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Sample records for inhibits endoplasmic reticulum

  1. Paclitaxel inhibits selenoprotein S expression and attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Qin, Hong-Shuang; Yu, Pei-Pei; Sun, Ying; Wang, Dan-Feng; Deng, Xiao-Fen; Bao, Yong-Li; Song, Jun; Sun, Lu-Guo; Song, Zhen-Bo; Li, Yu-Xin

    2016-06-01

    The primary effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR) is to reduce the load of unfolded protein and promote survival. However, prolonged and severe ER stress leads to tissue injury and serious diseases. Thus, it is important to identify drugs that can attenuate ER stress for the treatment of diseases. Natural products continue to provide lead compounds for drug discovery and front‑line pharmacotherapy for people worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that selenoprotein S (SelS) is a sensitive and ideal maker of ER stress. In the present study, a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the SelS gene promoter was used to screen for natural compounds capable of attenuating ER stress. From this, paclitaxel (PTX) was identified to efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of the SelS gene, and further results revealed that PTX significantly inhibited the tunicamycin‑induced upregulation of SelS at the mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and HEK293T cells. In addition, PTX was able to efficiently inhibit the expression of the ER stress marker, glucose‑regulated protein 78, in ER stress, indicating that PTX may reverse ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that PTX is able to inhibit SelS expression during ER stress and attenuate ER stress. PMID:27109260

  2. Paclitaxel inhibits selenoprotein S expression and attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    QIN, HONG-SHUANG; YU, PEI-PEI; SUN, YING; WANG, DAN-FENG; DENG, XIAO-FEN; BAO, YONG-LI; SONG, JUN; SUN, LU-GUO; SONG, ZHEN-BO; LI, YU-XIN

    2016-01-01

    The primary effect of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response or unfolded protein response (UPR) is to reduce the load of unfolded protein and promote survival. However, prolonged and severe ER stress leads to tissue injury and serious diseases. Thus, it is important to identify drugs that can attenuate ER stress for the treatment of diseases. Natural products continue to provide lead compounds for drug discovery and front-line pharmacotherapy for people worldwide. Previous studies have indicated that selenoprotein S (SelS) is a sensitive and ideal maker of ER stress. In the present study, a firefly luciferase reporter driven by the SelS gene promoter was used to screen for natural compounds capable of attenuating ER stress. From this, paclitaxel (PTX) was identified to efficiently inhibit the promoter activity of the SelS gene, and further results revealed that PTX significantly inhibited the tunicamycin-induced upregulation of SelS at the mRNA and protein levels in HepG2 and HEK293T cells. In addition, PTX was able to efficiently inhibit the expression of the ER stress marker, glucose-regulated protein 78, in ER stress, indicating that PTX may reverse ER stress. Taken together, these results suggest that PTX is able to inhibit SelS expression during ER stress and attenuate ER stress. PMID:27109260

  3. Hydrogen Sulfide Improves Vascular Calcification in Rats by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Rui; Teng, Xu; Li, Hui; Xue, Hong-Mei; Guo, Qi; Xiao, Lin; Wu, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN) model of rats was used to prove that H2S alleviates vascular calcification (VC) and phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Besides, H2S can also inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) of calcified aortic tissues. The effect of H2S on alleviating VC and phenotype transformation of VSMC can be blocked by TM, while PBA also alleviated VC and phenotype transformation of VSMC that was similar to the effect of H2S. These results suggest that H2S may alleviate rat aorta VC by inhibiting ERS, providing new target and perspective for prevention and treatment of VC. PMID:27022436

  4. Hydrogen Sulfide Improves Vascular Calcification in Rats by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Rui; Teng, Xu; Li, Hui; Xue, Hong-Mei; Guo, Qi; Xiao, Lin; Wu, Yu-Ming

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the vitamin D3 plus nicotine (VDN) model of rats was used to prove that H2S alleviates vascular calcification (VC) and phenotype transformation of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Besides, H2S can also inhibit endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) of calcified aortic tissues. The effect of H2S on alleviating VC and phenotype transformation of VSMC can be blocked by TM, while PBA also alleviated VC and phenotype transformation of VSMC that was similar to the effect of H2S. These results suggest that H2S may alleviate rat aorta VC by inhibiting ERS, providing new target and perspective for prevention and treatment of VC. PMID:27022436

  5. Class A scavenger receptor activation inhibits endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy in macrophage.

    PubMed

    Huang, Hanpeng; Li, Xiaoyu; Zhuang, Yan; Li, Nan; Zhu, Xudong; Hu, Jin; Ben, Jingjing; Yang, Qing; Bai, Hui; Chen, Qi

    2014-05-01

    Macrophage death in advanced atherosclerosis promotes plaque necrosis and destabilization. Involvement of autophagy in bulk degradation of cellular components has been recognized recently as an important mechanism for cell survival under endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We previously found that the engagement of class A scavenger receptor (SR-A) triggered JNK-dependent apoptosis in ER-stressed macrophages. However, pro-apoptotic mechanisms mediated by SR-A are not fully understood. Therefore, we sought to see if SR-A mediated apoptosis was associated with autophagy in macrophages. Here, we showed that fucoidan inhibited microtubule-associated protein light chain 3-phospholipid conjugates (LC3-II) formation as well as the number of autophagosomes under ER stress. The inhibition of LC3-II formation was paralleled by the activation of the mTOR pathway, and the inhibition of mTOR allowed LC3-II induction in macrophages treated with thapsigargin plus fucoidan. Furthermore, apoptosis induced by fucoidan was prevented under ER stress by the mTOR inhibitor. We propose that fucoidan, a SR-A agonist, may contribute to macrophage apoptosis during ER stress by inhibiting autophagy. PMID:25013404

  6. Autophagy inhibition facilitates erlotinib cytotoxicity in lung cancer cells through modulation of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongliang; Du, Tingting; Dong, Xiaorong; Li, Zhenyu; Wu, Gang; Zhang, Ruiguang

    2016-06-01

    Epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) have revolutionized the treatment for non-small cell lung cancer patients, but acquired resistance limit the efficiency of this treatment. As a homeostatic cellular recycling mechanism, autophagy has been proposed to participate in the EGFR-TKI resistance. However, the role of autophagy in lung cancer treatment and the underlying mechanisms have not been clarified. In this study, we found the sensitivity to erlotinib, a well-used EGFR-TKI, was correlated with basal autophagy level. Erlotinib was able to induce autophagy not only in TKI-sensitive, but also TKI-resistant cancer cells. Inhibition of autophagy significantly enhanced cytotoxicity of erlotinib in TKI-resistant cancer cells via modulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced apoptosis. In this process, CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein (CHOP) acted as an executioner. Downregulation of CHOP with siRNA blocked the autophagy inhibition and erlotinib co-treatment induced apoptosis and prevented cancer cells from this co-treatment-induced cell death. Our findings suggest that autophagy inhibition overcomes erlotinib resistance through modulation of ER stress mediated apoptosis. PMID:27035631

  7. Rapamycin Attenuates Mouse Liver Ischemia and Reperfusion Injury by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhu, J; Hua, X; Li, D; Zhang, J; Xia, Q

    2015-01-01

    The roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in liver ischemia and reperfusion injury (IRI) have been well recognized. However, the impact of rapamycin (Rapa), a broadly used immunosuppressive agent in human liver transplantation, on ER stress during IRI remains unclear. This study was designed to investigate the roles of Rapa in the regulation of ER stress in vivo and in vitro. In a mouse liver partial warm ischemia and reperfusion mode, we demonstrated that Rapa markedly protected livers from IRI, as evidenced by serum alanine aminotransferase (sALT) levels and liver histology. Then we also confirmed the protection of Rapa from thapsigargin (Tg)-induced cell death in primary hepatocytes. Both in vivo and in vitro experiments showed that the ER stress markers were markedly up-regulated by IRI and Tg treatment, whereas they were down-regulated by Rapa pretreatment, as monitored by Western blot at the protein levels and by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the messenger RNA (mRNA) levels. In addition, it was also revealed that Rapa was able to remarkably inhibit the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway and enhance autophagy both in IR-stressed livers and Tg-treated primary hepatocytes. Thus, these results suggest that Rapa protects livers from IRI through inhibiting the ER stress pathway. PMID:26293028

  8. Inhibition of telomerase causes vulnerability to endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Hosoi, Toru; Nakatsu, Kanako; Shimamoto, Akira; Tahara, Hidetoshi; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-08-26

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated in several diseases, such as cancer and neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, we investigated the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced cell death. ER stress-induced cell death was ameliorated in telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) over-expressing MCF7 cells (MCF7-TERT cell). Telomerase specific inhibitor, BIBR1532, reversed the inhibitory effect of TERT on ER stress-induced cell death in MCF7-TERT cells. These findings suggest that BIBR1532 may specifically inhibit telomerase activity, thereby inducing cell death in ER stress-exposed cells. TERT was expressed in the SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cell line. To analyze the possible involvement of telomerase in ER stress-induced neuronal cell death, we treated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells with BIBR1532 and analyzed ER stress-induced cell death. We found that BIBR1532 significantly enhanced the ER stress-induced neuronal cell death. These findings suggest that inhibition of telomerase activity may enhance vulnerability to neuronal cell death caused by ER stress. PMID:27443785

  9. Protective Effects of Alisma orientale Extract against Hepatic Steatosis via Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Min-Kyung; Han, Yu-Ran; Nam, Jeong Soo; Han, Chang Woo; Kim, Byung Joo; Jeong, Han-Sol; Ha, Ki-Tae; Jung, Myeong Ho

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is associated with the pathogenesis of hepatic steatosis. Alisma orientale Juzepzuk is a traditional medicinal herb for diuretics, diabetes, hepatitis, and inflammation. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of methanol extract of the tuber of Alisma orientale (MEAO) against ER stress-induced hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo. MEAO inhibited the tunicamycin-induced increase in luciferase activity of ER stress-reporter constructs containing ER stress response element and ATF6 response element. MEAO significantly inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress marker expression including GRP78, CHOP, and XBP-1 in tunicamycin-treated Human hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG2) cells and the livers of tunicamycin-injected mice. It also inhibited tunicamycin-induced accumulation of cellular triglyceride. Similar observations were made under physiological ER stress conditions such as in palmitate (PA)-treated HepG2 cells and the livers of high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice. MEAO repressed hepatic lipogenic gene expression in PA-treated HepG2 cells and the livers of HFD obese mice. Furthermore, MEAO repressed very low-density lipoprotein receptor (VLDLR) expression and improved ApoB secretion in the livers of tunicamycin-injected mice or HFD obese mice as well as in tunicamycin or PA-treated HepG2 cells. Alismol, a guaiane-type sesquiterpenes in Alisma orientale, inhibited GRP78 expression in tunicamycin-treated HepG2 cells. In conclusion, MEAO attenuates ER stress and prevents hepatic steatosis pathogenesis via inhibition of expression of the hepatic lipogenic genes and VLDLR, and enhancement of ApoB secretion. PMID:26540043

  10. Crocetin prevents retinal degeneration induced by oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stresses via inhibition of caspase activity.

    PubMed

    Yamauchi, Mika; Tsuruma, Kazuhiro; Imai, Shunsuke; Nakanishi, Tomohiro; Umigai, Naofumi; Shimazawa, Masamitsu; Hara, Hideaki

    2011-01-10

    Crocetin is a carotenoid that is the aglicone of crocin, which are found in saffron stigmas (Crocus sativus L.) and gardenia fruit (Gardenia jasminoides Ellis). In this study, we investigated the effects of crocetin on retinal damage. To examine whether crocetin affects stress pathways, we investigated intracellular oxidation induced by reactive oxygen species, expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related proteins, disruption of the mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ(m)), and caspases activation. In vitro, we employed cultured retinal ganglion cells (RGC-5, a mouse ganglion cell-line transformed using E1A virus). Cell damage was induced by tunicamycin or hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)) exposure. Crocetin at a concentration of 3μM showed the inhibitory effect of 50-60% against tunicamycin- and H(2)O(2)-induced cell death and inhibited increase in caspase-3 and -9 activity. Moreover, crocetin inhibited the enzymatic activity of caspase-9 in a cell-free system. In vivo, retinal damage in mice was induced by exposure to white light at 8000lx for 3h after dark adaptation. Photoreceptor damage was evaluated by measuring the outer nuclear layer thickness at 5days after light exposure and recording the electroretinogram (ERG). Retinal cell damage was also detected with Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining at 48h after light exposure. Crocetin at 100mg/kg, p.o. significantly inhibited photoreceptor degeneration and retinal dysfunction and halved the expression of TUNEL-positive cells. These results indicate that crocetin has protective effects against retinal damage in vitro and in vivo, suggesting that the mechanism may inhibit increase in caspase-3 and -9 activities after retinal damage. PMID:20951131

  11. Inhibition of TFG function causes hereditary axon degeneration by impairing endoplasmic reticulum structure

    PubMed Central

    Beetz, Christian; Johnson, Adam; Schuh, Amber L.; Thakur, Seema; Varga, Rita-Eva; Fothergill, Thomas; Hertel, Nicole; Bomba-Warczak, Ewa; Thiele, Holger; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Altmüller, Janine; Saxena, Renu; Chapman, Edwin R.; Dent, Erik W.; Nürnberg, Peter; Audhya, Anjon

