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1

Proteasome inhibitors induce auditory hair cell death through peroxisome dysfunction.  

PubMed

Even though bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor, is a powerful chemotherapeutic agent used to treat multiple myeloma (MM) and other lymphoma cells, recent clinical reports suggest that the proteasome inhibitor therapy may be associated with severe bilateral hearing loss. We herein investigated the adverse effect of proteasome inhibitor on auditory hair cells. Treatment of a proteasome inhibitor destroys stereocilia bundles of hair cells resulting in the disarray of stereocilia in the organ of Corti explants. Since proteasome activity may be potentially important for biogenesis and function of the peroxisome, we tested whether proteasome activity is necessary for maintaining functional peroxisomes. Our results showed that treatment of a proteasome inhibitor significantly decreases both the number of peroxisomes and expression of peroxisomal proteins such as PMP70 and Catalase. In addition, we also found that proteasome inhibitor impairs the import pathway of PTS1-peroxisome matrix proteins. Taken together, our findings support recent clinical reports of hearing loss associated with proteasome inhibition. Mechanistically, peroxisome dysfunction may contribute to hair cell damage and hearing loss in response to the treatment of a proteasome inhibitor. PMID:25446082

Lee, Joon No; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu; Park, Raekil

2015-01-01

2

Inhibitor of DNA Binding 2 Is a Small Molecule-Inducible Modulator of Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Expression and Adipocyte Differentiation  

PubMed Central

We previously identified the small molecule harmine as a regulator of peroxisome proliferator activated-receptor ? (PPAR?) and adipocyte differentiation. In an effort to identify signaling pathways mediating harmine’s effects, we performed transcriptional profiling of 3T3-F442A preadipocytes. Inhibitor of DNA biding 2 (Id2) was identified as a gene rapidly induced by harmine but not by PPAR? agonists. Id2 is also induced in 3T3-L1 preadipocytes treated with dexamethasone, 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine, and insulin, suggesting that Id2 regulation is a common feature of the adipogenic program. Stable overexpression of Id2 in preadipocytes promotes expression of PPAR? and enhances morphological differentiation and lipid accumulation. Conversely, small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of Id2 antagonizes adipocyte differentiation. Mice lacking Id2 expression display reduced adiposity, and embryonic fibroblasts derived from these mice exhibit reduced PPAR? expression and a diminished capacity for adipocyte differentiation. Finally, Id2 expression is elevated in adipose tissues of obese mice and humans. These results outline a role for Id2 in the modulation of PPAR? expression and adipogenesis and underscore the utility of adipogenic small molecules as tools to dissect adipocyte biology. PMID:18562627

Won Park, Kye; Waki, Hironori; Villanueva, Claudio J.; Monticelli, Laurel A.; Hong, Cynthia; Kang, Sona; MacDougald, Ormond A.; Goldrath, Ananda W.; Tontonoz, Peter

2008-01-01

3

HYDROGEN PEROXIDE INDUCED OXIDATION OF PEROXISOMAL MALATE SYNTHASE AND CATALASE.  

E-print Network

Page 1 HYDROGEN PEROXIDE INDUCED OXIDATION OF PEROXISOMAL MALATE SYNTHASE AND CATALASE. Pria Anand1 locations within the proteins' structures. Key words: biotin hydrazide, carbonylation, catalase, hydrogen peroxide, glyoxysome, MALDI- TOF MS, malate synthase, mass spectroscopy, peroxisome, protein oxidation

Simha, Rahul

4

Plant peroxisomes are degraded by starvation-induced and constitutive autophagy in tobacco BY-2 suspension-cultured cells  

PubMed Central

Very recently, autophagy has been recognized as an important degradation pathway for quality control of peroxisomes in Arabidopsis plants. To further characterize the role of autophagy in plant peroxisome degradation, we generated stable transgenic suspension-cultured cell lines of heterotrophic Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Bright Yellow 2 expressing a peroxisome-targeted version of enhanced yellow fluorescent protein. Indeed, this cell line model system proved advantageous for detailed cytological analyses of autophagy stages and for quantification of cellular peroxisome pools under different culturing conditions and upon inhibitor applications. Complementary biochemical, cytological, and pharmacological analyses provided convincing evidence for peroxisome degradation by bulk autophagy during carbohydrate starvation. This degradation was slowed down by the inhibitor of autophagy, 3-methyladenine (3-MA), but the 3-MA effect ceased at advanced stages of starvation, indicating that another degradation mechanism for peroxisomes might have taken over. 3-MA also caused an increase particularly in peroxisomal proteins and cellular peroxisome numbers when applied under nutrient-rich conditions in the logarithmic growth phase, suggesting a high turnover rate for peroxisomes by basal autophagy under non-stress conditions. Together, our data demonstrate that a great fraction of the peroxisome pool is subject to extensive autophagy-mediated turnover under both nutrient starvation and optimal growth conditions. Our analyses of the cellular pool size of peroxisomes provide a new tool for quantitative investigations of the role of plant peroxisomes in reactive oxygen species metabolism. PMID:25477890

Voitsekhovskaja, Olga V.; Schiermeyer, Andreas; Reumann, Sigrun

2014-01-01

5

Lipopolysaccharide-induced peroxisomal dysfunction exacerbates cerebral white matter injury: attenuation by N-acetyl cysteine.  

PubMed

Cerebral white matter injury during prenatal maternal infection characterized as periventricular leukomalacia is the main substrate for cerebral palsy (CP) in premature infants. Previously, we reported that maternal LPS exposure causes oligodendrocyte (OL)-injury/hypomyelination in the developing brain which can be attenuated by an antioxidant agent, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). Herein, we elucidated the role of peroxisomes in LPS-induced neuroinflammation and cerebral white matter injury. Peroxisomes are important for detoxification of reactive oxidative species (ROS) and metabolism of myelin-lipids in OLs. Maternal LPS exposure induced selective depletion of developing OLs in the fetal brain which was associated with ROS generation, glutathione depletion and peroxisomal dysfunction. Likewise, hypomyelination in the postnatal brain was associated with decrease in peroxisomes and OLs after maternal LPS exposure. Conversely, NAC abolished these LPS-induced effects in the developing brain. CP brains imitated these observed changes in peroxisomal/myelin proteins in the postnatal brain after maternal LPS exposure. In vitro studies revealed that pro-inflammatory cytokines cause OL-injury via peroxisomal dysfunction and ROS generation. NAC or WY14643 (peroxisome proliferators activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha agonist) reverses these effects of pro-inflammatory cytokines in the wild-type OLs, but not in PPAR-alpha(-/-) OLs. Similarly treated B12 oligodenroglial cells co-transfected with PPAR-alpha siRNAs/pTK-PPREx3-Luc, and LPS exposed PPAR-alpha(-/-) pregnant mice treated with NAC or WY14643 further suggested that PPAR-alpha activity mediates NAC-induced protective effects. Collectively, these data provide unprecedented evidence that LPS-induced peroxisomal dysfunction exacerbates cerebral white matter injury and its attenuation by NAC via a PPAR-alpha dependent mechanism expands therapeutic avenues for CP and related demyelinating diseases. PMID:18291369

Paintlia, Manjeet K; Paintlia, Ajaib S; Contreras, Miguel A; Singh, Inderjit; Singh, Avtar K

2008-04-01

6

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor? Agonists Differentially Regulate Inhibitor of DNA Binding Expression in Rodents and Human Cells  

PubMed Central

Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2) is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor that participates in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones, antidiabetic agents and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonists, have been reported to diminish Id2 expression in human cells. We hypothesized that PPAR? activators may also alter Id2 expression. Fenofibrate diminished hepatic Id2 expression in both late pregnant and unmated rats. In 24 hour fasted rats, Id2 expression was decreased under conditions known to activate PPAR?. In order to determine whether the fibrate effects were mediated by PPAR?, wild-type mice and PPAR?-null mice were treated with Wy-14,643 (WY). WY reduced Id2 expression in wild-type mice without an effect in PPAR?-null mice. In contrast, fenofibrate induced Id2 expression after 24 hours of treatment in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). MK-886, a PPAR? antagonist, did not block fenofibrate-induced activation of Id2 expression, suggesting a PPAR?-independent effect was involved. These findings confirm that Id2 is a gene responsive to PPAR? agonists. Like other genes (apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein A-V), the opposite directional transcriptional effect in rodents and a human cell line further emphasizes that PPAR? agonists have different effects in rodents and humans. PMID:22701468

González, María del Carmen; Corton, J. Christopher; Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores; Quirós, Yolanda; Álvarez-Millán, Juan José; Herrera, Emilio; Bocos, Carlos

2012-01-01

7

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor? agonists differentially regulate inhibitor of DNA binding expression in rodents and human cells.  

PubMed

Inhibitor of DNA binding (Id2) is a helix-loop-helix (HLH) transcription factor that participates in cell differentiation and proliferation. Id2 has been linked to the development of cardiovascular diseases since thiazolidinediones, antidiabetic agents and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma agonists, have been reported to diminish Id2 expression in human cells. We hypothesized that PPAR? activators may also alter Id2 expression. Fenofibrate diminished hepatic Id2 expression in both late pregnant and unmated rats. In 24 hour fasted rats, Id2 expression was decreased under conditions known to activate PPAR?. In order to determine whether the fibrate effects were mediated by PPAR?, wild-type mice and PPAR?-null mice were treated with Wy-14,643 (WY). WY reduced Id2 expression in wild-type mice without an effect in PPAR?-null mice. In contrast, fenofibrate induced Id2 expression after 24 hours of treatment in human hepatocarcinoma cells (HepG2). MK-886, a PPAR? antagonist, did not block fenofibrate-induced activation of Id2 expression, suggesting a PPAR?-independent effect was involved. These findings confirm that Id2 is a gene responsive to PPAR? agonists. Like other genes (apolipoprotein A-I, apolipoprotein A-V), the opposite directional transcriptional effect in rodents and a human cell line further emphasizes that PPAR? agonists have different effects in rodents and humans. PMID:22701468

González, María Del Carmen; Corton, J Christopher; Acero, Nuria; Muñoz-Mingarro, Dolores; Quirós, Yolanda; Alvarez-Millán, Juan José; Herrera, Emilio; Bocos, Carlos

2012-01-01

8

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage  

E-print Network

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor Protects Against Alcohol-Induced Liver Damage Tamie alcoholic liver disease are not completely understood, but lipid accumulation seems to be central. To investi- gate the roles of PPAR in alcoholic liver injury, wild-type and PPAR -null mice were continuously

Omiecinski, Curtis

9

Gene expression for peroxisome-associated enzymes in hepatocellular carcinomas induced by ciprofibrate, a hypolipidemic compound  

SciTech Connect

Administration of hypolipidemic compounds leads to marked proliferation of peroxisomes and peroxisome-associated enzymes (PAE) in the livers of rodents and non-rodent species. The increase peroxisome-associated enzymes such as fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation system and catalase is shown to be due to an increase in the levels of mRNA. In this experiment they have examined hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC), induced in male F-344 rats by ciprofibrate (0.025%, w/w for 60 weeks), for gene expression of PAE. Total RNA was purified from HCC as well as from control and ciprofibrate (0.025% for 2 weeks) fed rat livers. Northern blot analysis was performed using (32/sub p/)cDNA probes for albumin, fatty acetyl-CoA oxidase, enoyl-CoA hydratase 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase bifunctional enzyme and catalase. mRNA levels in HCC for albumin, fatty acid ..beta..-oxidation enzymes and catalase were comparable with those levels observed in the livers of rats given ciprofibrate for 2 weeks. In control livers the mRNAs for ..beta..-oxidation enzymes were low. Albumin mRNA levels in all the 3 groups were comparable. Additional studies are necessary to determine whether the increased level of mRNAs for the ..beta..-oxidation enzymes in HCC is due to the effect of ciprofibrate or to the gene amplification.

Rao, M.S.; Nemali, M.R.; Reddy, J.K.

1986-03-05

10

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Upregulates Peroxisomal Fatty Acid Oxidation and Inhibits Apoptotic Cell Death in Abcd1-Deficient Glial Cells  

PubMed Central

In X-ALD, mutation/deletion of ALD gene (ABCD1) and the resultant very long chain fatty acid (VLCFA) derangement has dramatically opposing effects in astrocytes and oligodendrocytes. While loss of Abcd1 in astrocytes produces a robust inflammatory response, the oligodendrocytes undergo cell death leading to demyelination in X-linked adrenoleukodystrophy (X-ALD). The mechanisms of these distinct pathways in the two cell types are not well understood. Here, we investigated the effects of Abcd1-knockdown and the subsequent alteration in VLCFA metabolism in human U87 astrocytes and rat B12 oligodendrocytes. Loss of Abcd1 inhibited peroxisomal ?-oxidation activity and increased expression of VLCFA synthesizing enzymes, elongase of very long chain fatty acids (ELOVLs) (1 and 3) in both cell types. However, higher induction of ELOVL's in Abcd1-deficient B12 oligodendrocytes than astrocytes suggests that ELOVL pathway may play a prominent role in oligodendrocytes in X-ALD. While astrocytes are able to maintain the cellular homeostasis of anti-apoptotic proteins, Abcd1-deletion in B12 oligodendrocytes downregulated the anti-apototic (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xL) and cell survival (phospho-Erk1/2) proteins, and upregulated the pro-apoptotic proteins (Bad, Bim, Bax and Bid) leading to cell loss. These observations provide insights into different cellular signaling mechanisms in response to Abcd1-deletion in two different cell types of CNS. The apoptotic responses were accompanied by activation of caspase-3 and caspase-9 suggesting the involvement of mitochondrial-caspase-9-dependent mechanism in Abcd1-deficient oligodendrocytes. Treatment with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) corrected the VLCFA derangement both in vitro and in vivo, and inhibited the oligodendrocytes loss. These observations provide a proof-of principle that HDAC inhibitor SAHA may have a therapeutic potential for X-ALD. PMID:23923017

Singh, Jaspreet; Khan, Mushfiquddin; Pujol, Aurora; Baarine, Mauhamad; Singh, Inderjit

2013-01-01

11

Chemical synthesis, docking studies and biological effects of a pan peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor agonist and cyclooxygenase inhibitor.  

PubMed

The compound (5Z)-5-[(5-bromo-1H-indol-3-yl)methylene]-3-(4-chlorobenzyl)-thiazolidine-2,4-dione (LYSO-7) was synthesised in order to obtain a new type of anti-inflammatory drug, designed with hybrid features to inhibit cyclooxygenase (COX) and also to activate peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR). Results obtained from docking (in silico) studies corroborated with experimental data, showing the potential affinity between the studied ligand and targets. The specificity of LYSO-7 for COX-enzymes was detected by the inhibition of COX-1 and COX-2 activities by 30% and 20%, respectively. In transactivation reporter gene assays LYSO-07 showed a pan partial agonist effect on the three PPAR subtypes (PPAR?, PPAR? and PPAR?/?). The agonist action on PPAR? was also observed by a pharmacological approach, as the reduction in the Escherichia coli lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced interleukin 1 beta (IL-1?) secretion and nitric oxide (NO) production by mouse neutrophils was blocked by GW9962, a specific PPAR? antagonist. Additionally, the in vivo effect was measured by reduced carrageenan-induced neutrophil influx into the subcutaneous tissue of mice. Taken together, these data show that LYSO-7 displays a potent in vivo anti-inflammatory effect during the innate acute response, which is dependent on its associated COX inhibitory activities and PPAR activation. PMID:23305993

Santin, José Roberto; Uchôa, Flávia D T; Lima, Maria do Carmo A; Rabello, Marcelo M; Machado, Isabel Daufenback; Hernandes, Marcelo Z; Amato, Angelica A; Milton, Flora Aparecida; Webb, Paul; Neves, Francisco de Assis Rocha; Galdino, Suely L; Pitta, Ivan Rocha; Farsky, Sandra H P

2013-03-12

12

Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? ligand, prevents abnormal liver function induced by a fasting–refeeding process  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •A fasting–refeeding high fat diet (HDF) model mimics irregular eating habit. •A fasting–refeeding HFD induces liver ballooning injury. •A fasting–refeeding HDF process elicits hepatic triglyceride accumulation. •Fenofibrate, PPAR? ligand, prevents liver damage induced by refeeding HFD. -- Abstract: Fenofibrate, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) agonist, is an anti-hyperlipidemic agent that has been widely used in the treatment of dyslipidemia. In this study, we examined the effect of fenofibrate on liver damage caused by refeeding a high-fat diet (HFD) in mice after 24 h fasting. Here, we showed that refeeding HFD after fasting causes liver damage in mice determined by liver morphology and liver cell death. A detailed analysis revealed that hepatic lipid droplet formation is enhanced and triglyceride levels in liver are increased by refeeding HFD after starvation for 24 h. Also, NF-?B is activated and consequently induces the expression of TNF-?, IL1-?, COX-2, and NOS2. However, treating with fenofibrate attenuates the liver damage and triglyceride accumulation caused by the fasting–refeeding HFD process. Fenofibrate reduces the expression of NF-?B target genes but induces genes for peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, peroxisome biogenesis and mitochondrial fatty acid oxidation. These results strongly suggest that the treatment of fenofibrate ameliorates the liver damage induced by fasting–refeeding HFD, possibly through the activation of fatty acid oxidation.

Lee, Joon No; Dutta, Raghbendra Kumar; Kim, Seul-Gi; Lim, Jae-Young; Kim, Se-Jin; Choe, Seong-Kyu [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Kyeong-Won [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Immune-network Pioneer Research Center, Department of Biochemistry, College of Medicine, Dong-A University, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Song, Seung Ryel [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Do-Sim [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of) [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Department of Laboratory of Medicine, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); So, Hong-Seob [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Raekil, E-mail: rkpark@wku.ac.kr [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)] [Center for Metabolic Function Regulation, and Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Wonkwang University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

2013-12-06

13

Methyl Jasmonate Induces Papain Inhibitor(s) in Tomato Leaves.  

PubMed Central

Leaves of 18- to 24-d-old tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum) plants exposed to gaseous methyl jasmonate (MJ) for 24 h at 30[deg]C in continuous light contained high levels of soluble protein that inhibited papain. Chromatographic analysis demonstrated that the active protein had a molecular mass of 80 to 90 kD. Induction of papain inhibitor was directly related to the concentration of air-borne MJ up to a maximum of 0.1 [mu]L MJ per treatment and depended on the duration of exposure up to 18 h. Inhibitor activity in plants treated for less than 18 h increased with time after treatment. Levels remained constant for up to 4 d after treatment, after which time activity decreased. The youngest leaf, leaf 5, consistently lost activity at a faster rate than older, lower leaves. Inhibitor concentration in all leaves was reduced to minimum levels by 11 d after MJ treatment, but did not return to control levels. Treatment with MJ in the dark did induce inhibitor activity, but at a significantly lower rate. Polyclonal antibodies raised to purified potato tuber skin cysteine proteinase inhibitors (CPI) cross-reacted with the tomato inhibitor, suggesting that the tomato papain inhibitor and the potato CPI are closely related. No papain inhibitor activity was observed in extracts from wounded tomato leaves, nor was there any immunoreactivity with antibodies raised to potato tuber skin CPI. PMID:12232028

Bolter, C. J.

1993-01-01

14

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma activates fas ligand gene promoter inducing apoptosis in human breast cancer cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

In just over a decade, apart from established metabolic actions, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?)\\u000a has evolved as key therapeutic target in cancer disease. Fas ligand (FasL), a trans-membrane protein, induces apoptosis by\\u000a crosslinking with the Fas receptor. Despite the FasL relevance, little is available on the regulation of its expression. In\\u000a the current study, we explored for the first

Daniela Bonofiglio; Sabrina Gabriele; Saveria Aquila; Hongyan Qi; Maria Belmonte; Stefania Catalano; Sebastiano Andò

2009-01-01

15

Pathogenesis of calcineurin inhibitor–induced hypertension  

PubMed Central

This article reviews the current understanding of the mechanisms of calcineurin inhibitor–induced hypertension. Already early after the introduction of cyclosporine in the 1980s, vasoconstriction, sympathetic excitation and sodium retention by the kidney had been shown to play a role in this form of hypertension. The vasoconstrictive effects of calcineurin inhibitors are related to interference with the balance of vasoactive substances, including endothelin and nitric oxide. Until recently, the renal site of the sodium-retaining effect of calcineurin inhibitors was unknown. We and others have shown that calcineurin inhibitors increase the activity of the thiazide-sensitive sodium chloride cotransporter through an effect on the kinases WNK and SPAK. Here, we review the pertinent literature on the hypertensinogenic effects of calcineurin inhibitors, including neural, vascular and renal effects, and we propose an integrated model of calcineurin inhibitor–induced hypertension. PMID:22573529

Hoorn, Ewout J.; Walsh, Stephen B.; McCormick, James A.; Zietse, Robert; Unwin, Robert J.; Ellison, David H.

2014-01-01

16

Identification of transcriptional networks involved in peroxisome proliferator chemical-induced hepatocyte proliferation  

EPA Science Inventory

Peroxisome proliferator chemical (PPC) exposure leads to increases in rodent liver tumors through a non-genotoxic mode of action (MOA). The PPC MOA includes increased oxidative stress, hepatocyte proliferation and decreased apoptosis. We investigated the putative genetic regulato...

17

Taiwanofungus camphoratus activates peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors and induces hypotriglyceride in hypercholesterolemic rats.  

PubMed

Taiwanofungus camphoratus (T. camphoratus), a fungus and a Taiwan-specific, well-known traditional Chinese medicine, has long been used to treat diarrhea, hypertension, itchy skin, and liver cancer. To gain a large amount of T. camphoratus, several culture techniques have been developed, including solid-state culture and liquid-state fermentation. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) has been described as a hypoglycemic agent that increases insulin sensitivity in peripheral tissues and results in reduced blood glucose, insulin, and triglyceride levels in insulin-resistant animals and in type-2 (non-insulin-dependent) diabetic patients. In this study, we investigate the possibility that T. camphoratus might activate PPARgamma in vitro and hypolipidemic activity in vivo. The results show that an aqueous extract of the wild fruiting bodies of T. camphoratus was able to increase the PPARgamma activity in cells transfected with the PPARgamma expression plasmid and the AOx-TK reporter plasmid. Based on the cell experiment, we examined the hypolipidemic effect of wild fruiting bodies (WFT) and a solid-state culture (SST) of T. camphoratus on SD rats fed on a high-cholesterol (HC) diet. The results show that WFT significantly decreased the serum triglyceride level, but could not affect the cholesterol level. SST only slightly decreased the serum triglyceride level. In addition, both WFT and SST significantly decreased the serum alanine transaminase (ALT) level and protected against the liver damage induced by the HC diet from the results of a histological examination. These results suggest that T. camphoratus might contain PPARgamma ligands and result in a hypotriglyceridemic effect, and that it also exhibits a liver protective activity. PMID:18603804

Suk, Fat-Moon; Lin, Shyr-Yi; Chen, Chien-Ho; Yen, Shish-Jung; Su, Ching-Hua; Liu, Der-Zen; Hou, Wen-Chi; Hung, Ling-Fang; Lin, Pei-Jung; Liang, Yu-Chih

2008-07-01

18

Cucurbitane Triterpenoid from Momordica charantia Induces Apoptosis and Autophagy in Breast Cancer Cells, in Part, through Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Activation  

PubMed Central

Although the antitumor activity of the crude extract of wild bitter gourd (Momordica charantia L.) has been reported, its bioactive constituents and the underlying mechanism remain undefined. Here, we report that 3?,7?-dihydroxy-25-methoxycucurbita-5,23-diene-19-al (DMC), a cucurbitane-type triterpene isolated from wild bitter gourd, induced apoptotic death in breast cancer cells through peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? activation. Luciferase reporter assays indicated the ability of DMC to activate PPAR?, and pharmacological inhibition of PPAR? protected cells from DMC's antiproliferative effect. Western blot analysis indicated that DMC suppressed the expression of many PPAR?-targeted signaling effectors, including cyclin D1, CDK6, Bcl-2, XIAP, cyclooxygenase-2, NF-?B, and estrogen receptor ?, and induced endoplasmic reticulum stress, as manifested by the induction of GADD153 and GRP78 expression. Moreover, DMC inhibited mTOR-p70S6K signaling through Akt downregulation and AMPK activation. The ability of DMC to activate AMPK in liver kinase (LK) B1-deficient MDA-MB-231 cells suggests that this activation was independent of LKB1-regulated cellular metabolic status. However, DMC induced a cytoprotective autophagy presumably through mTOR inhibition, which could be overcome by the cotreatment with the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine. Together, the ability of DMC to modulate multiple PPAR?-targeted signaling pathways provides a mechanistic basis to account for the antitumor activity of wild bitter gourd. PMID:23843889

Weng, Jing-Ru; Bai, Li-Yuan; Chiu, Chang-Fang; Hu, Jing-Lan; Chiu, Shih-Jiuan; Wu, Chia-Yung

2013-01-01

19

Hyperkalaemia induced by carbonic anhydrase inhibitor.  

PubMed Central

An 81-year-old man developed hyperkalaemic and hyperchloraemic metabolic acidosis following treatment with a carbonic anhydrase inhibitor for his glaucoma. He had mild renal failure and selective aldosterone deficiency was confirmed. In this case the treatment did not lead to hypokalaemia because of the limited potassium secretory capacity in the renal tubules from selective aldosterone deficiency; rather, it may have led to hyperkalaemia because metabolic acidosis induced by the carbonic anhydrase inhibitor caused transcellular movement of potassium. PMID:2012787

Wakabayashi, Y

1991-01-01

20

An oxidative and salinity stress induced peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase from Avicennia marina: molecular and functional characterization.  

PubMed

APX (EC, 1.11.1.11) has a key role in scavenging ROS and in protecting cells against their toxic effects in algae and higher plants. A cDNA encoding a peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidase, Am-pAPX1, was isolated from salt stressed leaves of Avicennia marina (Forsk.) Vierh. by EST library screening and its expression in the context of various environmental stresses was investigated. Am-pAPX1 contains an ORF of 286 amino acids coding for a 31.4 kDa protein. The C-terminal region of the Am-pAPX1 ORF has a putative transmembrane domain and a peroxisomal targeting signal (RKKMK), suggesting peroxisomal localization. The peroxisomal localization of Am-pAPX1 was confirmed by stable transformation of the GFP-(Ala)(10)-Am-pAPX1 fusion in tobacco. RNA blot analysis revealed that Am-pAPX1 is expressed in response to salinity (NaCl) and oxidative stress (high intensity light, hydrogen peroxide application and excess iron). The isolated genomic clone of Am-pAPX1 was found to contain nine exons. A fragment of 1616bp corresponding to the 5' upstream region of Am-pAPX1 was isolated by TAIL-PCR. In silico analysis of this sequence reveals the presence of putative light and abiotic stress regulatory elements. PMID:18614374

Kavitha, Kumaresan; Venkataraman, Gayatri; Parida, Ajay

2008-01-01

21

MECHANISMS OF PEROXISOME PROLIFERATOR-INDUCED CARCINOGENESIS: HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVES AND CURRENT STATUS  

EPA Science Inventory

This report is a comprehensive review of past and current thinking, as reflected in the scientific literature, on the mechanisms by which peroxisome proliferating agents are thought to act as carcinogens. he report is divided into four main sections: (1) background information on...

22

Peroxisomes in cardiomyocytes and the peroxisome / peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-loop.  

PubMed

It is well established that the heart is strongly dependent on fatty acid metabolism. In cardiomyocytes there are two distinct sites for the ?-oxidisation of fatty acids: the mitochondrion and the peroxisome. Although the metabolism of these two organelles is believed to be tightly coupled, the nature of this relationship has not been fully investigated. Recent research has established the significant contribution of mitochondrial function to cardiac ATP production under normal and pathological conditions. In contrast, limited information is available on peroxisomal function in the heart. This is despite these organelles harbouring metabolic pathways that are potentially cardio-protective, and findings that patients with peroxisomal diseases, such as adult Refsum´s disease, can develop heart failure. In this article, we provide a comprehensive overview on the current knowledge of peroxisomes and the regulation of lipid metabolism by PPARs in cardiomyocytes. We also present new experimental evidence on the differential expression of peroxisome-related genes in the heart chambers and demonstrate that even a mild peroxisomal biogenesis defect (Pex11?-/-) can induce profound alterations in the cardiomyocyte´s peroxisomal compartment and related gene expression, including the concomitant deregulation of specific PPARs. The possible impact of peroxisomal dysfunction in the heart is discussed and a model for the modulation of myocardial metabolism via a peroxisome/PPAR-loop is proposed. PMID:25608554

Colasante, C; Chen, J; Ahlemeyer, B; Baumgart-Vogt, E

2015-03-01

23

Reduction of Nuclear Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? Expression in Methamphetamine-Induced Neurotoxicity and Neuroprotective Effects of Ibuprofen  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined changes in nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) in the striatum in methamphetamine (METH)-induced\\u000a dopaminergic neurotoxicity, and also examined effects of treatment with drugs possessing PPAR? agonistic properties. The marked\\u000a reduction of nuclear PPAR?-expressed cells was seen in the striatum 3 days after METH injections (4 mg\\/kg × 4, i.p. with 2-h\\u000a interval). The reduction of dopamine transporter (DAT)-positive signals and PPAR?

Takeshi Tsuji; Masato Asanuma; Ikuko Miyazaki; Ko Miyoshi; Norio Ogawa

2009-01-01

24

4-Hydroxydocosahexaenoic acid, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist alleviates the symptoms of DSS-induced colitis  

Microsoft Academic Search

(5E,7Z,10Z,13Z,16Z,19Z)-4-Hydroxy-5,7,10,13,16,19-docosahexaenoic acid (4-OHDHA) is a potential agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) and antidiabetic agent as has been previously reported. As PPAR? agonists may also have anti-inflammatory functions, in this study, we investigated whether 4-OHDHA has an inhibitory effect on expression of inflammatory genes in vitro and whether 4-OHDHA could relieve the symptoms of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in

Keiko Yamamoto; Yuichi Ninomiya; Mioko Iseki; Yutaka Nakachi; Yukiko Kanesaki-Yatsuka; Yu Yamanoue; Toshimasa Itoh; Yasuho Nishii; Nikolai Petrovsky; Yasushi Okazaki

2008-01-01

25

Cloning and identification of rat deoxyuridine triphosphatase as an inhibitor of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily that transcriptionally regulate responsive genes by binding to the peroxisome proliferator response elements. Protein(s) interacting with PPAR isoforms (alpha, delta, and gamma) may modulate the PPAR-mediated transcriptional activation. Using a yeast two-hybrid system to screen a rat liver cDNA library, we have identified rat deoxyuridine-triphosphatase (dUTPase, EC 3.6. 1.23) as a PPARalpha-interacting protein. This cDNA encodes a polypeptide of 203 amino acids; the C-terminal 141-amino acid segment of this protein corresponds to the full-length human enzyme, which exhibits 92% identity with human dUTPase; the N-terminal extra 62-amino acid residue region is arginine-rich. In vitro binding assays indicate that rat dUTPase interacts with all three isoforms of mouse PPAR, but not with retinoid X receptor and thyroid hormone receptor. Interaction of PPARalpha with dUTPase is with the N-terminal 62-amino acid segment of rat dUTPase. Full-length rat dUTPase prevents PPAR-retinoid X receptor heterodimerization resulting in an inhibition of PPAR activity in a ligand-independent manner. Immunostaining of human kidney tsA201 cells, transiently expressing dUTPase showed that this protein is present predominantly in the cytoplasm but translocates into the nucleus with PPARalpha when PPARalpha is coexpressed with dUTPase. Northern blot hybridization shows that rat dUTPase is encoded by an abundant 1kilobase mRNA species present in all rat tissues. The identification of dUTPase as a PPAR-interacting protein suggests a possible link between tumorigenic peroxisome proliferators and the enzyme system involved in the maintenance of DNA fidelity. PMID:8910358

Chu, R; Lin, Y; Rao, M S; Reddy, J K

1996-11-01

26

The Ras Inhibitors Caveolin-1 and Docking Protein 1 Activate Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ? through Spatial Relocalization at Helix 7 of Its Ligand-Binding Domain ?  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is a transcription factor that promotes differentiation and cell survival in the stomach. PPAR? upregulates and interacts with caveolin-1 (Cav1), a scaffold protein of Ras/mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs). The cytoplasmic-to-nuclear localization of PPAR? is altered in gastric cancer (GC) patients, suggesting a so-far-unknown role for Cav1 in spatial regulation of PPAR? signaling. We show here that loss of Cav1 accelerated proliferation of normal stomach and GC cells in vitro and in vivo. Downregulation of Cav1 increased Ras/MAPK-dependent phosphorylation of serine 84 in PPAR? and enhanced nuclear translocation and ligand-independent transcription of PPAR? target genes. In contrast, Cav1 overexpression sequestered PPAR? in the cytosol through interaction of the Cav1 scaffolding domain (CSD) with a conserved hydrophobic motif in helix 7 of PPAR?'s ligand-binding domain. Cav1 cooperated with the endogenous Ras/MAPK inhibitor docking protein 1 (Dok1) to promote the ligand-dependent transcriptional activity of PPAR? and to inhibit cell proliferation. Ligand-activated PPAR? also reduced tumor growth and upregulated the Ras/MAPK inhibitors Cav1 and Dok1 in a murine model of GC. These results suggest a novel mechanism of PPAR? regulation by which Ras/MAPK inhibitors act as scaffold proteins that sequester and sensitize PPAR? to ligands, limiting proliferation of gastric epithelial cells. PMID:21690289

Burgermeister, Elke; Friedrich, Teresa; Hitkova, Ivana; Regel, Ivonne; Einwächter, Henrik; Zimmermann, Wolfgang; Röcken, Christoph; Perren, Aurel; Wright, Matthew B.; Schmid, Roland M.; Seger, Rony; Ebert, Matthias P. A.

2011-01-01

27

Identification of a peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE)-like cis-element in mouse plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 gene promoter  

SciTech Connect

PAI-1 is expressed and secreted by adipose tissue which may mediate the pathogenesis of obesity-associated cardiovascular complications. Evidence is presented in this report that PAI-1 is not expressed by preadipocyte, but significantly induced during 3T3-L1 adipocyte differentiation and the PAI-1 expression correlates with the induction of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}). A peroxisome proliferator responsive element (PPRE)-like cis-element (-206TCCCCCATGCCCT-194) is identified in the mouse PAI-1 gene promoter by electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) combined with transient transfection experiments; the PPRE-like cis-element forms a specific DNA-protein complex only with adipocyte nuclear extracts, not with preadipocyte nuclear extracts; the DNA-protein complex can be totally competed away by non-labeled consensus PPRE, and can be supershifted with PPAR{gamma} antibody. Mutation of this PPRE-like cis-element can abolish the transactivation of mouse PAI-1 promoter mediated by PPAR{gamma}. Specific PPAR{gamma} ligand Pioglitazone can significantly induce the PAI-1 expression, and stimulate the secretion of PAI-1 into medium.

Chen Jiegen [Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China); Li Xi [Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Huang Haiyan [Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Liu Honglei [Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Liu Deguo [Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China); Song Tanjing [Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ma Chungu [Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China); Ma Duan [Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China); Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China); Song Houyan [Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China); Tang Qiqun [Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Ministry of Education, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China) and Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Fudan University Shanghai Medical School, Shanghai 200032 (China) and Institutes of Biomedical Sciences, Fudan University, Shanghai 200032 (China)]. E-mail: qqtang@shmu.edu.cn

2006-09-01

28

Overexpression of peroxisomal testis-specific 1 protein induces germ cell apoptosis and leads to infertility in male mice  

PubMed Central

?Peroxisomal testis-specific 1 gene (Pxt1) is the only male germ cell–specific gene that encodes a peroxisomal protein known to date. To elucidate the role of Pxt1 in spermatogenesis, we generated transgenic mice expressing a c-MYC-PXT1 fusion protein under the control of the PGK2 promoter. Overexpression of Pxt1 resulted in induction of male germ cells’ apoptosis mainly in primary spermatocytes, finally leading to male infertility. This prompted us to analyze the proapoptotic character of mouse PXT1, which harbors a BH3-like domain in the N-terminal part. In different cell lines, the overexpression of PXT1 also resulted in a dramatic increase of apoptosis, whereas the deletion of the BH3-like domain significantly reduced cell death events, thereby confirming that the domain is functional and essential for the proapoptotic activity of PXT1. Moreover, we demonstrated that PXT1 interacts with apoptosis regulator BAT3, which, if overexpressed, can protect cells from the PXT1-induced apoptosis. The PXT1-BAT3 association leads to PXT1 relocation from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. In summary, we demonstrated that PXT1 induces apoptosis via the BH3-like domain and that this process is inhibited by BAT3. PMID:21460186

Kaczmarek, Karina; Studencka, Maja; Meinhardt, Andreas; Wieczerzak, Krzysztof; Thoms, Sven; Engel, Wolfgang; Grzmil, Pawel

2011-01-01

29

Bioassay for the identification of natural product-based activators of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARgamma): the marine sponge metabolite psammaplin A activates PPARgamma and induces apoptosis in human breast tumor cells.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs), members of the nuclear hormone receptor (NHR) family, are ligand-activated transcription factors. Ligands (agonists) of PPARgamma have been shown to inhibit growth, promote terminal differentiation, and induce apoptosis in human breast tumor cells. A cell-based reporter assay was developed to examine extracts of terrestrial and marine organisms for the ability to activate PPARgamma. Bioassay-guided fractionation and isolation of an active extract from Pseudoceratina rhax yielded the known histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor psammaplin A (1). Compound 1 activates PPARgamma in a MCF-7 cell-based reporter assay and induces apoptosis in human breast tumor cells in vitro. Molecular modeling studies suggest that 1 may interact with binding sites within the PPARgamma ligand-binding pocket. Therefore, in addition to its known effects on HDAC-mediated processes, activation of PPARgamma-regulated gene expression may play a role in the ability of 1 to induce apoptosis. PMID:16643023

Mora, Flor D; Jones, Deborah K; Desai, Prashant V; Patny, Akshay; Avery, Mitchell A; Feller, Dennis R; Smillie, Troy; Zhou, Yu-Dong; Nagle, Dale G

2006-04-01

30

Dependence of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ligand-induced mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling on epidermal growth factor receptor transactivation.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are nuclear hormone receptors that function as ligand-activated transcription factors regulating lipid metabolism and homeostasis. In addition to their ability to regulate PPAR-mediated gene transcription, PPARalpha and gamma ligands have recently been shown to induce activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), which in turn phosphorylate PPARs, thereby affecting transcriptional activity. However, the mechanism for PPAR ligand-dependent MAPK activation is unclear. In the current study, we demonstrate that various PPARalpha (nafenopin) and gamma (ciglitazone and troglitazone) agonists rapidly induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk) and/or p38 phosphorylation in rat liver epithelial cells (GN4). The selective epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) kinase inhibitors, PD153035 and ZD1839 (Iressa), abolished PPARalpha and gamma agonist-dependent Erk activation. Consistent with this, PPAR agonists increased tyrosine autophosphorylation of the EGFR as well as phosphorylation at a putative Src-specific site, Tyr845. Experiments with the Src inhibitor, PP2, and the antioxidant N-acetyl-L-cysteine revealed critical roles for Src and reactive oxygen species as upstream mediators of EGFR transactivation in response to PPAR ligands. Moreover, PPARalpha and gamma ligands increased Src autophosphorylation as well as kinase activity. EGFR phosphorylation, in turn, led to Ras-dependent Erk activation. In contrast, p38 activation by PPARalpha and gamma ligands occurred independently of Src, oxidative stress, the EGFR, and Ras. Interestingly, PPARalpha and gamma agonists caused rapid activation of proline-rich tyrosine kinase or Pyk2; Pyk2 as well as p38 phosphorylation was reduced by intracellular Ca2+ chelation without an observable effect on EGFR and Erk activation, suggesting a possible role for Pyk2 as an upstream activator of p38. In summary, PPARalpha and gamma ligands activate two distinct signaling cascades in GN4 cells leading to MAPK activation. PMID:12966092

Gardner, Olivia S; Dewar, Brian J; Earp, H Shelton; Samet, James M; Graves, Lee M

2003-11-21

31

Combination therapy of an intestine-specific inhibitor of microsomal triglyceride transfer protein and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? agonist in diabetic rat.  

PubMed

We investigated effects on glucose and lipid metabolism in combination of JTT-130, a novel intestine-specific microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor, and pioglitazone, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? agonist. Male Zucker diabetic fatty rats were divided into 4 groups: control group, JTT-130 treatment group, pioglitazone treatment group, and combination group. The Zucker diabetic fatty rats were fed a regular powdered diet with JTT-130 and/or pioglitazone as a food admixture for 6 weeks. Effects on glucose and lipid metabolism were compared mainly between JTT-130 treatment group and combination group. JTT-130 treatment showed good glycemic control, while the plasma glucose and glycated hemoglobin levels in combination group were significantly decreased as compared with those JTT-130 treatment group. The reduction in the plasma triglyceride and free fatty acid levels in combination group was higher than that in JTT-130 treatment group, and glucose utilization was significantly elevated in adipose tissues. In Zucker diabetic fatty rats, combination treatment of JTT-130 and pioglitazone showed better glycemic control and a strong hypolipidemic action with an enhancement of insulin sensitivity. Combination therapy of MTP inhibitor and PPAR ? agonist might be more useful in the treatment of type 2 diabetes accompanied with obesity and insulin resistance. PMID:24772450

Sakata, Shohei; Mera, Yasuko; Kuroki, Yukiharu; Nashida, Reiko; Kakutani, Makoto; Ohta, Takeshi

2014-01-01

32

Redox regulated peroxisome homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles present in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Conserved functions of peroxisomes encompass beta-oxidation of fatty acids and scavenging of reactive oxygen species generated from diverse peroxisomal metabolic pathways. Peroxisome content, number, and size can change quickly in response to environmental and/or developmental cues. To achieve efficient peroxisome homeostasis, peroxisome biogenesis and degradation must be orchestrated. We review the current knowledge on redox regulated peroxisome biogenesis and degradation with an emphasis on yeasts and plants. PMID:25545794

Wang, Xiaofeng; Li, Shuo; Liu, Yu; Ma, Changle

2014-01-01

33

Anti-kindling Effect of Bezafibrate, a Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptors Alpha Agonist, in Pentylenetetrazole Induced Kindling Seizure Model  

PubMed Central

Background and Purpose: Studies in the animals suggested that Peroxisome proliferators activated receptors (PPARs) may be involved in seizure control and selective agonists of PPAR ? or PPAR ? raise seizure thresholds. The present study was contemplated with the aim of evaluating the anti kindling effects and the mechanism of bezafibrate, a Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors ? (PPAR-?) agonist in pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) induced kindling model of seizures in rats. Methods: In a PTZ kindled Wistar rat model, different doses of bezafibrate (100 mg/kg, 200 mg/kg and 300 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally 30 minutes before the PTZ injection. The PTZ injection was given on alternate day till the animal became fully kindled or till 10 weeks. The parameters measured were the latency to develop kindling and incidence of kindling, histopathological study of hippocampus, hippocampal lipid peroxidation studies, serum neuron specific enolase, and hippocampal DNA fragmentation study. Results: In this study, bezafibrate significantly reduced the incidence of kindling in PTZ treated rats and exhibited a marked prolongation in the latencies to seizures. In the present study bezafibrate decreased the thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance i.e. Malondialdehyde levels, increased the reduced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in the brain. This added to its additional neuroprotective effects. Bezafibrate also reduced the neuronal damage and apoptosis in hippocampal area of the brain. Therefore bezafibrate exerted anticonvulsant properties in PTZ induced kindling model in rats. Conclusions: These findings may provide insights into the understanding of the mechanism of bezafibrate as an anti kindling agent and could offer a useful support to the basic antiepileptic therapy in preventing the development of PTZ induced seizures, suggesting its potential for therapeutic applications in temporal lobe epilepsy. PMID:25625088

Saha, Lekha; Bhandari, Swati; Bhatia, Alka; Banerjee, Dibyajyoti; Chakrabarti, Amitava

2014-01-01

34

Effect of nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitors and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma ligands on PTHrP release from human fetal membranes.  

PubMed

Parathyroid hormone-related protein (PTHrP) has been implicated in many processes during normal and pathological pregnancies. In the human fetal membranes, PTHrP exhibits cytokine-like actions. We have recently shown that inhibitors of the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappaB) and activators of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-gamma signalling pathways down-regulate cytokine release from human gestational tissues. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine whether NF-kappaB and PPAR-gamma also regulate PTHrP release from human fetal membranes. Human amnion and choriodecidua explants were incubated in the absence (control) or presence of two known NF-kappaB inhibitors (1, 5 and 10 mM sulphasalazine (SASP) or 5, 10 and 15 mM N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC)), and two PPAR-gamma ligands (15 and 30 microM 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) or 15 and 30 microM troglitazone), under basal conditions. After 18 h incubation, the tissues were collected and NF-kappaB p65 DNA binding activity in nuclear extracts was assessed by ELISA, and the incubation medium was collected and the release of PTHrP was quantified by RIA. Treatment of amnion and choriodecidual tissues with SASP concentrations greater than 5 mM, 15 mM NAC, 30 microM 15d-PGJ(2) and 30 microM troglitazone significantly reduced the release of PTHrP (p < 0.05). This study demonstrates that PTHrP release from human fetal membranes is regulated by inhibitors of NF-kappaB, and ligands of PPAR-gamma. PMID:15450387

Lappas, M; Permezel, M; Ho, P W; Moseley, J M; Wlodek, M E; Rice, G E

2004-01-01

35

Subchronic exposure to high-dose ACE-inhibitor moexipril induces catalase activity in rat liver  

Microsoft Academic Search

The long-term clinical effects of ACE-inhibitors have similarities with those of both fibrates and glitazones, activators\\u000a of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR) alpha and gamma, respectively. The antioxidant enzyme catalase, a heme\\u000a protein that degrades hydrogen peroxide, is found at high concentrations in peroxisomes. Catalase activity is one of the recognized\\u000a surrogate markers indicative of PPAR activation in the rat

E. Adeghate; M. Y. Hasan; A. S. Ponery; S. M. Nurulain; G. A. Petroianu

2005-01-01

36

Subchronic exposure to high-dose ACE-inhibitor moexipril induces catalase activity in rat liver.  

PubMed

The long-term clinical effects of ACE-inhibitors have similarities with those of both fibrates and glitazones, activators of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR) alpha and gamma, respectively. The antioxidant enzyme catalase, a heme protein that degrades hydrogen peroxide, is found at high concentrations in peroxisomes. Catalase activity is one of the recognized surrogate markers indicative of PPAR activation in the rat liver. The purpose of the study was to establish the effect of moexipril on catalase activity and to compare it with the effect of both saline controls and that of the known PPAR agonist clofibrate (positive control). Three groups of seven rats were used. All substances were applied i.p. daily for 5 days, followed by a 2-day break. The cycle was repeated eight times. After the final cycle (day 56) the animals were sacrificed and liver tissue collected. The number of catalase positive cells in both moexipril group (95% CI 57-61) and clofibrate group (95% CI 72-80) is higher than in controls (95% CI 3-16) (p < or = 0.01). The number of catalase positive cells in the clofibrate group is higher than in the moexipril group (p < or = 0.01). High-dose subchronic exposure to the ACE-inhibitor moexipril induces catalase activity in the rat liver to an extent comparable to fibrates. We suggest that some of the long-term advantages of ACE inhibitor use - beyond mere BP lowering - might be due to a PPAR mediated effect. PMID:16311918

Adeghate, E; Hasan, M Y; Ponery, A S; Nurulain, S M; Petroianu, G A

2005-12-01

37

Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor (PPAR)-? Ligand, but Not PPAR-?, Ameliorates Cyclophosphamide-Induced Oxidative Stress and Inflammation in Rat Liver  

PubMed Central

Hepatoprotective potential of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor (PPAR)-? and -? agonists, fenofibrate (FEN), and pioglitazone (PIO), respectively, against cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced toxicity has been investigated in rat. FEN and PIO (150 and 10?mg/kg/day, resp.) were given orally for 4 weeks. In separate groups, CP (150?mg/kg, i.p.) was injected as a single dose 5 days before the end of experiment, with or without either PPAR agonist. CP induced hepatotoxicity, as it caused histopathological alterations, with increased serum alanine and aspartate transaminases, total bilirubin, albumin, alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase. CP caused hepatic oxidative stress, indicated by decrease in tissue reduced glutathione, with increase in malondialdehyde and nitric oxide levels. CP also caused decrease in hepatic antioxidant enzyme levels, including catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and glutathione S-transferase. Furthermore, CP increased serum and hepatic levels of the inflammatory marker tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?, evaluated using ELISA. Preadministration of PIO, but not FEN, prior to CP challenge improved hepatic function and histology, and significantly reversed oxidative and inflammatory parameters. In conclusion, activation of PPAR-?, but not PPAR-?, conferred protection against CP-induced hepatotoxicity, via activation of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory mechanisms, and may serve as supplement during CP chemotherapy. PMID:24803924

El-Sheikh, Azza A. K.; Rifaai, Rehab A.

2014-01-01

38

Retinoic acid induces neurogenesis by activating both retinoic acid receptors (RARs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ?/? (PPAR?/?).  

PubMed

Retinoic acid (RA) regulates gene transcription by activating the nuclear receptors retinoic acid receptor (RAR) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?/? and their respective cognate lipid-binding proteins CRABP-II and FABP5. RA induces neuronal differentiation, but the contributions of the two transcriptional pathways of the hormone to the process are unknown. Here, we show that the RA-induced commitment of P19 stem cells to neuronal progenitors is mediated by the CRABP-II/RAR path and that the FABP5/PPAR?/? path can inhibit the process through induction of the RAR repressors SIRT1 and Ajuba. In contrast with its inhibitory activity in the early steps of neurogenesis, the FABP5/PPAR?/? path promotes differentiation of neuronal progenitors to mature neurons, an activity mediated in part by the PPAR?/? target gene PDK1. Hence, RA-induced neuronal differentiation is mediated through RAR in the early stages and through PPAR?/? in the late stages of the process. The switch in RA signaling is accomplished by a transient up-regulation of RAR? concomitantly with a transient increase in the CRABP-II/FABP5 ratio at early stages of differentiation. In accordance with these conclusions, hippocampi of FABP5-null mice display excess accumulation of neuronal progenitor cells and a deficit in mature neurons versus wild-type animals. PMID:23105114

Yu, Shuiliang; Levi, Liraz; Siegel, Ruth; Noy, Noa

2012-12-01

39

Calmodulin inhibitors induce spinal analgesia in rats.  

PubMed

Calcium is an important intracellular messenger that interacts with Ca(2+)-binding proteins, such as calmodulin (CaM), to activate several intracellular enzymes. The involvement of Ca2+ in the transmission of nociceptive signals has been demonstrated at the spina level. Specifically, spinal sensitization induced by persistent nociceptive stimulation seems to be related to an increase of cytosolic calcium and the subsequent activation of several enzymes, some of which are Ca2+/CaM dependent. In order to elucidate the possible implication of calmodulin in these pain processes, we have studied the effect of two calmodulin inhibitors (W-7 and calmidazolium) or the formalin and tail-flick tests in rats after their intrathecal administration. Antinociceptive effects were observed in both tests by injecting 0.12-1 mumol/rat of calmidazolium and 0.25-2 mumol/rat of W-7. Calmidazolium was more potent than W-7 in inhibiting both phases of the formalin test, whereas lower doses of W-7 in comparison to calmidazolium affected the tail-flick latencies. In addition, both drugs induced, at high doses, a muscular flaccidity of the hindlimbs that impaired normal walking in the rats. This effect caused; significant reduction of the rotarod performance when 1 mumol/rat of calmidazolium or 2 mumol/rat of W-7 were injected. Overall, our results show that calmodulin inhibitors are capable of producing spinal analgesia on phasic and tonic noxious stimuli in rats, thus rendering them a promising potential as analgesics. PMID:8883861

Menendez, L; Perez-Vallina, J R; Cantabrana, B; Hidalgo, A; Baamonde, A

1996-08-26

40

Carbacyclin induces carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 in cardiomyocytes via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta independent of the IP receptor signaling pathway.  

PubMed

Prostacyclin (PGI2) and its analogues exert cardioprotective effects via the rhodopsin type membrane PGI2 receptor, IP. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) delta is a nuclear receptor abundantly expressed in cardiomyocytes and plays a pivotal role in maintaining constitutive mitochondrial fatty acid beta-oxidation (FAO). Recently, a novel signaling pathway of PGI2 via PPARdelta has been demonstrated in non-cardiac tissues. We therefore examined whether carbacyclin (cPGI2), a PGI2 analogue, up-regulates transcriptional expression of carnitine palmitoyltransferase-1 (CPT-1), the rate-limiting enzyme in mitochondrial FAO, via PPARdelta in cardiomyocytes. Intraperitoneal injection of cPGI2 increased CPT-1 mRNA expression in murine hearts. Transcriptional activity was evaluated by PPAR responsive element (PPRE)-luciferase reporter gene assay in cultured neonatal rat cardiomyocytes. CPT-1 mRNA expression and PPRE promoter activity were significantly increased by cPGI2 in a concentration-dependent manner, where PPRE has been mapped to the promoter region of the CPT-1 gene. Moreover, the elevation of CPT-1 mRNA expression and PPRE promoter activity by cPGI2 was not abolished by H-89, a potent protein kinase A inhibitor, but was significantly inhibited in cardiomyocytes over-expressing a dominant-negative type of PPARdelta. Furthermore, electrophoretic mobility shift assays demonstrated that binding of PPARdelta to PPRE in the CPT-1 gene promoter is enhanced in response to cPGI2 stimulation. In addition, down-regulation of CPT-1 mRNA expression in cardiomyocytes subjected to hypoxia was attenuated by cPGI2. These results indicate that cPGI2 induces CPT-1 mRNA expression through PPARdelta, independent of the IP receptor signaling pathway, suggesting a possibility that cPGI2 modulates cardiac energy metabolism by activating FAO via PPARdelta. PMID:17540403

Kuroda, Tadashi; Hirota, Hisao; Fujio, Yasushi; Sugiyama, Shoko; Masaki, Mitsuru; Hiramoto, Yoshimune; Shioyama, Wataru; Okamoto, Kitaro; Hori, Masatsugu; Yamauchi-Takihara, Keiko

2007-07-01

41

Dysferlin domain-containing proteins, Pex30p and Pex31p, localized to two compartments, control the number and size of oleate-induced peroxisomes in Pichia pastoris.  

PubMed

Yarrowia lipolytica Pex23p and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Pex30p, Pex31p, and Pex32p comprise a family of dysferlin domain-containing peroxins. We show that the deletion of their Pichia pastoris homologues, PEX30 and PEX31, does not affect the function or division of methanol-induced peroxisomes but results in fewer and enlarged, functional, oleate-induced peroxisomes. Synthesis of Pex30p is constitutive, whereas that of Pex31p is oleate-induced but at a much lower level relative to Pex30p. Pex30p interacts with Pex31p and is required for its stability. At steady state, both Pex30p and Pex31p exhibit a dual localization to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and peroxisomes. However, Pex30p is localized mostly to the ER, whereas Pex31p is predominantly on peroxisomes. Consistent with ER-to-peroxisome trafficking of these proteins, Pex30p accumulates on peroxisomes upon overexpression of Pex31p. Additionally, Pex31p colocalizes with Pex30p at the ER in pex19Delta cells and can be chased from the ER to peroxisomes in a Pex19p-dependent manner. The dysferlin domains of Pex30p and Pex31p, which are dispensable for their interaction, stability, and subcellular localization, are essential for normal peroxisome number and size. The growth environment-specific role of these peroxins, their dual localization, and the function of their dysferlin domains provide novel insights into peroxisome morphogenesis. PMID:18094040

Yan, Mingda; Rachubinski, Dorian A; Joshi, Saurabh; Rachubinski, Richard A; Subramani, Suresh

2008-03-01

42

Decorin Induces Mitophagy in Breast Carcinoma Cells via Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? Coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) and Mitostatin*  

PubMed Central

Tumor cell mitochondria are key biosynthetic hubs that provide macromolecules for cancer progression and angiogenesis. Soluble decorin protein core, hereafter referred to as decorin, potently attenuated mitochondrial respiratory complexes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. We found a rapid and dynamic interplay between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) and the decorin-induced tumor suppressor gene, mitostatin. This interaction stabilized mitostatin mRNA with concurrent accumulation of mitostatin protein. In contrast, siRNA-mediated abrogation of PGC-1?-blocked decorin-evoked stabilization of mitostatin. Mechanistically, PGC-1? bound MITOSTATIN mRNA to achieve rapid stabilization. These processes were orchestrated by the decorin/Met axis, as blocking the Met-tyrosine kinase or knockdown of Met abrogated these responses. Furthermore, depletion of mitostatin blocked decorin- or rapamycin-evoked mitophagy, increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) production, and compromised decorin-evoked VEGFA suppression. Collectively, our findings underscore the complexity of PGC-1?-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis and establish mitostatin as a key regulator of tumor cell mitophagy and angiostasis. PMID:24403067

Neill, Thomas; Torres, Annabel; Buraschi, Simone; Owens, Rick T.; Hoek, Jan B.; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V.

2014-01-01

43

Decorin induces mitophagy in breast carcinoma cells via peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) and mitostatin.  

PubMed

Tumor cell mitochondria are key biosynthetic hubs that provide macromolecules for cancer progression and angiogenesis. Soluble decorin protein core, hereafter referred to as decorin, potently attenuated mitochondrial respiratory complexes and mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in MDA-MB-231 breast carcinoma cells. We found a rapid and dynamic interplay between peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator-1? (PGC-1?) and the decorin-induced tumor suppressor gene, mitostatin. This interaction stabilized mitostatin mRNA with concurrent accumulation of mitostatin protein. In contrast, siRNA-mediated abrogation of PGC-1?-blocked decorin-evoked stabilization of mitostatin. Mechanistically, PGC-1? bound MITOSTATIN mRNA to achieve rapid stabilization. These processes were orchestrated by the decorin/Met axis, as blocking the Met-tyrosine kinase or knockdown of Met abrogated these responses. Furthermore, depletion of mitostatin blocked decorin- or rapamycin-evoked mitophagy, increased vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) production, and compromised decorin-evoked VEGFA suppression. Collectively, our findings underscore the complexity of PGC-1?-mediated mitochondrial homeostasis and establish mitostatin as a key regulator of tumor cell mitophagy and angiostasis. PMID:24403067

Neill, Thomas; Torres, Annabel; Buraschi, Simone; Owens, Rick T; Hoek, Jan B; Baffa, Raffaele; Iozzo, Renato V

2014-02-21

44

Proteinase Inhibitor-inducing Factor in Plant Leaves  

PubMed Central

Thirty-nine plant species representing 20 families from the four major divisions of plants were surveyed for the presence of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor activity in leaves or other tissues. Tissue juices were assayed for their capacity to induce accumulation of proteinase inhibitor I in excised tomato (Lycopersico esculentum) leaves. In tissues of only 2 of the 39 species was proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity not found. The activity was absent in cabbage leaves and celery stalks. Fruiting bodies from one of three fungi genera assayed contained exceptionally large quantities of proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity. Extracts from Agraricus campestris fruiting bodies contained over 20 times more activity than tomato leaf juice. The survey confirms that substances with proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor-like activity are widespread in the plant kingdom. PMID:16658956

McFarland, Douglas; Ryan, Clarence A.

1974-01-01

45

GDNF-induced neurite formation was stimulated by protein kinase inhibitors and suppressed by Ras inhibitors.  

PubMed

The effects of various inhibitors on the glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF)-induced neurite formation in TGW human neuroblastoma cells were investigated. Treatment of cells with Ser/Thr protein kinase inhibitors such as staurosporine, H-7, H-8 and HA-1004, induced neurite formation without GDNF. On the other hand, tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as erbstatin, genistein and herbimycin A did not produce neurites per se, but effectively enhanced the GDNF-induced neurite formation. A phosphatase inhibitor, okadaic acid, and Ras inhibitors such as oxanosine, damnacanthal and conophylline strongly suppressed the effect of GDNF. These results suggest that a tyrosine protein kinase has a suppressive role in the neurite formation induced by GDNF and that Ras is necessary for the signaling initiated by GDNF. PMID:9464633

Hiwasa, T; Kondo, K; Hishiki, T; Koshizawa, S; Umezawa, K; Nakagawara, A

1997-12-01

46

NAFENOPIN-INDUCED HEPATIC MICROBODY (PEROXISOME) PROLIFERATION AND CATALASE SYNTHESIS IN RATS AND MICE  

Microsoft Academic Search

Nafenopin (2-methyl-2(p-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydro-l-naphthyl)phenoxy)-propionic acid ; Su- 13437), a potent hypolipidemic compound, was administered in varying concentrations in ground Purina Chow to male and female rats, wild type (Csa strain) mice and acatalasemic (Csb strain) mice to determine the hepatic microbody proliferative and catalase-inducing effects . In all groups of animals, administration of nafenopin at dietary levels of 0 .125% and 0.25%

JARNARDAN K. REDDY; DANIEL L. AZARNOFF; DONALD J. SVOBODA; JADA D. PRASAD

47

Hsp90 inhibitor induces autophagy and apoptosis in osteosarcoma cells  

PubMed Central

Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) is constitutively expressed at 2-10-fold higher levels in tumor cells compared to normal cells, suggesting that it may be critically important for tumor cell growth and survival. These features make Hsp90 a potential target for anticancer drug development. Inhibition of Hsp90 activity not only results in rapid degradation of Hsp90 client proteins but also induces apoptosis of various tumor cells. Hsp90 also plays an important role in autophagy. An Hsp90 inhibitor induces autophagy through inhibition of mTOR. It is still under debate whether chemotherapy-induced autophagy in tumor cells is a protective response or is invoked to promote cell death. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the Hsp90 inhibitor, geldanamycin (GA), on KTHOS osteosarcoma cells. We further examined whether a combination of GA and the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyl-adenine (3-MA) enhanced GA-induced apoptosis in KTHOS cells. GA had an inhibitory effect on cell proliferation and inhibited the Akt/mTOR signaling pathway in KTHOS cells. GA alone induced autophagy and apoptosis in KTHOS cells, but treatment with a combination of GA and 3-MA suppressed autophagy and induced apoptosis to a much greater extent than GA alone in these cells. It was considered that the autophagy inhibitor 3-MA suppressed a protective mechanism induced by Hsp90 inhibitor in tumor cells and induced apoptosis. Therefore, the combination of an Hsp90 inhibitor and an autophagy inhibitor may be an effective treatment for osteosarcoma because this combination effectively induces apoptotic pathways. PMID:25351442

MORI, MASAKI; HITORA, TOSHIAKI; NAKAMURA, OSAMU; YAMAGAMI, YOSHIKI; HORIE, RYOSUKE; NISHIMURA, HIDEKI; YAMAMOTO, TETSUJI

2015-01-01

48

Peroxisome Biogenesis and Function  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are small and single membrane-delimited organelles that execute numerous metabolic reactions and have pivotal roles in plant growth and development. In recent years, forward and reverse genetic studies along with biochemical and cell biological analyses in Arabidopsis have enabled researchers to identify many peroxisome proteins and elucidate their functions. This review focuses on the advances in our understanding of peroxisome biogenesis and metabolism, and further explores the contribution of large-scale analysis, such as in sillco predictions and proteomics, in augmenting our knowledge of peroxisome function In Arabidopsis. PMID:22303249

Kaur, Navneet; Reumann, Sigrun; Hu, Jianping

2009-01-01

49

Differential effects of caspase inhibitors on TNF-induced necroptosis.  

