fabric filter (FF) for cement production, machinery coking with electrostatic precipitator (ESP) for iron and steel production, and advanced manufacturing technologies for nonferrous metal smelting. Declining trends in emissions factors for those sources are revealed, leading to a much slower growth of national total Hg emissions than that of energy and economy, from 679 in 2005 to 750 metric tons (t) in 2012. In particular, nearly half of emissions from the above-mentioned four types of sources are expected to be reduced in 2012, attributed to expansion of technologies with high energy efficiencies and air pollutant removal rates after 2005. The speciation of Hg emissions keeps stable for recent years, with the mass fractions of around 55, 39 and 6% for Hg0, Hg2+ and Hgp, respectively. The lower estimate of Hg emissions than previous inventories is supported by limited chemistry simulation work, but middle-to-long term observation on ambient Hg levels is further needed to justify the inter-annual trends of estimated Hg emissions. With improved implementation of emission controls and energy saving, 23% reduction in annual Hg emissions for the most optimistic case in 2030 is expected compared to 2012, with total emissions below 600 t. While Hg emissions are evaluated to be gradually constrained, increased uncertainties are quantified with Monte-Carlo simulation for recent years, particularly for power and certain industrial sources. The uncertainty of Hg emissions from coal-fired power plants, as an example

  2. New Jersey mercury regulations

    SciTech Connect

    Elias, D.F.; Corbin, W.E.

    1996-12-31

    Mercury, or quicksilver, and its major ore cinnabar (HgS) have been known for thousands of years. Health effects from mercury such as dementia were known as early as the late 19th century ({open_quotes}mad as a hatter{close_quotes}). In the 1960`s and 1970`s, reported levels of mercury in tuna reawakened public awareness of mercury pollution. In the 1970`s, major epidemics of acute mercury poisoning were reported in Japan and Iraq. These incidents highlighted the extreme health risks, such as kidney damage, birth defects, and death, associated with severe mercury poisoning. Fetuses and young children are particularly vulnerable since mercury poisoning can damage growing neural tissues. Recently, the perception of mercury as a dangerous pollutant has been on the rise. Advisories warning the public to avoid or reduce the consumption of freshwater fish caught in specific waterbodies due to mercury contamination have been issued in numerous states. The discovery of mercury in {open_quotes}pristine{close_quotes} lakes in the United States, Canada, and Scandinavia, remote from industry and any known mercury sources, has focused attention on atmospheric emissions of mercury as potential significant sources of mercury.

  3. THE US MERCURY EMISSION INVENTORY FOR THE ARCTIC COUNCIL ACTION PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arctic Council, having agreed to act to reduce exposures to a number of priority pollutants in the Arctic region, has initiated a mercury project via the Arctic Council Action Plan (ACAP). The project is led by the Danish EPA with a Steering Group from all eight Arctic count...

  4. MERCURY IN PETROLEUM AND NATURAL GAS: ESTIMATION OF EMISSIONS FROM PRODUCTION, PROCESSING, AND COMBUSTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report gives results of an examination of mercury (Hg) in liquid and gaseous hydrocarbons that are produced and/or processed in the U.S. The Hg associated with petroleum and natural gas production and processing enters the environment primarily via solid waste streams (drilli...

  5. PERFORMANCE AND COST OF MERCURY EMISSION CONTROL TECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS ON ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents estimates of the performance and cost of powdered activated carbon (PAC) injection-based mercury control technologies and projections of costs for future applications. (NOTE: Under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990, the U.S. EPA has to determine whether mer...

  6. NOVEL ECONOMICAL HG(0) OXIDATION REAGENT FOR MERCURY EMISSIONS CONTROL FROM COAL-FIRED BOILERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The authors have developed a novel economical additive for elemental mercury (Hg0) removal from coal-fired boilers. The oxidation reagent was rigorously tested in a lab-scale fixed-bed column with the Norit America's FGD activated carbon (DOE's benchmark sorbent) in a typical PRB...

  7. THE US MERCURY EMISSION INVENTORY FOR THE ARCTIC COUNCIL ACTION PLAN

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Arctic Council, having agreed to act to reduce exposures to a number of priority pollutants in the Arctic region, has initiated a mercury project via the Arctic Council Plan (ACAP). The project is being led by the Danish EPA with a Steering Group from all eight Arctic coun...

  8. STUDY OF SPECIATION OF MERCURY UNDER SIMULATED SCR NOX EMISSION CONTROL CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper focuses on the impact of SCR on elemental mercury (Hg0) oxidation. It describes the results of bench-scale experiments conducted to investigate Hg0 oxidation in the presence of simulated coal combustion flue gases and under SCR reaction conditions. Flue gas mixtures wit...

  9. Correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 and estimated mercury emissions in China, South Asia, the Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia derived from observations in northwestern and southwestern China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X. W.; Zhang, H.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X. B.; Zhou, L. X.; Fang, S. X.

    2015-01-01

    Correlation analyses between atmospheric mercury (Hg) and other trace gases are useful for identification of sources and constraining regional Hg emissions. Emissions of Hg in Asia contribute significantly to the global budget of atmospheric Hg. However, due to the lack of reliable data on the source strength, large uncertainties remain in the emission inventories of Hg in Asia. In the present study, we calculated the correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 for mainland China, South Asia, the Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia using the ground-based observations at three remote sites in northwestern and southwestern China, and applied these values to estimate GEM emissions in the four source regions. The geometric mean GEM / CO correlation slopes for mainland China, South Asia, the Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were 7.3 ± 4.3, 7.8 ± 6.4, 7.8 ± 5.0, and 13.4 ± 9.5 pg m-3 ppb-1, respectively, and values in the same source regions were 33.3 ± 30.4, 27.4 ± 31.0, 23.5 ± 15.3, and 20.5 ± 10.0 pg m-3 ppb-1 for the GEM / CH4 correlation slopes, respectively. The geometric means of GEM / CO2 correlation slopes for mainland China, South Asia, and Central Asia were 240 ± 119, 278 ± 164, 315 ± 289 pg m-3 ppm-1, respectively. These values were the first reported correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 in four important source regions of Asia, not including the GEM / CO ratios in mainland China. The correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 in Asia were relatively higher than those observed in Europe, North America, and South Africa, which may highlight GEM emissions from non-ferrous smelting, large-scale and artisanal mercury and gold production, natural sources, and historically deposited mercury (re-emission) in Asia. Using the observed GEM / CO and GEM / CO2 slopes, and the recently reported emission inventories of CO and CO2, the annual GEM emissions in mainland China, South Asia, the Indochinese

  10. Emissions and environmental implications of mercury from artisanal gold mining in North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Limbong, Daniel; Kumampung, Jeims; Rimper, Joice; Arai, Takaomi; Miyazaki, Nobuyuki

    2003-01-20

    In artisanal gold mining practiced in North Sulawesi Island, Indonesia, gold is separated from ore by the use of mercury, which forms an amalgam with gold. All related processes are undertaken with a low level of technical knowledge and skills, no regulation, and with disregard for the safety of human and environment health. The situation is generating serious potential health and environmental risks in the area. As part of an ongoing monitoring program, total mercury concentrations were examined in water, bottom sediment and fish samples from three main rivers in Talawaan Watershed, which receives drainage from gold mining practices. Monitoring began in May-June 2000, almost 2 years after artisanal gold mining had begun. At that time, the mercury concentration in the sediment was generally low, except in places close to the gold processing plants. In the present study, a more systematic sampling and analysis was conducted in May-June 2001. Bottom surface sediments, water, and fish samples were collected at 12 sites along the three main rivers in the watershed. In addition, one site outside the watershed was sampled to serve as a control. Sample collections were conducted in three phases in duplicate, with two-week intervals between each phase. The mercury concentration observed in this study indicated that an increase took place along the three main rivers in the watershed. Solutions to this problem must be formulated as soon as possible in order to avoid a major health, economic, and ecological disaster arising from the continuing discharge of Hg. The present study proposes that mercury dispersion occur downstream of the mining. PMID:12526911

  11. GNAQPMS-Hg v1.0, a global nested atmospheric mercury transport model: model description, evaluation and application to trans-boundary transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. S.; Wang, Z. F.; Li, J.; Tang, X.; Ge, B. Z.; Wu, X. L.; Wild, O.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-09-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant and can be transported over the whole globe due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. For the purpose of assessing Hg hemispheric transport and better characterizing regional Hg pollution, a global nested atmospheric Hg transport model (GNAQPMS-Hg - Global Nested Air Quality Prediction Modeling System for Hg) has been developed. In GNAQPMS-Hg, the gas- and aqueous-phase Hg chemistry representing the transformation among three forms of Hg: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), divalent mercury (Hg(II)), and primary particulate mercury (Hg(P)) are calculated. A detailed description of the model, including mercury emissions, gas- and aqueous-phase chemistry, and dry and wet deposition is given in this study. Worldwide observations including extensive data in China have been collected for model evaluation. Comparison results show that the model reasonably simulates the global mercury budget and the spatiotemporal variation of surface mercury concentrations and deposition. Overall, model predictions of annual total gaseous mercury (TGM) and wet deposition agree with observations within a factor of 2, and within a factor of 5 for oxidized mercury and dry deposition. The model performs significantly better in North America and Europe than in East Asia. This can probably be attributed to the large uncertainties in emission inventories, coarse model resolution and to the inconsistency between the simulation and observation periods in East Asia. Compared to the global simulation, the nested simulation shows improved skill at capturing the high spatial variability of surface Hg concentrations and deposition over East Asia. In particular, the root mean square error (RMSE) of simulated Hg wet deposition over East Asia is reduced by 24 % in the nested simulation. Model sensitivity studies indicate that Chinese primary anthropogenic emissions account for 30 and 62 % of surface mercury concentrations and deposition over China, respectively

  12. GNAQPMS-Hg v1.0, a global nested atmospheric mercury transport model: model description, evaluation and application to trans-boundary transport of Chinese anthropogenic emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, H. S.; Wang, Z. F.; Li, J.; Tang, X.; Ge, B. Z.; Wu, X. L.; Wild, O.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2014-10-01

    Atmospheric mercury (Hg) is a toxic pollutant and can be transported over the whole globe due to its long lifetime in the atmosphere. For the purpose of assessing Hg hemispheric transport and better characterizing regional Hg pollution, a global nested atmospheric Hg transport model (GNAQPMS-Hg) has been developed. In GNAQPMS-Hg, the gas and aqueous phase Hg chemistry representing the transformation among three forms of Hg: elemental mercury (Hg(0)), divalent mercury (Hg(II)), and primary particulate mercury (Hg(P)) are calculated. A detailed description of the model, including mercury emissions, gas and aqueous phase chemistry, and dry and wet deposition is given in this study. Worldwide observations including extensive data in China have been collected for model evaluation. Comparison results show that the model reasonably simulates the global mercury budget and the spatial-temporal variation of surface mercury concentrations and deposition. Overall, model predictions of annual total gaseous mercury (TGM) and wet deposition agree with observations within a factor of two, and within a factor of five for oxidized mercury and dry deposition. The model performs significantly better in North America and Europe than in East Asia. This can probably be attributed to the large uncertainties in emission inventories, coarse model resolution and to the inconsistency between the simulation and observation periods in East Asia. Compared to the global simulation, the nested simulation shows improved skill at capturing the high spatial variability of Hg concentrations and deposition over East Asia. In particular, the root mean square error (RMSE) of simulated Hg wet deposition over East Asia is reduced by 24% in the nested simulation. Model sensitivity studies indicate that Chinese primary anthropogenic emissions account for 30 and 62% of surface mercury concentrations and deposition over China, respectively. Along the rim of the western Pacific, the contributions from Chinese

  13. Determination of Vanadium, Tin and Mercury in Atmospheric Particulate Matter and Cement Dust Samples by Direct Current Plasma Atomic Emission Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hindy, Kamal T.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    An atmospheric pollution study applies direct current plasma atomic emission spectrometry (DCP-AES) to samples of total suspended particulate matter collected in two industrial areas and one residential area, and cement dust collected near major cement factories. These samples were analyzed for vanadium, tin, and mercury. The results indicate the…

  14. THE DETERMINATION OF MERCURY SPECIES AND MULTIPLE METALS IN COAL COMBUSTION EMISSIONS USING IODINE-BASED IMPINGERS AND DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) emissions from coal utilities are difficult to control. Hg eludes capture by most air pollution control devices (APCDs). To determine the gaseous Hg species in stack gases, U.S. EPA Method 5 type sampling is used. In this type of sampling a hole is drilled into th...

  15. Survey of Manual Methods of Measurements of Asbestos, Beryllium, Lead, Cadmium, Selenium, and Mercury in Stationary Source Emissions. Environmental Monitoring Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coulson, Dale M.; And Others

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate existing manual methods for analyzing asbestos, beryllium, lead, cadmium, selenium, and mercury, and from this evaluation to provide the best and most practical set of analytical methods for measuring emissions of these elements from stationary sources. The work in this study was divided into two phases.…

  16. Ultrasensitive Speciation Analysis of Mercury in Rice by Headspace Solid Phase Microextraction Using Porous Carbons and Gas Chromatography-Dielectric Barrier Discharge Optical Emission Spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yao; Yang, Yuan; Li, Yuxuan; Yang, Lu; Hou, Xiandeng; Feng, Xinbin; Zheng, Chengbin

    2016-03-01

    Rice consumption is a primary pathway for human methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in inland mercury mining areas of Asia. In addition, the use of iodomethane, a common fumigant that significantly accelerates the methylation of mercury in soil under sunlight, could increase the MeHg exposure from rice. Conventional hyphenated techniques used for mercury speciation analysis are usually too costly for most developing countries. Consequently, there is an increased interest in the development of sensitive and inexpensive methods for the speciation of mercury in rice. In this work, gas chromatography (GC) coupled to dielectric barrier discharge optical emission spectrometry (DBD-OES) was developed for the speciation analysis of mercury in rice. Prior to GC-DBD-OES analysis, mercury species were derivatized to their volatile species with NaBPh4 and preconcentrated by headspace solid phase microextraction using porous carbons. Limits of detection of 0.5 μg kg(-1) (0.16 ng), 0.75 μg kg(-1) (0.24 ng), and 1.0 μg kg(-1) (0.34 ng) were obtained for Hg(2+), CH3Hg(+), and CH3CH2Hg(+), respectively, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) better than 5.2% and 6.8% for one fiber or fiber-to-fiber mode, respectively. Recoveries of 90-105% were obtained for the rice samples, demonstrating the applicability of the proposed technique. Owing to the small size, low power, and low gas consumption of DBD-OES as well as efficient extraction of mercury species by porous carbons headspace solid phase micro-extraction, the proposed technique provides several advantages including compactness, cost-effectiveness, and potential to couple with miniature GC to accomplish the field speciation of mercury in rice compared to conventional hyphenated techniques. PMID:26828416

  17. Mercury speciation by HPLC--cold-vapour radiofrequency glow-discharge optical-emission spectrometry with on-line microwave oxidation.

    PubMed

    Martínez, R; Pereiro, R; Sanz-Medel, A; Bordel, N

    2001-11-01

    Hollow-cathode (HC) radiofrequency glow-discharge (rf-GD) optical-emission spectrometry (OES) has been used as detector for the determination of inorganic mercury by cold-vapour (CV) generation in a flow-injection (FI) system. Both NaBH4 and SnCl2 were evaluated as reducing reagents for production of mercury CV. The conditions governing the discharge (pressure, He flow rate, and delivered power) and Hg CV generation (NaBH4 or SnCl2 concentration and reagent flow rate) were optimized using both reducing agents. The analytical performance characteristics of FI-CV-rf-GD-OES for mercury detection were evaluated at the 253.6 nm emission mercury line. Detection limits (DL) of 0.2 ng mL(-1) using SnCl2 and 1.8 ng mL(-1) using NaBH4 were obtained (100 microliter sample injections were used). When the optimized experimental conditions using SnCl2 had been determined, the analytical potential of this CV-rf-GD-OES method was investigated as on-line detector for high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) speciation of mercury (Hg(II) and methylmercury). The HPLC-CV-rf-GD-OES detection limits for 100 microliter sample injections were found to be 1.2 and 1.8 ng mL(-1) (as mercury) of inorganic mercury and methylmercury, respectively. The reproducibility observed was below +/- 8% for both species. Finally, the HPLC-CV-rf-GD-OES system developed was successfully applied to the determination of methylmercury (speciation) in two certified reference materials, Dorm-2 and Dolt-2. PMID:11768461

  18. QUANTIFICATION OF MERCURY IN FLUE GAS EMISSION USING BORON-DOPED DIAMOND ELECTROCHEMISTRY

    SciTech Connect

    A. Manivannan; M.S. Seehra

    2003-08-19

    In this project, we have attempted to develop a new technique utilizing Boron-doped diamond (BDD) films to electrochemically detect mercury dissolved in solution via the initial deposition of metallic mercury, followed by anodic linear sweep voltammetry in the range from 10-10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -5} M. Cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) techniques were employed. The extremely low background current for BDD electrodes compared to glassy carbon (GC) provides a strong advantage in trace metal detection. CV peak currents showed good linearity in the micromolar range. A detection level of 6.8 x 10{sup -10} M was achieved with DPV in 0.1 M KNO{sub 3} (pH = 1) for a deposition time of 20 minutes. Reproducible stripping peaks were obtained, even for the low concentration range. A comparison with GC shows that BDD is superior. Linear behavior was also obtained in the mercury concentration range from 10{sup -10} M to 10{sup -9} M.

  19. Development of novel adsorbents for the control of vapor- phase mercury emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Wei

    Efficient sulfur-impregnated activated carbon-based (SIAC) sorbents for elemental mercury vapors were developed and evaluated in this study. The key parameters of the impregnation protocol included impregnation temperature and initial sulfur to carbon ratio (SCR). Gas constituents and temperature were the key process parameters studied for their impact on sorbent performance. Impregnation temperature is the major impregnation parameter that dominated the performance of SIACs. Performance deteriorated quickly as the impregnation temperature was lowered below 400°C. Higher impregnation temperatures facilitated the presence of more active short-chain S molecules, larger adsorbent surface area, greater fraction of meso-pores, and stronger sulfur-carbon bonding. SCR showed moderate impact on mercury uptake with a 50% decrease in sorbent capacity from highest SCR (4:1) to lowest SCR (1:2). Impact of gas constituents was investigated individually. CO2 (5 and 15%) behaved as inert gas and did not change the performance of SIAC. Also, trace amount of SO2 (300 ppm) and NO (500 ppm) did not alter its performance. Thermogravimetric Analysis showed that micro-structure of SIAC was unchanged after contacting trace pollutants. Low O2 concentration (3%) did not change the performance of SIAC, while high O2 concentration (6% and 9%) increased its capacity by 16% and 30%, respectively. It is postulated that SIAC catalyzed the formation of HgO in the presence of high O2 concentrations. High moisture concentration (10%) decreased SIAC's capacity by 25% while low moisture concentration (5%) showed no impact. It was assumed that water blocked the entrances to the active sites of carbon. H2 formation and hydrogen bonding could have also retarded mercury-sulfur reaction. SIAC's performance was negligible at 250 or 400°C due to the exothermic nature of Hg and S reaction, while its capacity at 140°C increased by 14% as smaller sorbent particle size (170 x 230) was used instead of 60 x 80

  20. Elemental mercury emission in the indoor environment due to broken compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs--paper

    EPA Science Inventory

    Compact fluorescent light (CFL) bulbs contain a few milligrams (mg) of elemental mercury. When a CFL breaks, some of the mercury is immediately released as elemental mercury vapor and the remainder is deposited on indoor surfaces with the bulb debris. In a controlled study design...