    2013-01-01

    Hereditary spastic paraplegias are a clinically and genetically heterogeneous group of gait disorders. Their pathological hallmark is a length-dependent distal axonopathy of nerve fibers in the corticospinal tract. Involvement of other neurons can cause additional neurological symptoms, which define a diverse set of complex hereditary spastic paraplegias. We present two siblings who have the unusual combination of early-onset spastic paraplegia, optic atrophy, and neuropathy. Genome-wide SNP-typing, linkage analysis, and exome sequencing revealed a homozygous c.316C>T (p.R106C) variant in the Trk-fused gene (TFG) as the only plausible mutation. Biochemical characterization of the mutant protein demonstrated a defect in its ability to self-assemble into an oligomeric complex, which is critical for normal TFG function. In cell lines, TFG inhibition slows protein secretion from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and alters ER morphology, disrupting organization of peripheral ER tubules and causing collapse of the ER network onto the underlying microtubule cytoskeleton. The present study provides a unique link between altered ER architecture and neurodegeneration. PMID:23479643

  12. Zebularine inhibits tumorigenesis and stemness of colorectal cancer via p53-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Pei-Ming; Lin, Yi-Ting; Shun, Chia-Tung; Lin, Shan-Hu; Wei, Tzu-Tang; Chuang, Shu-Hui; Wu, Ming-Shiang; Chen, Ching-Chow

    2013-01-01

    Aberrant DNA hypermethylation is frequently found in tumor cells and inhibition of DNA methylation is an effective anticancer strategy. In this study, the therapeutic effect of DNA methyltransferase (DNMT) inhibitor zebularine (Zeb) on colorectal cancer (CRC) was investigated. Zeb exhibited anticancer activity in cell cultures, tumor xenografts and mouse colitis-associated CRC model. It stabilizes p53 through ribosomal protein S7 (RPS7)/MDM2 pathways and DNA damage. Zeb-induced cell death was dependent on p53. Microarray analysis revealed that genes related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR) were affected by Zeb. Zeb induced p53-dependent ER stress and autophagy. Pro-survival markers of ER stress/UPR (GRP78) and autophagy (p62) were increased in tumor tissues of CRC patients, AOM/DSS-induced CRC mice and HCT116-derived colonospheres. Zeb downregulates GRP78 and p62, and upregulates a pro-apoptotic CHOP. Our results reveal a novel mechanism for the anticancer activity of Zeb. PMID:24225777

  13. Ursolic acid inhibits the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by attenuating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian-Shuang; Wang, Wen-Jun; Sun, Yu; Zhang, Yu-Hao; Zheng, Ling

    2015-05-01

    Ursolic acid (UA) is a natural pentacyclic triterpenoid compound, which is enriched with many herbs and plants, such as apple, cranberry and olive. UA performs multiple biological activities including anti-oxidation, anti-inflammation, anti-cancer and hepatoprotection. However, the exact mechanism underlying the hepatoprotective activity of UA remains unclear. In this study, the effects of UA on the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) were investigated. In vivo, UA treatment (0.14%, w/w) significantly decreased the liver weight, serum levels of ALT/AST and hepatic steatosis in db/db mice (a type 2 diabetic mouse model). In vitro, UA treatment (10-30 μg ml(-1)) significantly decreased palmitic acid induced intracellular lipid accumulation in L02 cells. Our results suggested that the beneficial effects of UA on NAFLD may be due to its ability to increase lipid β-oxidation and to inhibit the hepatic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Together, UA may be further considered as a natural compound for NAFLD treatment. PMID:25892149

  14. An initial phase of JNK activation inhibits cell death early in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Brown, Max; Strudwick, Natalie; Suwara, Monika; Sutcliffe, Louise K; Mihai, Adina D; Ali, Ahmed A; Watson, Jamie N; Schröder, Martin

    2016-06-15

    Accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). In mammalian cells, UPR signals generated by several ER-membrane-resident proteins, including the bifunctional protein kinase endoribonuclease IRE1α, control cell survival and the decision to execute apoptosis. Processing of XBP1 mRNA by the RNase domain of IRE1α promotes survival of ER stress, whereas activation of the mitogen-activated protein kinase JNK family by IRE1α late in the ER stress response promotes apoptosis. Here, we show that activation of JNK in the ER stress response precedes activation of XBP1. This activation of JNK is dependent on IRE1α and TRAF2 and coincides with JNK-dependent induction of expression of several antiapoptotic genes, including cIap1 (also known as Birc2), cIap2 (also known as Birc3), Xiap and Birc6 ER-stressed Jnk1(-/-) Jnk2(-/-) (Mapk8(-/-) Mapk9(-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) display more pronounced mitochondrial permeability transition and increased caspase 3/7 activity compared to wild-type MEFs. Caspase 3/7 activity is also elevated in ER-stressed cIap1(-/-) cIap2(-/-) and Xiap(-/-) MEFs. These observations suggest that JNK-dependent transcriptional induction of several inhibitors of apoptosis contributes to inhibiting apoptosis early in the ER stress response. PMID:27122189

  15. Pathologic endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by glucotoxic insults inhibits adipocyte differentiation and induces an inflammatory phenotype.

    PubMed

    Longo, Michele; Spinelli, Rosa; D'Esposito, Vittoria; Zatterale, Federica; Fiory, Francesca; Nigro, Cecilia; Raciti, Gregory A; Miele, Claudia; Formisano, Pietro; Beguinot, Francesco; Di Jeso, Bruno

    2016-06-01

    Adipocyte differentiation is critical in obesity. By controlling new adipocyte recruitment, adipogenesis contrasts adipocyte hypertrophy and its adverse consequences, such as insulin resistance. Contrasting data are present in literature on the effect of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and subsequent unfolded protein response (UPR) on adipocyte differentiation, being reported to be either necessary or inhibitory. In this study, we sought to clarify the effect of ER stress and UPR on adipocyte differentiation. We have used two different cell lines, the widely used pre-adipocyte 3T3-L1 cells and a murine multipotent mesenchymal cell line, W20-17 cells. A strong ER stress activator, thapsigargin, and a pathologically relevant inducer of ER stress, glucosamine (GlcN), induced ER stress and UPR above those occurring in the absence of perturbation and inhibited adipocyte differentiation. Very low concentrations of 4-phenyl butyric acid (PBA, a chemical chaperone) inhibited only the overactivation of ER stress and UPR elicited by GlcN, leaving unaltered the part physiologically activated during differentiation, and reversed the inhibitory effect of GlcN on differentiation. In addition, GlcN stimulated proinflammatory cytokine release and PBA prevented these effects. An inhibitor of NF-kB also reversed the effects of GlcN on cytokine release. These results indicate that while ER stress and UPR activation is "physiologically" activated during adipocyte differentiation, the "pathologic" part of ER stress activation, secondary to a glucotoxic insult, inhibits differentiation. In addition, such a metabolic insult, causes a shift of the preadipocyte/adipocyte population towards a proinflammatory phenotype. PMID:26940722

  16. Melatonin inhibits autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum stress in mice with carbon tetrachloride-induced fibrosis.

    PubMed

    San-Miguel, Beatriz; Crespo, Irene; Sánchez, Diana I; González-Fernández, Bárbara; Ortiz de Urbina, Juan J; Tuñón, María J; González-Gallego, Javier

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether inhibition of autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) associates with the antifibrogenic effect of melatonin in mice treated with carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). Mice received CCl4 5 μL/g body wt i.p. twice a week for 4 wk or 6 wk. Melatonin was given at 5 or 10 mg/kg/day i.p, beginning 2 wk after the start of CCl4 administration. Treatment with CCl4 resulted in fibrosis evidenced by the staining of α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA)-positive cells. CCl4 induced an autophagic response measured as the presence of autophagic vesicles, protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) staining, conversion of LC3-I to autophagosome-associated LC3-II, changes in expression of beclin-1, UV radiation resistance-associated gene (UVRAG), ubiquitin-like autophagy-related (Atg5), Atg12, Atg16L1, sequestosome 1 (p62/SQSTM1), and lysosome-associated membrane protein (LAMP)-2, and increased phosphorylation of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR). There was an increase in the expression of the ER stress chaperones CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein homologous protein (CHOP), immunoglobulin-heavy-chain-binding protein (BiP/GRP78), and 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94), and in the mRNA levels of pancreatic ER kinase (PERK), activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), ATF4, inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and spliced X-box-binding protein-1 (XBP1). Phospho-IRE1, ATF6, and phospho-PERK protein concentration also increased significantly. Immunohistochemical staining of α-SMA indicated an abrogation of hepatic stellate cells activation by melatonin. Furthermore, treatment with the indole resulted in significant inhibition of the autophagic flux and the unfolded protein response. Findings from this study give new insight into molecular pathways accounting for the protective effect of melatonin in fibrogenesis. PMID:25958928

  17. Rapamycin attenuates visible light-induced injury in retinal photoreceptor cells via inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Guang-Yu; Fan, Bin; Jiao, Ying-Ying

    2014-05-14

    An extended exposure of the retina to visible light may lead to photochemical damage in retinal photoreceptor cells. The exact mechanism of retinal light damage remains unknown, and an effective therapy is still unavailable. Here, we demonstrated that rapamycin, an inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), markedly protected 661W photoreceptor cells from visible light exposure-induced damage at the nanomolar level. We also observed by transmission electron microscopy that light exposure led to severe endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in 661W cells as well as abnormal endomembranes and ER membranes. In addition, obvious upregulated ER stress markers were monitored by western blot at the protein level and by quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) at the mRNA level. Interestingly, rapamycin pretreatment significantly suppressed light-induced ER stress and all three major branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR), including the RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) pathways both at the protein and mRNA levels. Additionally, the inhibition of ER stress by rapamycin was further confirmed with a dithiothreitol (DTT; a classical ER stress inducer)-damaged 661W cell model. Meanwhile, our results also revealed that rapamycin was able to remarkably inhibit the activation of mTOR and its downstream factors eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E-binding protein 1 (4EBP1), p-4EBP1, p70, p-p70, and phosphorylated ribosomal protein S6 kinase (p-S6K) in the light-injured 661W cells. Thus, these data indicate that visible light induces ER stress in 661W cells; whereas the mTOR inhibitor, rapamycin, effectively protects 661W cells from light injury through suppressing the ER stress pathway. PMID:24607296

  18. Oroxin A inhibits breast cancer cell growth by inducing robust endoplasmic reticulum stress and senescence.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Du, Longsheng; Bao, Meimei; Zhang, Bin; Qian, Haixin; Zhou, Quansheng; Cao, Zhifei

    2016-03-01

    Breast cancer is a major cause of cancer death among women. Although various anticancer drugs have been used in clinics, drugs that are effective against advanced and metastatic breast cancer are still lacking and in great demand. In this study, we found that oroxin A, an active component isolated from the herb Oroxylum indicum (L.) Kurz, effectively inhibited the growth of human breast cancer cells MDA-MB-231 and MCF7 by inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated senescence. Oroxin A caused breast cancer cell cycle arrest at the G2/M stage, and reorganization of microtubules and actin cytoskeleton accompanied by a decrease in cellular mitosis. ER-specific probe ER-Tracker Red and confocal microscope imaging showed that ER-Tracker Red-positive cells increased in an oroxin A dosage-dependent manner. In addition, oroxin A increased cell population with high β-Gal activity and SAHF-positive staining; these data suggest that oroxin A induces breast cancer cell ER stress and senescence. Mechanistic studies showed that oroxin A led to a significant increase in intracellular reactive oxygen species levels, promoted expression of ER stress markers ATF4 and GRP78, and increased the phosphorylation of a key stress-response signaling protein p38, resulting in an ER stress-mediated senescence. Taken together, our data indicate that oroxin A exerts its antibreast cancer effects by inducing ER stress-mediated senescence, activating the key stress p38 signaling pathway, and increasing key ER stress genes ATF4 and GRP78 expression levels. PMID:26599214

  19. Bushen Zhuangjin decoction inhibits TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    LIN, PINGDONG; WENG, XIAPING; LIU, FAYUAN; MA, YUHUAN; CHEN, HOUHUANG; SHAO, XIANG; ZHENG, WENWEI; LIU, XIANXIANG; YE, HONGZHI; LI, XIHAI

    2015-01-01

    Chondrocyte apoptosis triggered by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a vital role in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis (OA). Bushen Zhuangjin decoction (BZD) has been widely used in the treatment of OA. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of BZD on chondrocyte apoptosis remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we investigated the effects of BZD on ER stress-induced chondrocyte apoptosis using a chondrocyte in vitro model of OA. Chondrocytes obtained from the articular cartilage of the knee joints of Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were detected by immunohistochemical staining for type II collagen. The ER stress-mediated apoptosis of tunicamycin (TM)-stimulated chondrocytes was detected using 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA). We found that 4-PBA inhibited TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis, which confirmed the successful induction of chondrocyte apoptosis. BZD enhanced the viability of the TM-stimulated chondrocytes in a dose- and time-dependent manner, as shown by MTT assay. The apoptotic rate and the loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm) of the TM-stimulated chondrocytes treated with BZD was markedly decreased compared with those of chondrocytes not treated with BZD, as shown by 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI) staining, Annexin V-FITC binding assay and JC-1 assay. To further elucidate the mechanisms responsible for the inhibitory effects of BZD on TM-induced chondrocyte apoptosis mediated by ER stress, the mRNA and protein expression levels of binding immunoglobulin protein (Bip), X-box binding protein 1 (Xbp1), activating transcription factor 4 (Atf4), C/EBP-homologous protein (Chop), caspase-9, caspase-3, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) and Bcl-2-associated X protein (Bax) were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. In the TM-stimulated chondrocytes treated with BZD, the mRNA and protein expression levels of Bip, Atf4, Chop, caspase-9, caspase-3

  20. Selective and potent Akt inhibition triggers anti-myeloma activities and enhances fatal endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by proteasome inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Mimura, Naoya; Hideshima, Teru; Shimomura, Toshiyasu; Suzuki, Rikio; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Rizq, Ola; Kikuchi, Shohei; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Cottini, Francesca; Jakubikova, Jana; Cirstea, Diana; Gorgun, Gullu; Minami, Jiro; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Richardson, Paul G.; Utsugi, Teruhiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Anderson, Kenneth C.