PubMed

TNF has been reported to induce caspase-independent necroptosis in the presence of Z-VAD-fmk, a pan-caspase inhibitor. We examined whether necroptosis was induced by caspase inhibitors other than Z-VAD-fmk. TNF-induced necroptosis was detected in the presence of Z-DEVD-fmk, which is commonly used as a caspase-3-specific inhibitor, but not in the presence of Z-Asp-CH2-DCB, which was reported to be a pan-caspase inhibitor. TNF-induced caspase-3 activity was completely inhibited by Z-VAD-fmk, Z-DEVD-fmk, or Z-Asp-CH2-DCB. Although TNF-induced proteolytic activation of procaspase-3 was completely prevented by Z-VAD-fmk or Z-DEVD-fmk, the partial proteolysis of procaspase-3 was induced in the presence of Z-Asp-CH2-DCB. Furthermore, although TNF-induced proteolytic activation of procaspase-8 was completely inhibited by Z-VAD-fmk or Z-DEVD-fmk, the partial proteolysis of procaspase-8 to the p43/41 intermediate and p18 active fragment was detected in the presence of Z-Asp-CH2-DCB. The cleavage of RIP1, which plays a crucial role in TNF-induced necroptosis and is cleaved by caspase-8, was completely inhibited by Z-VAD-fmk or Z-DEVD-fmk, whereas the partial degradation of RIP1 was detected in the presence of Z-Asp-CH2-DCB. These results suggest that the partial activation of caspase-8 in the presence of Z-Asp-CH2-DCB may suppress TNF-induced necroptosis via the cleavage of RIP1, and also suggest that Z-Asp-CH2-DCB, but not Z-DEVD-fmk, may be used as a caspase-3-specific inhibitor in cells. PMID:23410748

Sawai, Hirofumi

2013-03-15

50

Peroxisomal APX knockdown triggers antioxidant mechanisms favourable for coping with high photorespiratory H2 O2 induced by CAT deficiency in rice.  

PubMed

The physiological role of peroxisomal ascorbate peroxidases (pAPX) is unknown; therefore, we utilized pAPX4 knockdown rice and catalase (CAT) inhibition to assess its role in CAT compensation under high photorespiration. pAPX4 knockdown induced co-suppression in the expression of pAPX3. The rice mutants exhibited metabolic changes such as lower CAT and glycolate oxidase (GO) activities and reduced glyoxylate content; however, APX activity was not altered. CAT inhibition triggered different changes in the expression of CAT, APX and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) isoforms between non-transformed (NT) and silenced plants. These responses were associated with alterations in APX, GPX and GO activities, suggesting redox homeostasis differences. The glutathione oxidation-reduction states were modulated differently in mutants, and the ascorbate redox state was greatly affected in both genotypes. The pAPX suffered less oxidative stress and photosystem II (PSII) damage and displayed higher photosynthesis than the NT plants. The improved acclimation exhibited by the pAPX plants was indicated by lower H2 O2 accumulation, which was associated with lower GO activity and glyoxylate content. The suppression of both pAPXs and/or its downstream metabolic and molecular effects may trigger favourable antioxidant and compensatory mechanisms to cope with CAT deficiency. This physiological acclimation may involve signalling by peroxisomal H2 O2 , which minimized the photorespiration. PMID:25039271

Sousa, Rachel H V; Carvalho, Fabricio E L; Ribeiro, Carol W; Passaia, Gisele; Cunha, Juliana R; Lima-Melo, Yugo; Margis-Pinheiro, Márcia; Silveira, Joaquim A G

2015-03-01

51

Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor Induced Isolated Pericardial Effusion  

PubMed Central

Long-term therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) has resulted in improved outcomes for patients suffering from Bcr-Abl fusion protein-harboring leukemias. As a result, a growing population of patients on TKI therapy present to their primary care providers. In this case, we report on the case of a 62-year-old male who presented with a symptomatic pericardial effusion. After pericardiocentesis, malignancy and infectious etiologies were excluded. The pericardial effusion was attributed to his TKI, with a transition of this medication to a different TKI. A repeat evaluation 1 month following the withdrawal of the offending agent showed no recurrence of his pericardial effusion on echocardiogram. In this report, we will highlight a rare but important side effect of TKI therapy before discussing its purported mechanisms and differing incidence rates. Early recognition of serosal inflammation related to long-term TKI therapy by primary care providers is important in preventing patient morbidity and mortality.

Agrawal, Vineet; Christenson, Eric S.; Showel, Margaret M.

2015-01-01

52

Bisphenol A Diglycidyl Ether Induces Adipogenic Differentiation of Multipotent Stromal Stem Cells through a Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor Gamma-Independent Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Background: Bisphenol A (BPA) and bisphenol A diglycidyl ether (BADGE), used in manufacturing coatings and resins, leach from packaging materials into food. Numerous studies suggested that BPA and BADGE may have adverse effects on human health, including the possibility that exposure to such chemicals can be superimposed on traditional risk factors to initiate or exacerbate the development of obesity. BPA is a suspected obesogen, whereas BADGE, described as a peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) antagonist, could reduce weight gain. Objectives: We sought to test the adipogenic effects of BADGE in a biologically relevant cell culture model. Methods: We used multipotent mesenchymal stromal stem cells (MSCs) to study the adipogenic capacity of BADGE and BPA and evaluated their effects on adipogenesis, osteogenesis, gene expression, and nuclear receptor activation. Discussion: BADGE induced adipogenesis in human and mouse MSCs, as well as in mouse 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. In contrast, BPA failed to promote adipogenesis in MSCs, but induced adipogenesis in 3T3-L1 cells. BADGE exposure elicited an adipogenic gene expression profile, and its ability to induce adipogenesis and the expression of adipogenic genes was not blocked by known PPAR? antagonists. Neither BADGE nor BPA activated or antagonized retinoid “X” receptor (RXR) or PPAR? in transient transfection assays. Conclusions: BADGE can induce adipogenic differentiation in both MSCs and in preadipocytes at low nanomolar concentrations comparable to those that have been observed in limited human biomonitoring. BADGE probably acts through a mechanism that is downstream of, or parallel to, PPAR?. PMID:22763116

Chamorro-García, Raquel; Kirchner, Séverine; Li, Xia; Janesick, Amanda; Casey, Stephanie C.; Chow, Connie

2012-01-01

53

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) induces cell death through MAPK-dependent mechanism in osteoblastic cells  

SciTech Connect

The present study was undertaken to determine the role of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) subfamilies in cell death induced by PPAR{gamma} agonists in osteoblastic cells. Ciglitazone and troglitazone, PPAR{gamma} agonists, resulted in a concentration- and time-dependent cell death, which was largely attributed to apoptosis. But a PPAR{alpha} agonist ciprofibrate did not affect the cell death. Ciglitazone caused reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ciglitazone-induced cell death was prevented by antioxidants, suggesting an important role of ROS generation in the ciglitazone-induced cell death. ROS generation and cell death induced by ciglitazone were inhibited by the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662. Ciglitazone treatment caused activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p38. Activation of ERK was dependent on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and that of p38 was independent. Ciglitazone-induced cell death was significantly prevented by PD98059, an inhibitor of ERK upstream kinase MEK1/2, and SB203580, a p38 inhibitor. Ciglitazone treatment increased Bax expression and caused a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, and its effect was prevented by N-acetylcysteine, PD98059, and SB203580. Ciglitazone induced caspase activation, which was prevented by PD98059 and SB203580. The general caspase inhibitor z-DEVD-FMK and the specific inhibitor of caspases-3 DEVD-CHO exerted the protective effect against the ciglitazone-induced cell death. The EGFR inhibitors AG1478 and suramin protected against the ciglitazone-induced cell death. Taken together, these findings suggest that the MAPK signaling pathways play an active role in mediating the ciglitazone-induced cell death of osteoblasts and function upstream of a mitochondria-dependent mechanism. These data may provide a novel insight into potential therapeutic strategies for treatment of osteoporosis.

Kim, Sung Hun [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Chong Il [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hui Taek [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Ji Yeon [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Kwon, Chae Hwa [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of); Keun Kim, Yong [Department of Physiology, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of) and Medical Research Institute, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of) and MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, College of Medicine, Pusan National University, Pusan, 602-739 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: kim430@pusan.ac.kr

2006-09-01

54

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) induces estrogen receptor-positive mammary neoplasia through an inflammatory and metabolic phenotype linked to mTor activation  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) regulates a multitude of physiological processes associated with glucose and lipid metabolism, inflammation and proliferation. One or more of these processes are potential risk factors for the ability of PPAR? agonists to promote tumorigenesis in the mammary gland. In the present study, we describe a new transgenic mouse model in which activation of PPAR? in the mammary epithelium by endogenous or synthetic ligands resulted in progressive histopathological changes that culminated in the appearance of estrogen receptor- and progesterone receptor-positive and ErbB2-negative infiltrating ductal carcinomas. Multiparous mice presented with mammary carcinomas after a latency of 12 months, and administration of the PPAR? ligand GW501516 reduced tumor latency to five months. Histopathological changes occurred concurrently with an increase in an inflammatory, invasive, metabolic and proliferative gene signature, including expression of the trophoblast gene, Plac1, beginning one week after GW501516 treatment, and remained elevated throughout tumorigenesis. The appearance of malignant changes correlated with a pronounced increase in phosphatidylcholine and lysophosphatidic acid metabolites, which coincided with activation of Akt and mTor signaling that were attenuated by treatment with the mTor inhibitor everolimus. Our findings are the first to demonstrate a direct role of PPAR? in the pathogenesis of mammary tumorigenesis, and suggest a rationale for therapeutic approaches to prevent and treat this disease. PMID:23811944

Yuan, Hongyan; Lu, Jin; Xiao, Junfeng; Upadhyay, Geeta; Umans, Rachel; Kallakury, Bhaskar; Yin, Yuhzi; Fant, Michael E.; Kopelovich, Levy; Glazer, Robert I.

2013-01-01

55

Peroxisomes take shape  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes carry out various oxidative reactions that are tightly regulated to adapt to the changing needs of the cell and varying external environments. Accordingly, they are remarkably fluid and can change dramatically in abundance, size, shape and content in response to numerous cues. These dynamics are controlled by multiple aspects of peroxisome biogenesis that are coordinately regulated with each other and with other cellular processes. Ongoing studies are deciphering the diverse molecular mechanisms that underlie biogenesis and how they cooperate to dynamically control peroxisome utility. These important challenges should lead to an understanding of peroxisome dynamics that can be capitalized upon for bioengineering and the development of therapies to improve human health. PMID:24263361

Smith, Jennifer J.; Aitchison, John D.

2014-01-01

56

Isorhamnetin Inhibits Proliferation and Invasion and Induces Apoptosis through the Modulation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? Activation Pathway in Gastric Cancer*  

PubMed Central

Gastric cancer (GC) is a lethal malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Although treatment options such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rate due to GC, chemoresistance remains as one of the major causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of isorhamnetin (IH), a 3?-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) signaling cascade using proteomics technology platform, GC cell lines, and xenograft mice model. We observed that IH exerted a strong antiproliferative effect and increased cytotoxicity in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs. IH also inhibited the migratory/invasive properties of GC cells, which could be reversed in the presence of PPAR-? inhibitor. We found that IH increased PPAR-? activity and modulated the expression of PPAR-? regulated genes in GC cells. Also, the increase in PPAR-? activity was reversed in the presence of PPAR-?-specific inhibitor and a mutated PPAR-? dominant negative plasmid, supporting our hypothesis that IH can act as a ligand of PPAR-?. Using molecular docking analysis, we demonstrate that IH formed interactions with seven polar residues and six nonpolar residues within the ligand-binding pocket of PPAR-? that are reported to be critical for its activity and could competitively bind to PPAR-?. IH significantly increased the expression of PPAR-? in tumor tissues obtained from xenograft model of GC. Overall, our findings clearly indicate that antitumor effects of IH may be mediated through modulation of the PPAR-? activation pathway in GC. PMID:22992727

Ramachandran, Lalitha; Manu, Kanjoormana Aryan; Shanmugam, Muthu K.; Li, Feng; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Vali, Shireen; Kapoor, Shweta; Abbasi, Taher; Surana, Rohit; Smoot, Duane T.; Ashktorab, Hassan; Tan, Patrick; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Yap, Chun Wei; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam

2012-01-01

57

Isorhamnetin inhibits proliferation and invasion and induces apoptosis through the modulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? activation pathway in gastric cancer.  

PubMed

Gastric cancer (GC) is a lethal malignancy and the second most common cause of cancer-related deaths. Although treatment options such as chemotherapy, radiotherapy, and surgery have led to a decline in the mortality rate due to GC, chemoresistance remains as one of the major causes for poor prognosis and high recurrence rate. In this study, we investigated the potential effects of isorhamnetin (IH), a 3'-O-methylated metabolite of quercetin on the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR-?) signaling cascade using proteomics technology platform, GC cell lines, and xenograft mice model. We observed that IH exerted a strong antiproliferative effect and increased cytotoxicity in combination with chemotherapeutic drugs. IH also inhibited the migratory/invasive properties of GC cells, which could be reversed in the presence of PPAR-? inhibitor. We found that IH increased PPAR-? activity and modulated the expression of PPAR-? regulated genes in GC cells. Also, the increase in PPAR-? activity was reversed in the presence of PPAR-?-specific inhibitor and a mutated PPAR-? dominant negative plasmid, supporting our hypothesis that IH can act as a ligand of PPAR-?. Using molecular docking analysis, we demonstrate that IH formed interactions with seven polar residues and six nonpolar residues within the ligand-binding pocket of PPAR-? that are reported to be critical for its activity and could competitively bind to PPAR-?. IH significantly increased the expression of PPAR-? in tumor tissues obtained from xenograft model of GC. Overall, our findings clearly indicate that antitumor effects of IH may be mediated through modulation of the PPAR-? activation pathway in GC. PMID:22992727

Ramachandran, Lalitha; Manu, Kanjoormana Aryan; Shanmugam, Muthu K; Li, Feng; Siveen, Kodappully Sivaraman; Vali, Shireen; Kapoor, Shweta; Abbasi, Taher; Surana, Rohit; Smoot, Duane T; Ashktorab, Hassan; Tan, Patrick; Ahn, Kwang Seok; Yap, Chun Wei; Kumar, Alan Prem; Sethi, Gautam

2012-11-01

58

Regulation of the growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 45 (GADD45) by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma in vascular smooth muscle cells.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) gamma is activated by thiazolidinediones (TZDs), widely used as insulin-sensitizing agents for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. TZDs have been shown to induce apoptosis in a variety of mammalian cells. In vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), proliferation and apoptosis may be competing processes during the formation of restenotic and atherosclerotic lesions. The precise molecular mechanisms by which TZDs induce apoptosis in VSMCs, however, remain unclear. In the present study, we demonstrate that the TZDs rosiglitazone (RSG), troglitazone (TRO), and a novel non-TZD partial PPARgamma agonist (nTZDpa) induce caspase-mediated apoptosis of human coronary VSMCs. Induction of VSMC apoptosis correlated closely with an upregulation of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 45 (GADD45) mRNA expression and transcription, a well-recognized modulator of cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Using adenoviral-mediated overexpression of a constitutively active PPARgamma mutant and the irreversible PPARgamma antagonist GW9662, we provide evidence that PPARgamma ligands induce caspase-mediated apoptosis and GADD45 expression through a receptor-dependent pathway. Deletion analysis of the GADD45 promoter revealed that a 153-bp region between -234 and -81 bp proximal to the transcription start site, containing an Oct-1 element, was crucial for the PPARgamma ligand-mediated induction of the GADD45 promoter. PPARgamma activation induced Oct-1 protein expression and DNA binding and stimulated activity of a reporter plasmid driven by multiple Oct-1 elements. These findings suggest that activation of PPARgamma can lead to apoptosis and growth arrest in VSMCs, at least in part, by inducing Oct-1-mediated transcription of GADD45. The full text of this article is available online at http://www.circresaha.org. PMID:12881480

Bruemmer, Dennis; Yin, Fen; Liu, Joey; Berger, Joel P; Sakai, Toshiyuki; Blaschke, Florian; Fleck, Eckart; Van Herle, Andre J; Forman, Barry M; Law, Ronald E

2003-08-22

59

Jasmonic acid inducible aspartic proteinase inhibitors from potato.  

PubMed

A new cDNA clone coding for an aspartic proteinase inhibitor homologue was isolated from a potato tuber cDNA library. Southern blot analysis was used to study the structural diversity of the aspartic proteinase inhibitor gene family in several species of the Solanaceae. The existence of sequence-homologous genes was confirmed in the genomic DNA of different potato cultivars (Solanum tuberosum L. cv. Désirée, Pentland Squire and Igor), tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.), aubergine (S. melongena L.) and a wild type of bittersweet (S. dulcamara L.). Northern blot hybridization of total RNA, isolated from leaves under non-stress conditions, of different solanaceous species and of potato tubers showed that the gene transcripts encoding aspartic proteinase inhibitors occur mainly in potato tubers. The presence of several cathepsin D inhibitor isoforms has been detected at the protein level. At least four isoforms were isolated by affinity chromatography on cathepsin D-Sepharose and characterized. Additionally, exogenous treatment of potato plantlets by jasmonic acid (JA) over a wide range of concentrations (0-100 microM) was performed in a stem node culture in vitro. We demonstrated that the expression of aspartic proteinase inhibitor mRNA was drastically induced in potato shoots at concentrations of 50-100 microM JA. PMID:9055446

Kreft, S; Ravnikar, M; Mesko, P; Pungercar, J; Umek, A; Kregar, I; Strukelj, B

1997-03-01

60

Plant Peroxisomes: Biogenesis and Function  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are eukaryotic organelles that are highly dynamic both in morphology and metabolism. Plant peroxisomes are involved in numerous processes, including primary and secondary metabolism, development, and responses to abiotic and biotic stresses. Considerable progress has been made in the identification of factors involved in peroxisomal biogenesis, revealing mechanisms that are both shared with and diverged from non-plant systems. Furthermore, recent advances have begun to reveal an unexpectedly large plant peroxisomal proteome and have increased our understanding of metabolic pathways in peroxisomes. Coordination of the biosynthesis, import, biochemical activity, and degradation of peroxisomal proteins allows for highly dynamic responses of peroxisomal metabolism to meet the needs of a plant. Knowledge gained from plant peroxisomal research will be instrumental to fully understanding the organelle’s dynamic behavior and defining peroxisomal metabolic networks, thus allowing the development of molecular strategies for rational engineering of plant metabolism, biomass production, stress tolerance, and pathogen defense. PMID:22669882

Hu, Jianping; Baker, Alison; Bartel, Bonnie; Linka, Nicole; Mullen, Robert T.; Reumann, Sigrun; Zolman, Bethany K.

2012-01-01

61

Inhibition of rotavirus ECwt infection in ICR suckling mice by N-acetylcysteine, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma agonists and cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Live attenuated vaccines have recently been introduced for preventing rotavirus disease in children. However, alternative strategies for prevention and treatment of rotavirus infection are needed mainly in developing countries where low vaccine coverage occurs. In the present work, N-acetylcysteine (NAC), ascorbic acid (AA), some nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR?) agonists were tested for their ability to interfere with rotavirus ECwt infectivity as detected by the percentage of viral antigen-positive cells of small intestinal villi isolated from ECwt-infected ICR mice. Administration of 6 mg NAC/kg every 8 h for three days following the first diarrhoeal episode reduced viral infectivity by about 90%. Administration of AA, ibuprofen, diclofenac, pioglitazone or rosiglitazone decreased viral infectivity by about 55%, 90%, 35%, 32% and 25%, respectively. ECwt infection of mice increased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, ERp57, Hsc70, NF-?B, Hsp70, protein disulphide isomerase (PDI) and PPAR? in intestinal villus cells. NAC treatment of ECwt-infected mice reduced Hsc70 and PDI expression to levels similar to those observed in villi from uninfected control mice. The present results suggest that the drugs tested in the present work could be assayed in preventing or treating rotaviral diarrhoea in children and young animals. PMID:24037197

Guerrero, Carlos Arturo; Pardo, Paula; Rodriguez, Victor; Guerrero, Rafael; Acosta, Orlando

2013-01-01

62

Regulation of peroxisome size and number by fatty acid beta -oxidation in the yeast yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

The Yarrowia lipolytica MFE2 gene encodes peroxisomal beta-oxidation multifunctional enzyme type 2 (MFE2). MFE2 is peroxisomal in a wild-type strain but is cytosolic in a strain lacking the peroxisomal targeting signal-1 (PTS1) receptor. MFE2 has a PTS1, Ala-Lys-Leu, that is essential for targeting to peroxisomes. MFE2 lacking a PTS1 can apparently oligomerize with full-length MFE2 to enable targetting to peroxisomes. Peroxisomes of an oleic acid-induced MFE2 deletion strain, mfe2-KO, are larger and more abundant than those of the wild-type strain. Under growth conditions not requiring peroxisomes, peroxisomes of mfe2-KO are larger but less abundant than those of the wild-type strain, suggesting a role for MFE2 in the regulation of peroxisome size and number. A nonfunctional version of MFE2 did not restore normal peroxisome morphology to mfe2-KO cells, indicating that their phenotype is not due to the absence of MFE2. mfe2-KO cells contain higher amounts of beta-oxidation enzymes than do wild-type cells. We also show that increasing the level of the beta-oxidation enzyme thiolase results in enlarged peroxisomes. Our results implicate peroxisomal beta-oxidation in the control of peroxisome size and number in yeast. PMID:10787422

Smith, J J; Brown, T W; Eitzen, G A; Rachubinski, R A

2000-06-30

63

Mycobacterium tuberculosis 19-kDa lipoprotein induces Toll-like receptor 2-dependent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? expression and promotes inflammatory responses in human macrophages.  

PubMed

Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb) enhances its survival in macrophages by suppressing immune responses, in part through its complex cell wall structures. M.tb 19?kDa lipoprotein (P19), a component of the complex cell wall structures of M.tb, is a Toll?like receptor (TLR) agonist, and may induce immune responses through TLR2. Furthermore, the activation of peroxisome proliferator?activated receptor ? (PPAR?) is also involved in M.tb?induced immune responses in macrophages. In the present study, specific agonists/antagonists and siRNA were used to investigate the role of PPAR? in P19?induced immune responses in human macrophages, including TLR2 activation, p38 phosphorylation and cytokine production. In the present study, PPAR? expression, p38 phosphorylation and cytokine production were upregulated following M.tb H37Rv infection or P19 treatment. By pretreating macrophages with a specific PPAR? agonist or antagonist, it was demonstrated that phosphorylation and IL?6 production are modulated in macrophages by PPAR? activity. Following TLR2 knockdown in macrophages, the expression of PPAR? was significantly decreased in the presence or absence of P19 treatment. Furthermore, p38 phosphorylation and cytokine production were significantly reduced in TLR2 knockdown macrophages following P19 treatment. It was demonstrated in the current study that PPAR? was induced and activated by M.tb infection and that P19?induced PPAR? expression, p38 phosphorylation and cytokine production in macrophages are dependent on TLR2. These findings suggest a role for PPAR? and TLR2 in P19?induced p38 phosphorylation and cytokine production, thereby potentially influencing M.tb pathogenesis. PMID:25504154

Liu, Li; Liu, Jincheng; Niu, Guoqiang; Xu, Qianhong; Chen, Qiliang

2015-04-01

64

Transcriptome profiling to identify genes involved in peroxisome assembly and function  

PubMed Central

Yeast cells were induced to proliferate peroxisomes, and microarray transcriptional profiling was used to identify PEX genes encoding peroxins involved in peroxisome assembly and genes involved in peroxisome function. Clustering algorithms identified 224 genes with expression profiles similar to those of genes encoding peroxisomal proteins and genes involved in peroxisome biogenesis. Several previously uncharacterized genes were identified, two of which, YPL112c and YOR084w, encode proteins of the peroxisomal membrane and matrix, respectively. Ypl112p, renamed Pex25p, is a novel peroxin required for the regulation of peroxisome size and maintenance. These studies demonstrate the utility of comparative gene profiling as an alternative to functional assays to identify genes with roles in peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:12135984

Smith, Jennifer J.; Marelli, Marcello; Christmas, Rowan H.; Vizeacoumar, Franco J.; Dilworth, David J.; Ideker, Trey; Galitski, Timothy; Dimitrov, Krassen; Rachubinski, Richard A.; Aitchison, John D.

2002-01-01

65

A myosin inhibitor impairs auxin-induced cell division  

Microsoft Academic Search

Summary. The role of myosins for auxin-induced cell division was probed using the inhibitor 2,3-butanedione monoxime in the tobacco cell line VBI-0, where cell elongation and division are axially aligned under the control of auxin. A morphometric analysis revealed that cell division is blocked in a dose-dependent manner, whereas cell expansion continued. In addition, the polarity of terminal cells was

Carola Holweg; Anne Honsel; Peter Nick

2003-01-01

66

Transmucosal Gastric Leak Induced by Proton Pump Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Despite their remarkable safety profile and lack of clinical side effects, proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) induce a transmucosal\\u000a gastric leak to non-electrolyte probes of various sizes. The ex vivo addition of PPIs to isolated rat gastric corpus increases\\u000a transmucosal permeability in a dose-dependent manner, which corresponds with PPIs’ dose-dependent inhibition of acid secretion.\\u000a Upon the addition of omeprazole, lansoprazole, or esomeprazole,

Lisa J. Murray; Melissa Gabello; David S. Rudolph; Christopher P. Farrell; Melissa Morgan; Aaron P. Martin; James C. Underwood; M. Carmen Valenzano; James M. Mullin

2009-01-01

67

Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? Induces Lysosomal Biogenesis in Brain Cells: IMPLICATIONS FOR LYSOSOMAL STORAGE DISORDERS.  

PubMed

Lysosomes are ubiquitous membrane-enclosed organelles filled with an acidic interior and are central to the autophagic, endocytic, or phagocytic pathway. In contrast to its classical function as the waste management machinery, lysosomes are now considered to be an integral part of various cellular signaling processes. The diverse functionality of this single organelle requires a very complex and coordinated regulation of its activity with transcription factor EB (TFEB), a master regulator of lysosomal biogenesis, at its core. However, mechanisms by which TFEB is regulated are poorly understood. This study demonstrates that gemfibrozil, an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?, alone and in conjunction with all-trans-retinoic acid is capable of enhancing TFEB in brain cells. We also observed that PPAR?, but not PPAR? and PPAR?, is involved in gemfibrozil-mediated up-regulation of TFEB. Reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation studies confirmed the recruitment of retinoid X receptor ?, PPAR?, and PGC1? on the PPAR-binding site on the Tfeb promoter as well. Subsequently, the drug-mediated induction of TFEB caused an increase in lysosomal protein and the lysosomal abundance in cell. Collectively, this study reinforces the link between lysosomal biogenesis and lipid metabolism with TFEB at the crossroads. Furthermore, gemfibrozil may be of therapeutic value in the treatment of lysosomal storage disorders in which autophagy-lysosome pathway plays an important role. PMID:25750174

Ghosh, Arunava; Jana, Malabendu; Modi, Khushbu; Gonzalez, Frank J; Sims, Katherine B; Berry-Kravis, Elizabeth; Pahan, Kalipada

2015-04-17

68

Urinary trypsin inhibitor protects against systemic inflammation induced by lipopolysaccharide.  

PubMed

Urinary trypsin inhibitor (UTI), a serine protease inhibitor, has been widely used as a drug for patients with acute inflammatory disorders such as disseminated intravascular coagulation, shock, and pancreatitis in Japan. Recent studies have demonstrated that serine protease inhibitors may play an anti-inflammatory role beyond merely an inhibitory action on neutrophil elastase at the site of inflammation at least in vitro. To clarify the direct contributions of UTI to inflammatory condition in vivo, we analyzed its roles in experimental systemic inflammatory response induced by intraperitoneal administration of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) using UTI deficient (-/-) mice and corresponding wild-type (WT) mice. After LPS (1 mg/kg) challenge, UTI (-/-) mice revealed a significant elevation of plasma fibrinogen and fibrinogen/fibrin degradation products and a decrease in white blood cell counts compared with WT mice. LPS treatment induced more severe neutrophilic inflammation in the lung and the kidney obtained from UTI (-/-) mice than in those from WT mice, which was confirmed by histological examination. The protein levels of proinflammatory mediators, such as macrophage chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 in the lungs, MCP-1 and keratinocyte chemoattractant (KC) in the kidneys, and interleukin-1beta, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, MCP-1, and KC in the liver, were significantly greater in UTI (-/-) mice than in WT mice after LPS challenge. Our results suggest that UTI protects against systemic inflammatory response and subsequent organ injury induced by bacterial endotoxin, at least partly through the inhibition of the enhanced expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. PMID:15576631

Inoue, Ken-Ichiro; Takano, Hirohisa; Shimada, Akinori; Yanagisawa, Rie; Sakurai, Miho; Yoshino, Shin; Sato, Hiroyuki; Yoshikawa, Toshikazu

2005-03-01

69

Cell death is induced by ciglitazone, a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) agonist, independently of PPAR{gamma} in human glioma cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Greater than 30 {mu}M ciglitazone induces cell death in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cell death by ciglitazone is independent of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CGZ induces cell death by the loss of MMP via decreased Akt. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}) regulates multiple signaling pathways, and its agonists induce apoptosis in various cancer cells. However, their role in cell death is unclear. In this study, the relationship between ciglitazone (CGZ) and PPAR{gamma} in CGZ-induced cell death was examined. At concentrations of greater than 30 {mu}M, CGZ, a synthetic PPAR{gamma} agonist, activated caspase-3 and induced apoptosis in T98G cells. Treatment of T98G cells with less than 30 {mu}M CGZ effectively induced cell death after pretreatment with 30 {mu}M of the PPAR{gamma} antagonist GW9662, although GW9662 alone did not induce cell death. This cell death was also observed when cells were co-treated with CGZ and GW9662, but was not observed when cells were treated with CGZ prior to GW9662. In cells in which PPAR{gamma} was down-regulated cells by siRNA, lower concentrations of CGZ (<30 {mu}M) were sufficient to induce cell death, although higher concentrations of CGZ ( Greater-Than-Or-Slanted-Equal-To 30 {mu}M) were required to induce cell death in control T98G cells, indicating that CGZ effectively induces cell death in T98G cells independently of PPAR{gamma}. Treatment with GW9662 followed by CGZ resulted in a down-regulation of Akt activity and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), which was accompanied by a decrease in Bcl-2 expression and an increase in Bid cleavage. These data suggest that CGZ is capable of inducing apoptotic cell death independently of PPAR{gamma} in glioma cells, by down-regulating Akt activity and inducing MMP collapse.

Lee, Myoung Woo; Kim, Dae Seong; Kim, Hye Ryung; Kim, Hye Jin; Yang, Jin Mo; Ryu, Somi; Noh, Yoo Hun; Lee, Soo Hyun; Son, Meong Hi; Jung, Hye Lim; Yoo, Keon Hee [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koo, Hong Hoe, E-mail: hhkoo@skku.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Sung, Ki Woong, E-mail: kwsped@skku.edu [Department of Pediatrics, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2012-01-06

70

Prostaglandin synthesis inhibitors block alcohol-induced fetal hypoplasia.  

PubMed

Alcohol-induced growth retardation is a fetal effect consistently associated with maternal ethanol consumption. In humans, those infants whose mothers consume even a limited amount of ethanol during pregnancy have a significant incidence of growth inhibition. The molecular mechanism responsible for this growth deficiency is unknown, and prevention depends on maternal abstinence during pregnancy. The data reported here suggest that ethanol-mediated increases in tissue prostaglandin (PG) E levels (PGE1 plus PGE2) are correlated with the growth retardation. Further, simultaneous administration of PG synthesis inhibitors with the alcohol blocks the rise in tissue PG levels and protects against the alcohol-induced hypoplasia. PMID:3904508

Pennington, S; Allen, Z; Runion, J; Farmer, P; Rowland, L; Kalmus, G

1985-01-01

71

Induction of Peroxisomes by Butyrate-Producing Probiotics  

PubMed Central

We previously found that peroxisomal biogenesis factor 11a (Pex11a) deficiency is associated with a reduction in peroxisome abundance and impaired fatty acid metabolism in hepatocytes, and results in steatosis. In the present study, we investigated whether butyrate induces Pex11a expression and peroxisome proliferation, and studied its effect on lipid metabolism. C57BL/6 mice fed standard chow or a high-fat diet (HFD) were treated with tributyrin, 4-phelybutyrate acid (4-PBA), or the butyrate-producing probiotics (Clostridium butyricum MIYAIRI 588 [CBM]) plus inulin (dietary fiber), and the body weight, white adipose tissue, serum triglycerides, mRNA expression, and peroxisome abundance were evaluated. Tributyrin or 4-PBA treatment significantly decreased body weight and increased hepatic mRNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) and Pex11a. In addition, 4-PBA treatment increased peroxisome abundance and the expression of genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid ?-oxidation (acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1 and hydroxysteroid [17-beta] dehydrogenase 4). CBM and inulin administration reduced adipose tissue mass and serum triglycerides, induced Pex11a, acyl-coenzyme A oxidase 1, and hydroxysteroid (17-beta) dehydrogenase 4 genes, and increased peroxisome abundance in mice fed standard chow or an HFD. In conclusion, elevation of butyrate availability (directly through administration of butyrate or indirectly via administration of butyrate-producing probiotics plus fiber) induces PPAR? and Pex11a and the genes involved in peroxisomal fatty acid ?-oxidation, increases peroxisome abundance, and improves lipid metabolism. These results may provide a new therapeutic strategy against hyperlipidemia and obesity. PMID:25659146

Weng, Huachun; Endo, Kosuke; Li, Jiawei; Kito, Naoko; Iwai, Naoharu

2015-01-01

72

Colorado potato beetles ( leptinotarsa decemlineata) adapt to proteinase inhibitors induced in potato leaves by methyl jasmonate  

Microsoft Academic Search

Potato plants were treated with gaseous methyl jasmonate (MJ) to obtain leaves with high induced levels of cysteine and aspartic proteinase inhibitors. Induced papain inhibitor activity was estimated at 4% of total protein. Other conditions produced leaves with low and moderate levels of this inhibitor. Development of Colorado potato beetle larvae was similar when they were reared on leaves containing

Caroline J. Bolter; Maarten A. Jongsma

1995-01-01

73

Enhanced pan-peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gene and protein expression in adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice treated with telmisartan.  

PubMed

Telmisartan has previously been used to target obesity, showing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ?/?-related effects in white adipose tissue (WAT). We sought to evaluate whether telmisartan enhances gene and protein expression of all PPAR isoforms in WAT and brown adipose tissue (BAT), as well as their downstream effects upon insulin resistance, adipokine profile and adaptive thermogenesis. Male C57BL/6 mice were fed standard chow (SC; 10% lipids) or high-fat diet (HF; 50% lipids) for 10 weeks. Animals were then randomly allocated into the following four groups: SC, SC-T, HF and HF-T. Telmisartan [10 mg (kg diet)(-1)] was administered for 4 weeks in the diet. Animals in the HF group were overweight and exhibited hypertension, insulin resistance, decreased energy expenditure, a pro-inflammatory adipokine profile and abnormal fat pad mass distribution. Animals in the HF group showed decreased expression of PPAR?, ?/? and ? in WAT and BAT, resulting in impaired glucose uptake and insufficient thermogenesis. Due to the improvement in the adipokine profile and enhanced insulin sensitivity with adequate insulin-stimulated glucose uptake after treatment with telmisartan, the activation of all PPAR isoforms in WAT was beneficial. In BAT, telmisartan induced sustained sympathetic activation, because the ?3-adrenergic receptor was induced by PPAR?/?, while uncoupling protein 1 was induced by PPAR? to promote thermogenesis. Telmisartan exerted anti-obesity effects through higher pan-PPAR gene and protein expression. Upon PPAR?, ?/? and ? (pan-PPAR) agonism in adipose tissue of obese mice, telmisartan ameliorates inflammation and insulin resistance, as well as inducing non-shivering thermogenesis. Our results point to new therapeutic targets for the control of obesity and comorbidities through pan-PPAR-related effects. PMID:25326526

Penna-de-Carvalho, Aline; Graus-Nunes, Francielle; Rabelo-Andrade, Júlia; Mandarim-de-Lacerda, Carlos Alberto; Souza-Mello, Vanessa

2014-12-01

74

Onychopathy induced by temsirolimus, a mammalian target of rapamycin inhibitor.  

PubMed

Temsirolimus belongs to the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitors, targeted therapies for which indications are booming in oncology. While their tolerance is usually good, mucocutaneous toxicity is the most common, including stomatitis, rashes, edemas, pruritus, dry skin and nail disorders. The latter are common in clinical practice but have not yet been well characterized. We report 2 cases of patients who developed, after 6-7 months with temsirolimus, a dystrophy of the 20 nails with fragility, distal onycholysis, yellow discoloration, associated in 1 case with painful paronychia. Topical steroids improved the paronychia, without changing the nail dystrophy. To our knowledge, the occurrence of yellow nail discoloration with temsirolimus has never been reported before. We review the cutaneous and mucosal toxicities induced by temsirolimus and everolimus, two mTOR inhibitors used as anticancer agents and by their parent molecule sirolimus. PMID:22614575

Peuvrel, L; Quéreux, G; Brocard, A; Saint-Jean, M; Dréno, B

2012-01-01

75

ACE Inhibitor-Induced Angioedema of the Bowel  

PubMed Central

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor ACEI-induced angioedema of the intestine is a rare occurrence and often unrecognized complication of ACEI. We present a case of a 45-year-old Hispanic female with angioedema of the small bowel progressing to facial and oral pharyngeal angioedema. Patients are typically middle-aged females on ACEI therapy who present to the emergency department with abdominal pain, nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. This is a diagnosis of exclusion, and physicians must have a high index of suspicion to make the diagnosis. Symptoms typically resolve within 24–48 hours after ACE inhibitor withdrawal. Recognizing these signs and symptoms, and discontinuing the medication, can save a patient from unnecessary, costly, and invasive procedures. PMID:21209819

Campbell, Tabitha; Peckler, Bradley; Hackstadt, Raleigh David; Payor, Austin

2010-01-01

76

CTSK inhibitor exert its anti-obesity effects through regulating adipocyte differentiation in high-fat diet induced obese mice.  

PubMed

Obesity is associated with increased risk of developing numerous adverse health conditions. Cathepsin k (CTSK) is highly expressed in adipose tissues of obese patients and animal models. Although CTSK has been demonstrated to promote adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells, the effects of CTSK selective inhibitor (CKSI) on weight gain and insulin resistance have not been well examined. High-fat diet (HFD) induced obese male C57BL/6 mice were fed a diet with or without CKSI for 8 weeks. The HFD induced increase in adipose tissue weight gain, increase in homeostasis model assessment (HOMA) index as well as accumulation of large adipocytes. After CKSI treatment, all these effects were blunted compared with the HFD control group. A study of the mechanism demonstrated a role for CKSI in significantly down-regulating the expression of two key transcription factors, peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein ? (C/EBP?), which are markers of adipogenic differentiation. These results indicated that the CKSI possesses an anti-obesity effect, possibly involving the inhibition of adipocyte differentiation. CTSK is likely to be a new target of therapeutic intervention for the treatment of obesity. PMID:25410008

Han, Junfeng; Wei, Li; Xu, Weibin; Lu, Junxi; Wang, Chen; Bao, Yuqian; Jia, Weiping

2014-11-19

77

Over-expression of C/EBP-{alpha} induces apoptosis in cultured rat hepatic stellate cells depending on p53 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma}  

SciTech Connect

Hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) play a key role in the pathogenesis of hepatic fibrosis. In our previous studies, CCAAT enhancer binding protein-{alpha} (C/EBP-{alpha}) has been shown to be involved in the activation of HSCs and to have a repression effect on hepatic fibrosis in vivo. However, the mechanisms are largely unknown. In this study, we show that the infection of adenovirus vector expressing C/EBP-{alpha} gene (Ad-C/EBP-{alpha}) could induce HSCs apoptosis in a dose- and time-dependent manner by Annexin V/PI staining, caspase-3 activation assay, and flow cytometry. Also, over-expression of C/EBP-{alpha} resulted in the up-regulation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) and P53, while P53 expression was regulated by PPAR-{gamma}. In addition, Fas, FasL, DR4, DR5, and TRAIL were studied. The results indicated that the death receptor pathway was mainly involved and regulated by PPAR-{gamma} and p53 in the process of apoptosis triggered by C/EBP-{alpha} in HSCs.

Wang Xueqing; Huang Guangcun; Mei Shuang; Qian Jin; Ji Juling [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China); Zhang Jinsheng [Department of Pathology, Shanghai Medical College, Fudan University, 138 Yi Xue Yuan Road, Shanghai 200032 (China)], E-mail: jszhang44@shmu.edu.cn

2009-03-06

78

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor activating hypoglycemic effect of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis aqueous extract and improvement of insulin sensitivity in steroid induced insulin resistant rats  

PubMed Central

Background The active components of Gardenia (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, GJ) exhibit a hypoglycemic effect by improving insulin secretion and lowering plasma lipids. In the present study, we fed a water extract of gardenia to steroid-induced insulin-resistant (SIIR) rats and observed changes in signaling proteins in order to elucidate the mechanisms of the insulin-sensitizing effect of GJ and evaluate its possibility as an insulin-sensitizing agent. Methods Normal Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (i.e., saline) and experimental groups (GJ 100 and 200 mg/kg). Blood samples were taken at 0, 30, and 60 min for plasma glucose assay in order to determine the optimal dose to induce the hypoglycemic effect. SIIR rats were then randomly divided into a control group (i.e., saline) and an experimental group (optimal dose of gardenia extract) to observe the insulin-sensitizing effect of the extract. Finally, western blot analysis was performed to detect intracellular signaling proteins to elucidate the mechanisms of the insulin-sensitization effect of GJ. Results The normal Wistar rats in the GJ 200 mg/kg group exhibited significant hypoglycemic activity. Meanwhile, the SIIR rats had higher plasma glucose levels than normal rats. There was no obvious change in insulin level, but the insulin sensitivity index and homeostasis model assessment index were significantly elevated. Meanwhile, a significant hypoglycemic effect was observed with GJ 200 mg/kg. In addition, intracellular signaling proteins including insulin receptor substrate-1 (IRS-1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR?) were elevated in muscle cells. Conclusions The optimal dose of GJ aqueous extract of 200 mg/kg exerts a PPAR?-activating hypoglycemic effect and improves insulin resistance in SIIR rats. Therefore, it is a potential insulin-sensitizing agent in type 2 diabetes mellitus with insulin resistance. PMID:24438349

2014-01-01

79

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor-induced angioedema.  

PubMed

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACE-I) are widely used, effective, and well-tolerated antihypertensive agents. The mechanisms by which those agents act can cause side effects such as decreased blood pressure, hyperkalemia, and impaired renal function. ACE-I can induce cough in 5%-35% and angioedema in up to 0.7% of treated patients. Because cough and angioedema are considered class adverse effects, switching treatment to other ACE-I agents is not recommended. Angioedema due to ACE-I has a low fatality rate, although deaths have been reported when the angioedema involves the airways. Here, we review the role of bradykinin in the development of angioedema in patients treated with ACE-I, as well as the incidence, risk factors, clinical presentation, and available treatments for ACE-I-induced angioedema. We also discuss the risk for recurrence of angioedema after switching from ACE-I to angiotensin receptor blockers treatment. PMID:25058867

Bezalel, Shira; Mahlab-Guri, Keren; Asher, Ilan; Werner, Ben; Sthoeger, Zev Moshe

2015-02-01

80

Histone deacetylase inhibitors block IFN?-induced STAT1 phosphorylation.  

PubMed

Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) is important for innate and adaptive immunity. Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) antagonize unbalanced immune functions causing chronic inflammation and cancer. Phosphorylation and acetylation regulate STAT1 and different IFNs induce phosphorylated STAT1 homo-/heterodimers, e.g. IFN? activates several STATs whereas IFN? only induces phosphorylated STAT1 homodimers. In transformed cells HDACi trigger STAT1 acetylation linked to dephosphorylation by the phosphatase TCP45. It is unclear whether acetylation differentially affects STAT1 activated by IFN? or IFN?, and if cellular responses to both cytokines depend on a phosphatase-dependent inactivation of acetylated STAT1. Here, we report that HDACi counteract IFN-induced phosphorylation of a critical tyrosine residue in the STAT1 C-terminus in primary cells and hematopoietic cells. STAT1 mutants mimicking a functionally inactive DNA binding domain (DBD) reveal that the number of acetylation-mimicking sites in STAT1 determines whether STAT1 is recruited to response elements after stimulation with IFN?. Furthermore, we show that IFN?-induced STAT1 heterodimers carrying STAT1 molecules mimicking acetylation bind cognate DNA and provide innate anti-viral immunity. IFN?-induced acetylated STAT1 homodimers are though inactive, suggesting that heterodimerization and complex formation can rescue STAT1 lacking a functional DBD. Apparently, the type of cytokine determines how acetylation affects the nuclear entry and DNA binding of STAT1. Our data contribute to a better understanding of STAT1 regulation by acetylation. PMID:22425562

Ginter, Torsten; Bier, Carolin; Knauer, Shirley K; Sughra, Kalsoom; Hildebrand, Dagmar; Münz, Tobias; Liebe, Theresa; Heller, Regine; Henke, Andreas; Stauber, Roland H; Reichardt, Werner; Schmid, Johannes A; Kubatzky, Katharina F; Heinzel, Thorsten; Krämer, Oliver H

2012-07-01

81

Zebra Mussel Spawning Is Induced in Low Concentrations of Putative Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5HT) and its receptor ligands induce both oocyte maturation and spawning in zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) fluvoxa- mine (\\

PETER P. FONG

1998-01-01

82

The NADPH oxidase inhibitor apocynin (acetovanillone) induces oxidative stress  

SciTech Connect

Apocynin (acetovanillone) is often used as a specific inhibitor of NADPH oxidase. In N11 glial cells, apocynin induced, in a dose-dependent way, a significant increase of both malonyldialdehyde level (index of lipid peroxidation) and lactate dehydrogenase release (index of a cytotoxic effect). Apocynin evoked also, in a significant way, an increase of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} concentration and a decrease of the intracellular glutathione/glutathione disulfide ratio, accompanied by augmented efflux of glutathione and glutathione disulfide. Apocynin induced the activation of both pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle, which was blocked when the cells were incubated with glutathione together with apocynin. The cell incubation with glutathione prevented also the apocynin-induced increase of malonyldialdehyde generation and lactate dehydrogenase leakage. Apocynin exerted an oxidant effect also in a cell-free system: indeed, in aqueous solution, it evoked a faster oxidation of the thiols glutathione and dithiothreitol, and elicited the generation of reactive oxygen species, mainly superoxide anions. Our results suggest that apocynin per se can induce an oxidative stress and exert a cytotoxic effect in N11 cells and other cell types, and that some effects of apocynin in in vitro and in vivo experimental models should be interpreted with caution.

Riganti, Chiara [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Turin (Italy); Costamagna, Costanzo [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Turin (Italy); Bosia, Amalia [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Turin (Italy); Ghigo, Dario [Dipartimento di Genetica, Biologia e Biochimica, Universita di Torino, Via Santena 5/bis, 10126 Turin (Italy)]. E-mail: dario.ghigo@unito.it

2006-05-01

83

Peroxisomal cholesterol biosynthesis and Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome  

SciTech Connect

Smith-Lemli-Opitz syndrome (SLOS), caused by 7-dehydrocholesterol-reductase (DHCR7) deficiency, shows variable severity independent of DHCR7 genotype. To test whether peroxisomes are involved in alternative cholesterol synthesis, we used [1-{sup 14}C]C24:0 for peroxisomal {beta}-oxidation to generate [1-{sup 14}C]acetyl-CoA as cholesterol precursor inside peroxisomes. The HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor lovastatin suppressed cholesterol synthesis from [2-{sup 14}C]acetate and [1-{sup 14}C]C8:0 but not from [1-{sup 14}C]C24:0, implicating a peroxisomal, lovastatin-resistant HMG-CoA reductase. In SLOS fibroblasts lacking DHCR7 activity, no cholesterol was formed from [1-{sup 14}C]C24:0-derived [1-{sup 14}C]acetyl-CoA, indicating that the alternative peroxisomal pathway also requires this enzyme. Our results implicate peroxisomes in cholesterol biosynthesis but provide no link to phenotypic variation in SLOS.

Weinhofer, Isabelle [Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Kunze, Markus [Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Stangl, Herbert [Department of Medical Chemistry, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria); Porter, Forbes D. [National Institute of Child Health and Human Development, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (United States); Berger, Johannes [Center for Brain Research, Medical University of Vienna, Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: johannes.berger@meduniwien.ac.at

2006-06-23

84

Stress inducible proteinase inhibitor diversity in Capsicum annuum  

PubMed Central

Background Wound-inducible Pin-II Proteinase inhibitors (PIs) are one of the important plant serine PIs which have been studied extensively for their structural and functional diversity and relevance in plant defense against insect pests. To explore the functional specialization of an array of Capsicum annuum (L.) proteinase inhibitor (CanPIs) genes, we studied their expression, processing and tissue-specific distribution under steady-state and induced conditions. Inductions were performed by subjecting C. annuum leaves to various treatments, namely aphid infestation or mechanical wounding followed by treatment with either oral secretion (OS) of Helicoverpa armigera or water. Results The elicitation treatments regulated the accumulation of CanPIs corresponding to 4-, 3-, and 2-inhibitory repeat domains (IRDs). Fourty seven different CanPI genes composed of 28 unique IRDs were identified in total along with those reported earlier. The CanPI gene pool either from uninduced or induced leaves was dominated by 3-IRD PIs and trypsin inhibitory domains. Also a major contribution by 4-IRD CanPI genes possessing trypsin and chymotrypsin inhibitor domains was specifically revealed in wounded leaves treated with OS. Wounding displayed the highest number of unique CanPIs while wounding with OS treatment resulted in the high accumulation of specifically CanPI-4, -7 and ?10. Characterization of the PI protein activity through two dimensional gel electrophoresis revealed tissue and induction specific patterns. Consistent with transcript abundance, wound plus OS or water treated C. annuum leaves exhibited significantly higher PI activity and isoform diversity contributed by 3- and 4-IRD CanPIs. CanPI accumulation and activity was weakly elicited by aphid infestation yet resulted in the higher expression of CanPI-26, -41 and ?43. Conclusions Plants can differentially perceive various kinds of insect attacks and respond appropriately through activating plant defenses including regulation of PIs at transcriptional and post-translational levels. Based on the differentially elicited CanPI accumulation patterns, it is intriguing to speculate that generating sequence diversity in the form of multi-IRD PIs is a part of elaborative plant defense strategy to obtain a diverse pool of functional units to confine insect attack. PMID:23153298

2012-01-01

85

Cdk inhibitors, roscovitine and olomoucine, synergize with farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) to induce efficient apoptosis of human cancer cell lines.  

PubMed

Farnesyltransferase inhibitor (FTI) induces apoptosis of transformed cells. This involves changes in mitochondria, including decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential and the release of cytochrome c. The released cytochrome c then induces events leading to the activation of caspase-3. In this study, we report that purine derivative cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk) inhibitors, roscovitine and olomoucine, dramatically enhance this FTI-induced apoptosis of human cancer cell lines. We noticed the synergy between Cdk inhibitors and FTI through our screen to identify compounds that enhance FTI-induced apoptosis of promyelocytic leukemic cell line HL-60. The Cdk inhibitors by themselves do not induce apoptosis at the concentrations used. Roscovitine synergizes with FTI to release cytochrome c from mitochondria. In addition, we detected synergistic effects of FTI and roscovitine to inhibit hyperphosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Enhancement of FTI-induced apoptosis by roscovitine is not unique to HL-60 cells, since similar synergy was observed with a leukemic cell line CEM and a prostate cancer cell line LNCaP. In LNCaP cells, in addition to roscovitine and olomoucine, phophatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI 3-kinase) inhibitor, LY294002, was effective in enhancing FTI-induced apoptosis. However, the effects of roscovitine appear to be distinct from those of LY294002, since roscovitine did not affect Akt activity while LY294002 significantly decreased the activity of Akt. Our finding of the synergy between FTI and Cdk inhibitor is significant for understanding the mechanism of action of FTI as well as for clinical use of FTI. PMID:10871858

Edamatsu, H; Gau, C L; Nemoto, T; Guo, L; Tamanoi, F

2000-06-22

86

Rosiglitazone, a ligand of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma, reduces acute pancreatitis induced by cerulein  

Microsoft Academic Search

ObjectiveIn the present study, we investigated the effects of rosiglitazone (10 mg\\/kg, i.p.), a PPAR-? agonist, on the development of acute pancreatitis.DesignIntraperitoneal injection of cerulein in mice induced an acute pancreatitis characterized by edema, neutrophil infiltration elevated serum levels of amylase and lipase. This experimental model was performed to test the anti-inflammatory activity of rosiglitazone.SettingUniversity research laboratory.InterventionsMale CD mice (20–22 g) were

Salvatore Cuzzocrea; Barbara Pisano; Laura Dugo; Angela Ianaro; Domenico Britti; Nimesh S. A. Patel; RosannaDi Paola; Tiziana Genovese; MassimoDi Rosa; Achille P. Caputi; Christoph Thiemermann

2004-01-01

87

Selective HDAC1/HDAC2 Inhibitors Induce Neuroblastoma Differentiation  

PubMed Central

Summary While cytotoxic chemotherapy remains the hallmark of cancer treatment, intensive regimens fall short in many malignancies, including high-risk neuroblastoma. One alternative strategy is to therapeutically promote tumor differentiation. We created a gene expression signature to measure neuroblast maturation, adapted it to a high-throughput platform, and screened a diversity oriented synthesis-generated small-molecule library for differentiation inducers. We identified BRD8430, containing a nine-membered lactam, an ortho-amino anilide functionality, and three chiral centers, as a selective Class I histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor (HDAC1>2>3). Further investigation demonstrated that selective HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibition using compounds or RNA interference induced differentiation and decreased viability in neuroblastoma cell lines. Combined treatment with 13-cis retinoic acid augmented these effects and enhanced activation of retinoic acid signaling. Therefore, by applying a chemical genomic screening approach we identified selective HDAC1/HDAC2 inhibition as a strategy to induce neuroblastoma differentiation. PMID:23706636

Frumm, Stacey M.; Fan, Zi Peng; Ross, Kenneth N.; Duvall, Jeremy R.; Gupta, Supriya; VerPlank, Lynn; Suh, Byung-Chul; Holson, Edward; Wagner, Florence F.; Smith, William B.; Paranal, Ronald M.; Bassil, Christopher F.; Qi, Jun; Roti, Giovanni; Kung, Andrew L.; Bradner, James E.; Tolliday, Nicola; Stegmaier, Kimberly

2013-01-01

88

Proton pump inhibitor-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus  

PubMed Central

Summary Background Drug-induced subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus (SCLE) has been known in the literature since 1985 and is increasingly recognized. Objectives To identify and describe patients with proton pump inhibitor (PPI)-induced SCLE. Methods A retrospective medical chart review of patients diagnosed with lupus erythematosus at the Department of Dermatology and Allergy Centre was carried out over a 19-year period. A causality assessment to PPI was performed using the Naranjo probability scale. Results Twenty-four patients with PPI-induced SCLE were identified (21 women and three men). Nineteen patients were newly identified cases, with a mean age of 61 years. These patients had 24 episodes of PPI-induced SCLE comprising lansoprazole (12), omeprazole (six), esomeprazole (four) and pantoprazole (two). Four patients had multiple episodes and three patients reacted to different PPIs. The incubation period was on average 8 months (range 1 week to 3·5 years) and the resolution period was on average 3 months (range 4 weeks to 8 months). Antinuclear antibodies were positive in 61% of tested patients, most frequently with a speckled pattern. Positive anti-Ro/SSA antibodies were found in 73%, anti-La/SSB antibodies in 33% and antihistone antibodies in 8% of tested patients at the time of the eruption. The skin rash was often widespread with a tendency to bullous lesions and focal skin necrosis. Conclusions We present the largest case series of PPI-induced SCLE reported to date, and our patient cohort reveals the lack of attention to this condition. The diagnosis may be suspected on the clinical picture, and most patients have anti-Ro/SSA antibodies, while antihistone antibodies have no value in the diagnostic process. Cross-reactivity can be seen between different PPIs. PMID:24547721

Sandholdt, LH; Laurinaviciene, R; Bygum, A

2014-01-01

89

Dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins  

PubMed Central

Cellular compartmentalization into organelles serves to separate biological processes within the environment of a single cell. While some metabolic reactions are specific to a single organelle, others occur in more than one cellular compartment. Specific targeting of proteins to compartments inside of eukaryotic cells is mediated by defined sequence motifs. To achieve multiple targeting to different compartments cells use a variety of strategies. Here, we focus on mechanisms leading to dual targeting of peroxisomal proteins. In many instances, isoforms of peroxisomal proteins with distinct intracellular localization are encoded by separate genes. But also single genes can give rise to differentially localized proteins. Different isoforms can be generated by use of alternative transcriptional start sites, by differential splicing or ribosomal read-through of stop codons. In all these cases different peptide variants are produced, of which only one carries a peroxisomal targeting signal. Alternatively, peroxisomal proteins contain additional signals that compete for intracellular targeting. Dual localization of proteins residing in both the cytoplasm and in peroxisomes may also result from use of inefficient targeting signals. The recent observation that some bona fide cytoplasmic enzymes were also found in peroxisomes indicates that dual targeting of proteins to both the cytoplasm and the peroxisome might be more widespread. Although current knowledge of proteins exhibiting only partial peroxisomal targeting is far from being complete, we speculate that the metabolic capacity of peroxisomes might be larger than previously assumed. PMID:24151469

Ast, Julia; Stiebler, Alina C.; Freitag, Johannes; Bölker, Michael

2013-01-01

90

Terminal Differentiation of Human Liposarcoma Cells Induced by Ligands for Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor gamma and the Retinoid X Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Induction of terminal differentiation represents a promising therapeutic approach to certain human malignancies. The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma ) and the retinoid X receptor alpha (RXRalpha ) form a heterodimeric complex that functions as a central regulator of adipocyte differentiation. Natural and synthetic ligands for both receptors have been identified. We demonstrate here that PPARgamma is expressed at high

Peter Tontonoz; Samuel Singer; Barry M. Forman; Pasha Sarraf; Jonathan A. Fletcher; Christopher D. M. Fletcher; Regina P. Brun; Elisabetta Mueller; Soner Altiok; Heather Oppenheim; Ronald M. Evans; Bruce M. Spiegelman

1997-01-01

91

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?-mediated transcription of miR-199a2 attenuates endothelin-1 expression via hypoxia-inducible factor-1?.  

PubMed

Endothelin-1, a potent vasoconstrictor, plays an important role in pulmonary hypertension (PH) in sickle cell disease (SCD). Our previous studies show that higher levels of placenta growth factor (PlGF), secreted by erythroid precursor cells, correlate with increased plasma levels of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and other functional markers of PH in SCD. PlGF-mediated ET-1 expression occurs via activation of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?). However, relatively less is understood regarding how PlGF-mediated expression of HIF-1? and its downstream effector ET-1 are post-transcriptionally regulated. Herein, we show that PlGF treatment of endothelial cells resulted in reduced levels of miR-199a2, which targeted the 3'-UTR of HIF-1? mRNA and concomitantly led to augmented ET-1 expression. Plasma levels of miR-199a2 in SCD subjects were significantly lower with reciprocally high levels of plasma ET-1, unlike unaffected controls. This observation provided a molecular link between miR-199a2 and high levels of ET-1 in SCD. Furthermore, we show that miR-199a2 located in the DNM3os transcription unit was co-transcriptionally regulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?). Binding of the latter to PPAR? cis-elements in the promoter of DNM3os was demonstrated by promoter mutational analysis and ChIP. Additionally, we show that fenofibrate, a PPAR? agonist, increased the expression of miR-199a2 and DNM3os; the former was responsible for reduced expression of HIF-1? and ET-1. In vivo studies of fenofibrate-fed Berkeley sickle mice resulted in increased levels of miR-199a2 and reduced levels of ET-1 in lung tissues. Our studies provide a potential therapeutic approach whereby fenofibrate-induced miR-199a2 expression can ameliorate PH by reduction of ET-1 levels. PMID:25389292

Li, Chen; Mpollo, Marthe-Sandrine Eiymo Mwa; Gonsalves, Caryn S; Tahara, Stanley M; Malik, Punam; Kalra, Vijay K

2014-12-26

92

Mode of action framework analysis for receptor-mediated toxicity: the Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor alpha (PPARa) as a case study  

EPA Science Inventory

Therapeutic hypolipidemic agents and industrial chemicals that cause peroxisome proliferation and induce liver tumors in rodents activate the nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARa). Research has elucidated the cellular and molecular events by w...

93

Catalase Deficiency Accelerates Diabetic Renal Injury Through Peroxisomal Dysfunction  

PubMed Central

Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) play an important role in diabetes complications, including diabetic nephropathy (DN). Plasma free fatty acids (FFAs) as well as glucose are increased in diabetes, and peroxisomes and mitochondria participate in FFA oxidation in an interconnected fashion. Therefore, we investigated whether deficiency of catalase, a major peroxisomal antioxidant, accelerates DN through peroxisomal dysfunction and abnormal renal FFA metabolism. Diabetes was induced by multiple injections of low-dose streptozotocin into catalase knock-out (CKO) and wild-type (WT) C57BL/6 mice. Murine mesangial cells (MMCs) transfected with catalase small interfering RNA followed by catalase overexpression were used to further elucidate the role of endogenous catalase. Despite equivalent hyperglycemia, parameters of DN, along with markers of oxidative stress, were more accelerated in diabetic CKO mice than in diabetic WT mice up to 10 weeks of diabetes. CKO mice and MMCs showed impaired peroxisomal/mitochondrial biogenesis and FFA oxidation. Catalase deficiency increased mitochondrial ROS and fibronectin expression in response to FFAs, which were effectively restored by catalase overexpression or N-acetylcysteine. These data provide unprecedented evidence that FFA-induced peroxisomal dysfunction exacerbates DN and that endogenous catalase plays an important role in protecting the kidney from diabetic stress through maintaining peroxisomal and mitochondrial fitness. PMID:22315314

Hwang, Inah; Lee, Jiyoun; Huh, Joo Young; Park, Jehyun; Lee, Hi Bahl; Ho, Ye-Shih; Ha, Hunjoo

2012-01-01

94

Lipopolysaccharide-Related Stimuli Induce Expression of the Secretory Leukocyte Protease Inhibitor, a Macrophage-Derived Lipopolysaccharide Inhibitor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Mouse secretory leukocyte protease inhibitor (SLPI) was recently characterized as a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced product of macrophages that antagonizes their LPS-induced activation of NF-kB and produc- tion of NO and tumor necrosis factor (TNF) (F. Y. Jin, C. Nathan, D. Radzioch, and A. Ding, Cell 88:417-426, 1997). To better understand the role of SLPI in innate immune and inflammatory responses, we

FENYU JIN; CARL F. NATHAN; DANUTA RADZIOCH; AIHAO DING

1998-01-01

95

Peroxisome Metabolism and Cellular Aging  

PubMed Central

The essential role of peroxisomes in fatty acid oxidation, anaplerotic metabolism, and hydrogen peroxide turnover is well established. Recent findings suggest these and other related biochemical processes governed by the organelle may also play a critical role in regulating cellular aging. The goal of this review is to summarize and integrate into a model, the evidence that peroxisome metabolism actually helps define the replicative and chronological age of a eukaryotic cell. In this model, peroxisomal reactive oxygen species (ROS) are seen as altering organelle biogenesis and function, and eliciting changes in the dynamic communication networks that exist between peroxisomes and other cellular compartments. At low levels, peroxisomal ROS activate an anti-aging program in the cell; at concentrations beyond a specific threshold, a pro-aging course is triggered. PMID:21083858

Titorenko, Vladimir I.; Terlecky, Stanley R.