  1. Estimate of sulfur, arsenic, mercury, fluorine emissions due to spontaneous combustion of coal gangue: An important part of Chinese emission inventories.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaobin; Luo, Kunli; Wang, Xing; Sun, Yuzhuang

    2016-02-01

    A rough estimate of the annual amount of sulfur, arsenic, mercury and fluoride emission from spontaneous combustion of coal gangue in China was determined. The weighted mean concentrations of S, As, Hg, and F in coal gangue are 1.01%, 7.98, 0.18, and 365.54 mg/kg, respectively. Amounts of S, As, Hg, and F emissions from coal gangue spontaneous combustion show approximately 1.13 Mt, and 246, 45, and 63,298 tons in 2013, respectively. The atmospheric release amount of sulfur from coal gangue is more than one tenth of this from coal combustion, and the amounts of As, Hg, and F are close to or even exceed those from coal combustion. China's coal gangue production growth from 1992 to 2013 show an obvious growth since 2002. It may indicate that Chinese coal gangue has become a potential source of air pollution, which should be included in emission inventories. PMID:26650082

  2. Controlling mercury and selenium emissions from coal-fired combustors using a novel regenerable natural product

    SciTech Connect

    Schlager, R.J.; Marmaro, R.W.; Roberts, D.L.

    1995-11-01

    This program successfully demonstrated the key components that are needed for a practical, regenerable sorption process for removing and recovering mercury from flue gas streams: (1) a proprietary natural product removed mercuric chloride from synthetic flue gas, (2) several new noble metal sorbents were shown to capture elemental gas-phase mercury from synthetic coal combustion flue gas, and (3) both the natural product and the noble metal sorbents could be regenerated in the laboratory (chemical method for the natural product, thermal method for noble metal sorbents). Several sorbents were tested for their ability to collect selenium oxide during the program. These tests, however, were not definitive due to inconclusive analytical results. If follow-on testing is funded, the ability of the proposed sorbents to collect selenium and other metals will be evaluated during the field testing phase of the program. A preliminary economic analysis indicates that the cost of the process appears to be substantially less than the cost of the state-of-the-art method, namely injection of activated carbon, and it also appears to cost less than using noble metal sorbents alone.

  3. Atmospheric Deposition of Mercury

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the advent of the industrial era, the amount of mercury entering the global environment increased dramatically. Releases of mercury in its elemental form from gold mines and chlor-alkali plants, as sulfides such as mercaptans and agricultural chemicals, and as volatile emiss...

  4. The adsorption behavior of mercury on the hematite (1-102) surface from coal-fired power plant emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, J. E.; Jew, A. D.; Rupp, E.; Aboud, S.; Brown, G. E.; Wilcox, J.

    2014-12-01

    One of the biggest environmental concerns caused by coal-fired power plants is the emission of mercury (Hg). Worldwide, 475 tons of Hg are released from coal-burning processes annually, comprising 24% of total anthropogenic Hg emissions. Because of the high toxicity of Hg species, US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) proposed a standard on Hg and air toxic pollutants (Mercury and Air Toxics Standards, MATS) for new and existing coal-fired power plants in order to eliminate Hg in flue gas prior to release through the stack. To control the emission of Hg from coal-derived flue gas, it is important to understand the behavior, speciation of Hg as well as the interaction between Hg and solid materials, such as fly ash or metal oxides, in the flue gas stream. In this study, theoretical investigations using density functional theory (DFT) were carried out in conjunction with experiments to investigate the adsorption behavior of oxidized Hg on hematite (α-Fe2O3), an important mineral component of fly ash which readily sorbes Hg from flue gas. For DFT calculation, the two α-Fe2O3 (1-102) surfaces modeled consisted of two different surface terminations: (1) M2-clean, which corresponds to the oxygen-terminated surface with the first layer of cations removed and with no hydroxyl groups and (2) M2-OH2-OH, which has bihydroxylated top oxygen atoms and a second layer of hydroxylated oxygen atoms. These surface terminations were selected because both surfaces are highly stable in the temperature range of flue gases. The most probable adsorption sites of Hg, Cl and HgCl on the two α-Fe2O3 surface terminations were suggested based on calculated adsorption energies. Additionally, Bader charge and projected density of states (PDOS) analyses were conducted to characterize the oxidation state of adsorbates and their bonding interactions with the surfaces. Results indicate that oxidized Hg physically adsorbs on the M2-clean surface with a binding energy of -0.103 eV and that

  5. Gas-exchange chamber analysis of elemental mercury deposition/emission to alluvium, ore, and mine tailings.

    PubMed

    Miller, Matthieu B; Gustin, Mae Sexauer

    2015-07-01

    Deposition of mercury (Hg) from the atmosphere is an important source of this contaminant to terrestrial ecosystems. Once deposited, all forms of Hg can be retained or emitted back to the atmosphere. Distinguishing between volatilization of geogenic or indigenous Hg and that deposited from the atmosphere is difficult. Field flux measurements in the general area of two industrial scale gold mining operations, showed local deposition of Hg emitted from point and nonpoint sources, and subsequent re-emission. The work presented in this paper investigated deposition/emission of elemental Hg to and from alluvium and two mine materials before, during, and after exposure to high air concentrations, for both wet and dry conditions, using a laboratory gas exchange chamber and a Hg permeation source. In general, results showed a range in mean elemental Hg deposition velocities ranging from 0.13 to 0.46 cm s(-1) that varied with material. A significant influence of atmospheric ozone (O3) on flux was observed that depended on the material and whether wet or dry. A synergistic relationship existed between O3 and light promoting Hg flux, and flux was also influenced by material grain size, chemistry, and primary mineralogy. PMID:25880343

  6. ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY SIMULATION USING THE CMAQ MODEL: FORMULATION DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS OF WET DEPOSITION RESULTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system has recently been adapted to simulate the emission, transport, transformation and deposition of atmospheric mercury in three distinct forms; elemental mercury gas, reactive gaseous mercury, and particulate mercury. Emis...

  7. Unravelling thermal emissivity spectra of the main minerals on Mercury's surface by comparison with ab initio calculated IR-HT vibrational frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stangarone, C.; Helbert, J.; Tribaudino, M.; Maturilli, A.; D'Amore, M.; Ferrari, S.; Prencipe, M.

    2015-12-01

    Spectral signatures of minerals are intimately related to the crystal structure; therefore they may represent a remote sensing model to determine surface composition of planetary bodies, by analysing their spectral reflectance and emission. However, one of the most critical point is data interpretation considering planetary surfaces, as Mercury, where the changes in spectral characteristics are induced by the high temperatures conditions (Helbert et al., 2013). The aim of this work is to interpret the experimental thermal emissivity spectra with an innovative approach: simulating IR spectra of the main mineral families that compose the surface of Mercury, focusing on pyroxenes (Sprague et al., 2002), both at room and high temperature, exploiting the accuracy of ab initio quantum mechanical calculations, by means of CRYSTAL14 code (Dovesi et al., 2014). The simulations will be compared with experimental emissivity measurements of planetary analogue samples at temperature up to 1000K, performed at Planetary Emissivity Laboratory (PEL) by Institute of Planetary Research (DLR, Berlin). Results will be useful to create a theoretical background to interpret HT-IR emissivity spectra that will be collected by the Mercury Radiometer and Thermal Infrared Spectrometer (MERTIS), a spectrometer developed by DLR that will be on board of the ESA BepiColombo Mercury Planetary Orbiter (MPO) scheduled for 2017. The goal is to point out the most interesting spectral features for a geological mapping of Mercury and other rocky bodies, simulating the environmental conditions of the inner planets of Solar System. Dovesi R., Saunders V. R., Roetti C., Orlando R., Zicovich-Wilson C. M., Pascale F., Civalleri B., Doll K., Harrison N. M., Bush I. J., D'Arco P., Llunell M., Causà M. & Noël Y. 2014. CRYSTAL14 User's Manual, University of Torino. Sprague, A. L., Emery, J. P., Donaldson, K. L., Russell, R. W., Lynch, D. K., & Mazuk, A. L. (2002). Mercury: Mid-infrared (3-13.5

  8. Mercury vapor hollow cathode component studies. [emissive materials for ion thruster requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuccaro, D. E.

    1973-01-01

    An experimental study of starting and operating characteristics of conventional hollow cathodes and of hollow cathodes without alkaline earth emissive materials demonstrated that the emissive mix is essential to obtain the desired cathode operation. Loss of the emissive mix by evaporation and chemical reaction was measured. New insert designs consisting of emissive mix supported on nickel and of barium impregnated porous tungsten were studied. Cathodes with a modified orifice geometry operated in a low voltage, 'spot' mode over a broad range of discharge current. Thermal degradation tests on cathode heaters showed the flame sprayed SERT II type to be the most durable at high temperatures. Thermal shock was observed to be a significant factor in limiting cathode heater life. A cathode having a barium impregnated porous tungsten tip and a heater which is potted in sintered alumina was found to have favorable operating characteristics.

  9. Mercury Calibration System

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster

    2009-03-11

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Performance Specification 12 in the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) states that a mercury CEM must be calibrated with National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST)-traceable standards. In early 2009, a NIST traceable standard for elemental mercury CEM calibration still does not exist. Despite the vacature of CAMR by a Federal appeals court in early 2008, a NIST traceable standard is still needed for whatever regulation is implemented in the future. Thermo Fisher is a major vendor providing complete integrated mercury continuous emissions monitoring (CEM) systems to the industry. WRI is participating with EPA, EPRI, NIST, and Thermo Fisher towards the development of the criteria that will be used in the traceability protocols to be issued by EPA. An initial draft of an elemental mercury calibration traceability protocol was distributed for comment to the participating research groups and vendors on a limited basis in early May 2007. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. Various working drafts of the new interim traceability protocols were distributed in late 2008 and early 2009 to participants in the Mercury Standards Working Committee project. The protocols include sections on qualification and certification. The qualification section describes in general terms tests that must be conducted by the calibrator vendors to demonstrate that their calibration equipment meets the minimum requirements to be established by EPA for use in CAMR monitoring. Variables to be examined include linearity, ambient temperature, back pressure, ambient pressure, line voltage, and effects of shipping. None of the procedures were described in detail in the draft interim documents; however they describe what EPA would like to eventually develop. WRI is providing the data and results to EPA for use in developing revised experimental procedures and realistic acceptance criteria based on

  10. Field Evaluation of MERCEM Mercury Emission Analyzer System at the Oak Ridge TSCA Incinerator East Tennessee Technology Park Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    2000-03-01

    The authors reached the following conclusions: (1) The two-month evaluation of the MERCEM total mercury monitor from Perkin Elmer provided a useful venue in determining the feasibility of using a CEM to measure total mercury in a saturated flue gas. (2) The MERCEM exhibited potential at a mixed waste incinerator to meet requirements proposed in PS12 under conditions of operation with liquid feeds only at stack mercury concentrations in the range of proposed MACT standards. (3) Performance of the MERCEM under conditions of incinerating solid and liquid wastes simultaneously was less reliable than while feeding liquid feeds only for the operating conditions and configuration of the host facility. (4) The permeation tube calibration method used in this test relied on the CEM internal volumetric and time constants to relate back to a concentration, whereas a compressed gas cylinder concentration is totally independent of the analyzer mass flowmeter and flowrates. (5) Mercury concentration in the compressed gas cylinders was fairly stable over a 5-month period. (6) The reliability of available reference materials was not fully demonstrated without further evaluation of their incorporation into routine operating procedures performed by facility personnel. (7) The degree of mercury control occurring in the TSCA Incinerator off-gas cleaning system could not be quantified from the data collected in this study. (8) It was possible to conduct the demonstration at a facility incinerating radioactively contaminated wastes and to release the equipment for later unrestricted use elsewhere. (9) Experience gained by this testing answered additional site-specific and general questions regarding the operation and maintenance of CEMs and their use in compliance monitoring of total mercury emissions from hazardous waste incinerators.

  11. Getting rid of mercury

    SciTech Connect

    Reisch, M.S.

    2008-11-24

    Anticipating a US rule on mercury removal from coal flue gas, technology providers jockey for position. By 2013, if the federal rule imposing regulation of mercury emissions which have begun or are about to begin in 20 eastern states goes nationwide, mercury control will be big business. For the near term, utilities are adopting activated carbon to control mercury emissions. McIlvaine Co. projects the US market for activated carbon will jump from 10 million lb in 2010 to 350 million by 2013. Norit and Calgon Carbon are already increasing production of activated carbon (mainly from coal) and ADA Environmental Solutions (ADA-ES) is building a new plant. Albermarle is developing a process to treat activated carbon with bromine; Corning has developed a sulfur impregnated activated carbon filtration brick. New catalysts are being developed to improve the oxidation of mercury for removal from flue gas. 2 photos.

  12. Laboratory-scale evaluation of various sampling and analytical methods for determining mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agbede, R.O.; Bochan, A.J.; Clements, J.L.

    1995-11-01

    Comparative bench-scale mercury sampling method tests were performed at the Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) laboratories for EPA Method 101A, EPA Method 29 and the Ontario Hydro Method. Both blank and impinger spiking experiments were performed. The experimental results show that the ambient level of mercury in the ATS laboratory is at or below the detection limit (10 ng Hg) as measured by a cold vapor atomic absorption spectrophotometer (CVAAS) which was used to analyze the mercury samples. From the mercury spike studies, the following observations and findings were made. (a) The recovery of mercury spikes using EPA Method 101A was 104%. (b) The Ontario Hydro Method retains about 90% of mercury spikes in the first absorbing solution but has a total spike retention of 106%. As a result, the test data shows possible migration of spiked mercury from the first impinger solution (KCI) to the permanganate impingers. (c) For the EPA Method 29 solutions, when only the peroxide impingers were spiked, mercury recoveries were 65.6% for the peroxide impingers, 0.1% for the knockout impinger and 32.8% for the permanganate impingers with an average total mercury recovery of 98.4%. At press time, data was still being obtained for both the peroxide and permanganate impinger solution spikes. This and other data will be available at the presentation.

  13. Two Centuries of Coral Skeletons from the Northern South China Sea Record Mercury Emissions from Modern Chinese Wars.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ruoyu; Hintelmann, Holger; Liu, Yi; Li, Xiaohua; Dimock, Brian

    2016-06-01

    The contemporary mercury (Hg) cycle in the world's oceans has been greatly affected by human activities. However, we are still lacking reliable, long-term, and continuous records of Hg in seawater. Here, we report for the first time on using annually banded Porites coral skeletons from the northern South China Sea (SCS) as an archive for recording changes of seawater dissolved Hg spanning the past two centuries. We developed a combustion-trapping method to preconcentrate ultratrace Hg concentrations from coral aragonitic skeletons for highly accurate total Hg measurements. Results show that Hg in the coral skeletons ranges from 0.3 to 5.1 pmol/g and is discriminated against Ca during coral skeletal calcification. Preindustrial (1798-1832) Hg levels in coral skeletons were found to be approximately 0.5 pmol/g. The highest Hg concentrations (3-5 pmol/g) were observed during the WWII period (1933-1942). Other distinct Hg maxima (∼3 pmol/g) are observed for the periods 1833-1847, 1858-1862, 1918-1927, 1978-1982, and 1988-1992, with the first four coinciding with contemporary Chinese wars. Our study suggests that the production and use of ammunitions in those wars likely account for the primary Hg emission sources in the northern SCS before 1950, and coral is potentially a robust indicator of historical, regional Hg contamination events. PMID:27174679

  14. Aggregation induced emission enhancement from Bathophenanthroline microstructures and its potential use as sensor of mercury ions in water.

    PubMed

    Mazumdar, Prativa; Das, Debasish; Sahoo, Gobinda Prasad; Salgado-Morán, Guillermo; Misra, Ajay

    2014-04-01

    Bathophenanthroline (BA) microstructures of various morphologies have been synthesized using a reprecipitation method. The morphologies of the particles are characterized using optical and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) methods. An aqueous dispersion of BA microstructures shows aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) compared to BA in a good solvent, THF. This luminescent property of aggregated BA hydrosol is used for the selective detection of trace amounts of mercury ion (Hg(2+)) in water. It is observed that Hg(2+) ions can quench the photoluminescence (PL) intensity of BA aggregates even at very low concentrations, compared to other heavy metal ions e.g. nickel (Ni(2+)), manganese (Mn(2+)), cadmium (Cd(2+)), cobalt (Co(2+)), copper (Cu(2+)), ferrous (Fe(2+)) and zinc (Zn(2+)). This strong fluorescence quenching of aggregated BA in the presence of Hg(2+) ions has been explained as a complex interplay between the ground state complexation between BA and Hg(2+) ions and external heavy atom induced perturbation by Hg(2+) ions on the excited states of the fluorophore BA. PMID:24569390

  15. MERCURY CONTROL TECHNOLOGY--A REVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency has promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) to permanently cap and reduce mercury emissions in the U.S. This rule makes the U.S. the first country in the world to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants. The first p...

  16. AN INTEGRATED ANALYSIS OF THE POTENTIAL EFFECTIVENESS OF MERCURY EMISSION REDUCTION STRATEGIES IN THE GREAT LAKES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Using atmospheric transport and fate models, it has been possible to link the changes in emissions to to the change in atmospheric deposition for the last thirty years for the criteria air pollutants, but it has only been in the last decade that advances have been made to allow t...

  17. Environmental Emission of Mercury During Gold Mining by Amalgamation Process and its Impact on Soils of Gympie, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhindsa, H. S.; Battle, A. R.; Prytz, S.

    - The aims of this study were to estimate the total amount of mercury released to the environment during 60 years of gold mining (1867-1926) at Gympie, Queensland, Australia and to measure the mercury levels in soil samples surrounding the mining activity. We estimated that 1902 tonnes of mercury was released to the environment and about 1236 tonnes of which was released to the air. The mean mercury in the soil samples in the vicinity of the Scottish battery varied from 1.07 to 99.26 μg g-1 as compared to 0.075 μg g-1 as background mercury concentrations. The maximum mercury concentration measured in sediments of the Langton Gully was 6.12 μg g-1. These results show that large amount of mercury was used in this area during gold mining. Since mining is active in the area and Langton Gully flows into Mary River, we therefore, recommend that mercury concentration in air and fish should be monitored.