    2014-01-01

    The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) in the bone marrow (BM) milieu. However, efficacy of selective and potent Akt inhibition has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we therefore examined the biologic impact of selective and potent Akt inhibition by a novel allosteric inhibitor TAS-117. TAS-117 induced significant growth inhibition, associated with downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), selectively in MM cell lines with high baseline p-Akt. Cytotoxicity of TAS-117 was also observed in patients MM cells, but not in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Importantly, TAS-117 induced significant cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of BM stromal cells, associated with inhibition of IL-6 secretion. Oral administration of TAS-117 significantly inhibited human MM cell growth in murine xenograft models. TAS-117 triggered apoptosis and autophagy, as well as induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response with minimal expression of CHOP, a fatal ER-stress marker. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity, associated with increased CHOP and PARP cleavage and blockade of bortezomib-induced p-Akt, suggesting that TAS-117 augments bortezomib-induced ER stress and apoptotic signaling. Carfilzomib-induced cytotoxicity was similarly enhanced by TAS-117. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity in vivo, associated with prolonged host survival. Our results show that selective and potent Akt inhibition by TAS-117 triggers anti-MM activities in vitro and in vivo, as well as enhances cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibition, providing the preclinical framework for clinical evaluation of selective Akt inhibitors, alone and in combination with proteasome inhibitors in MM. PMID:24934808

  1. Selective and potent Akt inhibition triggers anti-myeloma activities and enhances fatal endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by proteasome inhibition.

    PubMed

    Mimura, Naoya; Hideshima, Teru; Shimomura, Toshiyasu; Suzuki, Rikio; Ohguchi, Hiroto; Rizq, Ola; Kikuchi, Shohei; Yoshida, Yasuhiro; Cottini, Francesca; Jakubikova, Jana; Cirstea, Diana; Gorgun, Gullu; Minami, Jiro; Tai, Yu-Tzu; Richardson, Paul G; Utsugi, Teruhiro; Iwama, Atsushi; Anderson, Kenneth C

    2014-08-15

    The PI3K/Akt pathway plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of multiple myeloma (MM) in the bone marrow (BM) milieu. However, efficacy of selective and potent Akt inhibition has not yet been fully elucidated. In this study, we, therefore, examined the biologic impact of selective and potent Akt inhibition by a novel allosteric inhibitor TAS-117. TAS-117 induced significant growth inhibition, associated with downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt), selectively in MM cell lines with high baseline p-Akt. Cytotoxicity of TAS-117 was also observed in patient MM cells, but not in normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Importantly, TAS-117 induced significant cytotoxicity in MM cells even in the presence of BM stromal cells, associated with inhibition of IL6 secretion. Oral administration of TAS-117 significantly inhibited human MM cell growth in murine xenograft models. TAS-117 triggered apoptosis and autophagy, as well as induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response with minimal expression of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), a fatal ER stress marker. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity, associated with increased CHOP and PARP cleavage and blockade of bortezomib-induced p-Akt, suggesting that TAS-117 augments bortezomib-induced ER stress and apoptotic signaling. Carfilzomib-induced cytotoxicity was similarly enhanced by TAS-117. Importantly, TAS-117 enhanced bortezomib-induced cytotoxicity in vivo, associated with prolonged host survival. Our results show that selective and potent Akt inhibition by TAS-117 triggers anti-MM activities in vitro and in vivo, as well as enhances cytotoxicity of proteasome inhibition, providing the preclinical framework for clinical evaluation of selective Akt inhibitors, alone and in combination with proteasome inhibitors in MM. PMID:24934808

  2. Ursodeoxycholic Acid (UDCA) Exerts Anti-Atherogenic Effects by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress Induced by Disturbed Flow

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jihwa; Kim, Kyoung Hwa; Lee, Seok Cheol; An, Shung Hyun; Kwon, Kihwan

    2015-01-01

    Disturbed blood flow with low-oscillatory shear stress (OSS) is a predominant atherogenic factor leading to dysfunctional endothelial cells (ECs). Recently, it was found that disturbed flow can directly induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ECs, thereby playing a critical role in the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA), a naturally occurring bile acid, has long been used to treat chronic cholestatic liver disease and is known to alleviate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress at the cellular level. However, its role in atherosclerosis remains unexplored. In this study, we demonstrated the anti-atherogenic activity of UDCA via inhibition of disturbed flow-induced ER stress in atherosclerosis. UDCA effectively reduced ER stress, resulting in a reduction in expression of X-box binding protein-1 (XBP-1) and CEBP-homologous protein (CHOP) in ECs. UDCA also inhibits the disturbed flow-induced inflammatory responses such as increases in adhesion molecules, monocyte adhesion to ECs, and apoptosis of ECs. In a mouse model of disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis, UDCA inhibits atheromatous plaque formation through the alleviation of ER stress and a decrease in adhesion molecules. Taken together, our results revealed that UDCA exerts anti-atherogenic activity in disturbed flow-induced atherosclerosis by inhibiting ER stress and the inflammatory response. This study suggests that UDCA may be a therapeutic agent for prevention or treatment of atherosclerosis. PMID:26442866

  3. Catalytically Active Guanylyl Cyclase B Requires Endoplasmic Reticulum-mediated Glycosylation, and Mutations That Inhibit This Process Cause Dwarfism.

    PubMed

    Dickey, Deborah M; Edmund, Aaron B; Otto, Neil M; Chaffee, Thomas S; Robinson, Jerid W; Potter, Lincoln R

    2016-05-20

    C-type natriuretic peptide activation of guanylyl cyclase B (GC-B), also known as natriuretic peptide receptor B or NPR2, stimulates long bone growth, and missense mutations in GC-B cause dwarfism. Four such mutants (L658F, Y708C, R776W, and G959A) bound (125)I-C-type natriuretic peptide on the surface of cells but failed to synthesize cGMP in membrane GC assays. Immunofluorescence microscopy also indicated that the mutant receptors were on the cell surface. All mutant proteins were dephosphorylated and incompletely glycosylated, but dephosphorylation did not explain the inactivation because the mutations inactivated a "constitutively phosphorylated" enzyme. Tunicamycin inhibition of glycosylation in the endoplasmic reticulum or mutation of the Asn-24 glycosylation site decreased GC activity, but neither inhibition of glycosylation in the Golgi by N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase I gene inactivation nor PNGase F deglycosylation of fully processed GC-B reduced GC activity. We conclude that endoplasmic reticulum-mediated glycosylation is required for the formation of an active catalytic, but not ligand-binding domain, and that mutations that inhibit this process cause dwarfism. PMID:26980729

  4. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation rescues native folding in loss of function protein misfolding diseases.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fan; Song, Wensi; Brancati, Giovanna; Segatori, Laura

    2011-12-16

    Lysosomal storage disorders are often caused by mutations that destabilize native folding and impair trafficking of secretory proteins. We demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation (ERAD) prevents native folding of mutated lysosomal enzymes in patient-derived fibroblasts from two clinically distinct lysosomal storage disorders, namely Gaucher and Tay-Sachs disease. Prolonging ER retention via ERAD inhibition enhanced folding, trafficking, and activity of these unstable enzyme variants. Furthermore, combining ERAD inhibition with enhancement of the cellular folding capacity via proteostasis modulation resulted in synergistic rescue of mutated enzymes. ERAD inhibition was achieved by cell treatment with small molecules that interfere with recognition (kifunensine) or retrotranslocation (eeyarestatin I) of misfolded substrates. These different mechanisms of ERAD inhibition were shown to enhance ER retention of mutated proteins but were associated with dramatically different levels of ER stress, unfolded protein response activation, and unfolded protein response-induced apoptosis. PMID:22006919

  5. Limonoid Compounds Inhibit Sphingomyelin Biosynthesis by Preventing CERT Protein-dependent Extraction of Ceramides from the Endoplasmic Reticulum*

    PubMed Central

    Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Tomishige, Nario; Sakai, Shota; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Ishii, Kumiko; Makino, Asami; Greimel, Peter; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Laviad, Elad L.; Lagarde, Michel; Vidal, Hubert; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Hanada, Kentaro; Futerman, Anthony H.; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2012-01-01

    To identify novel inhibitors of sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism, a new and selective high throughput microscopy-based screening based on the toxicity of the SM-specific toxin, lysenin, was developed. Out of a library of 2011 natural compounds, the limonoid, 3-chloro-8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal (CHC), rendered cells resistant to lysenin by decreasing cell surface SM. CHC treatment selectively inhibited the de novo biosynthesis of SM without affecting glycolipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. Pretreatment with brefeldin A abolished the limonoid-induced inhibition of SM synthesis suggesting that the transport of ceramide (Cer) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is affected. Unlike the Cer transporter (CERT) inhibitor HPA-12, CHC did not change the transport of a fluorescent short chain Cer analog to the Golgi apparatus or the formation of fluorescent and short chain SM from the corresponding Cer. Nevertheless, CHC inhibited the conversion of de novo synthesized Cer to SM. We show that CHC specifically inhibited the CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from the endoplasmic reticulum membranes in vitro. Subsequent biochemical screening of 21 limonoids revealed that some of them, such as 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal and gedunin, which exhibits anti-cancer activity, inhibited SM biosynthesis and CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from membranes. Model membrane studies suggest that 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal reduced the miscibility of Cer with membrane lipids and thus induced the formation of Cer-rich membrane domains. Our study shows that certain limonoids are novel inhibitors of SM biosynthesis and suggests that some biological activities of these limonoids are related to their effect on the ceramide metabolism. PMID:22605339

  6. Limonoid compounds inhibit sphingomyelin biosynthesis by preventing CERT protein-dependent extraction of ceramides from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Hullin-Matsuda, Françoise; Tomishige, Nario; Sakai, Shota; Ishitsuka, Reiko; Ishii, Kumiko; Makino, Asami; Greimel, Peter; Abe, Mitsuhiro; Laviad, Elad L; Lagarde, Michel; Vidal, Hubert; Saito, Tamio; Osada, Hiroyuki; Hanada, Kentaro; Futerman, Anthony H; Kobayashi, Toshihide

    2012-07-13

    To identify novel inhibitors of sphingomyelin (SM) metabolism, a new and selective high throughput microscopy-based screening based on the toxicity of the SM-specific toxin, lysenin, was developed. Out of a library of 2011 natural compounds, the limonoid, 3-chloro-8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal (CHC), rendered cells resistant to lysenin by decreasing cell surface SM. CHC treatment selectively inhibited the de novo biosynthesis of SM without affecting glycolipid and glycerophospholipid biosynthesis. Pretreatment with brefeldin A abolished the limonoid-induced inhibition of SM synthesis suggesting that the transport of ceramide (Cer) from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus is affected. Unlike the Cer transporter (CERT) inhibitor HPA-12, CHC did not change the transport of a fluorescent short chain Cer analog to the Golgi apparatus or the formation of fluorescent and short chain SM from the corresponding Cer. Nevertheless, CHC inhibited the conversion of de novo synthesized Cer to SM. We show that CHC specifically inhibited the CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from the endoplasmic reticulum membranes in vitro. Subsequent biochemical screening of 21 limonoids revealed that some of them, such as 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal and gedunin, which exhibits anti-cancer activity, inhibited SM biosynthesis and CERT-mediated extraction of Cer from membranes. Model membrane studies suggest that 8β-hydroxycarapin-3,8-hemiacetal reduced the miscibility of Cer with membrane lipids and thus induced the formation of Cer-rich membrane domains. Our study shows that certain limonoids are novel inhibitors of SM biosynthesis and suggests that some biological activities of these limonoids are related to their effect on the ceramide metabolism. PMID:22605339

  7. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress improves coronary artery function in the spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Choi, Soo-Kyoung; Lim, Mihwa; Byeon, Seon-Hee; Lee, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications. However, the role and mechanisms of ER stress in hypertension remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that enhanced ER stress contributes to the maintenance of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Sixteen-week old male SHRs and Wistar Kyoto Rats (WKYs) were used in this study. The SHRs were treated with ER stress inhibitor (Tauroursodeoxycholic acid; TUDCA, 100 mg/kg/day) for two weeks. There was a decrease in systolic blood pressure in SHR treated with TUDCA. The pressure-induced myogenic tone was significantly increased, whereas endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly attenuated in SHR compared with WHY. Interestingly, treatment of ER stress inhibitor normalized myogenic responses and endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. These data were associated with an increase in expression or phosphorylation of ER stress markers (Bip, ATF6, CHOP, IRE1, XBP1, PERK, and eIF2α) in SHRs, which were reduced by TUDCA treatment. Furthermore, phosphorylation of MLC20 was increased in SHRs, which was reduced by the treatment of TUDCA. Therefore, our results suggest that ER stress could be a potential target for hypertension. PMID:27550383

  8. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress improves coronary artery function in the spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Soo-Kyoung; Lim, Mihwa; Byeon, Seon-Hee; Lee, Young-Ho