2010-01-01

96

The Peroxisome Proliferator Activator Receptor Alpha\\/Delta Agonists Linoleic Acid and Bezafibrate Upregulate Osteoblast Differentiation and Induce Periosteal Bone Formation In Vivo  

Microsoft Academic Search

We showed previously that some actions of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) on bone are caused by its degradation product, PGA2, which mediates its effects via a class of nuclear receptors known as the peroxisome proliferator activator receptors (PPARs),\\u000a suggesting that the PPARs may be involved in the regulation of bone formation. The aims of this study were to determine the\\u000a effects

Karen Still; Peter Grabowski; Ian Mackie; Mark Perry; Nick Bishop

2008-01-01

97

Inhibitors  

MedlinePLUS

... Hemophilia Related Pages Hemophilia Treatment Center Directory Universal Data Collection (UDC) System Blood Disorders Homepage Von Willebrand Disease ... Required) Data & Statistics Training & Education Research CHAMP Universal Data Collection Blood Safety Inhibitors Articles & Key Findings Free Materials ...

98

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 mediates hypoxia-induced cardiomyocyte lipid accumulation by reducing the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha}/retinoid X receptor  

SciTech Connect

In response to cellular hypoxia, cardiomyocytes adapt to consume less oxygen by shifting ATP production from mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation to glycolysis. The transcriptional activation of glucose transporters and glycolytic enzymes by hypoxia is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1). In this study, we examined whether HIF-1 was involved in the suppression of mitochondrial fatty acid {beta}-oxidation in hypoxic cardiomyocytes. We showed that either hypoxia or adenovirus-mediated expression of a constitutively stable hybrid form (HIF-1{alpha}/VP16) suppressed mitochondrial fatty acid metabolism, as indicated by an accumulation of intracellular neutral lipid. Both treatments also reduced the mRNA levels of muscle carnitine palmitoyltransferase I which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mitochondrial import of fatty acids for {beta}-oxidation. Furthermore, adenovirus-mediated expression of HIF-1{alpha}/VP16 in cardiomyocytes under normoxic conditions also mimicked the reduction in the DNA binding activity of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {alpha} (PPAR{alpha})/retinoid X receptor (RXR), in the presence or absence of a PPAR{alpha} ligand. These results suggest that HIF-1 may be involved in hypoxia-induced suppression of fatty acid metabolism in cardiomyocytes by reducing the DNA binding activity of PPAR{alpha}/RXR.

Belanger, Adam J.; Luo Zhengyu; Vincent, Karen A.; Akita, Geoffrey Y.; Cheng, Seng H.; Gregory, Richard J. [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States); Jiang Canwen [Genzyme Corporation, 49 New York Avenue, Framingham, MA 01701 (United States)], E-mail: canwen.jiang@genzyme.com

2007-12-21

99

Cloning and characterization of PAS5: a gene required for peroxisome biogenesis in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris  

PubMed Central

The biogenesis and maintenance of cellular organelles is of fundamental importance in all eukaryotic cells. One such organelle is the peroxisome. The establishment of a genetic system to study peroxisome biogenesis in the methylotrophic yeast Pichia pastoris has yielded many different complementation groups of peroxisomal assembly (pas) or peroxisome-deficient (per) mutants. Each appears to be deficient in functional peroxisomes. One of these mutants, pas5, has been characterized, complemented, and the gene sequenced. Ultrastructural studies show that normal peroxisomes are not present in pas5, but aberrant peroxisomal structures resembling "membranous ghosts" are frequently observed. The "peroxisome ghosts" appear to be induced and segregated to daughter cells normally. Biochemical fractionation analysis of organelles of the pas5 mutant reveals that peroxisomal matrix enzymes are induced normally but are found mostly in the cytosol. However, purification of peroxisome ghosts from the mutant shows that small amounts (< 5%) of matrix enzymes are imported. The PAS5 gene was cloned and found to encode a 127-kD protein, which contains a 200-amino acid-long region of homology with PAS1, NEM- sensitive factor (NSF), and other related ATPases. Weak homology to a yeast myosin was also observed. The gene is not essential for growth on glucose but is essential for growth on oleic acid and methanol. The role of PAS5 in peroxisome biogenesis is discussed. PMID:8227124

1993-01-01

100

The peroxisome: still a mysterious organelle  

PubMed Central

More than half a century of research on peroxisomes has revealed unique features of this ubiquitous subcellular organelle, which have often been in disagreement with existing dogmas in cell biology. About 50 peroxisomal enzymes have so far been identified, which contribute to several crucial metabolic processes such as ?-oxidation of fatty acids, biosynthesis of ether phospholipids and metabolism of reactive oxygen species, and render peroxisomes indispensable for human health and development. It became obvious that peroxisomes are highly dynamic organelles that rapidly assemble, multiply and degrade in response to metabolic needs. However, many aspects of peroxisome biology are still mysterious. This review addresses recent exciting discoveries on the biogenesis, formation and degradation of peroxisomes, on peroxisomal dynamics and division, as well as on the interaction and cross talk of peroxisomes with other subcellular compartments. Furthermore, recent advances on the role of peroxisomes in medicine and in the identification of novel peroxisomal proteins are discussed. PMID:18274771

Fahimi, H. Dariush

2008-01-01

101

Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor-Induced Sexual Dysfunction in Adolescents: A Review.  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

Objective: To review the existing literature on selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI)-induced sexual dysfunction in adolescents. Method: A literature review of SSRI-induced adverse effects in adolescents focusing on sexual dysfunction was done. Nonsexual SSRI-induced adverse effects were compared in adult and pediatric populations.…

Scharko, Alexander M.

2004-01-01

102

Healing Impairment Effect of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in Rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

We examined the effects of various cyclooxygenase (COX) inhibitors on the healing of colonic lesions induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the rat. Colonic lesions were induced by 2.5% DSS in the drinking water for 7 days, and then the animals were fed with tap water for subsequent 7 days. Indomethacin (a nonselective COX inhibitor), SC-560 (a selective COX-1

Ryoichi Tsubouchi; Shusaku Hayashi; Yoko Aoi; Hikaru Nishio; Shun Terashima; Shinichi Kato; Koji Takeuchi

2006-01-01

103

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Inducers of Differentiation or Apoptosis of Transformed Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been shown to be potent inducers of growth arrest, differentiation, and\\/or apoptotic cell death of transformed cells in vitro and in vivo. One class of HDAC inhibitors, hydroxamic acid-based hy- brid polar compounds (HPCs), induce differentiation at mi- cromolar or lower concentrations. Studies (x-ray crystallo- graphic) showed that the catalytic site of HDAC has a

Paul A. Marks; Victoria M. Richon; Richard A. Rifkind

104

Detrimental Effect of the Proteasome Inhibitor, Bortezomib in Bacterial Superantigen- and Lipopolysaccharide-induced Systemic Inflammation  

Microsoft Academic Search

Bacterial superantigen (BSAg)–induced toxic shock syndrome (TSS) and bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced shock are characterized by severe systemic inflammation. As nuclear factor ?B (NF?B) plays an important role in inflammation and bortezomib, a proteasome inhibitor widely used in cancer chemotherapy, is a potent inhibitor of NF?B activation, we evaluated the therapeutic and prophylactic use of bortezomib in these conditions using murine

Ashenafi Y Tilahun; Jayne E Theuer; Robin Patel; Chella S David; Govindarajan Rajagopalan

2010-01-01

105

Catalase-negative peroxisomes: transient appearance in rat hepatocytes during liver regeneration after partial hepatectomy.  

PubMed Central

Using light microscopy enzyme cytochemistry to localize catalase activity in peroxisomes, a population of peroxisome-negative hepatocytes was detected in livers of rats during liver regeneration induced by two-thirds partial hepatectomy. However, examination by electron microscopy revealed that this population of hepatocytes contained peroxisomes with a delimiting membrane and a nucleoid, but no cytochemically demonstrable catalase activity within their matrix. Regenerating livers 6, 18, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours, and 1 week after partial hepatectomy showed hepatocytes without catalase activity. However, their numbers varied, with the most numerous appearing at 24 hours after partial hepatectomy. Mitosis of catalase-negative hepatocytes were seen along with mitosis of hepatocytes containing the normal complement of catalase-positive peroxisomes. The catalase-negative hepatocytes did not show evidence of apoptosis or necrotic cell death. Lysosomal acid phosphatase activity and bile canalicular ATPase activity were present in hepatocytes with catalase-negative peroxisomes. Another population of hepatocytes with a small number of catalase-positive peroxisomes appeared and were more numerous at 36 hours after partial hepatectomy; ultrastructurally, these hepatocytes contained both catalase-negative peroxisomes, which appeared to undergo dissolution, and catalase-positive peroxisomes, which were smaller in size. After complete restoration of the liver, all hepatocytes displayed essentially uniform numbers of catalase-positive peroxisomes. These studies indicated that during liver regeneration there is a transient loss of catalase in peroxisomes of some hepatocytes. These cells proliferate and with time acquire new catalase-positive peroxisomes. The observations are discussed in relation to peroxisome biogenesis, hepatocellular carcinogenesis, and oxidative stress during liver regeneration. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:7887449

Oikawa, I.; Novikoff, P. M.

1995-01-01

106

Arsenic toxicity induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia: Pharmacological interdiction by histone deacetylase and inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

Arsenic toxicity has been reported to damage all the major organs including the brain and vasculature. Dementia including Alzheimer's disease (AD) and vascular dementia (VaD) are posing greater risk to the world population as it is now increasing at a faster rate. We have investigated the role of sodium butyrate, a selective histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor and aminoguanidine, a selective inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) inhibitor in pharmacological interdiction of arsenic toxicity induced vascular endothelial dysfunction and dementia in rats. Arsenic toxicity was done by administering arsenic drinking water to rats. Morris water-maze (MWM) test was used for assessment of learning and memory. Endothelial function was assessed using student physiograph. Oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species, brain glutathione) and nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) were also measured. Arsenic treated rats have shown impairment of endothelial function, learning and memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate and brain GSH levels along with increase in serum and brain TBARS. Sodium butyrate as well as aminoguanidine significantly convalesce arsenic induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial function, and alterations in various biochemical parameters. It may be concluded that arsenic induces endothelial dysfunction and dementia, whereas, sodium butyrate, a HDAC inhibitor as well as aminoguanidine, a selective iNOS inhibitor may be considered as potential agents for the management of arsenic induced endothelial dysfunction and dementia. - Highlights: • As has induced endothelial dysfunction (Edf) and vascular dementia (VaD). • As has increased oxidative stress, AChE activity and decreased serum NO. • Inhibitors of HDAC and iNOS have attenuated As induced Edf and VaD. • Both the inhibitors have attenuated As induced biochemical changes. • Inhibitor of HDAC and iNOS has shown good potential in As induced VaD.

Sharma, Bhupesh, E-mail: drbhupeshresearch@gmail.com; Sharma, P.M.

2013-11-15

107

Dipeptidyl peptidase IV inhibitor lowers PPAR? agonist-induced body weight gain by affecting food intake, fat mass, and beige/brown fat but not fluid retention  

PubMed Central

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) agonists like pioglitazone (PGZ) are effective antidiabetic drugs, but they induce fluid retention and body weight (BW) gain. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitors are antidiabetic drugs that enhance renal Na+ and fluid excretion. Therefore, we examined whether the DPP IV inhibitor alogliptin (ALG) ameliorates PGZ-induced BW gain. Male Sv129 mice were treated with vehicle (repelleted diet), PGZ (220 mg/kg diet), ALG (300 mg/kg diet), or a combination of PGZ and ALG (PGZ + ALG) for 14 days. PGZ + ALG prevented the increase in BW observed with PGZ but did not attenuate the increase in body fluid content determined by bioimpedance spectroscopy (BIS). BIS revealed that ALG alone had no effect on fat mass (FM) but enhanced the FM-lowering effect of PGZ; MRI analysis confirmed the latter and showed reductions in visceral and inguinal subcutaneous (sc) white adipose tissue (WAT). ALG but not PGZ decreased food intake and plasma free fatty acid concentrations. Conversely, PGZ but not ALG increased mRNA expression of thermogenesis mediator uncoupling protein 1 in epididymal WAT. Adding ALG to PGZ treatment increased the abundance of multilocular cell islets in sc WAT, and PGZ + ALG increased the expression of brown-fat-like “beige” cell marker TMEM26 in sc WAT and interscapular brown adipose tissue and increased rectal temperature vs. vehicle. In summary, DPP IV inhibition did not attenuate PPAR? agonist-induced fluid retention but prevented BW gain by reducing FM. This involved ALG inhibition of food intake and was associated with food intake-independent synergistic effects of PPAR? agonism and DPP-IV inhibition on beige/brown fat cells and thermogenesis. PMID:24347054

Masuda, Takahiro; Fu, Yiling; Eguchi, Akiko; Czogalla, Jan; Rose, Michael A.; Kuczkowski, Alexander; Gerasimova, Maria; Feldstein, Ariel E.; Scadeng, Miriam

2013-01-01

108

Pex11? deficiency impairs peroxisome elongation and division and contributes to nonalcoholic fatty liver in mice.  

PubMed

Hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation is considered to be a prerequisite for developing nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL). Peroxisomes have many important functions in lipid metabolism, including fatty acid ?-oxidization. However, the pathogenic link between NAFL and peroxisome biogenesis remains unclear. To examine the molecular and physiological functions of the Pex11? gene, we disrupted this gene in mice. Body weights and hepatic TG concentrations in Pex11?(-/-) mice were significantly higher than those in wild-type (WT) mice fed a normal or a high-fat diet. Hepatic TG concentrations in fasted Pex11?(-/-) mice were significantly higher than those in fasted WT mice. Plasma TG levels increased at lower rates in Pex11?(-/-) mice than in WT mice after treatment with the lipoprotein lipase inhibitor tyloxapol. The number of peroxisomes was lower in the livers of Pex11?(-/-) mice than in those of WT mice. Ultrastructural analysis showed that small and regular spherically shaped peroxisomes were more prevalent in Pex11?(-/-) mice fed normal chow supplemented without or with fenofibrate. We observed a significantly higher ratio of empty peroxisomes containing only PMP70, a peroxisome membrane protein, but not catalase, a peroxisome matrix protein, in Pex11?(-/-) mice. The mRNA expression levels of peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation-related genes (ATP-binding cassette, subfamily D, member 2, and acyl-CoA thioesterase 3) were significantly higher in WT mice than those in Pex11?(-/-) mice under fed conditions. Our results demonstrate that Pex11? deficiency impairs peroxisome elongation and abundance and peroxisomal fatty acid oxidation, which contributes to increased lipid accumulation in the liver. PMID:23169785

Weng, Huachun; Ji, Xu; Naito, Yukiko; Endo, Kosuke; Ma, Xiao; Takahashi, Rie; Shen, Chunshen; Hirokawa, Go; Fukushima, Yasue; Iwai, Naoharu

2013-01-15

109

BRAF inhibitors induce metastasis in RAS mutant or inhibitor-resistant melanoma cells by reactivating MEK and ERK signaling.  

PubMed

Melanoma is a highly metastatic and lethal form of skin cancer. The protein kinase BRAF is mutated in about 40% of melanomas, and BRAF inhibitors improve progression-free and overall survival in these patients. However, after a relatively short period of disease control, most patients develop resistance because of reactivation of the RAF-ERK (extracellular signal-regulated kinase) pathway, mediated in many cases by mutations in RAS. We found that BRAF inhibition induces invasion and metastasis in RAS mutant melanoma cells through a mechanism mediated by the reactivation of the MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase)-ERK pathway, increased expression and secretion of interleukin 8, and induction of protease-dependent invasion. These events were accompanied by a cell morphology switch from predominantly rounded to predominantly elongated cells. We also observed similar responses in BRAF inhibitor-resistant melanoma cells. These data show that BRAF inhibitors can induce melanoma cell invasion and metastasis in tumors that develop resistance to these drugs. PMID:24667377

Sanchez-Laorden, Berta; Viros, Amaya; Girotti, Maria Romina; Pedersen, Malin; Saturno, Grazia; Zambon, Alfonso; Niculescu-Duvaz, Dan; Turajlic, Samra; Hayes, Andrew; Gore, Martin; Larkin, James; Lorigan, Paul; Cook, Martin; Springer, Caroline; Marais, Richard

2014-03-25

110

Yeast Methylotrophy: Metabolism, Gene Regulation and Peroxisome Homeostasis  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic methylotrophs, which are able to obtain all the carbon and energy needed for growth from methanol, are restricted to a limited number of yeast species. When these yeasts are grown on methanol as the sole carbon and energy source, the enzymes involved in methanol metabolism are strongly induced, and the membrane-bound organelles, peroxisomes, which contain key enzymes of methanol metabolism, proliferate massively. These features have made methylotrophic yeasts attractive hosts for the production of heterologous proteins and useful model organisms for the study of peroxisome biogenesis and degradation. In this paper, we describe recent insights into the molecular basis of yeast methylotrophy. PMID:21754936

Yurimoto, Hiroya; Oku, Masahide; Sakai, Yasuyoshi

2011-01-01

111

Histone deacetylase inhibitors augment doxorubicin-induced DNA damage in cardiomyocytes.  

PubMed

Histone deacetylase inhibitors have emerged as a new class of anticancer therapeutics with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (Vorinostat) and depsipeptide (Romidepsin) already being approved for clinical use. Numerous studies have identified that histone deacetylase inhibitors will be most effective in the clinic when used in combination with conventional cancer therapies such as ionizing radiation and chemotherapeutic agents. One promising combination, particularly for hematologic malignancies, involves the use of histone deacetylase inhibitors with the anthracycline, doxorubicin. However, we previously identified that trichostatin A can potentiate doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy, the dose-limiting side-effect of the anthracycline, in cardiac myocytes. Here we have the extended the earlier studies and evaluated the effects of combinations of the histone deacetylase inhibitors, trichostatin A, valproic acid and sodium butyrate on doxorubicin-induced DNA double-strand breaks in cardiomyocytes. Using ?H2AX as a molecular marker for the DNA lesions, we identified that all of the broad-spectrum histone deacetylase inhibitors tested augment doxorubicin-induced DNA damage. Furthermore, it is evident from the fluorescence photomicrographs of stained nuclei that the histone deacetylase inhibitors also augment doxorubicin-induced hypertrophy. These observations highlight the importance of investigating potential side-effects, in relevant model systems, which may be associated with emerging combination therapies for cancer. PMID:21584806

Ververis, Katherine; Rodd, Annabelle L; Tang, Michelle M; El-Osta, Assam; Karagiannis, Tom C

2011-12-01

112

Resveratrol protects against protease inhibitor-induced ROS production, reticulum stress and lipid raft perturbation  

E-print Network

1 Resveratrol protects against protease inhibitor-induced ROS production, reticulum stress, France; Association Française contre les Myopathies, Paris, France Short title: Resveratrol and PI treatment with resveratrol could protect against PI-induced cellular damages. Design and Methods: We

Boyer, Edmond

113

Histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A and proteasome inhibitor PS-341 synergistically induce apoptosis in pancreatic cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Pancreatic cancer is a common and lethal malignancy. Pancreatic cancer cells overexpress multiple anti-apoptotic factors and death receptor decoys, and are strongly resistant to radiation and to 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)- or gemcitabine (Gem)-based chemotherapy regimens. We have found that low-dose proteasome inhibitor PS-341 and histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) synergistically induce cytotoxicity in a panel of eight diverse pancreatic cancer cell lines. Combining TSA with PS-341 effectively inactivated NF{kappa}B signaling, downregulated the predominant endogenous anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-XL overexpression, and disrupted MAP kinase pathway. The combined drug regimen effectively inflicted an average of 71.5% apoptotic cell death (55.2-80%) in diverse pancreatic cancer cell lines by activating the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Conclusion: the TSA/PS-341 regimen may represent a potential novel therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.

Bai Jirong [Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 0221 (United States)]. E-mail: jbai@bidmc.harvard.edu; Demirjian, Aram [Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 0221 (United States); Sui Jianhua [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 0221 (United States); Marasco, Wayne [Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 0221 (United States); Callery, Mark P. [Department of Surgery, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard Medical School, 330 Brookline Avenue, Boston, MA 0221 (United States)]. E-mail: mcallery@bidmc.harvard.ede

2006-10-06

114

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: Mechanisms and Clinical Significance in Cancer: HDAC Inhibitor-Induced Apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Epigenic modifications, mainly DNA methylation and acetylation, are recognized as the main mechanisms contributing to the\\u000a malignant phenotype. Acetylation and deacetylation are catalyzed by specific enzymes, histone acetyltransferases (HATs) and\\u000a histone deacetylases (HDACs), respectively. While histones represent a primary target for the physiological function of HDACs,\\u000a the antitumor effect of HDAC inhibitors might also be attributed to transcriptionindependent mechanisms by

Sharmila Shankar; Rakesh K. Srivastava

115

Fis1, DLP1, and Pex11p coordinately regulate peroxisome morphogenesis  

SciTech Connect

Dynamin-like protein 1 (DLP1) and Pex11p{beta} function in morphogenesis of peroxisomes. In the present work, we investigated whether Fis1 is involved in fission of peroxisomes. Endogenous Fis1 was morphologically detected in peroxisomes as well as mitochondria in wild-type CHO-K1 and DLP1-defective ZP121 cells. Subcellular fractionation studies also revealed the presence of Fis1 in peroxisomes. Peroxisomal Fis1 showed the same topology, i.e., C-tail anchored membrane protein, as the mitochondrial one. Furthermore, ectopic expression of FIS1 induced peroxisome proliferation in CHO-K1 cells, while the interference of FIS1 RNA resulted in tubulation of peroxisomes, hence reducing the number of peroxisomes. Fis1 interacted with Pex11p{beta}, by direct binding apparently involving the C-terminal region of Pex11p{beta} in the interaction. Pex11p{beta} also interacted with each other, whereas the binding of Pex11p{beta} to DLP1 was not detectable. Moreover, ternary complexes comprising Fis1, Pex11p{beta}, and DLP1 were detected by chemical cross-linking. We also showed that the highly conserved N-terminal domain of Pex11p{beta} was required for the homo-oligomerization of Pex11p{beta} and indispensable for the peroxisome-proliferating activity. Taken together, these findings indicate that Fis1 plays important roles in peroxisome division and maintenance of peroxisome morphology in mammalian cells, possibly in a concerted manner with Pex11p{beta} and DLP1.

Kobayashi, Shinta [Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Tanaka, Atsushi [Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University Graduate School, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan); Fujiki, Yukio [Graduate School of Systems Life Sciences, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan) and Department of Biology, Faculty of Sciences, Kyushu University Graduate School, 6-10-1 Hakozaki, Higashi-ku, Fukuoka 812-8581 (Japan) and JST, CREST (Japan)]. E-mail: yfujiscb@mbox.nc.kyushu-u.ac.jp

2007-05-01

116

Peroxisome biogenesis in mammalian cells  

PubMed Central

To investigate peroxisome assembly and human peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBDs) such as Zellweger syndrome, thirteen different complementation groups (CGs) of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell mutants defective in peroxisome biogenesis have been isolated and established as a model research system. Successful gene-cloning studies by a forward genetic approach utilized a rapid functional complementation assay of CHO cell mutants led to isolation of human peroxin (PEX) genes. Search for pathogenic genes responsible for PBDs of all 14 CGs is now completed together with the homology search by screening the human expressed sequence tag database using yeast PEX genes. Peroxins are divided into three groups: (1) peroxins including Pex3p, Pex16p, and Pex19p, are responsible for peroxisome membrane biogenesis via classes I and II pathways; (2) peroxins that function in matrix protein import; (3) those such as three forms of Pex11p, Pex11p?, Pex11p?, and Pex11p?, are involved in peroxisome proliferation where DLP1, Mff, and Fis1 coordinately function. In membrane assembly, Pex19p forms complexes in the cytosol with newly synthesized PMPs including Pex16p and transports them to the receptor Pex3p, whereby peroxisomal membrane is formed (Class I pathway). Pex19p likewise forms a complex with newly made Pex3p and translocates it to the Pex3p receptor, Pex16p (Class II pathway). In matrix protein import, newly synthesized proteins harboring peroxisome targeting signal type 1 or 2 are recognized by Pex5p or Pex7p in the cytoplasm and are imported to peroxisomes via translocation machinery. In regard to peroxisome-cytoplasmic shuttling of Pex5p, Pex5p initially targets to an 800-kDa docking complex consisting of Pex14p and Pex13p and then translocates to a 500-kDa RING translocation complex. At the terminal step, Pex1p and Pex6p of the AAA family mediate the export of Pex5p, where Cys-ubiquitination of Pex5p is essential for the Pex5p exit. PMID:25177298

Fujiki, Yukio; Okumoto, Kanji; Mukai, Satoru; Honsho, Masanori; Tamura, Shigehiko

2014-01-01

117

INHIBITORS OF HYDROPEROXIDE METABOLISM ENHANCE ASCORBATE-INDUCED CYTOTOXICITY  

PubMed Central

Pharmacological ascorbate, via its oxidation, has been proposed as a pro-drug for the delivery of H2O2 to tumors. Pharmacological ascorbate decreases clonogenic survival of pancreatic cancer cells, which can be reversed by treatment with scavengers of H2O2. The goal of this study was to determine if inhibitors of intracellular hydroperoxide detoxification could enhance the cytotoxic effects of ascorbate. Human pancreatic cancer cells were treated with ascorbate alone or in combination with inhibitors of hydroperoxide removal including the glutathione disulfide reductase inhibitor 1,3 bis (2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosurea (BCNU), siRNA targeted to glutathione disulfide reductase (siGR), and 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), which inhibits glucose metabolism. Changes in the intracellular concentration of H2O2 were determined by analysis of the rate of aminotriazole-mediated inactivation of endogenous catalase activity. Pharmacological ascorbate increased intracellular H2O2 and depleted intracellular glutathione. When inhibitors of H2O2 metabolism were combined with pharmacological ascorbate the increase in intracellular H2O2 was amplified and cytotoxicity was enhanced. We conclude that inclusion of agents that inhibit cellular peroxide removal produced by pharmacological ascorbate leads to changes in the intracellular redox state resulting in enhanced cytotoxicity. PMID:23205739

Olney, Kristen E.; Du, Juan; van 't Erve, Thomas J.; Witmer, Jordan R.; Sibenaller, Zita A.; Wagner, Brett A.; Buettner, Garry R.; Cullen, Joseph J.

2013-01-01

118

5-Lipoxygenase Inhibitors Attenuate TNF-?-Induced Inflammation in Human Synovial Fibroblasts  

PubMed Central

The lipoxygenase isoform of 5-lipoxygenase (5-LOX) is reported to be overexpressed in human rheumatoid arthritis synovial tissue and involved in the progress of inflammatory arthritis. However, the detailed mechanism of how 5-lipoxygenase regulates the inflammatory response in arthritis synovial tissue is still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the involvement of lipoxygenase pathways in TNF-?-induced production of cytokines and chemokines. Human synovial fibroblasts from rheumatoid patients were used in this study. 5-LOX inhibitors and shRNA were used to examine the involvement of 5-LOX in TNF-?-induced cytokines and chemokines expression. The signaling pathways were examined by Western Blotting or immunofluorescence staining. The effect of 5-LOX inhibitor on TNF-?-induced chemokine expression and paw edema was also explored in vivo in C57BL/6 mice. Treatment with 5-LOX inhibitors significantly decreased TNF-?-induced pro-inflammatory mediators including interleukin-6 (IL-6) and monocyte chemo-attractant protein-1 (MCP-1) in human synovial fibroblasts. Knockdown of 5-LOX using shRNA exerted similar inhibitory effects. The abrogation of NF-?B activation was involved in the antagonizing effects of these inhibitors. Furthermore, 5-LOX inhibitor decreased TNF-?-induced up-regulation of serum MCP-1 level and paw edema in mouse model. Our results provide the evidence that the administration of 5-LOX inhibitors is able to ameliorate TNF-?-induced cytokine/chemokine release and paw edema, indicating that 5-LOX inhibitors may be developed for therapeutic treatment of inflammatory arthritis. PMID:25229347

Lin, Han-Ching; Lin, Tzu-Hung; Wu, Ming-Yueh; Chiu, Yung-Cheng; Tang, Chih-Hsin; Hour, Mann-Jen; Liou, Houng-Chi; Tu, Huang-Ju; Yang, Rong-Sen; Fu, Wen-Mei

2014-01-01

119

Combined Treatment With Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR) Gamma Ligands and Gamma Radiation Induces Apoptosis by PPAR?-Independent Up-Regulation of Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Deoxyribonucleic Acid Damage Signals in Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer Cells  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To investigate possible radiosensitizing activities of the well-known peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)? ligand ciglitazone and novel PPAR? ligands CAY10415 and CAY10506 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) cells. Methods and Materials: Radiosensitivity was assessed using a clonogenic cell survival assay. To investigate the mechanism underlying PPAR? ligand-induced radiosensitization, the subdiploid cellular DNA fraction was analyzed by flow cytometry. Activation of the caspase pathway by combined PPAR? ligands and ?-radiation treatment was detected by immunoblot analysis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured using 2,7-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate and flow cytometry. Results: The 3 PPAR? ligands induced cell death and ROS generation in a PPAR?-independent manner, enhanced ?-radiation–induced apoptosis and caspase-3–mediated poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) cleavage in vitro. The combined PPAR? ligand/?-radiation treatment triggered caspase-8 activation, and this initiator caspase played an important role in the combination-induced apoptosis. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? ligands may enhance the ?-radiation-induced DNA damage response, possibly by increasing ?-H2AX expression. Moreover, the combination treatment significantly increased ROS generation, and the ROS scavenger N-acetylcysteine inhibited the combined treatment-induced ROS generation and apoptotic cell death. Conclusions: Taken together, these results indicated that the combined treatment of PPAR? ligands and ?-radiation synergistically induced DNA damage and apoptosis, which was regulated by ROS.

Han, Eun Jong; Im, Chang-Nim; Park, Seon Hwa [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Moon, Eun-Yi [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Bioscience and Biotechnology, Sejong University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hee, E-mail: gobrian@kcch.re.kr [Division of Radiation Cancer Research, Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

2013-04-01

120

The ins and outs of peroxisomes: co-ordination of membrane transport and peroxisomal metabolism.  

PubMed

Peroxisomes perform a range of metabolic functions which require the movement of substrates, co-substrates, cofactors and metabolites across the peroxisomal membrane. In this review, we discuss the evidence for and against specific transport systems involved in peroxisomal metabolism and how these operate to co-ordinate biochemical reactions within the peroxisome with those in other compartments of the cell. PMID:17010456

Rottensteiner, Hanspeter; Theodoulou, Frederica L

2006-12-01

121

Do peroxisome proliferating compounds pose a hepatocarcinogenic hazard to humans?  

PubMed

The purpose of the workshop "Do Peroxisome Proliferating Compounds Pose a Hepatocarcinogenic Hazard to Humans?" was to provide a review of the current state of the science on the relationship between peroxisome proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis. There has been much debate regarding the mechanism by which peroxisome proliferators may induce liver tumors in rats and mice and whether these events occur in humans. A primary goal of the workshop was to determine where consensus might be reached regarding the interpretation of these data relative to the assessment of potential human risks. A core set of biochemical and cellular events has been identified in the rodent strains that are susceptible to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of peroxisome proliferators, including peroxisome proliferation, increases in fatty acyl-CoA oxidase levels, microsomal fatty acid oxidation, excess production of hydrogen peroxide, increases in rates of cell proliferation, and expression and activation of the alpha subtype of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-alpha). Such effects have not been identified clinically in liver biopsies from humans exposed to peroxisome proliferators or in in vitro studies with human hepatocytes, although PPAR-alpha is expressed at a very low level in human liver. Consensus was reached regarding the significant intermediary roles of cell proliferation and PPAR-alpha receptor expression and activation in tumor formation. Information considered necessary for characterizing a compound as a peroxisome proliferating hepatocarcinogen include hepatomegaly, enhanced cell proliferation, and an increase in hepatic acyl-CoA oxidase and/or palmitoyl-CoA oxidation levels. Given the lack of genotoxic potential of most peroxisome proliferating agents, and since humans appear likely to be refractive or insensitive to the tumorigenic response, risk assessments based on tumor data may not be appropriate. However, nontumor data on intermediate endpoints would provide appropriate toxicological endpoints to determine a point of departure such as the LED10 or NOAEL which would be the basis for a margin-of-exposure (MOE) risk assessment approach. Pertinent factors to be considered in the MOE evaluation would include the slope of the dose-response curve at the point of departure, the background exposure levels, and variability in the human response. PMID:9629596

Cattley, R C; DeLuca, J; Elcombe, C; Fenner-Crisp, P; Lake, B G; Marsman, D S; Pastoor, T A; Popp, J A; Robinson, D E; Schwetz, B; Tugwood, J; Wahli, W

1998-02-01

122

Do peroxisome proliferating compounds pose a hepatocarcinogenic hazard to humans?  

PubMed

The purpose of the workshop "Do Peroxisome Proliferating Compounds Pose a Hepatocarcinogenic Hazard to Humans?" was to provide a review of the current state of the science on the relationship between peroxisome proliferation and hepatocarcinogenesis. There has been much debate regarding the mechanism by which peroxisome proliferators may induce liver tumors in rats and mice and whether these events occur in humans. A primary goal of the workshop was to determine where consensus might be reached regarding the interpretation of these data relative to the assessment of potential human risks. A core set of biochemical and cellular events has been identified in the rodent strains that are susceptible to the hepatocarcinogenic effects of peroxisome proliferators, including peroxisome proliferation, increases in fatty acyl-CoA oxidase levels, microsomal fatty acid oxidation, excess production of hydrogen peroxide, increases in rates of cell proliferation, and expression and activation of the alpha subtype of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-alpha). Such effects have not been identified clinically in liver biopsies from humans exposed to peroxisome proliferators or in in vitro studies with human hepatocytes, although PPAR-alpha is expressed at a very low level in human liver. Consensus was reached regarding the significant intermediary roles of cell proliferation and PPAR-alpha receptor expression and activation in tumor formation. Information considered necessary for characterizing a compound as a peroxisome proliferating hepatocarcinogen include hepatomegaly, enhanced cell proliferation, and an increase in hepatic acyl-CoA oxidase and/or palmitoyl-CoA oxidation levels. Given the lack of genotoxic potential of most peroxisome proliferating agents, and since humans appear likely to be refractive or insensitive to the tumorigenic response, risk assessments based on tumor data may not be appropriate. However, nontumor data on intermediate endpoints would provide appropriate toxicological endpoints to determine a point of departure such as the LED10 or NOAEL which would be the basis for a margin-of-exposure (MOE) risk assessment approach. Pertinent factors to be considered in the MOE evaluation would include the slope of the dose-response curve at the point of departure, the background exposure levels, and variability in the human response. Copyright 1998 Academic Press. PMID:9618323

Cattley; DeLuca; Elcombe; Fenner-Crisp; Lake; Marsman; Pastoor; Popp; Robinson; Schwetz; Tugwood; Wahli

1998-02-01

123

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors-induced angioedema treated by C1 esterase inhibitor concentrate (Berinert®): about one case and review of the therapeutic arsenal  

PubMed Central

Key Clinical Message C1 esterase inhibitor (Berinert®) is generally used to treat severe attack of hereditary angioedema. We describe here the case of a patient who presented with a severe angioedema induced by angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) endangering her life. It could be successfully treated with that medicine.

Lipski, Samuel Michael; Casimir, Georges; Vanlommel, Martine; Jeanmaire, Mathieu; Dolhen, Pierre

2015-01-01

124

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-Gamma Agonist 4-O-Methylhonokiol Induces Apoptosis by Triggering the Intrinsic Apoptosis Pathway and Inhibiting the PI3K/Akt Survival Pathway in SiHa Human Cervical Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

4-O-Methylhonokiol (MH), a bioactive compound derived from Magnolia officinalis, is known to exhibit antitumor effects in various cancer cells. However, the precise mechanism of its anticancer activity in cervical cancer cells has not yet been studied. In this study, we demonstrated that MH induces apoptosis in SiHa cervical cancer cells by enhancing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR?) activation, followed by inhibition of the PI3K/Akt pathway and intrinsic pathway induction. MH upregulated PPAR? and PTEN expression levels while it decreased p-Akt in the MH-induced apoptotic process, thereby supporting the fact that MH is a PPAR? activator. Additionally, MH decreased the expression of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, inducing the intrinsic pathway in MH-treated SiHa cells. Furthermore, MH treatment led to the activation of caspase-3/caspase-9 and proteolytic cleavage of polyADP ribose polymerase. The expression levels of Fas (CD95) and E6/E7 oncogenes were not altered by MH treatment. Taken together, MH activates PPAR?/PTEN expression and induces apoptosis via suppression of the PI3K/Akt pathway and mitochondria-dependent pathways in SiHa cells. These findings suggest that MH has potential for development as a therapeutic agent for human cervical cancer. PMID:25563418

Hyun, Seungyeon; Kim, Man Sub; Song, Yong Seok; Bak, Yesol; Ham, Sun Young; Lee, Dong Hun; Hong, Jintae; Yoon, Do Young

2015-03-28

125

Hypothermia-induced hyperphosphorylation: a new model to study tau kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Tau hyperphosphorylation is one hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Pharmaceutical companies have thus developed kinase inhibitors aiming to reduce tau hyperphosphorylation. One obstacle in screening for tau kinase inhibitors is the low phosphorylation levels of AD-related phospho-epitopes in normal adult mice and cultured cells. We have shown that hypothermia induces tau hyperphosphorylation in vitro and in vivo. Here, we hypothesized that hypothermia could be used to assess tau kinase inhibitors efficacy. Hypothermia applied to models of biological gradual complexity such as neuronal-like cells, ex vivo brain slices and adult non-transgenic mice leads to tau hyperphosphorylation at multiple AD-related phospho-epitopes. We show that Glycogen Synthase Kinase-3 inhibitors LiCl and AR-A014418, as well as roscovitine, a cyclin-dependent kinase 5 inhibitor, decrease hypothermia-induced tau hyperphosphorylation, leading to different tau phosphorylation profiles. Therefore, we propose hypothermia-induced hyperphosphorylation as a reliable, fast, convenient and inexpensive tool to screen for tau kinase inhibitors. PMID:22761989

Bretteville, Alexis; Marcouiller, François; Julien, Carl; El Khoury, Noura B.; Petry, Franck R.; Poitras, Isabelle; Mouginot, Didier; Lévesque, Georges; Hébert, Sébastien S.; Planel, Emmanuel

2012-01-01

126

The effect of peroxisome proliferators on mitochondrial bioenergetics.  

PubMed

Peroxisome proliferators are a group of structurally diverse chemicals that cause the proliferation of peroxisomes in rodents. The purpose of this investigation was to test the hypothesis that the shared effect of these compounds on peroxisome proliferation is mediated through a common inhibitory effect on mitochondrial bioenergetics. Freshly isolated rat liver mitochondria were energized with succinate. The effect of the chemicals on mitochondrial bioenergetics was analyzed by monitoring calcium-induced changes in membrane potential and swelling, as well as changes in mitochondrial respiration. Mitochondrial membrane potential was measured with a TPP(+)-sensitive electrode, and swelling was recorded spectrophotometrically. Mitochondrial oxygen uptake was monitored with a Clark-type oxygen electrode. Gemfibrozil and WY-14,643 induced the mitochondrial permeability transition as characterized by calcium-induced swelling and depolarization of membrane potential, both of which were inhibited by cyclosporine A. Fenofibrate, clofibrate, ciprofibrate and diethylhexyl phthalate, on the other hand, caused a direct dose-dependent depolarization of mitochondrial membrane potential. However, the mechanism of membrane depolarization varied among the test chemicals. Bezafibrate and trichloroethylene elicited no effect on succinate-supported mitochondrial bioenergetics. The results of this investigation demonstrate that although most, but not all, peroxisome proliferators interfere with mitochondrial bioenergetics, the specific biomolecular mechanism differs among the individual compounds. PMID:10330687

Zhou, S; Wallace, K B

1999-03-01

127

Freeze-fracture study of rat liver peroxisomes: evidence for an induction of intramembrane particles by agents stimulating peroxisomal proliferation.  

PubMed

The membrane ultrastructure of isolated rat liver peroxisomes has been observed by rapid freezing and freeze-fracture techniques. Unidirectional and rotary shadowing allows a clear visualization of the intramembrane particles (IMPs) on both the protoplasmic fracture (PF) leaflet and the endoplasmic fracture (EF) leaflet and reveals an asymmetric distribution of IMPs. Both fracture faces were uniformly studded by IMPs, and the frequency was about seven times higher on the P face (2322 per 1.0 micron2) than on the E face (322 per 1.0 micron2). Administration of the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate (ethyl-p-chlorophenoxyisobutyrate) induced a marked increase in the frequency of IMPs on both the P face (2.2-fold) and the E face (1.7-fold). The average size decreased (P less than 0.001) from 45.7 +/- 16.5 nm2 to 35.2 +/- 10.8 nm2 on the P face. A similar increase in the frequency of IMPs was observed on the P face (1.8-fold) and the E face (1.8-fold) of peroxisomes from rats fed a semisynthetic diet containing 20% (w/w) of partially hydrogenated fish oil. The average size increased (P less than 0.001) from 36.6 +/- 19.7 to 50.0 +/- 23.5 nm2 on the E face. This study demonstrates alterations both in frequency and size distribution of IMPs in liver peroxisomal membranes on exposure of rats to agents known to induce peroxisomal proliferation. The increase in frequency of IMPs was as expected from the observed increase in one of the major integral membrane polypeptides, with apparent molecular mass of 69 (or 70) kDa, in proliferating rat liver peroxisomes. PMID:2081541

Kryvi, H; Kvannes, J; Flatmark, T

1990-12-01

128

UK114, a YjgF/Yer057p/UK114 family protein highly conserved from bacteria to mammals, is localized in rat liver peroxisomes  

SciTech Connect

Mammalian UK114 belongs to a highly conserved family of proteins with unknown functions. Although it is believed that UK114 is a cytosolic or mitochondrial protein there is no detailed study of its intracellular localization. Using analytical subcellular fractionation, electron microscopic colloidal gold technique, and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis of peroxisomal matrix proteins combined with mass spectrometric analysis we show here that a large portion of UK114 is present in rat liver peroxisomes. The peroxisomal UK114 is a soluble matrix protein and it is not inducible by the peroxisomal proliferator clofibrate. The data predict involvement of UK114 in peroxisomal metabolism.

Antonenkov, Vasily D. [Department of Biochemistry, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Linnanmaa, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)]. E-mail: vasily.antonenkov@oulu.fi; Ohlmeier, Steffen [Department of Biochemistry, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Linnanmaa, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Proteomics Core Facility of the Biocenter Oulu, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Linnanmaa, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Sormunen, Raija T. [Department of Pathology, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Linnanmaa, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Hiltunen, J. Kalervo [Department of Biochemistry, Biocenter Oulu, University of Oulu, Linnanmaa, P.O. Box 3000, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland)

2007-05-25

129

Molecular characterization of a cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor from Schistosoma japonicum.  

PubMed

Cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor (CIAP) is a novel antiapoptotic molecule, which is different to inhibitor of apoptosis protein or B-cell lymphoma 2. CIAP was originally identified as a molecule that conferred resistance to apoptosis induced by growth factor starvation. However, it remains to be undercharacterized in schistosomes. Here, we molecularly characterize a novel cytokine-induced apoptosis inhibitor from Schistosoma japonicum (SjCIAP). The transcription of the SjCIAP occurred at all of developmental stages investigated including eggs, cercariae, schistosomula, and adult schistosomes. Functional assay indicated that the SjCIAP could inhibit caspase activity in either human cell lines or schistosome lysates. Our preliminary results suggest that the SjCIAP may play important roles in parasitic living and development by regulating apoptosis, and drug target of SjCIAP might be a potential for schistosomiasis control. PMID:22932940

Luo, Rong; Zhou, Chunjing; Shi, Yaojun; Zhao, Jiangping; Cheng, Guofeng

2012-12-01

130

PKC/MEK inhibitors suppress oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and potentiate the antitumor effects.  

PubMed

Oxaliplatin is a key drug commonly used in colorectal cancer treatment. Despite high clinical efficacy, its therapeutic application is limited by common, dose-limiting occurrence of neuropathy. As usual symptomatic neuropathy treatments fail to improve the patients' condition, there is an urgent need to advance our understanding of the pathogenesis of neuropathy to propose effective therapy and ensure adequate pain management. Oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy was recently reported to be associated with protein kinase C (PKC) activation. It is unclear, however, whether PKC inhibition can prevent neuropathy. In our current studies, we found that a PKC inhibitor, tamoxifen, inhibited oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy via the PKC/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cords (lumbar segments 4-6). Additionally, tamoxifen was shown to act in synergy with oxaliplatin to inhibit growth in tumor cells-implanted mice. Moreover, mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase (MEK) 1/2 inhibitor, PD0325901, suppressed oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and enhanced oxaliplatin efficacy. Our results indicate that oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy is associated with PKC/ERK/c-Fos pathway in lumbar spinal cord. Additionally, we demonstrate that disruption of this pathway by PKC and MEK inhibitors suppresses oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy, thereby suggesting that PKC and MEK inhibitors may be therapeutically useful in preventing oxaliplatin-induced neuropathy and could aid in combination antitumor pharmacotherapy. PMID:25430564

Tsubaki, Masanobu; Takeda, Tomoya; Tani, Tadahumi; Shimaoka, Hirotaka; Suzuyama, Naohiro; Sakamoto, Kotaro; Fujita, Arisa; Ogawa, Naoki; Itoh, Tatsuki; Imano, Motohiro; Funakami, Yoshinori; Ichida, Seiji; Satou, Takao; Nishida, Shozo

2015-07-01

131

The phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 inhibitor, UCN-01, induces fragmentation: possible role of metalloproteinases.  

PubMed

Phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase 1 (PDK1) is a key enzyme, master regulator of cellular proliferation and metabolism; it is considered a key target for pharmacological intervention. Using membranes obtained from DDT1 MF-2 cells, phospho-PDK1 was identified by Western blotting, as two major protein bands of Mr 58-68 kDa. Cell incubation with the PDK1 inhibitor, UCN-01, induced a time- and concentration-dependent decrease in the amount of phospho-PDK1 with a concomitant appearance of a ?42 kDa phosphorylated fragment. Knocking down PDK1 diminished the amount of phospho-PDK1 detected in membranes, accompanied by similarly decreased fragment generation. UCN-01-induced fragment generation was also observed in membranes from cells stably expressing a myc-tagged PDK1 construct. Other PDK1 inhibitors were also tested: OSU-03012 induced a clear decrease in phospho-PDK1 and increased the presence of the phosphorylated fragment in membrane preparations; in contrast, GSK2334470 and staurosporine induced only marginal increases in the amount of PDK1 fragment. Galardin and batimastat, two metalloproteinase inhibitors, markedly attenuated inhibitor-induced PDK1 fragment generation. Metalloproteinases 2, 3, and 9 co-immunoprecipitated with myc-PDK1 under baseline conditions and this interaction was stimulated by UCN-01; batimastat also markedly diminished this effect of the PDK1 inhibitor. Our results indicate that a series of protein kinase inhibitors, namely UCN-01 and OSU-03012 and to a lesser extent GSK2334470 and staurosporine induce PDK1 fragmentation and suggest that metalloproteinases could participate in this effect. PMID:25016091

Alcántara-Hernández, Rocío; Hernández-Méndez, Aurelio; García-Sáinz, J Adolfo

2014-10-01

132

Oxaliplatin Neurotoxicity Involves Peroxisome Alterations. PPAR? Agonism as Preventive Pharmacological Approach  

PubMed Central

The development of neuropathic syndromes is an important, dose limiting side effect of anticancer agents like platinum derivates, taxanes and vinca alkaloids. The causes of neurotoxicity are still unclear but the impairment of the oxidative equilibrium is strictly related to pain. Two intracellular organelles, mitochondria and peroxisomes cooperate to the maintaining of the redox cellular state. Whereas a relationship between chemotherapy-dependent mitochondrial alteration and neuropathy has been established, the role of peroxisome is poor explored. In order to study the mechanisms of oxaliplatin-induced neurotoxicity, peroxisomal involvement was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. In primary rat astrocyte cell culture, oxaliplatin (10 µM for 48 h or 1 µM for 5 days) increased the number of peroxisomes, nevertheless expression and functionality of catalase, the most important antioxidant defense enzyme in mammalian peroxisomes, were significantly reduced. Five day incubation with the selective Peroxisome Proliferator Activated Receptor-? (PPAR-?) antagonist G3335 (30 µM) induced a similar peroxisomal impairment suggesting a relationship between PPAR? signaling and oxaliplatin neurotoxicity. The PPAR? agonist rosiglitazone (10 µM) reduced the harmful effects induced both by G3335 and oxaliplatin. In vivo, in a rat model of oxaliplatin induced neuropathy, a repeated treatment with rosiglitazone (3 and 10 mg kg?1 per os) significantly reduced neuropathic pain evoked by noxious (Paw pressure test) and non-noxious (Cold plate test) stimuli. The behavioral effect paralleled with the prevention of catalase impairment induced by oxaliplatin in dorsal root ganglia. In the spinal cord, catalase protection was showed by the lower rosiglitazone dosage without effect on the astrocyte density increase induced by oxaliplatin. Rosiglitazone did not alter the oxaliplatin-induced mortality of the human colon cancer cell line HT-29. These results highlight the role of peroxisomes in oxaliplatin-dependent nervous damage and suggest PPAR? stimulation as a candidate to counteract oxaliplatin neurotoxicity. PMID:25036594

Zanardelli, Matteo; Micheli, Laura; Cinci, Lorenzo; Failli, Paola; Ghelardini, Carla; Di Cesare Mannelli, Lorenzo

2014-01-01

133

Apixaban, a direct factor Xa inhibitor, inhibits tissue-factor induced human platelet aggregation in vitro: comparison with direct inhibitors of factor VIIa, XIa and thrombin.  

PubMed

Apixaban is an oral, direct and highly selective factor Xa (FXa) inhibitor in late-stage clinical development. This study evaluated the in vitro effect of apixaban on human platelet aggregation induced by thrombin derived via the extrinsic pathway. Direct inhibitors of FXa (rivaroxaban), FVIIa (BMS-593214), thrombin (dabigatran, argatroban) and FXIa (BMS-262084) were included for comparison. Citrated human platelets-rich plasma (PRP) was treated with 50 mg/ml corn trypsin inhibitor (to block the contact factor pathway) and 3 mM H-Gly-Pro-Arg-Pro-OH-AcOH (to prevent fibrin polymerisation). Human tissue factor (TF) (Innovin; dilution 1:1,000 to 1:1,500) plus 7.5 mM CaCl2 was added to PRP pre-incubated with vehicle or increasing concentrations of inhibitors. The TF-induced platelet aggregation was measured by optical aggregometry. TF produced 85 +/- 3% aggregation of human platelets in the vehicle-treated group (n=10). Apixaban and other factor inhibitors, except the FXIa inhibitor, inhibited TF-induced platelet aggregation with IC50 (nM) values as follows: 4 +/- 1 (apixaban), 8 +/- 2 (rivaroxaban), 13 +/- 1 (BMS-593214), 46 +/- 1 (dabigatran) and 79 +/- 1 (argatroban). BMS-262084 (IC50 = 2.8 nM vs. human FXIa) had no effect on TF-induced platelet aggregation at 10 microM. These inhibitors at 10 microM had no effect on platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen, as expected from their mechanism of action. This study demonstrates that inhibition of thrombin generation by blocking upstream proteases (FVIIa and FXa) in the blood coagulation cascade is as effective as direct thrombin inhibition in preventing TF-induced platelet aggregation. Under these experimental conditions, a FXIa inhibitor did not prevent TF-induced platelet aggregation. PMID:20589316

Wong, Pancras C; Jiang, Xiaosui

2010-08-01

134

Localization of peroxisomal matrix proteins by photobleaching  

SciTech Connect

The distribution of some enzymes between peroxisomes and cytosol, or a dual localization in both these compartments, can be difficult to reconcile. We have used photobleaching in live cells expressing green fluorescent protein (GFP)-fusion proteins to show that imported bona fide peroxisomal matrix proteins are retained in the peroxisome. The high mobility of the GFP-fusion proteins in the cytosol and absence of peroxisomal escape makes it possible to eliminate the cytosolic fluorescence by photobleaching, to distinguish between exclusively cytosolic proteins and proteins that are also present at low levels in peroxisomes. Using this technique we found that GFP tagged bile acid-CoA:amino acid N-acyltransferase (BAAT) was exclusively localized in the cytosol in HeLa cells. We conclude that the cytosolic localization was due to its carboxyterminal non-consensus peroxisomal targeting signal (-SQL) since mutation of the -SQL to -SKL resulted in BAAT being efficiently imported into peroxisomes.

Buch, Charlotta [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, SE-141 57 Huddinge (Sweden) [Department of Biosciences and Nutrition, Karolinska Institutet, SE-141 57 Huddinge (Sweden); Soedertoerns University, Life Sciences, SE-141 89 Huddinge (Sweden); Hunt, Mary C. [Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Arrhenius Laboratory, Svante Arrhenius vaeg 16F, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Department of Genetics, Microbiology and Toxicology, Stockholm University, Arrhenius Laboratory, Svante Arrhenius vaeg 16F, SE-106 91 Stockholm (Sweden); Alexson, Stefan E.H. [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry C1-74, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden)] [Karolinska Institutet, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Division of Clinical Chemistry C1-74, Karolinska University Hospital at Huddinge, SE-141 86 Stockholm (Sweden); Hallberg, Einar, E-mail: einar.hallberg@sh.se [Soedertoerns University, Life Sciences, SE-141 89 Huddinge (Sweden)] [Soedertoerns University, Life Sciences, SE-141 89 Huddinge (Sweden)

2009-10-16

135

Mechanisms of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor-induced IOP reduction in normotensive rats.  

PubMed

Angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs) have been shown to lower intraocular pressure (IOP). Since, the ACEIs cause increased tissue prostaglandin levels, we hypothesized that the mechanisms of ACEI-induced IOP reduction have similarity with those of prostaglandin analogs. The present study investigated the involvement of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and cytokine activity modulation as the underlying mechanisms of ACEI-induced ocular hypotension. The IOP lowering effect of single drop of enalaprilat dehydrate 1% was evaluated in rats pretreated with a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor or a cytokine inhibitor. Effect of angiotensin receptor blocker, losartan potassium 2%, was also studied to evaluate involvement of angiotensin II receptor type 1 (AT1) in IOP lowering effect of ACEI. Topical treatment with single drop of enalaprilat resulted in significant IOP reduction in treated eye with mean peak reduction 20.3% at 3h post-instillation. Treatment with losartan resulted in a peak IOP reduction of 13.3%, which was significantly lower than enalaprilat, indicating involvement of mechanisms in addition to AT1 blockade. Pretreatment with a broad spectrum MMP inhibitor or a cytokine inhibitor significantly attenuated the enalprilat-induced IOP reduction with mean peak IOP reduction of 11.2% and 13.6% respectively. The IOP-lowering effect of enalaprilat seems to be attributed to reduced angiotensin II type 1 receptor stimulation and modulation of MMP and cytokines activities. PMID:24583339

Agarwal, Renu; Krasilnikova, Anna V; Raja, Intan Safinaz; Agarwal, Puneet; Mohd Ismail, Nafeeza

2014-05-01

136

SMK-17, a MEK1/2-specific inhibitor, selectively induces apoptosis in ?-catenin-mutated tumors  

PubMed Central

Although clinical studies have evaluated several MEK1/2 inhibitors, it is unlikely that MEK1/2 inhibitors will be studied clinically. BRAF mutations have been proposed as a responder marker of MEK1/2 inhibitors in a preclinical study. However, current clinical approaches focusing on BRAF mutations have shown only moderate sensitivity of MEK1/2 inhibitors. This has led to insufficient support for their promoted clinical adoption. Further characterization of tumors sensitive to MEK inhibitors holds great promise for optimizing drug therapy for patients with these tumors. Here, we report that ?-catenin mutations accelerate apoptosis induced by MEK1/2 inhibitor. SMK-17, a selective MEK1/2 inhibitor, induced apoptosis in tumor cell lines harboring ?-catenin mutations at its effective concentration. To confirm that ?-catenin mutations and mutant ?-catenin-mediated TCF7L2 (also known as TCF4) transcriptional activity is a predictive marker of MEK inhibitors, we evaluated the effects of dominant-negative TCF7L2 and of active, mutated ?-catenin on apoptosis induced by MEK inhibitor. Indeed, dominant-negative TCF7L2 reduced apoptosis induced by MEK inhibitor, whereas active, mutated ?-catenin accelerated it. Our findings show that ?-catenin mutations are an important responder biomarker for MEK1/2 inhibitors. PMID:25640451

Kiga, Masaki; Nakayama, Ayako; Shikata, Yuki; Sasazawa, Yukiko; Murakami, Ryo; Nakanishi, Toshiyuki; Tashiro, Etsu; Imoto, Masaya

2015-01-01

137

Shikonin, dually functions as a proteasome inhibitor and a necroptosis inducer in multiple myeloma cells  

PubMed Central

Shikonin (SHK), a natural small agent (MW 288.3), reportedly induces cell death in various tumor cells. We have found that SHK also exerts potent cytocidal effects on human multiple myeloma (MM) cells, but its anticancer mechanism in MM cells remains to be elucidated. SHK at 2.5–5 ?M induced apoptosis in seven MM cell lines, including the bortezomib-resistant cell line KMS11/BTZ. The IC50 value of SHK against KMS11/BTZ was comparable to that of a parental cell line KMS11 (1.1 and 1.56 ?M, respectively). SHK induces accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and activates XBP-1 in MM cells, suggesting that SHK functions as a proteasome inhibitor, eventually inducing ER stress-associated apoptosis. SHK increases levels of HSP70/72, which protects cells from apoptosis, and exerts greater cytocidal effects in combination with the HSP70/72 inhibitor VER-155008. At higher concentrations (10–20 ?M), SHK induced cell death, which was completely inhibited by a necroptosis inhibitor, necrostatin-1 (Nec-1), while the cytocidal activity was unaffected by Z-VAD-FMK, strongly suggesting that cell death is induced by SHK at high concentrations through necroptosis. The present data show for the first time that SHK induces cell death in MM cells. SHK efficiently induces apoptosis and combination of heat shock protein inhibitor with low dose SHK enhances apoptosis, while high dose SHK induces necroptosis in MM cells. These findings together support the use of SHK as a potential therapeutic agent for MM. PMID:25530098

WADA, NAOKO; KAWANO, YAWARA; FUJIWARA, SHIHO; KIKUKAWA, YOSHITAKA; OKUNO, YUTAKA; TASAKI, MASAYOSHI; UEDA, MITSUHARU; ANDO, YUKIO; YOSHINAGA, KAZUYA; RI, MASAKI; IIDA, SHINSUKE; NAKASHIMA, TAKAYUKI; SHIOTSU, YUKIMASA; MITSUYA, HIROAKI; HATA, HIROYUKI

2015-01-01

138

Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Suppression of Hepatic Fatty Acid Synthase and S14 Gene Expression Does Not Require Peroxisome  

E-print Network

, Maryland 20892 Dietary polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) induce hepatic peroxisomal and microsomal fatty uses the PPAR -defi- cient mouse to examine the role of PPAR in the PUFA regulation of mRNAs encoding (CYP4A2)), and peroxisomal (acyl-CoA oxidase (AOX)) enzymes. PUFA ingestion in- duced mRNAAOX (2.3-fold

Omiecinski, Curtis

139

BET and HDAC inhibitors induce similar genes and biological effects and synergize to kill in Myc-induced murine lymphoma  

PubMed Central

The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain family of proteins binds to acetylated lysines on histones and regulates gene transcription. Recently, BET inhibitors (BETi) have been developed that show promise as potent anticancer drugs against various solid and hematological malignancies. Here we show that the structurally novel and orally bioavailable BET inhibitor RVX2135 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of lymphoma cells arising in Myc-transgenic mice in vitro and in vivo. We find that BET inhibition exhibits broad transcriptional effects in Myc-transgenic lymphoma cells affecting many transcription factor networks. By examining the genes induced by BETi, which have largely been ignored to date, we discovered that these were similar to those induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). HDACi also induced cell-cycle arrest and cell death of Myc-induced murine lymphoma cells and synergized with BETi. Our data suggest that BETi sensitize Myc-overexpressing lymphoma cells partly by inducing HDAC-silenced genes, and suggest synergistic and therapeutic combinations by targeting the genetic link between BETi and HDACi. PMID:24979794

Bhadury, Joydeep; Nilsson, Lisa M.; Veppil Muralidharan, Somsundar; Green, Lydia C.; Li, Zhoulei; Gesner, Emily M.; Hansen, Henrik C.; Keller, Ulrich B.; McLure, Kevin G.; Nilsson, Jonas A.

2014-01-01

140

BET and HDAC inhibitors induce similar genes and biological effects and synergize to kill in Myc-induced murine lymphoma.  

PubMed

The bromodomain and extraterminal (BET) domain family of proteins binds to acetylated lysines on histones and regulates gene transcription. Recently, BET inhibitors (BETi) have been developed that show promise as potent anticancer drugs against various solid and hematological malignancies. Here we show that the structurally novel and orally bioavailable BET inhibitor RVX2135 inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis of lymphoma cells arising in Myc-transgenic mice in vitro and in vivo. We find that BET inhibition exhibits broad transcriptional effects in Myc-transgenic lymphoma cells affecting many transcription factor networks. By examining the genes induced by BETi, which have largely been ignored to date, we discovered that these were similar to those induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi). HDACi also induced cell-cycle arrest and cell death of Myc-induced murine lymphoma cells and synergized with BETi. Our data suggest that BETi sensitize Myc-overexpressing lymphoma cells partly by inducing HDAC-silenced genes, and suggest synergistic and therapeutic combinations by targeting the genetic link between BETi and HDACi. PMID:24979794

Bhadury, Joydeep; Nilsson, Lisa M; Muralidharan, Somsundar Veppil; Green, Lydia C; Li, Zhoulei; Gesner, Emily M; Hansen, Henrik C; Keller, Ulrich B; McLure, Kevin G; Nilsson, Jonas A

2014-07-01

141

Farnesyltransferase Inhibitors Induce Cytochrome c Release and Caspase 3 Activation Preferentially in Transformed Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Farnesyltransferase inhibitors (FTIs) represent a new class of anticancer drugs that show promise in blocking the growth of tumors. Here, we report that FTIs are capable of inducing apoptosis of transformed but not untransformed cells. Treatment of v-K-ras-transformed normal rat kidney (KNRK) cells with FTIs leads to the induction of apoptotic cell morphology, chromatin condensation and DNA fragmentation. In addition,

Nobutaka Suzuki; Jun Urano; Fuyuhiko Tamanoi

1998-01-01

142

MAP KINASE ERK 1/2 INHIBITORS INDUCE DYSMORPHOLOGY IN MOUSE WHOLE EMBRYO CULTURE  

EPA Science Inventory

ROSEN, M.B. and E. S. HUNTER. Reproductive Toxicology Division, NHEERL, ORD, U.S. EPA, Research Triangle Park, North Carolina. MAP kinase Erk1/2 inhibitors induce dysmorphology in mouse whole embryo culture. MAP Kinase signal transduction is associated with a variety ...