  18. Mercury biogeochemistry: Paradigm shifts, outstanding issues and research needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sonke, Jeroen E.; Heimbürger, Lars-Eric; Dommergue, Aurélien

    2013-05-01

    Half a century of mercury research has provided scientists and policy makers with a detailed understanding of mercury toxicology, biogeochemical cycling and past and future impacts on human exposure. The complexity of the global biogeochemical mercury cycle has led to repeated and ongoing paradigm shifts in numerous mercury-related disciplines and outstanding questions remain. In this review, we highlight some of the paradigm shifts and questions on mercury toxicity, the risks and benefits of seafood consumption, the source of mercury in seafood, and the Arctic mercury cycle. We see a continued need for research on mercury toxicology and epidemiology, for marine mercury dynamics and ecology, and for a closer collaboration between observational mercury science and mercury modeling in general. As anthropogenic mercury emissions are closely tied to the energy cycle (in particular coal combustion), mercury exposure to humans and wildlife are likely to persist unless drastic emission reductions are put in place.

  19. Sequential cloud point extraction for the speciation of mercury in seafood by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yingjie; Hu, Bin

    2007-10-01

    A novel nonchromatographic speciation technique for the speciation of mercury by sequential cloud point extraction (CPE) combined with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) was developed. The method based on Hg 2+ was complexed with I - to form HgI 42-, and the HgI 42- reacted with the methyl green (MG) cation to form hydrophobic ion-associated complex, and the ion-associated complex was then extracted into the surfactant-rich phase of the non-ionic surfactant octylphenoxypolyethoxyethanol (Triton X-114), which are subsequently separated from methylmercury (MeHg +) in the initial solution by centrifugation. The surfactant-rich phase containing Hg(II) was diluted with 0.5 mol L - 1 HNO 3 for ICP-OES determination. The supernatant is also subjected to the similar CPE procedure for the preconcentration of MeHg + by the addition of a chelating agent, ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC), in order to form water-insolvable complex with MeHg +. The MeHg + in the micelles was directly analyzed after disposal as describe above. Under the optimized conditions, the extraction efficiency was 93.5% for Hg(II) and 51.5% for MeHg + with the enrichment factor of 18.7 for Hg(II) and 10.3 for MeHg +, respectively. The limits of detection (LODs) were 56.3 ng L - 1 for Hg(II) and 94.6 ng L - 1 for MeHg + (as Hg) with the relative standard deviations (RSDs) of 3.6% for Hg(II) and 4.5% for MeHg + ( C = 10 μg L -1, n = 7), respectively. The developed technique was applied to the speciation of mercury in real seafood samples and the recoveries for spiked samples were found to be in the range of 93.2-108.7%. For validation, a certified reference material of DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) was analyzed and the determined values are in good agreement with the certified values.

  20. Testing of Continuous Sampling Air-ICP and Mercury Systems as Continuous Emission Monitors at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    D.P. Baldwin; S.J. Bajic; D.E. Eckels; D.S. Zamzow; G.P. Miller; S. Tao; C.A. Waggoner

    2001-03-15

    This report has been prepared to document the performance of the continuous sampling reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES (inductively coupled plasma--atomic emission spectroscopy) and mercury-monitor systems developed by Ames Laboratory for use as continuous emission monitors (CEM). This work was funded by the U. S. Department of Energy, Office of Environmental Management, Office of Science and Technology, through the Mixed Waste Focus Area. The purpose of the project is to develop instrumentation and methods for spectroscopic field monitoring applications. During FY00 this included continued work on the development of the continuous sample introduction system and the multi-frequency AOTF-echelle spectrometer, used in conjunction with the reduced-pressure air-ICP-AES system as a multi-metal CEM. The assembly, development, and testing of an echelle spectrometer system for the detection of mercury (Hg) by atomic absorption was also completed during FY00. The continuous sampling system and the multi-metal air-ICP and mercury-monitor CEM systems were tested at Mississippi State University at the Diagnostic Instrumentation and Analysis Laboratory (DIAL) at the end of FY00. This report describes the characteristics and performance of these systems, and the results of the field tests performed at DIAL.

  1. Behavior of mercury emissions from a commercial coal-fired power plant: the relationship between stack speciation and near-field plume measurements.

    PubMed

    Landis, Matthew S; Ryan, Jeffrey V; ter Schure, Arnout F H; Laudal, Dennis

    2014-11-18

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (Hg(II)) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg(0)) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP) exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S. EPA, EPRI, EERC, and Southern Company. In-stack continuous emission monitoring data were used to establish the CFPP's real-time mercury speciation and plume dilution tracer species (SO2, NOX) emission rates, and an airship was utilized as an airborne sampling platform to maintain static position with respect to the exhaust plume centerline for semicontinuous measurement of target species. Varying levels of Hg(II) concentration (2.39-3.90 μg m(-3)) and percent abundance (∼ 87-99%) in flue gas and in-plume reduction were observed. The existence and magnitude of Hg(II) reduction to Hg(0) (0-55%) observed varied with respect to the types and relative amounts of coals combusted, suggesting that exhaust plume reduction occurring downwind of the CFPP is influenced by coal chemical composition and characteristics. PMID:25325168

  2. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2006-04-02

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0

  3. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury, Fine Particulate Matter, and Arsenic from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2005-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  4. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2004-04-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc. (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal-fired power plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic

  5. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2004-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and fine

  6. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2005-04-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and

  7. Evaluation of the Emission, Transport, and Deposition of Mercury and Fine Particulate Matter from Coal-Based Power Plants in the Ohio River Valley Region

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2008-12-31

    As stated in the proposal: Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, evaluated the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation involved two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring included the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station contains sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NOx, SO2, O3, etc.). Laboratory analyses of time-integrated samples were used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Nearreal- time measurements were used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg0 and RGM. Approximately 30 months of field data were collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data provides mercury, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis includes (1) development of updated inventories of mercury emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg0, RGM, and fine particulate matter in the different sectors of the study region to identify key transport

  8. EVALUATION OF THE EMISSION, TRANSPORT, AND DEPOSITION OF MERCURY, FINE PARTICULATE MATTER, AND ARSENIC FROM COAL-BASED POWER PLANTS IN THE OHIO RIVER VALLEY REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Crist

    2003-10-02

    Ohio University, in collaboration with CONSOL Energy, Advanced Technology Systems, Inc (ATS) and Atmospheric and Environmental Research, Inc. (AER) as subcontractors, is evaluating the impact of emissions from coal-fired power plants in the Ohio River Valley region as they relate to the transport and deposition of mercury, arsenic, and associated fine particulate matter. This evaluation will involve two interrelated areas of effort: ambient air monitoring and regional-scale modeling analysis. The scope of work for the ambient air monitoring will include the deployment of a surface air monitoring (SAM) station in southeastern Ohio. The SAM station will contain sampling equipment to collect and measure mercury (including speciated forms of mercury and wet and dry deposited mercury), arsenic, particulate matter (PM) mass, PM composition, and gaseous criteria pollutants (CO, NO{sub x}, SO{sub 2}, O{sub 3}, etc.). Laboratory analysis of time-integrated samples will be used to obtain chemical speciation of ambient PM composition and mercury in precipitation. Near-real-time measurements will be used to measure the ambient concentrations of PM mass and all gaseous species including Hg{sup 0} and RGM. Approximately of 18 months of field data will be collected at the SAM site to validate the proposed regional model simulations for episodic and seasonal model runs. The ambient air quality data will also provide mercury, arsenic, and fine particulate matter data that can be used by Ohio Valley industries to assess performance on multi-pollutant control systems. The scope of work for the modeling analysis will include (1) development of updated inventories of mercury and arsenic emissions from coal plants and other important sources in the modeled domain; (2) adapting an existing 3-D atmospheric chemical transport model to incorporate recent advancements in the understanding of mercury transformations in the atmosphere; (3) analyses of the flux of Hg{sup 0}, RGM, arsenic, and

  9. Mercury in soil near a long-term air emission source in southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, M.L.; Susong, D.D.; Olson, M.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2003-01-01

    At the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory in southeastern Idaho, a 500??C fluidized bed calciner was intermittently operated for 37 years, with measured Hg emission rates of 9-11 g/h. Surface soil was sampled at 57 locations around the facility to determine the spatial distribution of Hg fallout and surface Hg variability, and to predict the total residual Hg mass in the soil from historical emissions. Measured soil concentrations were slightly higher (p<0.05) within 5 km of the source but were overall very low (15-20 ng/g) compared to background Hg levels published for similar soils in the USA (50-70 ng/g). Concentrations decreased 4%/cm with depth and were found to be twice as high under shrubs and in depressions. Mass balance calculations accounted for only 2.5-20% of the estimated total Hg emitted over the 37-year calciner operating history. These results suggest that much of the Hg deposited from calciner operations may have been reduced in the soil and re-emitted as Hg(0) to the global atmospheric pool.

  10. 40 CFR 61.52 - Emission standard.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... EMISSION STANDARDS FOR HAZARDOUS AIR POLLUTANTS National Emission Standard for Mercury § 61.52 Emission standard. (a) Emissions to the atmosphere from mercury ore processing facilities and mercury cell chlor-alkali plants shall not exceed 2.3 kg (5.1 lb) of mercury per 24-hour period. (b) Emissions to...

  11. The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations

    SciTech Connect

    Stephen Niksa; Naoki Fujiwara

    2005-07-01

    The article introduces a predictive capability for mercury (Hg) retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given Hg speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections show that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO{sub 2} absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO{sub 2} capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O{sub 2} levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO{sub 2} capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl{sub 2}, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO{sub 3} levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg{sub 0} but only for inlet O{sub 2} levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs. 12 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  12. The impact of wet flue gas desulfurization scrubbing on mercury emissions from coal-fired power stations.

    PubMed

    Niksa, Stephen; Fujiwara, Naoki

    2005-07-01

    This article introduces a predictive capability for Hg retention in any Ca-based wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) scrubber, given mercury (Hg) speciation at the FGD inlet, the flue gas composition, and the sulphur dioxide (SO2) capture efficiency. A preliminary statistical analysis of data from 17 full-scale wet FGDs connects flue gas compositions, the extents of Hg oxidation at FGD inlets, and Hg retention efficiencies. These connections clearly signal that solution chemistry within the FGD determines Hg retention. A more thorough analysis based on thermochemical equilibrium yields highly accurate predictions for total Hg retention with no parameter adjustments. For the most reliable data, the predictions were within measurement uncertainties for both limestone and Mg/lime systems operating in both forced and natural oxidation mode. With the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) database, the quantitative performance was almost as good for the most modern FGDs, which probably conform to the very high SO2 absorption efficiencies assumed in the calculations. The large discrepancies for older FGDs are tentatively attributed to the unspecified SO2 capture efficiencies and operating temperatures and to the possible elimination of HCl in prescrubbers. The equilibrium calculations suggest that Hg retention is most sensitive to inlet HCl and O2 levels and the FGD temperature; weakly dependent on SO2 capture efficiency; and insensitive to HgCl2, NO, CA:S ratio, slurry dilution level in limestone FGDs, and MgSO3 levels in Mg/lime systems. Consequently, systems with prescrubbers to eliminate HCl probably retain less Hg than fully integrated FGDs. The analysis also predicts re-emission of Hg(O) but only for inlet O2 levels that are much lower than those in full-scale FGDs. PMID:16111136

  13. Global change and mercury

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Krabbenhoft, David P.; Sunderland, Elsie M.

    2013-01-01

    More than 140 nations recently agreed to a legally binding treaty on reductions in human uses and releases of mercury that will be signed in October of this year. This follows the 2011 rule in the United States that for the first time regulates mercury emissions from electricity-generating utilities. Several decades of scientific research preceded these important regulations. However, the impacts of global change on environmental mercury concentrations and human exposures remain a major uncertainty affecting the potential effectiveness of regulatory activities.

  14. Characterizing mercury emissions from a coal-fired power plant utilizing a venturi wet FGD system

    SciTech Connect

    Vann Bush, P.; Dismukes, E.B.; Fowler, W.K.

    1995-11-01

    Southern Research Institute (SRI) conducted a test program at a coal-fired utility plant from October 24 to October 29, 1994. The test schedule was chosen to permit us to collect samples during a period of consecutive days with a constant coal source. SRI collected the samples required to measured concentrations of anions and trace elements around two scrubber modules and in the stack. Anions of interest were CI{sup -}, F{sup -}, and SO{sub 4}{sup =}. We analyzed samples for five major elements (Al, Ca, Fe, Mg, and Ti) and 16 trace elements (As, B, Ba, Be, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mn, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, and V). SRI made measurements across two scrubber modules, each treating nominally 20% of the total effluent from the boiler. Across one module we examined the effects of changes in the liquid-to-gas ratio (L/G) on the efficiency with which the scrubber removes trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Across another module we examined the effects of slurry pH on the removal of trace elements and anions from the flue gas. Measurements in the stack quantified emissions rates of anions and trace elements.

  15. UNDERSTANDING MERCURY FATE AND TRANSPORT FROM SOURCES TO DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's atmospheric mercury research produces information to improve the understanding of mercury transport and fate from the point of emission into the atmosphere to its deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Specifically, this research will produce source emission and...

  16. Mercury's exosphere: observations during MESSENGER's First Mercury flyby.

    PubMed

    McClintock, William E; Bradley, E Todd; Vervack, Ronald J; Killen, Rosemary M; Sprague, Ann L; Izenberg, Noam R; Solomon, Sean C

    2008-07-01

    During MESSENGER's first Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer measured Mercury's exospheric emissions, including those from the antisunward sodium tail, calcium and sodium close to the planet, and hydrogen at high altitudes on the dayside. Spatial variations indicate that multiple source and loss processes generate and maintain the exosphere. Energetic processes connected to the solar wind and magnetospheric interaction with the planet likely played an important role in determining the distributions of exospheric species during the flyby. PMID:18599778

  17. Mercury deposition in snow near an industrial emission source in the western U.S. and comparison to ISC3 model predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Abbott, M.L.; Susong, D.D.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Rood, A.S.

    2002-01-01

    Mercury (total and methyl) was evaluated in snow samples collected near a major mercury emission source on the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in southeastern Idaho and 160 km downwind in Teton Range in western Wyoming. The sampling was done to assess near-field (<12 km) deposition rates around the source, compare them to those measured in a relatively remote, pristine downwind location, and to use the measurements to develop improved, site-specific model input parameters for precipitation scavenging coefficient and the fraction of Hg emissions deposited locally. Measured snow water concentrations (ng L-1) were converted to deposition (ug m-2) using the sample location snow water equivalent. The deposition was then compared to that predicted using the ISC3 air dispersion/deposition model which was run with a range of particle and vapor scavenging coefficient input values. Accepted model statistical performance measures (fractional bias and normalized mean square error) were calculated for the different modeling runs, and the best model performance was selected. Measured concentrations close to the source (average = 5.3 ng L-1) were about twice those measured in the Teton Range (average = 2.7 ng L-1) which were within the expected range of values for remote background areas. For most of the sampling locations, the ISC3 model predicted within a factor of two of the observed deposition. The best modeling performance was obtained using a scavenging coefficient value for 0.25 ??m diameter particulate and the assumption that all of the mercury is reactive Hg(II) and subject to local deposition. A 0.1 ??m particle assumption provided conservative overprediction of the data, while a vapor assumption resulted in highly variable predictions. Partitioning a fraction of the Hg emissions to elemental Hg(0) (a U.S. EPA default assumption for combustion facility risk assessments) would have underpredicted the observed fallout.

  18. Use of a solution cathode glow discharge for cold vapor generation of mercury with determination by ICP-atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenli; Chan, George C-Y; Ray, Steven J; Zhang, Xinrong; Hieftje, Gary M

    2008-09-15

    A novel vapor-generation technique is described for mercury determination in aqueous solutions. Without need for a chemical reducing agent, dissolved mercury species are converted to volatile Hg vapor in a solution cathode glow discharge. The generated Hg vapor is then transported to an inductively coupled plasma for determination by atomic emission spectrometry. Mercury vapor is readily generated from a background electrolyte containing 0.1 M HNO 3. Vapor generation efficiency was found to be higher by a factor of 2-3 in the presence of low molecular weight organic acids (formic or acetic acids) or alcohols (ethanol). Optimal conditions for discharge-induced vapor generation and reduced interference from concomitant inorganic ions were also identified. However, the presence of chloride ion reduces the efficiency of Hg-vapor generation. In the continuous sample introduction mode, the detection limit was found to be 0.7 microg L (-1), and repeatability was 1.2% RSD ( n = 11) for a 20 microg L (-1) standard. In comparison with other vapor generation methods, it offers several advantages: First, it is applicable to both inorganic and organic Hg determination; organic mercury (thiomersal) can be directly transformed into volatile Hg species without the need for prior oxidation. Second, the vapor-generation efficiency is high; the efficiency (with formic acid as a promoter) is superior to that of conventional SnCl 2-HCl reduction. Third, the vapor generation is extremely rapid and therefore is easy to couple with flow injection. The method is sensitive and simple in operation, requires no auxiliary reagents, and serves as a useful alternative to conventional vapor generation for ultratrace Hg determination. PMID:18710258

  19. Worldwide trend of atmospheric mercury since 1995

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemr, F.; Brunke, E.-G.; Ebinghaus, R.; Kuss, J.

    2011-05-01

    Concern about the adverse effects of mercury on human health and ecosystems has led to tightening emission controls since the mid 1980s. But the resulting mercury emissions reductions in many parts of the world are believed to be offset or even surpassed by the increasing emissions in rapidly industrializing countries. Consequently, concentrations of atmospheric mercury are expected to remain roughly constant. Here we show that the worldwide atmospheric mercury concentrations have decreased by about 20 to 38 % since 1996 as indicated by long-term monitoring at stations in the Southern and Northern Hemispheres combined with intermittent measurements of latitudinal distribution over the Atlantic Ocean. The total reduction of the atmospheric mercury burden of this magnitude within 14 years is unusually large among most atmospheric trace gases and is at odds with the current mercury emission inventories with nearly constant anthropogenic emissions over this period. This suggests a major shift in the biogeochemical cycle of mercury including oceans and soil reservoirs. Decreasing reemissions from the legacy of historical mercury emissions are the most likely explanation for this decline since the hypothesis of an accelerated oxidation rate of elemental mercury in the atmosphere is not supported by the observed trends of other trace gases. Acidification of oceans, climate change, excess nutrient input and pollution may also contribute by their impact on the biogeochemistry of ocean and soils. Consequently, models of the atmospheric mercury cycle have to include soil and ocean mercury pools and their dynamics to be able to make projections of future trends.