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been shown to play a critical role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular complications. However, the role and mechanisms of ER stress in hypertension remain unclear. Thus, we hypothesized that enhanced ER stress contributes to the maintenance of hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Sixteen-week old male SHRs and Wistar Kyoto Rats (WKYs) were used in this study. The SHRs were treated with ER stress inhibitor (Tauroursodeoxycholic acid; TUDCA, 100 mg/kg/day) for two weeks. There was a decrease in systolic blood pressure in SHR treated with TUDCA. The pressure-induced myogenic tone was significantly increased, whereas endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly attenuated in SHR compared with WHY. Interestingly, treatment of ER stress inhibitor normalized myogenic responses and endothelium-dependent relaxation in SHR. These data were associated with an increase in expression or phosphorylation of ER stress markers (Bip, ATF6, CHOP, IRE1, XBP1, PERK, and eIF2α) in SHRs, which were reduced by TUDCA treatment. Furthermore, phosphorylation of MLC20 was increased in SHRs, which was reduced by the treatment of TUDCA. Therefore, our results suggest that ER stress could be a potential target for hypertension. PMID:27550383

  9. Valproate attenuates diabetic nephropathy through inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    SUN, XIN-YI; QIN, HAN-JIAO; ZHANG, ZE; XU, YE; YANG, XIAO-CHUN; ZHAO, DONG-MING; LI, XIAO-NING; SUN, LIAN-KUN

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is one of the mechanisms responsible for the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). Histone acetylation modification can regulate the transcription of genes and is involved in the regulation of ERS. Valproate (VPA), a nonselective histone deacetylase inhibitor, has been reported to have a protective role in kidney tissue injury, however, whether VPA can prevent DN remains to be elucidated. In the present study, it was found that VPA increases the expression of glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and reduces the protein expression of C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP), growth arrest and DNA-damage-inducible gene 153 and caspase-12 in a rat model of DN. VPA can reduce renal cell apoptosis and alleviate proteinuria and alterations in serum creatinine. VPA also upregulates the acetylation level of histone H4 in the promoter of GRP78 and downregulates the acetylation level of histone H4 in the promoter of CHOP. Collectively, the data indicate that VPA can relieve ERS and reduce renal cell apoptosis, and thus attenuate renal injury in a rat model of DN by regulating the acetylation level of histone H4 in ERS-associated protein promoters. PMID:26647757

  10. Calcium binding chaperones of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Coe, Helen; Michalak, Marek

    2009-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a major Ca(2+) store of the cell that impacts many cellular processes within the cell. The endoplasmic reticulum has roles in lipid and sterol synthesis, protein folding, post-translational modification and secretion and these functions are affected by intraluminal endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+). In the endoplasmic reticulum there are several Ca(2+) buffering chaperones including calreticulin, Grp94, BiP and protein disulfide isomerase. Calreticulin is one of the major Ca(2+) binding/buffering chaperones in the endoplasmic reticulum. It has a critical role in Ca(2+) signalling in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and this has significant impacts on many Ca(2+)-dependent pathways including control of transcription during embryonic development. In addition to Ca(2+) buffering, calreticulin plays important role in the correct folding and quality control of newly synthesized glycoproteins. PMID:20093733

  11. Heat shock inhibits. alpha. -amylase synthesis in barley aleurone without inhibiting the activity of endoplasmic reticulum marker enzymes

    SciTech Connect

    Sticher, L.; Biswas, A.K.; Bush, D.S.; Jones, R.L. )

    1990-02-01

    The effects of heat shock on the synthesis of {alpha}-amylase and on the membranes of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of barley (Hordeum vulgare) aleurone were studied. Heat shock, imposed by raising the temperature of incubation from 25{degree}C to 40{degree}C for 3 hours, inhibits the accumulation of {alpha}-amylase and other proteins in the incubation medium of barley aleurone layers treated with gibberellic acid and Ca{sup 2+}. When ER is isolated from heat-shocked aleurone layers, less newly synthesized {alpha}-amylase is found associated with this membrane system. ER membranes, as indicated by the activities of NADH cytochrome c reductase and ATP-dependent Ca{sup 2+} transport, are not destroyed by heat stress, however. Although heat shock did not reduce the activity of ER membrane marker enzymes, it altered the buoyant density of these membranes. Whereas ER from control tissue showed a peak of marker enzyme activity at 27% to 28% sucrose (1.113-1.120 grams per cubic centimeter), ER from heat-shocked tissue peaked at 30% to 32% sucrose (1.127-1.137 grams per cubic centimeter). The synthesis of a group of proteins designated as heat-shock proteins (HSPs) was stimulated by heat shock. These HSPs were localized to different compartments of the aleurone cell. Several proteins ranging from 15 to 30 kilodaltons were found in the ER and the mitochondrial/plasma membrane fractions of heat-shocked cells, but none of the HSPs accumulated in the incubation medium of heat-shocked aleurone layers.

  12. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress and atherosclerosis by 2-aminopurine in apolipoprotein e-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Lichun; Yang, Dezhi; Wu, Dong Fang; Guo, Zhong Mao; Okoro, Emmanuel; Yang, Hong

    2013-01-01

    We previously reported that the apolipoprotein (apo) B48-carrying lipoproteins obtained from apoE knockout (apoE (-/-) ) mice, so called E(-)/B48 lipoproteins, transformed mouse macrophages into foam cells and enhanced the phosphorylation of eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 α (eIF-2 α ). Furthermore, the eIF-2 α phosphorylation inhibitor, 2-aminopurine (2-AP), attenuated E(-)/B48 lipoprotein-induced foam cell formation. The present report studied the effect of 2-AP on atherosclerosis in apoE (-/-) mice. Our results showed that the level of food intake, bodyweight, plasma cholesterol, and triglycerides was comparable in apoE (-/-) mice treated with or without 2-AP. However, the mean size of atherosclerotic lesions in the aorta sinus as well as the surface area of the entire aorta of 2-AP-treated apoE (-/-) mice were reduced by about 55% and 39%, respectively, compared to samples from untreated control apoE (-/-) mice. In addition, the 2-AP-treated apoE (-/-) mice showed a significant decrease in glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and phosphorylated eIF-2 α in their aortic samples as compared to levels in untreated control apoE (-/-) mice. These observations suggest that endoplasmic reticulum stress is a causal mechanism for the development of atherosclerosis in apoE (-/-) mice and that therapeutic strategies can be developed for using eIF-2 α phosphorylation inhibitors, such as 2-AP, to prevent or treat atherosclerosis. PMID:23984090

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Hotamisligil, Gökhan S

    2010-01-01

    Atherosclerosis and related cardiovascular diseases represent one of the greatest threats to human health worldwide. Despite important progress in prevention and treatment, these conditions still account for one third of all deaths annually. Often presented together with obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, these chronic diseases are strongly influenced by pathways that lie at the interface of chronic inflammation and nutrient metabolism. Here I discuss recent advances in the study of endoplasmic reticulum stress as one mechanism that links immune response with nutrient sensing in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and its complications. PMID:20376052

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Raj Kumar; Chae, Soo-Wan; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han Jung

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the principal organelle responsible for multiple cellular functions including protein folding and maturation and the maintenance of cellular homeostasis. ER stress is activated by a variety of factors and triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which restores homeostasis or activates cell death. Multiple studies have clarified the link between ER stress and cancer, and particularly the involvement of the UPR. The UPR seems to adjust the paradoxical microenvironment of cancer and, as such, is one of resistance mechanisms against cancer therapy. This review describes the activity of different UPRs involved in tumorigenesis and resistance to cancer therapy. PMID:25337575

  15. N-acetylcysteine protects against cadmium-induced germ cell apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in testes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Xu, De-Xiang

    2013-03-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a reproductive toxicant that induces germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Previous studies have demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant, on Cd-induced ER stress and germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Male CD-1 mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl2 (2.0 mg kg(-1)). As expected, acute Cd exposure induced germ cell apoptosis in the testes, as determined by terminal dUTP nick-end labelling (TUNEL). However, the administration of NAC alleviated Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis in the testes. Further analysis showed that NAC attenuated the Cd-induced upregulation of testicular glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an important ER molecular chaperone. Moreover, NAC inhibited the Cd-induced phosphorylation of testicular eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), a downstream target of the double-stranded RNA-activated kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) pathway. In addition, NAC blocked the Cd-induced activation of testicular X binding protein (XBP)-1, indicating that NAC attenuates the Cd-induced ER stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). Interestingly, NAC almost completely prevented the Cd-induced elevation of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), two components of the ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, NAC protects against Cd-induced germ cell apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress in the testes. PMID:23353715

  16. Advanced glycation end products inhibit testosterone secretion by rat Leydig cells by inducing oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun-Tao; Qi, Ya-Wei; Hu, Chuan-Yin; Chen, Shao-Hong; Liu, You

    2016-08-01

    Diabetes severely impairs male reproduction. The present study assessed the effects and mechanisms of action of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), which play an important role in the development of diabetes complications, on testosterone secretion by rat Leydig cells. Primary rat Leydig cells were cultured and treated with AGEs (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml). Testosterone production induced by human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was determined by ELISA. The mRNA and protein expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc) and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), which are involved in testosterone biosynthesis, were measured by reverse transcription-quantitative PCR and western blot analyssi, respectively. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in Leydig cells was measured using the dichlorofluorescein diacetate (DCFH-DA) probe. The expression levels of endoplasmic reticulum stress-related proteins [C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78)] in the Leydig cells were measured by western blot analysis. We found that the AGEs markedly suppressed testosterone production by rat Leydig cells which was induced by hCG in a concentration-dependent manner compared with the control (P<0.01). The mRNA and protein expression levels of StAR, 3β-HSD and P450scc were downregulated by the AGEs in a dose-dependent manner compared with the control (P<0.01). The antioxidant agent, N-acetyl‑L‑cysteine (NAC), and the endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), reversed the inhibitory effects of AGEs. In addition, the content of ROS in Leydig cells treated with AGEs increased significantly. The expression levels of CHOP and GRP78 were markedly upregulated by the AGEs in the Leydig cells. From these findings, it can be concluded that AGEs inhibit testosterone production by rat Leydig cells by inducing oxidative stress and

  17. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increase sensitivity of osteosarcoma Saos-2 cells to cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN55,212-2.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guodong; Bi, Haiyong; Gao, Ji; Lu, Xing; Zheng, Yanping

    2016-07-01

    WIN55,212-2, a cannabinoid receptor agonist, can activate cannabinoid receptors, which has proven anti-tumour effects in several tumour types. Studies showed that WIN can inhibit tumour cell proliferation and induce apoptosis in diverse cancers. However, the role and mechanism of WIN in osteosarcoma are still unclear. In this study, we examined the effect of WIN55,212-2 on osteosarcoma cell line Saos-2 in terms of cell viability and apoptosis. Meanwhile, we further explored the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2. Our results showed that the cell proliferation of Saos-2 was inhibited by WIN55,212-2 in a dose-dependent and time-dependent manner. WIN55,212-2-induced Saos-2 apoptosis through mitochondrial apoptosis pathway. Meanwhile, WIN55,212-2 can induce endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in Saos-2 cells. Inhibition of autophagy and enhancement of endoplasmic reticulum stress increased apoptosis induced by WIN55,212-2 in Saos-2 cells. These findings indicated that WIN55,212-2 in combination with autophagic inhibitor or endoplasmic reticulum stress activator may shed new light on osteosarcoma treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27309350

  18. HIV-1 Protein Nef Inhibits Activity of ATP-binding Cassette Transporter A1 by Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Calnexin*

    PubMed Central

    Jennelle, Lucas; Hunegnaw, Ruth; Dubrovsky, Larisa; Pushkarsky, Tatiana; Fitzgerald, Michael L.; Sviridov, Dmitri; Popratiloff, Anastas; Brichacek, Beda; Bukrinsky, Michael

    2014-01-01

    HIV-infected patients are at increased risk of developing atherosclerosis, in part due to an altered high density lipoprotein profile exacerbated by down-modulation and impairment of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) activity by the HIV-1 protein Nef. However, the mechanisms of this Nef effect remain unknown. Here, we show that Nef interacts with an endoplasmic reticulum chaperone calnexin, which regulates folding and maturation of glycosylated proteins. Nef disrupted interaction between calnexin and ABCA1 but increased affinity and enhanced interaction of calnexin with HIV-1 gp160. The Nef mutant that did not bind to calnexin did not affect the calnexin-ABCA1 interaction. Interaction with calnexin was essential for functionality of ABCA1, as knockdown of calnexin blocked the ABCA1 exit from the endoplasmic reticulum, reduced ABCA1 abundance, and inhibited cholesterol efflux; the same effects were observed after Nef overexpression. However, the effects of calnexin knockdown and Nef on cholesterol efflux were not additive; in fact, the combined effect of these two factors together did not differ significantly from the effect of calnexin knockdown alone. Interestingly, gp160 and ABCA1 interacted with calnexin differently; although gp160 binding to calnexin was dependent on glycosylation, glycosylation was of little importance for the interaction between ABCA1 and calnexin. Thus, Nef regulates the activity of calnexin to stimulate its interaction with gp160 at the expense of ABCA1. This study identifies a mechanism for Nef-dependent inactivation of ABCA1 and dysregulation of cholesterol metabolism. PMID:25170080

  19. MicroRNAs inhibit the translation of target mRNAs on the endoplasmic reticulum in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Li, Shengben; Liu, Lin; Zhuang, Xiaohong; Yu, Yu; Liu, Xigang; Cui, Xia; Ji, Lijuan; Pan, Zhiqiang; Cao, Xiaofeng; Mo, Beixin; Zhang, Fuchun; Raikhel, Natasha; Jiang, Liwen; Chen, Xuemei