143

RNA Aptamers Targeting the Cell Death Inhibitor CED-9 Induce Cell Killing in Caenorhabditis elegans*  

E-print Network

-7, and EGL-1,anendogenousCED-9-bindingproapoptoticprotein,boundto distinct regions of CED-9. However, these two aptamers shared over- lappingCED-9bindingsiteswithCED-4,anotherCED-9-bindingpro- apoptoticfactorRNA Aptamers Targeting the Cell Death Inhibitor CED-9 Induce Cell Killing in Caenorhabditis elegans

Xue, Ding

144

Thyroid Hormone Is an Inhibitor of Estrogen-Induced Degradation of Estrogen Receptor-Protein: Estrogen-  

E-print Network

Thyroid Hormone Is an Inhibitor of Estrogen-Induced Degradation of Estrogen Receptor- Protein in the control of receptor transcriptional activation function. Herein, we report that thyroid hormone can of the pituitary. The stabilization of ER pro- tein by thyroid hormone represents a selective blockade against

Alarid, Elaine T.

145

Inhibitors of Protein Phosphatases 1 and 2A Block Sugar-Inducible Gene Expression in Plants  

Microsoft Academic Search

Genes coding for two major proteins of the tuberous root of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas), namely, sporamin and &amylase, are inducible in leaves and petioles when they are supplied with high concentrations of sucrose or other metabolizable sugars, such as glucose and fructose, and the accumulation of a large amount of starch accompanies this induction. Three inhibitors of protein phosphatases

Shin Takeda; Shoji Mano; Masa-aki Ohto; Kenzo Nakamura

1994-01-01

146

Michael adducts of ascorbic acid as inhibitors of protein phosphatase 2A and inducers of apoptosis  

Microsoft Academic Search

Michael adducts of ascorbic acid with ?,?-unsaturated carbonyl compounds have been shown to be potent inhibitors of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) without affecting cell viability at the respective concentrations. Here we were able to show that higher concentrations can partially inhibit PP2A activity and concomitantly induce apoptotic cell death. A nitrostyrene adduct of ascorbic acid proved to be a more

A. R. Fathi; A. Krautheim; S. Kaap; K. Eger; H. J. Steinfelder

2000-01-01

147

Differentiation of Human Prostate Cancer PC3 Cells Induced by Inhibitors of Inosine 5Monophosphate Dehydrogenase  

Microsoft Academic Search

To establish a system to study differentiation therapy drugs, we used the androgen-independent human prostate PC-3 tumor cell line as a target and mycophenolic acid (MPA), tiazofurin, or ribavirin, which are inhib- itors of IMP dehydrogenase, as inducers. These inhibitors evoked repli- cation arrest, caused an increase in cell size, and triggered vacuolization of the cytoplasm. By Northern and Western

Daniel Floryk; Sandra L. Tollaksen; Carol S. Giometti; Eliezer Huberman

2004-01-01

148

Ku70 acetylation mediates neuroblastoma cell death induced by histone deacetylase inhibitors  

Microsoft Academic Search

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) are therapeutic drugs that inhibit deacetylase activity, thereby increasing acetylation of many proteins, including histones. HDACIs have antineoplastic effects in preclinical and clinical trials and are being considered for cancers with unmet therapeutic need, including neuroblastoma (NB). Uncertainty of how HDACI-induced protein acetylation leads to cell death, however, makes it difficult to determine which tumors are

Chitra Subramanian; Anthony W. Opipari Jr.; Xin Bian; Valerie P. Castle; Roland P. S. Kwok

2005-01-01

149

Systemic Analysis of Heat Shock Response Induced by Heat Shock and a Proteasome Inhibitor MG132  

Microsoft Academic Search

The molecular basis of heat shock response (HSR), a cellular defense mechanism against various stresses, is not well understood. In this, the first comprehensive analysis of gene expression changes in response to heat shock and MG132 (a proteasome inhibitor), both of which are known to induce heat shock proteins (Hsps), we compared the responses of normal mouse fibrosarcoma cell line,

Hee-Jung Kim; Hye Joon Joo; Yung Hee Kim; Soyeon Ahn; Jun Chang; Kyu-Baek Hwang; Dong-Hee Lee; Kong-Joo Lee; Sue Cotterill

2011-01-01

150

Neuroprotective role of phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast on neuronal cell death induced by activated microglia  

Microsoft Academic Search

The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, ibudilast, has many effects on lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and glial cells. We examined the neuroprotective role of ibudilast in neuron and microglia co-cultures. Ibudilast significantly suppressed neuronal cell death induced by the activation of microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-?. To examine the mechanisms by which ibudilast exerts a neuroprotective role against the activation of microglia,

Tetsuya Mizuno; Tohru Kurotani; Yukio Komatsu; Jun Kawanokuchi; Hideki Kato; Norimasa Mitsuma; Akio Suzumura

2004-01-01

151

Protective effects of proton pump inhibitors against indomethacin-induced lesions in the rat small intestine  

Microsoft Academic Search

Proton pump inhibitors (PPIs) have been shown to be effective in preventing gastric and duodenal ulcers in high-risk patients\\u000a taking nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs); by contrast, scarce information is available concerning the effects\\u000a of PPIs on intestinal damage induced by NSAIDs in humans or in experimental animals. We examined the effects of lansoprazole\\u000a and omeprazole on the intestinal injury induced

Cristina Pozzoli; Alessandro Menozzi; Daniela Grandi; Elvira Solenghi; Maria C. Ossiprandi; Chiara Zullian; Simone Bertini; Giulia M. Cavestro; Gabriella Coruzzi

2007-01-01

152

C1 inhibitor prevents Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced vascular permeability  

Microsoft Academic Search

Gram-negative bacterial endotoxemia may lead to the pathological increase of vascu- lar permeability with systemic vascular collapse, a vascular leak syndrome, mul- tiple organ failure (MOF), and\\/or shock. Previous studies demonstrated that C1 inhibitor (C1INH) protects mice from lipo- polysaccharide (LPS)-induced lethal sep- tic shock via a direct interaction with LPS. Here, we report that C1INH blocked the LPS-induced increase

Dongxu Liu; Dong Zhang; Jennifer Scafidi; Xiao Wu; Cort C. Cramer; Alvin E. Davis

153

Adalimumab Induced Subcutaneous Nodular Sarcoidosis; A Rare Side Effect of Tumor Necrosis Factor-? Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Adalimumab and other tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitors have been shown in the recent years to successfully treat sarcoidosis refractory to systemic corticosteroids and other agents. However, there have been an increasing number of cases of sarcoidosis paradoxically induced by these agents. It is hypothesized that this is due to the disruption of the fine balance of cytokines involved in granuloma formation. We describe the first case of adalimumab-induced subcutaneous nodular sarcoidosis in a patient with pulmonary sarcoidosis. PMID:25363227

Au, Sonoa; Mirsaeidi, Mehdi; Aronson, Iris K; Sweiss, Nadera J.

2014-01-01

154

Down-regulation of acyl-CoA oxidase gene expression and increased NF-kappaB activity in etomoxir-induced cardiac hypertrophy  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of nuclear factor- ? B (NF- ? B) is required for hypertrophic growth of cardiomyocytes. Etomoxir is an irreversible inhibitor of carnitine palmitoyltransferase I (CPT-I) that activates peroxisome proliferator-activated re- ceptor ? (PPAR ? ) and induces cardiac hypertrophy through an unknown mechanism. We studied the mRNA expression of genes involved in fatty acid oxidation in the heart of

A. Cabrero; Manuel Merlos; Juan C. Laguna; Manuel Vázquez Carrera

2003-01-01

155

Proteasome inhibitors induce apoptosis and reduce viral replication in primary effusion lymphoma cells  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Constitutive NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of PEL cells. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by the proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress NF-{kappa}B signaling and induce apoptosis in PEL cells through stabilization of I{kappa}B{alpha}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Proteasome inhibitors suppress viral replication in PEL cells during lytic KSHV infection. -- Abstract: Primary effusion lymphoma (PEL) is an aggressive neoplasm caused by Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV). This study provides evidence that proteasomal activity is required for both survival of PEL cells stably harboring the KSHV genome and viral replication of KSHV. We evaluated the cytotoxic effects of proteasome inhibitors on PEL cells. The proteasome inhibitors MG132, lactacystin, and proteasome inhibitor I dramatically inhibited cell proliferation and induced apoptosis of PEL cells through the accumulation of p21 and p27. Furthermore, proteasome inhibitors induced the stabilization of NF-{kappa}B inhibitory molecule (I{kappa}B{alpha}) and suppressed the transcriptional activity of NF-{kappa}B in PEL cells. The NF-{kappa}B specific inhibitor BAY11-7082 also induced apoptosis in PEL cells. The constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling is essential for the survival and growth of B cell lymphoma cells, including PEL cells. NF-{kappa}B signaling is upregulated by proteasome-dependent degradation of I{kappa}B{alpha}. The suppression of NF-{kappa}B signaling by proteasome inhibitors may contribute to the induction of apoptosis in PEL cells. In addition, proteasome activity is required for KSHV replication in KSHV latently infected PEL cells. MG132 reduced the production of progeny virus from PEL cells at low concentrations, which do not affect PEL cell growth. These findings suggest that proteasome inhibitors may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of KSHV infection and KSHV-associated lymphomas.

Saji, Chiaki [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Higashi, Chizuka; Niinaka, Yasufumi [Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuoh-shi 409-3898 (Japan)] [Faculty of Medicine, University of Yamanashi, Chuoh-shi 409-3898 (Japan); Yamada, Koji [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Hokkaido University, Kita-ku, Sapporo 060-0812 (Japan); Noguchi, Kohji [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan)] [Faculty of Pharmacy, Keio University, 1-5-30 Shiba-koen, Minato-ku, Tokyo 105-8512 (Japan); Fujimuro, Masahiro, E-mail: fuji2@mb.kyoto-phu.ac.jp [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)] [Department of Cell Biology, Kyoto Pharmaceutical University, Misasagi-Shichonocho 1, Yamashinaku, Kyoto 607-8412 (Japan)

2011-12-02

156

Urate oxidase in peroxisomes from maize root tips  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisomes isolated from maize root tips contained urate oxidase, although the supplementary enzymes allantoinase, allantoicase and NADH-glyoxylate reductase were not detected. Some glutamate-oxalacetate transaminase was present in peroxisomes. Enzymes of two other pathways occuring in plant peroxisomes, namely glycolate metabolism and the glyoxylate cycle, were not present. The root peroxisome thus resembles peroxisomes of the Arum spadix and supports the

Roger W. Parish

1972-01-01

157

Encapsulation-Induced Stress Helps Saccharomyces cerevisiae Resist Convertible Lignocellulose Derived Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

The ability of macroencapsulated Saccharomyces cerevisiae CBS8066 to withstand readily and not readily in situ convertible lignocellulose-derived inhibitors was investigated in anaerobic batch cultivations. It was shown that encapsulation increased the tolerance against readily convertible furan aldehyde inhibitors and to dilute acid spruce hydrolysate, but not to organic acid inhibitors that cannot be metabolized anaerobically. Gene expression analysis showed that the protective effect arising from the encapsulation is evident also on the transcriptome level, as the expression of the stress-related genes YAP1, ATR1 and FLR1 was induced upon encapsulation. The transcript levels were increased due to encapsulation already in the medium without added inhibitors, indicating that the cells sensed low stress level arising from the encapsulation itself. We present a model, where the stress response is induced by nutrient limitation, that this helps the cells to cope with the increased stress added by a toxic medium, and that superficial cells in the capsules degrade convertible inhibitors, alleviating the inhibition for the cells deeper in the capsule. PMID:23109889

Westman, Johan O.; Manikondu, Ramesh Babu; Franzén, Carl Johan; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J.

2012-01-01

158

HDAC inhibitor-induced drug resistance involving ATP-binding cassette transporters (Review)  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are becoming a novel and promising class of antineoplastic agents that have been used for cancer therapy in the clinic. Two HDAC inhibitors, vorinostat and romidepsin, have been approved by the Food and Drug Administration to treat T-cell lymphoma. Nevertheless, similar to common anticancer drugs, HDAC inhibitors have been found to induce multidrug resistance (MDR), which is an obstacle for the success of chemotherapy. The most common cause of MDR is considered to be the increased expression of adenosine triphosphate binding cassette (ABC) transporters. Numerous studies have identified that the upregulation of ABC transporters is often observed following treatment with HDAC inhibitors, particularly the increased expression of P-glycoprotein, which leads to drug efflux, reduces intracellular drug concentration and induces MDR. The present review summarizes the key ABC transporters involved in MDR following various HDAC inhibitor treatments in a range of cancer cell lines and also explored the potential mechanisms that result in MDR, including the effect of nuclear receptors, which are the upstream regulatory factors of ABC transporters. PMID:25624882

NI, XUAN; LI, LI; PAN, GUOYU

2015-01-01

159

Sphingosine Kinase 1 Is Regulated by Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor ? in Response to Free Fatty Acids and Is Essential for Skeletal Muscle Interleukin-6 Production and Signaling in Diet-induced Obesity*  

PubMed Central

We previously demonstrated that sphingosine kinase 1 (Sphk1) expression and activity are up-regulated by exogenous palmitate (PAL) in a skeletal muscle model system and in diet-induced obesity in mice; however, potential functions and in vivo relevance of this have not been addressed. Here, we aimed to determine the mechanism by which PAL regulates SphK1 in muscle, and to determine potential roles for its product, sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), in muscle biology in the context of obesity. Cloning and analysis of the mouse Sphk1 promoter revealed a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) ? cis-element that mediated activation of a reporter under control of the Sphk1 promoter; direct interaction of PPAR? was demonstrated by chromatin immunoprecipitation. PAL treatment induced the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-6 in a manner dependent on SphK1, and this was attenuated by inhibition of the sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor 3 (S1PR3). Diet-induced obesity in mice demonstrated that IL-6 expression in muscle, but not adipose tissue, increased in obesity, but this was attenuated in Sphk1?/? mice. Moreover, plasma IL-6 levels were significantly decreased in obese Sphk1?/? mice relative to obese wild type mice, and muscle, but not adipose tissue IL-6 signaling was activated. These data indicate that PPAR? regulates Sphk1 expression in the context of fatty acid oversupply and links PAL to muscle IL-6 production. Moreover, this function of SphK1 in diet-induced obesity suggests a potential role for SphK1 in obesity-associated pathological outcomes. PMID:23766515

Ross, Jessica S.; Hu, Wei; Rosen, Bess; Snider, Ashley J.; Obeid, Lina M.; Cowart, L. Ashley

2013-01-01

160

The interaction between Helminthosporium carbonum and maize: Induced resistance and the role of an inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

Helminthosporium carbonum race 1 produces large, necrotic lesions on susceptible leaves of maize, whereas race 2 causes small, chlorotic flecks. Resistance to race 1 on susceptible leaves was induced when race 2 was inoculated for at least 10 h prior to a challenge inoculation with the pathogen and was manifest as a decrease in the number of appressoria and reduced penetration by race 1 conidia. Induced resistance was prevented or reversed when HC-toxin was added to challenge race 1 inoculum. The basis for protection appears to be a volatile, inhibitory compound produced by the host. This inhibitor was always associated with treatments that resulted in resistance, whereas no inhibitory activity was detected in diffusates from susceptible reactions. The appearance of inhibitor in diffusates coincided with the appearance of protection on the leaf. In addition to race 2 of H. carbonum, other fungi (H. victoriae, H. turcicum, and Alternaria) also induced production of the inhibitor as well as resistance to race 1. The inhibitor prevented the germination of conidia of all fungi tested. The growth of two phytopathogenic bacteria was also completely inhibited. Incorporation of {sup 3}H-leucine and {sup 14}C-uridine into protein and RNA, respectively, by conidia of H. carbonum was prevented within 15 min of exposure to inhibitor. In addition, respiration of conidia in inhibitor was reduced within 90 min to just 25% of the rate of conidia germinated in water. However, inhibitory activity of the diffusates was readily reversed when conidia were rinsed with water or when organic or amino acids were added to inhibited conidia. The addition of sodium acetate to race 2 and race 1 inocula resulted in lesion enlargement and also nullified inhibitory activity in vitro.

Cantone, F.A.

1989-01-01

161

Paradoxical Reaction to Golimumab: Tumor Necrosis Factor ? Inhibitor Inducing Psoriasis Pustulosa  

PubMed Central

Importance Golimumab is a human monoclonal antibody, used for rheumatoid arthritis, psoriatic arthritis and ankylosing spondylitis. Adverse reactions are increasing with this class of medication (tumor necrosis factor ? inhibitors). Observations The authors present a case of a female patient who presented with psoriasis pustulosa after the use of golimumab for rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusions and Relevance Paradoxically, in this case, golimumab, which is used for psoriasis, induced the pustular form of this disease. We are observing an increasing number of patients who develop collateral effects with tumor necrosis factor ? inhibitors, and the understanding of the mechanism of action and how these adverse reactions occur may contribute to avoid these sometimes severe situations. PMID:24348382

Soto Lopes, Marien Siqueira; Trope, Beatriz Moritz; Rochedo Rodriguez, Maria Paula Rua; Grynszpan, Rachel Lima; Cuzzi, Tullia; Ramos-e-Silva, Marcia

2013-01-01

162

Aromatase inhibitor adjuvant chemotherapy of breast cancer results in cancer therapy induced bone loss.  

PubMed

Aromatase Inhibitors are anti-estrogen agents that have proven efficacy for adjuvant therapy of estrogen receptor positive breast cancer primarily in post menopausal women with estrogen receptor positive breast cancer but increase the risk of cancer therapy induced bone loss (CTIBL). Recent studies have shown the potential benefit of bisphosphonate therapy to play a dual role in the management of breast cancer. These studies provide evidence that bisphosphonate therapy in conjunction with aromatase inhibitors (AI), not only decreases the risk of osteoporosis but, in addition, may improve survival from breast cancer. PMID:23408144

Rinaldi, Renee Z

2013-03-01

163

Stimulation of ultraviolet-induced apoptosis of human fibroblast UVr-1 cells by tyrosine kinase inhibitors.  

PubMed

Damnacanthal is an anthraquinone compound isolated from the root of Morinda citrifolia and was reported to have a potent inhibitory activity towards tyrosine kinases such as Lck, Src, Lyn and EGF receptor. In the present study, we have examined the effects of damnacanthal on ultraviolet ray-induced apoptosis in ultraviolet-resistant human UVr-1 cells. When the cells were treated with damnacanthal prior to ultraviolet irradiation, DNA fragmentation was more pronounced as compared to the case of ultraviolet irradiation alone. The other tyrosine kinase inhibitors, herbimycin A and genistein, also caused similar effects on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis but to a lesser extent. Serine/threonine kinase inhibitors, K252a, staurosporine and GF109203X, rather suppressed the ultraviolet-induced DNA cleavage. Immunoblot analysis showed that pretreatment with damnacanthal followed by ultraviolet irradiation increased the levels of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases. However, the other tyrosine kinase inhibitors did not increase the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinases but stimulated phosphorylation of stress-activated protein kinases. Consequently, the ultraviolet-induced concurrent increase in both phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinases and stress-activated protein kinases after pretreatment with damnacanthal might be characteristically related to the stimulatory effect of damnacanthal on ultraviolet-induced apoptosis. PMID:10050753

Hiwasa, T; Arase, Y; Chen, Z; Kita, K; Umezawa, K; Ito, H; Suzuki, N

1999-02-12

164

NOVEL ATYPICAL PKC INHIBITORS PREVENT VASCULAR ENDOTHELIAL GROWTH FACTOR-INDUCED BLOOD-RETINAL BARRIER DYSFUNCTION  

PubMed Central

SYNOPSIS Pro-inflammatory cytokines and growth factors such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) contribute to the loss of the blood-retinal barrier (BRB) and subsequent macular edema in various retinal pathologies. VEGF signaling requires conventional PKC (PKC?) activity; however, PKC? inhibition only partially prevents VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and does not affect pro-inflammatory cytokine-induced permeability suggesting the involvement of alternative signaling pathways. Here, we provide evidence for the involvement of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) signaling in VEGF-induced endothelial permeability and identify a novel class of inhibitors of aPKC that prevent BRB breakdown in vivo. Genetic and pharmacological manipulations of aPKC isoforms were used to assess their contribution to endothelial permeability in culture. A chemical library was screened using an in vitro kinase assay to identify novel small molecule inhibitors and further medicinal chemistry was performed to delineate a novel pharmacophore. We demonstrate that aPKC isoforms are both sufficient and required for VEGF-induced endothelial permeability. Furthermore, these specific, potent, non-competitive, small molecule inhibitors prevented VEGF-induced tight junction internalization and retinal endothelial permeability in response to VEGF in both primary culture and in rodent retina. These data suggest that aPKC inhibition with 2-amino-4-phenyl-thiophene derivatives may be developed to preserve the BRB in retinal diseases such as diabetic retinopathy or uveitis and the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the presence of brain tumors. PMID:22721706

Titchenell, Paul M.; Lin, Cheng-Mao; Keil, Jason M.; Sundstrom, Jeffrey M.; Smith, Charles D.; Antonetti, David A.

2013-01-01

165

Wound-induced Accumulation of Trypsin Inhibitor Activities in Plant Leaves  

PubMed Central

Proteinase inhibitor-inducing factor (PIIF)-induced accumulation of trypsin inhibitory activity was assayed in leaves of 23 species of plants representing 10 agriculturally important genera. Inhibitory activity was assayed in extracts from attached leaves or from excised leaves supplied through the cut petioles for 30 minutes with extracts containing the wound hormone PIIF, obtained from either tomato leaves or from the leaves of each plant under study. During subsequent incubation in light for 72 hours, PIIF-induced trypsin inhibitory activity accumulated in significant quantities in 10 of the 23 species. Alfalfa accumulated the highest levels of inhibitory activity (340 ?g trypsin inhibited/ml leaf juice), followed by tobacco, tomato, potato, strawberry, cucumber, squash, clover, broadbean, and grape. It is suggested that the inhibitors might be classed as allelochemics that are present in certain plants and not others in response to environmental pressures during their evolution. PMID:16659868

Walker-Simmons, Mary; Ryan, Clarence A.

1977-01-01

166

Import of proteins into the peroxisomal matrix  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes constitute a dynamic compartment in all nucleated cells. They fulfill diverse metabolic tasks in response to environmental changes and cellular demands. This adaptation is implemented by modulation of the enzyme content of the organelles, which is accomplished by dynamically operating peroxisomal protein transport machineries. Soluble import receptors recognize their newly synthesized cargo proteins in the cytosol and ferry them to the peroxisomal membrane. Subsequently, the cargo is translocated into the matrix, where the receptor is ubiquitinated and exported back to the cytosol for further rounds of matrix protein import. This review discusses the recent progress in our understanding of the peroxisomal matrix protein import and its regulation by ubiquitination events as well as the current view on the translocation mechanism of folded proteins into peroxisomes. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Origin and spatiotemporal dynamics of the peroxisomal endomembrane system. PMID:24069002

Hasan, Sohel; Platta, Harald W.; Erdmann, Ralf

2013-01-01

167

Lucanthone Is a Novel Inhibitor of Autophagy That Induces Cathepsin D-mediated Apoptosis*  

PubMed Central

Cellular stress induced by nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, and exposure to many chemotherapeutic agents activates an evolutionarily conserved cell survival pathway termed autophagy. This pathway enables cancer cells to undergo self-digestion to generate ATP and other essential biosynthetic molecules to temporarily avoid cell death. Therefore, disruption of autophagy may sensitize cancer cells to cell death and augment chemotherapy-induced apoptosis. Chloroquine and its analog hydroxychloroquine are the only clinically relevant autophagy inhibitors. Because both of these agents induce ocular toxicity, novel inhibitors of autophagy with a better therapeutic index are needed. Here we demonstrate that the small molecule lucanthone inhibits autophagy, induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization, and possesses significantly more potent activity in breast cancer models compared with chloroquine. Exposure to lucanthone resulted in processing and recruitment of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) to autophagosomes, but impaired autophagic degradation as revealed by transmission electron microscopy and the accumulation of p62/SQSTM1. Microarray analysis, qRT-PCR, and immunoblotting determined that lucanthone stimulated a large induction in cathepsin D, which correlated with cell death. Accordingly, knockdown of cathepsin D reduced lucanthone-mediated apoptosis. Subsequent studies using p53+/+ and p53?/? HCT116 cells established that lucanthone induced cathepsin D expression and reduced cancer cell viability independently of p53 status. In addition, lucanthone enhanced the anticancer activity of the histone deacetylase inhibitor vorinostat. Collectively, our results demonstrate that lucanthone is a novel autophagic inhibitor that induces apoptosis via cathepsin D accumulation and enhances vorinostat-mediated cell death in breast cancer models. PMID:21148553

Carew, Jennifer S.; Espitia, Claudia M.; Esquivel, Juan A.; Mahalingam, Devalingam; Kelly, Kevin R.; Reddy, Guru; Giles, Francis J.; Nawrocki, Steffan T.

2011-01-01

168

An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root, a herb-derived peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha activator, by oral gavage over 28 days induces gender-dependent hepatic hypertrophy in rats.  

PubMed

Activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-alpha by natural and synthetic chemicals induces hepatic hypertrophy. An aqueous extract of Salacia oblonga root (SOW) is an Ayurvedic medicine with anti-diabetic and anti-obesity properties. In the present study, it was found that SOW (100, 300 and 900mg/kg, once daily by oral gavage over a 28 day period) elicited dose-related increases in liver weight (LW) by 1.6%, 13.4% and 42.5%, respectively, and in the ratio of LW to body weight by 8.8%, 16.7% and 40.2%, respectively, in male rats. These effects were less pronounced in females. SOW selectively increased liver mass in male rats but Sudan red staining was not different, which indicates that hepatic lipid accumulation was similar in both genders. However, SOW even at the highest dosage did not influence serum ALT and AST activities in male or female rats. Moreover, SOW was found to activate PPAR-alpha in human hepatoma-derived HepG2 cells, as evidenced by the upregulation of PPAR-alpha and acyl-CoA oxidase mRNA expression. Thus, SOW-dependent PPAR-alpha activation may precede the development of the gender difference in hepatic hypertrophy; this process may be influenced by sex hormone status. PMID:18397819

Rong, Xianglu; Kim, Moon Sun; Su, Ning; Wen, Suping; Matsuo, Yukimi; Yamahara, Johji; Murray, Michael; Li, Yuhao

2008-06-01

169

Pex30p, Pex31p, and Pex32p form a family of peroxisomal integral membrane proteins regulating peroxisome size and number in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.  

PubMed

The peroxin Pex23p of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica exhibits high sequence similarity to the hypothetical proteins Ylr324p, Ygr004p, and Ybr168p encoded by the Saccharomyces cerevisiae genome. Ylr324p, Ygr004p, and Ybr168p are integral to the peroxisomal membrane and act to control peroxisome number and size. Synthesis of Ylr324p and Ybr168p, but not of Ygr004p, is induced during incubation of cells in oleic acid-containing medium, the metabolism of which requires intact peroxisomes. Cells deleted for YLR324w exhibit increased numbers of peroxisomes, whereas cells deleted for YGR004w or YBR168w exhibit enlarged peroxisomes. Ylr324p and Ybr168p cannot functionally substitute for one another or for Ygr004p, whereas Ygr004p shows partial functional redundancy with Ylr324p and Ybr168p. Ylr324p, Ygr004p, and Ybr168p interact within themselves and with Pex28p and Pex29p, which have been shown also to regulate peroxisome size and number. Systematic deletion of genes demonstrated that PEX28 and PEX29 function upstream of YLR324w, YGR004w, and YBR168w in the regulation of peroxisome proliferation. Our data suggest a role for Ylr324p, Ygr004p, and Ybr168p--now designated Pex30p, Pex31p, and Pex32p, respectively--together with Pex28p and Pex29p in controlling peroxisome size and proliferation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:14617799

Vizeacoumar, Franco J; Torres-Guzman, Juan C; Bouard, David; Aitchison, John D; Rachubinski, Richard A

2004-02-01

170

A novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Chidamide induces apoptosis of human colon cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Many studies have demonstrated that histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors induce various tumor cells to undergo apoptosis, and such inhibitors have been used in different clinical trials against different human cancers. In this study, we designed and synthesized a novel HDAC inhibitor, Chidamide. We showed that Chidamide was able to increase the acetylation levels of histone H3 and to inhibit the PI3K/Akt and MAPK/Ras signaling pathways, which resulted in arresting colon cancer cells at the G1 phase of the cell cycle and promoting apoptosis. As a result, the proliferation of colon cancer cells was suppressed in vitro. Our data support the potential application of Chidamide as an anticancer agent in treating colon cancer. Future studies are needed to demonstrate its in vivo efficacy.

Liu, Lin [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China)] [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China); Chen, Baoan, E-mail: wenyu811@126.com [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China)] [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China); Qin, Shukui [Chinese PLA Cancer Center, The 81st PLA Hospital, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu (China)] [Chinese PLA Cancer Center, The 81st PLA Hospital, Nanjing 210002, Jiangsu (China); Li, Suyi; He, Xiangming [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China)] [Department of Oncology, Zhong-Da Hospital of Southeast University, Nanjing 210009, Jiangsu (China); Qiu, Shaomin; Zhao, Wei; Zhao, Hong [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanjing Municipal Cancer Hospital, Nanjing 210003, Jiangsu (China)] [Department of Internal Medicine, Nanjing Municipal Cancer Hospital, Nanjing 210003, Jiangsu (China)

2010-02-05

171

Calcineurin inhibitor induced nephrotoxicity in steroid resistant nephrotic syndrome  

PubMed Central

Prolonged therapy with calcineurin inhibitors (CNI) is effective in patients with difficult nephrotic syndrome. However, information on prevalence and risk factors for nephrotoxicity in children with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome is limited. This retrospective observational study was conducted on 40 patients with steroid-resistant nephrotic syndrome treated with cyclosporine (CyA) (n = 28) or tacrolimus (n = 12) for more than 2 years. Nephrotoxicity was defined by the presence of striped fibrosis involving ?10% of the interstitium or nodular hyalinosis in more than one arteriole. Ten additional parameters were graded semi-quantitatively. Continuous data are presented as median and interquartile range (IQR). The median (IQR) age at onset of nephrotic syndrome and CNI therapy were 30 (21-45) and 49.5 (40-102.5) months. A second renal biopsy, following 30 (26-35) months of CNI therapy, showed histological toxicity in 10 (25%) patients. Toxicity was seen in 7 and 3 patients receiving CyA and tacrolimus, respectively, and 5 patients each with minimal change and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis. Therapy with CNI was associated with significant increases in scores for global glomerulosclerosis, tubular atrophy, interstitial fibrosis, nonnodular arteriolar hyalinosis (P < –0.001 for all), arteriolar smooth-muscle vacuolization (P = –0.02), juxtaglomerular hyperplasia (P = –0.002), and tubular microcalcinosis (P = –0.06). Risk factors for nephrotoxicity were initial resistance (OR 9; 95% CI 1.0-80.1; P = –0.049); dose of CyA (OR 9.2; 95% CI 1.1-74.6; P = –0.037); duration of heavy proteinuria (OR 1.2; 95% CI 1.0-1.4; P = –0.023); and hypertension during therapy (OR 6; 95% CI 1.3-28.3; P = –0.023). Following prolonged CNI therapy, one in four biopsies show features of toxicity. Prolonged duration of heavy proteinuria, hypertension, initial steroid resistance and high CyA dose predict the occurrence of nephrotoxicity. PMID:23580804

Sinha, A.; Sharma, A.; Mehta, A.; Gupta, R.; Gulati, A.; Hari, P.; Dinda, A. K.; Bagga, A.

2013-01-01

172

An ER-peroxisome tether exerts peroxisome population control in yeast  

PubMed Central

Eukaryotic cells compartmentalize biochemical reactions into membrane-enclosed organelles that must be faithfully propagated from one cell generation to the next. Transport and retention processes balance the partitioning of organelles between mother and daughter cells. Here we report the identification of an ER-peroxisome tether that links peroxisomes to the ER and ensures peroxisome population control in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The tether consists of the peroxisome biogenic protein, Pex3p, and the peroxisome inheritance factor, Inp1p. Inp1p bridges the two compartments by acting as a molecular hinge between ER-bound Pex3p and peroxisomal Pex3p. Asymmetric peroxisome division leads to the formation of Inp1p-containing anchored peroxisomes and Inp1p-deficient mobile peroxisomes that segregate to the bud. While peroxisomes in mother cells are not released from tethering, de novo formation of tethers in the bud assists in the directionality of peroxisome transfer. Peroxisomes are thus stably maintained over generations of cells through their continued interaction with tethers. PMID:23900285

Knoblach, Barbara; Sun, Xuejun; Coquelle, Nicolas; Fagarasanu, Andrei; Poirier, Richard L; Rachubinski, Richard A

2013-01-01

173

Peroxisome biogenesis in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica.  

PubMed

Extensive peroxisome proliferation during growth on oleic acid, combined with the availability of excellent genetic tools, makes the dimorphic yeast, Yarrowia lipolytica, a powerful model system to study the molecular mechanisms involved in peroxisome biogenesis. A combined genetic, biochemical, and morphological approach has revealed that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) plays an essential role in the assembly of functional peroxisomes in this yeast. The trafficking of some membrane proteins to the peroxisomes occurs via the ER, results in their glycosylation in the ER lumen, does not involve transit through the Golgi, and requires the products of the SEC238, SRP54, PEX1, and PEX6 genes. The authors' data suggest a model for protein import into peroxisomes via two subpopulations of ER-derived vesicles that are distinct from secretory vesicles. A kinetic analysis of the trafficking of peroxisomal proteins in vivo has demonstrated that membrane and matrix proteins are initially targeted to multiple vesicular precursors that represent intermediates in the assembly pathway of peroxisomes. The authors have also recently identified a novel cytosolic chaperone, Pex20p, that assists in the oligomerization of thiolase in the cytosol and promotes its targeting to the peroxisome. These data provide the first evidence that a chaperone-assisted folding and oligomerization of thiolase in the cytosol is required for the import of this protein into the peroxisomal matrix. PMID:11330048

Titorenko, V I; Smith, J J; Szilard, R K; Rachubinski, R A

2000-01-01

174

Peroxisome deficient invertebrate and vertebrate animal models  

PubMed Central

Although peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles in all animal species, their importance for the functioning of tissues and organs remains largely unresolved. Because peroxins are essential for the biogenesis of peroxisomes, an obvious approach to investigate their physiological role is to inactivate a Pex gene or to suppress its translation. This has been performed in mice but also in more primitive organisms including D. melanogaster, C. elegans, and D. rerio, and the major findings and abnormalities in these models will be highlighted. Although peroxisomes are generally not essential for embryonic development and organogenesis, a generalized inactivity of peroxisomes affects lifespan and posthatching/postnatal growth, proving that peroxisomal metabolism is necessary for the normal maturation of these organisms. Strikingly, despite the wide variety of model organisms, corresponding tissues are affected including the central nervous system and the testis. By inactivating peroxisomes in a cell type selective way in the brain of mice, it was also demonstrated that peroxisomes are necessary to prevent neurodegeneration. As these peroxisome deficient model organisms recapitulate pathologies of patients affected with peroxisomal diseases, their further analysis will contribute to the elucidation of still elusive pathogenic mechanisms. PMID:24319432

Van Veldhoven, Paul P.; Baes, Myriam

2013-01-01

175

Presence of thiamine pyrophosphate in mammalian peroxisomes  

PubMed Central

Background Thiamine pyrophosphate (TPP) is a cofactor for 2-hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase 1 (HACL1), a peroxisomal enzyme essential for the ?-oxidation of phytanic acid and 2-hydroxy straight chain fatty acids. So far, HACL1 is the only known peroxisomal TPP-dependent enzyme in mammals. Little is known about the transport of metabolites and cofactors across the peroxisomal membrane and no peroxisomal thiamine or TPP carrier has been identified in mammals yet. This study was undertaken to get a better insight into these issues and to shed light on the role of TPP in peroxisomal metabolism. Results Because of the crucial role of the cofactor TPP, we reanalyzed its subcellular localization in rat liver. In addition to the known mitochondrial and cytosolic pools, we demonstrated, for the first time, that peroxisomes contain TPP (177 ± 2 pmol/mg protein). Subsequently, we verified whether TPP could be synthesized from its precursor thiamine, in situ, by a peroxisomal thiamine pyrophosphokinase (TPK). However, TPK activity was exclusively recovered in the cytosol. Conclusion Our results clearly indicate that mammalian peroxisomes do contain TPP but that no pyrophosphorylation of thiamine occurs in these organelles, implying that thiamine must enter the peroxisome already pyrophosphorylated. Consequently, TPP entry may depend on a specific transport system or, in a bound form, on HACL1 translocation. PMID:17596263

Fraccascia, Patrizia; Sniekers, Mieke; Casteels, Minne; Van Veldhoven, Paul P

2007-01-01

176

Dual targeting of yeast catalase A to peroxisomes and mitochondria.  

PubMed Central

Yeast catalase A (Cta1p) contains two peroxisomal targeting signals (SSNSKF) localized at its C-terminus and within the N-terminal third of the protein, which both can target foreign proteins to peroxisomes. In the present study we demonstrated that Cta1p can also enter mitochondria, although the enzyme lacks a classical mitochondrial import sequence. Cta1p co-targeting was studied in a catalase A null mutant after growth on different carbon sources, and expression of a Cta1p-GFP (green fluorescent protein)-fusion protein or a Cta1p derivative containing either a c-Myc epitope (Cta1p(myc)) or a SKF-extended tag (Cta1p(myc-SKF)). Peroxisomal and mitochondrial co-import of catalase A were tested qualitatively by fluorescence microscopy and functional complementation of a Delta cta1 null mutation, and quantitatively by subcellular fractionation followed by Western blot analysis and enzyme activity assays. Efficient Cta1p import into peroxisomes was observed when cells were cultivated under peroxisome-inducing conditions (i.e. growth on oleate), whereas significant co-import of Cta1p-GFP into mitochondria occurred when cells were grown under respiratory conditions that favour oxygen stress and ROS (reactive oxygen species) accumulation within this organelle. In particular, when cells were grown on the non-fermentable carbon source raffinose, respiration is maximally enhanced, and catalase A was efficiently targeted to the mitochondrial matrix where it presumably functions as scavenger of H2O2 and mitochondrial-derived ROS. PMID:14998369

Petrova, Ventsislava Y; Drescher, Diane; Kujumdzieva, Anna V; Schmitt, Manfred J

2004-01-01

177

Effects of MAP Kinase Inhibitors on Epidermal Growth Factor-Induced Neoplastic Transformation of Human Keratinocytes  

PubMed Central

We previously reported data regarding the mechanism of neoplastic transformation in JB6 Cl41 mouse skin epidermal cells. However, experimental in vitro models for studying neoplastic transformation of human cells could provide further insight into the mechanisms of human cancer development. In this study, we have established a neoplastic transformation model with HaCaT cells, a human keratinocyte cell line, and showed the usefulness of this cell line for studying the mechanisms of neoplastic transformation. Epidermal growth factor (EGF) treatment induced a dose-dependent anchorage-independent cell transformation in HaCaT cells. Furthermore, PD98059, a MAP kinase/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, or SP600125, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, decreased cell growth, EGF-induced DNA synthesis and transformation. Unlike observations in the JB6 mouse epidermal cell model, SB203580, a stress-activated protein kinase-2/p38 ? and ? (p38) inhibitor, increased EGF-induced transformation in HaCaT cells. These results suggest that extracellular-signal regulated kinase (ERK), JNK or p38 are implicated in EGF-induced neoplastic transformation of human cells. PMID:16302268

Mizuno, Hideya; Cho, Yong-Yeon; Ma, Wei-Ya; Bode, Ann M.; Dong, Zigang

2006-01-01

178

A novel role for the apoptosis inhibitor ARC in suppressing TNF?-induced regulated necrosis.  

PubMed

TNF? signaling can promote apoptosis or a regulated form of necrosis. ARC (apoptosis repressor with CARD (caspase recruitment domain)) is an endogenous inhibitor of apoptosis that antagonizes both the extrinsic (death receptor) and intrinsic (mitochondrial/ER) apoptosis pathways. We discovered that ARC blocks not only apoptosis but also necrosis. TNF?-induced necrosis was abrogated by overexpression of wild-type ARC but not by a CARD mutant that is also defective for inhibition of apoptosis. Conversely, knockdown of ARC exacerbated TNF?-induced necrosis, an effect that was rescued by reconstitution with wild-type, but not CARD-defective, ARC. Similarly, depletion of ARC in vivo exacerbated necrosis caused by infection with vaccinia virus, which elicits severe tissue damage through this pathway, and sensitized mice to TNF?-induced systemic inflammatory response syndrome. The mechanism underlying these effects is an interaction of ARC with TNF receptor 1 that interferes with recruitment of RIP1, a critical mediator of TNF?-induced regulated necrosis. These findings extend the role of ARC from an apoptosis inhibitor to a regulator of the TNF? pathway and an inhibitor of TNF?-mediated regulated necrosis. PMID:24440909

Kung, G; Dai, P; Deng, L; Kitsis, R N

2014-04-01

179

Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV Inhibitor MK-0626 Attenuates Pancreatic Islet Injury in Tacrolimus-Induced Diabetic Rats  

PubMed Central

Background Tacrolimus (TAC)-induced pancreatic islet injury is one of the important causes of new-onset diabetes in transplant recipients. This study was performed to evaluate whether a dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP IV) inhibitor is effective in improving TAC-induced diabetes mellitus by reducing pancreatic islet injury. Methods Rats were treated with TAC (1.5 mg/kg, subcutaneously) and the DPP IV inhibitor MK-0626 (10 or 20 mg/kg, oral gavage) for 4 weeks. The effect of MK-0626 on TAC-induced diabetes was evaluated by assessing pancreatic islet function, histopathology. TAC-induced incretin dysfunction was also examined based on active glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) levels in the serum after glucose loading. The protective effect of MK-0626 was evaluated by measuring markers of oxidative stress, oxidative resistance, and apoptosis. To determine whether enhanced GLP-1 signaling is associated with these protective effects, we measured the expression of the GLP-1 receptor (GLP-1R) and the effect of the GLP-1 analog exendin-4 on cell viability and oxidative stress in isolated islets. Results MK-0626 treatment attenuated TAC-induced pancreatic islet dysfunction and islet morphology. TAC treatment led to a defect in active GLP-1 secretion; however, MK-0626 reversed these effects. TAC treatment increased the level of 8-hydroxy-2?-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG), the number of apoptotic death, and the level of active caspase-3, and decreased the level of manganese superoxide dismutase and heme oxygenase-1; MK-0626 treatment reversed these changes. MK-0626 treatment restored the expression of GLP-1R, and direct administration of exendin-4 to isolated islets reduced TAC-induced cell death and 8-OHdG expression. Conclusions The DPP IV inhibitor MK-0626wasan effective antidiabetic agent that exerted antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects via enhanced GLP-1 signaling in TAC-induced diabetics. PMID:24959755

Doh, Kyoung Chan; Piao, Shang Guo; Jin, Jian; Heo, Seong Beom; Chung, Byung Ha; Yang, Chul Woo

2014-01-01

180

Regulation of breast cancer resistant protein by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? in human brain microvessel endothelial cells.  

PubMed

Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) membrane-associated drug efflux transporter, is known to localize at the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and can significantly restrict xenobiotic permeability in the brain. The objective of this study is to investigate the regulation of BCRP functional expression by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR?), a ligand-activated transcription factor primarily involved in lipid metabolism, in a cerebral microvascular endothelial cell culture system (hCMEC/D3), representative of human BBB. We demonstrate that PPAR?-selective ligands (i.e., clofibrate, GW7647) significantly induce BCRP mRNA and protein expression in a time- and concentration-dependent manner, whereas pharmacological inhibitors (i.e., MK886, GW6471) prevent this induction. Using [(3)H]mitoxantrone, an established BCRP substrate, we observe a significant reduction in its cellular accumulation by monolayer cells treated with clofibrate, suggesting increased BCRP efflux activity. In addition, we show a significant decrease in BCRP protein expression and function when PPAR? is down-regulated by small interfering RNA. Applying chromatin immunoprecipitation and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction, we observe that clofibrate treatment increases PPAR? binding to the peroxisome proliferator response element within the ABCG2 gene promoter. This study provides the first evidence of direct BCRP regulation by PPAR? in a human in vitro BBB model and suggests new targeting strategies for either improving drug brain bioavailability or increasing neuroprotection. PMID:22266374

Hoque, Md Tozammel; Robillard, Kevin R; Bendayan, Reina

2012-04-01

181

Serine protease inhibitor attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury and edema formation in rat.  

PubMed

Our previous studies have demonstrated that thrombin plays an important role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury and edema formation. We, therefore, examined whether nafamostat mesilate (FUT), a serine protease inhibitor, can reduce ICH-induced brain injury. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats received an infusion of autologous whole blood (100 microL), thrombin (5U/50 microL) or type VII collagenase (0.4 U/2 microL) into the right basal ganglia, the three ICH models used in the present study. FUT (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally 6 h after ICH (or immediately after thrombin infusion) and then at 12-h intervals (six treatments in total, n = 5 in each group). All rats were sacrificed 72 h later. We also examined whether FUT promotes rebleeding in a model in which ICH was induced by intracerebral injection of collagenase. Systemic administration of FUT starting 6 h after ICH reduced brain water content in the ipsilateral basal ganglia 72 h after ICH compared with vehicle. FUT attenuated ICH-induced changes in 8-OHdG and thrombin-reduced brain edema. FUT did not increase collagenase-induced hematoma volume. FUT attenuates ICH-induced brain edema and DNA injury suggesting that serine protease inhibitor may be potential therapeutic agent for ICH. PMID:19812969

Nakamura, Takehiro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Hosomi, Naohisa; Okabe, Naohiko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tamiya, Takashi; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Itano, Toshifumi

2010-01-01

182

Ku70 is essential for histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

It was previously reported that the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACI) trichostatin A (TSA) induced B cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl?2)?associated X protein (Bax)?dependent apoptosis in colorectal cancer (CRC) cells. In addition, Ku70 has been identified as a regulator of apoptosis, the mechanism of which proceeds via interacting with Bax. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of Ku70 in TSA?induced apoptosis in the CRC cell lines HCT116 and HT29. The results showed that TSA induced the acetylation of Ku70, which was found to be associated with increased apoptosis. In addition, TSA treatment promoted the release of Bax from its complex with Ku70. Bax was then detected to have translocated from the cytoplasm into the mitochondria, while cytochrome c was detected to have translocated from the mitochondria into the cytoplasm. Furthermore, knockdown of Ku70 using small interfering RNA decreased TSA?induced apoptosis as well as downregulated the expression of Bax. These effects were rescued through pre?treatment of cells with the proteasome inhibitor MG132. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that Ku70 acetylation mediated TSA?induced apoptosis in CRC cells. In addition, Ku70 was found to be indispensable in TSA?induced apoptosis due to its role in protecting Bax from proteosomal degradation. PMID:25695595

Meng, Jin; Zhang, Feng; Zhang, Xu-Tao; Zhang, Tao; Li, Yu-Hua; Fan, Lei; Sun, Yang; Zhang, He-Long; Mei, Qi-Bing

2015-07-01

183

Xanthoangelols isolated from Angelica keiskei inhibit inflammatory-induced plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1) production.  

PubMed

The folk medicine Angelica keiskei (Ashitaba) exhibits antitumor, antioxidant and antidiabetic activities and it has recently attracted attention as a health food. Ashitaba is thought to have antithrombotic properties, but this has not yet been scientifically proven. The elevation of plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI-1), an inhibitor of fibrinolysis results in a predisposition to the risk of thrombosis. The present study showed that Ashitaba exudates injected intraperitoneally and orally administered over long-term suppressed the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced PAI-1 increase in mouse plasma. We also found that xanthoangelol, xanthoangelols B and D, the components of Ashitaba exudates, significantly inhibited TNF?-induced PAI-1 production from human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). These findings suggest that Ashitaba can decrease elevated PAI-1 production, and that daily consumption of Ashitaba product might maintain anticoagulant status by inhibiting elevations in PAI-1 under inflammatory conditions. PMID:22038782

Ohkura, Naoki; Nakakuki, Yoshitaka; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Kanai, Shiho; Nakayama, Akiko; Ohnishi, Katsunori; Sakata, Toshiyuki; Nohira, Tomoyoshi; Matsuda, Juzo; Baba, Kimiye; Atsumi, Gen-Ichi

2011-01-01

184

Inhibitors of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 block breast cancer metastatic niche formation and lung metastasis.  

PubMed

Intratumoral hypoxia, a frequent finding in metastatic cancer, results in the activation of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs). HIFs are implicated in many steps of breast cancer metastasis, including metastatic niche formation through increased expression of lysyl oxidase (LOX) and lysyl oxidase-like (LOXL) proteins, enzymes that remodel collagen at the metastatic site and recruit bone marrow-derived cells (BMDCs) to the metastatic niche. We investigated the effect of two chemically and mechanistically distinct HIF inhibitors, digoxin and acriflavine, on breast cancer metastatic niche formation. Both drugs blocked the hypoxia-induced expression of LOX and LOXL proteins, collagen cross-linking, CD11b? BMDC recruitment, and lung metastasis in an orthotopic breast cancer model. Patients with HIF-1 ?-overexpressing breast cancers are at increased risk of metastasis and mortality and our results suggest that such patients may benefit from aggressive therapy that includes a HIF inhibitor. PMID:22231744

Wong, Carmen Chak-Lui; Zhang, Huafeng; Gilkes, Daniele M; Chen, Jasper; Wei, Hong; Chaturvedi, Pallavi; Hubbi, Maimon E; Semenza, Gregg L

2012-07-01

185

The STAT3 inhibitor WP1066 reverses the resistance of chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells to histone deacetylase inhibitors induced by interleukin-6.  

PubMed

Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is a pleiotropic cytokine produced by a variety of cell types, including fibroblasts, endothelial cells, lymphocytes, and bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs). Levels of IL-6 are increased in serum of CLL patients and correlated with adverse clinical features and short survival. In our study, we observed that IL-6 induced the resistance of CLL cells to pan-histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors vorinostat (SAHA) and panobinostat (LBH589). Furthermore, low concentrations of SAHA and LBH589 enhanced the activation of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling pathway induced by IL-6 in CLL cells. All of these effects were blocked by the STAT3-selective inhibitor, WP1066. Meanwhile, WP1066 decreased the expressions of Mcl-1 and Bcl-xL protein induced by IL-6 with or without low concentrations of HDAC inhibitors. Co-culture of CLL cells with BMSCs could also facilitate the activation of STAT3 and protected CLL cells from apoptosis when treated with HDAC inhibitors, and this cytoprotection was reversed by WP1066. The present study indicated that IL-6 or co-culture with BMSCs prevented HDAC inhibitor-induced apoptosis of CLL cells. This prevention was mediated by activation of the STAT3 signaling pathway. Moreover, WP1066 reversed the resistance of CLL cells to SAHA and LBH589 induced by either IL-6 or co-culture with BMSCs. Our findings suggest that targeting the STAT3 pathway may be a novel way to improve the efficacy of the HDAC inhibitor in CLL patients by overcoming antiapoptotic signaling of the microenvironment. PMID:25636517

Lu, Kang; Fang, Xiao-Sheng; Feng, Li-Li; Jiang, Yu-Jie; Zhou, Xiang-Xiang; Liu, Xin; Li, Pei-Pei; Chen, Na; Ding, Mei; Wang, Na; Zhang, Jie; Wang, Xin

2015-04-10

186

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors reduce conditioned fear stress-induced freezing behavior in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

Conditioned fear stress (CFS)-induced freezing behavior has been proposed as an animal model of anxiety. In the present study, freezing was used to determine the anxiolytic activity of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), which are reported to be clinically effective in anxiety disorders. The duration of freezing behavior was reduced by acute treatment with the SSRIs citalopram (1–10 mg\\/kg) and

S. Hashimoto; T. Inoue; T. Koyama

1996-01-01

187

S3226, a novel NHE3 inhibitor, attenuates ischemia-induced acute renal failure in rats  

Microsoft Academic Search

S3226, a novel NHE3 inhibitor, attenuates ischemia-induced acute renal failure in rats.BackgroundAcute renal failure (ARF) remains a major problem in clinical nephrology characterized by sudden loss of the kidney function due to ischemia, trauma, and\\/or nephrotoxic drugs. The current therapy of ARF is symptomatic with mortality rates exceeding 50%. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of

Max Hropot; Hans-Paul Juretschke; Karl Heinz Langer; Jan-Robert Schwark

2001-01-01

188

Cell Growth Inhibition and Gene Expression Induced by the Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor, Trichostatin A, on Human Hepatoma Cells  

Microsoft Academic Search

Objective: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors have been reported to induce cell growth arrest, apoptosis and differentiation in tumor cells. The effect of the HDAC inhibitor, trichostatin A (TSA), on hepatoma cells, however, has not been well studied. In this study, we examined cell viability and gene expression profile in hepatoma cell lines treated with TSA. Methods: To study cell growth

Tetsuhiro Chiba; Osamu Yokosuka; Kenichi Fukai; Hiroshige Kojima; Motohisa Tada; Makoto Arai; Fumio Imazeki; Hiromitsu Saisho

2004-01-01

189

Novel peroxisome clustering mutants and peroxisome biogenesis mutants of Saccharomyces cerevisiae  

PubMed Central

The goal of this research is to identify and characterize the protein machinery that functions in the intracellular translocation and assembly of peroxisomal proteins in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Several genes encoding proteins that are essential for this process have been identified previously by Kunau and collaborators, but the mutant collection was incomplete. We have devised a positive selection procedure that identifies new mutants lacking peroxisomes or peroxisomal function. Immunofluorescence procedures for yeast were simplified so that these mutants could be rapidly and efficiently screened for those in which peroxisome biogenesis is impaired. With these tools, we have identified four complementation groups of peroxisome biogenesis mutants, and one group that appears to express reduced amounts of peroxisomal proteins. Two of our mutants lack recognizable peroxisomes, although they might contain peroxisomal membrane ghosts like those found in Zellweger syndrome. Two are selectively defective in packaging peroxisomal proteins and moreover show striking intracellular clustering of the peroxisomes. The distribution of mutants among complementation groups implies that the collection of peroxisome biogenesis mutants is still incomplete. With the procedures described, it should prove straightforward to isolate mutants from additional complementation groups. PMID:7902359

1993-01-01

190

Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves.  

PubMed

Inducible defensive responses in plants are known to be activated locally and systemically by signaling molecules that are produced at sites of pathogen or insect attacks, but only one chemical signal, ethylene, is known to travel through the atmosphere to activate plant defensive genes. Methyl jasmonate, a common plant secondary compound, when applied to surfaces of tomato plants, induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitor proteins in the treated plants and in nearby plants as well. The presence of methyl jasmonate in the atmosphere of chambers containing plants from three species of two families, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in leaves of all three species. When sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata, a plant shown to possess methyl jasmonate in leaf surface structures, is incubated in chambers with tomato plants, proteinase inhibitor accumulation is induced in the tomato leaves, demonstrating that interplant communication can occur from leaves of one species of plant to leaves of another species to activate the expression of defensive genes. PMID:11607107

Farmer, E E; Ryan, C A

1990-10-01

191

Interplant communication: airborne methyl jasmonate induces synthesis of proteinase inhibitors in plant leaves.  

PubMed Central

Inducible defensive responses in plants are known to be activated locally and systemically by signaling molecules that are produced at sites of pathogen or insect attacks, but only one chemical signal, ethylene, is known to travel through the atmosphere to activate plant defensive genes. Methyl jasmonate, a common plant secondary compound, when applied to surfaces of tomato plants, induces the synthesis of defensive proteinase inhibitor proteins in the treated plants and in nearby plants as well. The presence of methyl jasmonate in the atmosphere of chambers containing plants from three species of two families, Solanaceae and Fabaceae, results in the accumulation of proteinase inhibitors in leaves of all three species. When sagebrush, Artemisia tridentata, a plant shown to possess methyl jasmonate in leaf surface structures, is incubated in chambers with tomato plants, proteinase inhibitor accumulation is induced in the tomato leaves, demonstrating that interplant communication can occur from leaves of one species of plant to leaves of another species to activate the expression of defensive genes. PMID:11607107

Farmer, E E; Ryan, C A

1990-01-01

192

Antidepressant-like effect induced by systemic and intra-hippocampal administration of DNA methylation inhibitors  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Epigenetic modifications are thought to play an important role in the neurobiology of depression. Antidepressant treatment induces histone acetylation in the hippocampus, which is associated with transcriptional activation, whereas stress increases DNA methylation, which is associated with transcriptional repression. Because the specific involvement of DNA methylation in the regulation of depressive-like behaviours is not yet known, we have investigated the effects induced by systemic or intra-hippocampal administration of inhibitors of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) in rats submitted to a range of behavioural tests. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Rats received i.p. injections of 5-aza-2-deoxycytidine (5-azaD, 0.1–0.8 mg·kg?1), 5-azacytidine (5-azaC, 0.4–3.2 mg·kg?1), imipramine (15 mg·kg?1) or vehicle and were submitted to the forced swimming test (FST) or open field test (OFT). Other groups of rats received intra-hippocampal injection of DNMT inhibitors. KEY RESULTS Systemic administration of DNMT inhibitors induced a dose-dependent antidepressant-like effect, which was followed by decreased DNA methylation and increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels in the hippocampus. Hippocampal inhibition of DNA methylation induced similar behavioural effects. No treatment induced any locomotor effects in the OFT. Antidepressant-like effects of 5-azaD were confirmed in mice submitted to the FST or the tail suspension test. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Systemic, as well as hippocampal, inhibition of DNA methylation induced antidepressant-like effects. These effects could be associated with increased hippocampal expression of BDNF. Our data give further support to the hypothesis that DNA methylation is an important epigenetic mechanism involved in the development of depressive-like behaviours. PMID:21585346

Sales, Amanda J; Biojone, Caroline; Terceti, Mateus S; Guimarães, Francisco S; Gomes, Marcus VM; Joca, Sâmia RL

2011-01-01

193

Peroxisome division in the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica is regulated by a signal from inside the peroxisome.  

PubMed

We describe an unusual mechanism for organelle division. In the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica, only mature peroxisomes contain the complete set of matrix proteins. These mature peroxisomes assemble from several immature peroxisomal vesicles in a multistep pathway. The stepwise import of distinct subsets of matrix proteins into different immature intermediates along the pathway causes the redistribution of a peroxisomal protein, acyl-CoA oxidase (Aox), from the matrix to the membrane. A significant redistribution of Aox occurs only in mature peroxisomes. Inside mature peroxisomes, the membrane-bound pool of Aox interacts with Pex16p, a membrane-associated protein that negatively regulates the division of early intermediates in the pathway. This interaction inhibits the negative action of Pex16p, thereby allowing mature peroxisomes to divide. PMID:14504266

Guo, Tong; Kit, Yuriy Y; Nicaud, Jean-Marc; Le Dall, Marie-Therese; Sears, S Kelly; Vali, Hojatollah; Chan, Honey; Rachubinski, Richard A; Titorenko, Vladimir I

2003-09-29

194

Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production.

Takahashi, H.; Jaffe, M. J.

1984-01-01

195

Effects of inhibitors on 1-methyladenine induced maturation of starfish oocytes  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

1-methladenine (1-MA) induces starfish oocytes maturation via surface reaction followed by the appearance of a cytoplasmic maturation factor which in turn induces germinal vesicle breakdown (GVBD) to resume meiosis. Cellular mechanisms involved in GVBD were investigated by microinjection of metabolic inhibitors. Colchicine (Co) inhibited maturation, cytochalasin-B (CB) delayed GVBD and actinomycin-D-(Act-D) and puromycin (Pu) had no effect. It appears that the microtubule and the microfilament systems are associated with the nuclear membrane dissolution during the process of oocyte maturation of starfish.

Lee, Harold H.; Xu, Quanhan

1986-12-01

196

A newly discovered function of peroxisomes  

PubMed Central

In plants, peroxisomes are the organelles involved in various metabolic processes and physiological functions including ?-oxidation, mobilization of seed storage lipids, photorespiration, and hormone biosynthesis. We have recently shown that, in fungi and plants, peroxisomes play a vital role in biosynthesis of biotin, an essential cofactor required for various carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions. In fungi, the mutants defective in peroxisomal protein import exhibit biotin auxotrophy. The fungal BioF protein, a 7-keto-8-aminopelargonic acid (KAPA) synthase catalyzing the conversion of pimeloyl-CoA to KAPA in biotin biosynthesis, contains the peroxisomal targeting sequence 1 (PTS1), and its peroxisomal targeting is required for biotin biosynthesis. In plants, biotin biosynthesis is essential for embryo development. We have shown that the peroxisomal targeting sequences of the BioF proteins are conserved throughout the plant kingdom, and the Arabidopsis thaliana BioF protein is indeed localized in peroxisomes. Our findings suggest that peroxisomal localization of the BioF protein is evolutionarily conserved among eukaryotes, and required for biotin biosynthesis and plant growth and development. PMID:23073000

Maruyama, Jun-ichi; Yamaoka, Shohei; Matsuo, Ichiro; Tsutsumi, Nobuhiro; Kitamoto, Katsuhiko

2012-01-01

197

Metabolite transport across the peroxisomal membrane  

PubMed Central

In recent years, much progress has been made with respect to the unravelling of the functions of peroxisomes in metabolism, and it is now well established that peroxisomes are indispensable organelles, especially in higher eukaryotes. Peroxisomes catalyse a number of essential metabolic functions including fatty acid ?-oxidation, ether phospholipid biosynthesis, fatty acid ?-oxidation and glyoxylate detoxification. The involvement of peroxisomes in these metabolic pathways necessitates the transport of metabolites in and out of peroxisomes. Recently, considerable progress has been made in the characterization of metabolite transport across the peroxisomal membrane. Peroxisomes posses several specialized transport systems to transport metabolites. This is exemplified by the identification of a specific transporter for adenine nucleotides and several half-ABC (ATP-binding cassette) transporters which may be present as hetero- and homo-dimers. The nature of the substrates handled by the different ABC transporters is less clear. In this review we will describe the current state of knowledge of the permeability properties of the peroxisomal membrane. PMID:17173541

Visser, Wouter F.; van Roermund, Carlo W. T.; Ijlst, Lodewijk; Waterham, Hans R.; Wanders, Ronald J. A.

2006-01-01

198

Factors Affecting Development of Peroxisomes and Glycolate Metabolism among Algae of Different Evolutionary Lines of the Prasinophyceae.  

PubMed Central

Leaf-type peroxisomes are not present in the primitive unicellular Prasinophycean line of algae but are present in the multicellular algae Mougeotia, Chara, and Nitella, which are in the one evolutionary line, Charophyceae, that led to higher plants. Processes related to glycolate metabolism that may have been modified or induced with the appearance of peroxisomes have been examined. The algal dissolved inorganic carbon-concentrating mechanism and alkalization of the medium during photosynthesis were not lost when peroxisomes appeared in the members of the Charophycean line of algae. Therefore, it is unlikely that lowering of the CO2 concentration in the environment was a major factor in the evolutionary appearance of peroxisomes. Multicellular Mougeotia, early members of the Charophycean line of algae, have peroxisomes, but they excrete excess glycolate into the medium. The cytosolic pyruvate reductase for D-lactate synthesis and the glycolate dehydrogenase activity almost disappeared when peroxisomal glycolate oxidase, which also oxidizes L-lactate, appeared. These biochemical changes do not indicate what caused the induction of leaf-type peroxisomes in this evolutionary line of algae. The oxygenase activity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase and glycolate oxidase require about 200 to 400 [mu]M O2 for 0.5 Vmax. These high-O2-requiring steps in glycolate metabolism would have functioned faster with increasing atmospheric O2, which might have been the causative factor in the induction of peroxisomes. PMID:12228674

Kehlenbeck, P.; Goyal, A.; Tolbert, N. E.