  20. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  1. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  2. The Clean Air Mercury Rule

    SciTech Connect

    Michael Rossler

    2005-07-01

    Coming into force on July 15, 2005, the US Clean Air Mercury Rule will use a market-based cap-and-trade approach under Section 111 of the Clean Air Act to reduce mercury emissions from the electric power sector. This article provides a comprehensive summary of the new rule. 14 refs., 2 tabs.

  3. Mercury and Your Health

    MedlinePlus

    ... the Risk of Exposure to Mercury Learn About Mercury What is Mercury What is Metallic mercury? Toxicological Profile ToxFAQs Mercury Resources CDC’s National Biomonitoring Program Factsheet on Mercury ...

  4. Results from Mobile Lab Measurements Obtained in the Barnett Shale with Emphasis on Methane and Gaseous Mercury Emissions (Fort Worth, TX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laine, P. L.; Lan, X.; Anderson, D.; Talbot, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Our work is part of a comprehensive analysis conducted through a collaboration of ground based measurements and airborne measurements with several research groups in order to gain a better understanding of methane and mercury emissions in the Barnett Shale. It's a vast rock formation that sits in the 5,000 square miles surrounding the Fort Worth area. To get the gas to market requires an underground highway of pipelines and compression stations. Texas state records show that since 2000 the number of gas compressors in the Barnett Shale has tripled (from a few hundred to 1,300), and they're ever infringing on populated areas. Recent preliminary data reported by Pétron et al. and Tollefson et al. (from the natural-gas operations in Denver-Julesburg Basin) point to CH4 loss from the process of 4-8%, not including additional losses in the pipeline and distribution system. Additionally, Howarth et al. have conducted a comprehensive analysis of greenhouse gases (methane, in particular) emitted from shale gas as a result of hydraulic fracturing and they estimate up to 8% of all natural gas mined from shale formations leaks to the atmosphere. Not only is this cause for alarm due to the global warming potential of methane, but we would expect similar losses of additional (potentially harmful) gases, i.e., atmospheric Hg, from the extraction systems. These preliminary findings are higher than the current U.S. Environment Protection Agency (EPA) leakage estimate of 2.3 percent. Our strategy employs the use of our mobile laboratory, a four door Chevrolet Silverado pickup truck with a camper shell, outfitted with trace gas instrumentation including a Picarro G2132i and a Tekran 2537 mercury analyzer. The Picarro cavity ring down instrument has high precision and accuracy H2O, CO2, CH4, and 13δC in CH4 and CO2 with very little drift due to precise temperature and pressure controls. The Tekran mercury analyzer allows for accurate total gaseous mercury measurements via

  5. Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments.

    This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth.

    Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  6. Planet Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Mariner 10's first image of Mercury acquired on March 24, 1974. During its flight, Mariner 10's trajectory brought it behind the lighted hemisphere of Mercury, where this image was taken, in order to acquire important measurements with other instruments. This picture was acquired from a distance of 3,340,000 miles (5,380,000 km) from the surface of Mercury. The diameter of Mercury (3,031 miles; 4,878 km) is about 1/3 that of Earth. Images of Mercury were acquired in two steps, an inbound leg (images acquired before passing into Mercury's shadow) and an outbound leg (after exiting from Mercury's shadow). More than 2300 useful images of Mercury were taken, both moderate resolution (3-20 km/pixel) color and high resolution (better than 1 km/pixel) black and white coverage.

  7. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2004-12-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems.

  8. PATHOLOIGCAL EFFECTS OF DIETARY METHYL MERCURY IN AMERICAN KESTRELS ( FALCO SPARVERIUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Methyl mercury in aquatic food webs poses significant health risks to both wildlife and humans. One primary source of mercury contamination for both aquatic and terrestrial systems is atmospheric deposition of inorganic mercury from industrial emissions. Once in the environment, ...

  9. S. 1915: This Act may be cited as the Omnibus Mercury Emissions Reduction Act of 1998, introduced in the Senate, One Hundred Fifth Congress, Second Session, April 2, 1998

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    The purpose of this bill is to amend the Clean Air Act to establish requirements concerning the operation of fossil fuel-fired electric utility steam generating units, commercial and industrial boiler units, solid waste incineration units, medical waste incinerators, hazardous waste combustors, chlor-alkali plants, and Portland cement plants to reduce emissions of mercury to the environment, and for other purposes.

  10. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie E.; McCoy, J. Torin; Garcia, Hector D.; James, John T.

    2009-01-01

    Many of the operational and payload lighting units used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury. If these devices were damaged on-orbit, elemental mercury could be released into the cabin. Although there are plans to replace operational units with alternate light sources, such as LEDs, that do not contain mercury, mercury-containing lamps efficiently produce high quality illumination and may never be completely replaced on orbit. Therefore, exposure to elemental mercury during spaceflight will remain possible and represents a toxicological hazard. Elemental mercury is a liquid metal that vaporizes slowly at room temperature. However, it may be completely vaporized at the elevated operating temperatures of lamps. Although liquid mercury is not readily absorbed through the skin or digestive tract, mercury vapors are efficiently absorbed through the respiratory tract. Therefore, the amount of mercury in the vapor form must be estimated. For mercury releases from lamps that are not being operated, we utilized a study conducted by the New Jersey Department of Environmental Quality to calculate the amount of mercury vapor expected to form over a 2-week period. For longer missions and for mercury releases occurring when lamps are operating, we conservatively assumed complete volatilization of the available mercury. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, both short-term and long-term exposures to mercury vapors are possible. Acute exposure to high concentrations of mercury vapors can cause irritation of the respiratory tract and behavioral symptoms, such as irritability and hyperactivity. Chronic exposure can result in damage to the nervous system (tremors, memory loss, insomnia, etc.) and kidneys (proteinurea). Therefore, the JSC Toxicology Group recommends that stringent safety controls and verifications (vibrational testing, etc.) be applied to any hardware that contains elemental mercury that could yield

  11. Impact of the addition of chicken litter on mercury speciation and emissions from coal combustion in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor

    SciTech Connect

    Songgeng Li; Shuang Deng; Andy Wu; Wei-ping Pan

    2008-07-15

    Co-combustion of chicken litter with coal was performed in a laboratory-scale fluidized bed combustor to investigate the effect of chicken litter addition on the partitioning behavior of mercury. Gaseous total and elemental mercury concentrations in the flue gas were measured online, and ash was analyzed for particle-bound mercury along with other elemental and surface properties. The mercury mass balance was between 85 and 105%. The experimental results show that co-combustion of chicken litter decreases the amount of elemental and total mercury in the gas phase. Mercury content in fly ash increases with an increasing chicken litter share. 22 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  12. MERCURY CEMS: TECHNOLOGY UPDATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper reviews the technologies involved with continuous emission monitors (CEMs) for mercury (Hg) which are receiving incresed attention and focus. Their potential use as a compliance assurance tool is of particular interest. While Hg CEMs are currently used in Europe for com...

  13. MERCURY SPECIATION AND CAPTURE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In December 2000, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) announced its intent to regulate mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utility steam generating plants. Maximum achievable control technology (MACT) requirements are to be proposed by December 2003 and finali...

  14. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John F. Schabron; Joseph F. Rovani; Susan S. Sorini

    2007-03-31

    The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005, requires that calibration of mercury continuous emissions monitors (CEMs) be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The traceability protocol will be written by EPA. Traceability will be based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging from about 2-40 ug/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry (ID ICP/MS) through a chain of analyses linking the calibration unit in the power plant to the NIST ID ICP/MS. Prior to this project, NIST did not provide a recommended mercury vapor pressure equation or list mercury vapor pressure in its vapor pressure database. The NIST Physical and Chemical Properties Division in Boulder, Colorado was subcontracted under this project to study the issue in detail and to recommend a mercury vapor pressure equation that the vendors of mercury vapor pressure calibration units can use to calculate the elemental mercury vapor concentration in an equilibrium chamber at a particular temperature. As part of this study, a preliminary evaluation of calibration units from five vendors was made. The work was performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD and Joe Rovani from WRI who traveled to NIST as a Visiting Scientist.

  15. 40 CFR 60.45Da - Standard for mercury (Hg).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Standard for mercury (Hg). 60.45Da... for mercury (Hg). (a) For each coal-fired electric utility steam generating unit other than an IGCC... gases that contain mercury (Hg) emissions in excess of each Hg emissions limit in paragraphs...

  16. MERCURY CONTROL FOR COAL-FIRED POWER PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are many sources of natural and anthropogenic mercury emissions, but combustion of coal is known to be the major anthropogenic source of mercury (Hg) emissions in the U.S. and world wide. To address this, EPA has recently promulgated the Clean Air Mercury Rule to reduce Hg ...

  17. Follow that mercury!

    SciTech Connect

    Linero, A.A.

    2008-07-01

    The article discusses one technology option for avoiding release of mercury captured by power plant pollution control equipment in order to render it usable in concrete. This is the use of selective catalytic reduction for NOx control and lime spray dryer absorbers (SDA) for SO{sub 2} control prior to particulate collection by fabric filters. In this scenario all mercury removed is trapped in the fabric filter baghouse. The US EPA did not establish mercury emission limits for existing cement plants in the latest regulation 40 CFR 63, Subpart LLL (December 2006) and was sued by the Portland Cement Association because of the Hg limits established for new kilns and by several states and environmental groups for the lack of limits on existing ones. A full version of this article is available on www.acaa-usa.org/AshatWork.htm. 2 figs.

  18. Reference Atmosphere for Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, Rosemary M.

    2002-01-01

    We propose that Ar-40 measured in the lunar atmosphere and that in Mercury's atmosphere is due to current diffusion into connected pore space within the crust. Higher temperatures at Mercury, along with more rapid loss from the atmosphere will lead to a smaller column abundance of argon at Mercury than at the Moon, given the same crustal abundance of potassium. Because the noble gas abundance in the Hermean atmosphere represents current effusion, it is a direct measure of the crustal potassium abundance. Ar-40 in the atmospheres of the planets is a measure of potassium abundance in the interiors, since Ar-40 is a product of radiogenic decay of K-40 by electron capture with the subsequent emission of a 1.46 eV gamma-ray. Although the Ar-40 in the Earth's atmosphere is expected to have accumulated since the late bombardment, Ar-40 in the atmospheres of Mercury and the Moon is eroded quickly by photoionization and electron impact ionization. Thus, the argon content in the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury is representative of current effusion rather than accumulation over the lifetime of the planet.

  19. Characteristics of mercury cycling in the cement production process.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fengyang; Wang, Shuxiao; Zhang, Lei; Yang, Hai; Wu, Qingru; Hao, Jiming

    2016-01-25

    The mercury cycling caused by dust shuttling significantly increases the atmospheric emissions from cement production. A comprehensive understanding of this mercury cycling can promote the development of mercury emission control technologies. In this study, the characteristics of mercury cycling in the cement production process were first investigated. Furthermore, the mercury enrichment and effects of dust treatment were evaluated based on the field tests conducted in two Chinese cement plants. The mercury cycling between the kiln system and the raw mill system was the most important aspect and contributed 57-73% to the total amount of mercury emitted from the kiln system. Mercury emitted from the kiln system with flue gas was enriched as high as 3.4-8.8 times in the two tested plants compared to the amount of mercury in the raw materials and coal due to mercury cycling. The mercury enrichment can be significantly affected by the proportion of mercury cycled back to the kiln system. The effects of dust treatment were evaluated, and dust treatment can efficiently reduce approximately 31-70% of atmospheric mercury emissions in the two plants. The reduction proportion approximately linearly decreased with the proportion of mercury removed from the collected dust. PMID:26448491

  20. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg(-1)) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg(-1)). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark-in pyroclastic wounds-and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg(-1)) and bark (6.0 μg kg(-1)) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species. PMID:23760570

  1. Volcanic mercury in Pinus canariensis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez Martín, José Antonio; Nanos, Nikos; Miranda, José Carlos; Carbonell, Gregoria; Gil, Luis

    2013-08-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic element that is emitted to the atmosphere by both human activities and natural processes. Volcanic emissions are considered a natural source of mercury in the environment. In some cases, tree ring records taken close to volcanoes and their relation to volcanic activity over time are contradictory. In 1949, the Hoyo Negro volcano (La Palma-Canary Islands) produced significant pyroclastic flows that damaged the nearby stand of Pinus canariensis. Recently, 60 years after the eruption, we assessed mercury concentrations in the stem of a pine which survived volcano formation, located at a distance of 50 m from the crater. We show that Hg content in a wound caused by pyroclastic impacts (22.3 μg kg-1) is an order of magnitude higher than the Hg concentrations measured in the xylem before and after the eruption (2.3 μg kg-1). Thus, mercury emissions originating from the eruption remained only as a mark—in pyroclastic wounds—and can be considered a sporadic and very high mercury input that did not affect the overall Hg input in the xylem. In addition, mercury contents recorded in the phloem (9.5 μg kg-1) and bark (6.0 μg kg-1) suggest that mercury shifts towards non-living tissues of the pine, an aspect that can be related to detoxification in volcanism-adapted species.

  2. 40 CFR 63.8246 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... continuous compliance with the applicable mercury emission limit by reducing the mercury emissions data to 52-week averages using Equation 1 of § 63.8243 and maintaining the 52-week average mercury emissions...

  3. 40 CFR 63.8246 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... continuous compliance with the applicable mercury emission limit by reducing the mercury emissions data to 52-week averages using Equation 1 of § 63.8243 and maintaining the 52-week average mercury emissions...

  4. 40 CFR 63.8246 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... continuous compliance with the applicable mercury emission limit by reducing the mercury emissions data to 52-week averages using Equation 1 of § 63.8243 and maintaining the 52-week average mercury emissions...

  5. 40 CFR 63.8246 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... continuous compliance with the applicable mercury emission limit by reducing the mercury emissions data to 52-week averages using Equation 1 of § 63.8243 and maintaining the 52-week average mercury emissions...

  6. 40 CFR 63.8246 - How do I demonstrate continuous compliance with the emission limitations and work practice...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Continuous Compliance... continuous compliance with the applicable mercury emission limit by reducing the mercury emissions data to 52-week averages using Equation 1 of § 63.8243 and maintaining the 52-week average mercury emissions...

  7. POSTER TITLE: UNDERSTANDING MERCURY FATE AND TRANSPORT FROM SOURCES TO DEPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    ORD's atmospheric mercury research produces information to improve the understanding of mercury transport and fate from the point of emission into the atmosphere to its deposition to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Specifically, this research will produce source emission and...

  8. 40 CFR 63.8190 - What emission limitations must I meet?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell... this section that applies to you. (1) New or reconstructed mercury cell chlor-alkali production facility. Emissions of mercury are prohibited from a new or reconstructed mercury cell...

  9. Mercury emission and distribution: Potential environmental risks at a small-scale gold mining operation, Phichit Province, Thailand.

    PubMed

    Pataranawat, Poranee; Parkpian, Preeda; Polprasert, Chongrak; Delaune, R D; Jugsujinda, A

    2007-07-01

    Mercury (Hg) contamination was assessed in environment near an amalgamation gold recovery operation located at a small scale mining operation (Phanom Pha) in Phichit Province, Thailand. Total mercury (THg) concentrations was determined in water, sediment, bivalves in the aquatic environment and as dry deposition or atmospheric fallout on surface soil and leaves of Neem tree (Azadirachta indica Juss. var. siamensis Valeton) near the mining operation. THg in surface soil, Neem flowers (edible part) and rice grain in surrounding terrestrial habitat and with distance from the mining area were also evaluated for possible contamination. Potential environmental risks were evaluated using the hazard quotient equation. Hg analyses conducted in the aquatic habitat showed that THg in water, sediment and bivalves (Scabies cripata Gould) ranged from 0.4 to 4 microg L(-1), 96 to 402 microg kg(-1)dry weight (dw) and 15 to 584 microg kg(-1) wet weight (ww), respectively. High concentrations of THg in water, sediment and bivalves were observed in the receiving stream near the mining operation which was located near the Khao Chet Luk Reservoir. Whereas the THg concentration in water, sediment and bivalves from monitoring stations outside the gold mining operation (upstream and downstream), were considerably lower with the values of 0.4-0.8 microg L(-1), 96-140 microg kg(-1) dw and 88-658 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. The elevated concentration of Hg found in the sediment near the mining operation was consistent with Hg accumulation measured in bivalves. The elevated Hg levels found in living bivalves collected from highly contaminated sites suggested that the sediment bound Hg was bioavailable. THg in surface soils, brown rice grain (Jasmine rice #105) and Neem flowers of terrestrial habitats were in the range of 16 to 180 microg kg(-1) dw, 190 to 300 microg kg(-1) dw, and 622 to 2150 microg kg(-1) dw, respectively. Elevated concentrations of mercury were found in Neem flowers

  10. MERCURY STABILITY IN THE ENVIRONMENT

    SciTech Connect

    John H. Pavlish

    1999-07-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments (CAAAs) require the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury and 188 other trace substances, referred to as air toxics or hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk (1). The EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in two reports: Mercury Study Report to Congress and Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units-Final Report to Congress. The first congressional report addressed both human health and the environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second report addressed the risk to public health posed by emissions of HAPs from steam electricity-generating units. The National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences is also required by the CAAAs to investigate mercury and determine a safe threshold level of exposure. Recently the National Academy of Sciences has also been commissioned by Congress to complete a report, based the available scientific evidence, regarding safe threshold levels of mercury exposure. Although the EPA reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations should be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. It is likely that major sources of mercury emissions, including fossil-fired combustion systems, will be controlled at some point. In fact, municipal waste combustion units are already regulated. In anticipation of additional control measures, much research has been done (and continues) regarding the development of control technologies for mercury emitted from stationary sources to the atmosphere. Most approaches taken to date involve sorbent injection technologies or improve upon removal of mercury using existing technologies such as flue gas desulfurization

  11. Treaty to Curb Mercury Pollution Adopted

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-10-01

    The international Minamata Convention on Mercury to protect human health and the environment from anthropogenic emissions and releases of mercury and mercury compounds was formally adopted at a 10 October meeting in Minamata, Japan. The legally binding treaty, currently signed by 92 countries, comes 57 years after the government of Japan officially acknowledged, in 1956, the existence of Minamata disease, which was caused by eating seafood contaminated with methylmercury compounds discharged into Minamata Bay in southern Japan.

  12. Mercury CEM Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Joseph Rovani; Mark Sanderson

    2008-02-29

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMS) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks. The power industry desires to conduct at least a full year of monitoring before the formal monitoring and reporting requirement begins on January 1, 2009. It is important for the industry to have available reliable, turnkey equipment from CEM vendors. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor generators. The generators are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 requires that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards (Federal Register 2007). Traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued an interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury generators (EPA 2007). The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of generators by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the generator models that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma/mass spectrometry performed by NIST in Gaithersburg, MD. The

  13. Sources and Variations of Mercury in Tuna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kraepiel, A. M. L.; Keller, K.; Chin, H. B.; Malcolm, E. G.; Morel, F. M. M.