    2013-04-25

    Translation inhibition is a major but poorly understood mode of action of microRNAs (miRNAs) in plants and animals. In particular, the subcellular location where this process takes place is unknown. Here, we show that the translation inhibition, but not the mRNA cleavage activity, of Arabidopsis miRNAs requires ALTERED MERISTEM PROGRAM1 (AMP1). AMP1 encodes an integral membrane protein associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and ARGONAUTE1, the miRNA effector and a peripheral ER membrane protein. Large differences in polysome association of miRNA target RNAs are found between wild-type and the amp1 mutant for membrane-bound, but not total, polysomes. This, together with AMP1-independent recruitment of miRNA target transcripts to membrane fractions, shows that miRNAs inhibit the translation of target RNAs on the ER. This study demonstrates that translation inhibition is an important activity of plant miRNAs, reveals the subcellular location of this activity, and uncovers a previously unknown function of the ER. PMID:23622241

  20. 4-Phenylbutyrate protects rat skin flaps against ischemia-reperfusion injury and apoptosis by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    YUE, ZHEN-SHUANG; ZENG, LIN-RU; QUAN, REN-FU; TANG, YANG-HUA; ZHENG, WEN-JIE; QU, GANG; XU, CAN-DA; ZHU, FANG-BING; HUANG, ZHONG-MING

    2016-01-01

    4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) is a low molecular weight fatty acid, which has been demonstrated to regulate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress-induced cell apoptosis has an important role in skin flap ischemia; however, a pharmacological approach for treating ischemia-induced ER dysfunction has yet to be reported. In the present study, the effects of 4-PBA-induced ER stress inhibition on ischemia-reperfusion injury were investigated in the skin flap of rats, and transcriptional regulation was examined. 4-PBA attenuated ischemia-reperfusion injury and inhibited cell apoptosis in the skin flap. Furthermore, 4-PBA reversed the increased expression levels of two ER stress markers: CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein and glucose-regulated protein 78. These results suggested that 4-PBA was able to protect rat skin flaps against ischemia-reperfusion injury and apoptosis by inhibiting ER stress marker expression and ER stress-mediated apoptosis. The beneficial effects of 4-PBA may prove useful in the treatment of skin flap ischemia-reperfusion injury. PMID:26648447

  1. Tunicamycin-induced inhibition of protein secretion into culture medium of Arabidopsis T87 suspension cells through mRNA degradation on the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Yuji; Hayashi, Noriko; Tabara, Kazuki; Mishiba, Kei-Ichiro; Koizumi, Nozomu

    2016-06-01

    The N-glycosylation inhibitor tunicamycin triggers endoplasmic reticulum stress response and inhibits efficient protein secretion in eukaryotes. Using Arabidopsis suspension cells, we showed that the reduced secretion of mannose-binding lectin 1 (MBL1) protein by tunicamycin is accompanied by a significant decrease in MBL1 mRNA, suggesting that mRNA destabilization is the major cause of the inhibition of protein secretion in plants. PMID:26923805

  2. Inhibition of soluble epoxide hydrolase attenuates hepatic fibrosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by carbon tetrachloride in mice

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, Todd R.; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Kodani, Sean; Dong, Hua; Myers, Richard; Chiamvimonvat, Nipavan; Haj, Fawaz G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-07-15

    Liver fibrosis is a pathological condition in which chronic inflammation and changes to the extracellular matrix lead to alterations in hepatic tissue architecture and functional degradation of the liver. Inhibitors of the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH) reduce fibrosis in the heart, pancreas and kidney in several disease models. In this study, we assess the effect of sEH inhibition on the development of fibrosis in a carbon tetrachloride (CCl{sub 4})-induced mouse model by monitoring changes in the inflammatory response, matrix remolding and endoplasmic reticulum stress. The sEH inhibitor 1-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-3-(1-propionylpiperidin-4-yl) urea (TPPU) was administered in drinking water. Collagen deposition in the liver was increased five-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group, and this was returned to control levels by TPPU treatment. Hepatic expression of Col1a2 and 3a1 mRNA was increased over fifteen-fold in the CCl{sub 4}-treated group relative to the Control group, and this increase was reduced by 50% by TPPU treatment. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress observed in the livers of CCl{sub 4}-treated animals was attenuated by TPPU treatment. In order to support the hypothesis that TPPU is acting to reduce the hepatic fibrosis and ER stress through its action as a sEH inhibitor we used a second sEH inhibitor, trans-4-(4-[3-(4-trifluoromethoxy-phenyl)-ureido]-cyclohexyloxy)-benzoic acid (t-TUCB), and sEH null mice. Taken together, these data indicate that the sEH may play an important role in the development of hepatic fibrosis induced by CCl{sub 4}, presumably by reducing endogenous fatty acid epoxide chemical mediators acting to reduce ER stress. - Highlights: • We administer an inhibitor of sEH in a CCl4 murine model. • sEH inhibition reduces liver collagen deposition and pro-fibrotic gene expression. • sEH inhibition induces MMP-1a activity.

  3. Inhibition of translocation of nascent apolipoprotein B across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is associated with selective inhibition of the synthesis of apolipoprotein B.

    PubMed

    Pan, M; Liang, J s; Fisher, E A; Ginsberg, H N

    2000-09-01

    In HepG2 cells, inhibition of apolipoprotein B100 (apoB) translocation across the endoplasmic reticulum by an microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) inhibitor (CP-10447) in the presence of N-acetyl-leucinyl-norleucinal, a proteasomal inhibitor, results in accumulation of newly synthesized apoB in the translocation channel. Here we demonstrated that such accumulation led to a specific reduction of apoB synthesis. ApoB mRNA levels remained unchanged, but we observed reduced rates of elongation of nascent apoB in puromycin-synchronized cells pretreated with MTP inhibitor. This observation was consistent with a longer half-ribosome transit time for the synthesis of apoB in MTP-inhibited cells. Initiation of translation of apoB mRNA was not impaired by MTP inhibition. Overall, these findings suggest that translocation arrest of apoB in the endoplasmic reticulum channel can exert a selective and negative effect on the synthesis of apoB at the stage of elongation. PMID:10846173

  4. A proprotein convertase-inhibiting serpin with an endoplasmic reticulum targeting signal from Branchiostoma lanceolatum, a close relative of vertebrates

    PubMed Central

    Bentele, Caterina; Krüger, Olaf; Tödtmann, Ulf; Oley, Mareke; Ragg, Hermann

    2006-01-01

    Lancelets are considered to take a key position in the evolution of lineages leading to vertebrates. Herein, a serpin from the lancelet Branchiostoma lanceolatum, Bl-Spn1, was identified that inhibits the PCs (proprotein convertases) PC1/3 and furin. The inhibitor forms SDS-stable complexes with either of its targets. Analysis of the inhibitor/furin reaction products by mass spectroscopy assigns the enzyme's cleavage position C-terminally to Met-Met-Lys-Arg↓ in the reactive site loop of Spn1, in concordance with the classical recognition/cleavage site of the principal vertebrate PCs. The inhibitor is equipped with a canonical ER (endoplasmic reticulum) retrieval signal, Lys-Asp-Glu-Leu (KDEL), marking the inhibitor as a guardian of the cellular secretory routes. Deletion of the ER retrieval signal results in the export of the inhibitor into the medium of transfected COS-7 cells, consistent with the assigned intracellular location. These results identify Bl-Spn1 as the first serpin that may inhibit PC1/3-like subtilases at their natural sites of action. Phylogenetic comparisons support a concept implying a general role for ER-residing serpins in the surveillance of subtilase-like enzymes along the constitutive and regulated secretory pathways of metazoans including a role in the defence of intruders that turn PCs to their propagation. PMID:16445382

  5. Inhibition of homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and endothelial cell damage by l-serine and glycine.

    PubMed

    Sim, Woo-Cheol; Han, Inhoi; Lee, Wonseok; Choi, You-Jin; Lee, Kang-Yo; Kim, Dong Gwang; Jung, Seung-Hwan; Oh, Seon-Hee; Lee, Byung-Hoon

    2016-08-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia is an independent risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases. The use of vitamins to modulate homocysteine metabolism substantially lowers the risk by reducing plasma homocysteine levels. In this study, we evaluated the effects of l-serine and related amino acids on homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and endothelial cell damage using EA.hy926 human endothelial cells. Homocysteine treatment decreased cell viability and increased apoptosis, which were reversed by cotreatment with l-serine. l-Serine inhibited homocysteine-induced ER stress as verified by decreased glucose-regulated protein 78kDa (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) expression as well as X-box binding protein 1 (xbp1) mRNA splicing. The effects of l-serine on homocysteine-induced ER stress are not attributed to intracellular homocysteine metabolism, but instead to decreased homocysteine uptake. Glycine exerted effects on homocysteine-induced ER stress, apoptosis, and cell viability that were comparable to those of l-serine. Although glycine did not affect homocysteine uptake or export, coincubation of homocysteine with glycine for 24h reduced the intracellular concentration of homocysteine. Taken together, l-serine and glycine cause homocysteine-induced endothelial cell damage by reducing the level of intracellular homocysteine. l-Serine acts by competitively inhibiting homocysteine uptake in the cells. However, the mechanism(s) by which glycine lowers homocysteine levels are unclear. PMID:27064126

  6. YiQiFuMai Powder Injection Ameliorates Cerebral Ischemia by Inhibiting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Neuronal Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yang

    2016-01-01

    YiQiFuMai (YQFM) powder injection as a modern preparation derived from Sheng Mai San, a traditional Chinese medicine, has been widely used in the treatment of cardiovascular and cerebrovascular diseases. However, its neuroprotective effect and underlying mechanism in cerebral ischemia remain to be explored. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective effect of YQFM on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis in the permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion- (MCAO-) injured mice and the oxygen-glucose deprivation- (OGD-) induced pheochromocytoma (PC12) cells. The results showed that single administration of YQFM (1.342 g/kg, i.p.) could reduce the brain infarction and improve the neurological deficits and the cerebral blood flow (CBF) after MCAO for 24 h in mice. Moreover, incubation with YQFM (100, 200, and 400 μg/mL) could increase the cell viability, decrease the caspase-3 activity, and inhibit the cell apoptosis in OGD-induced PC12 cells for 12 h. In addition, YQFM treatment could significantly modulate cleaved caspase-3 and Bcl-2 expressions and inhibit the expressions of ER stress-related marker proteins and signaling pathways in vivo and in vitro. In conclusion, our findings provide the first evidence that YQFM ameliorates cerebral ischemic injury linked with modulating ER stress-related signaling pathways, which provided some new insights for its prevention and treatment of cerebral ischemia diseases. PMID:27087890

  7. Curcumin induces apoptosis by inhibiting sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase activity in ovarian cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Seo, Jeong-Ah; Kim, Boyun; Dhanasekaran, Danny N; Tsang, Benjamin K; Song, Yong Sang

    2016-02-01

    Aberrant increase in the expression levels of sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA), which regulates Ca(2+) homeostasis, has been observed in ovarian cancers. In this study, we demonstrated that curcumin increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration through inhibition of SERCA activity, causing apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells but not in normal cells, including peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and ovarian surface epithelial cells (OSE). Curcumin induced apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells in a concentration- and time-dependent manner. Cytosolic Ca(2+) flux was evident after the curcumin treatment (15 µM). Treatment with Ca(2+) chelator reduced curcumin-induced apoptosis, confirming the possible involvement of increased cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration in this response. Basal mRNA and protein levels of SERCA2 were significantly higher in ovarian cancer cells than in OSE. SERCA activity was suppressed by curcumin, with no effect on protein expression. Forced expression of the SERCA2b gene in ovarian cancer cells prevented curcumin-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) elevation and subsequent apoptosis, supporting an important role of SERCA in curcumin-induced apoptosis of ovarian cancer cells. Taken together, inhibition of SERCA activity by curcumin disrupts the Ca(2+) homeostasis and thereby promotes apoptosis in ovarian cancer cells. PMID:26607901

  8. Bufalin Reverses Resistance to Sorafenib by Inhibiting Akt Activation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Bo; Hu, Fengli; Yan, Haijiang; Zhao, Dali; Jin, Xin; Fang, Taishi; Pan, Shangha; Sun, Xueying; Xu, Lishan

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard first-line therapeutic treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its use is hampered by the development of drug resistance. The activation of Akt by sorafenib is thought to be responsible for this resistance. Bufalin is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan su, which inhibits Akt activation; therefore, Chan su is currently used in the clinic to treat cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of bufalin to reverse both inherent and acquired resistance to sorafenib. Bufalin synergized with sorafenib to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. This effect was at least partially due to the ability of bufalin to inhibit Akt activation by sorafenib. Moreover, the ability of bufalin to inactivate Akt depended on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated by inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Silencing IRE1 with siRNA blocked the bufalin-induced Akt inactivation, but silencing eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) or C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) did not have the same effect. Additionally, silencing Akt did not influence IRE1, CHOP or phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines, which were established from human HCC HepG2 and Huh7 cells, were refractory to sorafenib-induced growth inhibition but were sensitive to bufalin. Thus, Bufalin reversed acquired resistance to sorafenib by downregulating phosphorylated Akt in an ER-stress-dependent manner via the IRE1 pathway. These findings warrant further studies to examine the utility of bufalin alone or in combination with sorafenib as a first- or second-line treatment after sorafenib failure for advanced HCC. PMID:26381511