1995-01-01

199

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Facilitate Dihydroartemisinin-Induced Apoptosis in Liver Cancer In Vitro and In Vivo  

PubMed Central

Liver cancer ranks in prevalence and mortality among top five cancers worldwide. Accumulating interests have been focused in developing new strategies for liver cancer treatment. We have previously showed that dihydroartemisinin (DHA) exhibited antitumor activity towards liver cancer. In this study, we demonstrated that histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) significantly augmented the antineoplastic effect of DHA via increasing apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. Inhibition of ERK phosphorylation contributed to DHA-induced apoptosis, due to the fact that inhibitor of ERK phosphorylation (PD98059) increased DHA-induced apoptosis. Compared with DHA alone, the combined treatment with DHA and HDACi reduced mitochondria membrane potential, released cytochrome c into cytoplasm, increased p53 and Bak, decreased Mcl-1 and p-ERK, activated caspase 3 and PARP, and induced apoptotic cells. Furthermore, we showed that HDACi pretreatment facilitated DHA-induced apoptosis. In Hep G2-xenograft carrying nude mice, the intraperitoneal injection of DHA and SAHA resulted in significant inhibition of xenograft tumors. Results of TUNEL and H&E staining showed more apoptosis induced by combined treatment. Immunohistochemistry data revealed the activation of PARP, and the decrease of Ki-67, p-ERK and Mcl-1. Taken together, our data suggest that the combination of HDACi and DHA offers an antitumor effect on liver cancer, and this combination treatment should be considered as a promising strategy for chemotherapy. PMID:22761917

Zhang, Chris Zhiyi; Pan, Yinghua; Cao, Yun; Lai, Paul B. S.; Liu, Lili; Chen, George Gong; Yun, Jingping

2012-01-01

200

Low levels of Bax inhibitor-1 gene expression increase tunicamycin-induced apoptosis in human neuroblastoma SY5Y cells?  

PubMed Central

A human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line with a low level of Bax inhibitor-1 expression was established by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference and fluorescence-activated cell sorting. In control SH-SY5Y cells, tunicamycin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis; however, after Bax inhibitor-1 gene knockdown, cell survival rates were significantly decreased and the degree of apoptosis was significantly increased following tunicamycin treatment. In addition, chromatin condensation and apparent apoptotic phenomena, such as marginalization and cytoplasmic vesicles, were observed. Our findings indicate that Bax inhibitor-1 can delay apoptosis induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:25657664

Wu, Dan; Wang, Peirong; Wang, Shiyao

2012-01-01

201

Calpain Inhibitor PD150606 Attenuates Glutamate Induced Spiral Ganglion Neuron Apoptosis through Apoptosis Inducing Factor Pathway In Vitro  

PubMed Central

Objective This research aimed to investigate whether glutamate induced spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) apoptosis through apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) pathway. And verify whether PD150606, a calpain inhibitor could prevent apoptosis by inhibiting cleaving and releasing AIF in mitochondrion. Methods SGNs of postnatal days 0-3 were harvested and cultured in dishes. 20 mM Glu, the caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK and calpain inhibitor PD150606 were added into cultured dishes separately. We used optical microscope and immunofluoresence staining to observe cell morphology and AIF distribution, RT-PCR and Westernblot to analyse AIF and calpain expression in SGNs. TUNEL assay was used to test cell apoptosis. Results Cell morphology and nuclear translocation of AIF were altered in SGNs by 20 mM Glu treated in vitro. The axon of SGN shortened, more apoptosis SGN were observed and the expression of AIF and calpain were up-regulated in Glu-treated group than the normal one (P<0.05). The same experiments were conducted in 20 mM+PD150606 treated group and 20 mM+Z-VAD-FMK group. Obviously AIF were located from cytoplasm to the nuclear and the expressions of AIF and calpain were down-regulated by PD150606 (P<0.05). Positive cells in TUNEL staining decreased after PD150606 treating. However, Z-VAD-FMK had no influence on AIF, calpain expression or cell apoptosis. Conclusion The AIF-related apoptosis pathway is involved in the process of Glu-induced SGN injury. Furthermore, the inhibition of calpain can prevent AIF from releasing the nuclear or inducing SGN apoptosis. PMID:25874633

Song, Yong-Li; Chen, Xiao-Dong; Mi, Wen-Juan; Wang, Jian; Lin, Ying; Chen, Fu-Quan; Qiu, Jian-Hua

2015-01-01

202

CTA095, a Novel Etk and Src Dual Inhibitor, Induces Apoptosis in Prostate Cancer Cells and Overcomes Resistance to Src Inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Etk is a non-receptor tyrosine kinase, which provides a strong survival signal in human prostate cancer cells. Src, another tyrosine kinase that cross-activates with Etk, has been shown to play an important role in prostate cancer metastasis. Herein, we discovered a new class of Etk inhibitors. Within those inhibitors, CTA095 was identified as a potent Etk and Src dual inhibitor. CTA095 was found to induce autophagy as well as apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells. In addition, CTA095 inhibited HUVEC cell tube formation and “wound healing” of human prostate cancer cells, implying its role in inhibition of angiogenesis and metastasis of human prostate cancer. More interestingly, CTA095 could overcome Src inhibitor resistance in prostate cancer cells. It induces apoptosis in Src inhibitor resistant prostate cancer cells, likely through a mechanism of down regulation of Myc and BCL2. This finding indicates that simultaneously targeting Etk and Src could be a promising approach to overcome drug resistance in prostate cancer. PMID:23967135

Guo, Wenchang; Liu, Ruiwu; Bhardwaj, Gaurav; Ma, Ai-Hong; Changou, Chun; Yang, Joy C.; Li, Yuanpei; Feng, Caihong; Luo, Yan; Mazloom, Anisha; Sanchez, Eduardo; Wang, Yan; Huang, Wenzhe; Patterson, Randen; Evans, Christopher P.; Lam, Kit S.; Kung, Hsing-Jien

2013-01-01

203

Effect of chitinase inhibitors on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rabbits.  

PubMed

The acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) is significantly increased in tears of human allergic conjunctivitis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of chitinase inhibitors, allosamidin and caffeine versus dexamethasone, in rabbit endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU). EIU was induced in rabbits by a single intravitreal injection of 100ng/10microl lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Drugs at four different concentrations (0.1, 0.01, 0.001 and 0.0001mM) were topically applied to the rabbit eye five times in 24h. Tears were collected at 0, 6 and 24h after LPS to measure the AMCase activity. The effect of treatment was also evaluated at the same time by slit lamp examination. Tear AMCase activity increased 6 and 24h after LPS injection. The AMCase activity was significantly inhibited in all treated groups with all doses of allosamidin and caffeine except with the lowest concentration. A higher AMCase inhibition at 24h was found with allosamidin and caffeine compared to dexamethasone. Moreover, topical administration of allosamidin, caffeine and dexamethasone produced a remarkable reduction of inflammatory signs, in the order: dexamethasone>caffeine>allosamidin. AMCase inhibitors showed in this rabbit model of uveitis a notable control of inflammatory response with a significant reduction of AMCase activity in tears with caffeine and allosamidin. These results support the key role of AMCase in the pathogenesis of human ocular inflammatory diseases and the therapeutic effect of AMCase inhibitors on experimental uveitis. PMID:18353673

Bucolo, Claudio; Musumeci, Maria; Maltese, Adriana; Drago, Filippo; Musumeci, Salvatore

2008-03-01

204

Natural Haemozoin Induces Expression and Release of Human Monocyte Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase-1  

PubMed Central

Recently matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and its endogenous inhibitor (tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1, TIMP-1) have been implicated in complicated malaria. In vivo, mice with cerebral malaria (CM) display high levels of both MMP-9 and TIMP-1, and in human patients TIMP-1 serum levels directly correlate with disease severity. In vitro, natural haemozoin (nHZ, malarial pigment) enhances monocyte MMP-9 expression and release. The present study analyses the effects of nHZ on TIMP-1 regulation in human adherent monocytes. nHZ induced TIMP-1 mRNA expression and protein release, and promoted TNF-?, IL-1?, and MIP-1?/CCL3 production. Blocking antibodies or recombinant cytokines abrogated or mimicked nHZ effects on TIMP-1, respectively. p38 MAPK and NF-?B inhibitors blocked all nHZ effects on TIMP-1 and pro-inflammatory molecules. Still, total gelatinolytic activity was enhanced by nHZ despite TIMP-1 induction. Collectively, these data indicate that nHZ induces inflammation-mediated expression and release of human monocyte TIMP-1 through p38 MAPK- and NF-?B-dependent mechanisms. However, TIMP-1 induction is not sufficient to counterbalance nHZ-dependent MMP-9 enhancement. Future investigation on proteinase-independent functions of TIMP-1 (i.e. cell survival promotion and growth/differentiation inhibition) is needed to clarify the role of TIMP-1 in malaria pathogenesis. PMID:23967215

Polimeni, Manuela; Valente, Elena; Ulliers, Daniela; Opdenakker, Ghislain; Van den Steen, Philippe E.

2013-01-01

205

Identification of peroxisomal targeting signals located at the carboxy terminus of four peroxisomal proteins  

PubMed Central

As part of an effort to understand how proteins are imported into the peroxisome, we have sought to identify the peroxisomal targeting signals in four unrelated peroxisomal proteins: human catalase, rat hydratase:dehydrogenase, pig D-amino acid oxidase, and rat acyl-CoA oxidase. Using gene fusion experiments, we have identified a region of each protein that can direct heterologous proteins to peroxisomes. In each case, the peroxisomal targeting signal is contained at or near the carboxy terminus of the protein. For catalase, the peroxisomal targeting signal is located within the COOH-terminal 27 amino acids of the protein. For hydratase:dehydrogenase, D-amino acid oxidase, and acyl-CoA oxidase, the targeting signals are located within the carboxy- terminal 15, 14, and 15 amino acids, respectively. A tripeptide of the sequence Ser-Lys/His-Leu is present in each of these targeting signals as well as in the peroxisomal targeting signal identified in firefly luciferase (Gould, S.J., G.-A. Keller, and S. Subramani. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:2923-2931). When the peroxisomal targeting signal of the hydratase:dehydrogenase is mutated so that the Ser-Lys-Leu tripeptide is converted to Ser-Asn-Leu, it can no longer direct proteins to peroxisomes. We suggest that this tripeptide is an essential element of at least one class of peroxisomal targeting signals. PMID:2901422

1988-01-01

206

The role of peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidation in bile acid biosynthesis  

SciTech Connect

The physiological role of the peroxisomal fatty acyl-CoA beta-oxidizing system (FAOS) is not yet established. We speculated that there might be a relationship between peroxisomal degradation of long-chain fatty acids in the liver and the biosynthesis of bile acids. This was investigated using (1-{sup 14}C)butyric acid and (1-{sup 14}C)lignoceric acid as substrates of FAOS in mitochondria and peroxisomes, respectively. The incorporation of ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid into primary bile acids was approximately four times higher than that of ({sup 14}C)butyric acid (in terms of C-2 units). The pools of these two fatty acids in the liver were exceedingly small. The incorporations of radioactivity into the primary bile acids were strongly inhibited by administration of aminotriazole, which is a specific inhibitor of peroxisomal FAOS in vivo. Aminotriazole inhibited preferentially the formation of cholate, the major primary bile acid, from both ({sup 14}C)lignoceric acid and ({sup 14}C)butyric acid, rather than the formation of chenodeoxycholate. The former inhibition was about 70% and the latter was approximately 40-50%. In view of reports that cholate is biosynthesized from endogenous cholesterol, the above results indicate that peroxisomal FAOS may have an anabolic function, supplying acetyl CoA for bile acid biosynthesis.

Hayashi, H.; Miwa, A. (Josai Univ., Saitama (Japan))

1989-11-01

207

Multiple Distinct Targeting Signals in Integral Peroxisomal Membrane Proteins  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisomal proteins are synthesized on free polysomes and then transported from the cytoplasm to peroxisomes. This process is mediated by two short well-defined targeting signals in peroxisomal matrix proteins, but a well-defined targeting signal has not yet been described for peroxisomal membrane proteins (PMPs). One assumption in virtually all prior studies of PMP targeting is that a given protein contains

Jacob M. Jones; James C. Morrell; Stephen J. Gould

2001-01-01

208

Peroxisome Biogenesis Disorders: Biological, Clinical and Pathophysiological Perspectives  

ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

The peroxisome biogenesis disorders (PBD) are a heterogeneous group of autosomal recessive disorders in which peroxisome assembly is impaired, leading to multiple peroxisome enzyme deficiencies, complex developmental sequelae and progressive disabilities. Mammalian peroxisome assembly involves the protein products of 16 "PEX" genes;…

Braverman, Nancy E.; D'Agostino, Maria Daniela; MacLean, Gillian E.

2013-01-01

209

The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-?/? (PPAR?/?) promotes oncogene-induced cellular senescence through repression of endoplasmic reticulum stress.  

PubMed

Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and ER stress-associated unfolded protein response (UPR) can promote cancer cell survival, but it remains unclear whether they can influence oncogene-induced senescence. The present study examined the role of ER stress in senescence using oncogene-dependent models. Increased ER stress attenuated senescence in part by up-regulating phosphorylated protein kinase B (p-AKT) and decreasing phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK). A positive feed forward loop between p-AKT, ER stress, and UPR was discovered whereby a transient increase of ER stress caused reduced senescence and promotion of tumorigenesis. Decreased ER stress was further correlated with increased senescence in both mouse and human tumors. Interestingly, H-RAS-expressing Ppar?/? null cells and tumors having increased cell proliferation exhibited enhanced ER stress, decreased cellular senescence, and/or enhanced tumorigenicity. Collectively, these results demonstrate a new role for ER stress and UPR that attenuates H-RAS-induced senescence and suggest that PPAR?/? can repress this oncogene-induced ER stress to promote senescence in accordance with its role as a tumor modifier that suppresses carcinogenesis. PMID:24898257

Zhu, Bokai; Ferry, Christina H; Markell, Lauren K; Blazanin, Nicholas; Glick, Adam B; Gonzalez, Frank J; Peters, Jeffrey M

2014-07-18

210

The Prolyl Hydroxylase Inhibitor Dimethyloxalylglycine Enhances Dentin Sialophoshoprotein Expression through VEGF-Induced Runx2 Stabilization  

PubMed Central

Prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibitors are suggested as therapeutic agents for tissue regeneration based on their ability to induce pro-angiogenic responses. In this study, we examined the effect of the PHD inhibitor dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) on odontoblast maturation and sought to determine the underlying mechanism using MDPC-23 odontoblast-like cells. DMOG significantly enhanced matrix mineralization, confirmed by alizarin red staining and by measurement of the calcium content. DMOG dose-dependently increased alkaline phosphatase activity and the expressions of dentin sialophosphoprotein (Dspp) and osteocalcin. To determine the underlying events leading to DMOG-induced Dspp expression, we analyzed the effect of DMOG on Runx2. Knockdown of Runx2 using siRNAs decreased Dspp expression and prevented DMOG-induced Dspp expression. DMOG enhanced the transcriptional activity and level of Runx2 protein but not Runx2 transcript, and this enhancement was linked to the inhibitory effects of DMOG on the degradation of Runx2 protein. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) siRNAs profoundly decreased the Runx2 protein levels and inhibited the DMOG-increased Runx2 protein. Recombinant VEGF protein treatment significantly and dose-dependently increased the transcriptional activity and level of the Runx2 protein but not Runx2 transcript. Dspp expression was also enhanced by VEGF. Last, we examined the involvement of the Erk mitogen-activated protein kinase and Pin1 pathway in VEGF-enhanced Runx2 because this pathway can regulate the stability and activity of the Runx2 protein. VEGF stimulated Erk activation, and the inhibitors of Erk and Pin1 hampered VEGF-enhanced Runx2 protein. Taken together, the results of this study provide evidence that DMOG can enhance Dspp expression through VEGF-induced stabilization of Runx2 protein, and thus, suggest that DMOG can be used as a therapeutic tool for enhancing odontoblast maturation in dental procedures. PMID:25369078

Rahman, Saeed Ur; Lee, Min-Sun; Baek, Jeong-Hwa; Ryoo, Hyun-Mo; Woo, Kyung Mi

2014-01-01

211

Calcium antagonists and calmodulin inhibitors block cytokinin-induced bud formation in Funaria.  

PubMed

The plant hormone cytokinin stimulates nuclear migration followed by an asymmetric cell division in target cells of the protonema of the moss Funaria hygrometrica, leading to bud formation. The role of calcium in this developmental event was investigated by examining the effects of various calcium antagonists on the cytokinin-induced division. Calcium-free medium (buffered with EGTA), the extracellular Ca2+ antagonist La3+ (lanthanum), and the Ca2+ channel inhibitors D 600 and verapamil all block bud formation. These inhibitions are partially reversed by washing the cells or by raising the extracellular [Ca2+]. The Ca2+ ionophore A23187 partially reversed the effects of D 600 and verapamil. Bud formation is also inhibited by the intracellular Ca2+ antagonist TMB-8 (8-diethylamino)octyl 3,4,5-trimethoxybenzoate HCl), and this inhibition is partially reversed by washing or raising the extracellular [Ca2+]. The cross walls of both the filaments and bud initial cells formed during TMB-8 exposure exhibit a distorted morphology. High concentrations of TMB-8 block nuclear migration. The calmodulin inhibitor trifluoperazine stops cytokinin-induced budding more effectively than the related compound chlorpromazine. Low concentrations of these two compounds do not affect nuclear migration; however, the target cell does not enter mitosis. These results support the hypothesis that a rise in intracellular calcium mediates cytokinin-induced bud formation in Funaria. It is concluded that the proposed cytokinin-induced rise in intracellular calcium may be effected in part by the activation of calmodulin. The essential source of Ca2+ appears to be extracellular, because blocking Ca2+ uptake with Ca2+ transport inhibitors can block both nuclear migration and subsequent division. PMID:6618003

Saunders, M J; Hepler, P K

1983-09-01

212

Peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-gamma agonists and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)(12,14)-PGJ(2) induce apoptosis in normal and malignant B-lineage cells.  

PubMed

The research described herein evaluates the expression and functional significance of peroxisome proliferator activator receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) on B-lineage cells. Normal mouse B cells and a variety of B lymphoma cells reflective of stages of B cell differentiation (e.g., 70Z/3, CH31, WEHI-231, CH12, and J558) express PPAR-gamma mRNA and, by Western blot analysis, the 67-kDa PPAR-gamma protein. 15-Deoxy-Delta(12,14)-PGJ(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), a PPAR-gamma agonist, has a dose-dependent antiproliferative and cytotoxic effect on normal and malignant B cells as shown by [(3)H]thymidine and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays. Only PPAR-gamma agonists (thiazolidinediones), and not PPAR-alpha agonists, mimicked the effect of 15d-PGJ(2) on B-lineage cells, indicating that the mechanism by which 15d-PGJ(2) negatively affects B-lineage cells involves in part PPAR-gamma. The mechanism by which PPAR-gamma agonists induce cytotoxicity is via apoptosis, as shown by annexin V staining and as confirmed by DNA fragmentation detected using the TUNEL assay. Interestingly, addition of PGF(2alpha), which was not known to affect lymphocytes, dramatically attenuated the deleterious effects of PPAR-gamma agonists on B lymphomas. Surprisingly, 15d-PGJ(2) induced a massive increase in nuclear mitogen-activated protein kinase activation, and pretreatment with PGF(2alpha) blunted the mitogen-activated protein kinase activation. This is the first study evaluating PPAR-gamma expression and its significance on B lymphocytes. PPAR-gamma agonists may serve as a counterbalance to the stimulating effects of other PGs, namely PGE(2), which promotes B cell differentiation. Finally, the use of PGs, such as 15d-PGJ(2), and synthetic PPAR-gamma agonists to induce apoptosis in B-lineage cells may lead to the development of novel therapies for fatal B lymphomas. PMID:11120820

Padilla, J; Kaur, K; Cao, H J; Smith, T J; Phipps, R P

2000-12-15

213

Risk Assessment and Management of Anthracycline and HER2 Receptor Inhibitor-Induced Cardiomyopathy.  

PubMed

With the advent and increased use of chemotherapeutic agents and radiation therapy, cancer survival rates have increased. With increased survival, both acute and chronic cardiotoxic adverse effects have emerged. The growing need for managing the treatment of individuals with chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity has led to the formation of cardio-oncology programs throughout the United States. These programs concentrate on many aspects of cardiac disease in the oncology patient. Of these, the cardiotoxic effects (particularly cardiomyopathy) of anthracyclines and HER2 receptor inhibitors are a large focus of cardio-oncology practice. Despite the increasing availability of these programs, no consensus guidelines have been established to provide a framework for treating these patients. This review describes the initial evaluation, risk assessment, and management of individuals receiving anthracycline and HER2 receptor inhibitor therapy for cardiomyopathy. These recommendations are supported by the current literature in this field. PMID:25688890

Jahangir, Eiman; Shah, Sangeeta; Shum, Kelly; Baxter, Caitlin; Fitzpatrick, Jill D; Cole, John; Gilliland, Yvonne; Polin, Nichole M

2015-02-01

214

Phosphodiesterase IV inhibitors as therapy for eosinophil-induced lung injury in asthma.  

PubMed Central

Asthma is a complex, multifactorial disease that is underpinned by airway inflammation. A variety of cytotoxic substances are released into the airway from infiltrating inflammatory cells, especially the eosinophil. These cytotoxic substances, including reactive oxygen metabolites, produce damage to the airway epithelium, a histologic feature of chronic asthma. Damage to the airway epithelium, in turn, is thought to be a major factor responsible for the development of airway hyperreactivity, a hallmark of asthma. One notable molecular target for novel antiasthmatic drugs is the cyclic AMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDE) or PDE IV. This isozyme is the predominant form of cyclic nucleotide PDE activity in inflammatory cells. Thus, in view of the putative role of cyclic AMP as an inhibitory second messenger in these cells, PDE IV inhibitors have been shown to suppress inflammatory cell activity. The purpose of the present experiments was to examine the effect of the PDE IV inhibitor, R-rolipram, on three key functions of the guinea pig eosinophil: a) superoxide anion (O2-) production, b) adhesion to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), and c) infiltration into the airway. R-rolipram-elevated eosinophil cyclic AMP content (EC50 = 1.7 microM) and inhibited fMLP-induced O2- production in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 = 0.3 microM). In contrast, neither siguazodan, a PDE III inhibitor, nor zaprinast, a PDE V inhibitor, had an appreciable effect. R-rolipram (30 microM) also reduced by 25 to 40% the adhesion of eosinophils to HUVECs stimulated with phorbol myristate acetate or tumor necrosis factor-alpha, particularly under conditions in which both cell types were simultaneously exposed to the PDE IV inhibitor.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7705312

Torphy, T J; Barnette, M S; Hay, D W; Underwood, D C

1994-01-01

215

Epigenetic Manipulation of a Filamentous Fungus by the Proteasome-Inhibitor Bortezomib Induces the Production of an Additional Secondary Metabolite  

PubMed Central

The use of epigenetic modifiers, such as histone deacetylase inhibitors and DNA methyltransferase inhibitors, has been explored increasingly as a technique to induce the production of additional microbial secondary metabolites. The application of such molecules to microbial cultures has been shown to upregulate otherwise suppressed genes, and in several cases has led to the production of new molecular structures. In this study, the proteasome inhibitor bortezomib was used to induce the production of an additional metabolite from a filamentous fungus (Pleosporales). The induced metabolite was previously isolated from a plant, but the configuration was not assigned until now; in addition, an analogue was isolated from a degraded sample, yielding a new compound. Proteasome inhibitors have not previously been used in this application and offer an additional tool for microbial genome mining. PMID:24955237

VanderMolen, Karen M.; Darveaux, Blaise A.; Chen, Wei-Lun; Swanson, Steven M.; Pearce, Cedric J.; Oberlies, Nicholas H.

2014-01-01

216

Proteasome inhibitor-induced autophagy in PC12 cells overexpressing A53T mutant ?-synuclein  

PubMed Central

The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of proteasome inhibitor (PI)-induced autophagy on PC12 cells overexpressing A53T mutant ?-synuclein (?-syn) by detecting alterations in the levels of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B light chain (LC3)+ autophagosomes and the lysotracker-positive autolysosomes using immunofluorescence, the expression of LC3-II using western blot analysis and the morphology of PC12 cells using transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the addition of MG132 (500 nmol/l) significantly increased the number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes and upregulated the expression of LC3-II. The autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) completely inhibited the autophagy induced by MG132 (500 nmol/l). The autophagy enhancer trehalose significantly increased the number of autophagosomes and autolysosomes and improved the protein level of LC3-II induced by MG132. To examine the effect of PI-induced autophagy on the degradation of A53T mutant ?-syn, the expression of ?-syn was detected by western blot analysis. It was revealed that MG132 increased the expression of A53T ?-syn and trehalose counteracted the increase of A53T ?-syn induced by MG132. Combined inhibition of 3-MA and PI significantly increased the accumulation of A53T ?-syn as compared with treatment using either single agent. In addition, combination of MG132 (500 nmol/l) with trehalose (50 mmol/l) or 3-MA (2 mmol/l) markedly decreased the cell viability as compared with treatment using either single agent individually as demonstrated using a 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. These results suggest that the PI, MG132, could induce autophagy in PC12 cells overexpressing A53T mutant ?-syn and this autophagy could be completely inhibited by 3-MA, indicating that PI-induced autophagy is mediated by the upregulation of the macroautophagy class III PI3K pathway. PI-induced autophagy may act as a compensatory degradation system for degradation of A53T ?-syn when the ubiquitin-proteasome system is impaired. Autophagy activation may directly contribute to the survival of PC12 cells treated with proteasome inhibitors. The present study may assist in illuminating the association between PI and autophagy in the pathogenesis of Parkinson’s disease. PMID:25434876

LAN, DANMEI; WANG, WENZHAO; ZHUANG, JIANHUA; ZHAO, ZHONGXIN

2015-01-01

217

Combination of proteasome and class I HDAC inhibitors induces apoptosis of NPC cells through an HDAC6-independent ER stress-induced mechanism.  

PubMed

The current paradigm stipulates that inhibition of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 6 is essential for the combinatorial effect of proteasome and HDAC inhibitors for the treatment of cancers. Our study aims to investigate the effect of combining different class I HDAC inhibitors (without HDAC6 action) with a proteasome inhibitor on apoptosis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We found that combination of a proteasome inhibitor, bortezomib, and several class I HDAC inhibitors, including MS-275, apicidin and romidepsin, potently induced killing of NPC cells both in vitro and in vivo. Among the drug pairs, combination of bortezomib and romidepsin (bort/romidepsin) was the most potent and could induce apoptosis at low nanomolar concentrations. The apoptosis of NPC cells was reactive oxygen species (ROS)- and caspase-dependent but was independent of HDAC6 inhibition. Of note, bort/romidepsin might directly suppress the formation of aggresome through the downregulation of c-myc. In addition, two markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis, ATF-4 and CHOP/GADD153, were upregulated, whereas a specific inhibitor of caspase-4 (an initiator of ER stress-induced apoptosis) could suppress the apoptosis. When ROS level in the NPC cells was reduced to the untreated level, ER stress-induced caspase activation was abrogated. Collectively, our data demonstrate a model of synergism between proteasome and class I HDAC inhibitors in the induction of ROS-dependent ER stress-induced apoptosis of NPC cells, independent of HDAC6 inhibition, and provide the rationale to combine the more specific and potent class I HDAC inhibitors with proteasome inhibitors for the treatment of cancers. PMID:24771510

Hui, Kwai Fung; Chiang, Alan K S

2014-12-15

218

p53 modulates the AMPK inhibitor compound C induced apoptosis in human skin cancer cells  

SciTech Connect

Compound C, a well-known inhibitor of the intracellular energy sensor AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), has been reported to cause apoptotic cell death in myeloma, breast cancer cells and glioma cells. In this study, we have demonstrated that compound C not only induced autophagy in all tested skin cancer cell lines but also caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype skin cancer cells than in p53-mutant skin cancer cells. Compound C can induce upregulation, phosphorylation and nuclear translocalization of the p53 protein and upregulate expression of p53 target genes in wildtype p53-expressing skin basal cell carcinoma (BCC) cells. The changes of p53 status were dependent on DNA damage which was caused by compound C induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and associated with activated ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) protein. Using the wildtype p53-expressing BCC cells versus stable p53-knockdown BCC sublines, we present evidence that p53-knockdown cancer cells were much less sensitive to compound C treatment with significant G2/M cell cycle arrest and attenuated the compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. The compound C induced G2/M arrest in p53-knockdown BCC cells was associated with the sustained inactive Tyr15 phosphor-Cdc2 expression. Overall, our results established that compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on the cell's p53 status. - Highlights: ? Compound C caused more apoptosis in p53 wildtype than p53-mutant skin cancer cells. ? Compound C can upregulate p53 expression and induce p53 activation. ? Compound C induced p53 effects were dependent on ROS induced DNA damage pathway. ? p53-knockdown attenuated compound C-induced apoptosis but not autophagy. ? Compound C-induced apoptosis in skin cancer cells was dependent on p53 status.

Huang, Shi-Wei [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wu, Chun-Ying [Division of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Wang, Yen-Ting [Department of Medical Research and Education, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Kao, Jun-Kai [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Pediatrics, Children's Hospital, Changhua Christian Hospital, Changhua, Taiwan (China); Lin, Chi-Chen; Chang, Chia-Che; Mu, Szu-Wei; Chen, Yu-Yu [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Chiu, Husan-Wen [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chang, Chuan-Hsun [Department of Surgical Oncology, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Department of Nutrition Therapy, Cheng Hsin General Hospital, Taipei, Taiwan (China); School of Nutrition and Health Sciences, Taipei Medical University, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Liang, Shu-Mei [Institute of Biotechnology, National Cheng-Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Agricultural Biotechnology Research Center, Academia Sinica, Taipei, Taiwan (China); Chen, Yi-Ju [Department of Dermatology, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Huang, Jau-Ling [Department of Bioscience Technology, Chang Jung Christian University, Tainan, Taiwan (China); Shieh, Jeng-Jer, E-mail: shiehjj@vghtc.gov.tw [Institute of Biomedical Sciences, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung, Taiwan (China); Department of Education and Research, Taichung Veterans General Hospital, Taichung, Taiwan (China)

2013-02-15

219

Association between cardiac changes and stress, and the effect of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? on stress-induced myocardial injury in mice.  

PubMed

This study was aimed to investigate the effect of stress induced by high-intensity exercises on the cardiovascular system. In the epidemiological investigation, 200 subjects (test group) engaged in special high-intensity exercises, and 97 who lived and worked in the same environment and conditions as those in the test group, but did not participate in the exercises served as controls. In the second part of the study, 50 mice were randomly divided into control group, exhaustive swimming group, white noise group, exhaustive swimming plus white noise group, and pioglitazone intervention group. The results showed that the plasma concentrations of the myocardial injury markers heart fatty acid-binding protein (H-FABP), C-reactive protein (CRP), ?-endorphin (?-EP) and levels of psychological stress were significantly increased in test group as compared with control group; special high-intensity exercises resulted in a significant elevation of the incidence of cardiac arrhythmias. Animal experiments showed that the plasma levels of corticosterone (CORT) and troponin I (TnI) were raised while the level of SOD was reduced in exhaustive swimming group, white noise group, and exhaustive swimming plus white noise group. The expression levels of PPAR? mRNA and protein were decreased in myocardial tissues in these groups as well. HE staining showed no remarkable change in myocardial tissues in all the groups. Treatment with pioglitazone significantly decreased the plasma levels of TnI and CORT, while increased the level of SOD and the expression levels of PPAR? mRNA and protein. It was concluded that the high-intensity exercises may induce a heavy physical and psychological stress and predispose the subjects to accumulated fatigue and sleep deprivation; high-intensity exercises also increases the incidence of arrhythmias and myocardial injury. PPAR? may be involved in the physical and psychological changes induced by high-intensity exercises. PMID:25673189

Gao, Jin-Liao; Xue, Qiao; Wang, Shi-Wen; Gao, Li-Fei; Lan, Yun-Feng; Fang, Zhou; Fu, Yi-Cheng; Liu, Yan; Li, Yang; Fan, Li

2015-02-01

220

Nonhypoxic regulation and role of hypoxia-inducible factor 1 in aromatase inhibitor resistant breast cancer  

PubMed Central

Introduction Although aromatase inhibitors (AIs; for example, letrozole) are highly effective in treating estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer, a significant percentage of patients either do not respond to AIs or become resistant to them. Previous studies suggest that acquired resistance to AIs involves a switch from dependence on ER signaling to dependence on growth factor-mediated pathways, such as human epidermal growth factor receptor-2 (HER2). However, the role of HER2, and the identity of other relevant factors that may be used as biomarkers or therapeutic targets remain unknown. This study investigated the potential role of transcription factor hypoxia inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) in acquired AI resistance, and its regulation by HER2. Methods In vitro studies using AI (letrozole or exemestane)-resistant and AI-sensitive cells were conducted to investigate the regulation and role of HIF-1 in AI resistance. Western blot and RT-PCR analyses were conducted to compare protein and mRNA expression, respectively, of ER?, HER2, and HIF-1? (inducible HIF-1 subunit) in AI-resistant versus AI-sensitive cells. Similar expression analyses were also done, along with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP), to identify previously known HIF-1 target genes, such as breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), that may also play a role in AI resistance. Letrozole-resistant cells were treated with inhibitors to HER2, kinase pathways, and ER? to elucidate the regulation of HIF-1 and BCRP. Lastly, cells were treated with inhibitors or inducers of HIF-1? to determine its importance. Results Basal HIF-1? protein and BCRP mRNA and protein are higher in AI-resistant and HER2-transfected cells than in AI-sensitive, HER2- parental cells under nonhypoxic conditions. HIF-1? expression in AI-resistant cells is likely regulated by HER2 activated-phosphatidylinositide-3-kinase/Akt-protein kinase B/mammalian target of rapamycin (PI3K/Akt/mTOR) pathway, as its expression was inhibited by HER2 inhibitors and kinase pathway inhibitors. Inhibition or upregulation of HIF-1? affects breast cancer cell expression of BCRP; AI responsiveness; and expression of cancer stem cell characteristics, partially through BCRP. Conclusions One of the mechanisms of AI resistance may be through regulation of nonhypoxic HIF-1 target genes, such as BCRP, implicated in chemoresistance. Thus, HIF-1 should be explored further for its potential as a biomarker of and therapeutic target. PMID:24472707

2014-01-01

221

Does combined peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors-agonist and pravastatin therapy attenuate the onset of diabetes-induced experimental nephropathy?  

PubMed Central

Objectives: To investigate the combined effects of rosiglitazone and pravastatin on renal functions in early streptozotocin induced diabetic nephropathy (DN). Methods: This study was carried out at King Khalid University Hospital Animal House, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia from August 2013 to February 2014. Fifty male Wistar rats were assigned to normal control rats and diabetic rats that received saline, rosiglitazone, pravastatin, or rosiglitazone+pravastatin for 2 months. Their weight range was 230-250 gm, and age range was from 18-20 weeks. At the end of experiment, creatinine clearance, and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) were measured. Blood samples were analyzed for transferrin, glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c), lipid profile, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), and lipid peroxide. Results: Rosiglitazone treatment increased creatinine clearance and plasma transferrin, and decreased urinary ACR, HbA1c, plasma TNF-?, ICAM-1, and serum lipid peroxide levels without affecting the altered lipid profile. Pravastatin treatment produced similar results and normalized the lipid alteration. The combination of rosiglitazone and pravastatin was more effective in attenuating the diabetes-induced nephropathy compared with treatment with either drug alone. Conclusion: The combination strategy of rosiglitazone and pravastatin may provide a potential synergistic renoprotective effect against DN by improving renal functions and reducing indices of DN. PMID:25399210

Gad, Hayam I.

2014-01-01

222

Chronic activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-alpha with fenofibrate prevents alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype without changing the onset of decompensation in pacing-induced heart failure  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Severe heart failure (HF) is characterized by profound alterations in cardiac metabolic phenotype, with down-regulation of the free fatty acid (FFA) oxidative pathway and marked increase in glucose oxidation. We tested whether fenofibrate, a pharmacological agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activat...

223

DNA Methyltransferase Inhibitor Zebularine Induces Human Cholangiocarcinoma Cell Death through Alteration of DNA Methylation Status  

PubMed Central

Cholangiocarcinoma (CCA) is a cancer arising from the neoplastic transformation of cholangiocytes. During tumorigenesis, tumor suppressor and cancer-related genes are commonly silenced by aberrant DNA methylation in their promoter regions. Zebularine (1-(?-D-ribofuranosyl)-1,2-dihydropyrimidin-2-one) acts as an inhibitor of DNA methylation and exhibits chemical stability and minimal cytotoxicity both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we explore the effect and possible mechanism of action of zebularine on CCA cells. We demonstrate that zebularine exerts an antitumor effect on CCA cells. Zebularine treatment decreased the concentrations of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) proteins, and DNMT1 knockdown led to apoptotic cell death in the CCA cell lines TFK-1 and HuCCT1. DNA methylation analysis demonstrated that zebularine induced DNA demethylation, and the GO Biological Process terms “hemophilic cell adhesion”, “regulation of transcription, DNA-dependent” and “Wnt signaling pathway” were found to be significantly enriched in association with demethylated genes. Furthermore, we observed that zebularine treatment decreased ?-catenin protein levels in TFK-1 and HuCCT1 cells. These results suggest that zebularine alters DNA methylation status, and that some aspect of DNA demethylation by zebularine induces suppression of the Wnt signaling pathway, which leads to apoptotic cell death in CCA. We previously reported a novel mechanism of zebularine-induced cell growth arrest and apoptosis in hepatocellular carcinoma via a DNA methylation-independent pathway. Together, our present and previous studies indicate that zebularine could function as both a DNMT inhibitor and a non-DNMT inhibitor reagent, and that, while the optimal usage of zebularine may depend on cancer type, zebularine may be useful for chemotherapy against cancer. PMID:25799509

Htet Aung, Kyaw; Aizawa, Kazuko; Hori, Naoko; Yamauchi, Junji; Hata, Kenichiro; Tanoue, Akito

2015-01-01

224

HDAC inhibitors induce epithelial-mesenchymal transition in colon carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

The effects of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors on epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) differ in various types of cancers. We investigated the EMT phenotype in four colon cancer cell lines when challenged with HDAC inhibitors trichostatin A (TSA) and valproic acid (VPA) with or without transforming growth factor-?1 (TGF-?1) treatment. Four colon cancer cell lines with different phenotypes in regards to tumorigenicity, microsatellite stability and DNA mutation were used. EMT phenotypes were assessed by the expression of E-cadherin and vimentin using western blot analysis, immunofluorescence, quantitative real-time RT-PCR following treatment with TSA (100 or 200 nM) or VPA (0.5 mM) with or without TGF-?1 (5 ng/ml) for 24 h. Biological EMT phenotypes were also evaluated by cell morphology, migration and invasion assays. TSA or VPA induced mesenchymal features in the colon carcinoma cells by a decrease in E-cadherin and an increase in vimentin expression at the mRNA and protein levels. Confocal microscopy revealed membranous attenuation or nuclear translocation of E-cadherin and enhanced expression of vimentin. These responses occurred after 6 h and increased until 24 h. Colon cancer cells changed from a round or rectangular shape to a spindle shape with increased migration and invasion ability following TSA or VPA treatment. The susceptibility to EMT changes induced by TSA or VPA was comparable in microsatellite stable (SW480 and HT29) and microsatellite unstable cells (DLD1 and HCT116). TSA or VPA induced a mesenchymal phenotype in the colon carcinoma cells and these effects were augmented in the presence of TGF-?1. HDAC inhibitors require careful caution before their application as new anticancer drugs for colon cancers. PMID:25813246

Ji, Meiying; Lee, Eun Jeoung; Kim, Ki Bae; Kim, Yangmi; Sung, Rohyun; Lee, Sang-Jeon; Kim, Don Soo; Park, Seon Mee

2015-05-01

225

Anmindenols A and B, inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitors from a marine-derived Streptomyces sp.  

PubMed

Anmindenols A (1) and B (2), inhibitors of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), were isolated from a marine-derived bacterium Streptomyces sp. Their chemical structures were elucidated by interpreting various spectroscopic data, including IR, MS, and NMR. Anmindenols A and B are sesquiterpenoids possessing an indene moiety with five- and six-membered rings derived from isoprenyl units. The absolute configuration of C-4 in anmindenol B was determined by electronic circular dichroism (ECD) of a dimolybdenum complex. Anmindenols A (1) and B (2) inhibited nitric oxide production in stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophage cells with IC50 values of 23 and 19 ?M, respectively. PMID:24878306

Lee, Jihye; Kim, Hiyoung; Lee, Tae Gu; Yang, Inho; Won, Dong Hwan; Choi, Hyukjae; Nam, Sang-Jip; Kang, Heonjoong

2014-06-27

226

Conformational Changes in HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Induced by Nonnucleoside Reverse Transcriptase Inhibitor Binding  

PubMed Central

Nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NNRTI) are a group of small hydrophobic compounds with diverse structures that specifically inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcriptase (RT). NNRTIs interact with HIV-1 RT by binding to a single site on the p66 subunit of the p66/p51 heterodimeric enzyme, termed the NNRTI-binding pocket (NNRTI-BP). This binding interaction results in both short-range and long-range distortions of RT structure. In this article, we review the structural, computational and experimental evidence of the NNRTI-induced conformational changes in HIV-1 RT and relate them to the mechanism by which these compounds inhibit HIV-1 reverse transcription. PMID:15544453

Sluis-Cremer, Nicolas; Temiz, N. Alpay; Bahar, Ivet

2005-01-01

227

Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor nimesulide blocks ultraviolet B-induced photocarcinogenesis in SKH-1 hairless mice.  

PubMed

Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition can inhibit UVB-induced carcinogenesis in the skin. We have shown that COX-2 is overexpressed in UVB-induced squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs). Celecoxib, a specific inhibitor of COX-2, blocks UVB-induced papillomas and carcinomas in murine skin. However, as COX-2 inhibitors of this type are associated with an increased risk of adverse cardiovascular events, we decided to study nimesulide, a different class of COX-2 inhibitor, an N-arylmethanesulfonamide derivative not known to have these untoward effects. To assess the antitumor-promoting effects of nimesulide, 90 mice were equally divided into three groups. Group I animals received no test agent or UVB and served as age-matched controls; group II animals were irradiated with UVB (180 mJ cm(-2), twice weekly for 35 weeks) and group III animals received 300 p.p.m. nimesulide in drinking water and were irradiated with UVB as described for group-II. Nimesulide treatment reduced the growth of UVB-induced tumors both in terms of tumor number and tumor volume. By weeks 25, 30 and 35, the tumor numbers in the nimesulide-treated group were 79%, 49% and 53% less than the number occurring in UVB-treated animals whereas tumor volume was reduced 69%, 54% and 53%, respectively, compared to the UVB-irradiated control group. Nimesulide also inhibited the malignant progression of SCCs. The reduction in tumorigenesis was paralleled by a decrease in cell cycle regulatory proteins (cyclins A, B1, D1, E, CDK2/4/6) and the antiapoptotic protein (Bcl2); concomitantly there was an increase in proapoptotic markers, poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) and caspase-3. Nimesulide also decreased ornithine decarboxylase expression and the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor kappa B transcriptionally active protein complexes. These results show that alternative classes of COX-2 inhibitors may likely be efficacious as cancer chemopreventive agents and may have an improved therapeutic index. PMID:18266822

Tang, Xiuwei; Kim, Arianna L; Kopelovich, Levy; Bickers, David R; Athar, Mohammad

2008-01-01

228

Histone deacetylase inhibitor treatment induces ‘BRCAness’ and synergistic lethality with PARP inhibitor and cisplatin against human triple negative breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

There is an unmet need to develop new, more effective and safe therapies for the aggressive forms of triple negative breast cancers (TNBCs). While up to 20% of women under 50 years of age with TNBC harbor germline mutations in BRCA1, and these tumors are sensitive to treatment with poly(ADP) ribose polymerase inhibitors, a majority of TNBCs lack BRCA1 mutations or loss of expression. Findings presented here demonstrate that by attenuating the levels of DNA damage response and homologous recombination proteins, pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI) treatment induces ‘BRCAness’ and sensitizes TNBC cells lacking BRCA1 to lethal effects of PARP inhibitor or cisplatin. Treatment with HDI also induced hyperacetylation of nuclear hsp90. Similar effects were observed following shRNA-mediated depletion of HDAC3, confirming its role as the deacetylase for nuclear HSP90. Furthermore, cotreatment with HDI and ABT-888 induced significantly more DNA strand breaks than either agent alone, and synergistically induced apoptosis of TNBC cells. Notably, co-treatment with HDI and ABT-888 significantly reduced in vivo tumor growth and markedly improved the survival of mice bearing TNBC cell xenografts. These findings support the rationale to interrogate the clinical activity of this novel combination against human TNBC, irrespective of its expression of mutant BRCA1. PMID:25026298

Ha, Kyungsoo; Bhaskara, Srividya; Cerchietti, Leandro; Devaraj, Santhana G. T.; Shah, Bhavin; Sharma, Sunil; Chang, Jenny C.; Melnick, Ari M.; Hiebert, Scott; Bhalla, Kapil N.

2014-01-01

229

Salutary effect of NF?B inhibitor and folacin in hyperhomocysteinemia-hyperlipidemia induced vascular dementia.  

PubMed

Dementia of vascular origin or vascular dementia (VaD) is considered as the second commonest form of dementia after Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the last ten years various researchers have reported a strong association of hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy), hyperlipidemia (HL) and dementia. This study investigates the salutary effect of natrium diethyl dithio carbamate trihydrate (NDDCT), a nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-?B) inhibitor as well as folacin (Vitamin-B(9)) in HHcy-HL induced VaD. l-methionone was used to induce HHcy-HL and associated VaD. Morris water-maze (MWM) was used for testing learning and memory. Vascular system assessment was done by testing endothelial function. Biochemical estimations were performed to assess HHcy (serum homocysteine), HL (serum cholesterol), oxidative stress (aortic superoxide anion, serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species and brain glutathione), nitric oxide levels (serum nitrite/nitrate) and cholinergic activity (brain acetyl cholinesterase activity). L-methionine treated animals have shown HHcy-HL, endothelial dysfunction, impairment of learning, memory, reduction in serum nitrite/nitrate levels and brain glutathione (GSH) along with increase in serum and brain thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), and brain acetylcholinesterase activity. NDDCT, folacin and donepezil (positive control) significantly improved HHcy-HL induced impairment of learning, memory, endothelial dysfunction, and changes in various biochemical parameters. l-methionine induced HHcy-HL has caused VaD development in rats. NF?-B inhibitors and folacin may be considered as potential agents for the management of HHcy-HL induced VaD. PMID:22510463

Sharma, Bhupesh; Singh, Nirmal

2012-08-01

230

Use of a Soluble Epoxide Hydrolase Inhibitor in Smoke-Induced Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease  

PubMed Central

Tobacco smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a prolonged inflammatory condition of the lungs characterized by progressive and largely irreversible airflow limitation attributable to a number of pathologic mechanisms, including bronchitis, bronchiolitis, emphysema, mucus plugging, pulmonary hypertension, and small-airway obstruction. Soluble epoxide hydrolase inhibitors (sEHIs) demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in a rat model after acute exposure to tobacco smoke. We compared the efficacy of sEHI t-TUCB (trans-4-{4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy}-benzoic acid) and the phosphodiesterase-4 (PDE4) inhibitor Rolipram (Biomol International, Enzo Life Sciences, Farmingdale, NY) to reduce lung injury and inflammation after subacute exposure to tobacco smoke over a period of 4 weeks. Pulmonary physiology, bronchoalveolar lavage, cytokine production, and histopathology were analyzed to determine the efficacy of sEHI and Rolipram to ameliorate tobacco smoke–induced inflammation and injury in the spontaneously hypertensive rat. Both t-TUCB and Rolipram inhibited neutrophil elevation in bronchoalveolar lavage. sEHI t-TUCB suppressed IFN-?, while improving lung function by reducing tobacco smoke–induced total respiratory resistance and tissue damping (small-airway and peripheral tissue resistance). Increases in tobacco smoke–induced alveolar airspace size were attenuated by t-TUCB. Rolipram inhibited the production of airway mucus. Both t-TUCB and Rolipram inhibited vascular remodeling–related growth factor. These findings suggest that sEHI t-TUCB has therapeutic potential for treating COPD by improving lung function and attenuating the lung inflammation and emphysematous changes caused by tobacco smoke. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report to demonstrate that sEHI exerts significant protective effects after repeated, subacute tobacco smoke–induced lung injury in a rat model of COPD. PMID:22180869

Wang, Lei; Yang, Jun; Guo, Lei; Uyeminami, Dale; Dong, Hua; Hammock, Bruce D.

2012-01-01

231

Topically Applied Hsp90 Inhibitor 17AAG Inhibits UVR-Induced Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas.  

PubMed

We present here that heat-shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitor 17-(allylamino)-17-demethoxygeldanamycin (17AAG), when topically applied to mouse skin, inhibits UVR-induced development of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). In these experiments, DMSO:acetone (1:40 v/v) solution of 17AAG (500?nmol) was applied topically to mouse skin in conjunction with each UVR exposure (1.8?kJ?m(-2)). The UVR source was Kodacel-filtered FS-40 sun lamps (approximately 60% UVB and 40% UVA). In independent experiments with three separate mouse lines (SKH-1 hairless mice, wild-type FVB, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKC?)-overexpressing transgenic FVB mice), 17AAG treatment increased the latency and decreased both the incidence and multiplicity of UVR-induced SCC. Topical 17AAG alone or in conjunction with UVR treatments elicited neither skin nor systemic toxicity. 17AAG-caused inhibition of SCC induction was accompanied by a decrease in UVR-induced (1) hyperplasia, (2) Hsp90?-PKC? interaction, and (3) expression levels of Hsp90?, Stat3, pStat3Ser727, pStat3Tyr705, pAktSer473, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP). The results presented here indicate that topical Hsp90 inhibitor 17AAG is effective in prevention of UVR-induced epidermal hyperplasia and SCC. One may conclude from the preclinical data presented here that topical 17AAG may be useful for prevention of UVR-induced inflammation and cutaneous SCC either developed in UVR-exposed or organ transplant population. PMID:25337691

Singh, Anupama; Singh, Ashok; Sand, Jordan M; Bauer, Samuel J; Hafeez, Bilal Bin; Meske, Louise; Verma, Ajit K

2015-04-01

232

Binding-induced, turn-on fluorescence of the EGFR/ERBB kinase inhibitor, lapatinib.  

PubMed

We report the photophysical properties, binding-induced turn-on emission, and fluorescence imaging of the cellular uptake and distribution of lapatinib, an EGFR/ERBB inhibitor. Lapatinib, a type II, i.e. inactive state, inhibitor that targets the ATP binding pocket of the EGFR family of receptor tyrosine kinases. DFT calculations predict that the 6-furanylquinazoline core of lapatinib should exhibit an excited state with charge transfer character and an S0 to S1 transition energy of 3.4 eV. Absorption confirms an optical transition in the near UV to violet, while fluorescence spectroscopy shows that photoemission is highly sensitive to solvent polarity. The hydrophobicity of lapatinib leads to fluorescent aggregates in solution, however, binding to the lipid-carrier protein, BSA or to the kinase domain of ERBB2, produces spectroscopically distinct photoemission. Confocal fluorescence microscopy imaging of lapatinib uptake in ERBB2-overexpressing MCF7 and BT474 cells reveals pools of intracellular inhibitor with emission profiles consistent with aggregated lapatinib. PMID:25820099

Wilson, James N; Liu, Wenjun; Brown, Adrienne S; Landgraf, Ralf

2015-04-22

233

Serine protease inhibitors modulate smoke-induced chemokine release from human lung fibroblasts.  

PubMed

Smoking is associated with lung inflammation and a protease-antiprotease imbalance. We previously reported that cigarette smoke extract (CSE) stimulates human lung fibroblasts to release chemotactic cytokines. We hypothesized that serine protease inhibitors might modulate lung fibroblast release of chemotactic cytokines in response to CSE. To test this hypothesis, serine protease inhibitors (FK706, alpha1-antitrypsin, methoxysuccinyl-Ala-Ala-Pro-Val chloromethyl ketone, or Nalpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethyl ketone) were evaluated for their capacity to attenuate the release of neutrophil chemotactic activity (NCA) and monocyte chemotactic activity (MCA) from human fetal lung fibroblasts by the blind-well chemotactic chamber. Metalloproteinases and cysteine proteinases were not examined in this study. Similarly, the release and gene expression of chemokines and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) activation were measured by means of enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Release of NCA, MCA, chemotactic chemokines including interleukin-8, granulocyte colony-stimulating factor, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, and the expression of interleukin-8 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 mRNA were attenuated by FK706. Furthermore, FK706 suppressed NF-kappaB activation. These data suggest that serine protease inhibitors attenuate the CSE-induced release of NCA and MCA from human fetal lung fibroblasts and that the inhibitory action of antiproteases might depend on NF-kappaB signaling pathway. PMID:12738688

Numanami, Hiroki; Koyama, Sekiya; Nelson, Dan K; Hoyt, Jeffrey C; Freels, Jon L; Habib, Michael P; Amano, Jun; Haniuda, Masayuki; Sato, Etsuro; Robbins, Richard A

2003-11-01

234

A Case of Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Inhibitors-induced Pustular Psoriasis.  

PubMed

Anti-tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha agents promise better disease control for the treatment of ankylosing spondylitis resistant to classical disease-modifying treatments. Etanercept, a recombinant human TNF receptor fusion protein, is used to treat a variety of TNF-alpha-mediated diseases by inhibiting the biological activity of TNF-alpha. We experienced a case of pustular psoriasis in a 32-year-old man during anti-TNF-alpha therapy with etanercept. He had a history of ankylosing spondylitis for 2 years. Two years after treatment of etanercept, erythematous pustules developed on his palms and soles. He had no previous history of pustular psoriasis. The skin lesion improved as the etanercept therapy was stopped, but pustular skin eruption recurred as adalimumab, a different TNF-alpha inhibitor, was administered to manage his ankylosing spondylitis. Several TNF-alpha inhibitors have different molecular structures, but these inhibitors might have a similar potency to induce pustular psoriasis from this case. PMID:20548918

Park, Jae-Jeong; Lee, Seung-Chul

2010-05-01

235

Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid, a histone deacetylase inhibitor, protects dopaminergic neurons from neurotoxin-induced damage  

PubMed Central

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Prevention or disease-modifying therapies are critical for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease and Huntington's disease. However, no such intervention is currently available. Growing evidence has demonstrated that administration of histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors ameliorates a wide range of neurologic and psychiatric disorders in experimental models. Suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA) was the first HDAC inhibitor approved by the Food and Drug Administration for the sole use of cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to explore the potential new indications of SAHA for therapy of neurodegenerative diseases in in vitro Parkinson's disease models. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Mesencephalic neuron–glia cultures and reconstituted cultures were used to investigate neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of SAHA. We measured toxicity in dopaminergic neurons, using dopamine uptake assay and morphological analysis and expression of neurotrophic substances by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and real-time RT PCR. KEY RESULTS In mesencephalic neuron–glia cultures, SAHA displayed dose- and time-dependent prolongation of the survival and protection against neurotoxin-induced neuronal death of dopaminergic neurons. Mechanistic studies revealed that the neuroprotective effects of SAHA were mediated in part by promoting release of neurotrophic factors from astroglia through inhibition of histone deacetylation. CONCLUSION AND IMPLICATIONS The novel neurotrophic and neuroprotective effects of SAHA demonstrated in this study suggest that further study of this HDAC inhibitor could provide a new therapeutic approach to the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:21726209

Chen, SH; Wu, HM; Ossola, B; Schendzielorz, N; Wilson, BC; Chu, CH; Chen, SL; Wang, Q; Zhang, D; Qian, L; Li, X; Hong, JS; Lu, RB

2012-01-01

236

p53-Independent up-regulation of a TRAIL receptor DR5 by proteasome inhibitors: a mechanism for proteasome inhibitor-enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis.  

PubMed

Gliomas are the most common brain tumors in adults and account for more than half of all brain tumors. Despite intensive clinical investigations, average survival for the patients harboring the malignancy has not been significantly improved. Tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), shown to have potent and cancer-selective killing activity, has drawn considerable attention as a promising anti-cancer therapy. In an attempt to develop TRAIL as an anti-cancer therapy for gliomas, tumor suppressor activity of TRAIL was assessed using human glioma cell lines such as U373MG, U343MG, U87MG and LN18. U343MG, U87MG and LN18 cells were susceptible to TRAIL; however, U373MG cells were completely refractory to TRAIL. Resistance to the applied therapies is a key issue in cancer treatment; thus, various combination treatments were evaluated using U373MG cells to identify a better regimen. Unlike Doxorubicin, Etoposide, Actinomycin D and Wortmannin, a proteasome inhibitor MG132 significantly enhanced TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Similarly, other proteasome inhibitors, including Lactacystin, Proteasome inhibitor I and Velcade (Bortezomib), also enhanced apoptotic activity of TRAIL. Among these proteasome inhibitors, Velcade, the only approved drug, was as effective as MG132 in enhancing TRAIL-induced apoptosis. Both Velcade and MG132 increased the protein levels of DR5, a TRAIL receptor known to be up-regulated by p53, in U373MG cells where p53 is mutated. Our data indicate that proteasome inhibitors up-regulate DR5 in a p53-independent manner and a combination therapy comprising TRAIL and Velcade become a better treatment regimen for gliomas. PMID:22120628

Seol, Dai-Wu

2011-12-01

237

The PI3K inhibitor GS-1101 synergistically potentiates HDAC inhibitor-induced proliferation inhibition and apoptosis through the inactivation of PI3K and ERK pathways  

PubMed Central

Previously, we showed that inhibition of the protein kinase C ? (PKC?)/AKT pathway augments engagement of the histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDI)-induced apoptosis in lymphoma cells. In the present study, we investigated the cytotoxicity and mechanisms of cell death induced by the delta isoform-specific phosphatidylinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor, GS-1101, in combination with the HDI, panobinostat (LBH589) and suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA). Lymphoma cell lines and primary Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma (NHL) and chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (CLL) cells were simultaneously treated with the HDI, LBH589 and GS-1101. An interaction of the LBH589/GS-1101 combination was formally examined by using various concentrations of LBH589 and GS-1101. Combined treatment resulted in a synergistic inhibition of proliferation and showed synergistic effect on apoptotic induction in all tested cell lines and primary NHL and CLL cells. This study indicates that interference with PI3K signalling dramatically increases HDI-mediated apoptosis in malignant haematopoietic cells, possibly through both AKT-dependent or AKT- independent mechanisms. Moreover, the increase in HDI-related apoptosis observed in PI3K inhibitor-treated cells appears to be related to the disruption of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signalling pathway. This study provides a strong rational for testing the combination of PI3K inhibitors and HDI in the clinic. PMID:23889282

Bodo, Juraj; Zhao, Xiaoxian; Sharma, Arishya; Hill, Brian T.; Portell, Craig A.; Lannutti, Brian J.; Almasan, Alexandru; Hsi, Eric D.

2013-01-01

238

Systematically studying kinase inhibitor induced signaling network signatures by integrating both therapeutic and side effects.  

PubMed

Substantial effort in recent years has been devoted to analyzing data based large-scale biological networks, which provide valuable insight into the topologies of complex biological networks but are rarely context specific and cannot be used to predict the responses of cell signaling proteins to specific ligands or compounds. In this work, we proposed a novel strategy to investigate kinase inhibitor induced pathway signatures by integrating multiplex data in Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS), e.g. KINOMEscan data and cell proliferation/mitosis imaging data. Using this strategy, we first established a PC9 cell line specific pathway model to investigate the pathway signatures in PC9 cell line when perturbed by a small molecule kinase inhibitor GW843682. This specific pathway revealed the role of PI3K/AKT in modulating the cell proliferation process and the absence of two anti-proliferation links, which indicated a potential mechanism of abnormal expansion in PC9 cell number. Incorporating the pathway model for side effects on primary human hepatocytes, it was used to screen 27 kinase inhibitors in LINCS database and PF02341066, known as Crizotinib, was finally suggested with an optimal concentration 4.6 uM to suppress PC9 cancer cell expansion while avoiding severe damage to primary human hepatocytes. Drug combination analysis revealed that the synergistic effect region can be predicted straightforwardly based on a threshold which is an inherent property of each kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, this integration strategy can be easily extended to other specific cell lines to be a powerful tool for drug screen before clinical trials. PMID:24339888

Shao, Hongwei; Peng, Tao; Ji, Zhiwei; Su, Jing; Zhou, Xiaobo

2013-01-01

239

Systematically Studying Kinase Inhibitor Induced Signaling Network Signatures by Integrating Both Therapeutic and Side Effects  

PubMed Central

Substantial effort in recent years has been devoted to analyzing data based large-scale biological networks, which provide valuable insight into the topologies of complex biological networks but are rarely context specific and cannot be used to predict the responses of cell signaling proteins to specific ligands or compounds. In this work, we proposed a novel strategy to investigate kinase inhibitor induced pathway signatures by integrating multiplex data in Library of Integrated Network-based Cellular Signatures (LINCS), e.g. KINOMEscan data and cell proliferation/mitosis imaging data. Using this strategy, we first established a PC9 cell line specific pathway model to investigate the pathway signatures in PC9 cell line when perturbed by a small molecule kinase inhibitor GW843682. This specific pathway revealed the role of PI3K/AKT in modulating the cell proliferation process and the absence of two anti-proliferation links, which indicated a potential mechanism of abnormal expansion in PC9 cell number. Incorporating the pathway model for side effects on primary human hepatocytes, it was used to screen 27 kinase inhibitors in LINCS database and PF02341066, known as Crizotinib, was finally suggested with an optimal concentration 4.6 uM to suppress PC9 cancer cell expansion while avoiding severe damage to primary human hepatocytes. Drug combination analysis revealed that the synergistic effect region can be predicted straightforwardly based on a threshold which is an inherent property of each kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, this integration strategy can be easily extended to other specific cell lines to be a powerful tool for drug screen before clinical trials. PMID:24339888

Shao, Hongwei; Peng, Tao; Ji, Zhiwei; Su, Jing; Zhou, Xiaobo

2013-01-01

240

Pharmacologic Profiling of Phosphoinositide 3-Kinase Inhibitors as Mitigators of Ionizing Radiation–Induced Cell Death  

PubMed Central

Ionizing radiation (IR) induces genotoxic stress that triggers adaptive cellular responses, such as activation of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt signaling cascade. Pluripotent cells are the most important population affected by IR because they are required for cellular replenishment. Despite the clear danger to large population centers, we still lack safe and effective therapies to abrogate the life-threatening effects of any accidental or intentional IR exposure. Therefore, we computationally analyzed the chemical structural similarity of previously published small molecules that, when given after IR, mitigate cell death and found a chemical cluster that was populated with PI3K inhibitors. Subsequently, we evaluated structurally diverse PI3K inhibitors. It is remarkable that 9 of 14 PI3K inhibitors mitigated ?IR-induced death in pluripotent NCCIT cells as measured by caspase 3/7 activation. A single intraperitoneal dose of LY294002 [2-(4-morpholinyl)-8-phenyl-4H-1-benzopyran-4-one], administered to mice at 4 or 24 hours, or PX-867 [(4S,4aR,5R,6aS,9aR,Z)-11-hydroxy-4-(methoxymethyl)-4a,6a-dimethyl-2,7,10-trioxo-1-(pyrrolidin-1-ylmethylene)-1,2,4,4a,5,6,6a,7,8,9,9a,10-dodecahydroindeno[4,5-H]isochromen-5-yl acetate (CID24798773)], administered 4 hours after a lethal dose of ?IR, statistically significantly (P < 0.02) enhanced in vivo survival. Because cell cycle checkpoints are important regulators of cell survival after IR, we examined cell cycle distribution in NCCIT cells after ?IR and PI3K inhibitor treatment. LY294002 and PX-867 treatment of nonirradiated cells produced a marked decrease in S phase cells with a concomitant increase in the G1 population. In irradiated cells, LY294002 and PX-867 treatment also decreased S phase and increased the G1 and G2 populations. Treatment with LY294002 or PX-867 decreased ?IR-induced DNA damage as measured by ?H2AX, suggesting reduced DNA damage. These results indicate pharmacologic inhibition of PI3K after IR abrogated cell death. PMID:24068833

Sharlow, Elizabeth R.; Epperly, Michael W.; Lira, Ana; Leimgruber, Stephanie; Skoda, Erin M.; Wipf, Peter; Greenberger, Joel S.