    2003-04-01

    While the bulk of human exposure to mercury is through the consumption of marine fish, most of what we know about mercury methylation and bioaccumulation is from studies of freshwaters. We know little of where and how mercury is methylated in the open oceans and there is currently a debate whether or not methylmercury concentrations in marine fish have increased along with global anthropogenic mercury emissions. Measurements of mercury concentrations in Yellowfin tuna caught off Hawaii in 1998 show no increase compared to measurements of the same species caught in the same area in 1971. On the basis of the known increase in the global emissions of mercury over the past century and of a simple model of mercury biogeochemistry in the Equatorial and subtropical Pacific ocean, we predict that the methylmercury concentration in these surface waters should have increased between 10 and 25 {%} over this 27 years span if methylation occurred in the mixed layer or in the thermocline. Such an increase is statistically inconsistent with the constant mercury concentrations measured in tuna. We conclude tentatively that mercury methylation in the oceans may occur in deep waters or in sediments where the impact of anthropogenic mercury inputs is negligible.

  14. Cases of mercury exposure, bioavailability, and absorption.

    PubMed

    Gochfeld, Michael

    2003-09-01

    Mercury is a unique element that, unlike many metals, has no essential biological function. It is liquid at room temperature and is 13.6 times heavier than water. Its unique physical properties have been exploited for a variety of uses such as in mercury switches, thermostats, thermometers, and other instruments. Its ability to amalgamate with gold and silver are used in mining these precious metals and as a dental restorative. Its toxic properties have been exploited for medications, preservatives, antiseptics, and pesticides. For these reasons there have been many industrial uses of mercury, and occupational exposures of workers and industrial emissions and effluents contaminating air, water, soil, and ultimately food chains have long been a matter of great public health concern. This paper examines briefly six cases representing various forms of exposure to different species of mercury, and indicates the methodological issues in estimating exposure, bioavailability and absorption; these cases include Minamata disease in Japan, organic mercury poisoning in Iraq, methylmercury (MeHg) exposure in the Amazon, dimethylmercury (PMM) in the laboratory, an elemental mercury spill in Cajamarca, Peru, and a mercury-contaminated building in Hoboken, NJ, USA. Other scenarios that are not described include occupational exposure to mercury salts, mercurial preservatives in vaccines, cultural and ritualistic uses of mercury, and mercury in dental amalgams. PMID:12915150

  15. Mercury and halogens in coal: Chapter 2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolker, Allan; Quick, Jeffrey C.

    2014-01-01

    Apart from mercury itself, coal rank and halogen content are among the most important factors inherent in coal that determine the proportion of mercury captured by conventional controls during coal combustion. This chapter reviews how mercury in coal occurs, gives available concentration data for mercury in U.S. and international commercial coals, and provides an overview of the natural variation in halogens that influence mercury capture. Three databases, the U.S. Geological Survey coal quality (USGS COALQUAL) database for in-ground coals, and the 1999 and 2010 U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Information Collection Request (ICR) databases for coals delivered to power stations, provide extensive results for mercury and other parameters that are compared in this chapter. In addition to the United States, detailed characterization of mercury is available on a nationwide basis for China, whose mean values in recent compilations are very similar to the United States in-ground mean of 0.17 ppm mercury. Available data for the next five largest producers (India, Australia, South Africa, the Russian Federation, and Indonesia) are more limited and with the possible exceptions of Australia and the Russian Federation, do not allow nationwide means for mercury in coal to be calculated. Chlorine in coal varies as a function of rank and correspondingly, depth of burial. As discussed elsewhere in this volume, on a proportional basis, bromine is more effective than chlorine in promoting mercury oxidation in flue gas and capture by conventional controls. The ratio of bromine to chlorine in coal is indicative of the proportion of halogens present in formation waters within a coal basin. This ratio is relatively constant except in coals that have interacted with deep-basin brines that have reached halite saturation, enriching residual fluids in bromine. Results presented here help optimize mercury capture by conventional controls and provide a starting point for

  16. Detecting potassium on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Killen, R. M.; Potter, A. E.; Morgan, T. H.

    1991-01-01

    A critical comment on the work of A.L. Sprague et al. (1990) is presented. It is argued that, in attributing an enhanced emission in the potassium D lines on Oct. 14, 1987 in the equatorial region of Mercury to a diffusion source centered on Caloris Basin, Sprague et al. misinterpreted the data. Sprague et al. present a reply, taking issue with the commenters.

  17. Mercury control in 2009

    SciTech Connect

    Sjostrom, S.; Durham, M.; Bustard, J.; Martin, C.

    2009-07-15

    Although activated carbon injection (ACI) has been proven to be effective for many configurations and is a preferred option at many plants sufficient quantities of powdered activated coking (PAC) must be available to meet future needs. The authors estimate that upcoming federal and state regulations will result in tripling the annual US demand for activated carbon to nearly 1.5 billion lb from approximately 450 million lb. Rapid expansion of US production capacity is required. Many PAC manufacturers are discussing expansion of their existing production capabilities. One company, ADA Carbon Solutions, is in the process of constructing the largest activated carbon facility in North America to meet the future demand for PAC as a sorbent for mercury control. Emission control technology development and commercialization is driven by regulation and legislation. Although ACI will not achieve > 90% mercury control at every plant, the expected required MACT legislation level, it offers promise as a low-cost primary mercury control technology option for many configurations and an important trim technology for others. ACI has emerged as the clear mercury-specific control option of choice, representing over 98% of the commercial mercury control system orders to date. As state regulations are implemented and the potential for a federal rule becomes more imminent, suppliers are continuing to develop technologies to improve the cost effectiveness and limit the balance of plant impacts associated with ACI and are developing additional PAC production capabilities to ensure that the industry's needs are met. The commercialisation of ACI is a clear example of industry, through the dedication of many individuals and companies with support from the DOE and EPRI, meeting the challenge of developing cost-effectively reducing emissions from coal-fired power plants. 7 refs., 1 fig.

  18. Fly ash properties and mercury sorbent affect mercury release from curing concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Danold W. Golightly; Chin-Min Cheng; Linda K. Weavers; Harold W. Walker; William E. Wolfe

    2009-04-15

    The release of mercury from concrete containing fly ashes from various generator boilers and powdered activated carbon sorbent used to capture mercury was measured in laboratory experiments. Release of gaseous mercury from these concretes was less than 0.31% of the total quantity of mercury present. The observed gaseous emissions of mercury during the curing process demonstrated a dependency on the organic carbon content of the fly ash, with mercury release decreasing with increasing carbon content. Further, lower gaseous emissions of mercury were observed for concretes incorporating ash containing activated carbon sorbent than would be expected based on the observed association with organic carbon, suggesting that the powdered activated carbon more tightly binds the mercury as compared to unburned carbon in the ash. Following the initial 28-day curing interval, mercury release diminished with time. In separate leaching experiments, average mercury concentrations leached from fly ash concretes were less than 4.1 ng/L after 18 h and 7 days, demonstrating that less than 0.02% of the mercury was released during leaching. 25 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. MODELING REGIONAL-SCALE ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY USING RELMAP

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Lagrangian Model of Air Pollution (RELMAP) is used to simulate the emission, transport and diffusion, chemical transformation, and wet and dry deposition of elemental mercury gas, divalent mercury gas and particulate mercury. ased on recent modeling advances in Europ...

  20. Whole-ecosystem study shows rapid fish-mercury response to changes in mercury deposition

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Harris, R.C.; Rudd, J.W.M.; Amyot, M.; Babiarz, C.L.; Beaty, K.G.; Blanchfield, P.J.; Bodaly, R.A.; Branfireun, B.A.; Gilmour, C.C.; Graydon, J.A.; Heyes, A.; Hintelmann, H.; Hurley, J.P.; Kelly, C.A.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.; Lindberg, S.E.; Mason, R.P.; Paterson, M.J.; Podemski, C.L.; Robinson, A.; Sandilands, K.A.; Southworthn, G.R.; St. Louis, V.L.; Tate, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Methylmercury contamination of fisheries from centuries of industrial atmospheric emissions negatively impacts humans and wild-life worldwide. The response of fish methylmercury concentrations to changes in mercury deposition has been difficult to establish because sediments/soils contain large pools of historical contamination, and many factors in addition to deposition affect fish mercury. To test directly the response of fish contamination to changing mercury deposition, we conducted a whole-ecosystem experiment, increasing the mercury load to a lake and its watershed by the addition of enriched stable mercury isotopes. The isotopes allowed us to distinguish between experimentally applied mercury and mercury already present in the ecosystem and to examine bioaccumulation of mercury deposited to different parts of the watershed. Fish methylmercury concentrations responded rapidly to changes in mercury deposition over the first 3 years of study. Essentially all of the increase in fish methylmercury concentrations came from mercury deposited directly to the lake surface. In contrast, <1% of the mercury isotope deposited to the watershed was exported to the lake. Steady state was not reached within 3 years. Lake mercury isotope concentrations were still rising in lake biota, and watershed mercury isotope exports to the lake were increasing slowly. Therefore, we predict that mercury emissions reductions will yield rapid (years) reductions in fish methylmercury concentrations and will yield concomitant reductions in risk. However, a full response will be delayed by the gradual export of mercury stored in watersheds. The rate of response will vary among lakes depending on the relative surface areas of water and watershed. ?? 2007 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  1. Mercury in municipal solid wastes and New Jersey mercury prevention and reduction program

    SciTech Connect

    Erdogan, H.; Stevenson, E.

    1994-12-31

    Mercury is a very toxic heavy metal which accumulates in the brain causing neurological damages involving psychasthenic and vegetative syndrome. At high exposure levels it causes behavioral and personality changes, loss of memory and insomnia. Long-term exposure or exposure during pregnancy to mercury or mercury compounds can permanently damage the kidney and fetus. In addition to potential effects on human health, mercury poisoning can also affect other living organisms. Mercury is different than other heavy metals. It consistently biomagnifies and bioaccumulates within the aquatic food chain. Global sources of mercury release are both natural and anthropogenic. Natural sources include volatilization of gaseous-mercury iron soils ana rocks, volcanic releases, evaporation from the ocean and other water bodies. Anthropogenic sources are fuel and coal combustion, mining, smelting, manufacturing activities, disposal of sludge, pesticides, animal and food waste, and incineration of municipal solid waste. Worldwide combustion of municipal solid waste is the second largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. In New Jersey, incineration of solid waste is the largest source of atmospheric emission of mercury. The New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection and Energy (NJDEPE) has developed a comprehensive program to control and prevent emission of mercury resulting from combustion municipal solid waste.

  2. Mercury emission and plant uptake of trace elements during early stage of soil amendment using flue gas desulfurization materials.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A pilot-scale field study was carried out to investigate the distribution of Hg and other selected elements in the three potential mitigation pathways, i.e., emission to ambient air, uptake by surface vegetation (i.e., grass), and rainfall infiltration, after flue gas desulfurization (FGD) material ...

  3. Highly selective and responsive visible to near-IR ytterbium emissive probe for monitoring mercury(II).

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tao; Chan, Chi-Fai; Lan, Rongfeng; Wong, Wai-Kwok; Wong, Ka-Leung

    2014-01-20

    A new lanthanide probe based on the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) process with the combination of ytterbium porphyrinate complex and a rhodamine B derivative unit was synthesized to detect the Hg(2+) ion with responsive emission in the visible and near-IR region with a detection limit of 10 μM. PMID:24425677

  4. Elemental mercury removal using a wet scrubber

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, K.; Gonzalez, E.; Zhou, C.Q.; Livengood, C.D.; Mendelsohn, M.H.

    1999-11-01

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is emitted into the environment by both natural and human activities. Acute and chronic exposure to mercury and methyl mercury in humans results in central nervous system damage, kidney damage, and even death. Although some Hg emission sources have been regulated, coal-fired utilities have not been. In anticipation of federal regulations on mercury emissions from coal fired power plants, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has designed a flue gas simulation system to study the removal of elemental mercury. The simulated flue gas enters the system and combines with the inlet mercury vapor (from a calibrated permeation tube), carried by nitrogen gas. This combined gas continues past the flow meter and the pressure gage to the reactor inlet. Inside the reactor chamber, the flue gas is sprayed with NOXSORB{reg_sign} a chloric acid solution, which reacts with elemental mercury. The amount of reaction (oxidation) of elemental mercury is important since mercury in an oxidized form is highly soluble. In this form the Hg can be picked up downstream by a wet scrubber. Experiments on mercury removal from flue gases have been conducted at ANL, with the participation of a senior design team from Purdue University Calumet. A literature survey on the current and proposed mercury control legislation, along with the existing control technologies has been performed as part of the senior design project. The experimental results obtained at Argonne will be related to existing wet scrubber technology to determine the economic feasibility of mercury removal. A cost per pound of mercury analysis will be utilized.

  5. Using Wet-FGD systems for mercury removal.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Somoano, Mercedes; Unterberger, Sven; Hein, Klaus R G

    2005-09-01

    A plan to control mercury emissions to the atmosphere and to establish mercury emission limits has recently been elaborated by the European Commission, making it necessary to devise an efficient and cost effective mercury removal technology. Towards this end wet flue gas desulfurization units appear as a promising option for multi-pollutant control. However, more investigation on mercury removal and a greater mercury removal efficiency are required to achieve this objective. In the present work scrubber chemistry and the application of various solid additives to enhance mercury removal in wet scrubbers is evaluated. The results obtained show a significant correlation between mercury removal efficiency and the pH of the scrubber slurry and SO2 concentration. A weaker correlation was observed between oxygen or slurry concentration and removal efficiency. Finally several solid oxides were found to be effective additives for enhancing mercury capture in wet scrubbers. PMID:16121271

  6. Behavior of Mercury Emissions from a Commercial Coal-Fired Utility Boiler: TheRelationship Between Stack Speciation and Near-Field Plume Measurements

    EPA Science Inventory

    The reduction of divalent gaseous mercury (HgII) to elemental gaseous mercury (Hg0) in a commercial coal-fired power plant (CFPP)exhaust plume was investigated by simultaneous measurement in-stack and in-plume as part of a collaborative study among the U.S....

  7. Measurement of Total Site Mercury Emissions from a Chlor-Alkali Plant Using Ultraviolet Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy and Cell Room Roof-Vent Monitoring

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury-cell chlor-alkali plants can emit significant quantities of fugitive elemental mercury vapor to the air as part of production operations and maintenance activities. In the fall of 2006, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) conducted a measurement project at a ch...

  8. Got Mercury?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, Valerie; James, John T.; McCoy, Torin; Garcia, Hector

    2010-01-01

    Many lamps used in various spacecraft contain elemental mercury, which is efficiently absorbed through the lungs as a vapor. The liquid metal vaporizes slowly at room temperature, but may be completely vaporized when lamps are operating. Because current spacecraft environmental control systems are unable to remove mercury vapors, we considered short-term and long-term exposures. Using an existing study, we estimated mercury vapor releases from lamps that are not in operation during missions lasting less than or equal to 30 days; whereas we conservatively assumed complete vaporization from lamps that are operating or being used during missions lasing more than 30 days. Based on mercury toxicity, the Johnson Space Center's Toxicology Group recommends stringent safety controls and verifications for any hardware containing elemental mercury that could yield airborne mercury vapor concentrations greater than 0.1 mg/m3 in the total spacecraft atmosphere for exposures lasting less than or equal to 30 days, or concentrations greater than 0.01 mg/m3 for exposures lasting more than 30 days.

  9. Mercury Information Clearinghouse

    SciTech Connect

    Chad A. Wocken; Michael J. Holmes; Dennis L. Laudal; Debra F. Pflughoeft-Hassett; Greg F. Weber; Nicholas V. C. Ralston; Stanley J. Miller; Grant E. Dunham; Edwin S. Olson; Laura J. Raymond; John H. Pavlish; Everett A. Sondreal; Steven A. Benson

    2006-03-31

    The Canadian Electricity Association (CEA) identified a need and contracted the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to create and maintain an information clearinghouse on global research and development activities related to mercury emissions from coal-fired electric utilities. With the support of CEA, the Center for Air Toxic Metals{reg_sign} (CATM{reg_sign}) Affiliates, and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), the EERC developed comprehensive quarterly information updates that provide a detailed assessment of developments in the various areas of mercury monitoring, control, policy, and research. A total of eight topical reports were completed and are summarized and updated in this final CEA quarterly report. The original quarterly reports can be viewed at the CEA Web site (www.ceamercuryprogram.ca). In addition to a comprehensive update of previous mercury-related topics, a review of results from the CEA Mercury Program is provided. Members of Canada's coal-fired electricity generation sector (ATCO Power, EPCOR, Manitoba Hydro, New Brunswick Power, Nova Scotia Power Inc., Ontario Power Generation, SaskPower, and TransAlta) and CEA, have compiled an extensive database of information from stack-, coal-, and ash-sampling activities. Data from this effort are also available at the CEA Web site and have provided critical information for establishing and reviewing a mercury standard for Canada that is protective of environment and public health and is cost-effective. Specific goals outlined for the CEA mercury program included the following: (1) Improve emission inventories and develop management options through an intensive 2-year coal-, ash-, and stack-sampling program; (2) Promote effective stack testing through the development of guidance material and the support of on-site training on the Ontario Hydro method for employees, government representatives, and contractors on an as-needed basis; (3) Strengthen laboratory analytical capabilities through

  10. Mercury Flow Through the Mercury-Containing Lamp Sector of the Economy of the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Goonan, Thomas G.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction: This Scientific Investigations Report examines the flow of mercury through the mercury-containing lamp sector of the U.S. economy in 2001 from lamp manufacture through disposal or recycling. Mercury-containing lamps illuminate commercial and industrial buildings, outdoor areas, and residences. Mercury is an essential component in fluorescent lamps and high-intensity discharge lamps (high-pressure sodium, mercury-vapor, and metal halide). A typical fluorescent lamp is composed of a phosphor-coated glass tube with electrodes located at either end. Only a very small amount of the mercury is in vapor form. The remainder of the mercury is in the form of either liquid mercury metal or solid mercury oxide (mercury oxidizes over the life of the lamp). When voltage is applied, the electrodes energize the mercury vapor and cause it to emit ultraviolet energy. The phosphor coating absorbs the ultraviolet energy, which causes the phosphor to fluoresce and emit visible light. Mercury-containing lamps provide more lumens per watt than incandescent lamps and, as a result, require from three to four times less energy to operate. Mercury is persistent and toxic within the environment. Mercury-containing lamps are of environmental concern because they are widely distributed throughout the environment and are easily broken in handling. The magnitude of lamp sector mercury emissions, estimated to be 2.9 metric tons per year (t/yr), is small compared with the estimated mercury losses of the U.S. coal-burning and chlor-alkali industries, which are about 70 t/yr and about 90 t/yr, respectively.