  9. Bufalin Reverses Resistance to Sorafenib by Inhibiting Akt Activation in Hepatocellular Carcinoma: The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Bo; Hu, Fengli; Yan, Haijiang; Zhao, Dali; Jin, Xin; Fang, Taishi; Pan, Shangha; Sun, Xueying; Xu, Lishan

    2015-01-01

    Sorafenib is the standard first-line therapeutic treatment for patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but its use is hampered by the development of drug resistance. The activation of Akt by sorafenib is thought to be responsible for this resistance. Bufalin is the major active ingredient of the traditional Chinese medicine Chan su, which inhibits Akt activation; therefore, Chan su is currently used in the clinic to treat cancer. The present study aimed to investigate the ability of bufalin to reverse both inherent and acquired resistance to sorafenib. Bufalin synergized with sorafenib to inhibit tumor cell proliferation and induce apoptosis. This effect was at least partially due to the ability of bufalin to inhibit Akt activation by sorafenib. Moreover, the ability of bufalin to inactivate Akt depended on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress mediated by inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). Silencing IRE1 with siRNA blocked the bufalin-induced Akt inactivation, but silencing eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2) or C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) did not have the same effect. Additionally, silencing Akt did not influence IRE1, CHOP or phosphorylated eIF2α expression. Two sorafenib-resistant HCC cell lines, which were established from human HCC HepG2 and Huh7 cells, were refractory to sorafenib-induced growth inhibition but were sensitive to bufalin. Thus, Bufalin reversed acquired resistance to sorafenib by downregulating phosphorylated Akt in an ER-stress-dependent manner via the IRE1 pathway. These findings warrant further studies to examine the utility of bufalin alone or in combination with sorafenib as a first- or second-line treatment after sorafenib failure for advanced HCC. PMID:26381511

  10. Activation of autophagy by unfolded proteins during endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiaochen; Srivastava, Renu; Howell, Stephen H; Bassham, Diane C

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress is defined as the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, and is caused by conditions such as heat or agents that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress, including tunicamycin and dithiothreitol. Autophagy, a major pathway for degradation of macromolecules in the vacuole, is activated by these stress agents in a manner dependent on inositol-requiring enzyme 1b (IRE1b), and delivers endoplasmic reticulum fragments to the vacuole for degradation. In this study, we examined the mechanism for activation of autophagy during endoplasmic reticulum stress in Arabidopsis thaliana. The chemical chaperones sodium 4-phenylbutyrate and tauroursodeoxycholic acid were found to reduce tunicamycin- or dithiothreitol-induced autophagy, but not autophagy caused by unrelated stresses. Similarly, over-expression of BINDING IMMUNOGLOBULIN PROTEIN (BIP), encoding a heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) molecular chaperone, reduced autophagy. Autophagy activated by heat stress was also found to be partially dependent on IRE1b and to be inhibited by sodium 4-phenylbutyrate, suggesting that heat-induced autophagy is due to accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum. Expression in Arabidopsis of the misfolded protein mimics zeolin or a mutated form of carboxypeptidase Y (CPY*) also induced autophagy in an IRE1b-dependent manner. Moreover, zeolin and CPY* partially co-localized with the autophagic body marker GFP-ATG8e, indicating delivery to the vacuole by autophagy. We conclude that accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum is a trigger for autophagy under conditions that cause endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26616142

  11. Mdivi-1 Protects Epileptic Hippocampal Neurons from Apoptosis via Inhibiting Oxidative Stress and Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Vitro.

    PubMed

    Xie, Nanchang; Wang, Cui; Wu, Chuanjie; Cheng, Xuan; Gao, Yanlun; Zhang, Haifeng; Zhang, Yi; Lian, Yajun

    2016-06-01

    Mitochondrial division inhibitor 1 (mdivi-1), a selective inhibitor of the mitochondrial fission protein dynamin-related protein 1, has been proposed to have a neuroprotective effect on hippocampal neurons in animal models of epilepsy. However, the effect of mdivi-1 on epileptic neuronal death in vitro remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the effect of mdivi-1 and the underlying mechanisms in the hippocampal neuronal culture (HNC) model of acquired epilepsy (AE) in vitro. We found that mitochondrial fission was increased in the HNC model of AE and inhibition of mitochondrial fission by mdivi-1 significantly decreased neuronal apoptosis induced by AE. In addition, mdivi-1 pretreatment significantly attenuated oxidative stress induced by AE characterized by decrease of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and malondialdehyde level and by increase of superoxide dismutase activity. Moreover, mdivi-1 pretreatment significantly decreased endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein expression and caspase-3 activation. Altogether, our findings suggest that mdivi-1 protected against AE-induced hippocampal neuronal apoptosis in vitro via decreasing ROS-mediated oxidative stress and ER stress. PMID:26801176

  12. Endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibits collagen synthesis independent of collagen-modifying enzymes in different chondrocyte populations and dermal fibroblasts.

    PubMed

    Vonk, Lucienne A; Doulabi, Behrouz Zandieh; Huang, Chun-Ling; Helder, Marco N; Everts, Vincent; Bank, Ruud A

    2010-06-01

    Chondrocytes respond to glucose deprivation with a decreased collagen synthesis due to disruption of a proper functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER): ER stress. Since the mechanisms involved in the decreased synthesis are unknown, we have investigated whether chaperones and collagen-modifying enzymes are affected by glucose deprivation. Chondrocytes obtained from nucleus pulposus, annulus fibrosus, articular cartilage, and meniscus and dermal fibroblasts were cultured under control conditions or exposed to the ER stress-inducing treatments of tunicamycin addition or glucose withdrawal. Both treatments resulted in an up-regulation of the gene expression of the ER stress markers in all cell types, but dermal fibroblasts showed a delayed response to glucose deprivation. Collagen gene expression was down-regulated, and less collagen protein was present in the cells under both ER stress-inducing conditions. The expression levels of the prolyl 4-hydroxylases were either not affected (P4ha3) or increased (P4ha1 and P4ha2), the levels of the lysyl hydroxylases decreased, and the N-propeptidase Adamts2 decreased. Both treatments induced apoptosis. Chondrocytes respond more quickly to glucose deprivation, but it appears that chondrocytes can cope better with tunicamycin-induced ER stress than fibroblasts. Although collagen synthesis was inhibited by the treatments, some collagen-modifying enzymes and chaperones were up-regulated, suggesting that there is no causal relation between them. PMID:20555395

  13. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum-to-Golgi traffic by poliovirus protein 3A: genetic and ultrastructural analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Doedens, J R; Giddings, T H; Kirkegaard, K

    1997-01-01

    Poliovirus protein 3A, only 87 amino acids in length, is a potent inhibitor of protein secretion in mammalian cells, blocking anterograde protein traffic from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the Golgi complex. The function of viral protein 3A in blocking protein secretion is extremely sensitive to mutations near the N terminus of the protein. Deletion of the first 10 amino acids or insertion of a single amino acid between amino acids 15 and 16, a mutation that causes a cold-sensitive defect in poliovirus RNA replication, abrogates the inhibition of protein secretion although wild-type amounts of the mutant proteins are expressed. Immunofluorescence light microscopy and immunoelectron microscopy demonstrate that 3A protein, expressed in the absence of other viral proteins, colocalizes with membranes derived from the ER. The precise topology of 3A with respect to ER membranes is not known, but it is likely to be associated with the cytosolic surface of the ER. Although the glycosylation of 3A in translation extracts has been reported, we show that tunicamycin, under conditions in which glycosylation of cellular proteins is inhibited, has no effect on poliovirus growth. Therefore, glycosylation of 3A plays no functional role in the viral replicative cycle. Electron microscopy reveals that the ER dilates dramatically in the presence of 3A protein. The absence of accumulated vesicles and the swelling of the ER-derived membranes argues that ER-to-Golgi traffic is inhibited at the step of vesicle formation or budding from the ER. PMID:9371562

  14. Kaempferol Inhibits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Mucus Hypersecretion in Airway Epithelial Cells And Ovalbumin-Sensitized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Yean-Jung; Kang, Min-Kyung; Kim, Yun-Ho; Kang, Young-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Mucus hypersecretion is an important pathological feature of chronic airway diseases, such as asthma and pulmonary diseases. MUC5AC is a major component of the mucus matrix forming family of mucins in the airways. The initiation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mediated stress responses contributes to the pathogenesis of airway diseases. The present study investigated that ER stress was responsible for airway mucus production and this effect was blocked by the flavonoid kaempferol. Oral administration of ≥10 mg/kg kaempferol suppressed mucus secretion and goblet cell hyperplasia observed in the bronchial airway and lung of BALB/c mice sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA). TGF-β and tunicamycin promoted MUC5AC induction after 72 h in human bronchial airway epithelial BEAS-2B cells, which was dampened by 20 μM kaempferol. Kaempferol inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress of airway epithelial cells through disturbing the activation of the ER transmembrane sensor ATF6 and IRE1α. Additionally, this compound demoted the induction of ER chaperones such as GRP78 and HSP70 and the splicing of XBP-1 mRNA by tunicamycin. The in vivo study further revealed that kaempferol attenuated the induction of XBP-1 and IRE1α in epithelial tissues of OVA-challenged mice. TGF-β and tunicamycin induced TRAF2 with JNK activation and such induction was deterred by kaempferol. The inhibition of JNK activation encumbered the XBP-1 mRNA splicing and MUC5AC induction by tunicamycin and TGF-β. These results demonstrate that kaempferol alleviated asthmatic mucus hypersecretion through blocking bronchial epithelial ER stress via the inhibition of IRE1α-TRAF2-JNK activation. Therefore, kaempferol may be a potential therapeutic agent targeting mucus hypersecretion-associated pulmonary diseases. PMID:26599511

  15. Inhibition of 6-hydroxydopamine-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress by l-carnosine in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Yun-Mi; Jang, Eun-Hee; Ko, Jeong-Hyeon; Kang, Ju-Hee; Park, Chang-Shin; Han, Seung Baik; Kim, Jun Sig; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Pie, Jae-Eun; Shin, Dong Wun

    2009-07-31

    Conditions that cause endoplasmic reticulum malfunction (ER stress) play a key role in the development of various human diseases including neurodegenerative diseases. Carnosine is an endogenous peptide, present in excitable tissues such as brain and skeletal muscle. Although there are reports suggesting that carnosine has a biological role independent of its antioxidant activity, there have been no reports of the effects of carnosine on the ER stress response. We investigated the effects of carnosine on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced cell death and ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells. After assessing control cell viability in serum-free conditions for 24h (100% viability), we found that 50 microM 6-OHDA reduced cell viability to 76.4% of control values, whereas addition of 10mM carnosine significantly reduced cell death to 96.1% viability in a dose-dependent manner. Consistent with its cytoprotective action, carnosine markedly inhibited subsequent ER stress responses, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2alpha (eIF2alpha) and c-jun, expression of glucose regulatory protein 78 and C/EBP homologous protein, and mRNA splicing of X-box protein 1. The measurement of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by 6-OHDA showed that addition of 10mM carnosine slightly but obviously inhibits the 6-OHDA-induced ROS production. In conclusion, our results show that carnosine almost completely inhibits 6-OHDA-induced ER stress responses and cytotoxicity, and that slight antioxidant activity of carnosine against 6-OHDA is observed. Further in vivo studies are needed to investigate clinical uses for carnosine. PMID:19394406

  16. Lifeguard Inhibits Fas Ligand-mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum-Calcium Release Mandatory for Apoptosis in Type II Apoptotic Cells.

    PubMed

    Urresti, Jorge; Ruiz-Meana, Marisol; Coccia, Elena; Arévalo, Juan Carlos; Castellano, José; Fernández-Sanz, Celia; Galenkamp, Koen M O; Planells-Ferrer, Laura; Moubarak, Rana S; Llecha-Cano, Núria; Reix, Stéphanie; García-Dorado, David; Barneda-Zahonero, Bruna; Comella, Joan X

    2016-01-15

    Death receptors are members of the tumor necrosis factor receptor superfamily involved in the extrinsic apoptotic pathway. Lifeguard (LFG) is a death receptor antagonist mainly expressed in the nervous system that specifically blocks Fas ligand (FasL)-induced apoptosis. To investigate its mechanism of action, we studied its subcellular localization and its interaction with members of the Bcl-2 family proteins. We performed an analysis of LFG subcellular localization in murine cortical neurons and found that LFG localizes mainly to the ER and Golgi. We confirmed these results with subcellular fractionation experiments. Moreover, we show by co-immunoprecipitation experiments that LFG interacts with Bcl-XL and Bcl-2, but not with Bax or Bak, and this interaction likely occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum. We further investigated the relationship between LFG and Bcl-XL in the inhibition of apoptosis and found that LFG protects only type II apoptotic cells from FasL-induced death in a Bcl-XL dependent manner. The observation that LFG itself is not located in mitochondria raises the question as to whether LFG in the ER participates in FasL-induced death. Indeed, we investigated the degree of calcium mobilization after FasL stimulation and found that LFG inhibits calcium release from the ER, a process that correlates with LFG blockage of cytochrome c release to the cytosol and caspase activation. On the basis of our observations, we propose that there is a required step in the induction of type II apoptotic cell death that involves calcium mobilization from the ER and that this step is modulated by LFG. PMID:26582200

  17. An endoplasmic reticulum-specific cyclophilin.

    PubMed Central

    Hasel, K W; Glass, J R; Godbout, M; Sutcliffe, J G

    1991-01-01

    Cyclophilin is a ubiquitously expressed cytosolic peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase that is inhibited by the immunosuppressive drug cyclosporin A. A degenerate oligonucleotide based on a conserved cyclophilin sequence was used to isolate cDNA clones representing a ubiquitously expressed mRNA from mice and humans. This mRNA encodes a novel 20-kDa protein, CPH2, that shares 64% sequence identity with cyclophilin. Bacterially expressed CPH2 binds cyclosporin A and is a cyclosporin A-inhibitable peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase. Cell fractionation of rat liver followed by Western blot (immunoblot) analysis indicated that CPH2 is not cytosolic but rather is located exclusively in the endoplasmic reticulum. These results suggest that cyclosporin A mediates its effect on cells through more than one cyclophilin and that cyclosporin A-induced misfolding of T-cell membrane proteins normally mediated by CPH2 plays a role in immunosuppression. Images PMID:1710767

  18. β-Asarone Inhibits IRE1/XBP1 Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Pathway in 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinsonian Rats.