2013-01-01

241

Further studies of auxin and ACC induced feminization in the cucumber plant using ethylene inhibitors.  

PubMed

The present study was designed to establish the role of an essential hormone controlling sex expression in cucumber. A potent anti-ethylene agent, AgNO3, completely inhibited pistillate flower formation caused by IAA, ACC or ethephon. Inhibitors of ethylene biosynthesis, AVG and CoCl2 also suppressed feminization due to exogenous IAA or ACC. Though AVG also suppressed ethephon-induced feminization, this may be due to the second effect of AVG rather than the effect on ACC biosynthesis. These results confirm that ethylene is a major factor regulating feminization and that exogenous auxin induces pistillate flower formation through its stimulation of ethylene production, rather than ACC production. PMID:11540805

Takahashi, H; Jaffe, M J

1984-01-01

242

Prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia in rats by CDK inhibitors.  

PubMed

Most traditional cytotoxic anticancer agents ablate the rapidly dividing epithelium of the hair follicle and induce alopecia (hair loss). Inhibition of cyclin-dependent kinase 2 (CDK2), a positive regulator of eukaryotic cell cycle progression, may represent a therapeutic strategy for prevention of chemotherapy-induced alopecia (CIA) by arresting the cell cycle and reducing the sensitivity of the epithelium to many cell cycle-active antitumor agents. Potent small-molecule inhibitors of CDK2 were developed using structure-based methods. Topical application of these compounds in a neonatal rat model of CIA reduced hair loss at the site of application in 33 to 50% of the animals. Thus, inhibition of CDK2 represents a potentially useful approach for the prevention of CIA in cancer patients. PMID:11141566

Davis, S T; Benson, B G; Bramson, H N; Chapman, D E; Dickerson, S H; Dold, K M; Eberwein, D J; Edelstein, M; Frye, S V; Gampe Jr, R T; Griffin, R J; Harris, P A; Hassell, A M; Holmes, W D; Hunter, R N; Knick, V B; Lackey, K; Lovejoy, B; Luzzio, M J; Murray, D; Parker, P; Rocque, W J; Shewchuk, L; Veal, J M; Walker, D H; Kuyper, L F

2001-01-01

243

Enhancement of ATRA-induced differentiation of neuroblastoma cells with LOX\\/COX inhibitors: an expression profiling study  

Microsoft Academic Search

BACKGROUND: We performed expression profiling of two neuroblastoma cell lines, SK-N-BE(2) and SH-SY5Y, after combined treatment with all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) and inhibitors of lipoxygenases (LOX) and cyclooxygenases (COX). This study is a continuation of our previous work confirming the possibility of enhancing ATRA-induced cell differentiation in these cell lines by the application of LOX\\/COX inhibitors and brings more detailed

Petr Chlapek; Martina Redova; Karel Zitterbart; Marketa Hermanova; Jaroslav Sterba; Renata Veselska

2010-01-01

244

Induced resistance to methionyl-tRNA synthetase inhibitors in Trypanosoma brucei is due to overexpression of the target.  

PubMed

New classes of antiparasitic drugs active against Trypanosoma brucei are needed to combat human African trypanosomiasis. Inhibitors of methionyl-tRNA synthetase (MetRS) have excellent potential to be developed for this purpose (S. Shibata, J. R. Gillespie, A. M. Kelley, A. J. Napuli, Z. Zhang, K. V. Kovzun, R. M. Pefley, J. Lam, F. H. Zucker, W. C. Van Voorhis, E. A. Merritt, W. G. Hol, C. L. Verlinde, E. Fan, and F. S. Buckner, Antimicrob. Agents Chemother. 55:1982-1989, 2011). In order to assess the potential for resistance to develop against this new class of inhibitors, T. brucei cultures were grown in the presence of MetRS inhibitors or comparison drugs. Resistance up to ?50 times the baseline 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) was induced against a MetRS inhibitor after ?120 days. A similar level of resistance to the clinical drug eflornithine was induced after ?50 days and for pentamidine after ?80 days. Thus, resistance was induced more slowly against MetRS inhibitors than against clinically used drugs. The parasites resistant to the MetRS inhibitor were shown to overexpress MetRS mRNA by a factor of 35 over the parental strain. Southern analysis indicated that the MetRS gene was amplified in the genome by nearly 8-fold. When injected into mice, the MetRS inhibitor-resistant parasites caused a reduced level of infection, indicating that the changes associated with resistance attenuated their virulence. This finding and the fact that resistance to MetRS inhibitors developed relatively slowly are encouraging for further development of this class of compounds. Published studies on other antitrypanosomal drugs have primarily shown that alterations in membrane transporters were the mechanisms responsible for resistance. This is the first published report of induced drug resistance in the African trypanosome due to overexpression of the target enzyme. PMID:23587950

Ranade, Ranae M; Gillespie, J Robert; Shibata, Sayaka; Verlinde, Christophe L M J; Fan, Erkang; Hol, Wim G J; Buckner, Frederick S

2013-07-01

245

Salubrinal, ER stress inhibitor, attenuates kainic acid-induced hippocampal cell death.  

PubMed

Kainic acid (KA)-induced neuronal death is closely linked to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondrial dysfunction. Parkin is an ubiquitin E3 ligase that mediates the ubiquitination of the Bcl-2 family of proteins and its mutations are associated with neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative diseases. We investigated the effect of salubrinal, an ER stress inhibitor, on the regulation of ER stress and mitochondrial apoptosis induced by KA, in particular, by controlling parkin expression. We showed that salubrinal significantly reduced seizure activity and increased survival rates of mice with KA-induced seizures. We found that salubrinal protected neurons against apoptotic death by reducing expression of mitochondrial apoptotic factors and elF2?-ATF4-CHOP signaling proteins. Interestingly, we showed that salubrinal decreased the KA-induced parkin expression and inhibited parkin translocation to mitochondria, which suggests that parkin may regulate a cross-talk between ER and mitochondria. Collectively, inhibition of ER stress attenuates mitochondrial apoptotic and ER stress pathways and controls parkin-mediated neuronal death following KA-induced seizures. PMID:24728926

Kim, Jung Soo; Heo, Rok Won; Kim, Hwajin; Yi, Chin-Ok; Shin, Hyun Joo; Han, Jong Woo; Roh, Gu Seob

2014-10-01

246

Apoptosis induced in neuronal cultures by either the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid or the kinase inhibitor staurosporine is attenuated by isoquinolinesulfonamides H-7, H-8, and H-9  

Microsoft Academic Search

Protein phosphorylation is kept in balance by an orchestrated action of kinases and phosphatases; when this balance is lost,\\u000a neuronal apoptosis may occur. Okadaic acid (OKA), a marine toxin that inhibits specifically protein phosphatases 1 and 2A\\u000a (EC 3.1.3.16), and staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C (PKC; EC 2.7.1.37), induced apoptosis in primary cultures\\u000a of rat cerebellar granule neurons.

Cinzia M. Cagnoli; Elena Kharlamov; Cagla Atabay; Tolga Uz; Hari Manev

1996-01-01

247

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors: The Epigenetic Therapeutics That Repress Hypoxia-Inducible Factors  

PubMed Central

Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACIs) have been actively explored as a new generation of chemotherapeutics for cancers, generally known as epigenetic therapeutics. Recent findings indicate that several types of HDACIs repress angiogenesis, a process essential for tumor metabolism and progression. Accumulating evidence supports that this repression is mediated by disrupting the function of hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF-1, HIF-2, and collectively, HIF), which are the master regulators of angiogenesis and cellular adaptation to hypoxia. Since HIF also regulate glucose metabolism, cell survival, microenvironment remodeling, and other alterations commonly required for tumor progression, they are considered as novel targets for cancer chemotherapy. Though the precise biochemical mechanism underlying the HDACI-triggered repression of HIF function remains unclear, potential cellular factors that may link the inhibition of deacetylase activity to the repression of HIF function have been proposed. Here we review published data that inhibitors of type I/II HDACs repress HIF function by either reducing functional HIF-1? levels, or repressing HIF-? transactivation activity. In addition, underlying mechanisms and potential proteins involved in the repression will be discussed. A thorough understanding of HDACI-induced repression of HIF function may facilitate the development of future therapies to either repress or promote angiogenesis for cancer or chronic ischemic disorders, respectively. PMID:21151670

Chen, Shuyang; Sang, Nianli

2011-01-01

248

Microporation is an efficient method for siRNA-induced knockdown of PEX5 in HepG2 cells: evaluation of the transfection efficiency, the PEX5 mRNA and protein levels and induction of peroxisomal deficiency.  

PubMed

The pathomechanism of peroxisomal biogenesis disorders (PBDs), a group of inherited autosomal recessive diseases with mutations of peroxin (PEX) genes, is not yet fully understood. Therefore, several knockout models, e.g., the PEX5 knockout mouse, have been generated exhibiting a complete loss of peroxisomal function. In this study, we wanted to knockdown PEX5 using the siRNA technology (1) to mimic milder forms of PBDs in which the mutated peroxin has some residual function and (2) to analyze the cellular consequences of a reduction of the PEX5 protein without adaption during the development as it is the case in a knockout animal. First, we tried to optimize the transfection of the hepatoma cell line HepG2 with PEX5 siRNA using different commercially available liposomal and non-liposomal transfection reagents (Lipofectamine(®) 2000, FuGENE 6, HiPerFect(®), INTERFERin™, RiboJuice™) as well as microporation using the Neon™ Transfection system. Microporation was found to be superior to the transfection reagents with respect to the transfection efficiency (100 vs. 0-70%), to the reduction of PEX5 mRNA (by 90 vs. 0-50%) and PEX5 protein levels (by 70 vs. 0-50%). Interestingly, we detected that a part of the cleaved PEX5 mRNA still existed as 3' fragment (15%) 24 h after microporation. Using microporation, we further analyzed whether the reduced PEX5 protein level impaired peroxisomal function. We indeed detected a reduced targeting of SKL-tagged proteins into peroxisomes as well as an increased oxidative stress as found in PBD patients and respective knockout mouse models. Knockdown of the PEX5 protein and functional consequences were at a maximum 48 h after microporation. Thereafter, the PEX5 protein was resynthesized, which may allow the temporal analysis of the loss as well as the reconstitution of peroxisomes in the future. In conclusion, we propose microporation as an efficient and reproducible method to transfect HepG2 cells with PEX5 siRNA. We succeeded to transiently knockdown PEX5 mRNA and its protein level leading to functional consequences similar as observed in peroxisome deficiencies. PMID:25224142

Ahlemeyer, Barbara; Vogt, Julia-Franziska; Michel, Vera; Hahn-Kohlberger, Petra; Baumgart-Vogt, Eveline

2014-11-01

249

The Cytoskeleton and the Peroxisomal-Targeted SNOWY COTYLEDON3 Protein Are Required for Chloroplast Development in Arabidopsis[W  

PubMed Central

Here, we describe the snowy cotyledon3 (sco3-1) mutation, which impairs chloroplast and etioplast development in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. SCO3 is a member of a largely uncharacterized protein family unique to the plant kingdom. The sco3-1 mutation alters chloroplast morphology and development, reduces chlorophyll accumulation, impairs thylakoid formation and photosynthesis in seedlings, and results in photoinhibition under extreme CO2 concentrations in mature leaves. There are no readily apparent changes to chloroplast biology, such as transcription or assembly that explain the disruption to chloroplast biogenesis. Indeed, SCO3 is actually targeted to another organelle, specifically to the periphery of peroxisomes. However, impaired chloroplast development cannot be attributed to perturbed peroxisomal metabolic processes involving germination, fatty acid ?-oxidation or photorespiration, though there are so far undescribed changes in low and high CO2 sensitivity in seedlings and young true leaves. Many of the chloroplasts are bilobed, and some have persistent membranous extensions that encircle other cellular components. Significantly, there are changes to the cytoskeleton in sco3-1, and microtubule inhibitors have similar effects on chloroplast biogenesis as sco3-1 does. The localization of SCO3 to the periphery of the peroxisomes was shown to be dependent on a functional microtubule cytoskeleton. Therefore, the microtubule and peroxisome-associated SCO3 protein is required for chloroplast development, and sco3-1, along with microtubule inhibitors, demonstrates an unexpected role for the cytoskeleton and peroxisomes in chloroplast biogenesis. PMID:20978221

Albrecht, Verónica; Šimková, Klára; Carrie, Chris; Delannoy, Etienne; Giraud, Estelle; Whelan, Jim; Small, Ian David; Apel, Klaus; Badger, Murray R.; Pogson, Barry James

2010-01-01

250

Effect of the Angiotensin I Converting Enzyme Inhibitor, MK-421, on Experimentally Induced Drinking  

NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

MK-421, the ethyl ester maleate salt of N-(S)-1-(ethoxycarbonyl)-3-phenyl-propyl- Ala-L-Pro, is an angiotensin I converting enzyme inhibitor. An initial objective was to determine whether MK-421, administered at 0, 2.5, 5.0, 10.0, 20.0 and 40.0 mg/kg, ip to 96 female rats 15 min prior to administration of the beta-adrenergic agonist, isoproterenol (25 microgram/kg, ip), would inhibit the drinking induced by isoproterenol during 2 h after its administration. The water intake induced by isoproterenol was inhibited significantly by 2.5 mg MK-421/kg. When a similar experiment was performed using Angiotensin I (AI) (200 microgram/kg, ip) as the dipsogenic agent, MK-421 (5 mg/kg, ip), administered 15 min prior to AI, inhibited significantly both the dipsogenic and the diuretic effect of AI. However, administration of angiotensin II (AII, 200 microgram/kg, ip) 15 min after MK-421 (5mg/kg) was accompanied by a water intake that did not differ from AII alone. The drink induced by ip administration of 1.0 m NaCl solution (1% of body wt, ip) was not inhibited by administration of MK-421 (5 mg/kg) 15 min prior to allowing access to water while the drink induced by a 24 h dehydration was partially inhibited. Thus, the drinks induced by administraition of either isoproterenol or AI are dependent on formation of AII. That induced by dehydration is partially dependent, while that induced by hypertonic siilinc is independent of the formation of AII.

Fregley, Melvin J.; Fater, Dennis C.; Greenleaf, John E.

1982-01-01

251

Dynein light chain interaction with the peroxisomal import docking complex modulates peroxisome biogenesis in yeast  

PubMed Central

Summary Dynein is a large macromolecular motor complex that moves cargo along microtubules. A motor-independent role for the light chain of dynein, Dyn2p, in peroxisome biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was suggested from its interaction with Pex14p, a component of the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex. Here we show that cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica deleted for the gene encoding the homologue of Dyn2p are impaired in peroxisome function and biogenesis. These cells exhibit compromised growth on medium containing oleic acid as the carbon source, the metabolism of which requires functional peroxisomes. Their peroxisomes have abnormal morphology, atypical matrix protein localization, and an absence of proteolytic processing of the matrix enzyme thiolase, which normally occurs upon its import into the peroxisome. We also show physical and genetic interactions between Dyn2p and members of the docking complex, particularly Pex17p. Together, our results demonstrate a role for Dyn2p in the assembly of functional peroxisomes and provide evidence that Dyn2p acts in cooperation with the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex to effect optimal matrix protein import. PMID:23943868

Chang, Jinlan; Tower, Robert J.; Lancaster, David L.; Rachubinski, Richard A.

2013-01-01

252

Dynein light chain interaction with the peroxisomal import docking complex modulates peroxisome biogenesis in yeast.  

PubMed

Dynein is a large macromolecular motor complex that moves cargo along microtubules. A motor-independent role for the light chain of dynein, Dyn2p, in peroxisome biology in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was suggested from its interaction with Pex14p, a component of the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex. Here we show that cells of the yeast Yarrowia lipolytica deleted for the gene encoding the homologue of Dyn2p are impaired in peroxisome function and biogenesis. These cells exhibit compromised growth on medium containing oleic acid as the carbon source, the metabolism of which requires functional peroxisomes. Their peroxisomes have abnormal morphology, atypical matrix protein localization, and an absence of proteolytic processing of the matrix enzyme thiolase, which normally occurs upon its import into the peroxisome. We also show physical and genetic interactions between Dyn2p and members of the docking complex, particularly Pex17p. Together, our results demonstrate a role for Dyn2p in the assembly of functional peroxisomes and provide evidence that Dyn2p acts in cooperation with the peroxisomal matrix protein import docking complex to effect optimal matrix protein import. PMID:23943868

Chang, Jinlan; Tower, Robert J; Lancaster, David L; Rachubinski, Richard A

2013-10-15

253

A rat retinal damage model predicts for potential clinical visual disturbances induced by Hsp90 inhibitors  

SciTech Connect

In human trials certain heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) inhibitors, including 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922, have caused visual disorders indicative of retinal dysfunction; others such as 17-AAG and ganetespib have not. To understand these safety profile differences we evaluated histopathological changes and exposure profiles of four Hsp90 inhibitors, with or without clinical reports of adverse ocular effects, using a rat retinal model. Retinal morphology, Hsp70 expression (a surrogate marker of Hsp90 inhibition), apoptotic induction and pharmacokinetic drug exposure analysis were examined in rats treated with the ansamycins 17-DMAG and 17-AAG, or with the second-generation compounds NVP-AUY922 and ganetespib. Both 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922 induced strong yet restricted retinal Hsp70 up-regulation and promoted marked photoreceptor cell death 24 h after the final dose. In contrast, neither 17-AAG nor ganetespib elicited photoreceptor injury. When the relationship between drug distribution and photoreceptor degeneration was examined, 17-DMAG and NVP-AUY922 showed substantial retinal accumulation, with high retina/plasma (R/P) ratios and slow elimination rates, such that 51% of 17-DMAG and 65% of NVP-AUY922 present at 30 min post-injection were retained in the retina 6 h post-dose. For 17-AAG and ganetespib, retinal elimination was rapid (90% and 70% of drugs eliminated from the retina at 6 h, respectively) which correlated with lower R/P ratios. These findings indicate that prolonged inhibition of Hsp90 activity in the eye results in photoreceptor cell death. Moreover, the results suggest that the retina/plasma exposure ratio and retinal elimination rate profiles of Hsp90 inhibitors, irrespective of their chemical class, may predict for ocular toxicity potential. - Highlights: • In human trials some Hsp90 inhibitors cause visual disorders, others do not. • Prolonged inhibition of Hsp90 in the rat eye results in photoreceptor cell death. • Retina/plasma ratio and retinal elimination rate are linked to toxicity potential. • Rat retinotoxic responses to individual Hsp90 inhibitors reflect clinical profiles. • Rodent modeling may be used to assess ocular risks of targeted Hsp90 compounds.

Zhou, Dan, E-mail: DZhou@syntapharma.com [Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp., 45 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Liu, Yuan; Ye, Josephine; Ying, Weiwen; Ogawa, Luisa Shin; Inoue, Takayo; Tatsuta, Noriaki; Wada, Yumiko; Koya, Keizo [Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp., 45 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States); Huang, Qin [Department of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Veterans Affairs Boston Healthcare System, 1400 VFW Parkway, West Roxbury, MA 02132 (United States); Bates, Richard C.; Sonderfan, Andrew J. [Synta Pharmaceuticals Corp., 45 Hartwell Avenue, Lexington, MA 02421 (United States)

2013-12-01

254

Differential suppression by protease inhibitors and cytokines of apoptosis induced by wild-type p53 and cytotoxic agents.  

PubMed

Apoptosis induced in myeloid leukemic cells by wild-type p53 was suppressed by different cleavage-site directed protease inhibitors, which inhibit interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme-like, granzyme B and cathepsins B and L proteases. Apoptosis was also suppressed by the serine and cysteine protease inhibitor N-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethylketone (TPCK) [corrected], but not by other serine or cysteine protease inhibitors including N alpha-p-tosyl-L-lysine chloromethylketone (TLCK), E64, pepstatin A, or chymostatin. Protease inhibitors suppressed induction of apoptosis by gamma-irradiation and cycloheximide but not by doxorubicin, vincristine, or withdrawal of interleukin 3 from interleukin 3-dependent 32D non-malignant myeloid cells. Induction of apoptosis in normal thymocytes by gamma-irradiation or dexamethasone was also suppressed by the cleavage-site directed protease inhibitors, but in contrast to the myeloid leukemic cells apoptosis in thymocytes was suppressed by TLCK but not by TPCK. The results indicate that (i) inhibitors of interleukin-1 beta-converting enzyme-like proteases and some other protease inhibitors suppressed induction of apoptosis by wild-type p53 and certain p53-independent pathways of apoptosis; (ii) the protease inhibitors together with the cytokines interleukin 6 and interferon-gamma or the antioxidant butylated hydroxyanisole gave a cooperative protection against apoptosis; (iii) these protease inhibitors did not suppress induction of apoptosis by some cytotoxic agents or by viability-factor withdrawal from 32D cells, whereas these pathways of apoptosis were suppressed by cytokines; (iv) there are cell type differences in the proteases involved in apoptosis; and (v) there are multiple pathways leading to apoptosis that can be selectively induced and suppressed by different agents. PMID:8901612

Lotem, J; Sachs, L

1996-10-29

255

Inter-? inhibitor protein and its associated glycosaminoglycans protect against histone-induced injury.  

PubMed

Extracellular histones are mediators of tissue injury and organ dysfunction; therefore they constitute potential therapeutic targets in sepsis, inflammation, and thrombosis. Histone cytotoxicity in vitro decreases in the presence of plasma. Here, we demonstrate that plasma inter-? inhibitor protein (IAIP) neutralizes the cytotoxic effects of histones and decreases histone-induced platelet aggregation. These effects are mediated through the negatively charged glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) chondroitin sulfate and high-molecular-weight hyaluronan (HMW-HA) associated with IAIP. Cell surface anionic glycosaminoglycans heparan sulfate and HA protect the cells against histone-mediated damage in vitro. Surface plasmon resonance showed that both IAIP and HMW-HA directly bind to recombinant histone H4. In vivo neutralization of histones with IAIP and HMW-HA prevented histone-induced thrombocytopenia, bleeding, and lung microvascular thrombosis, decreased neutrophil activation, and averted histone-induced production of inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. IAIP and HMW-HA colocalized with histones in necrotic tissues and areas that displayed neutrophil extracellular traps. Increasing amounts of IAIP-histone complexes detected in the plasma of septic baboons correlated with increase in histones and/or nucleosomes and consumption of plasma IAIP. Our data suggest that IAIP, chondroitin sulfate, and HMW-HA are potential therapeutic agents to protect against histone-induced cytotoxicity, coagulopathy, systemic inflammation, and organ damage during inflammatory conditions such as sepsis and trauma. PMID:25631771

Chaaban, Hala; Keshari, Ravi S; Silasi-Mansat, Robert; Popescu, Narcis I; Mehta-D'Souza, Padmaja; Lim, Yow-Pin; Lupu, Florea

2015-04-01

256

HDAC inhibitor, scriptaid, induces glioma cell apoptosis through JNK activation and inhibits telomerase activity  

PubMed Central

Abstract The present study identified a novel mechanism of induction of apoptosis in glioblastoma cells by scriptaid – a histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitor. Scriptaid reduced glioma cell viability by increasing Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) activation. Although scriptaid induced activation of both p38MAPK and JNK, it was the inhibition of JNK that attenuated scriptaid-induced apoptosis significantly. Scriptaid also increased the expression of (i) p21 and p27 involved in cell-cycle regulation and (ii) ?H2AX associated with DNA damage response in a JNK-dependent manner. Treatment with scriptaid increased Ras activity in glioma cells, and transfection of cells with constitutively active RasV12 further sensitized glioma cells to scriptaid-induced apoptosis. Scriptaid also inhibited telomerase activity independent of JNK. Taken together, our findings indicate that scriptaid (i) induces apoptosis and reduces glioma cell proliferation by elevating JNK activation and (ii) also decreases telomerase activity in a JNK-independent manner. PMID:19583803

Sharma, Vivek; Koul, Nitin; Joseph, Christy; Dixit, Deobrat; Ghosh, Sadashib; Sen, Ellora

2010-01-01

257

Antibodies directed against the peroxisomal targeting signal of firefly luciferase recognize multiple mammalian peroxisomal proteins  

PubMed Central

We have previously shown that the peroxisomal targeting signal in firefly luciferase consists of the COOH-terminal three amino acids of the protein, serine-lysine-leucine (Gould, S.J., G.A. Keller, N. Hosken, J. Wilkinson, and S. Subramani, 1989. J. Cell Biol. 108:1657- 1664). Antibodies were raised against a synthetic peptide that contained this tripeptide at its COOH terminus. Immunofluorescence and immunocryoelectron microscopy revealed that the anti-peptide antibodies specifically detected peroxisomes in mammalian cells. Further characterization revealed that the antibodies were primarily directed against the COOH-terminal three amino acids of the peptide. In Western blot experiments, the antibodies recognized 15-20 rat liver peroxisomal proteins, but reacted with only a few proteins from other subcellular compartments. These results provide independent immunological evidence that the peroxisomal targeting signal identified in firefly luciferase is present in many peroxisomal proteins. PMID:1688562

1990-01-01

258

Reduced peroxisomal citrate synthase activity increases substrate availability for polyhydroxyalkanoate biosynthesis in plant peroxisomes.  

PubMed

Polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) are bacterial carbon storage polymers used as renewable, biodegradable plastics. PHA production in plants may be a way to reduce industrial PHA production costs. We recently demonstrated a promising level of peroxisomal PHA production in the high biomass crop species sugarcane. However, further production strategies are needed to boost PHA accumulation closer to commercial targets. Through exogenous fatty acid feeding of Arabidopsis thaliana plants that contain peroxisome-targeted PhaA, PhaB and PhaC enzymes from Cupriavidus necator, we show here that the availability of substrates derived from the ?-oxidation cycle limits peroxisomal polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) biosynthesis. Knockdown of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity using artificial microRNA increased PHB production levels approximately threefold. This work demonstrates that reduction of peroxisomal citrate synthase activity may be a valid metabolic engineering strategy for increasing PHA production in other plant species. PMID:24944109

Tilbrook, Kimberley; Poirier, Yves; Gebbie, Leigh; Schenk, Peer M; McQualter, Richard B; Brumbley, Stevens M

2014-10-01

259

Tissue Inhibitor of Matrix Metalloproteinase-1 Mediates Erythropoietin-induced Neuroprotection in Hypoxia Ischemia  

PubMed Central

Previous studies have shown that erythropoietin (EPO) is neuroprotective in both in vivo and in vitro models of hypoxia ischemia. However theses studies hold limited clinical translations because the underlying mechanism remains unclear and the key molecules involved in EPO-induced neuroprotection are still to be determined. This study investigated if tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (TIMP-1) and if its upstream regulator signaling molecule Janus kinase-2 (JAK-2) are critical in EPO-induced neuroprotection. Hypoxia Ischemia (HI) was modeled in-vitro by oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD) and in-vivo by a modified version of Rice-Vannucci model of HI in 10-day-old rat pups. EPO treated cells were exposed to AG490, an inhibitor of JAK-2 or TIMP-1 neutralizing antibody for 2 hours with OGD. Cell death, phosphorylation of JAK-2 and signal transducers and activators of transcription protein-3 (STAT-3), TIMP-1 expression, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity were measured and compared with normoxic group. Hypoxic ischemic animals were treated one hour following HI and evaluated 48 hours after. Our data showed that EPO significantly increased cell survival, associated with increased TIMP-1 activity, phosphorylation of JAK-2, STAT-3, and decreased MMP-9 activity in vivo and in vitro. EPO’s protective effects were reversed by inhibition of JAK-2 or TIMP-1 in both models. We concluded that JAK-2, STAT-3 and TIMP-1 are key mediators of EPO-induced neuroprotection during hypoxia ischemia injury. PMID:21689752

Souvenir, Rhonda; Fathali, Nancy; Ostrowski, Robert P.; Lekic, Tim; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

2011-01-01

260

Inhibitors of spasmogen-induced Ca2+ channel suppression in smooth muscle cells from small intestine  

PubMed Central

Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were made from smooth muscle cells isolated from the longitudinal muscle layer of guinea-pig ileum. Carbachol (acting at muscarinic receptors) or histamine (acting at H1 histamine receptors) suppressed Ca2+ channel current. The effect of either agonist had an initial transient component followed by a sustained component.Wortmannin inhibited transient and sustained components of carbachol-induced Ca2+ channel current suppression: half-effective inhibitory concentrations (IC50) were 1.1??M and 0.6??M for the two components respectively. Wortmannin also inhibited the transient phase of carbachol-induced cationic current (IC50 1.6??M) and Ca2+-dependent K+-current (IC50 1.7??M). Wortmannin did not appear to produce any direct block of cationic channels or Ca2+ channels.Intracellular application of the phospholipase inhibitor D609 (tricyclodecan-9-ylxanthogenate) inhibited transient and sustained components of histamine action on the Ca2+ channel current: the IC50 was about 130??M for both components. Carbachol action on Ca2+ channels was also inhibited by D609. D609 had no significant direct blocking effect on Ca2+ channels, cationic channels activated by carbachol, or Ca2+-activated K+-current in response to flash-photolysis of caged-inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate.Micromolar concentrations of wortmannin and D609 are inhibitors of both components of spasmogen-induced Ca2+ channel suppression. The data suggest that both components are mediated by a common, or similar, signal transduction element which is a phospholipase C (PLC) or phospholipase D (PLD) isoform. PMID:9831900

Unno, T; Beech, D J; Komori, S; Ohashi, H

1998-01-01

261

Inhibitors of the 5-lipoxygenase arachidonic acid pathway induce ATP release and ATP-dependent organic cation transport in macrophages.  

PubMed

We have previously described that arachidonic acid (AA)-5-lipoxygenase (5-LO) metabolism inhibitors such as NDGA and MK886, inhibit cell death by apoptosis, but not by necrosis, induced by extracellular ATP (ATPe) binding to P2X7 receptors in macrophages. ATPe binding to P2X7 also induces large cationic and anionic organic molecules uptake in these cells, a process that involves at least two distinct transport mechanisms: one for cations and another for anions. Here we show that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not inhibit P2X7 receptors, as judged by the maintenance of the ATPe-induced uptake of fluorescent anionic dyes. In addition, we describe two new transport phenomena induced by these inhibitors in macrophages: a cation-selective uptake of fluorescent dyes and the release of ATP. The cation uptake requires secreted ATPe, but, differently from the P2X7/ATPe-induced phenomena, it is also present in macrophages derived from mice deficient in the P2X7 gene. Inhibitors of phospholipase A2 and of the AA-cyclooxygenase pathway did not induce the cation uptake. The uptake of non-organic cations was investigated by measuring the free intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) by Fura-2 fluorescence. NDGA, but not MK886, induced an increase in [Ca(2+)]i. Chelating Ca(2+) ions in the extracellular medium suppressed the intracellular Ca(2+) signal without interfering in the uptake of cationic dyes. We conclude that inhibitors of the AA-5-LO pathway do not block P2X7 receptors, trigger the release of ATP, and induce an ATP-dependent uptake of organic cations by a Ca(2+)- and P2X7-independent transport mechanism in macrophages. PMID:24743022

da Silva-Souza, Hercules Antônio; Lira, Maria Nathalia de; Costa-Junior, Helio Miranda; da Cruz, Cristiane Monteiro; Vasconcellos, Jorge Silvio Silva; Mendes, Anderson Nogueira; Pimenta-Reis, Gabriela; Alvarez, Cora Lilia; Faccioli, Lucia Helena; Serezani, Carlos Henrique; Schachter, Julieta; Persechini, Pedro Muanis

2014-07-01

262

Inhibition of chlorine-induced lung injury by the type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram  

SciTech Connect

Chlorine is a highly toxic respiratory irritant that when inhaled causes epithelial cell injury, alveolar-capillary barrier disruption, airway hyperreactivity, inflammation, and pulmonary edema. Chlorine is considered a chemical threat agent, and its release through accidental or intentional means has the potential to result in mass casualties from acute lung injury. The type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitor rolipram was investigated as a rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury. Rolipram inhibits degradation of the intracellular signaling molecule cyclic AMP. Potential beneficial effects of increased cyclic AMP levels include inhibition of pulmonary edema, inflammation, and airway hyperreactivity. Mice were exposed to chlorine (whole body exposure, 228–270 ppm for 1 h) and were treated with rolipram by intraperitoneal, intranasal, or intramuscular (either aqueous or nanoemulsion formulation) delivery starting 1 h after exposure. Rolipram administered intraperitoneally or intranasally inhibited chlorine-induced pulmonary edema. Minor or no effects were observed on lavage fluid IgM (indicative of plasma protein leakage), KC (Cxcl1, neutrophil chemoattractant), and neutrophils. All routes of administration inhibited chlorine-induced airway hyperreactivity assessed 1 day after exposure. The results of the study suggest that rolipram may be an effective rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury and that both systemic and targeted administration to the respiratory tract were effective routes of delivery. -- Highlights: ? Chlorine causes lung injury when inhaled and is considered a chemical threat agent. ? Rolipram inhibited chlorine-induced pulmonary edema and airway hyperreactivity. ? Post-exposure rolipram treatments by both systemic and local delivery were effective. ? Rolipram shows promise as a rescue treatment for chlorine-induced lung injury.

Chang, Weiyuan; Chen, Jing; Schlueter, Connie F. [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)] [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States); Rando, Roy J. [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA (United States)] [Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA (United States); Pathak, Yashwant V. [College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States)] [College of Pharmacy, University of South Florida, Tampa, FL (United States); Hoyle, Gary W., E-mail: Gary.Hoyle@louisville.edu [Department of Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences, School of Public Health and Information Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY (United States)

2012-09-01

263

Natural Product-Based Inhibitors of Hypoxia-Inducible Factor-1 (HIF-1)  

PubMed Central

The transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) regulates the expression of more than 70 genes involved in cellular adaptation and survival under hypoxic stress. Activation of HIF-1 is associated with numerous physiological and pathological processes that include tumorigenesis, vascular remodeling, inflammation, and hypoxia/ischemia-related tissue damage. Clinical studies suggested that HIF-1 activation correlates directly with advanced disease stages and treatment resistance among cancer patients. Preclinical studies support the inhibition of HIF-1 as a major molecular target for antitumor drug discovery. Considerable effort is underway, in government laboratories, industry and academia, to identify therapeutically useful small molecule HIF-1 inhibitors. Natural products (low molecular weight organic compounds produced by plants, microbes, and animals) continue to play a major role in modern antitumor drug discovery. Most of the compounds discovered to inhibit HIF-1 are natural products or synthetic compounds with structures that are based on natural product leads. Natural products have also served a vital role as molecular probes to elucidate the pathways that regulate HIF-1 activity. Natural products and natural product-derived compounds that inhibit HIF-1 are summarized in light of their biological source, chemical class, ancd effect on HIF-1 and HIF-mediated gene regulation. When known, the mechanism(s) of action of HIF-1 inhibitors are described. Many of the substances found to inhibit HIF-1 are non-druggable compounds that are too cytotoxic to serve as drug leads. The application of high-throughput screening methods, complementary molecular-targeted assays, and structurally diverse chemical libraries hold promise for the discovery of therapeutically useful HIF-1 inhibitors. PMID:16515532

Nagle, Dale G.; Zhou, Yu-Dong

2010-01-01

264

IKK? inhibitor in combination with bortezomib induces cytotoxicity in breast cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Bortezomib is a proteasome inhibitor with remarkable clinical antitumor activity in multiple myeloma (MM) and is under evaluation in clinical trials in various types of cancer including breast cancer. Although the initial rationale for its use in cancer treatment was the inhibition of NF-?B activity by blocking proteasomal degradation of I?B?, direct evidence indicating inhibition of constitutive NF-?B activity by bortezomib in tumor cells in patients has not yet been reported. Moreover, recent studies have shown that bortezomib activates constitutive NF-?B activity via stimulating the canonical pathway in MM cells. In this study, we first examined protein expression of I?B? after bortezomib treatment. We observed that bortezomib upregulated the phosphorylation and downregulated I?B? protein expression in a dose- and time-dependent manner in MCF7 and T47D cells, associated with phosphorylation of IKK?. Since I?B? is an inhibitor of nuclear translocation of NF-?B, we further examined alteration of NF-?B activity by bortezomib. Importantly, bortezomib significantly upregulates NF-?B activity in both MCF7 and T47D in a dose-dependent fashion, demonstrated by electrophoretic mobility shift analysis (EMSA). Furthermore, immunocytochemical analysis confirmed enhanced nuclear translocation of p65 NF-?B (RelA) by bortezomib treatment. Supershift assay showed supershifted bands by anti-p65 and -p50 antibodies. Taken together, these results indicate that bortezomib activates the canonical NF-?B pathway in both cell lines. Finally, we demonstrated that IKK? inhibitor enhanced cytotoxicity, associated with inhibition of NF-?B activity induced by bortezomib in MCF7 and T47D breast cancer cells. PMID:24481412

HIDESHIMA, HIROMASA; YOSHIDA, YASUHIRO; IKEDA, HIROSHI; HIDE, MAYA; IWASAKI, AKINORI; ANDERSON, KENNETH C.; HIDESHIMA, TERU

2014-01-01

265

Diabetes or peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha agonist increases mitochondrial thioesterase I activity in heart  

Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR alpha) is a transcriptional regulator of the expression of mitochondrial thioesterase I (MTE-I) and uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3), which are induced in the heart at the mRNA level in response to diabetes. Little is known about the regulation of pr...

266

PPARÁ-DEPENDENT GENE EXPRESSION CHANGES IN THE MOUSE LIVER AFTER EXPOSURE TO PEROXISOME PROLIFERATORS  

EPA Science Inventory

Peroxisome proliferators (PP) are a large class of structurally diverse chemicals that mediate their effects in the liver mainly through the PP-activated receptor ¿ (PPAR?). Development of PP induced hepatocarcinogenesis in mouse liver is known to be dependent on PPAR&#...

267

Regulation of adipocyte gene expression and differentiation by peroxisome proliferator activated receptor ?  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR) ? is an orphan member of the nuclear hormone receptor superfamily and is expressed at high levels specifically in adipose tissue. Recent data suggest that this factor is a central regulator of adipocyte gene expression and differentiation. Fibroblastic cell lines that express PPAR? ectopically can be induced to differentiate into fat cells by a variety

Peter Tontonoz; Erding Hu; Bruce M Spiegelman

1995-01-01

268

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor (PPAR)-?\\/? Stimulates Differentiation and Lipid Accumulation in Keratinocytes  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) are nuclear hormone receptors that are activated by endogenous lipid metabolites. Previous studies have demonstrated that PPAR-? activation stimulates keratinocyte differentiation in vitro and in vivo, is anti-inflammatory, and improves barrier homeostasis. Recent studies have shown that PPAR-?\\/? activation induces keratinocyte differentiation in vitro. This study demonstrated that topical treatment of mice with a selective PPAR-?\\/?

Matthias Schmuth; Christopher M. Haqq; William J. Cairns; Julie C. Holder; Sheri Dorsam; Sandra Chang; Peggy Lau; Ashley J. Fowler; Gary Chuang; Arthur H. Moser; Barbara E. Brown; Man Mao-Qiang; Yoshikazu Uchida; Kristina Schoonjans; Johan Auwerx; P. Chambon; Timothy M. Willson; Peter M. Elias; Kenneth R. Feingold

2004-01-01

269

Effects of ligand activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor in human prostate cancer  

Microsoft Academic Search

Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) is a nuclear hormone receptor that plays a key role in the differentiation of adipocytes. Activation of this receptor in liposarcomas and breast and colon cancer cells also induces cell growth inhibition and differentiation. In the present study, we show that PPAR is expressed in human prostate adenocarcinomas and cell lines derived from these tumors. Activation

Elisabetta Mueller; Matthew Smith; Pasha Sarraf; Todd Kroll; Anita Aiyer; Donald S. Kaufman; William Oh; George Demetri; William D. Figg; Xiao-Ping Zhou; Charis Eng; Bruce M. Spiegelman; Philip W. Kantoff

2000-01-01

270

Hesperetin, a Selective Phosphodiesterase 4 Inhibitor, Effectively Suppresses Ovalbumin-Induced Airway Hyperresponsiveness without Influencing Xylazine/Ketamine-Induced Anesthesia  

PubMed Central

Hesperetin, a selective phosphodiesterase (PDE)4 inhibitor, is present in the traditional Chinese medicine, “Chen Pi.” Therefore, we were interested in investigating its effects on ovalbumin- (OVA-) induced airway hyperresponsiveness, and clarifying its rationale for ameliorating asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Hesperetin was revealed to have a therapeutic (PDE4H/PDE4L) ratio of >11. Hesperetin (10?~?30??mol/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) dose-dependently and significantly attenuated the airway hyperresponsiveness induced by methacholine. It also significantly suppressed the increases in total inflammatory cells, macrophages, lymphocytes, neutrophils, and eosinophils, and levels of cytokines, including interleukin (IL)-2, IL-4, IL-5, interferon-?, and tumor necrosis factor-? in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF). It dose-dependently and significantly suppressed total and OVA-specific immunoglobulin E levels in the BALF and serum. However, hesperetin did not influence xylazine/ketamine-induced anesthesia, suggesting that hesperetin has few or no emetic effects. In conclusion, the rationales for ameliorating allergic asthma and COPD by hesperetin are anti-inflammation, immunoregulation, and bronchodilation. PMID:22454667

Shih, Chung-Hung; Lin, Ling-Hung; Hsu, Hsin-Te; Wang, Kuo-Hsien; Lai, Chi-Yin; Chen, Chien-Ming; Ko, Wun-Chang

2012-01-01

271

Suppression of collagen-induced arthritis with a serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) derived from myxoma virus.  

PubMed

Many viruses encode virulence factors to facilitate their own survival by modulating a host's inflammatory response. One of these factors, secreted from cells infected with myxoma virus, is the serine proteinase inhibitor (serpin) Serp-1. Because Serp-1 had demonstrated anti-inflammatory properties in arterial injury models and viral infections, it was cloned and evaluated for therapeutic efficacy in collagen-induced arthritis (CIA). Clinical severity was significantly lower in the Serp-1 protocols (p<0.0001) and blinded radiographs indicated that the Serp-1 group had significantly less erosions than the controls (p<0.01). Delayed-type hypersensitivity was lower in the Serp-1 group but antibody titers to type II collagen were not significantly altered. Recipients had minimal histopathologic synovial changes and did not develop neutralizing antibodies to Serp-1. These results indicate that Serp-1 impedes the pathogenesis of CIA and suggests that the therapeutic potential of serine proteinase inhibitors in inflammatory joint diseases, such as rheumatoid arthritis, should be investigated further. PMID:24845791

Brahn, Ernest; Lee, Sarah; Lucas, Alexandra; McFadden, Grant; Macaulay, Colin

2014-08-01

272

TOPK inhibitor induces complete tumor regression in xenograft models of human cancer through inhibition of cytokinesis.  

PubMed

TOPK (T-lymphokine-activated killer cell-originated protein kinase) is highly and frequently transactivated in various cancer tissues, including lung and triple-negative breast cancers, and plays an indispensable role in the mitosis of cancer cells. We report the development of a potent TOPK inhibitor, OTS964 {(R)-9-(4-(1-(dimethylamino)propan-2-yl)phenyl)-8-hydroxy-6-methylthieno[2,3-c]quinolin-4(5H)-one}, which inhibits TOPK kinase activity with high affinity and selectivity. Similar to the knockdown effect of TOPK small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), this inhibitor causes a cytokinesis defect and the subsequent apoptosis of cancer cells in vitro as well as in xenograft models of human lung cancer. Although administration of the free compound induced hematopoietic adverse reactions (leukocytopenia associated with thrombocytosis), the drug delivered in a liposomal formulation effectively caused complete regression of transplanted tumors without showing any adverse reactions in mice. Our results suggest that the inhibition of TOPK activity may be a viable therapeutic option for the treatment of various human cancers. PMID:25338756

Matsuo, Yo; Park, Jae-Hyun; Miyamoto, Takashi; Yamamoto, Shinji; Hisada, Shoji; Alachkar, Houda; Nakamura, Yusuke

2014-10-22

273

Structures of Helicobacter pylori Shikimate Kinase Reveal a Selective Inhibitor-Induced-Fit Mechanism  

PubMed Central

Shikimate kinase (SK), which catalyzes the specific phosphorylation of the 3-hydroxyl group of shikimic acid in the presence of ATP, is the enzyme in the fifth step of the shikimate pathway for biosynthesis of aromatic amino acids. This pathway is present in bacteria, fungi, and plants but absent in mammals and therefore represents an attractive target pathway for the development of new antimicrobial agents, herbicides, and antiparasitic agents. Here we investigated the detailed structure–activity relationship of SK from Helicobacter pylori (HpSK). Site-directed mutagenesis and isothermal titration calorimetry studies revealed critical conserved residues (D33, F48, R57, R116, and R132) that interact with shikimate and are therefore involved in catalysis. Crystal structures of HpSK·SO4, R57A, and HpSK•shikimate-3-phosphate•ADP show a characteristic three-layer architecture and a conformationally elastic region consisting of F48, R57, R116, and R132, occupied by shikimate. The structure of the inhibitor complex, E114A•162535, was also determined, which revealed a dramatic shift in the elastic LID region and resulted in conformational locking into a distinctive form. These results reveal considerable insight into the active-site chemistry of SKs and a selective inhibitor-induced-fit mechanism. PMID:22438938

Wang, Hung-Jung; Hsu, Kai-Cheng; Lin, Shuang-Chih; Chen, Tzu-Jung; Yang, Jinn-Moon; Wang, Wen-Ching

2012-01-01

274

High throughput screening for small molecule inhibitors of heparin-induced tau fibril formation.  

PubMed

A library of approximately 51,000 compounds was interrogated by high throughput screening (HTS) using a heparin-induced tau fibrillization assay. HTS was conducted with bacterially expressed recombinant tau fragment K18 and the reaction was monitored by thioflavine T fluorescence. Hits meeting criteria set for selection in HTS were further evaluated in a panel of assays designed (a) to confirm the initial results and (b) to identify possible false positives arising from non-specific mechanisms or assay-dependent artifacts. Two 2,3-di(furan-2-yl)-quinoxalines were confirmed as inhibitors of tau fibrillization with IC(50)s in the low micromolar range (l-3 microM). Among false positive hits, members of the pyrimidotriazines, benzofurans, porphyrins, and anthraquinone, inhibited tau fibrillization by generating peroxides via catalytic redox cycles due to the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) in the assay. This study delineates focused strategies for HTS of tau fibrillization inhibitors that are relevant to drug discovery for Alzheimer's disease and related tauopathies. PMID:17482143

Crowe, Alex; Ballatore, Carlo; Hyde, Edward; Trojanowski, John Q; Lee, Virginia M-Y

2007-06-22

275

Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor (enalapril maleate) accelerates recovery of mouse skin from UVB-induced wrinkles  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) increases in UVB-irradiated skin. •Administration of an ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced skin wrinkle. •ACE inhibitor improved UVB-induced epidermal hypertrophy. •ACE inhibitor improved transepidermal water loss in the UVB-irradiated skin. -- Abstract: Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity and angiotensin II signaling regulate cell proliferation, differentiation, and tissue remodeling, as well as blood pressure, while in skin, angiotensin II signaling is involved in wound healing, inflammation, and pathological scar formation. Therefore, we hypothesized that angiotensin II is also involved in photoaging of skin. In this study, we examined the effect of enalapril maleate, an ACE inhibitor, on recovery of wrinkled skin of hairless mice exposed to long-term UVB irradiation. Immunohistochemical observation revealed that expression of ACE, angiotensin II, and angiotensin II type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) receptors in the skin was increased after UVB irradiation (3 times/week at increasing intensities for 8 weeks). Administration of enalapril maleate (5 times/week for 6 weeks, starting 1 week after 10-week irradiation) accelerated recovery from UVB-induced wrinkles, epidermal hyperplasia and epidermal barrier dysfunction, as compared with the vehicle control. Our results indicate that ACE and angiotensin II activity are involved in skin photoaging, and suggest that ACE inhibitor such as enalapril maleate may have potential for improvement of photoaged skin.

Matsuura-Hachiya, Yuko; Arai, Koji Y.; Ozeki, Rieko; Kikuta, Ayako; Nishiyama, Toshio, E-mail: toshio_n@cc.tuat.ac.jp

2013-12-06

276

Thrombocytopenia induced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat involves p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms.  

PubMed

Abexinostat is a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that demonstrates efficacy in malignancy treatment. Like other HDACi, this drug induces a profound thrombocytopenia whose mechanism is only partially understood. We have analyzed its effect at doses reached in patient plasma on in vitro megakaryopoiesis derived from human CD34(+) cells. When added at day 0 in culture, abexinostat inhibited CFU-MK growth, megakaryocyte (MK) proliferation and differentiation. These effects required only a short incubation period. Decreased proliferation was due to induction of apoptosis and was not related to a defect in TPO/MPL/JAK2/STAT signaling. When added later (day 8), the compound induced a dose-dependent decrease (up to 10-fold) in proplatelet (PPT) formation. Gene profiling from MK revealed a silencing in the expression of DNA repair genes with a marked RAD51 decrease at protein level. DNA double-strand breaks were increased as attested by elevated ?H2AX phosphorylation level. Moreover, ATM was phosphorylated leading to p53 stabilization and increased BAX and p21 expression. The use of a p53 shRNA rescued apoptosis, and only partially the defect in PPT formation. These results suggest that HDACi induces a thrombocytopenia by a p53-dependent mechanism along MK differentiation and a p53-dependent and -independent mechanism for PPT formation. PMID:23887629

Ali, A; Bluteau, O; Messaoudi, K; Palazzo, A; Boukour, S; Lordier, L; Lecluse, Y; Rameau, P; Kraus-Berthier, L; Jacquet-Bescond, A; Lelièvre, H; Depil, S; Dessen, P; Solary, E; Raslova, H; Vainchenker, W; Plo, I; Debili, N

2013-01-01

277

Glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) as 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase inhibitor exerts protective effect against glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis.  

PubMed

Rapid onset of bone loss is a frequent complication of systemic glucocorticoid therapy which may lead to fragility fractures. Glucocorticoid action in bone depends upon the activity of 11?-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 enzyme (11?-HSD1). Regulations of 11?-HSD1 activity may protect the bone against bone loss due to excess glucocorticoids. Glycyrrhizic acid (GCA) is a potent inhibitor of 11?-HSD. Treatment with GCA led to significant reduction in bone resorption markers. In this study we determined the effect of GCA on 11?-HSD1 activity in bones of glucocorticoid-induced osteoporotic rats. Thirty-six male Sprague-Dawley rats (aged 3 months and weighing 250-300 g) were divided randomly into groups of ten. (1) G1, sham operated group; (2) G2, adrenalectomized rats administered with intramuscular dexamethasone 120 ?g/kg/day and oral vehicle normal saline vehicle; and (3) G3, adrenalectomized rats administered with intramuscular dexamethasone 120 ?g/kg/day and oral GCA 120 mg/kg/day The results showed that GCA reduced plasma corticosterone concentration. GCA also reduced serum concentration of the bone resorption marker, pyridinoline and induced 11?-HSD1 dehydrogenase activity in the bone. GCA improved bone structure, which contributed to stronger bone. Therefore, GCA has the potential to be used as an agent to protect the bone against glucocorticoid induced osteoporosis. PMID:23274351

Ramli, Elvy Suhana Mohd; Suhaimi, Farihah; Asri, Siti Fadziyah Mohamad; Ahmad, Fairus; Soelaiman, Ima Nirwana

2013-05-01

278

Sensitization to UV-induced apoptosis by the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA)  

SciTech Connect

UV-induced apoptosis is a protective mechanism that is primarily caused by DNA damage. Cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers (CPD) and 6-4 photoproducts are the main DNA adducts triggered by UV radiation. Because the formation of DNA lesions in the chromatin is modulated by the structure of the nucleosomes, we postulated that modification of chromatin compaction could affect the formation of the lesions and consequently apoptosis. To verify this possibility we treated human colon carcinoma RKO cells with the histone deacetylase inhibitor trichostatin A (TSA) prior to exposure to UV radiation. Our data show that pre-treatment with TSA increased UV killing efficiency by more than threefold. This effect correlated with increased formation of CPDs and consequently apoptosis. On the other hand, TSA treatment after UV exposure rather than before had no more effect than UV radiation alone. This suggests that a primed (opened) chromatin status is required to sensitize the cells. Moreover, TSA sensitization to UV-induced apoptosis is p53 dependent. p53 and acetylation of the core histones may thus contribute to UV-induced apoptosis by modulating the formation of DNA lesions on chromatin.

Kim, Myoung Sook [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Head and Neck Cancer Research Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Baek, Jin Hyen; Chakravarty, Devulapalli [Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, School of Medicine, and Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland, 108 North Greene Street, Room 330, Baltimore, MD 21201-1503 (United States); Sidransky, David [Department of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Head and Neck Cancer Research Division, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD 21205 (United States); Carrier, France [Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Department, School of Medicine, and Greenebaum Cancer Center, University of Maryland, 108 North Greene Street, Room 330, Baltimore, MD 21201-1503 (United States)]. E-mail: fcarr001@umaryland.edu

2005-05-15

279

Thrombocytopenia induced by the histone deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat involves p53-dependent and -independent mechanisms  

PubMed Central

Abexinostat is a pan histone deacetylase inhibitor (HDACi) that demonstrates efficacy in malignancy treatment. Like other HDACi, this drug induces a profound thrombocytopenia whose mechanism is only partially understood. We have analyzed its effect at doses reached in patient plasma on in vitro megakaryopoiesis derived from human CD34+ cells. When added at day 0 in culture, abexinostat inhibited CFU-MK growth, megakaryocyte (MK) proliferation and differentiation. These effects required only a short incubation period. Decreased proliferation was due to induction of apoptosis and was not related to a defect in TPO/MPL/JAK2/STAT signaling. When added later (day 8), the compound induced a dose-dependent decrease (up to 10-fold) in proplatelet (PPT) formation. Gene profiling from MK revealed a silencing in the expression of DNA repair genes with a marked RAD51 decrease at protein level. DNA double-strand breaks were increased as attested by elevated ?H2AX phosphorylation level. Moreover, ATM was phosphorylated leading to p53 stabilization and increased BAX and p21 expression. The use of a p53 shRNA rescued apoptosis, and only partially the defect in PPT formation. These results suggest that HDACi induces a thrombocytopenia by a p53-dependent mechanism along MK differentiation and a p53-dependent and -independent mechanism for PPT formation. PMID:23887629

Ali, A; Bluteau, O; Messaoudi, K; Palazzo, A; Boukour, S; Lordier, L; Lecluse, Y; Rameau, P; Kraus-Berthier, L; Jacquet-Bescond, A; Lelièvre, H; Depil, S; Dessen, P; Solary, E; Raslova, H; Vainchenker, W; Plo, I; Debili, N

2013-01-01

280

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha inhibitor TOFA induces human cancer cell apoptosis.  

PubMed

Acetyl-CoA carboxylase-alpha (ACCA) is a rate-limiting enzyme in long chain fatty acid synthesis, playing a critical role in cellular energy storage and lipid synthesis. ACCA is upregulated in multiple types of human cancers and small interfering RNA-mediated ACCA silencing in human breast and prostate cancer cells results in oxidative stress and apoptosis. This study reports for the first time that TOFA (5-tetradecyloxy-2-furoic acid), an allosteric inhibitor of ACCA, is cytotoxic to lung cancer cells NCI-H460 and colon carcinoma cells HCT-8 and HCT-15, with an IC(50) at approximately 5.0, 5.0, and 4.5 microg/ml, respectively. TOFA at 1.0-20.0 microg/ml effectively blocked fatty acid synthesis and induced cell death in a dose-dependent manner. The cell death was characterized with PARP cleavage, DNA fragmentation, and annexin-V staining, all of which are the features of the apoptosis. Supplementing simultaneously the cells with palmitic acids (100 microM), the end-products of the fatty acid synthesis pathway, prevented the apoptosis induced by TOFA. Taken together, these data suggest that TOFA is a potent cytotoxic agent to lung and colon cancer cells, inducing apoptosis through disturbing their fatty acid synthesis. PMID:19450551

Wang, Chun; Xu, Canxin; Sun, Mingwei; Luo, Dixian; Liao, Duan-Fang; Cao, Deliang

2009-07-31

281

Selective inhibitors of the FK506-binding protein 51 by induced fit.  

PubMed

The FK506-binding protein 51 (FKBP51, encoded by the FKBP5 gene) is an established risk factor for stress-related psychiatric disorders such as major depression. Drug discovery for FKBP51 has been hampered by the inability to pharmacologically differentiate against the structurally similar but functional opposing homolog FKBP52, and all known FKBP ligands are unselective. Here, we report the discovery of the potent and highly selective inhibitors of FKBP51, SAFit1 and SAFit2. This new class of ligands achieves selectivity for FKBP51 by an induced-fit mechanism that is much less favorable for FKBP52. By using these ligands, we demonstrate that selective inhibition of FKBP51 enhances neurite elongation in neuronal cultures and improves neuroendocrine feedback and stress-coping behavior in mice. Our findings provide the structural and functional basis for the development of mechanistically new antidepressants. PMID:25436518

Gaali, Steffen; Kirschner, Alexander; Cuboni, Serena; Hartmann, Jakob; Kozany, Christian; Balsevich, Georgia; Namendorf, Christian; Fernandez-Vizarra, Paula; Sippel, Claudia; Zannas, Anthony S; Draenert, Rika; Binder, Elisabeth B; Almeida, Osborne F X; Rühter, Gerd; Uhr, Manfred; Schmidt, Mathias V; Touma, Chadi; Bracher, Andreas; Hausch, Felix

2015-01-01

282

Management of diarrhea induced by epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Treatment for non-small-cell lung cancer (nsclc) is moving away from traditional chemotherapy toward personalized medicine. The reversible tyrosine kinase inhibitors (tkis) erlotinib and gefitinib were developed to target the epidermal growth factor receptor (egfr). Afatinib, an irreversible ErbB family blocker, was developed to block egfr (ErbB1), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (ErbB2), and ErbB4 signalling, and transphosphorylation of ErbB3. All of the foregoing agents are efficacious in treating nsclc, and their adverse event profile is different from that of chemotherapy. Two of the most common adverse events with egfr tkis are rash and diarrhea. Here, we focus on diarrhea. The key to successful management of diarrhea is to treat early and aggressively using patient education, diet, and antidiarrheal medications such as loperamide. We also present strategies for the effective assessment and management of egfr tki–induced diarrhea. PMID:25489260

Hirsh, V.; Blais, N.; Burkes, R.; Verma, S.; Croitoru, K.

2014-01-01

283

Inhibitors of ethylene synthesis inhibit auxin-induced stomatal opening in epidermis detached from leaves of Vicia faba L.  

PubMed

Using leaf epidermis from Vicia faba, we tested whether auxin-induced stomatal opening was initiated by auxin-induced ethylene synthesis. Epidermis was dark-incubated in buffered KNO3 containing 0.1 mM alpha-napthalene acetic acid or 1 mM indole-3-acetic acid. Maximum net opening was ca. 4 micron after 6 h. Opening was reversed by 20 microM ABA, 0.1 mM CaCl2. 1-Aminocyclopropane carboxylic acid (ACC) synthase catalyzes synthesis of ACC, the immediate precursor to ethylene. Auxin-induced stomatal opening was fully inhibited by 10 microM 1-aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG), an ACC synthase inhibitor. In solutions containing AVG, auxin-induced opening was restored in a concentration-dependent manner by exogenous ACC, but not in control solutions lacking an auxin. ACC-mediated reversal of AVG-inhibition of stomatal opening was inhibited by alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (AIB), an inhibitor of ACC oxidase, the last enzyme in the ethylene biosynthetic pathway, by 10 microM silver thiosulfate (STS), an inhibitor of ethylene action, and by 20 microM ABA, 0.1 mM CaCl2. CoCl2, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, also inhibited auxin-induced opening. Both STS and CoCl2 inhibited opening induced by light or by fusicoccin, but neither light- nor fusicoccin-induced opening was inhibited by AVG. These results support the hypothesis that auxin-induced stomatal opening is mediated through auxin-induced ethylene production by guard cells. PMID:11230577

Merritt, F; Kemper, A; Tallman, G

2001-02-01

284

Peroxin Puzzles and Folded Freight: Peroxisomal Protein Import in Review  

NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

Peroxisomes are organelles that perform a variety of functions, including the metabolism of hydrogen peroxide and the oxidation of fatty acids. Peroxisomes do not possess organellar DNA; all peroxisomal matrix proteins are posttranslationally translocated into the organelle. The mechanism of peroxisomal protein translocation has been the subject of vigorous research in the past decade. Many of the proteins (peroxins, abbreviated Pex) that play critical roles in peroxisome biogenesis have been identified through functional complementation of yeast strains and of Chinese hamster ovary cell lines that are defective in peroxisome biogenesis. Researchers are now turning towards biochemical and genetic analyses of these peroxins to define their roles in peroxisome biogenesis and to discover interacting protein partners. Evidence suggests that some of the interacting partners include molecular chaperones. Several current models for peroxisomal protein import are presented.

Crookes, Wendy J.; Olsen, Laura J.

285

The Kinase Inhibitor Sorafenib Induces Cell Death through a Process Involving Induction of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress? †  

PubMed Central

Sorafenib is a multikinase inhibitor that induces apoptosis in human leukemia and other malignant cells. Recently, we demonstrated that sorafenib diminishes Mcl-1 protein expression by inhibiting translation through a MEK1/2-ERK1/2 signaling-independent mechanism and that this phenomenon plays a key functional role in sorafenib-mediated lethality. Here, we report that inducible expression of constitutively active MEK1 fails to protect cells from sorafenib-mediated lethality, indicating that sorafenib-induced cell death is unrelated to MEK1/2-ERK1/2 pathway inactivation. Notably, treatment with sorafenib induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in human leukemia cells (U937) manifested by immediate cytosolic-calcium mobilization, GADD153 and GADD34 protein induction, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK) and eukaryotic initiation factor 2? (eIF2?) phosphorylation, XBP1 splicing, and a general reduction in protein synthesis as assessed by [35S]methionine incorporation. These events were accompanied by pronounced generation of reactive oxygen species through a mechanism dependent upon cytosolic-calcium mobilization and a significant decline in GRP78/Bip protein levels. Interestingly, enforced expression of IRE1? markedly reduced sorafenib-mediated apoptosis, whereas knockdown of IRE1? or XBP1, disruption of PERK activity, or inhibition of eIF2? phosphorylation enhanced sorafenib-mediated lethality. Finally, downregulation of caspase-2 or caspase-4 by small interfering RNA significantly diminished apoptosis induced by sorafenib. Together, these findings demonstrate that ER stress represents a central component of a MEK1/2-ERK1/2-independent cell death program triggered by sorafenib. PMID:17548474

Rahmani, Mohamed; Davis, Eric Maynard; Crabtree, Timothy Ryan; Habibi, Joseph Reza; Nguyen, Tri K.; Dent, Paul; Grant, Steven

2007-01-01

286

Silencing of the polyamine catabolic key enzyme SSAT prevents CDK inhibitor-induced apoptosis in Caco-2 colon cancer cells  

PubMed Central

Roscovitine and purvalanol are purine derivative cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors that induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. However, their impact on the apoptotic cell death mechanism requires further elucidation. Natural polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine play essential roles in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Increased levels of polyamines in cells are considered to be involved in cancer progression. Intracellular polyamine levels are under the control of several catabolic enzymes, such as spermidine/spermine-N-acetyl transferase (SSAT), acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO) and spermine oxidase (SMO), which could be altered by several therapeutic drugs. However, the possible role of polyamines in drug-induced apoptosis has yet to be clarified. In the present study, our aim was to determine the modulation of the polyamine catabolic pathway related to CDK inhibitor-induced apoptosis in Caco-2 cells. We found that roscovitine and purvalanol (each 20 ?M) induced apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and -3, and inhibiting the mitochondrial membrane potential in Caco-2 cells. CDK inhibitors decreased the intracellular putrescine and spermine levels without affecting spermidine levels. Although both roscovitine and purvalanol induced SSAT expression, they did not exert a significant effect on the APAO expression profile. SSAT transient silencing prevented roscovitine-induced apoptosis compared to parental cells. Thus, we concluded that roscovitine and purvalanol significantly induce apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by modulating the polyamine catabolism, and that SSAT could be an important target in evaluating the potential role of polyamines in apoptotic cell death. PMID:22294330

ÇOKER, A.; ARISAN, E.D.; PALAVAN-ÜNSAL, N.