  11. How does climate change influence Arctic mercury?

    PubMed

    Stern, Gary A; Macdonald, Robie W; Outridge, Peter M; Wilson, Simon; Chételat, John; Cole, Amanda; Hintelmann, Holger; Loseto, Lisa L; Steffen, Alexandra; Wang, Feiyue; Zdanowicz, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that climate change is already having significant impacts on many aspects of transport pathways, speciation and cycling of mercury within Arctic ecosystems. For example, the extensive loss of sea-ice in the Arctic Ocean and the concurrent shift from greater proportions of perennial to annual types have been shown to promote changes in primary productivity, shift foodweb structures, alter mercury methylation and demethylation rates, and influence mercury distribution and transport across the ocean-sea-ice-atmosphere interface (bottom-up processes). In addition, changes in animal social behavior associated with changing sea-ice regimes can affect dietary exposure to mercury (top-down processes). In this review, we address these and other possible ramifications of climate variability on mercury cycling, processes and exposure by applying recent literature to the following nine questions; 1) What impact has climate change had on Arctic physical characteristics and processes? 2) How do rising temperatures affect atmospheric mercury chemistry? 3) Will a decrease in sea-ice coverage have an impact on the amount of atmospheric mercury deposited to or emitted from the Arctic Ocean, and if so, how? 4) Does climate affect air-surface mercury flux, and riverine mercury fluxes, in Arctic freshwater and terrestrial systems, and if so, how? 5) How does climate change affect mercury methylation/demethylation in different compartments in the Arctic Ocean and freshwater systems? 6) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of freshwater food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of mercury? 7) How will climate change alter the structure and dynamics of marine food webs, and thereby affect the bioaccumulation of marine mercury? 8) What are the likely mercury emissions from melting glaciers and thawing permafrost under climate change scenarios? and 9) What can be learned from current mass balance inventories of mercury in the Arctic? The

  12. Antarctic springtime depletion of atmospheric mercury.

    PubMed

    Ebinghaus, Ralf; Kock, Hans H; Temme, Christian; Einax, Jürgen W; Lowe, Astrid G; Richter, Andreas; Burrows, John P; Schroeder, William H

    2002-03-15

    Unlike other heavy metals that are inherently associated with atmospheric aerosols, mercury in ambient air exists predominantly in the gaseous elemental form. Because of its prolonged atmospheric residence time, elemental mercury vapor is distributed on a global scale. Recently, Canadian researchers have discovered that total gaseous mercury levels in the lower tropospheric boundary layer in the Canadian Arctic are often significantly depleted during the months after polar sunrise. A possible explanation may involve oxidation of elemental mercury, followed by adsorption and deposition of the oxidized form, leading to an increased input of atmospheric mercury into the Arctic ecosystem. Here we present the first continuous high-time-resolution measurements of total gaseous mercury in the Antarctic covering a 12-month period between January 2000 and January 2001 at the German Antarctic research station Neumayer (70 degrees 39' S, 8 degrees 15' W). We report that mercury depletion events also occur in the Antarctic after polar sunrise and compare our measurements with a data setfrom Alert, Nunavut, Canada. We also present indications that BrO radicals and ozone play a key role in the boundary-layer chemistry during springtime mercury depletion events in the Antarctic troposphere. PMID:11944675

  13. The centralized control of elemental mercury emission from the flue gas by a magnetic rengenerable Fe-Ti-Mn spinel.

    PubMed

    Liao, Yong; Xiong, Shangchao; Dang, Hao; Xiao, Xin; Yang, Shijian; Wong, Po Keung

    2015-12-15

    A magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was developed to adsorb gaseous Hg(0) in our previous study. However, it is currently extremely restricted in the control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas for at least three reasons: sorbent recovery, sorbent regeneration and the interference of the chemical composition in the flue gas. Therefore, the effect of SO2 and H2O on the adsorption of gaseous Hg(0) on the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel and the regeneration of spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel were investigated in this study. Meanwhile, the procedure of the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas by the magnetic Fe-Ti-Mn spinel has been analyzed for industrial application. The spent Fe-Ti-Mn spinel can be regenerated by water washing followed by the thermal treatment at 450 °C with no obvious decrease of its ability for Hg(0) capture. Meanwhile, gaseous Hg(0) in the flue gas can be remarkably concentrated during the regeneration, facilitating its safe disposal. Initial pilot test demonstrated that gaseous Hg(0) in the real flue gas can be concentrated at least 100 times by the Fe-Ti-Mn spinel. Therefore, Fe-Ti-Mn spinel was a novel magnetic regenerable sorbent, which can be used for the centralized control of Hg(0) emission from the flue gas. PMID:26298264

  14. Mercury emissions control in coal combustion systems using potassium iodide: bench-scale and pilot-scale studies

    SciTech Connect

    Ying Li; Michael Daukoru; Achariya Suriyawong; Pratim Biswas

    2009-01-15

    Bench- and pilot-scale experiments were conducted using potassium iodide (KI) for capture and removal of Hg in air and coal combustion exhaust. Two bench-scale reactor systems were used: (1) a packed-bed reactor (PBR) packed with granular or powder KI and (2) an aerosol flow reactor (AFR) with injection of KI particles. It was found that a higher temperature, a higher concentration of KI, and a longer gas residence time resulted in a higher Hg removal efficiency. A 100% Hg removal was achieved in the PBR above 300{sup o}C using 0.5 g of powder KI and in the AFR above 500{sup o}C with a KI/Hg molar ratio of 600 at a 5.8 s residence time. The low KI injection ratio relative to Hg indicated that KI is highly effective for Hg removal in air. Formation of I{sub 2} vapor by the oxidation of KI by O{sub 2} at high temperatures, which then reacts with Hg to produce HgI{sub 2}, was identified as the pathway for removal. The pilot-scale experiments were conducted in a 160 kW pulverized coal combustor. KI was introduced in two ways: as a powder mixed with coal and by spraying KI solution droplets into the flue gas. In both cases the Hg removal efficiency increased with an increase in the feed rate of KI. Mixing KI powder with coal was found to be more effective than spraying KI into the flue gas. The Hg removal by KI was less efficient in the pilot-scale tests than in the bench-scale tests probably due to certain flue gas components reacting with KI or I{sub 2}. Hg speciation measurements in both bench- and pilot-scale experiments indicated no oxidized mercury in the gas phase upon introduction of KI, indicating that the oxidation product HgI2 was captured in the particulate phase. This is very beneficial in coal-fired power plants equipped with electrostatic precipitators where particulate-bound Hg can be efficiently removed. 27 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Assessing the potential for re-emission of mercury deposited in precipitation from arid soils using a stable isotope

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ericksen, J.A.; Gustin, M.S.; Lindberg, S.E.; Olund, S.D.; Krabbenhoft, D.P.

    2005-01-01

    A solution containing 198Hg in the form of HgCl2 was added to a 4 m2 area of desert soils in Nevada, and soil Hg fluxes were measured using three dynamic flux chambers. There was an immediate release of 198Hg after it was applied, and then emissions decreased exponentially. Within the first 6 h after the isotope was added to the soil, ???12 ng m-2 of 198Hg was emitted to the atmosphere, followed by a relatively steady flux of the isotope at 0.2 ?? 0.2 ng m-2 h-1 for the remainder of the experiment (62 days). Over this time, -200 ng m-2 or 2% of the 198Hg isotope was emitted from the soil, and we estimate that ???6% of the isotope would be re-emitted in a year's time. During the experiment, dry deposition of elemental Hg from the atmosphere was measured with an average deposition rate of 0.2 ?? 0.1 ng m-2 h-1. Emission of ambient Hg from the soil was observed after soil wetting with the isotope solution and after a storm event. However, the added moisture from the storm event did not affect 198Hg flux. Results suggest that in this desert environment, where there is limited precipitation, Hg deposited by wet processes is not readily re-emitted and that dry deposition of elemental Hg may be an important process. ?? 2005 American Chemical Society.

  16. Mercury Contamination

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Marcella R.

    2013-01-01

    IN BRIEF A residential elemental mercury contamination incident in Rhode Island resulted in the evacuation of an entire apartment complex. To develop recommendations for improved response, all response-related documents were examined; personnel involved in the response were interviewed; policies and procedures were reviewed; and environmental monitoring data were compiled from specific phases of the response for analysis of effect. A significant challenge of responding to residential elemental mercury contamination lies in communicating risk to residents affected py a HazMat spill. An ongoing, open and honest dialogue is emphasized where concerns of the public are heard and addressed, particularly when establishing and/or modifying policies and procedures for responding to residential elemental mercury contamination. PMID:23436951

  17. Evaluation of the characteristics of a field emission cathode for use in a Mercury ion trap frequency standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christman, J. M.

    1988-01-01

    The performance is reported of a field emission array characterized for the purpose of replacing the filament in a trapped ion frequency standard. This dark electron emitter eliminates the need for the interference filter currently used in the trapped ion standard. While reducing the filament's unwanted light, this filter causes a significant reduction in the signal. The magnetic field associated with the filament is also eliminated, thus potentially improving the present stability of the trapped ion standard. The operation of the filament in the present system is described, as well as the associated concerns. The cathode considered for the filament's replacement is then described along with the experimental system. Experimental results, observations, and conclusions are presented.

  18. Regional scale photochemical model evaluation of total mercury wet deposition and speciated ambient mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, Kirk R.; Bash, Jesse O.

    2012-03-01

    Methylmercury is a known neurotoxin with deleterious health effects on humans and wildlife. Atmospheric deposition is the largest source of mercury loading to most terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Regional scale air quality models are needed to quantify mercury deposition resulting from complex emissions sources and physical and chemical processes that govern the fate of mercury in the atmosphere. Total mercury wet deposition estimates from multiple regional photochemical transport models applied at 12 km grid resolution over the continental United States compare well with observations (CAMx fractional error = 45%, CMAQ fractional error = 33%) despite uncertainties in global mercury emissions inventories and certain chemical transformation pathways. In addition, both CMAQ and CAMx well represent observed diel and seasonal patterns of Hg(0) and tend to exaggerate the diel patter of Hg(II) at AMNet monitor locations. The observed fraction of particulate mercury to total oxidized mercury (sum of particulate mercury and Hg(II)) is generally greater in colder months and during overnight hours. The modeling systems tend to capture these patterns but have a systematically lower fraction of particulate mercury to total oxidized mercury, especially in winter months.Annual total mercury deposition from wet and dry processes is 65% greater in CMAQ compared to CAMx over the entire modeling domain. This is largely due to higher wet deposition in CMAQ and higher dry deposition of Hg(0), which is treated as equilibrium with mercury re-emissions and not modeled in CAMx. A sensitivity using CAMx with Hg(0) dry deposition treated similar to CMAQ resulted in more comparable total mercury deposition estimates. Modeled dry deposition velocities for Hg(II) compare well with the limited experimental data, while Hg(0) dry deposition velocities are lower than published experimental data. A mercury bi-directional flux sensitivity application in CMAQ had the overall effect of reducing

  19. Harnessing Collective Knowledge Inherent in Tag Clouds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cress, U.; Held, C.

    2013-01-01

    Tagging systems represent the conceptual knowledge of a community. We experimentally tested whether people harness this collective knowledge when navigating through the Web. As a within-factor we manipulated people's prior knowledge (no knowledge vs. prior knowledge that was congruent/incongruent to the collective knowledge inherent in the tags).…

  20. Critical Social Theory: Core Tenets, Inherent Issues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freeman, Melissa; Vasconcelos, Erika Franca S.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter outlines the core tenets of critical social theory and describes inherent issues facing evaluators conducting critical theory evaluation. Using critical pedagogy as an example, the authors describe the issues facing evaluators by developing four of the subtheories that comprise a critical social theory: (a) a theory of false…

  1. Inherent freeze protection for solar water heaters

    SciTech Connect

    Jeter, S.M.; Leonaitis, L.L.; Leonaitis, L.L.

    1981-05-01

    Research and development of a method for protection of a solar collector from freezing is described. The method is shown to be technically and economically feasible. A prototype water heating system using the inherent freeze protection method was successfully operated during the winter of 1980 to 1981.

  2. Phytoremediation of Ionic and Methyl Mercury Pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Meagher, Richard B.

    2005-06-01

    Phytoremediation is defined as the use of plants to extract, resist, detoxify, and/or sequester toxic environmental pollutants. The long-term goal of the proposed research is to develop and test highly productive, field-adapted plant species that have been engineered for the phytoremediation of mercury. A variety of different genes, which should enable plants to clean mercury polluted sites are being tested as tools for mercury phytoremediation, first in model laboratory plants and then in potential field species. Several of these genes have already been shown to enhance mercury phytoremediation. Mercury pollution is a serious, world-wide problem affecting the health of human and wildlife populations. Environmentally, the most serious mercury threat is the production of methylmercury (CH3Hg+) by native bacteria at mercury contaminated wetland sites. Methylmercury is inherently more toxic than metallic (Hg(0)) or ionic (Hg(II)) mercury, and because methylmercury is prolifically biomagnified up the food chain, it poses the most immediate danger to animal populations. We have successfully engineered two model plants, Arabidopsis and tobacco, to use the bacterial merB gene to convert methylmercury to less toxic ionic mercury and to use the bacterial merA gene to further detoxify ionic mercury to the least toxic form of mercury, metallic mercury. Plants expressing both MerA and MerB proteins detoxify methylmercury in two steps to the metallic form. These plants germinate, grow, and set seed at normal growth rates on levels of methylmercury or ionic mercury that are lethal to normal plants. Our newest efforts involve engineering plants with several additional bacterial and plant genes that allow for higher levels of mercury resistance and mercury hyperaccumulation. The potential for these plants to hyperaccumulate mercury was further advanced by developing constitutive, aboveground, and root-specific gene expression systems. Our current strategy is to engineer plants to

  3. NATURAL MERCURY ISOTOPES AS TRACERS OF SOURCES, CYCLING, AND DEPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research centers on the use of mercury isotope systematics as a new way of investigating natural and anthropogenic emissions of mercury into the atmosphere and of the atmospheric processes that affect transportation and deposition. Given the fact that isotope systematics of ...

  4. Microplasma source based on a dielectric barrier discharge for the determination of mercury by atomic emission spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Zhenli; Chan, George C-Y; Ray, Steven J; Zhang, Xinrong; Hieftje, Gary M

    2008-11-15

    A low-power, atmospheric-pressure microplasma source based on a dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) has been developed for use in atomic emission spectrometry. The small plasma (0.6 mm x 1 mm x 10 mm) is generated within a glass cell by using electrodes that do not contact the plasma. Powered by an inexpensive ozone generator, the discharge ignites spontaneously, can be easily sustained in Ar or He at gas flow rates ranging from 5 to 200 mL min(-1), and requires less than 1 W of power. The effect of operating parameters such as plasma gas identity, plasma gas flow rate, and residual water vapor on the DBD source performance has been investigated. The plasma can be operated without removal of residual water vapor, permitting it to be directly coupled with cold vapor generation sample introduction. The spectral background of the source is quite clean in the range from 200 to 260 nm with low continuum and structured components. The DBD source has been applied to the determination of Hg by continuous-flow, cold vapor generation and offers detection limits from 14 (He-DBD) to 43 pg mL(-1) (Ar-DBD) without removal of the residual moisture. The use of flow injection with the He-DBD permits measurement of Hg with a 7.2 pg limit of detection, and with repetitive injections having an RSD of <2% for a 10 ng mL(-1) standard. PMID:18937424

  5. Mercury, elemental

    Integrated Risk Information System (IRIS)

    Mercury , elemental ; CASRN 7439 - 97 - 6 Human health assessment information on a chemical substance is included in the IRIS database only after a comprehensive review of toxicity data , as outlined in the IRIS assessment development process . Sections I ( Health Hazard Assessments for Noncarcinoge

  6. Mercury's Messenger

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Clark R.

    2004-01-01

    Forty years after Mariner 2, planetary exploration has still only just begun, and many more missions are on drawing boards, nearing the launch pad, or even en route across interplanetary space to their targets. One of the most challenging missions that will be conducted this decade is sending the MESSENGER spacecraft to orbit the planet Mercury.…

  7. Correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 and estimated mercury emissions in China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia derived from observations in northwest and southwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, X. W.; Zhang, H.; Lin, C.-J.; Feng, X.; Zhou, L. X.; Fang, S. X.

    2014-09-01

    Correlation analysis between atmospheric mercury (Hg) and other trace gases are useful for identification of sources and constraining regional estimated Hg emissions. Emissions of Hg in Asia contribute significantly to the global budget of atmospheric Hg. However, due to the lack of reliable data on the source strength, large uncertainties remain in the emission inventories of Hg in Asia. In the present study, we calculated the correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 for mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia using the ground-based observations at three remote sites in northwest and southwest China, and applied the values to estimate GEM emissions in the four source regions. The geometric mean of the GEM / CO correlation slopes for mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were 7.3 ± 4.3, 7.8 ± 6.4, 7.8 ± 5.0, and 13.4 ± 9.5 pg m-3 ppb-1, respectively. The values in the same source regions were 240 ± 119, 278 ± 164, 315 ± 289 pg m-3 ppm-1 for the GEM / CO2 correlation slopes; and 33.3 ± 30.4, 27.4 ± 31.0, 23.5 ± 15.3, and 20.5 ± 10.0 pg m-3 ppb-1 for the GEM / CH4 correlation slopes, respectively. These values were the first reported correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2, and GEM / CH4 in four important source regions of Asia except the GEM / CO ratios in mainland China. The correlation slopes of GEM / CO, GEM / CO2 and GEM / CH4 in Asia were relatively higher than those observed in Europe, North America and South Africa, which may highlight GEM emissions from non-ferrous smelting, mercury mining, natural sources and historical deposited mercury (re-emission) in Asia. Using the observed GEM / CO and GEM / CO2 slopes, and the recently reported emission inventories of CO and CO2, the annual GEM emissions in mainland China, South Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, and Central Asia were estimated to be in the ranges of 1071-1187 t, 340-470 t, 125 t, and 54-90 t, respectively. The estimate

  8. Revealing Mercury

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prockter, L. M.; Solomon, S. C.; Head, J. W.; Watters, T. R.; Murchie, S. L.; Robinson, M. S.; Chapman, C. R.; McNutt, R. L.