    PubMed

    Ning, Baile; Deng, Minzhen; Zhang, Qinxin; Wang, Nanbu; Fang, Yongqi

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative disease, with genetics and environment contributing to the disease onset. The limited pathological cognize of the disease restrained the approaches to improve the clinical treatment. Recently, studies showed that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress played an important role in the pathogenesis of PD. There was a neuroprotective effect partly mediated by modulating ER stress. β-Asarone is the essential constituent of Acorus tatarinowii Schott volatile oil. Our team observed that β-asarone could improve the behavior of parkinsonian rats; increase the HVA, Dopacl, and 5-HIAA levels; and reduce α-synuclein levels. Here we assumed that the protective role of β-asarone on parkinsonian rats was mediated via ER stress pathway. To prove the hypothesis we investigated the mRNA levels of glucose regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homologous binding protein (CHOP) in 6-hydroxy dopamine (6-OHDA) induced parkinsonian rats after β-asarone treatment. Furthermore, the inositol-requiring enzyme 1/X-Box Binding Protein 1 (IRE1/XBP1) ER stress pathway was also studied. The results showed that β-asarone inhibited the mRNA levels of GRP78 and CHOP, accompanied with the delined expressions of phosphorylated IER1 (p-IRE1) and XBP1. We deduced that β-asarone might have a protective effect on the 6-OHDA induced parkinsonian rats via IRE1/XBP1 Pathway. Collectively, all data indicated that β-asarone might be a potential candidate of medicine for clinical therapy of PD. PMID:27097550

  19. IL-15 expression increased in response to treadmill running and inhibited endoplasmic reticulum stress in skeletal muscle in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong-Tao; Luo, Li-Jie; Chen, Wen-Jia; Zhao, Lei; Tang, Chao-Shu; Qi, Yong-Fen; Zhang, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Interleukin 15 (IL-15) has recently been proposed as a circulating myokine involved in glucose uptake and utilization in skeletal muscle. However, the role and mechanism of IL-15 in exercise improving insulin resistance (IR) is unclear. Here, we investigated the alteration in expression of IL-15 and IL-15 receptor α (IL-15Rα) in skeletal muscle during treadmill running in rats with IR induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and elucidated the mechanism of the anti-IR effects of IL-15. At 20 weeks of HFD, rats showed severe IR, with increased levels of fasting blood sugar and plasma insulin, impaired glucose tolerance, and reduced glucose transport activity. IL-15 immunoreactivity and mRNA level in gastrocnemius muscle were decreased markedly as compared with controls. IL-15Rα protein and mRNA levels in both soleus and gastrocnemius muscle were significantly decreased, which might attenuate the signaling or secretion of IL-15 in muscle. Eight-week treadmill running completely ameliorated HFD-induced IR and reversed the downregulated level of IL-15 and IL-15Rα in skeletal muscle of HFD-fed rats. To investigate whether IL-15 exerts its anti-IR effects directly in muscle, we pre-incubated muscle strips with the endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) inducer dithiothreitol (DTT) or tunicamycin (Tm); IL-15 treatment markedly decreased the protein expression of the ERS markers 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein, 94-kDa glucose-regulated protein and C/EBP homologous protein and inhibited ERS induced by DTT or Tm. Therefore, treadmill running promoted skeletal IL-15 and IL-15Rα expression in HFD-induced IR in rats. The inhibitory effect of IL-15 on ERS may be involved in improved insulin sensitivity with exercise training. PMID:24647688

  20. Hydrogen Sulfide Inhibits Formaldehyde-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in PC12 Cells by Upregulation of SIRT-1

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ping; Chen, Li-Xun; Wang, Li; Xie, Ming; Wang, Chun-Yan; Tang, Xiao-Qing

    2014-01-01

    Background Formaldehyde (FA), a well-known environmental pollutant, has been classified as a neurotoxic molecule. Our recent data demonstrate that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), the third gaseous transmitter, has a protective effect on the neurotoxicity of FA. However, the exact mechanisms underlying this protection remain largely unknown. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been implicated in the neurotoxicity of FA. Silent mating type information regulator 2 homolog 1 (SIRT-1), a histone deacetylases, has various biological activities, including the extension of lifespan, the modulation of ER stress, and the neuroprotective action. Objective We hypothesize that the protection of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity involves in inhibiting ER stress by upregulation of SIRT-1. The present study attempted to investigate the protective effect of H2S on FA-induced ER stress in PC12 cells and the contribution of SIRT-1 to the protection of H2S against FA-induced injuries, including ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis. Principal Findings We found that exogenous application of sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS; an H2S donor) significantly attenuated FA-induced ER stress responses, including the upregulated levels of glucose-regulated protein 78, C/EBP homologous protein, and cleaved caspase-12 expression. We showed that NaHS upregulates the expression of SIRT-1 in PC12 cells. Moreover, the protective effects of H2S on FA-elicited ER stress, cytotoxicity and apoptosis were reversed by Sirtinol, a specific inhibitor of SIRT-1. Conclusion/Significance These data indicate that H2S exerts its protection against the neurotoxicity of FA through overcoming ER stress via upregulation of SIRT-1. Our findings provide novel insights into the protective mechanisms of H2S against FA-induced neurotoxicity. PMID:24587076

  1. Combined inhibition of Hsp90 and heme oxygenase-1 induces apoptosis and endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Barbagallo, Ignazio; Parenti, Rosalba; Zappalà, Agata; Vanella, Luca; Tibullo, Daniele; Pepe, Francesco; Onni, Toniangelo; Li Volti, Giovanni

    2015-10-01

    Heat shock proteins are ubiquitous molecular chaperones involved in post-translational folding, stability, activation and maturation of many proteins that are essential mediators of signal transduction and cell cycle progression. Heat shock protein 90 (Hsp90) has recently emerged as an attractive therapeutic target in cancer treatment since it may act as a key regulator of various oncogene products and cell-signaling molecules. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1; also known as Hsp32) is an inducible enzyme participating in heme degradation and involved in oxidative stress resistance. Recent studies indicate that HO-1 activation may play a role in tumor development and progression. In the present study we investigated the chemotherapic effects of combining an Hsp90 inhibitor (NMS E973) and an HO-1 inhibitor (SnMP) on A375 melanoma cells. NMS E973 treatment was able to reduce cell viability and induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress (i.e. Ire1α, ERO1, PDI, BIP and CHOP). Interestingly, no significant effect was observed in reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Finally, NMS E973 treatment resulted in a significant HO-1 overexpression, which in turn serves as a possible chemoresistance molecular mechanism. Interestingly, the combination of NMS E973 and SnMP produced an increase of ROS and reduced cell viability compared to NMS E973 treatment alone. The inhibitors combination exhibited higher ER stress, apoptosis as evidenced by bifunctional apoptosis regulator (BFAR) mRNA expression and lower phosphorylation of Akt when compared to NMS E973 alone. In conclusion, these data suggest that HO-1 inhibition potentiates NMS E973 toxicity and may be exploited as a strategy for melanoma treatment. PMID:26493719

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress implicated in chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Lucke-Wold, Brandon P; Turner, Ryan C; Logsdon, Aric F; Nguyen, Linda; Bailes, Julian E; Lee, John M; Robson, Matthew J; Omalu, Bennet I; Huber, Jason D; Rosen, Charles L

    2016-03-01

    OBJECT Chronic traumatic encephalopathy is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by neurofibrillary tau tangles following repetitive neurotrauma. The underlying mechanism linking traumatic brain injury to chronic traumatic encephalopathy has not been elucidated. The authors investigate the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress as a link between acute neurotrauma and chronic neurodegeneration. METHODS The authors used pharmacological, biochemical, and behavioral tools to assess the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in linking acute repetitive traumatic brain injury to the development of chronic neurodegeneration. Data from the authors' clinically relevant and validated rodent blast model were compared with those obtained from postmortem human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens from a National Football League player and World Wrestling Entertainment wrestler. RESULTS The results demonstrated strong correlation of endoplasmic reticulum stress activation with subsequent tau hyperphosphorylation. Various endoplasmic reticulum stress markers were increased in human chronic traumatic encephalopathy specimens, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response was associated with an increase in the tau kinase, glycogen synthase kinase-3β. Docosahexaenoic acid, an endoplasmic reticulum stress inhibitor, improved cognitive performance in the rat model 3 weeks after repetitive blast exposure. The data showed that docosahexaenoic acid administration substantially reduced tau hyperphosphorylation (t = 4.111, p < 0.05), improved cognition (t = 6.532, p < 0.001), and inhibited C/EBP homology protein activation (t = 5.631, p < 0.01). Additionally the data showed, for the first time, that endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in the pathophysiology of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. CONCLUSIONS Docosahexaenoic acid therefore warrants further investigation as a potential therapeutic agent for the prevention of chronic traumatic encephalopathy. PMID

  3. Pharmacological inhibition of cystine-glutamate exchange induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and ferroptosis.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Scott J; Patel, Darpan N; Welsch, Matthew; Skouta, Rachid; Lee, Eric D; Hayano, Miki; Thomas, Ajit G; Gleason, Caroline E; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Slusher, Barbara S; Stockwell, Brent R

    2014-01-01

    Exchange of extracellular cystine for intracellular glutamate by the antiporter system xc (-) is implicated in numerous pathologies. Pharmacological agents that inhibit system xc (-) activity with high potency have long been sought, but have remained elusive. In this study, we report that the small molecule erastin is a potent, selective inhibitor of system xc (-). RNA sequencing revealed that inhibition of cystine-glutamate exchange leads to activation of an ER stress response and upregulation of CHAC1, providing a pharmacodynamic marker for system xc (-) inhibition. We also found that the clinically approved anti-cancer drug sorafenib, but not other kinase inhibitors, inhibits system xc (-) function and can trigger ER stress and ferroptosis. In an analysis of hospital records and adverse event reports, we found that patients treated with sorafenib exhibited unique metabolic and phenotypic alterations compared to patients treated with other kinase-inhibiting drugs. Finally, using a genetic approach, we identified new genes dramatically upregulated in cells resistant to ferroptosis.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02523.001. PMID:24844246

  4. Pharmacological inhibition of cystine–glutamate exchange induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and ferroptosis

    PubMed Central

    Dixon, Scott J; Patel, Darpan N; Welsch, Matthew; Skouta, Rachid; Lee, Eric D; Hayano, Miki; Thomas, Ajit G; Gleason, Caroline E; Tatonetti, Nicholas P; Slusher, Barbara S; Stockwell, Brent R

    2014-01-01

    Exchange of extracellular cystine for intracellular glutamate by the antiporter system xc− is implicated in numerous pathologies. Pharmacological agents that inhibit system xc− activity with high potency have long been sought, but have remained elusive. In this study, we report that the small molecule erastin is a potent, selective inhibitor of system xc−. RNA sequencing revealed that inhibition of cystine–glutamate exchange leads to activation of an ER stress response and upregulation of CHAC1, providing a pharmacodynamic marker for system xc− inhibition. We also found that the clinically approved anti-cancer drug sorafenib, but not other kinase inhibitors, inhibits system xc− function and can trigger ER stress and ferroptosis. In an analysis of hospital records and adverse event reports, we found that patients treated with sorafenib exhibited unique metabolic and phenotypic alterations compared to patients treated with other kinase-inhibiting drugs. Finally, using a genetic approach, we identified new genes dramatically upregulated in cells resistant to ferroptosis. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.02523.001 PMID:24844246

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy: a potential target for therapy.

    PubMed

    Montague, Karli; Malik, Bilal; Gray, Anna L; La Spada, Albert R; Hanna, Michael G; Szabadkai, Gyorgy; Greensmith, Linda

    2014-07-01

    Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy is an X-linked degenerative motor neuron disease caused by an abnormal expansion in the polyglutamine encoding CAG repeat of the androgen receptor gene. There is evidence implicating endoplasmic reticulum stress in the development and progression of neurodegenerative disease, including polyglutamine disorders such as Huntington's disease and in motor neuron disease, where cellular stress disrupts functioning of the endoplasmic reticulum, leading to induction of the unfolded protein response. We examined whether endoplasmic reticulum stress is also involved in the pathogenesis of spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy. Spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice that carry 100 pathogenic polyglutamine repeats in the androgen receptor, and develop a late-onset neuromuscular phenotype with motor neuron degeneration, were studied. We observed a disturbance in endoplasmic reticulum-associated calcium homeostasis in cultured embryonic motor neurons from spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy mice, which was accompanied by increased endoplasmic reticulum stress. Furthermore, pharmacological inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress reduced the endoplasmic reticulum-associated cell death pathway. Examination of spinal cord motor neurons of pathogenic mice at different disease stages revealed elevated expression of markers for endoplasmic reticulum stress, confirming an increase in this stress response in vivo. Importantly, the most significant increase was detected presymptomatically, suggesting that endoplasmic reticulum stress may play an early and possibly causal role in disease pathogenesis. Our results therefore indicate that the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway could potentially be a therapeutic target for spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy and related polyglutamine diseases. PMID:24898351

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases: biochemistry, physiology and pathology.