2012-01-01

287

Silencing of the polyamine catabolic key enzyme SSAT prevents CDK inhibitor-induced apoptosis in Caco-2 colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

Roscovitine and purvalanol are purine derivative cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitors that induce apoptosis in various types of cancer cells. However, their impact on the apoptotic cell death mechanism requires further elucidation. Natural polyamines putrescine, spermidine and spermine play essential roles in the regulation of cell growth and proliferation. Increased levels of polyamines in cells are considered to be involved in cancer progression. Intracellular polyamine levels are under the control of several catabolic enzymes, such as spermidine/spermine-N-acetyl transferase (SSAT), acetylpolyamine oxidase (APAO) and spermine oxidase (SMO), which could be altered by several therapeutic drugs. However, the possible role of polyamines in drug-induced apoptosis has yet to be clarified. In the present study, our aim was to determine the modulation of the polyamine catabolic pathway related to CDK inhibitor-induced apoptosis in Caco-2 cells. We found that roscovitine and purvalanol (each 20 µM) induced apoptosis by activating caspase-9 and -3, and inhibiting the mitochondrial membrane potential in Caco-2 cells. CDK inhibitors decreased the intracellular putrescine and spermine levels without affecting spermidine levels. Although both roscovitine and purvalanol induced SSAT expression, they did not exert a significant effect on the APAO expression profile. SSAT transient silencing prevented roscovitine-induced apoptosis compared to parental cells. Thus, we concluded that roscovitine and purvalanol significantly induce apoptosis in Caco-2 cells by modulating the polyamine catabolism, and that SSAT could be an important target in evaluating the potential role of polyamines in apoptotic cell death. PMID:22294330

Çoker, A; Ar?san, E D; Palavan-Ünsal, N

2012-04-01

288

Factor-Xa inhibitors protect against systemic oxidant damage induced by peripheral-ischemia reperfusion.  

PubMed

Factor-Xa inhibitors are often used for prophylaxis and for the treatment of thrombotic vascular disorders. However, it is not known whether they are beneficial during the recanalization of the thrombotic vascular segment and during tissue reperfusion. Herein, we describe an animal study that was designed to investigate the possible protective effects and antioxidant properties of factor-Xa inhibitors. Forty rats were included in the study and were randomly divided into five equal groups. The first group served as a control group from which we obtained basal oxidant and antioxidant parameters. Peripheral ischemia was induced in the second group (sham group) for 6 h, and plasma levels of nitrogen oxide (NOx), prolidase and malondialdehyde (MDA) were obtained after 30 min of reperfusion. The sham group did not receive any drugs. Oral rivaroxaban (3 mg/kg) was administrated to Group III, intraperitoneal enoxaparin sodium (250 U/kg) was administrated to Group IV, and intraperitoneal bemiparine sodium (250 U/kg) was administrated to Group V 1 week prior to the induction of peripheral ischemia (for 6 h)-reperfusion. After 30 min of reperfusion, blood samples were obtained and NOx, prolidase and MDA levels in these groups were detected, and the rats were sacrificed. NOx levels were statistically similar (p > 0.05) between Groups I, II, III, IV, and V (20.7 ± 10.4, 17.4 ± 9.7, 25.9 ± 24.2, 27.0 ± 11.9, 23.3 ± 17.3 ?mol/L, respectively). MDA levels were significantly lower (p < 0.05) in Groups III (rivaroxaban), IV (enoxaparin sodium), and V (bemiparine sodium) (24.9 ± 11.9, 25.9 ± 4.4, 25.4 ± 10.8 ?mol/L, respectively) when compared with the sham group (Group II) (75.6 ± 24.3 ?mol/L). Prolidase levels were higher (p > 0.05) in the ischemia reperfusion groups (659.2 ± 130.6 in II (sham), 1,741.0 ± 1,530.6 in III (rivaroxaban), 2,453.8 ± 1,590.4 in IV (enoxaparin sodium), and 889.2 ± 574.7 U/g in V (bemiparine sodium) than in the control group (144.6 ± 131.8 U/g). Ischemia-reperfusion events may occur in prothrombotic disorders. During these events, prophylactic or therapeutic factor-Xa inhibitors can protect against thrombosis and oxidative reperfusion injury. The new oral factor-Xa inhibitor, rivaroxaban, appears to provide the same antioxidant support as injectable low molecular weight heparins (LMWHs). PMID:24218342

Caliskan, Ahmet; Yavuz, Celal; Karahan, Oguz; Yazici, Suleyman; Guclu, Orkut; Demirtas, Sinan; Mavitas, Binali

2014-05-01

289

Mitigation and Treatment of Radiation-Induced Thoracic Injury With a Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibitor, Celecoxib  

SciTech Connect

Purpose: To test whether a cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor (celecoxib) could reduce mortality resulting from radiation-induced pneumonitis. Methods and Materials: Celecoxib was given to mice twice daily for 40 consecutive days starting on the day of local thoracic irradiation (LTI) or 40 or 80 days later. C3Hf/KamLaw mice were observed for morbidity, and time to death was determined. Results were analyzed using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results: Timing of celecoxib relative to LTI determined efficacy. A significant reduction in time to death was achieved only when celecoxib was started 80 days after LTI, corresponding to the time when pneumonitis is expressed. For these mice the reduction in mortality was quantified as a hazard ratio for mortality of treated vs untreated of 0.36 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.24-0.53), thus significantly less than 1.0. Correspondingly, the median lethal dose for treated mice (12.9 Gy; 95% CI 12.55-13.25 Gy) was significantly (P=.026) higher than for untreated mice (12.4 Gy; 95% CI 12.2-12.65 Gy). Conclusions: Celecoxib significantly reduced lung toxicity when administered months after LTI when the deleterious effects of radiation were expressed. The schedule-dependent reduction in fatal pneumonitis suggests that celecoxib could be clinically useful by reintroduction of treatment months after completion of radiation therapy. These findings may be important for designing clinical trials using cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors to treat radiation-induced lung toxicity as a complement to concurrent radiation therapy of lung cancers.

Hunter, Nancy R.; Valdecanas, David [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Liao Zhongxing [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Division of Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Milas, Luka [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Thames, Howard D. [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)] [Department of Biostatistics, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States); Mason, Kathy A., E-mail: kmason@mdanderson.org [Department of Experimental Radiation Oncology, University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, Texas (United States)

2013-02-01

290

A Small Molecule Inhibitor of Ubiquitin-Specific Protease-7 Induces Apoptosis in Multiple Myeloma Cells and Overcomes Bortezomib Resistance  

PubMed Central

Summary Bortezomib therapy has proven successful for the treatment of relapsed/refractory, relapsed and newly diagnosed multiple myeloma (MM); however, dose-limiting toxicities and the development of resistance limit its long-term utility. Here we show that P5091 is an inhibitor of deubiquitylating enzyme USP7, which induces apoptosis in MM cells resistant to conventional and bortezomib therapies. Biochemical and genetic studies show that blockade of HDM2 and p21 abrogates P5091-induced cytotoxicity. In animal tumor model studies, P5091 is well tolerated, inhibits tumor growth, and prolongs survival. Combining P5091 with lenalidomide, HDAC inhibitor SAHA, or dexamethasone triggers synergistic anti-MM activity. Our preclinical study therefore supports clinical evaluation of USP7 inhibitor, alone or in combination, as a potential MM therapy. PMID:22975377

Chauhan, Dharminder; Tian, Ze; Nicholson, Benjamin; Kumar, KG Suresh; Zhou, Bin; Carrasco, Ruben; McDermott, Jeffrey L.; Leach, Craig A.; Fulcinniti, Mariaterresa; Kodrasov, Matthew P.; Weinstock, Joseph; Kingsbury, William D.; Hideshima, Teru; Shah, Parantu K.; Minvielle, Stephane; Altun, Mikael; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Orlowski, Robert; Richardson, Paul; Munshi, Nikhil; Anderson, Kenneth C.

2012-01-01

291

Targeting NF-B pathway with an IKK2 inhibitor induces inhibition of multiple myeloma cell growth  

E-print Network

1 Targeting NF-B pathway with an IKK2 inhibitor induces inhibition of multiple myeloma cell growth derivative AS602868, on the in vitro growth of 14 human MM cell lines (HMCL) and primary cells from 13-dependent inhibition of MM cell growth, which is the result of a simultaneous induction of apoptosis and inhibition

Paris-Sud XI, Université de

292

Generalised Pustular Psoriasis Induced by Cyclosporin A Withdrawal Responding to the Tumour Necrosis Factor Alpha Inhibitor Etanercept  

Microsoft Academic Search

We report a 50-year-old male patient with a 15-year history of psoriasis including mutilating psoriatic arthritis, in whom the withdrawal of cyclosporin A induced a generalised pustular exacerbation and a aggravation of the joint condition. Two weekly injections of 25 mg of the tumour necrosis factor ? inhibitor etanercept led to a rapid improvement of his psoriatic arthritis, as well

J. Kamarashev; P. Lor; A. Forster; L. Heinzerling; G. Burg; F. O. Nestle

2002-01-01

293

Changes in Metalloproteinase and Tissue Inhibitor of Metalloproteinase during Tachycardia-Induced Cardiomyopathy by Rapid Atrial Pacing in Dogs  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background: It was the aim of this study to investigate the variation in metalloproteinase and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP) connexin levels during tachycardia-induced cardiomyopathy (TIC). Methods: Canine models of TIC were established by rapid right atrial pacing at 350–400 beats per min for 8 weeks in 11 dogs, with another 6 dogs acting as sham operation group. Echocardiography, left

Jing-quan Zhong; Wei Zhang; Yan Li; Ming Zhong; Duoling Li; Cheng Zhang; Yun Zhang

2006-01-01

294

3Hydroxy3-Methylglutaryl Coenzyme A Reductase and Isoprenylation Inhibitors Induce Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells in Culture  

Microsoft Academic Search

Recent evidence suggests that apoptosis may be involved in the control of vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) number in atherosclerotic lesions. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors have been reported to induce apoptosis in a variety of tumor cell lines. To evaluate whether these agents also induce apoptosis of VSMCs, cultured rat VSMCs were treated with increasing doses of atorvastatin

Carlos Guijarro; Luis Miguel Blanco-Colio; Monica Ortego; Covadonga Alonso; Alberto Ortiz; Juan JosePlaza; Cristina Diaz; Gonzalo Hernandez; Jesus Egido

295

The role of C/EBP homologous protein in HIV protease inhibitor-induced hepatic lipotoxicity  

PubMed Central

HIV protease inhibitors (HIV PIs) are the core components of highly active antiretroviral therapies (HAART), which has been successfully used in treatment of HIV-1 infection in the past two decades. However, benefits of HIV PIs are compromised by clinically important adverse effects such as dyslipidemia, insulin resistance and cardiovascular complications. We have previously shown that activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a critical role in HIV PI-induced dysregulation of hepatic lipid metabolism. HIV PI-induced hepatic lipotoxicity is closely linked to the upregulation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in hepatocytes. To further investigate whether CHOP is responsible for HIV PI-induced hepatic lipotoxicity, C57BL/6J wild-type (WT) or CHOP knockout (CHOP?/?) mice or the corresponding primary mouse hepatocytes were used in this study. Both in vitro and in vivo studies indicated that HIV PIs (ritonavir and lopinavir) significantly increased hepatic lipid accumulation in WT mice. In contrast, CHOP?/? mice showed a significant reduction in hepatic triglyceride accumulation and liver injury as evidenced by H&E staining and Oil Red O staining. Real-time RT-PCR and immunoblot data showed that in the absence of CHOP, HIV PI-induced expression of stress-related proteins and lipogenic genes was dramatically reduced. Furthermore, TNF-? and IL-6 levels in serum and livers were significantly lower in HIV PI-treated CHOP?/? mice compared to HIV PI-treated WT mice. CONCLUSION Taken together, these data suggest that CHOP is an important molecular link of ER stress, inflammation and hepatic lipotoxicity and increased expression of CHOP represents a critical factor underlying events leading to hepatic injury. PMID:23080229

Wang, Yun; Zhang, Luyong; Wu, Xudong; Gurley, Emily C.; Kennedy, Elaine; Hylemon, Phillip B; Pandak, William M; Sanyal, Arun J; Zhou, Huiping

2012-01-01

296

Substituted piperidines - highly potent renin inhibitors due to induced fit adaptation of the active site  

Microsoft Academic Search

The identification, synthesis and activity of a novel class of piperidine renin inhibitors is presented. The most active compounds show activities in the picomolar range and are among the most potent renin inhibitors ever identified.

Eric Vieira; Alfred Binggeli; Volker Breu; Daniel Bur; Walter Fischli; Rolf Güller; Georges Hirth; Hans Peter Märki; Marcel Müller; Christian Oefner; Michelangelo Scalone; Heinz Stadler; Maurice Wihelm; Wolfgang Wostl

1999-01-01

297

The Proteome of Human Liver Peroxisomes: Identification of Five New Peroxisomal Constituents by a Label-Free Quantitative Proteomics Survey  

PubMed Central

The peroxisome is a key organelle of low abundance that fulfils various functions essential for human cell metabolism. Severe genetic diseases in humans are caused by defects in peroxisome biogenesis or deficiencies in the function of single peroxisomal proteins. To improve our knowledge of this important cellular structure, we studied for the first time human liver peroxisomes by quantitative proteomics. Peroxisomes were isolated by differential and Nycodenz density gradient centrifugation. A label-free quantitative study of 314 proteins across the density gradient was accomplished using high resolution mass spectrometry. By pairing statistical data evaluation, cDNA cloning and in vivo colocalization studies, we report the association of five new proteins with human liver peroxisomes. Among these, isochorismatase domain containing 1 protein points to the existence of a new metabolic pathway and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase like 2 protein is likely involved in the transport or ?-oxidation of fatty acids in human peroxisomes. The detection of alcohol dehydrogenase 1A suggests the presence of an alternative alcohol-oxidizing system in hepatic peroxisomes. In addition, lactate dehydrogenase A and malate dehydrogenase 1 partially associate with human liver peroxisomes and enzyme activity profiles support the idea that NAD+ becomes regenerated during fatty acid ?-oxidation by alternative shuttling processes in human peroxisomes involving lactate dehydrogenase and/or malate dehydrogenase. Taken together, our data represent a valuable resource for future studies of peroxisome biochemistry that will advance research of human peroxisomes in health and disease. PMID:23460848

Ofman, Rob; Bunse, Christian; Pawlas, Magdalena; Hayen, Heiko; Eisenacher, Martin; Stephan, Christian; Meyer, Helmut E.; Waterham, Hans R.; Erdmann, Ralf; Wanders, Ronald J.; Warscheid, Bettina

2013-01-01

298

A lysophosphatidic acid analogue is revealed as a potent inhibitor of phosphatidylcholine synthesis, inducing apoptosis.  

PubMed Central

A previous study demonstrated that cross-desensitization experiments performed with the lysophosphatidic acid (LPA) analogues (R)- and (S)-N-palmitoyl-norleucinol 1-phosphate (PNPAs) inhibited LPA-induced platelet aggregation without any stereospecificity. Here we report opposite biological effects of the two enantiomers on mitogenesis of IMR-90 fibroblasts in relation to their respective metabolism. (R)PNPA was proliferative, while (S)PNPA induced apoptosis by specifically inhibiting phosphatidylcholine biosynthesis at the last step of the CDP-choline pathway controlled by cholinephosphotransferase. This effect was not direct but required dephosphorylation of PNPAs by ecto-lipid phosphate phosphatase before cellular uptake of the generated N-palmitoyl-norleucinols (PNOHs). Inhibition of cholinephosphotransferase by the derivative (S)PNOH was confirmed by an in vitro assay. (S)PNPA proapoptotic effects led us to clarify the mechanism linking cholinephosphotransferase inhibition to apoptosis. Three proapoptotic responses were observed: the activation of caspase-3, the production of ceramides from newly synthesized pools (as demonstrated by the inhibitor Fumonisin B1) and finally the activation of stress-activated protein kinase, p38 and c-Jun N-terminal kinases 1/2, as a result of ceramide increase. Thus our data demonstrate that synthetic analogues of LPA might display stereospecific effects leading to apoptosis independently of classical LPA-activated pathways. PMID:12197836

Gueguen, Geneviéve; Granci, Virginie; Rogalle, Pierre; Briand-Mésange, Fabienne; Wilson, Michéle; Klaébé, Alain; Tercé, François; Chap, Hugues; Salles, Jean-Pierre; Simon, Marie-Françoise; Gaits, Frédérique

2002-01-01

299

Neuroprotective role of phosphodiesterase inhibitor ibudilast on neuronal cell death induced by activated microglia.  

PubMed

The phosphodiesterase inhibitor, ibudilast, has many effects on lymphocytes, endothelial cells, and glial cells. We examined the neuroprotective role of ibudilast in neuron and microglia co-cultures. Ibudilast significantly suppressed neuronal cell death induced by the activation of microglia with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and interferon (IFN)-gamma. To examine the mechanisms by which ibudilast exerts a neuroprotective role against the activation of microglia, we examined the production of inflammatory and anti-inflammatory mediators and trophic factors following ibudilast treatment. In a dose-dependent manner, ibudilast suppressed the production of nitric oxide (NO), reactive oxygen species, interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha and enhanced the production of the inhibitory cytokine, IL-10, and additional neurotrophic factors, including nerve growth factor (NGF), glia-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF), and neurotrophin (NT)-4 in activated microglia. Thus, ibudilast-mediated neuroprotection was primarily due to the inhibition of inflammatory mediators and the upregulation of neurotrophic factor. In the CA1 region of hippocampal slices, long-term potentiation (LTP) induced by high frequency stimulation (HFS) could be inhibited with LPS and interferon-gamma stimulation. Ibudilast returned this LTP inhibition to the levels observed in controls. These results suggest that ibudilast may be a useful neuroprotective and anti-dementia agent counteracting neurotoxicity in activated microglia. PMID:14975696

Mizuno, Tetsuya; Kurotani, Tohru; Komatsu, Yukio; Kawanokuchi, Jun; Kato, Hideki; Mitsuma, Norimasa; Suzumura, Akio

2004-03-01

300

Development of a rat model of oral small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced diarrhea.  

PubMed

Orally administered small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) are increasingly common treatments for cancer, both alone and in combination with chemotherapy. However, their side effect profiles and the underlying mechanisms of such are not yet fully elucidated. Management of their most common dose limiting side effect, diarrhea, has been hampered by a lack of suitable animal models. We aimed to develop a clinically relevant rat model of RTKI-induced diarrhea that could be utilized for investigating supportive care interventions and pharmacokinetics. Albino Wistar rats were treated daily for 4 weeks with various concentrations of lapatinib to determine the optimal dose for development of diarrhea. This was then followed by an experiment with addition of paclitaxel once weekly for 4 weeks to observe effects of combination drug treatment on diarrhea. Data regarding animal tolerance to the treatment, organ weights, circulating lapatinib concentration and histopathology were collected weekly. Lapatinib caused diarrhea in rats that was dose-dependent. Diarrhea occurred without causing significant intestinal histopathology. Follow up experiments are currently underway to determine the exact pathogenesis and mechanisms of lapatinib-induced diarrhea and potential protective strategies. PMID:22895076

Bowen, Joanne M; Mayo, Bronwen J; Plews, Erin; Bateman, Emma; Stringer, Andrea M; Boyle, Frances M; Finnie, John W; Keefe, Dorothy M K

2012-11-01

301

Development of a rat model of oral small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor-induced diarrhea  

PubMed Central

Orally administered small molecule receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (RTKIs) are increasingly common treatments for cancer, both alone and in combination with chemotherapy. However, their side effect profiles and the underlying mechanisms of such are not yet fully elucidated. Management of their most common dose limiting side effect, diarrhea, has been hampered by a lack of suitable animal models. We aimed to develop a clinically relevant rat model of RTKI-induced diarrhea that could be utilized for investigating supportive care interventions and pharmacokinetics. Albino Wistar rats were treated daily for 4 weeks with various concentrations of lapatinib to determine the optimal dose for development of diarrhea. This was then followed by an experiment with addition of paclitaxel once weekly for 4 weeks to observe effects of combination drug treatment on diarrhea. Data regarding animal tolerance to the treatment, organ weights, circulating lapatinib concentration and histopathology were collected weekly. Lapatinib caused diarrhea in rats that was dose-dependent. Diarrhea occurred without causing significant intestinal histopathology. Follow up experiments are currently underway to determine the exact pathogenesis and mechanisms of lapatinib-induced diarrhea and potential protective strategies. PMID:22895076

Bowen, Joanne M.; Mayo, Bronwen J.; Plews, Erin; Bateman, Emma; Stringer, Andrea M.; Boyle, Frances M.; Finnie, John W.; Keefe, Dorothy M.K.

2012-01-01

302

Bortezomib-induced “BRCAness” sensitizes multiple myeloma cells to PARP inhibitors  

PubMed Central

Chromosomal instability is a defining feature of clonal myeloma plasma cells that results in the perpetual accumulation of genomic aberrations. In addition to its role in protein homeostasis, the ubiquitin-proteasome system is also involved in the regulation of DNA damage-repair proteins. In the present study, we show that proteasome inhibition induces a “BRCAness” state in myeloma cells (MM), with depletion of their nuclear pool of ubiquitin and abrogation of H2AX polyubiquitylation, an essential step for the recruitment of BRCA1 and RAD51 to the sites of DNA double-stranded breaks (DSBs) and the initiation of homologous recombination (HR)–mediated DNA repair. Inhibition of poly-ADP-ribose-polymerase 1 and 2 (PARP1/2) with ABT-888 induced transient DNA DSBs that were rapidly resolved and thus had no effect on viability of the MM cells. In contrast, cotreatment of MM cell lines and primary CD138+ cells with bortezomib and ABT-888 resulted in the sustained accumulation of unrepaired DNA DSBs with persistence of unubiquitylated ?H2AX foci, lack of recruitment of BRCA1 and RAD51, and ensuing MM-cell death. The heightened cytotoxicity of ABT-888 in combination with bortezomib compared with either drug alone was also confirmed in MM xenografts in SCID mice. Our studies indicate that bortezomib impairs HR in MM and results in a contextual synthetic lethality when combined with PARP inhibitors. PMID:21917757

Neri, Paola; Ren, Li; Gratton, Kathy; Stebner, Erin; Johnson, Jordan; Klimowicz, Alexander; Duggan, Peter; Tassone, Pierfrancesco; Mansoor, Adnan; Stewart, Douglas A.; Lonial, Sagar; Boise, Lawrence H.

2011-01-01

303

Human interferon-inducible protein 10 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis  

E-print Network

Human interferon-inducible protein 10 (IP-10), a member of the ot chemokine family, inhibits bone marrow colony formation, has antitumor activity in vivo, is chemoattractant for human monocytes and T cells, and promotes T cell adhesion to endothelial cells. Here we report that IP-10 is a potent inhibitor of angiogenesis in vivo. IP-10 profoundly inhibited basic fibroblast growth factor-induced neovascularization of Matrigel (prepared by H. K. Kleinman) injected subcutaneously into athymic mice. In addition, IP-10, in a dose-dependent fashion, suppressed endothelial cell differentiation into tubular capillary structures in vitro. IP-10 had no effect on endothelial cell growth, attachment, and migration as assayed in vitro. These results document an important biological property of IP-10 and raise the possibility that IP-10 may participate in the regulation of angiogenesis during inflammation and tumorigenesis. ngiogenesis, the process of generating new blood vessels leading to neovascularization, is essential during reproduction, embryonic development, tissue and organ growth, and wound healing (1). Unbalanced neovascularization is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of certain disease states,

L. Angiolillo; Cecilia Sgadari; Dennis D. Taub; Hynda K. Kleinman; Gregory H. Keaman; Giovanna Tosato

1995-01-01

304

Topoisomerase I inhibitor, camptothecin, induces apoptogenic signaling in human embryonic stem cells.  

PubMed

Embryonic stem cells (ESCs) need to maintain their genomic integrity in response to DNA damage to safeguard the integrity of the organism. DNA double strand breaks (DSBs) are one of the most lethal forms of DNA damage and, if not repaired correctly, they can lead to cell death, genomic instability and cancer. How human ESCs (hESCs) maintain genomic integrity in response to agents that cause DSBs is relatively unclear. In the present study we aim to determine the hESC response to the DSB inducing agent camptothecin (CPT). We find that hESCs are hypersensitive to CPT, as evidenced by high levels of apoptosis. CPT treatment leads to DNA-damage sensor kinase (ATM and DNA-PKcs) phosphorylation on serine 1981 and serine 2056, respectively. Activation of ATM and DNA-PKcs was followed by histone H2AX phosphorylation on Ser 139, a sensitive reporter of DNA damage. Nuclear accumulation and ATM-dependent phosphorylation of p53 on serine 15 were also observed. Remarkably, hESC viability was further decreased when ATM or DNA-PKcs kinase activity was impaired by the use of specific inhibitors. The hypersensitivity to CPT treatment was markedly reduced by blocking p53 translocation to mitochondria with pifithrin-?. Importantly, programmed cell death was achieved in the absence of the cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor, p21(Waf1), a bona fide p53 target gene. Conversely, differentiated hESCs were no longer highly sensitive to CPT. This attenuated apoptotic response was accompanied by changes in cell cycle profile and by the presence of p21(Waf1). The results presented here suggest that p53 has a key involvement in preventing the propagation of damaged hESCs when genome is threatened. As a whole, our findings support the concept that the phenomenon of apoptosis is a prominent player in normal embryonic development. PMID:24380814

García, Carolina Paola; Videla Richardson, Guillermo Agustín; Romorini, Leonardo; Miriuka, Santiago Gabriel; Sevlever, Gustavo Emilio; Scassa, María Elida

2014-03-01

305

Src mediates cigarette smoke-induced resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors in NSCLC cells  

PubMed Central

The EGF Receptor (EGFR) is a proto-oncogene commonly dysregulated in several cancers including non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and, thus, is targeted for treatment using tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) such as Erlotinib. However, despite the efficacy observed in NSCLC patients harboring oncogenic variants of the EGFR, general ineffectiveness of TKIs in NSCLC patients who are current and former smokers necessitates identification of novel mechanisms to overcome this phenomenon. Previously, we showed that NSCLC cells harboring either wild-type (WT) EGFR or oncogenic mutant (MT) L858R EGFR become resistant to the effects of TKIs when exposed to cigarette smoke (CS), evidenced by their auto-phosphorylation and prolonged downstream signaling. Here, we present Src as a target mediating CS-induced resistance to TKIs in both WT EGFR and L858R MT EGFR expressing NSCLC cells. First, we show that CS exposure of A549 cells leads to time-dependent activation of Src which then abnormally binds to the WT EGFR causing TKI resistance, contrasting previous observations of constitutive binding between inactive Src and TKI-sensitive L858R MT EGFR. Next, we demonstrate that Src inhibition restores TKI sensitivity in CS-exposed NSCLC cells, preventing EGFR auto-phosphorylation in the presence of Erlotinib. Furthermore, we show that over-expression of a dominant-negative Src (Y527F/K295R) restores TKI sensitivity to A549 exposed to CS. Importantly, the TKI resistance that emerges even in CS-exposed L858R EGFR expressing NSCLC cells could be eliminated with Src inhibition. Together, these findings offer new rationale for using Src inhibitors for treating TKI-resistant NSCLC commonly observed in smokers. PMID:23686837

Filosto, Simone; Baston, David S.; Chung, Samuel; Becker, Cathleen R.; Goldkorn, Tzipora

2015-01-01

306

Effect of a neutrophil elastase inhibitor on ventilator-induced lung injury in rats  

PubMed Central

Objective We hypothesized that pretreatment with sivelestat therapy could attenuate ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI) and lung inflammation in a rat model. Methods The neutrophil elastase inhibitor was administered intraperitoneally 30 min before and at the initiation of ventilation. The rats were categorized as (I) sham group; (II) VILI group; (III) sivelestat group; (IV) early sivelestat group. Wet-to-dry weight ratio, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) neutrophil and protein, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) and histologic VILI scores were investigated. Results The ratio of wet-to-dry weight, BALF neutrophil and protein, tissue MDA and VILI scores were significantly increased in the VILI group compared to the sham group [3.85±0.32 vs. 9.05±1.02, P<0.001; (0.89±0.93)×104 vs. (7.67±1.41)×104 cells/mL, P<0.001; 2.34±0.47 vs. 23.01±3.96 mg/mL, P<0.001; 14.43±1.01 vs. 36.56±5.45 nmol/mg protein, P<0.001; 3.78±0.67 vs. 7.00±1.41, P<0.001]. This increase was attenuated in the early sivelestat group compared with the sivelestat group [wet-to-dry ratio: 6.76±2.01 vs. 7.39±0.32, P=0.032; BALF neutrophil: (5.56±1.13)×104 vs. (3.89±1.05)×104 cells/mL, P=0.021; BALF protein: 15.57±2.32 vs. 18.38±2.00 mg/mL, P=0.024; tissue MDA: 29.16±3.01 vs. 26.31±2.58, P=0.049; VILI scores: 6.33±1.41 vs. 5.00±0.50, P=0.024]. Conclusions Pretreatment with a neutrophil elastase inhibitor attenuates VILI in a rat model. PMID:25589960

Kim, Do-Hyung; Chung, Jae Ho; Son, Bong Soo; Kim, Yeon Ji

2014-01-01

307

HSP90 Inhibitors, Geldanamycin and Radicicol, Enhance Fisetin-Induced Cytotoxicity via Induction of Apoptosis in Human Colonic Cancer Cells.  

PubMed

We revealed the cytotoxic effect of the flavonoid, fisetin (FIS), on human COLO205 colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of the HSP90 inhibitors, geldanamycin (GA) and radicicol (RAD). Compared to FIS treatment alone of COLO205 cells, GA and RAD significantly enhanced FIS-induced cytotoxicity, increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the PAPR protein, and produced a greater density of DNA ladder formation. GA and RAD also reduced the MMPs with induction of caspase-9 protein cleavage in FIS-treated COLO205 cells. Increased caspase-3 and -9 activities were detected in COLO205 cells treated with FIS+GA or FIS+RAD, and the intensity of DNA ladder formation induced by FIS+GA was reduced by adding the caspase-3 inhibitor, DEVD-FMK. A decrease in Bcl-2 but not Bcl-XL or Bax protein by FIS+GA or FIS+RAD was identified in COLO205 cells by Western blotting. A reduction in p53 protein with increased ubiquitin-tagged proteins was observed in COLO205 cells treated with FIS+GA or FIS+RAD. Furthermore, GA and RAD reduced the stability of the p53 protein in COLO205 cells under FIS stimulation. The evidence supports HSP90 inhibitors possibly sensitizing human colon cancer cells to FIS-induced apoptosis, and treating colon cancer by combining HSP90 inhibitors with FIS deserves further in vivo study. PMID:23840275

Wu, Ming-Shun; Lien, Gi-Shih; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Chen, Yen-Chou

2013-01-01

308

HSP90 Inhibitors, Geldanamycin and Radicicol, Enhance Fisetin-Induced Cytotoxicity via Induction of Apoptosis in Human Colonic Cancer Cells  

PubMed Central

We revealed the cytotoxic effect of the flavonoid, fisetin (FIS), on human COLO205 colon cancer cells in the presence and absence of the HSP90 inhibitors, geldanamycin (GA) and radicicol (RAD). Compared to FIS treatment alone of COLO205 cells, GA and RAD significantly enhanced FIS-induced cytotoxicity, increased expression of cleaved caspase-3 and the PAPR protein, and produced a greater density of DNA ladder formation. GA and RAD also reduced the MMPs with induction of caspase-9 protein cleavage in FIS-treated COLO205 cells. Increased caspase-3 and -9 activities were detected in COLO205 cells treated with FIS+GA or FIS+RAD, and the intensity of DNA ladder formation induced by FIS+GA was reduced by adding the caspase-3 inhibitor, DEVD-FMK. A decrease in Bcl-2 but not Bcl-XL or Bax protein by FIS+GA or FIS+RAD was identified in COLO205 cells by Western blotting. A reduction in p53 protein with increased ubiquitin-tagged proteins was observed in COLO205 cells treated with FIS+GA or FIS+RAD. Furthermore, GA and RAD reduced the stability of the p53 protein in COLO205 cells under FIS stimulation. The evidence supports HSP90 inhibitors possibly sensitizing human colon cancer cells to FIS-induced apoptosis, and treating colon cancer by combining HSP90 inhibitors with FIS deserves further in vivo study. PMID:23840275

Wu, Ming-Shun; Lien, Gi-Shih; Shen, Shing-Chuan; Yang, Liang-Yo; Chen, Yen-Chou

2013-01-01

309

Trametinib, a novel MEK kinase inhibitor, suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? production and endotoxin shock.  

PubMed

Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), one of the most prominent pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), activates macrophages, causing release of toxic cytokines (i.e. tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-?) that may provoke inflammation and endotoxin shock. Here, we tested the potential role of trametinib, a novel and highly potent MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK) inhibitor, against LPS-induced TNF-? response in monocytes, and analyzed the underlying mechanisms. We showed that trametinib, at nM concentrations, dramatically inhibited LPS-induced TNF-? mRNA expression and protein secretion in transformed (RAW 264.7 cells) and primary murine macrophages. In ex-vivo cultured human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), this MEK inhibitor similarly suppressed TNF-? production by LPS. For the mechanism study, we found that trametinib blocked LPS-induced MEK-ERK activation in above monocytes, which accounted for the defective TNF-? response. Macrophages or PBMCs treated with a traditional MEK inhibitor PD98059 or infected with MEK1/2-shRNA lentivirus exhibited a similar defect as trametinib, and nullified the activity of trametinib. On the other hand, introducing a constitutively-active (CA) ERK1 restored TNF-? production by LPS in the presence of trametinib. In vivo, mice administrated with trametinib produced low levels of TNF-? after LPS stimulation, and these mice were protected from LPS-induced endotoxin shock. Together, these results show that trametinib inhibits LPS-induced TNF-? expression and endotoxin shock probably through blocking MEK-ERK signaling. PMID:25684183

Shi-Lin, Du; Yuan, Xue; Zhan, Sun; Luo-Jia, Tang; Chao-Yang, Tong

2015-03-13

310

The hsp70 inhibitor VER155008 induces paraptosis requiring de novo protein synthesis in anaplastic thyroid carcinoma cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we evaluated the effect of the hsp70 inhibitor VER155008 on survival of anaplastic thyroid carcinoma (ATC) cells. In ATC cells, VER155008 increased the percentages of dead cells and vacuolated cells. VER155008 did not lead to the cleavage of caspase-3 protein regardless of pretreatment with z-VAD-fmk. VER155008 increased LC3-II protein levels but the protein levels were not changed by autophagy inhibitors. VER155008 caused the dilatation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER), and the increased mRNA levels of Bip and CHOP, suggesting paraptosis. VER155008-induced paraptosis was attenuated by pretreatment with cycloheximide. In conclusion, VER155008 induces paraptosis characterized by cytoplasmic vacuolation, independence of caspase, dilatation of ER and induction of ER stress markers in ATC cells. Moreover, VER155008-induced paraptosis requires de novo protein synthesis in ATC cells. PMID:25450359

Kim, Si Hyoung; Kang, Jun Goo; Kim, Chul Sik; Ihm, Sung-Hee; Choi, Moon Gi; Yoo, Hyung Joon; Lee, Seong Jin

2014-11-01

311

CDK-4 inhibitor P276 sensitizes Pancreatic Cancer cells to Gemcitabine induced Apoptosis  

PubMed Central

Despite advances in molecular pathogenesis, pancreatic cancer remains a major unsolved health problem. It is a rapidly invasive, metastatic tumor that is resistant to standard therapies. The phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) signaling pathways are frequently dysregulated in pancreatic cancer. Gemcitabine (Gem) is the mainstay treatment for metastatic pancreatic cancer. P276 is a novel CDK inhibitor that induces G2/M arrest and inhibits tumor growth in vivo models. Here, we determined that P276 sensitizes pancreatic cancer cells to Gem induced apoptosis, a mechanism mediated through inhibition of Akt-mTOR signaling. In vitro, the combination of P276 and Gem resulted in a dose- and time-dependent inhibition of proliferation and colony formation of pancreatic cancer cells but not with normal pancreatic ductal cells. This combination also induced apoptosis, as seen by activated caspase 3 and increased Bax/Bcl2 ratio. Gene profiling studies demonstrated that this combination downregulated Akt-mTOR signaling pathway, which was confirmed by western blot analyses. There was also a downregulation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and interleukin-8 expression suggesting effects on angiogenesis pathway. In vivo, intraperitoneal administration of the P276-Gem combination significantly suppressed the growth of pancreatic cancer tumor xenografts. There was a reduction in CD31 positive blood vessels, and reduced VEGF expression, again suggesting an effect on angiogenesis. Taken together, these data suggest that P276-Gem combination is a novel potent therapeutic agent that can target the Akt-mTOR signaling pathway to inhibit both tumor growth and angiogenesis. PMID:22532602

Subramaniam, Dharmalingam; Periyasamy, Giridharan; Ponnurangam, Sivapriya; Chakrabarti, Debarshi; Sugumar, Aravind; Padigaru, Muralidhara; Weir, Scott J.; Balakrishnan, Arun; Sharma, Somesh; Anant, Shrikant

2012-01-01

312

Attenuation of Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by mdivi-1: A Mitochondrial Division/Mitophagy Inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Doxorubicin is one of the most effective anti-cancer agents. However, its use is associated with adverse cardiac effects, including cardiomyopathy and progressive heart failure. Given the multiple beneficial effects of the mitochondrial division inhibitor (mdivi-1) in a variety of pathological conditions including heart failure and ischaemia and reperfusion injury, we investigated the effects of mdivi-1 on doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in naïve and stressed conditions using Langendorff perfused heart models and a model of oxidative stress was used to assess the effects of drug treatments on the mitochondrial depolarisation and hypercontracture of cardiac myocytes. Western blot analysis was used to measure the levels of p-Akt and p-Erk 1/2 and flow cytometry analysis was used to measure the levels p-Drp1 and p-p53 upon drug treatment. The HL60 leukaemia cell line was used to evaluate the effects of pharmacological inhibition of mitochondrial division on the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin in a cancer cell line. Doxorubicin caused a significant impairment of cardiac function and increased the infarct size to risk ratio in both naïve conditions and during ischaemia/reperfusion injury. Interestingly, co-treatment of doxorubicin with mdivi-1 attenuated these detrimental effects of doxorubicin. Doxorubicin also caused a reduction in the time taken to depolarisation and hypercontracture of cardiac myocytes, which were reversed with mdivi-1. Finally, doxorubicin caused a significant elevation in the levels of signalling proteins p-Akt, p-Erk 1/2, p-Drp1 and p-p53. Co-incubation of mdivi-1 with doxorubicin did not reduce the cytotoxicity of doxorubicin against HL-60 cells. These data suggest that the inhibition of mitochondrial fission protects the heart against doxorubicin-induced cardiac injury and identify mitochondrial fission as a new therapeutic target in ameliorating doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity without affecting its anti-cancer properties. PMID:24147064

Gharanei, Mayel; Hussain, Afthab; Janneh, Omar; Maddock, Helen

2013-01-01

313

Fatty Acid Synthase Inhibitors Induce Apoptosis in Non-Tumorigenic Melan-A Cells Associated with Inhibition of Mitochondrial Respiration  

PubMed Central

The metabolic enzyme fatty acid synthase (FASN) is responsible for the endogenous synthesis of palmitate, a saturated long-chain fatty acid. In contrast to most normal tissues, a variety of human cancers overexpress FASN. One such cancer is cutaneous melanoma, in which the level of FASN expression is associated with tumor invasion and poor prognosis. We previously reported that two FASN inhibitors, cerulenin and orlistat, induce apoptosis in B16-F10 mouse melanoma cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway. Here, we investigated the effects of these inhibitors on non-tumorigenic melan-a cells. Cerulenin and orlistat treatments were found to induce apoptosis and decrease cell proliferation, in addition to inducing the release of mitochondrial cytochrome c and activating caspases-9 and -3. Transfection with FASN siRNA did not result in apoptosis. Mass spectrometry analysis demonstrated that treatment with the FASN inhibitors did not alter either the mitochondrial free fatty acid content or composition. This result suggests that cerulenin- and orlistat-induced apoptosis events are independent of FASN inhibition. Analysis of the energy-linked functions of melan-a mitochondria demonstrated the inhibition of respiration, followed by a significant decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential (??m) and the stimulation of superoxide anion generation. The inhibition of NADH-linked substrate oxidation was approximately 40% and 61% for cerulenin and orlistat treatments, respectively, and the inhibition of succinate oxidation was approximately 46% and 52%, respectively. In contrast, no significant inhibition occurred when respiration was supported by the complex IV substrate N,N,N?,N?-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD). The protection conferred by the free radical scavenger N-acetyl-cysteine indicates that the FASN inhibitors induced apoptosis through an oxidative stress-associated mechanism. In combination, the present results demonstrate that cerulenin and orlistat induce apoptosis in non-tumorigenic cells via mitochondrial dysfunction, independent of FASN inhibition. PMID:24964211

Rossato, Franco A.; Zecchin, Karina G.; La Guardia, Paolo G.; Ortega, Rose M.; Alberici, Luciane C.; Costa, Rute A. P.; Catharino, Rodrigo R.; Graner, Edgard; Castilho, Roger F.; Vercesi, Aníbal E.

2014-01-01

314

Compartmentation studies on spinach leaf peroxisomes  

Microsoft Academic Search

The synthesis of glycerate by isolated intact spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) leaf peroxisomes upon the addition of glycolate, serine, and glutamate, with either NADH or malate as reductant, has been measured. Measurement of the concentration dependence of NADH-and malate-dependent glycerate synthesis, and the exclusion of various artefacts, clearly demonstrate that under in vivo conditions the transfer of reducing equivalents into

Sigrun Reumann; Ralf Heupel; Hans W. Heldt

1994-01-01

315

Defining the Plant Peroxisomal Proteome: From Arabidopsis to Rice  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are small subcellular organelles mediating a multitude of processes in plants. Proteomics studies over the last several years have yielded much needed information on the composition of plant peroxisomes. In this review, the status of peroxisome proteomics studies in Arabidopsis and other plant species and the cumulative advances made through these studies are summarized. A reference Arabidopsis peroxisome proteome is generated, and some unique aspects of Arabidopsis peroxisomes that were uncovered through proteomics studies and hint at unanticipated peroxisomal functions are also highlighted. Knowledge gained from Arabidopsis was utilized to compile a tentative list of peroxisome proteins for the model monocot plant, rice. Differences in the peroxisomal proteome between these two model plants were drawn, and novel facets in rice were expounded upon. Finally, we discuss about the current limitations of experimental proteomics in decoding the complete and dynamic makeup of peroxisomes, and complementary and integrated approaches that would be beneficial to defining the peroxisomal metabolic and regulatory roadmaps. The synteny of genomes in the grass family makes rice an ideal model to study peroxisomes in cereal crops, in which these organelles have received much less attention, with the ultimate goal to improve crop yield. PMID:22645559

Kaur, Navneet; Hu, Jianping

2011-01-01

316

Protein phosphatase 2A holoenzyme is targeted to peroxisomes by piggybacking and positively affects peroxisomal ?-oxidation.  

PubMed

The eukaryotic, highly conserved serine (Ser)/threonine-specific protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) functions as a heterotrimeric complex composed of a catalytic (C), scaffolding (A), and regulatory (B) subunit. In Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), five, three, and 17 genes encode different C, A, and B subunits, respectively. We previously found that a B subunit, B'?, localized to peroxisomes due to its C-terminal targeting signal Ser-Ser-leucine. This work shows that PP2A C2, C5, andA2 subunits interact and colocalize with B'? in peroxisomes. C and A subunits lack peroxisomal targeting signals, and their peroxisomal import depends on B'? and appears to occur by piggybacking transport. B'? knockout mutants were impaired in peroxisomal ?-oxidation as shown by developmental arrest of seedlings germinated without sucrose, accumulation of eicosenoic acid, and resistance to protoauxins indole-butyric acid and 2,4-dichlorophenoxybutyric acid. All of these observations strongly substantiate that a full PP2A complex is present in peroxisomes and positively affects ?-oxidation of fatty acids and protoauxins. PMID:25489022

Kataya, Amr R A; Heidari, Behzad; Hagen, Lars; Kommedal, Roald; Slupphaug, Geir; Lillo, Cathrine

2015-02-01

317

Cholesterol Transport through Lysosome-Peroxisome Membrane Contacts.  

PubMed

Cholesterol is dynamically transported among organelles, which is essential for multiple cellular functions. However, the mechanism underlying intracellular cholesterol transport has remained largely unknown. We established an amphotericin B-based assay enabling a genome-wide shRNA screen for delayed LDL-cholesterol transport and identified 341 hits with particular enrichment of peroxisome genes, suggesting a previously unappreciated pathway for cholesterol transport. We show dynamic membrane contacts between peroxisome and lysosome, which are mediated by lysosomal Synaptotagmin VII binding to the lipid PI(4,5)P2 on peroxisomal membrane. LDL-cholesterol enhances such contacts, and cholesterol is transported from lysosome to peroxisome. Disruption of critical peroxisome genes leads to cholesterol accumulation in lysosome. Together, these findings reveal an unexpected role of peroxisome in intracellular cholesterol transport. We further demonstrate massive cholesterol accumulation in human patient cells and mouse model of peroxisomal disorders, suggesting a contribution of abnormal cholesterol accumulation to these diseases. PMID:25860611

Chu, Bei-Bei; Liao, Ya-Cheng; Qi, Wei; Xie, Chang; Du, Ximing; Wang, Jiang; Yang, Hongyuan; Miao, Hong-Hua; Li, Bo-Liang; Song, Bao-Liang

2015-04-01

318

Transcriptional activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} requires activation of both protein kinase A and Akt during adipocyte differentiation  

SciTech Connect

Research highlights: {yields} Elevated cAMP activates both PKA and Epac. {yields} PKA activates CREB transcriptional factor and Epac activates PI3K/Akt pathway via Rap1. {yields} Akt modulates PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity in concert with CREB. -- Abstract: Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-{gamma} (PPAR-{gamma}) is required for the conversion of pre-adipocytes. However, the mechanism underlying activation of PPAR-{gamma} is unclear. Here we showed that cAMP-induced activation of protein kinase A (PKA) and Akt is essential for the transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}. Hormonal induction of adipogenesis was blocked by a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) inhibitor (LY294002), by a protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H89), and by a Rap1 inhibitor (GGTI-298). Transcriptional activity of PPAR-{gamma} was markedly enhanced by 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), but not insulin and dexamethasone. In addition, IBMX-induced PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity was blocked by PI3K/Akt, PKA, or Rap1 inhibitors. 8-(4-Chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyl-cAMP (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) which is a specific agonist for exchanger protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) significantly induced the activation of Akt. Furthermore, knock-down of Akt1 markedly attenuated PPAR-{gamma} transcriptional activity. These results indicate that both PKA and Akt signaling pathways are required for transcriptional activation of PPAR-{gamma}, suggesting post-translational activation of PPAR-{gamma} might be critical step for adipogenic gene expression.

Kim, Sang-pil [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Ha, Jung Min; Yun, Sung Ji; Kim, Eun Kyoung [MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Medical Research Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)] [MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Medical Research Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Sung Woon [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)] [Department of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Ki Whan; Kim, Chi Dae [MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Medical Research Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)] [MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Medical Research Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sun Sik, E-mail: sunsik@pusan.ac.kr [MRC for Ischemic Tissue Regeneration, Medical Research Institute, and Department of Pharmacology, Pusan National University School of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

2010-08-13

319

Statins meditate anti-atherosclerotic action in smooth muscle cells by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? activation.  

PubMed

The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?) is an important regulator of lipid and glucose metabolism, and its activation is reported to suppress the progression of atherosclerosis. We have reported that 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase inhibitors (statins) activate PPAR? in macrophages. However, it is not yet known whether statins activate PPAR? in other vascular cells. In the present study, we investigated whether statins activate PPAR? in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) and thus mediate anti-atherosclerotic effects. Human aortic SMCs (HASMCs) and human umbilical vein ECs (HUVECs) were used in this study. Fluvastatin and pitavastatin activated PPAR? in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Statins induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression in HASMCs, but not in HUVECs. Moreover, treatment with COX-2-siRNA abrogated statin-mediated PPAR? activation in HASMCs. Statins suppressed migration and proliferation of HASMCs, and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) in HASMCs. These effects of statins were abrogated by treatment with PPAR?-siRNA. Treatment with statins suppressed atherosclerotic lesion formation in Apoe(-/-) mice. In addition, transcriptional activity of PPAR? and CD36 expression were increased, and the expression of MCP-1 and TNF-? was decreased, in the aorta of statin-treated Apoe(-/-) mice. In conclusion, statins mediate anti-atherogenic effects through PPAR? activation in SMCs. These effects of statins on SMCs may be beneficial for the prevention of atherosclerosis. PMID:25529449

Fukuda, Kazuki; Matsumura, Takeshi; Senokuchi, Takafumi; Ishii, Norio; Kinoshita, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Sarie; Murakami, Saiko; Nakao, Saya; Motoshima, Hiroyuki; Kondo, Tatsuya; Kukidome, Daisuke; Kawasaki, Shuji; Kawada, Teruo; Nishikawa, Takeshi; Araki, Eiichi

2015-01-30

320

Iontophoretically applied microtubule inhibitors induce transganglionic degenerative atrophy of primary central nociceptive terminals and abolish chronic autochtonous pain.  

PubMed

Transcutaneous iontophoresis of microtubule inhibitors (Vinblastin, Vincristin, Formyl-Leurosin) in rats induces depletion of fluoride-resistant acid phosphatase (FRAP) and transganglionic degenerative atrophy (trggl. deg. atr.) of the central terminals of primary nociceptive neurons, probably via blockade of axoplasmic transport in the peripheral sensory nerves. Radiochemical experiments prove that about 0.2% of the microtubule inhibitors applied iontophoretically at the skin reach the level of nociceptive axon terminals. 40 out of 48 patients suffering from chronic intractable pain of diverse etiology (postherpetic, paresthetic, ischaemic and trigeminal neuralgia, alcoholic and diabetic polyneuropathy, meralgia, brachialgia, discopathia, arthropathia and terminal pain) were successfully treated with Vinblastin or Vincristin iontophoresis. Iontophoretically applied microtubule inhibitors do not affect the blood cell count, have no side-effects and do not impair the skin at the site of application. PMID:6183918

Knyihár-Csillik, E; Szücs, A; Csillik, B

1982-10-01

321

Modulation of curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and apoptosis by PI3K inhibitor in MCF-7 cells  

SciTech Connect

Curcumin has been shown to induce apoptosis in various malignant cancer cell lines. One mechanism of curcumin-induced apoptosis is through the PI3K/Akt signaling pathway. Akt, also known as protein kinase B (PKB), is a member of the family of phosphatidylinositol 3-OH-kinase regulated Ser/Thr kinases. The active Akt regulates cell survival and proliferation; and inhibits apoptosis. In this study we found that curcumin induces apoptotic cell death in MCF-7 cells, as assessed by MTT assay, DNA ladder formation, PARP cleavage, p53 and Bax induction. At apoptotic inducing concentration, curcumin induces a dramatic Akt phosphorylation, accompanied by an increased phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase 3{beta} (GSK3{beta}), which has been considered to be a pro-growth signaling molecule. Combining curcumin with PI3K inhibitor, LY290042, synergizes the apoptotic effect of curcumin. The inhibitor LY290042 was capable of attenuating curcumin-induced Akt phosphorylation and activation of GSK3{beta}. All together, our data suggest that blocking the PI3K/Akt survival pathway sensitizes the curcumin-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells.

Kizhakkayil, Jaleel; Thayyullathil, Faisal; Chathoth, Shahanas; Hago, Abdulkader; Patel, Mahendra [Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)] [Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates); Galadari, Sehamuddin, E-mail: sehamuddin@uaeu.ac.ae [Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)] [Cell Signaling Laboratory, Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, UAE University, P.O. Box 17666, Al Ain (United Arab Emirates)

2010-04-09

322

Mechanisms of G1 cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in myeloma cells induced by hybrid-compound histone deacetylase inhibitor  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: •Novel histone deacetylase inhibitor Ky-2, remarkably inhibits myeloma cell growth. •Ky-2 demonstrates no cytotoxicity against normal lymphocytic cells. •Ky-2 induces cell cycle arrest through the cell cycle-associated proteins. •Ky-2 induces Bcl-2-inhibitable apoptosis through a caspase-dependent cascade. -- Abstract: Objectives: Histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors are new therapeutic agents, used to treat various types of malignant cancers. In the present study, we investigated the effects of Ky-2, a hybrid-compound HDAC inhibitor, on the growth of mouse myeloma cells. Materials and methods: Myeloma cells, HS-72, P3U1, and mouse normal cells were used in this study. Effect of HDAC inhibitors on cell viability was determined by WST-assay and trypan blue assay. Cell cycle was analyzed using flow cytometer. The expression of cell cycle regulatory and the apoptosis associated proteins were examined by Western blot analysis. Hoechst’s staining was used to detect apoptotic cells. Results: Our findings showed that Ky-2 decreased the levels of HDACs, while it enhanced acetylation of histone H3. Myeloma cell proliferation was inhibited by Ky-2 treatment. Interestingly, Ky-2 had no cytotoxic effects on mouse normal cells. Ky-2 treatment induced G1-phase cell cycle arrest and accumulation of a sub-G1 phase population, while Western blotting analysis revealed that expressions of the cell cycle-associated proteins were up-regulated. Also, Ky-2 enhanced the cleavage of caspase-9 and -3 in myeloma cells, followed by DNA fragmentation. In addition, Ky-2 was not found to induce apoptosis in bcl-2 overexpressing myeloma cells. Conclusion: These findings suggest that Ky-2 induces apoptosis via a caspase-dependent cascade and Bcl-2-inhibitable mechanism in myeloma cells.

Fujii, Seiko [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan) [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Okinaga, Toshinori; Ariyoshi, Wataru [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan) [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Takahashi, Osamu; Iwanaga, Kenjiro [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan)] [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Nishino, Norikazu [Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan)] [Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Tominaga, Kazuhiro [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan)] [Division of Maxillofacial Surgery, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Nishihara, Tatsuji, E-mail: tatsujin@kyu-dent.ac.jp [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan) [Division of Infections and Molecular Biology, Kyushu Dental University (Japan); Oral Biology Research Center, Kyushu Dental University (Japan)

2013-05-10

323

Recombinant human C1-inhibitor inhibits cytotoxicity induced by allo- and xenoantibodies.  

PubMed

Antibody-mediated rejection (AMR) is usually poorly controlled, especially in the context of pretransplant immunization, and remains an unsolved issue in xenotransplantation. In order to study prevention and/or treatment of AMR through an early blockade of the complement classical pathway, we designed two strategies to test the effect of a new recombinant human C1-inhibitor that inhibits C1 esterase (rhC1-INH; Pharming, The Netherlands), in a complement-dependent cytotoxicity assay, in the contexts of pretransplant anti-donor alloimmunization and pig-to-primate combinations in order to compare the situations. RhC1-INH appeared to be efficient, in allo- and xenotransplantation settings to block cytotoxicity when given at the initiation of (preventive strategy) or during (curative strategy) the cytotoxicity assay. Importantly, we showed that a small amount of exogenous rhC1-INH was sufficient to prevent cytotoxicity induced by anti-donor alloantibody, thus possibly helping to prevent or treat AMR in preimmunized patients. These in vitro data lead to future in vivo studies in models of AMR in pigs and baboons in allotransplantation and xenotransplantation, in which cytotoxicity due to Gal and non-Gal antibodies is so detrimental. PMID:18374134

Poirier, N; Blancho, G

2008-03-01

324

Hsp90 chaperone inhibitor 17-AAG attenuates A?-induced synaptic toxicity and memory impairment.  

PubMed

The excessive accumulation of soluble amyloid peptides (A?) plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), particularly in synaptic dysfunction. The role of the two major chaperone proteins, Hsp70 and Hsp90, in clearing misfolded protein aggregates has been established. Despite their abundant presence in synapses, the role of these chaperones in synapses remains elusive. Here, we report that Hsp90 inhibition by 17-AAG elicited not only a heat shock-like response but also upregulated presynaptic and postsynaptic proteins, such as synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD95 in neurons. 17-AAG treatment enhanced high-frequency stimulation-evoked LTP and protected neurons from synaptic damage induced by soluble A?. In AD transgenic mice, the daily administration of 17-AAG over 7 d resulted in a marked increase in PSD95 expression in hippocampi. 17-AAG treatments in wild-type C57BL/6 mice challenged by soluble A? significantly improved contextual fear memory. Further, we demonstrate that 17-AAG activated synaptic protein expression via transcriptional mechanisms through the heat shock transcription factor HSF1. Together, our findings identify a novel function of Hsp90 inhibition in regulating synaptic plasticity, in addition to the known neuroprotective effects of the chaperones against A? and tau toxicity, thus further supporting the potential of Hsp90 inhibitors in treating neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24523537

Chen, Yaomin; Wang, Bin; Liu, Dan; Li, Jing Jing; Xue, Yueqiang; Sakata, Kazuko; Zhu, Ling-qiang; Heldt, Scott A; Xu, Huaxi; Liao, Francesca-Fang

2014-02-12

325

Therapeutic C3 inhibitor Cp40 abrogates complement activation induced by modern hemodialysis filters.  

PubMed

Approximately 350,000 individuals in the United States rely on maintenance hemodialysis treatment because of end-stage renal disease. Despite improvements in dialysis technology, the mortality rate for patients treated with maintenance dialysis is still exceptionally high, with a 5-year survival rate of only 35%. Many patients succumb to conditions resulting at least in part from the chronic induction of inflammation. Among the triggers of inflammation, the complement system is of particular importance, being a well-appreciated mediator of inflammatory processes that is involved in many pathologic states. Here we used a refined pre-clinical model of hemodialysis in cynomolgus monkeys to confirm that even modern, polymer-based hemodialysis filters activate complement and to evaluate the potential of Cp40, a peptidic C3 inhibitor, to attenuate hemodialysis-induced complement activation. Our data show marked induction of complement activation even after only a single session of hemodialysis. Importantly, complete inhibition of complement activation was achieved in response to two distinct Cp40 treatment regimens. Further, we show that application of Cp40 during hemodialysis resulted in increased levels of the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10, indicating that Cp40 may be a potent and cost-effective treatment option for attenuating chronic inflammatory conditions in dialysis-dependent patients. PMID:25468722

Reis, Edimara S; DeAngelis, Robert A; Chen, Hui; Resuello, Ranillo R G; Ricklin, Daniel; Lambris, John D

2015-04-01

326

Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Involved in Streptozotocin-Induced Bone Loss in Female Mice  

PubMed Central

In diabetic patients, the risk of fracture is high because of impaired bone formation. However, the details of the mechanisms in the development of diabetic osteoporosis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis by using PAI-1–deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis showed that PAI-1 deficiency protected against streptozotocin-induced bone loss in female mice but not in male mice. PAI-1 deficiency blunted the changes in the levels of Runx2, osterix, and alkaline phosphatase in tibia as well as serum osteocalcin levels suppressed by the diabetic state in female mice only. Furthermore, the osteoclast levels in tibia, suppressed in diabetes, were also blunted by PAI-1 deficiency in female mice. Streptozotocin markedly elevated the levels of PAI-1 mRNA in liver in female mice only. In vitro study demonstrated that treatment with active PAI-1 suppressed the levels of osteogenic genes and mineralization in primary osteoblasts from female mouse calvaria. In conclusion, the current study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis in females. The expression of PAI-1 in the liver and the sensitivity of bone cells to PAI-1 may be an underlying mechanism. PMID:23715621

Tamura, Yukinori; Kawao, Naoyuki; Okada, Kiyotaka; Yano, Masato; Okumoto, Katsumi; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

2013-01-01

327

Small molecule inhibitors promote efficient generation of induced pluripotent stem cells from human skeletal myoblasts.  

PubMed

Human somatic cells can be reprogrammed into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) by ectopic expression of key transcription factors. iPSCs have been generated from a variety of cell types. However, iPSC induction from human myoblasts has not yet been reported. Human primary skeletal myoblasts can be cultured from diagnostic muscle biopsy specimens, and thousands of lines are frozen and stored in biobanks, and are a valuable source for iPSC-based etiological and pathogenic studies. Our aim was to generate iPSCs from human skeletal myoblasts enriched from muscle biopsy samples. We used retro- or Sendai virus vector-mediated reprogramming of enriched human myoblasts from 7 donors. We show that stable iPSC lines can be generated from human myoblasts at efficiency similar to that of fibroblasts when appropriate media is used, and the efficiency of the feeder-free iPSC generation can be significantly improved by inhibitors of histone deacetylase (sodium butyrate) and TGF-? signaling (SB431542). PMID:22671711

Trokovic, Ras; Weltner, Jere; Manninen, Tuula; Mikkola, Milla; Lundin, Karolina; Hämäläinen, Riikka; Suomalainen, Anu; Otonkoski, Timo

2013-01-01

328

Aromatase inhibitor-induced modulation of breast density: clinical and genetic effects  

PubMed Central

Background: Change in breast density may predict outcome of women receiving adjuvant hormone therapy for breast cancer. We performed a prospective clinical trial to evaluate the impact of inherited variants in genes involved in oestrogen metabolism and signalling on change in mammographic percent density (MPD) with aromatase inhibitor (AI) therapy. Methods: Postmenopausal women with breast cancer who were initiating adjuvant AI therapy were enrolled onto a multicentre, randomised clinical trial of exemestane vs letrozole, designed to identify associations between AI-induced change in MPD and single-nucleotide polymorphisms in candidate genes. Subjects underwent unilateral craniocaudal mammography before and following 24 months of treatment. Results: Of the 503 enrolled subjects, 259 had both paired mammograms at baseline and following 24 months of treatment and evaluable DNA. We observed a statistically significant decrease in mean MPD from 17.1 to 15.1% (P<0.001), more pronounced in women with baseline MPD ?20%. No AI-specific difference in change in MPD was identified. No significant associations between change in MPD and inherited genetic variants were observed. Conclusion: Subjects with higher baseline MPD had a greater average decrease in MPD with AI therapy. There does not appear to be a substantial effect of inherited variants in biologically selected candidate genes. PMID:24084768

Henry, N L; Chan, H-P; Dantzer, J; Goswami, C P; Li, L; Skaar, T C; Rae, J M; Desta, Z; Khouri, N; Pinsky, R; Oesterreich, S; Zhou, C; Hadjiiski, L; Philips, S; Robarge, J; Nguyen, A T; Storniolo, A M; Flockhart, D A; Hayes, D F; Helvie, M A; Stearns, V

2013-01-01

329

Huperzine B, a novel acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, attenuates hydrogen peroxide induced injury in PC12 cells.  