    2009-04-01

    The MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging (MESSENGER) spacecraft, developed under NASA's Discovery Program, launched in August 2004. En route to insertion into orbit about Mercury in 2011, MESSENGER flies by Mercury three times. The first and second of these encounters were accomplished in January and October of 2008. These flybys viewed portions of Mercury's surface that were not observed by Mariner 10 during its reconnaissance of somewhat less than half of the planet in 1974-1975. All MESSENGER instruments operated during each flyby and returned a wealth of new data. Many of the new observations were focused on the planet's geology, including monochrome imaging at resolutions as high as 100 m/pixel, multispectral imaging in 11 filters at resolutions as high as 500 m/pixel, laser altimetry tracks extending over several thousands of kilometers, and high-resolution spectral measurements of several types of terrain. Here we present an overview of the first inferences on the global geology of Mercury from the MESSENGER observations. Whereas evidence for volcanism was equivocal from Mariner 10 data, the new MESSENGER images and altimetry provide compelling evidence that volcanism was widespread and protracted on Mercury. Color imaging reveals three common spectral units on the surface: a higher-reflectance, relatively red material occurring as a distinct class of smooth plains, typically with distinct embayment relationships interpreted to indicate volcanic emplacement; a lower-reflectance, relatively blue material typically excavated by impact craters and therefore inferred to be more common at depth; and a spectrally intermediate terrain that constitutes much of the uppermost crust. Three more minor spectral units are also seen: fresh crater ejecta, reddish material associated with rimless depressions interpreted to be volcanic centers, and high-reflectance deposits seen in some crater floors. Preliminary measurements of crater size

  9. Increase in mercury in Pacific yellowfin tuna.

    PubMed

    Drevnick, Paul E; Lamborg, Carl H; Horgan, Martin J

    2015-04-01

    Mercury is a toxic trace metal that can accumulate to levels that threaten human and environmental health. Models and empirical data suggest that humans are responsible for a great deal of the mercury actively cycling in the environment at present. Thus, one might predict that the concentration of mercury in fish should have increased dramatically since the Industrial Revolution. Evidence in support of this hypothesis has been hard to find, however, and some studies have suggested that analyses of fish show no change in mercury concentration. By compiling and re-analyzing published reports on yellowfin tuna (Thunnus albacares) caught near Hawaii (USA) over the past half century, the authors found that the concentration of mercury in these fish currently is increasing at a rate of at least 3.8% per year. This rate of increase is consistent with a model of anthropogenic forcing on the mercury cycle in the North Pacific Ocean and suggests that fish mercury concentrations are keeping pace with current loading increases to the ocean. Future increases in mercury in yellowfin tuna and other fishes can be avoided by reductions in atmospheric mercury emissions from point sources. PMID:25645441

  10. MERCURY SPECIATION SAMPLING AT NEW CENTURY ENERGY'S VALMONT STATION

    SciTech Connect

    Dennis L. Laudal

    2000-04-01

    The 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments required the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to determine whether the presence of mercury in the stack emissions from fossil fuel-fired electric utility power plants poses an unacceptable public health risk. EPA's conclusions and recommendations were presented in the ''Mercury Study Report to Congress'' and ''Study of Hazardous Air Pollutant Emissions from Electric Utility Steam Generating Units''. The first report addressed both the human health and environmental effects of anthropogenic mercury emissions, while the second addressed the risk to public health posed by the emission of mercury and other hazardous air pollutants from steam electric generating units. Although these reports did not state that mercury controls on coal-fired electric power stations would be required given the current state of the art, they did indicate that the EPA views mercury as a potential threat to human health. Therefore, it was concluded that mercury controls at some point may be necessary. EPA also indicated that additional research/information was necessary before any definitive statement could be made. In an effort to determine the amount and types of mercury being emitted into the atmosphere by coal-fired power plants, EPA in late 1998 issued an information collection request (ICR) that required all coal-fired power plants to analyze their coal and submit the results to EPA on a quarterly basis. In addition, about 85 power stations were required to measure the speciated mercury concentration in the flue gas. These plants were selected on the basis of plant configuration and coal type. The Valmont Station owned and operated by New Century Energy in Boulder, Colorado, was selected for detailed mercury speciation of the flue gas as part of the ICR process. New Century Energy, in a tailored collaboration with EPRI and the U.S. Department of Energy, contracted with the Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) to do a study evaluating

  11. Anthropogenic Mercury Accumulation in Watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyer, E. W.; Drohan, P. J.; Lawler, D.; Grimm, J.; Grant, C.; Eklof, K. J.; Bennett, J.; Naber, M. D.

    2014-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition of mercury (Hg) is a critical environmental stress that affects ecosystems and human health. Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited over large geographic areas to downwind landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. The northern Appalachian Mountains are downwind of major atmospheric mercury emissions sources. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the region. Here, we explored mercury accumulation in forested landscapes - in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at 10 forested locations, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. To quantify mercury accumulation in terrestrial environments, we measured soil mercury concentrations within and surrounding 12 vernal pools spanning various physiographic settings in the region. Given that vernal pools have large inputs of water via precipitation yet do not have any stream discharge outflow, they are likely spots within the forested landscape to accumulate pollutants that enter via wet atmospheric deposition. To quantify mercury accumulation in aquatic environments, we sampled mercury concentrations in streams draining 35 forested watersheds, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of the Northern Appalachian Mountains.

  12. Mercury's South Polar Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation shows 89 wide-angle camera (WAC) images of Mercury’s south polar region acquired by the Mercury Dual Imaging System (MDIS) over one complete Mercury solar day (176 Earth days). Thi...

  13. MERCURY IN TREE RINGS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Contamination caused by release of mercury into the environment is a growing concern. This release occurs due to a variety of anthropogenic activities and natural sources. After release, mercury undergoes complicated chemical transformations. The inorganic forms of mercury releas...

  14. Mercury in the national parks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pritz, Colleen Flanagan; Eagles-Smith, Collin; Krabbenhoft, David

    2014-01-01

    One thing is certain: Even for trained researchers, predicting mercury’s behavior in the environment is challenging. Fundamentally it is one of 98 naturally occurring elements, with natural sources, such as volcanoes, and concentrated ore deposits, such as cinnabar. Yet there are also human-caused sources, such as emissions from both coal-burning power plants and mining operations for gold and silver. There are elemental forms, inorganic or organic forms, reactive and unreactive species. Mercury is emitted, then deposited, then re-emitted—thus earning its mercurial reputation. Most importantly, however, it is ultimately transferred into food chains through processes fueled by tiny microscopic creatures: bacteria.

  15. Control of Emissions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parrish, Clyde F. (Inventor); Chung, Landy (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods and apparatus utilizing chlorine dioxide and hydrogen peroxide are useful to reduce NOx emissions, as well as SOx and mercury (or other heavy metal) emissions, from combustion flue gas streams.

  16. Mercury's Exosphere During MESSENGER's Second Flyby: Detection of Magnesium and Distinct Distributions of Neutral Species

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClintock, William E.; Vervack, Ronald J., Jr.; Bradley, E. Todd; Killen, Rosemary M.; Mouawad, Nelly; Sprague, Ann L.; Burger, Matthew H.; Solomon, Sean C.; Izenberg, Noam R.

    2009-01-01

    During MESSENGER's second Mercury flyby, the Mercury Atmospheric and Surface Composition Spectrometer observed emission from Mercury's neutral exosphere. These observations include the first detection of emission from magnesium. Differing spatial distributions for sodium, calcium, and magnesium were revealed by observations beginning in Mercury's tail region, approximately 8 Mercury radii anti-sunward of the planet, continuing past the nightside, and ending near the dawn terminator. Analysis of these observations, supplemented by observations during the first Mercury flyby as well as those by other MESSENGER instruments, suggests that the distinct spatial distributions arise from a combination of differences in source, transfer, and loss processes.

  17. Elemental mercury removal using a wet scrubber.

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez, E.; Livengood, C. D.; Martin, K.; Mendelsohn, M. H.; Zhou, C. Q.

    1999-05-19

    Mercury (Hg) is a toxic metal that is emitted into the environment by both natural and human activities. Acute and chronic exposure to mercury and methyl mercury in humans results in central nervous system damage, kidney damage, and even death. Although some Hg emission sources have been regulated, coal-fired utilities have not been. In anticipation of federal regulations on mercury emissions from coal-fired power plants, Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) has designed a flue gas simulation system to study the removal of elemental mercury. The simulated flue gas enters the system and combines with the inlet mercury vapor (from a calibrated permeation tube), carried by nitrogen gas. This combined gas continues past the flow meter and the pressure gage to the reactor inlet. Inside the reactor chamber, the flue gas is sprayed with NOXSORB{reg_sign}, a chloric acid solution, which reacts with elemental mercury. The amount of reaction (oxidation) of elemental mercury is important since mercury in an oxidized form is highly soluble, In this form, the Hg can be picked up downstream by a wet scrubber from fossil-fuel burning utilities. Experiments on mercury removal from flue gases have been conducted at ANL, with the participation of a senior design team from Purdue University Calumet. Temperature variations ranging from room temperature to 350 F have been studied. Other parameters, such as the concentration of NOXSORB{reg_sign}, were also tested. Furthermore, pump speed and sprayer droplet sizes of the NOXSORB{reg_sign} solution were studied. A literature survey on the current and proposed mercury control legislation, along with the existing control technologies, has been performed as part of the senior design project. With guidance from ANL, an understanding of the simulation system has been developed. This information has been used to determine the mass transfer. Another literature survey was performed on the reaction kinetics of mercury. The information obtained was

  18. Methods and sorbents for utilizing a hot-side electrostatic precipitator for removal of mercury from combustion gases

    DOEpatents

    Nelson, Sidney

    2011-02-15

    Methods are provided for reducing emission of mercury from a gas stream by treating the gas with carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles to reduce the mercury content of the gas; collecting the carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles on collection plates of a hot-side ESP; periodically rapping the collection plates to release a substantial portion of the collected carbonaceous mercury sorbent particles into hoppers; and periodically emptying the hoppers, wherein such rapping and emptying are done at rates such that less than 70% of mercury adsorbed onto the mercury sorbent desorbs from the collected mercury sorbent into the gas stream.

  19. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  20. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII..., Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor As stated in Tables 1 and 2 of Subpart IIIII, examples of...

  1. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  2. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  3. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  4. 40 CFR Table 6 to Subpart IIIii of... - Examples of Techniques for Equipment Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Problem Identification, Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor 6 Table 6 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection... Hazardous Air Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII..., Leak Detection and Mercury Vapor As stated in Tables 1 and 2 of Subpart IIIII, examples of...

  5. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart IIIii of... - Work Practice Standards-Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for Mercury Liquid Collection 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63 Protection of Environment... Pollutants: Mercury Emissions From Mercury Cell Chlor-Alkali Plants Pt. 63, Subpt. IIIII, Table 4 Table 4 to Subpart IIIII of Part 63—Work Practice Standards—Requirements for Mercury Liquid Collection As stated...

  6. Inherently Tunable Electrostatic Assembly of Membrane Proteins

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, H.; Whited, G.; Nguyen, C.; Okerlund, A.; Stucky, G.D.

    2009-05-19

    Membrane proteins are a class of nanoscopic entities that control the matter, energy, and information transport across cellular boundaries. Electrostatic interactions are shown to direct the rapid co-assembly of proteorhodopsin (PR) and lipids into long-range crystalline arrays. The roles of inherent charge variations on lipid membranes and PR variants with different compositions are examined by tuning recombinant PR variants with different extramembrane domain sizes and charged amino acid substitutions, lipid membrane compositions, and lipid-to-PR stoichiometric ratios. Rational control of this predominantly electrostatic assembly for PR crystallization is demonstrated, and the same principles should be applicable to the assembly and crystallization of other integral membrane proteins.

  7. Apparent subdiffusion inherent to single particle tracking.

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Douglas S; Forstner, Martin B; Käs, Josef A

    2002-01-01

    Subdiffusion and its causes in both in vivo and in vitro lipid membranes have become the focus of recent research. We report apparent subdiffusion, observed via single particle tracking (SPT), in a homogeneous system that only allows normal diffusion (a DMPC monolayer in the fluid state). The apparent subdiffusion arises from slight errors in finding the actual particle position due to noise inherent in all experimental SPT systems. A model is presented that corrects this artifact, and predicts the time scales after which the effect becomes negligible. The techniques and results presented in this paper should be of use in all SPT experiments studying normal and anomalous diffusion. PMID:12324428

  8. Apparent subdiffusion inherent to single particle tracking.

    PubMed

    Martin, Douglas S; Forstner, Martin B; Käs, Josef A

    2002-10-01

    Subdiffusion and its causes in both in vivo and in vitro lipid membranes have become the focus of recent research. We report apparent subdiffusion, observed via single particle tracking (SPT), in a homogeneous system that only allows normal diffusion (a DMPC monolayer in the fluid state). The apparent subdiffusion arises from slight errors in finding the actual particle position due to noise inherent in all experimental SPT systems. A model is presented that corrects this artifact, and predicts the time scales after which the effect becomes negligible. The techniques and results presented in this paper should be of use in all SPT experiments studying normal and anomalous diffusion. PMID:12324428

  9. Inherent contradictions in the ego ideal.

    PubMed

    Dendy, Errol B

    2010-10-01

    The author puts forth a concept of the ego ideal as the fantasied self that the child believes will bring it gratification and happiness. He then shows how the ego ideal's content evolves through the various stages of psychosexual development in accordance with its mission. A picture emerges of an ego ideal in inherent conflict because it is shaped by contradictory wishes, as well as contradictory fantasies of how to make those wishes come true. A section on romantic love points to a second contradiction within the ego ideal, beyond its contradictory content: a contradiction of aim. PMID:21141785

  10. Inherently Chiral Spider-Like Oligothiophenes.

    PubMed

    Sannicolò, Francesco; Mussini, Patrizia R; Benincori, Tiziana; Martinazzo, Rocco; Arnaboldi, Serena; Appoloni, Giulio; Panigati, Monica; Quartapelle Procopio, Elsa; Marino, Valentina; Cirilli, Roberto; Casolo, Simone; Kutner, Wlodzimierz; Noworyta, Krzysztof; Pietrzyk-Le, Agnieszka; Iskierko, Zofia; Bartold, Katarzyna

    2016-07-25

    The racemate of an inherently chiral "spider-like" octathiophene monomer T83 , in which chirality is generated by torsion in its backbone, was synthesized. The racemate was resolved into configurationally stable antipodes by HPLC on a chiral stationary phase. Electrooxidation of the enantiomers resulted in materials displaying high enantiorecognition ability towards the antipodes of some chiral probes. Moreover, the T83 racemate demonstrated great aptitude to stimulate formation of 3D rigid architectures if used as a cross-linking monomer for molecular imprinting. This feature was exploited to devise a molecularly imprinted polymer-based chemosensor selective for a thymine-adenine oligonucleotide. PMID:27321902

  11. Mercury Continuous Emmission Monitor Calibration

    SciTech Connect

    John Schabron; Eric Kalberer; Ryan Boysen; William Schuster; Joseph Rovani

    2009-03-12

    Mercury continuous emissions monitoring systems (CEMs) are being implemented in over 800 coal-fired power plant stacks throughput the U.S. Western Research Institute (WRI) is working closely with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI), the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), and the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) to facilitate the development of the experimental criteria for a NIST traceability protocol for dynamic elemental mercury vapor calibrators/generators. These devices are used to calibrate mercury CEMs at power plant sites. The Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) which was published in the Federal Register on May 18, 2005 and vacated by a Federal appeals court in early 2008 required that calibration be performed with NIST-traceable standards. Despite the vacature, mercury emissions regulations in the future will require NIST traceable calibration standards, and EPA does not want to interrupt the effort towards developing NIST traceability protocols. The traceability procedures will be defined by EPA. An initial draft traceability protocol was issued by EPA in May 2007 for comment. In August 2007, EPA issued a conceptual interim traceability protocol for elemental mercury calibrators. The protocol is based on the actual analysis of the output of each calibration unit at several concentration levels ranging initially from about 2-40 {micro}g/m{sup 3} elemental mercury, and in the future down to 0.2 {micro}g/m{sup 3}, and this analysis will be directly traceable to analyses by NIST. The EPA traceability protocol document is divided into two separate sections. The first deals with the qualification of calibrator models by the vendors for use in mercury CEM calibration. The second describes the procedure that the vendors must use to certify the calibrators that meet the qualification specifications. The NIST traceable certification is performance based, traceable to analysis using isotope dilution inductively coupled plasma

  12. Contribution of contaminated sites to the global mercury budget.

    PubMed

    Kocman, David; Horvat, Milena; Pirrone, Nicola; Cinnirella, Sergio

    2013-08-01

    Global mercury emission inventories include anthropogenic emissions, contributing via current use or presence of mercury in a variety of products and processes, as well as natural source emissions. These inventories neglect the contribution of areas contaminated with mercury from historical accumulation, which surround mines or production plants associated with mercury production or use. Although recent studies have shown that releases of mercury from these historical sites can be significant, a database of the global distribution of mercury contaminated sites does not exist, nor are there means of scaling up such releases to estimate fluxes on a regional and global basis. Therefore, here we estimated for the first time the contribution of mercury releases from contaminated sites to the global mercury budget. A geo-referenced database was built, comprising over 3000 mercury contaminated sites associated with mercury mining, precious metal processing, non-ferrous metal production and various polluted industrial sites. In the assessment, mercury releases from these sites to both the atmosphere as well as the hydrosphere were considered based on data available for selected case studies, their number, the reported extent of contamination and geographical location. Annual average global emissions of mercury from identified contaminated sites amount to 198 (137-260) Mgyr(-1). Of that, 82 (70-95)Mgyr(-1) contribute to atmospheric releases, while 116 (67-165) Mgyr(-1) is estimated to be transported away from these sites by hydrological processes. Although these estimates are associated with large uncertainties, our current understanding of mercury releases from contaminated sites indicates that these releases can also be of paramount importance on the global perspective. This is especially important as it is known that these sites represent a long-term source of releases if not managed properly. Therefore, the information presented here is needed by governments and NGO

  13. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery.

    SciTech Connect

    Krumhansl, James Lee; Beauheim, Richard Louis; Brady, Patrick Vane; Arnold, Bill Walter; Kanney, Joseph F.; McKenna, Sean Andrew

    2009-05-01

    Expansion of uranium mining in the United States is a concern to some environmental groups and sovereign Native American Nations. An approach which may alleviate some problems is to develop inherently safe in situ uranium recovery ('ISR') technologies. Current ISR technology relies on chemical extraction of trace levels of uranium from aquifers that, once mined, can still contain dissolved uranium and other trace metals that are a health concern. Existing ISR operations are few in number; however, high uranium prices are driving the industry to consider expanding operations nation-wide. Environmental concerns and enforcement of the new 30 ppb uranium drinking water standard may make opening new mining operations more difficult and costly. Here we propose a technological fix: the development of inherently safe in situ recovery (ISISR) methods. The four central features of an ISISR approach are: (1) New 'green' leachants that break down predictably in the subsurface, leaving uranium, and associated trace metals, in an immobile form; (2) Post-leachant uranium/metals-immobilizing washes that provide a backup decontamination process; (3) An optimized well-field design that increases uranium recovery efficiency and minimizes excursions of contaminated water; and (4) A combined hydrologic/geochemical protocol for designing low-cost post-extraction long-term monitoring. ISISR would bring larger amounts of uranium to the surface, leave fewer toxic metals in the aquifer, and cost less to monitor safely - thus providing a 'win-win-win' solution to all stakeholders.

  14. Photoreponsive Hybrid Nanoparticles with Inherent FRET Activity.

    PubMed

    Achilleos, Demetra S; Hatton, T Alan; Vamvakaki, Maria

    2016-06-14

    The photoactivated inherent fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) properties of a hard-and-soft hybrid nanosystem comprising poly(1'-(2-methacryloxyethyl)-3',3'-dimethyl-6-nitrospiro-(2H-1-benzopyran-2,2'-indoline))-co-poly[2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate] (PSPMA-co-PDMAEMA) random copolymer brushes on silica nanoparticles are described. This unique FRET process is switched on by the simultaneous generation of isomer X and merocyanine (MC), which are bipolar in nature and comprise donor-acceptor dyads, from a single spiropyran (SP) chromophore upon UV irradiation. These X-MC species exhibit sufficient lifetimes to allow the read-out of the FRET process. The phenomenon is gradually switched off because of the thermal relaxation of the bipolar chromophores. This inherent property of the nanoemitters is employed in the development of biosensors of high specificity by monitoring variations in the FRET efficiency and lifetime of the hybrids in the presence of biological substances. More specifically, bovine serum albumin (BSA) augments the formation of MC species and retards the MC photobleaching process, leading to the enhancement of the FRET efficiency and lifetime, respectively. On the other hand, amino acid l-histidine further retards the MC thermal relaxation and prolongs the FRET process. We envisage that this platform opens new perspectives in the development of novel, optical nanosensors for applications in various fields including healthcare products and environmental monitoring. PMID:27222922

  15. Inherent emotional quality of human speech sounds

    PubMed Central

    Myers-Schulz, Blake; Pujara, Maia; Wolf, Richard C.; Koenigs, Michael

    2012-01-01

    During much of the past century, it was widely believed that phonemes—the human speech sounds that constitute words—have no inherent semantic meaning, and that the relationship between a combination of phonemes (a word) and its referent is simply arbitrary. Although recent work has challenged this picture by revealing psychological associations between certain phonemes and particular semantic contents, the precise mechanisms underlying these associations have not been fully elucidated. Here we provide novel evidence that certain phonemes have an inherent, non-arbitrary emotional quality. Moreover, we show that the perceived emotional valence of certain phoneme combinations depends on a specific acoustic feature—namely, the dynamic shift within the phonemes' first two frequency components. These data suggest a phoneme-relevant acoustic property influencing the communication of emotion in humans, and provide further evidence against previously held assumptions regarding the structure of human language. This finding has potential applications for a variety of social, educational, clinical, and marketing contexts. PMID:23286242

  16. Sodium Velocity Maps on Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E.; Killen, R. M.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the current work was to measure two-dimensional maps of sodium velocities on the Mercury surface and examine the maps for evidence of sources or sinks of sodium on the surface. The McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope and the Stellar Spectrograph were used to measure Mercury spectra that were sampled at 7 milliAngstrom intervals. Observations were made each day during the period October 5-9, 2010. The dawn terminator was in view during that time. The velocity shift of the centroid of the Mercury emission line was measured relative to the solar sodium Fraunhofer line corrected for radial velocity of the Earth. The difference between the observed and calculated velocity shift was taken to be the velocity vector of the sodium relative to Earth. For each position of the spectrograph slit, a line of velocities across the planet was measured. Then, the spectrograph slit was stepped over the surface of Mercury at 1 arc second intervals. The position of Mercury was stabilized by an adaptive optics system. The collection of lines were assembled into an images of surface reflection, sodium emission intensities, and Earthward velocities over the surface of Mercury. The velocity map shows patches of higher velocity in the southern hemisphere, suggesting the existence of sodium sources there. The peak earthward velocity occurs in the equatorial region, and extends to the terminator. Since this was a dawn terminator, this might be an indication of dawn evaporation of sodium. Leblanc et al. (2008) have published a velocity map that is similar.

  17. Deposition and cycling of sulfur controls mercury accumulation in Isle Royale fish

    SciTech Connect

    Paul E. Drevnick; Donald E. Canfield; Patrick R. Gorski

    2007-11-01

    Mercury contamination of fish is a global problem. Consumption of contaminated fish is the primary route of methylmercury exposure in humans and is detrimental to health. Newly mandated reductions in anthropogenic mercury emissions aim to reduce atmospheric mercury deposition and thus mercury concentrations in fish. However, factors other than mercury deposition are important for mercury bioaccumulation in fish. In the lakes of Isle Royale, U.S.A., reduced rates of sulfate deposition since the Clean Air Act of 1970 have caused mercury concentrations in fish to decline to levels that are safe for human consumption, even without a discernible decrease in mercury deposition. Therefore, reductions in anthropogenic sulfur emissions may provide a synergistic solution to the mercury problem in sulfate-limited freshwaters. 71 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  18. The Plasma Environment at Mercury

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raines, James M.; Gershman, Daniel J.; Zurbuchen, Thomas H.; Gloeckler, George; Slavin, James A.; Anderson, Brian J.; Korth, Haje; Krimigis, Stamatios M.; Killen, Rosemary M.; Sarantos, Menalos; Sprague, Anne L.; McNutt, Ralph L., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Mercury is the least explored terrestrial planet, and the one subjected to the highest flux of solar radiation in the heliosphere. Its highly dynamic, miniature magnetosphere contains ions from the exosphere and solar wind, and at times may allow solar wind ions to directly impact the planet's surface. Together these features create a plasma environment that shares many features with, but is nonetheless very different from, that of Earth. The first in situ measurements of plasma ions in the Mercury space environment were made only recently, by the Fast Imaging Plasma Spectrometer (FIPS) during the MESSENGER spacecraft's three flybys of the planet in 2008-2009 as the probe was en route to insertion into orbit about Mercury earlier this year. Here. we present analysis of flyby and early orbital mission data with novel techniques that address the particular challenges inherent in these measurements. First. spacecraft structures and sensor orientation limit the FIPS field of view and allow only partial sampling of velocity distribution functions. We use a software model of FIPS sampling in velocity space to explore these effects and recover bulk parameters under certain assumptions. Second, the low densities found in the Mercury magnetosphere result in a relatively low signal-to-noise ratio for many ions. To address this issue, we apply a kernel density spread function to guide removal of background counts according to a background-signature probability map. We then assign individual counts to particular ion species with a time-of-flight forward model, taking into account energy losses in the carbon foil and other physical behavior of ions within the instrument. Using these methods, we have derived bulk plasma properties and heavy ion composition and evaluated them in the context of the Mercury magnetosphere.

  19. Mercury's Magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, J. A.

    1999-01-01

    Among the major discoveries made by the Mariner 10 mission to the inner planets was the existence of an intrinsic magnetic field at Mercury with a dipole moment of approx. 300 nT R(sup 3, sub M). This magnetic field is sufficient to stand off the solar wind at an altitude of about 1 R(sub M) (i.e. approx. 2439 km). Hence, Mercury possesses a 'magnetosphere' from which the so]ar wind plasma is largely excluded and within which the motion of charged particles is controlled by the planetary magnetic field. Despite its small size relative to the magnetospheres of the other planets, a Mercury orbiter mission is a high priority for the space physics community. The primary reason for this great interest is that Mercury unlike all the other planets visited thus far, lacks a significant atmosphere; only a vestigial exosphere is present. This results in a unique situation where the magnetosphere interacts directly with the outer layer of the planetary crust (i.e. the regolith). At all of the other planets the topmost regions of their atmospheres become ionized by solar radiation to form ionospheres. These planetary ionospheres then couple to electrodynamically to their magnetospheres or, in the case of the weakly magnetized Venus and Mars, directly to the solar wind. This magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling is mediated largely through field-aligned currents (FACs) flowing along the magnetic field lines linking the magnetosphere and the high-latitude ionosphere. Mercury is unique in that it is expected that FACS will be very short lived due to the low electrical conductivity of the regolith. Furthermore, at the earth it has been shown that the outflow of neutral atmospheric species to great altitudes is an important source of magnetospheric plasma (following ionization) whose composition may influence subsequent magnetotail dynamics. However, the dominant source of plasma for most of the terrestrial magnetosphere is the 'leakage'of solar wind across the magnetopause and more

  20. The influence of floodplains on mercury availability

    SciTech Connect

    Wallschlaeger, D.; Wilken, R.D.

    1997-09-01

    The floodplains of the German river Elbe affect the mercury distribution in the river system in two different ways: they act both as a medium-term sink and as a long-term source. The large amounts of mercury deposited onto the floodplains during annual floodings are first effectively fixed in the soils, rendering them basically unavailable. Sequential extraction experiments reveal that only a small fraction of the mercury (< 3%) is present in available forms, whereas the vast majority is associated with humic substances or present in sulfidic binding forms. After deposition, a small fraction of the total mercury is gradually remobilized into the aqueous phase bound passively to water-soluble humic acids. The availability of mercury in these complexes is still low, since environmental influences such as changes in pH or redox potential and competition with other cations do not cause any mercury liberation. In the next step, reactions in the aqueous phase lead to the formation of the highly available volatile species Hg{sup 0} and dimethylmercury (DMM). Their evaporation gives rise to a strong mercury flux from the floodplains into the atmosphere. Preliminary mass balances indicate that the majority of the deposited mercury stays bound in the floodplain soils, while small amounts are emitted back into the river`s ecosystem. Atmospheric emission is more important as a remobilization pathway than aquatic export.

  1. America's top fifty power plant mercury pollutants

    SciTech Connect

    2008-11-15

    The fifty most-polluting coal-burning power plants in the United States emitted twenty tons of mercury into the air in 2007. Of the ten highest-emitting plants, all but one reported an increase as compared to 2006. Coal-fired power plants are the single largest source of mercury air pollution in the U.S., accounting for roughly 40 per cent of all mercury emissions. This report rates the power plants both in terms of sheer mercury pollution and mercury pollution adjusted per kilowatt hour. It also outlines the ways in which mercury removal is achievable with existing technology. Activated carbon injection, which is commercially available and has been tested, can achieve mercury reductions of 90 per cent (and better when coupled with a fabric filter for particulate control) on both bituminous and sub-bituminous coals. In addition, mercury can be significantly reduced as a 'co-benefit' of controls for other pollutants, such as fabric filters, flue gas desulphurization, and selective catalytic reduction. 3 tabs.

  2. Mercury risk from fluorescent lamps in China: current status and future perspective.

    PubMed

    Hu, Yuanan; Cheng, Hefa

    2012-09-01

    Energy-efficient lighting is one of the key measures for addressing electric power shortages and climate change mitigation, and fluorescent lamps are expected to dominate the lighting market in China over the next several years. This review presents an overview on the emissions and risk of mercury from fluorescent lamps during production and disposal, and discusses measures for reducing the mercury risk through solid waste management and source reduction. Fluorescent lamps produced in China used to contain relatively large amounts of mercury (up to 40 mg per lamp) due to the prevalence of liquid mercury dosing, which also released significant amounts of mercury to the environment. Upgrade of the mercury dosing technologies and manufacturing facilities had significantly reduced the mercury contents in fluorescent lamps, with most of them containing less than 10 or 5mg per lamp now. Occupational hygiene studies showed that mercury emissions occurred during fluorescent lamp production, particularly in the facilities using liquid mercury dosing, which polluted the environmental media at and surrounding the production sites and posed chronic health risk to the workers by causing neuropsychological and motor impairments. It is estimated that spent fluorescent lamps account for approximately 20% of mercury input in the MSW in China. Even though recycling of fluorescent lamps presents an important opportunity to capture the mercury they contain, it is difficult and not cost-effective at reducing the mercury risk under the broader context of mercury pollution control in China. In light of the significant mercury emissions associated with electricity generation in China, we propose that reduction of mercury emissions and risk associated with fluorescent lamps should be achieved primarily through lowering their mercury contents by the manufacturers while recycling programs should focus on elemental mercury-containing waste products instead of fluorescent lamps to recapture

  3. Mercury study report to Congress. Book 2 of 2. Draft report

    SciTech Connect

    1995-01-01

    Section 112(n)(1)(B) of the Clean Air Act, as amended in 1990, requires the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to submit a study on atmospheric mercury emissions to Congress. The sources of emissions studied include electric utility steam generating units, municipal waste combustion units, and other sources, to include area sources. The draft report includes sections on the following: an inventory of anthropogenic emissions, health effects of mercury and mercury compounds, an ecological assessment for anthropogenic emissions, characterization of human health and wildlife risks from anthropogenic emissions, and an evaluation of mercury control technologies, costs, and regulatory issues.

  4. Human organ markets and inherent human dignity.

    PubMed

    MacKellar, Calum

    2014-01-01

    It has been suggested that human organs should be bought and sold on a regulated market as any other material property belongingto an individual. This would have the advantage of both addressing the grave shortage of organs available for transplantation and respecting the freedom of individuals to choose to do whatever they want with their body parts. The old arguments against such a market in human organs are, therefore, being brought back into question. The article examines the different arguments both in favour and against the sale of human organs. It concludes that the body and any of its elements is a full expression of the whole person. As such, they cannot have a price if the individual is to retain his or her full inherent dignity and if society is to retain and protect this very important concept. PMID:24979876

  5. Magnetic latch trigger for inherent shutdown assembly

    DOEpatents

    Sowa, Edmund S.

    1976-01-01

    An inherent shutdown assembly for a nuclear reactor is provided. A neutron absorber is held ready to be inserted into the reactor core by a magnetic latch. The latch includes a magnet whose lines of force are linked by a yoke of material whose Curie point is at the critical temperature of the reactor at which the neutron absorber is to be inserted into the reactor core. The yoke is in contact with the core coolant or fissionable material so that when the coolant or the fissionable material increase in temperature above the Curie point the yoke loses its magnetic susceptibility and the magnetic link is broken, thereby causing the absorber to be released into the reactor core.

  6. Inherently safe in situ uranium recovery

    DOEpatents

    Krumhansl, James L; Brady, Patrick V

    2014-04-29

    An in situ recovery of uranium operation involves circulating reactive fluids through an underground uranium deposit. These fluids contain chemicals that dissolve the uranium ore. Uranium is recovered from the fluids after they are pumped back to the surface. Chemicals used to accomplish this include complexing agents that are organic, readily degradable, and/or have a predictable lifetime in an aquifer. Efficiency is increased through development of organic agents targeted to complexing tetravalent uranium rather than hexavalent uranium. The operation provides for in situ immobilization of some oxy-anion pollutants under oxidizing conditions as well as reducing conditions. The operation also artificially reestablishes reducing conditions on the aquifer after uranium recovery is completed. With the ability to have the impacted aquifer reliably remediated, the uranium recovery operation can be considered inherently safe.

  7. Microfabricated mechanical biosensor with inherently differential readout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savran, C. A.; Burg, T. P.; Fritz, J.; Manalis, S. R.

    2003-08-01

    We report measurements with a micromachined mechanical biosensor that inherently suppresses background effects by producing a differential signal with respect to a reference. The sensor comprises two adjacent cantilevers with interdigitated fingers between them that allow interferometric detection of the differential, i.e., relative bending. We demonstrate that differential detection can efficiently suppress unspecific chemical effects that result in cantilever bending. We show that the differential deflection noise is up to an order of magnitude lower than the absolute deflection noise in the low-frequency range of 0.0003-1 Hz, where many types of biologically relevant reactions occur. We also demonstrate the sensor's applicability to biological receptor-ligand systems by reporting experimental results on direct differential detection of biotin-streptavidin binding.

  8. Sensors and actuators inherent in biological species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taya, Minoru; Stahlberg, Rainer; Li, Fanghong; Zhao, Ying Joyce

    2007-04-01

    This paper addresses examples of sensing and active mechanisms inherent in some biological species where both plants and animals cases are discussed: mechanosensors and actuators in Venus Fly Trap and cucumber tendrils, chemosensors in insects, two cases of interactions between different kingdoms, (i) cotton plant smart defense system and (ii) bird-of-paradise flower and hamming bird interaction. All these cases lead us to recognize how energy-efficient and flexible the biological sensors and actuators are. This review reveals the importance of integration of sensing and actuation functions into an autonomous system if we make biomimetic design of a set of new autonomous systems which can sense and actuate under a number of different stimuli and threats.

  9. Development of an inherently digital transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richard, R. R.

    1972-01-01

    The term digital transducer normally implies the combination of conventional analog sensors with encoders or analog-to-digital converters. Because of the objectionable characteristics of most digital transducers, a program was instituted to investigate the possibility of producing a transducer that is inherently digital, instead of a transducer that is digital in the usual sense. Such a device would have improved accuracy and reliability and would have reduced power and bulk requirements because two processes, sensing and conditioning, would be combined into one processes. A Curie-point-temperature sensor is described that represents realization of the stated goal. Also, a metal-insulator semiconductor is described that does not conform precisely to the program goals but that appears to have applications as a new and interesting transduction device.

  10. MERCURY RESEARCH STRATEGY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA's ORD is pleased to announce the availability of its Mercury Research Strategy. This strategy guides ORD's mercury research program and covers the FY2001-2005 time frame. ORD will use it to prepare a multi-year mercury research implementation plan in 2001. The Mercury R...

  11. Mercury contamination extraction

    DOEpatents

    Fuhrmann, Mark; Heiser, John; Kalb, Paul

    2009-09-15

    Mercury is removed from contaminated waste by firstly applying a sulfur reagent to the waste. Mercury in the waste is then permitted to migrate to the reagent and is stabilized in a mercury sulfide compound. The stable compound may then be removed from the waste which itself remains in situ following mercury removal therefrom.

  12. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue gas

    SciTech Connect

    Livengood, C.D.; Huang, H.S.; Mendelsohn, M.H.; Wu, J.M.

    1995-12-31

    Combustion sources, including those using coal for fuel, contribute a significant fraction of total anthropogenic mercury emissions. Recent field studies have shown that current flue-gas cleanup (FGC) systems are relatively ineffective in controlling elemental mercury, which is a major component of the mercury emissions for many systems. Research at Argonne National Laboratory has been focused on techniques to enhance the capture of elemental mercury in existing FGC systems. For dry processes, these studies have included evaluation of activated carbons and investigation of sorbents based upon chemical pretreatment of low-cost mineral substrates. To enhance the ability of wet scrubbers to capture mercury, the studies have looked at the effects of improved mass transfer through both mechanical and chemical means, as well as the conversion of elemental mercury into more soluble species that can be easily absorbed.

  13. Removal of mercury from coal-combustion flue-gas