PubMed

A number of studies indicate that free radicals are involved in the neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study was mainly conducted to examine the effect of Huperzine B on H(2)O(2) induced toxicity in rat pheochromocytoma line PC12 by measuring cell lesion, level of lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities. Following a 30 min exposure of the cells to H(2)O(2) (150 microM), a marked decrease in cell survival, activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase as well as increased production of malondialdehyde (MDA) were found. Pretreatment of the cells with huperzine B (10-100 microM) prior to H(2)O(2) exposure significantly elevated the cell survival, antioxidant enzyme activities and decreased the level of MDA. The above-mentioned neuroprotective effects are also observed with tacrine (1 microM), donepezil (10 microM) and galanthamine (10 microM), suggesting that the neuroprotective effects of cholinesterase inhibitor might partly contribute to the clinical efficacy in AD treatment. PMID:10996445

Zhang, H Y; Tang, X C

2000-09-29

330

Cystathionine-gamma-lyase inhibitor attenuates acute lung injury induced by acute pancreatitis in rats  

PubMed Central

Introduction Acute pancreatitis (AP) is known to induce injuries to extrapancreatic organs. Because respiratory dysfunction is the main cause of death in patients with severe AP, acute pancreatitis-associated lung injury (APALI) is a great challenge for clinicians. This study aimed to investigate the potential role of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) in the pathogenesis of APALI. Material and methods Fifty-four SD rats were randomly divided into three groups: the AP group of rats that received injection of sodium deoxycholate into the common bile duct, the control group that underwent a sham operation, and the treatment group made by intraperitoneal injection of propargylglycine (PAG), an inhibitor of cystathionine-?-lyase (CSE), into rats with AP. Histopathology of the lung was examined and the expression of CSE and TNF-? mRNA in lung tissue was detected by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The H2S level in the serum was detected spectrophotometrically. Results The serum concentration of H2S and CSE and TNF-? expression in the lung were increased in AP rats modeled after 3 h and 6 h than in control rats (p < 0.05). Intraperitoneal injection of PAG could reduce the serum concentration of H2S, reduce CSE and TNF-? expression, and alleviate the lung pathology (p < 0.05). Conclusions Taken together, our findings suggest that the H2S/CSE system is crucially involved in the pathological process of APALI and represents a novel target for the therapy of APALI. PMID:25276170

Qu, Zhen; Wu, Bao-Qiang; Duan, Yun-Fei; Sun, Zhen-Di; Luo, Guang-Hua

2014-01-01

331

Forodesine, an inhibitor of purine nucleoside phosphorylase, induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia cells  

PubMed Central

Purine nucleoside phosphorylase (PNP) deficiency in humans results in T lymphocytopenia. Forodesine, a potent inhibitor of PNP, was designed based on the transition-state structure stabilized by the enzyme. Previous studies established that forodesine in the presence of deoxyguanosine (dGuo) inhibits the proliferation of T lymphocytes. A phase 1 clinical trial of forodesine in T-cell malignancies demonstrated significant antileukemic activity with an increase in intracellular dGuo triphosphate (dGTP). High accumulation of dGTP in T cells may be dependent on the levels of deoxynucleoside kinases. Because B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia (B-CLL) cells have high activity of deoxycytidine kinase (dCK), we hypothesized that these lymphocytes would respond to forodesine. This postulate was tested in primary lymphocytes during in vitro investigations. Lymphocytes from 12 patients with CLL were incubated with forodesine and dGuo. These CLL cells showed a wide variation in the accumulation of intracellular dGTP without any effect on other deoxynucleotides. This was associated with DNA damage-induced p53 stabilization, phosphorylation of p53 at Ser15, and activation of p21. The dGTP accumulation was related to induction of apoptosis measured by caspase activation, changes in mitochondrial membrane potential, and PARP cleavage. Based on these data, a phase 2 clinical trial of forodesine has been initiated for CLL patients. PMID:16778146

Balakrishnan, Kumudha; Nimmanapalli, Ramadevi; Ravandi, Farhad; Keating, Michael J.; Gandhi, Varsha

2006-01-01

332

Differential Sensitivity of Hypoxia Inducible Factor Hydroxylation Sites to Hypoxia and Hydroxylase Inhibitors*  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is regulated by dual pathways involving oxygen-dependent prolyl and asparaginyl hydroxylation of its ?-subunits. Prolyl hydroxylation at two sites within a central degradation domain promotes association of HIF-? with the von Hippel-Lindau ubiquitin E3 ligase and destruction by the ubiquitin-proteasome pathways. Asparaginyl hydroxylation blocks the recruitment of p300/CBP co-activators to a C-terminal activation domain in HIF-?. These hydroxylations are catalyzed by members of the Fe(II) and 2-oxoglutarate (2-OG) oxygenase family. Activity of the enzymes is suppressed by hypoxia, increasing both the abundance and activity of the HIF transcriptional complex. We have used hydroxy residue-specific antibodies to compare and contrast the regulation of each site of prolyl hydroxylation (Pro402, Pro564) with that of asparaginyl hydroxylation (Asn803) in human HIF-1?. Our findings reveal striking differences in the sensitivity of these hydroxylations to hypoxia and to different inhibitor types of 2-OG oxygenases. Hydroxylation at the three sites in endogenous human HIF-1? proteins was suppressed by hypoxia in the order Pro402 > Pro564 > Asn803. In contrast to some predictions from in vitro studies, prolyl hydroxylation was substantially more sensitive than asparaginyl hydroxylation to inhibition by iron chelators and transition metal ions; studies of a range of different small molecule 2-OG analogues demonstrated the feasibility of selectively inhibiting either prolyl or asparaginyl hydroxylation within cells. PMID:21335549

Tian, Ya-Min; Yeoh, Kar Kheng; Lee, Myung Kyu; Eriksson, Tuula; Kessler, Benedikt M.; Kramer, Holger B.; Edelmann, Mariola J.; Willam, Carsten; Pugh, Christopher W.; Schofield, Christopher J.; Ratcliffe, Peter J.

2011-01-01

333

Protease inhibitor reduces airway response and underlying inflammation in cockroach allergen-induced murine model.  

PubMed

Protease(s) enhances airway inflammation and allergic cascade. In the present study, effect of a serine protease inhibitor was evaluated in mouse model of airway disease. Mice were sensitized with cockroach extract (CE) or Per a 10 and treated with 4-(2-aminoethyl) benzenesulfonyl fluoride hydrochloride (AEBSF) 1 h before or after challenge to measure airway response. Mice were euthanized to collect bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), blood, and lung to evaluate inflammation. AEBSF treatment significantly reduced the AHR in allergen-challenged mice in dose-dependent manner (p???0.01). IgE (p???0.05) and Th2 cytokines (p???0.05) were significantly reduced in treated mice. AEBSF treatment lowered total cell (p???0.05), eosinophil (p???0.05), and neutrophil (p???0.05) in BALF and lung tissue. Oxidative stress parameters were impaired on treatment in allergen-challenged mice (p???0.05). AEBSF had therapeutic effect in allergen-induced airway resistance and underling inflammation and had potential for combination or as add-on therapy for respiratory diseases. PMID:25052477

Saw, Sanjay; Arora, Naveen

2015-04-01

334

Microregional antitumor activity of a small-molecule hypoxia-inducible factor 1 inhibitor  

PubMed Central

Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1) activates the transcription of genes that play crucial roles in the adaptation of cancer cells to hypoxia. HIF-1? overexpression has been associated with poor prognosis in patients with various types of cancer. Here, we describe ER-400583-00 as a novel HIF-1 inhibitor. ER-400583-00 suppressed the production of HIF-1? protein in response to hypoxia, with a half-maximal inhibitory concentration value of 3.7 nM in human U251 glioma cells. The oral administration of 100 mg/kg ER-400583-00 to mice bearing U251 tumor xenografts resulted in a rapid suppression of HIF-1? that persisted for 24 h. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that ER-400583-00 suppressed the proliferation of cancer cells most prominently in areas distal to the region of blood perfusion, where HIF-1?-expressing hypoxic cancer cells were located. These hypoxic cancer cells were resistant to radiation therapy. ER-400583-00 showed a synergistic interaction with radiation therapy in terms of antitumor activity. These data suggest that HIF-1 blockade by small compounds may have therapeutic value in cancer, especially in combination with radiation therapy. PMID:22211243

OKAMOTO, KIYOSHI; ITO, DAISUKE; MIYAZAKI, KAZUKI; WATANABE, SAORI; TOHYAMA, OSAMU; YOKOI, AKIRA; OZAWA, YOICHI; ASANO, MAKOTO; KAWAMURA, TAKANORI; YAMANE, YOSHINOBU; NAGAO, SATOSHI; FUNASAKA, SETSUO; KAMATA, JUNICHI; KOTAKE, YOSHIHIKO; AOKI, MIKA; TSUKAHARA, NAOKO; MIZUI, YOSHIHARU; TANAKA, ISAO; SAWADA, KOHEI

2012-01-01

335

TNF-? protein synthesis inhibitor restores neuronal function and reverses cognitive deficits induced by chronic neuroinflammation  

PubMed Central

Background Chronic neuroinflammation is a hallmark of several neurological disorders associated with cognitive loss. Activated microglia and secreted factors such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? are key mediators of neuroinflammation and may contribute to neuronal dysfunction. Our study was aimed to evaluate the therapeutic potential of a novel analog of thalidomide, 3,6'-dithiothalidomide (DT), an agent with anti-TNF-? activity, in a model of chronic neuroinflammation. Methods Lipopolysaccharide or artificial cerebrospinal fluid was infused into the fourth ventricle of three-month-old rats for 28 days. Starting on day 29, animals received daily intraperitoneal injections of DT (56 mg/kg/day) or vehicle for 14 days. Thereafter, cognitive function was assessed by novel object recognition, novel place recognition and Morris water maze, and animals were euthanized 25 min following water maze probe test evaluation. Results Chronic LPS-infusion was characterized by increased gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-? and IL-1? in the hippocampus. Treatment with DT normalized TNF-? levels back to control levels but not IL-1?. Treatment with DT attenuated the expression of TLR2, TLR4, IRAK1 and Hmgb1, all genes involved in the TLR-mediated signaling pathway associated with classical microglia activation. However DT did not impact the numbers of MHC Class II immunoreactive cells. Chronic neuroinflammation impaired novel place recognition, spatial learning and memory function; but it did not impact novel object recognition. Importantly, treatment with DT restored cognitive function in LPS-infused animals and normalized the fraction of hippocampal neurons expressing the plasticity-related immediate-early gene Arc. Conclusion Our data demonstrate that the TNF-? synthesis inhibitor DT can significantly reverse hippocampus-dependent cognitive deficits induced by chronic neuroinflammation. These results suggest that TNF-? is a critical mediator of chronic neuroinflammation-induced neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment and targeting its synthesis could provide an effective therapeutic approach to several human neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:22277195

2012-01-01

336

Oxaceprol, an atypical inhibitor of inflammation, reduces leukocyte adherence in mouse antigen-induced arthritis.  

PubMed

Oxaceprol (N-acetyl-L-hydroxyproline), an atypical inhibitor of inflammation, is an established drug forjoint disease without serious side-effects. Recent studies have emphasized that oxaceprol has an effect on the microcirculation. Since the exact mechanism of action remains unclear, the aim of our study was to investigate the leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions in oxaceprol-treated mice with antigen-induced arthritis (AiA) using intravital microscopy. In our study, Balb/c mice were allocated to 4 groups (n 7, 8, 8, 8): 2 control groups with saline or oxaceprol and 2 groups of arthritic animals which received saline or oxaceprol (100 mg/kg twice a day intraperitoneally). The severity of arthritis was quantified by the transverse knee joint diameter. For the intravital fluorescence microscopy measurements on day 10 after inducing arthritis, the patella tendon was partily resected to visualize the intraarticular synovial tissue of the knee joint. The number of rolling and adherent leukocytes as well as RBC velocity and functional capillary density (FCD) were quantified in synovial microvessels. Furthermore, leukocyte infiltration was determined in the histological sections with an established score. No significant changes in mean arterial blood pressure or functional capillary density were found in any of the groups. However, the leukocyte rolling fraction and number of leukocytes adherent to the endothelium were increased in postcapillary venules of the synovium in arthritic animals (0.16 to 0.31, 78 cells/mm2 to 220 cells/mm2). In animals with AiA treated with oxaceprol, leukocyte adherence and swelling were significantly reduced in comparison to the arthritic animals treated with saline. Furthermore, the histological score showed less leukocyte infiltration in the oxaceprol treated arthritic animals. Thus, oxaceprol reduces leukocyte adherence in vivo and leukocyte infiltration in mouse AiA, indicating an effect on synovial microcirculation. PMID:11480608

Veihelmann, A; Hofbauer, A; Refior, H J; Messmer, K

2001-06-01

337

PX-478, an inhibitor of hypoxia-inducible factor-1?, enhances radiosensitivity of prostate carcinoma cells  

PubMed Central

Overexpression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1? (HIF-1?) in human tumors is associated with poor prognosis and poor outcome to radiation therapy. Inhibition of HIF-1? is considered as a promising approach in cancer therapy. The purpose of this study was to test the efficacy of a novel HIF-1? inhibitor PX-478 as a radiosensitizer under normoxic and hypoxic conditions in vitro. PC3 and DU 145 prostate carcinoma cells were treated with PX-478 for 20 hr, and HIF-1? protein level and clonogenic cell survival were determined under normoxia and hypoxia. Effects of PX-478 on cell cycle distribution and phosphorylation of H2AX histone were evaluated. PX-478 decreased HIF-1? protein in PC3 and DU 145 cells. PX-478 produced cytotoxicity in both cell lines with enhanced toxicity under hypoxia for DU-145. PX-478 (20 ?mol/L) enhanced the radiosensitivity of PC3 cells irradiated under normoxic and hypoxic condition with enhancement factor (EF) 1.4 and 1.56, respectively. The drug was less effective in inhibiting HIF-1? and enhancing radiosensitivity of DU 145 cells compared to PC3 cells with EF 1.13 (normoxia) and 1.25 (hypoxia) at 50 ?mol/L concentration. PX-478 induced S/G2M arrest in PC3 but not in DU 145 cells. Treatment of PC3 and DU 145 cells with the drug resulted in phosphorylation of H2AX histone and prolongation of ?H2AX expression in the irradiated cells. PX-478 is now undergoing Phase I clinical trials as an oral agent. Although the precise mechanism of enhancement of radiosensitivity remains to be identified, this study suggests a potential role for PX-478 as a clinical radiation enhancer. PMID:18729192

Palayoor, Sanjeewani T.; Mitchell, James B.; Cerna, David; DeGraff, William; John-Aryankalayil, Molykutty; Coleman, C. Norman

2014-01-01

338

The glial activation inhibitor AV411 reduces morphine-induced nucleus accumbens dopamine release.  

PubMed

Glial activation has recently been discovered to modulate several effects of morphine, including analgesia, tolerance, and dependence. The present studies extend this line of investigation by exploring whether glial activation may also affect extracellular levels of dopamine (DA) in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) shell, a neurochemical corollary of morphine-induced drug reward, during a challenge dose of morphine in experiments both with and without precipitated withdrawal. Morphine or vehicle was administered s.c. for 4 days (starting at 15 mg/kg/day up to 20 mg/kg/day), and the glial activation inhibitor AV411 (7.5 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered twice daily. A challenge dose of morphine (22.5 mg/kg) or saline was then given during dialysis. In the first experiment, naloxone (10 mg/kg) was administered 1h after morphine during dialysis in AV411- or vehicle-treated rats, and behavioral signs of somatic withdrawal were assessed during microdialysis. In the second experiment, using the same dosing regimen, sampling continued 3 h after morphine or saline in AV411- or vehicle-treated rats. NAc DA increased in vehicle-treated rats significantly more than in AV411-treated rats before naloxone treatment, and withdrawal symptoms were significantly reduced in AV411-treated rats. The decrease in morphine-induced NAc DA by AV411 was persistent, lasting 3+h post-morphine. These results indicate that glial activation contributes to the effects of morphine on NAc DA, which is associated with somatic signs of precipitated withdrawal. PMID:19486648

Bland, Sondra T; Hutchinson, Mark R; Maier, Steven F; Watkins, Linda R; Johnson, Kirk W

2009-05-01

339

A potent sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor exacerbates sympathetic autonomic neuropathy in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.  

PubMed

We have developed an animal model of diabetic sympathetic autonomic neuropathy which is characterized by neuroaxonal dystrophy (NAD), an ultrastructurally distinctive axonopathy, in chronic streptozotocin (STZ)-diabetic rats. Diabetes-induced alterations in the sorbitol pathway occur in sympathetic ganglia and therapeutic agents which inhibit aldose reductase or sorbitol dehydrogenase improve or exacerbate, respectively, diabetes-induced NAD. The sorbitol dehydrogenase inhibitor SDI-711 (CP-470711, Pfizer) is approximately 50-fold more potent than the structurally related compound SDI-158 (CP 166,572) used in our earlier studies. Treatment with SDI-711 (5 mg/kg/day) for 3 months increased ganglionic sorbitol (26-40 fold) and decreased fructose content (20-75%) in control and diabetic rats compared to untreated animals. SDI-711 treatment of diabetic rats produced a 2.5- and 4-5-fold increase in NAD in the SMG and ileal mesenteric nerves, respectively, in comparison to untreated diabetics. Although SDI-711 treatment of non-diabetic control rat ganglia increased ganglionic sorbitol 40-fold (a value 8-fold higher than untreated diabetics), the frequency of NAD remained at control levels. Levels of ganglionic sorbitol pathway intermediates in STZ-treated rats (a model of type 1 diabetes) and Zucker Diabetic Fatty rats (ZDF, a genetic model of type 2 diabetes) were comparable, although STZ-diabetic rats develop NAD and ZDF-diabetic rats do not. SDI failed to increase diabetes-related ganglionic NGF above levels seen in untreated diabetics. Initiation of Sorbinil treatment for the last 4 months of a 9 month course of diabetes, substantially reversed the frequency of established NAD in the diabetic rat SMG without affecting the metabolic severity of diabetes. These findings indicate that sorbitol pathway-linked metabolic alterations play an important role in the development of NAD, but sorbitol pathway activity, not absolute levels of sorbitol or fructose per se, may be most critical to its pathogenesis. PMID:15755558

Schmidt, Robert E; Dorsey, Denise A; Beaudet, Lucie N; Parvin, Curtis A; Yarasheski, Kevin E; Smith, Samuel R; Williamson, Joseph R; Peterson, Richard G; Oates, Peter J

2005-04-01

340

A critical role of the C-terminal segment for allosteric inhibitor-induced aberrant multimerization of HIV-1 integrase.  

PubMed

Allosteric HIV-1 integrase (IN) inhibitors (ALLINIs) are a promising class of antiretroviral agents for clinical development. Although ALLINIs promote aberrant IN multimerization and inhibit IN interaction with its cellular cofactor LEDGF/p75 with comparable potencies in vitro, their primary mechanism of action in infected cells is through inducing aberrant multimerization of IN. Crystal structures have shown that ALLINIs bind at the IN catalytic core domain dimer interface and bridge two interacting subunits. However, how these interactions promote higher-order protein multimerization is not clear. Here, we used mass spectrometry-based protein footprinting to monitor surface topology changes in full-length WT and the drug-resistant A128T mutant INs in the presence of ALLINI-2. These experiments have identified protein-protein interactions that extend beyond the direct inhibitor binding site and which lead to aberrant multimerization of WT but not A128T IN. Specifically, we demonstrate that C-terminal residues Lys-264 and Lys-266 play an important role in the inhibitor induced aberrant multimerization of the WT protein. Our findings provide structural clues for exploiting IN multimerization as a new, attractive therapeutic target and are expected to facilitate development of improved inhibitors. PMID:25118283

Shkriabai, Nikoloz; Dharmarajan, Venkatasubramanian; Slaughter, Alison; Kessl, Jacques J; Larue, Ross C; Feng, Lei; Fuchs, James R; Griffin, Patrick R; Kvaratskhelia, Mamuka

2014-09-19

341

Highly expressed protein kinase A inhibitor ? and suppression of protein kinase A may potentiate acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.  

PubMed

Drug-induced hepatotoxicity is a serious adverse effect with high morbidity and mortality rates but substantial individual to individual variation is observed in its severity. Here we sought to discover factors determining the susceptibility to acetaminophen (APAP)-induced hepatotoxicity by comparing the global gene expression profile (27,342 genes) in pre-dose blood before APAP administration between susceptible and resistant animals (N=5) grouped based on the severity of hepatotoxicity. Forty-one genes were expressed differently (>1.5 fold change and p<0.05) between susceptible and resistant groups. Among them, protein kinase (cAMP-dependent) inhibitor alpha, Pkia, a member of protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor family, was found to be most significantly and highly expressed in susceptible animals (~3.5 fold with p<0.01). To investigate the effects of PKA inhibition on APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, we pre-treated H-89, a potent and selective inhibitor of PKA, prior to APAP administration in vivo. As a result, H-89 pretreatment significantly potentiated APAP-induced hepatotoxicity as determined by the increased serum alanine transaminase. These results were further corroborated by the exacerbation of APAP-induced glutathione depletion, suppression of antioxidant enzyme system, superoxide dismutase 1 and glutathione peroxidase 1, and peroxynitrite generation in the liver following H-89 pretreatment, reflecting that PKA may be involved in the protection against, or attenuation of APAP-induced hepatotoxicity, and Pkia can be employed to screen individuals susceptible to APAP-induced hepatotoxicity. PMID:24910983

Yun, Jun-Won; Kim, MinJeong; Cho, Sung-Dae; Lee, Joo Young; Bae, Ok-Nam; Lim, Kyung-Min

2014-08-17

342

A receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, Tyrphostin A9 induces cancer cell death through Drp1 dependent mitochondria fragmentation  

SciTech Connect

Highlights: {yields} We screened and identified Tyrphostin A9, a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor as a strong mitochondria fission inducer. {yields} Tyrphostin A9 treatment promotes mitochondria dysfunction and contributes to cytotoxicity in cancer cells. {yields} Tyrphostin A9 induces apoptotic cell death through a Drp1-mediated pathway. {yields} Our studies suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces mitochondria fragmentation and apoptotic cell death via Drp1 dependently. -- Abstract: Mitochondria dynamics controls not only their morphology but also functions of mitochondria. Therefore, an imbalance of the dynamics eventually leads to mitochondria disruption and cell death. To identify specific regulators of mitochondria dynamics, we screened a bioactive chemical compound library and selected Tyrphostin A9, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor, as a potent inducer of mitochondrial fission. Tyrphostin A9 treatment resulted in the formation of fragmented mitochondria filament. In addition, cellular ATP level was decreased and the mitochondrial membrane potential was collapsed in Tyr A9-treated cells. Suppression of Drp1 activity by siRNA or over-expression of a dominant negative mutant of Drp1 inhibited both mitochondrial fragmentation and cell death induced by Tyrpohotin A9. Moreover, treatment of Tyrphostin A9 also evoked mitochondrial fragmentation in other cells including the neuroblastomas. Taken together, these results suggest that Tyrphostin A9 induces Drp1-mediated mitochondrial fission and apoptotic cell death.

Park, So Jung; Park, Young Jun; Shin, Ji Hyun; Kim, Eun Sung [Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeoggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeoggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Hwang, Jung Jin; Jin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Jin Cheon [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of)] [Institute for Innovative Cancer Research, Asan Medical Center, Seoul 138-736 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Dong-Hyung, E-mail: dhcho@khu.ac.kr [Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeoggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)] [Graduate School of East-West Medical Science, Kyung Hee University, Gyeoggi-Do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of)

2011-05-13

343

Long-term therapy of interferon-alpha induced pulmonary arterial hypertension with different PDE-5 inhibitors: a case report  

PubMed Central

background Interferon alpha2 is widely used in hepatitis and high-risk melanoma. Interferon-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension as a side effect is rare. Case presentation We describe a melanoma patient who developed severe pulmonary arterial hypertension 30 months after initiation of adjuvant interferon alpha2b therapy. Discontinuation of interferon did not improve pulmonary arterial hypertension. This patient could be treated successfully with phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor therapy. Conclusion This is only the 5th case of interferon-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension and the first documented case where pulmonary arterial hypertension was not reversible after termination of interferon alpha2 therapy. If interferon alpha2 treated patients develop respiratory symptoms, pulmonary arterial hypertension should be considered in the differential diagnosis. For these patients phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors, e.g. sildenafil or vardenafil, could be an effective therapeutic approach. PMID:16138923

Jochmann, Nicoline; Kiecker, Felix; Borges, Adrian C; Hofmann, Maja A; Eddicks, Stephan; Sterry, Wolfram; Baumann, Gert; Trefzer, Uwe

2005-01-01

344

Peroxisome-associated matrix protein degradation in Arabidopsis  

PubMed Central

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous eukaryotic organelles housing diverse enzymatic reactions, including several that produce toxic reactive oxygen species. Although understanding of the mechanisms whereby enzymes enter peroxisomes with the help of peroxin (PEX) proteins is increasing, mechanisms by which damaged or obsolete peroxisomal proteins are degraded are not understood. We have exploited unique aspects of plant development to characterize peroxisome-associated protein degradation (PexAD) in Arabidopsis. Oilseed seedlings undergo a developmentally regulated remodeling of peroxisomal matrix protein composition in which the glyoxylate cycle enzymes isocitrate lyase (ICL) and malate synthase (MLS) are replaced by photorespiration enzymes. We found that mutations expected to increase or decrease peroxisomal H2O2 levels accelerated or delayed ICL and MLS disappearance, respectively, suggesting that oxidative damage promotes peroxisomal protein degradation. ICL, MLS, and the ?-oxidation enzyme thiolase were stabilized in the pex4–1 pex22–1 double mutant, which is defective in a peroxisome-associated ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme and its membrane tether. Moreover, the stabilized ICL, thiolase, and an ICL-GFP reporter remained peroxisome associated in pex4–1 pex22–1. ICL also was stabilized and peroxisome associated in pex6–1, a mutant defective in a peroxisome-tethered ATPase. ICL and thiolase were mislocalized to the cytosol but only ICL was stabilized in pex5–10, a mutant defective in a matrix protein import receptor, suggesting that peroxisome entry is necessary for degradation of certain matrix proteins. Together, our data reveal new roles for PEX4, PEX5, PEX6, and PEX22 in PexAD of damaged or obsolete matrix proteins in addition to their canonical roles in peroxisome biogenesis. PMID:19246395

Lingard, Matthew J.; Monroe-Augustus, Melanie; Bartel, Bonnie

2009-01-01

345

NF B Inducers Upregulate cFLIP, a Cycloheximide-Sensitive Inhibitor of Death Receptor Signaling  

Microsoft Academic Search

The caspase 8 homologue FLICE-inhibitory protein (cFLIP) is a potent negative regulator of death receptor- induced apoptosis. We found that cFLIP can be upregulated in some cell lines under critical involvement of the NF-kB pathway, but NF-kB activation was clearly not sufficient for cFLIP induction in all cell lines. Treatment of SV80 cells with the proteasome inhibitor N-benzoyloxycarbonyl (Z)-Leu-Leu-leucinal (MG-132)

SEBASTIAN KREUZ; DANIELA SIEGMUND; PETER SCHEURICH; HARALD WAJANT

2001-01-01

346

2-Tetradecylglycidic Acid, an Inhibitor of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase-1, Induces Myocardial Hypertrophy via the AT1 Receptor  

Microsoft Academic Search

Activation of the antiogensin II, type 1 (AT1) receptor mediates the myocardial response to numerous hypertrophic stimuli. This study tested the hypothesis that 2-tetradecylglycidic acid (TDGA), an oxirane carboxylate inhibitor of mitochondrial carnitine plamitoyltransferase-1, induces myocardial hypertrophy via the AT1 receptor system. Male Sprague–Dawley rats treated with 10 mg TDGA\\/kg\\/day for 7 days had a heart wet weight:body weight ratio

Paul E Wolkowicz; Ferdinand Urthaler; Clarence Forrest; Hai Shen; Joan Durand; Chih-Chang Wei; Suzanne Oparil

1999-01-01

347

Serotonin reuptake inhibitors do not prevent 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine-induced depletion of serotonin in rat brain  

Microsoft Academic Search

Although the selective toxicity of 5,7-dihydroxytryptamine (5,7-DHT) is thought to depend on the drug's transport into serotonin (5HT) neurons via the 5HT transporter, few studies have critically examined this postulation. We therefore evaluated if 5,7-DHT-induced reductions in 5HT concentrations and synthesis rate in rat brain are blocked by pretreatment with 5HT-selective reuptake inhibitors. Rats pretreated with desipramine (DMI) (to prevent

SuJean Choi; Elizabeth Jonak; John D. Fernstrom

2004-01-01

348

Effects of rolipram and roflumilast, phosphodiesterase-4 inhibitors, on hypertension-induced defects in memory function in rats.  

PubMed

Hypertension (HT) is a prevailing risk factor for cognitive impairment, the most common cause of vascular dementia; yet, no possible mechanism underlying the cognitive impairment induced by hypertension has been identified so far. Inhibition of PDE-4 has been shown to increase phosphorylation of cAMP-response element binding protein in the hippocampus and enhance the memory performance. Here, we examined the effects of PDE-4 inhibitors, rolipram and roflumilast, on the impairment of learning and memory observed in hypertensive rats. We used 2k-1c hypertensive model to induce learning and memory defects. In addition, mRNA expression of PDE-4 sub-types A-D was also assessed in the hippocampus tissue. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was measured by tail-cuff method was significantly increased in 2k-1c rats when compared to sham operated rats; this effect was reversed by clonidine, whereas, PDE-4 inhibitors did not. PDE-4 inhibitors significantly reversed time induced memory deficit in novel object recognition task (NORT). Further, the retention latency on the second day in the elevated plus maze model was significantly shortened after repeated administration of rolipram and roflumilast. Plasma and brain concentrations of rolipram, roflumilast and roflumilast N-oxide were also measured after the NORT and showed linear increase in plasma and brain concentrations. The PDE4B and PDE4D gene expression was significantly enhanced in hypertensive rats compared with sham operated however PDE4A and PDE4C remained unaltered. Repeated treatment with PDE-4 inhibitors caused down regulation of PDE4B and PDE4D in hypertensive rats. These results suggest that inhibition of PDE-4 ameliorates HT-induced impairment of learning and memory functions. PMID:25446433

Jabaris, Sobhana George Sugin Lal; Sumathy, Haridass; Kumar, Ramadass Satiesh; Narayanan, Shridhar; Thanikachalam, Sadagopan; Babu, Chidambaram Saravana

2015-01-01

349

Antidiabetic effects of dipeptidyl peptidase–IV inhibitors and sulfonylureas in streptozotocin-nicotinamide–induced mildly diabetic mice  

Microsoft Academic Search

The present study investigated the antidiabetic effects of the dipeptidyl peptidase (DPP)–IV inhibitors ASP8497 and vildagliptin, and the sulfonylureas glibenclamide and gliclazide in streptozotocin-nicotinamide–induced mildly diabetic mice. A single administration of ASP8497 and vildagliptin significantly improved glucose tolerance by increasing plasma insulin and glucagon-like peptide–1 levels. In addition, a single administration of glibenclamide and gliclazide also caused significant improvement in

Akiko Matsuyama-Yokono; Atsuo Tahara; Ryosuke Nakano; Yuka Someya; Katsuhisa Shiraki; Masahiko Hayakawa; Masayuki Shibasaki

2009-01-01

350

NAAG peptidase inhibitors block cognitive deficit induced by MK-801 and motor activation induced by d-amphetamine in animal models of schizophrenia  

PubMed Central

The most widely validated animal models of the positive, negative and cognitive symptoms of schizophrenia involve administration of d-amphetamine or the open channel NMDA receptor blockers, dizocilpine (MK-801), phencyclidine (PCP) and ketamine. The drug ZJ43 potently inhibits glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), an enzyme that inactivates the peptide transmitter N-acetylaspartylglutamate (NAAG) and reduces positive and negative behaviors induced by PCP in several of these models. NAAG is an agonist at the metabotropic glutamate receptor 3 (mGluR3). Polymorphisms in this receptor have been associated with expression of schizophrenia. This study aimed to determine whether two different NAAG peptidase inhibitors are effective in dopamine models, whether their efficacy was eliminated in GCPII knockout mice and whether the efficacy of these inhibitors extended to MK-801-induced cognitive deficits as assessed using the novel object recognition test. ZJ43 blocked motor activation when given before or after d-amphetamine treatment. (R,S)-2-phosphono-methylpentanedioic acid (2-PMPA), another potent NAAG peptidase inhibitor, also reduced motor activation induced by PCP or d-amphetamine. 2-PMPA was not effective in GCPII knockout mice. ZJ43 and 2-PMPA also blocked MK-801-induced deficits in novel object recognition when given before, but not after, the acquisition trial. The group II mGluR antagonist LY341495 blocked the effects of NAAG peptidase inhibition in these studies. 2-PMPA was more potent than ZJ43 in a test of NAAG peptidase inhibition in vivo. By bridging the dopamine and glutamate theories of schizophrenia with two structurally different NAAG peptidase inhibitors and demonstrating their efficacy in blocking MK-801-induced memory deficits, these data advance the concept that NAAG peptidase inhibition represents a potentially novel antipsychotic therapy. PMID:22850437

Olszewski, R T; Janczura, K J; Ball, S R; Madore, J C; Lavin, K M; Lee, J C-M; Lee, M J; Der, E K; Hark, T J; Farago, P R; Profaci, C P; Bzdega, T; Neale, J H

2012-01-01

351

Inhibitors of glutamate release from breast cancer cells; new targets for cancer-induced bone-pain  

PubMed Central

Glutamate is an important signaling molecule in a wide variety of tissues. Aberrant glutamatergic signaling disrupts normal tissue homeostasis and induces several disruptive pathological conditions including pain. Breast cancer cells secrete high levels of glutamate and often metastasize to bone. Exogenous glutamate can disrupt normal bone turnover and may be responsible for cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP). CIBP is a significant co-morbidity that affects quality of life for many advanced-stage breast cancer patients. Current treatment options are commonly accompanied by serious side-effects that negatively impact patient care. Identifying small molecule inhibitors of glutamate release from aggressive breast cancer cells advances a novel, mechanistic approach to targeting CIBP that could advance treatment for several pathological conditions. Using high-throughput screening, we investigated the ability of approximately 30,000 compounds from the Canadian Compound Collection to reduce glutamate release from MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells. This line is known to secrete high levels of glutamate and has been demonstrated to induce CIBP by this mechanism. Positive chemical hits were based on the potency of each molecule relative to a known pharmacological inhibitor of glutamate release, sulfasalazine. Efficacy was confirmed and drug-like molecules were identified as potent inhibitors of glutamate secretion from MDA-MB-231, MCF-7 and Mat-Ly-Lu cells. PMID:25670024

Fazzari, Jennifer; Lin, Hanxin; Murphy, Cecilia; Ungard, Robert; Singh, Gurmit

2015-01-01

352

Influence of a Human Protease Inhibitor on Surgical Stress Induced Immunosuppression  

Microsoft Academic Search

Background\\/Aim: Postoperative tissue injury and immunosuppression can occur after major surgery. In this study, we explore the potential benefits of administering a protease inhibitor to treat immunosuppression caused by surgical stress. Methods: Sixteen patients with esophageal cancer were preoperatively allocated at random into two equal groups. A urinary trypsin inhibitor, ulinastatin (UTI), was intravenously administered to the treatment (UTI) group

Nobuhiro Sato; Shigeatsu Endo; Yusuke Kimura; Kenichirou Ikeda; Kiichi Aoki; Takeshi Iwaya; Yuji Akiyama; Yoshinori Noda; Kazuyoshi Saito

2002-01-01

353

New insights into the peroxisomal protein inventory: Acyl-CoA oxidases and -dehydrogenases are an ancient feature of peroxisomes.  

PubMed

Peroxisomes are ubiquitous organelles which participate in a variety of essential biochemical pathways. An intimate interrelationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria is emerging in mammals, where both organelles cooperate in fatty acid ?-oxidation and cellular lipid homeostasis. As mitochondrial fatty acid ?-oxidation is lacking in yeast and plants, suitable genetically accessible model systems to study this interrelationship are scarce. Here, we propose the filamentous fungus Ustilago maydis as a suitable model for those studies. We combined molecular cell biology, bioinformatics and phylogenetic analyses and provide the first comprehensive inventory of U. maydis peroxisomal proteins and pathways. Studies with a peroxisome-deficient ?pex3 mutant revealed the existence of parallel and complex, cooperative ?-oxidation pathways in peroxisomes and mitochondria, mimicking the situation in mammals. Furthermore, we provide evidence that acyl-CoA dehydrogenases (ACADs) are bona fide peroxisomal proteins in fungi and mammals and together with acyl-CoA oxidases (ACOX) belong to the basic enzymatic repertoire of peroxisomes. A genome comparison with baker's yeast and human gained new insights into the basic peroxisomal protein inventory shared by humans and fungi and revealed novel peroxisomal proteins and functions in U. maydis. The importance of our findings for the evolution and function of the complex interrelationship between peroxisomes and mitochondria in fatty acid ?-oxidation is discussed. PMID:25307522

Camões, Fátima; Islinger, Markus; Guimarães, Sofia C; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Schuster, Martin; Godinho, Luis F; Steinberg, Gero; Schrader, Michael

2015-01-01

354

Peroxisome proliferators alter the expression of estrogen-metabolizing enzymes.  

PubMed

Exposure to some peroxisome proliferator chemicals (PPC) leads to toxic effects on sex organ function possibly by alterations of steroid hormone metabolism. A systematic search for genes whose mRNA levels are modulated by the PPC WY-14643 (WY) was carried out in rat liver, a site of steroid hormone metabolism. The sequence of one up-regulated cDNA (2480 bp) was predicted to encode a protein of 735 amino acids with 82% identity to the porcine 17 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type IV (HSD IV) originally isolated as a 17 beta-estradiol dehydrogenase. The rat HSD IV was localized to peroxisomes and was regulated by diverse PPC by two distinct mechanisms. Induction of HSD IV and acyl-CoA oxidase (ACO) proteins in rat liver at different treatment times and concentrations of gemfibrozil (GEM) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) were almost identical, suggesting that HSD IV mRNA induction involves the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha, a regulator of ACO. In contrast, HSD IV protein levels were only weakly induced by WY, a strong inducer of ACO protein, even though the levels of both HSD IV and ACO mRNA were strongly stimulated by WY. Thus HSD IV protein levels were uniquely regulated pretranslationally by WY. In addition to HSD IV we also identified the male-specific alpha 2u-globulin as a PPC down-regulated gene. This prompted us to examine the expression of another male-specific gene, CYP2C11, that catalyzes the hydroxylations of estradiol at the 2 and 16 alpha positions. Cyp2C11 protein expression in rat liver was either decreased or completely abolished after a 3-week treatment by GEM or WY, respectively. Decreased expression of enzymes which inactivate estradiol including Cyp2C11, and the reported increased expression of aromatase may explain why male rats exposed to diverse PPC have higher serum estradiol levels. These higher estradiol levels in male rats have been thought to be mechanistically linked to Leydig cell hyperplasia and adenomas. Increased conversion of estradiol to the less active estrone by HSD IV induction may explain how exposure to the phthalate di-(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate leads to decreases in serum estradiol levels and suppression of ovulation in female rats. PMID:9209713

Corton, J C; Bocos, C; Moreno, E S; Merritt, A; Cattley, R C; Gustafsson, J A

1997-01-01

355

Targeting protein neddylation with an NEDD8-activating enzyme inhibitor MLN4924 induced apoptosis or senescence in human lymphoma cells.  

PubMed

Recent studies indicate that post-translational protein neddylation is required for the maintenance of cell viability in several lymphoma cell lines, while inhibition of the neddylation pathway with an NEDD8-activating enzyme (NAE) inhibitor MLN4924 induces apoptosis in lymphoma cells. However, the mechanism by which neddylation inhibition induces apoptosis in lymphoma cells has not been fully elucidated. Moreover, it is unknown whether neddylation inhibition triggers non-apoptotic cell-killing responses, such as cell senescence, in lymphoma cells. Here, we report that MLN4924 specifically inhibited protein neddylation, inactivated cullin-RING E3 ligase (CRL), the best-known neddylation substrate, and induced the accumulation of tumor-suppressive CRL substrates in lymphoma cells. Moreover, MLN4924 potently suppressed the growth of lymphoma cells by inducing G2 cell-cycle arrest, followed by apoptosis or senescence in a cell line-dependent manner. MLN4924-induced apoptosis was mediated by intrinsic apoptotic signaling with substantial up-regulation of pro-apoptotic Bik and Noxa as well as down-regulation of anti-apoptotic XIAP, c-IAP1 and c-IAP2, while senescence induction upon neddylation inhibition seemed dependent on the expression of tumor suppressor p21/p27. Together, these findings expand our understanding on how lymphoma cells respond to neddylation inhibition and support the development of neddylation inhibitors (e.g. MLN4924) for the treatment of lymphoma. PMID:25782162

Wang, Yanchun; Luo, Zhongguang; Pan, Yongfu; Wang, Weige; Zhou, Xiaoyan; Jeong, Lak Shin; Chu, Yiwei; Liu, Jie; Jia, Lijun

2015-03-01

356

Histone deacetylase inhibitor valproic acid promotes the differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells into hepatocyte-like cells.  

PubMed

In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects and mechanism of action of valproic acid on hepatic differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells. Human induced pluripotent stem cells were differentiated into endodermal cells in the presence of activin A and then into hepatic progenitor cells using dimethyl sulfoxide. Hepatic progenitor cells were matured in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and dexamethasone with valproic acid that was added during the maturation process. After 25 days of differentiation, cells expressed hepatic marker genes and drug-metabolizing enzymes and exhibited drug-metabolizing enzyme activities. These expression levels and activities were increased by treatment with valproic acid, the timing and duration of which were important parameters to promote differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells into hepatocytes. Valproic acid inhibited histone deacetylase activity during differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells, and other histone deacetylase inhibitors also enhanced differentiation into hepatocytes. In conclusion, histone deacetylase inhibitors such as valproic acid can be used to promote hepatic differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells. PMID:25084468

Kondo, Yuki; Iwao, Takahiro; Yoshihashi, Sachimi; Mimori, Kayo; Ogihara, Ruri; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Kurose, Kouichi; Saito, Masayoshi; Niwa, Takuro; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki; Ohmori, Shigeru; Nakamura, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Tamihide

2014-01-01

357

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitor Valproic Acid Promotes the Differentiation of Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells into Hepatocyte-Like Cells  

PubMed Central

In this study, we aimed to elucidate the effects and mechanism of action of valproic acid on hepatic differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells. Human induced pluripotent stem cells were differentiated into endodermal cells in the presence of activin A and then into hepatic progenitor cells using dimethyl sulfoxide. Hepatic progenitor cells were matured in the presence of hepatocyte growth factor, oncostatin M, and dexamethasone with valproic acid that was added during the maturation process. After 25 days of differentiation, cells expressed hepatic marker genes and drug-metabolizing enzymes and exhibited drug-metabolizing enzyme activities. These expression levels and activities were increased by treatment with valproic acid, the timing and duration of which were important parameters to promote differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells into hepatocytes. Valproic acid inhibited histone deacetylase activity during differentiation of human induced pluripotent stem cells, and other histone deacetylase inhibitors also enhanced differentiation into hepatocytes. In conclusion, histone deacetylase inhibitors such as valproic acid can be used to promote hepatic differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived hepatic progenitor cells. PMID:25084468

Kondo, Yuki; Iwao, Takahiro; Yoshihashi, Sachimi; Mimori, Kayo; Ogihara, Ruri; Nagata, Kiyoshi; Kurose, Kouichi; Saito, Masayoshi; Niwa, Takuro; Suzuki, Takayoshi; Miyata, Naoki; Ohmori, Shigeru; Nakamura, Katsunori; Matsunaga, Tamihide

2014-01-01

358

Pretreatment with Nonselective Cationic Channel Inhibitors Blunts the PACAP-Induced Increase in Guinea Pig Cardiac Neuron Excitability  

PubMed Central

Calcium influx is required for the pituitary adenylyl cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP)-induced increase in guinea pig cardiac neuron sexcitability, noted as a change from a phasic to multiple action potential firing pattern. Intracellular recordings indicated that pretreatment with the nonselective cationic channel inhibitors, 2-aminoethoxydiphenylborate (2-APB), 1-[?-[3-(4-methoxyphenyl)propoxy]-4-methoxy-phenethyl]-1H-imidazole HCl (SKF 96365), and flufenamic acid (FFA) reduced the 20-nM PACAP-induced excitability increase. Additional experiments tested whether 2-APB, FFA, and SKF 96365 could suppress the increase in excitability by PACAP once it had developed. The increased action potential firing remained following application of 2-APB but was diminished by FFA. SKF 96365 transiently depressed the PACAP-induced excitability increase. A decrease and recovery of action potential amplitude paralleled the excitability shift. Since semiquantitative PCR indicated that cardiac neurons express TRPC subunit transcripts, we hypothesize that PACAP activates calcium-permeable, nonselective cationic channels, which possibly are members of the TRPC family. Our results are consistent with calcium influx being required for the initiation of the PACAP-induced increase in excitability, but suggest that it may not be required to sustain the peptide effect. The present results also demonstrate that non-selective cationic channel inhibitors could have other actions, which might contribute to the inhibition of the PACAP-induced excitability increase. PMID:22528456

Merriam, Laura A.; Roman, Carolyn W.; Baran, Caitlin N.; Girard, Beatrice M.; May, Victor

2012-01-01

359

Differential function and expression of the viral inhibitor of caspase 8-induced apoptosis (vICA) and the viral mitochondria-localized inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA) cell death suppressors conserved in primate and rodent cytomegaloviruses  

Microsoft Academic Search

Human cytomegalovirus (CMV) genes UL36 and UL37 encode viral inhibitor of caspase-8-induced apoptosis (vICA) and viral mitochondria inhibitor of apoptosis (vMIA), respectively. Rhesus macaque CMV homologues, denoted Rh-vICA and Rh-vMIA, were identified and found to suppress apoptosis. One of these functions was conserved in MCMV, encoded by the M36 gene and denoted M-vICA. Conserved regions were compared to domains important

A. Louise McCormick; Anna Skaletskaya; Peter A Barry; Edward S Mocarski; Victor S Goldmacher

2003-01-01

360

Dihydroorotate dehydrogenase inhibitor A771726 (leflunomide) induces apoptosis and diminishes proliferation of multiple myeloma cells.  

PubMed

Multiple myeloma is still an incurable disease; therefore, new therapeutics are urgently needed. A771726 is the active metabolite of the immunosuppressive drug leflunomide, which is currently applied in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, BK virus nephropathy, and cytomegaly viremia. Here, we show that dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) is commonly expressed in multiple myeloma cell lines and primary multiple myeloma cells. The DHODH inhibitor A771726 inhibits cell growth in common myeloma cell lines at clinically achievable concentrations in a time- and dose-dependent manner. Annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide staining revealed induction of apoptosis of multiple myeloma cell lines and primary multiple myeloma cells. The 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine cell proliferation assay showed that inhibition of cell growth was partly due to inhibition of multiple myeloma cell proliferation. A771726 induced G(1) cell cycle arrest via modulation of cyclin D2 and pRb expression. A771726 decreased phosphorylation of protein kinase B (Akt), p70S6K, and eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein-1 as shown by Western blotting experiments. Furthermore, we show that the stimulatory effect of conditioned medium of HS-5 bone marrow stromal cells on multiple myeloma cell growth is completely abrogated by A771726. In addition, synergism studies revealed synergistic and additive activity of A771726 together with the genotoxic agents melphalan, treosulfan, and doxorubicin as well as with dexamethasone and bortezomib. Taken together, we show that inhibition of DHODH by A771726/leflunomide is effective in multiple myeloma. Considering the favorable toxicity profile and the great clinical experience with leflunomide in rheumatoid arthritis, this drug represents a potential new candidate for targeted therapy in multiple myeloma. PMID:19174558

Baumann, Philipp; Mandl-Weber, Sonja; Völkl, Andreas; Adam, Christian; Bumeder, Irmgard; Oduncu, Fuat; Schmidmaier, Ralf

2009-02-01

361

Antiviral and immunomodulating inhibitors of experimentally-induced Punta Toro virus infections.  

PubMed

A major component of a US Army Medical Research and Development Command-supported program to discover and develop new drugs for the treatment of Rift Valley fever, sandfly fever, and Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever has been to study candidate test materials against hepatotropic infections of C57BL/6 mice induced by the related but less biohazardous Punta Toro virus (PTV). The effects of 75 compounds, some of which were considered immunomodulators in their primary mechanism of activity, were studied in the PTV infection model. Of these, ribavirin, ribamidine, ribavirin 2',3',5'-triacetate, tiazofurin, tiazofurin-5'-monophosphate, tiazofurin-2',3',5'-triacetate, selenazofurin, pyrazofurin, 3-deazaguanine, and 3-deazaguanosine were considered significantly inhibitory, acting against the infection by a direct antiviral (non-immunomodulatory) fashion. These compounds had therapeutic indices (TI) ranging from > or = 5 to 65, using increased survivors as the evaluation parameter. Immunomodulators considered significantly inhibitory to this infection were poly (ICLC), ampligen, human recombinant interferon-alpha-A/D, MVE-1, MVE-2, AM-3, AM-5, mannozym, bropirimine, CL246,738, phenyleneamine, and 7-thia-8-oxoguanosine. Utilizing increased survivor numbers as measure of activity, these inhibitors had TI ranging from > or = 16 to 1000. Other antiviral effects exerted by the active compounds included reduction of hepatic icterus, lowered serum glutamic oxaloacetic and pyruvic acid transaminases, and inhibition of recoverable serum and liver virus titers. The active immunomodulators were significantly effective when therapy was initiated as late as 48 h after virus inoculation, at a time when clinical signs of the PTV disease were being manifested in the animal. PMID:7847873

Sidwell, R W; Huffman, J H; Barnard, D L; Smee, D F; Warren, R P; Chirigos, M A; Kende, M; Huggins, J

1994-10-01

362

Leptin Promotes Fibroproliferative Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome by Inhibiting Peroxisome Proliferator–activated Receptor-?  

PubMed Central

Rationale: Diabetic patients have a lower incidence of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), and those who develop ARDS are less likely to die. The mechanisms that underlie this protection are unknown. Objectives: To determine whether leptin resistance, a feature of diabetes, prevents fibroproliferation after lung injury. Methods: We examined lung injury and fibroproliferation after the intratracheal instillation of bleomycin in wild-type and leptin-resistant (db/db) diabetic mice. We examined the effect of leptin on transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1–mediated transcription in primary normal human lung fibroblasts. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BAL) samples from patients with ARDS and ventilated control subjects were obtained for measurement of leptin and active TGF-?1 levels. Measurements and Main Results: Diabetic mice (db/db) were resistant to lung fibrosis. The db/db mice had higher levels of peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor-? (PPAR?), an inhibitor of the transcriptional response to TGF-?1, a cytokine critical in the pathogenesis of fibroproliferative ARDS. In normal human lung fibroblasts, leptin augmented the transcription of profibrotic genes in response to TGF-?1 through a mechanism that required PPAR?. In patients with ARDS, BAL leptin levels were elevated and correlated with TGF-?1 levels. Overall, there was no significant relationship between BAL leptin levels and clinical outcomes; however, in nonobese patients, higher BAL leptin levels were associated with fewer intensive care unit– and ventilator-free days and higher mortality. Conclusions: Leptin signaling is required for bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis. Leptin augments TGF-?1 signaling in lung fibroblasts by inhibiting PPAR?. These findings provide a mechanism for the observed protection against ARDS observed in diabetic patients. PMID:21317313

Jain, Manu; Budinger, G. R. Scott; Lo, Amy; Urich, Daniela; Rivera, Stephanie E.; Ghosh, Asish K.; Gonzalez, Angel; Chiarella, Sergio E.; Marks, Katie; Donnelly, Helen K.; Soberanes, Saul; Varga, John; Radigan, Kathryn A.; Chandel, Navdeep S.; Mutlu, Gökhan M.

2011-01-01

363

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-? Regulates the Expression of Alveolar Macrophage Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor  

PubMed Central

Macrophage CSF (M-CSF) regulates monocyte differentiation, activation, and foam cell formation. We have observed that it is elevated in human pulmonary alveolar proteinosis (PAP) and in the GM-CSF knockout mouse, a murine model for PAP. A potential regulator of M-CSF, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-? (PPAR?), is severely deficient in both human PAP and the GM-CSF knockout mouse. To investigate the role of PPAR? in alveolar macrophage homeostasis, we generated myeloidspecific PPAR? knockout mice using the Lys-Cre method to knock out the floxed PPAR? gene. Similar to the GM-CSF-deficient mouse, absence of alveolar macrophage PPAR? resulted in development of lung pathology resembling PAP in 16-wk-old mice, along with excess M-CSF gene expression and secretion. In ex vivo wild-type alveolar macrophages, we observed that M-CSF itself is capable of inducing foam cell formation similar to that seen in PAP. Overexpression of PPAR? prevented LPS-stimulated M-CSF production in RAW 264.7 cells, an effect that was abrogated by a specific PPAR? antagonist, GW9662. Use of proteasome inhibitor, MG-132 or a PPAR? agonist, pioglitazone, prevented LPS-mediated M-CSF induction. Using chromatin immunoprecipitation, we found that PPAR? is capable of regulating M-CSF through transrepression of NF-?B binding at the promoter. Gel-shift assay experiments confirmed that pioglitazone is capable of blocking NF-?B binding. Taken together, these data suggest that M-CSF is an important mediator of alveolar macrophage homeostasis, and that transcriptional control of M-CSF production is regulated by NF-?B and PPAR?. PMID:18566389

Bonfield, Tracey L.; Thomassen, Mary Jane; Farver, Carol F.; Abraham, Susamma; Koloze, Mary T.; Zhang, Xia; Mosser, David M.; Culver, Daniel A.

2010-01-01

364

Fem1b, a proapoptotic protein, mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of human colon cancer cells.  

PubMed

In the treatment of colon cancer, the development of resistance to apoptosis is a major factor in resistance to therapy. New molecular approaches to overcome apoptosis resistance, such as selectively upregulating proapoptotic proteins, are needed in colon cancer therapy. In a mouse model with inactivation of the adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) tumor suppressor gene, reflecting the pathogenesis of most human colon cancers, the gene encoding feminization-1 homolog b (Fem1b) is upregulated in intestinal epithelium following Apc inactivation. Fem1b is a proapoptotic protein that interacts with apoptosis-inducing proteins Fas, tumor necrosis factor receptor-1 (TNFR1), and apoptotic protease activating factor-1 (Apaf-1). Increasing Fem1b expression induces apoptosis of cancer cells, but effects on colon cancer cells have not been reported. Fem1b is a homolog of feminization-1 (FEM-1), a protein in Caenorhabditis elegans that is regulated by proteasomal degradation, but whether Fem1b is likewise regulated by proteasomal degradation is unknown. Herein, we found that Fem1b protein is expressed in primary human colon cancer specimens, and in malignant SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 colon cancer cells. Increasing Fem1b expression, by transfection of a Fem1b expression construct, induced apoptosis of these cells. We found that proteasome inhibitor treatment of SW620, HCT-116, and DLD-1 cells caused upregulation of Fem1b protein levels, associated with induction of apoptosis. Blockade of Fem1b upregulation with morpholino antisense oligonucleotide suppressed the proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. In conclusion, the proapoptotic protein Fem1b is downregulated by the proteasome in malignant colon cancer cells and mediates proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis of these cells. Therefore, Fem1b could represent a novel molecular target to overcome apoptosis resistance in therapy of colon cancer. PMID:19908242

Subauste, M Cecilia; Sansom, Owen J; Porecha, Nehal; Raich, Natacha; Du, Liqin; Maher, Joseph F

2010-02-01

365

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is a major stress-regulated gene: Implications for stress-induced thrombosis in aged individuals  

PubMed Central

Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is one of the primary inhibitors of the fibrinolytic system and has been implicated in a variety of thrombotic disorders. In this report, stress-induced changes in murine PAI-1 gene expression were investigated to study the role of this inhibitor in the development of stress-induced hypercoagulability. Restraint stress led to a dramatic induction of plasma PAI-1 antigen and of tissue PAI-1 mRNA with maximum induction in adipose tissues. In situ hybridization analysis of the stressed mice revealed that strong signals for PAI-1 mRNA were localized to hepatocytes, renal tubular epithelial cells, adrenomedullar chromaffin cells, neural cells in the paraaortic sympathetic ganglion, vascular smooth muscle cells, and adipocytes, but not to endothelial cells. These observations indicate that the stress induces the PAI-1 gene expression in a tissue-specific and cell type-specific manner. The induction of PAI-1 mRNA by restraint stress was greater than that observed for heat shock protein, a typical stress protein, suggesting that PAI-1 is one of the most highly induced stress proteins. Importantly, the magnitude of induction of PAI-1 mRNA by stress increased markedly with age, and this increase in PAI-1 correlated with tissue thrombosis in the older stressed mice. Moreover, much less tissue thrombosis was induced by restraint stress in young and aged PAI-1-deficient mice compared with age-matched wild-type mice. These results suggest that the large induction of PAI-1 by stress increases the risk for thrombosis in the older populations, and that the adipose tissue may be involved. PMID:11792849

Yamamoto, Koji; Takeshita, Kyosuke; Shimokawa, Takayoshi; Yi, Hong; Isobe, Ken-ichi; Loskutoff, David J.; Saito, Hidehiko

2002-01-01

366

Vitamin D attenuates nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor induced human skeletal muscle mitochondria DNA depletion  

PubMed Central

Objective To evaluate the impact of the active metabolite of vitamin D, 1?,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol (1,25D3), on nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NRTI) induced mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) depletion in human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. Design mtDNA was quantified in human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes following 1,25D3 and NRTI treatment using real-time PCR. Methods Human skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes were treated with didanosine (ddI), stavudine (d4T), zidovudine (ZDV), lamivudine (3TC) and abacavir (ABC) alone or in combination either in the presence or absence of 1,25D3 for 5 days. Cells were harvested, DNA extracted and mtDNA quantified. Results ddI and ddI-d4T significantly decreased both myoblast and myotube mtDNA in the absence of 1,25D3 compared with untreated controls (P ? 0.029). In addition, the ZDV-3TC combination resulted in a 47% decrease in myotube mtDNA (P = 0.005). 1,25D3 increased myotube mtDNA levels in ddI, ZDV, 3TC, ABC, ddI-d4T, d4T-3TC, ZDV-3TC, ZDV-ABC and ZDV-3TC-ABC-containing regimens and myoblast mtDNA levels in ddI, d4T, ZDV, 3TC, ddI-d4T, ZDV-3TC and ZDV-ABC-containing regimens. Of note, 1,25D3 protected against myotube mtDNA depletion following ZDV-3TC treatment, rendering them similar to 1,25D3 untreated controls (P = 0.62), and increased both myotube and myoblast mtDNA two to three-fold in ddI-containing regimens (P < 0.05). Conclusion 1,25D3 confers a protective effect against NRTI-induced mitochondrial toxicity in skeletal muscle myoblasts and myotubes. These findings support a protective role for vitamin D in preventing mitochondrial toxicity and suggest that supplemental vitamin D may protect against NRTI-associated mitochondrial toxicity. PMID:23435299

Campbell, Grant R.; Pallack, Zachary T.; Spector, Stephen A.

2013-01-01

367

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) and the Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase  

E-print Network

Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptors (PPAR) and the Mitochondrial Aldehyde Dehydrogenase. Peters, Robert A. Harris, and Mark Stewart Background: The aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH2) promoter Receptor, Liver, Peroxisome Proliferator, Aldehyde Dehydrogenase. THE PEROXISOME proliferator

Omiecinski, Curtis

368

Extravascular plasminogen activator and inhibitor activities detected at the site of a chronic mycobacterial-induced inflammation.  

PubMed Central

Levels of extravascular tissue plasminogen activator activity (PA) and those of inhibitors of PA and of urokinase (UK) present within the anterior chamber of normal and inflamed feline eyes were assessed with the use of a direct PA assay of microsamples of aqueous humor. Purposes of the study were, first, to confirm prior indirect evidence that this extravascular space normally contains higher levels of uninhibited PA, but lower levels of inhibitor activity, than does plasma and, second, to determine patterns of change in these activities under in vivo conditions imposed by a chronic mycobacterial-induced uveitis (CMIU) disease model. The PA assay utilized a 125I-plasminogen substrate whose cleavage by PA contained in samples was both visualized during gel electrophoreis, and quantified by gamma counting. The results provided the first direct evidence that the higher fibrinolytic activity previously observed in normal aqueous in comparison with plasma is in fact associated with higher levels of available (uninhibited) PA (P less than 0.01) The data also indicated that normal aqueous contains a much higher level of PA inhibitor activity than previously suspected--roughly 40 times more than available PA levels. These normal values for PA and inhibitors occupied a relatively narrow, threefold range, in contrast to the wide scattering of individual values that appeared during 18-20 weeks of the chronic inflammation disease model. Despite this, however, the general pattern of observation for all individual eyes during CMIU was a significant increase in levels of both PA and inhibitors. The net effect of CMIU was thus to cause the 1:40 ratio noted above to be tilted more strongly in favor of inhibitor activity, ie, up to 1:80. Increases in local vasopermeability in this disease model were believed contributory to this change. However, local generations of PA and APA in vivo by inflammatory cells, especially monocyte-macrophages, must also be considered. Assays for UK inhibitor showed levels of activity and directions of change that closely followed those of PA inhibitor, which suggests the possibility that they may be identical. It is surmised that the above patterns, along with results of our prior studies, indicate an apparent need for a multistep, strict inhibitory control of plasmin generation and proteolysis in vivo within normal extravascular spaces such as the anterior chamber.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 400 WORDS) Images Figure 2 PMID:3493701

O'Rourke, J.; Wang, W. P.; Donnelly, L.; Wang, E.; Kreutzer, D. L.

1987-01-01

369

Suppression of cardiac myocyte hypertrophy by conjugated linoleic acid: role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors alpha and gamma.  

PubMed

Conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) refers to a naturally occurring mixture of positional and geometric isomers of linoleic acid. Evidence suggests that CLA is a dietary constituent and nutraceutical with anti-cancer, insulin-sensitizing, immunomodulatory, weight-partitioning, and cardioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of intervention with CLA on cardiac hypertrophy. In vitro, CLA prevented indicators of cardiomyocyte hypertrophy elicited by endothelin-1, including cell size augmentation, protein synthesis, and fetal gene activation. Similar anti-hypertrophic effects of CLA were observed in hypertrophy induced by angiotensin II, fibroblast growth factor, and mechanical strain. CLA may inhibit hypertrophy through activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs). CLA stimulated PPAR activity in cardiomyocytes, and the anti-hypertrophic effects of CLA were blocked by genetic and pharmacological inhibitors of PPAR isoforms alpha and gamma. CLA may disrupt hypertrophic signaling by stimulating diacylglycerol kinase zeta, which decreases availability of diacylglycerol and thereby inhibits the protein kinase Cepsilon pathway. In vivo, dietary CLA supplementation significantly reduced blood pressure and cardiac hypertrophy in spontaneously hypertensive heart failure rats. These data suggest that dietary supplementation with CLA may be a viable strategy to prevent pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a major risk factor for heart failure. PMID:18283099

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