    PubMed

    Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    2013-09-01

    The human endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase (ERAP) 1 and 2 proteins were initially identified as homologues of human placental leucine aminopeptidase/insulin-regulated aminopeptidase. They are categorized as a unique class of proteases based on their subcellular localization on the luminal side of the endoplasmic reticulum. ERAPs play an important role in the N-terminal processing of the antigenic precursors that are presented on the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. ERAPs are also implicated in the regulation of a wide variety of physiological phenomena and pathogenic conditions. In this review, the current knowledge on ERAPs is summarized. PMID:23946506

  7. Inhibition of cardiac oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis by curcumin treatment contributes to protection against acute myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Mito, Sayaka; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Ma, Meilei; Lakshmanan, Arunprasath; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto; Watanabe, Kenichi

    2011-10-01

    Curcumin is used anecdotally as an herb in traditional Indian and Chinese medicine. In the present study, the effects and possible mechanism of curcumin in experimental autoimmune myocarditis (EAM) rats were further investigated. They were divided randomly into a treatment and vehicle group, and orally administrated curcumin (50 mg/kg/day) and 1% gum arabic, respectively, for 3 weeks after myosin injection. The results showed that curcumin significantly suppressed the myocardial protein expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the catalytic subunit of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate reduced (NADPH) oxidase. In addition, curcumin significantly decreased myocardial endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signaling proteins and improved cardiac function. Furthermore, curcumin significantly decreased the key regulators or inducers of apoptosis. In summary, our results indicate that curcumin has the potential to protect EAM by modulating cardiac oxidative and ER stress-mediated apoptosis, and provides a novel therapeutic strategy for autoimmune myocarditis. PMID:21781008

  8. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  9. Dietary Cocoa Powder Improves Hyperlipidemia and Reduces Atherosclerosis in apoE Deficient Mice through the Inhibition of Hepatic Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Guan, Hua; Lin, Yan; Bai, Liang; An, Yingfeng; Shang, Jianan; Wang, Zhao; Zhao, Sihai; Fan, Jianglin; Liu, Enqi

    2016-01-01

    Cocoa powder is rich in flavonoids, which have many beneficial effects on human health, including antioxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. The aim of our study was to investigate whether the intake of cocoa powder has any influence on hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis and examine the underlying molecular mechanisms. We fed apoE knockout mice a Western diet supplemented with either 0.2% (low group) or 2% (high group) cocoa powder for 12 weeks. The groups fed dietary cocoa powder showed a significant reduction in both plasma cholesterol levels and aortic atherosclerosis compared to the control group. Analysis of mRNA profiling of aortic atherosclerotic lesions revealed that the expression of several genes related to apoptosis, lipid metabolism, and inflammation was significantly reduced, while the antiapoptotic gene Bcl2 was significantly increased in the cocoa powder group compared to the control. RT-PCR analysis along with Western blotting revealed that a diet containing cocoa powder inhibited the expression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. These data suggest that cocoa powder intake improves hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis, and such beneficial effects are possibly mediated through the suppression of hepatic endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:26980943

  10. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Associated ROS

    PubMed Central

    Zeeshan, Hafiz Maher Ali; Lee, Geum Hwa; Kim, Hyung-Ryong; Chae, Han-Jung

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a fascinating network of tubules through which secretory and transmembrane proteins enter unfolded and exit as either folded or misfolded proteins, after which they are directed either toward other organelles or to degradation, respectively. The ER redox environment dictates the fate of entering proteins, and the level of redox signaling mediators modulates the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Accumulating evidence suggests the interrelation of ER stress and ROS with redox signaling mediators such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)-endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin (ERO)-1, glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disuphide (GSSG), NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4), NADPH-P450 reductase (NPR), and calcium. Here, we reviewed persistent ER stress and protein misfolding-initiated ROS cascades and their significant roles in the pathogenesis of multiple human disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, diabetes mellitus, atherosclerosis, inflammation, ischemia, and kidney and liver diseases. PMID:26950115

  11. Piperine, an alkaloid from black pepper, inhibits growth of human colon cancer cells via G1 arrest and apoptosis triggered by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Yaffe, Paul B; Power Coombs, Melanie R; Doucette, Carolyn D; Walsh, Mark; Hoskin, David W

    2015-10-01

    Piperine, a piperidine alkaloid present in black pepper, inhibits the growth of cancer cells, although the mechanism of action is not well understood. In this study, we show that piperine (75-150 µM) inhibited the growth of several colon cancer cell lines but had little effect on the growth of normal fibroblasts and epithelial cells. Piperine inhibited HT-29 colon carcinoma cell proliferation by causing G1 phase cell cycle arrest that was associated with decreased expression of cyclins D1 and D3 and their activating partner cyclin-dependent kinases 4 and 6, as well as reduced phosphorylation of the retinoblastoma protein and up-regulation of p21/WAF1 and p27/KIP1 expression. In addition, piperine caused hydroxyl radical production and apoptosis that was partially dependent on the production of reactive oxygen species. Piperine-treated HT-29 cells showed loss of mitochondrial membrane integrity and cleavage of poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase-1, as well as caspase activation and reduced apoptosis in the presence of the pan-caspase inhibitor zVAD-FMK. Increased expression of the endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins inositol-requiring 1α protein, C/EBP homologous protein, and binding immunoglobulin protein, and activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, as well as decreased phosphorylation of Akt and reduced survivin expression were also observed in piperine-treated HT-29 cells. Furthermore, piperine inhibited colony formation by HT-29 cells, as well as the growth of HT-29 spheroids. Cell cycle arrest and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated apoptosis following piperine treatment of HT-29 cells provides the first evidence that piperine may be useful in the treatment of colon cancer. PMID:24819444

  12. Reduction in Embryonic Malformations and Alleviation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress by Nitric Oxide Synthase Inhibition in Diabetic Embryopathy

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Richard L.; Reece, E. Albert

    2012-01-01

    Maternal diabetes-induced neural tube defects (NTDs) are associated with increased programmed cell death (apoptosis) in the neuroepithelium, which is related to intracellular nitrosative stress. To alleviate nitrosative stress, diabetic pregnant mice were fed via gavage an inhibitor of nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) 2, L-N6-(1-iminoethyl)-lysine (L-NIL; 80 mg/kg), once a day from embryonic (E) day 7.5 to 9.5 during early stages of neurulation. The treatment significantly reduced NTD rate in the embryos, compared with that in vehicle (normal saline)-treated diabetic group. In addition to alleviation of nitrosative stress, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was also ameliorated, assessed by quantification of associated factors. Apoptosis was reduced, indicated by caspase 8 activation. These results show that nitrosative stress is important in diabetes-induced NTDs via exacerbating ER stress, leading to increased apoptosis. Oral treatment with NOS-2 inhibitor alleviates nitrosative and ER stress, decreases apoptosis, and reduces NTDs in the embryos, providing information for further interventional studies to reduce diabetes-associated birth defects. PMID:22534324

  13. NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 inhibits the proteasomal degradation of homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum protein.

    PubMed

    Maeda, Tomoji; Tanabe-Fujimura, Chiaki; Fujita, Yu; Abe, Chihiro; Nanakida, Yoshino; Zou, Kun; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Shuyu; Nakajima, Toshihiro; Komano, Hiroto

    2016-05-13

    Homocysteine-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) protein (Herp) is an ER stress-inducible key regulatory component of ER-associated degradation (ERAD) that has been implicated in insulin hypersecretion in diabetic mouse models. Herp expression is tightly regulated. Additionally, Herp is a highly labile protein and interacts with various proteins, which are characteristic features of ubiquitinated protein. Previously, we reported that ubiquitination is not required for Herp degradation. In addition, we found that the lysine residues of Herp (which are ubiquitinated by E3 ubiquitin ligase) are not sufficient for regulation of Herp degradation. In this study, we found that NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1)-mediated targeting of Herp to the proteasome was involved in Herp degradation. In addition, we found that Herp protein levels were markedly elevated in synoviolin-null cells. The E3 ubiquitin ligase synoviolin is a central component of ERAD and is involved in the degradation of nuclear factor E2-related factor-2 (Nrf2), which regulates cellular reactive oxygen species. Additionally, NQO1 is a target of Nrf2. Thus, our findings indicated that NQO1 could stabilize Herp protein expression via indirect regulation of synoviolin. PMID:27084451

  14. PI3K-Akt-mTOR signal inhibition affects expression of genes related to endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Song, Q; Han, C C; Xiong, X P; He, F; Gan, W; Wei, S H; Liu, H H; Li, L; Xu, H Y

    2016-01-01

    PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway is associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, it is not clear how this signaling pathway affects the ER stress. The present study aimed to determine whether the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway regulates tunicamycin (TM)-induced increases in mRNA levels of genes involved in the ER stress, to help elucidate the mechanism by which this pathway affects the ER stress in primary goose hepatocytes. Primary hepatocytes were isolated from geese and cultured in vitro. After 12 h in a serum-free medium, the hepatocytes were incubated for 24 h in a medium with either no addition (control) or with supplementation of TM or TM together with PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway inhibitors (LY294002, rapamycin, NVP-BEZ235). Thereafter, the expression levels of genes involved in the ER stress (BIP, EIF2a, ATF6, and XBP1) were assessed. The results indicated that the mRNA level of BIP was up-regulated in 0.2, 2, and 20 μM TM treatment group (P < 0.05), whereas the mRNA levels of EIF2a, ATF6, and XBP1 were up-regulated in the 2 μM TM treatment group (P < 0.05). However, the TM mediated induction of mRNA levels of genes involved in the ER stress (BIP, EIF2a, ATF6, and XBP1) was down-regulated after the treatment with PI3K-Akt-mTOR pathway inhibitors (LY294002, NVP-BEZ235, and rapamycin). Therefore, our results strongly suggest that the PI3K-Akt-mTOR signaling pathway might be involved in the down-regulation of the TM-induced ER stress in primary goose hepatocytes. PMID:27525855

  15. Protein Translocation across the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Mandon, Elisabet C.; Trueman, Steven F.; Gilmore, Reid

    2013-01-01

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum is a major site of protein biosynthesis in all eukaryotic cells, serving as the entry point for the secretory pathway and as the initial integration site for the majority of cellular integral membrane proteins. The core components of the protein translocation machinery have been identified, and high-resolution structures of the targeting components and the transport channel have been obtained. Research in this area is now focused on obtaining a better understanding of the molecular mechanism of protein translocation and membrane protein integration. PMID:23251026

  16. Equine Viperin Restricts Equine Infectious Anemia Virus Replication by Inhibiting the Production and/or Release of Viral Gag, Env, and Receptor via Distortion of the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yan-Dong; Na, Lei; Zhu, Chun-Hui; Shen, Nan; Yang, Fei; Fu, Xian-Qiu; Wang, Yu-Hong; Fu, Li-Hua; Wang, Jia-Yi; Lin, Yue-Zhi; Wang, Xue-Feng; Wang, Xiaojun

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Viperin is an endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated multifunctional protein that regulates virus replication and possesses broad antiviral activity. In many cases, viperin interferes with the trafficking and budding of viral structural proteins by distorting the membrane transportation system. The lentivirus equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) has been studied extensively. In this study, we examined the restrictive effect of equine viperin (eViperin) on EIAV replication and investigated the possible molecular basis of this restriction to obtain insights into the effect of this cellular factor on retroviruses. We demonstrated that EIAV infection of primary equine monocyte-derived macrophages (eMDMs) upregulated the expression of eViperin. The overexpression of eViperin significantly inhibited the replication of EIAV in eMDMs, and knockdown of eViperin transcription enhanced the replication of EIAV in eMDMs by approximately 45.8%. Further experiments indicated that eViperin restricts EIAV at multiple steps of viral replication. The overexpression of eViperin inhibited EIAV Gag release. Both the α-helix domain and radical S-adenosylmethionine (SAM) domain were required for this activity. However, the essential motifs in SAM were different from those reported for the inhibition of HIV-1 Gag by human viperin. Furthermore, eViperin disrupted the synthesis of both EIAV Env and receptor, which consequently inhibited viral production and entry, respectively, and this disruption was dependent on the eViperin α-helix domain. Using immunofluorescence assays and electron microscopy, we demonstrated that the α-helix domain is responsible for the distortion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Finally, EIAV did not exhibit counteracting eViperin at the protein level. IMPORTANCE In previous studies, viperin was indicated as restricting virus replications primarily by the inhibition of virus budding. Here, we show that viperin may have multiple antiviral mechanisms

  17. Phenylbutyrate prevents disruption of blood-spinal cord barrier by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress after spinal cord injury

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Yulong; Ye, Libing; Zheng, Binbin; Zhu, Sipin; Shi, Hongxue; Zhang, Hongyu; Wang, Zhouguang; Wei, Xiaojie; Chen, Daqing; Li, Xiaokun; Xu, Huazi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the role of endocytoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by spinal cord injury (SCI) in blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) disruption and the effect of phenylbutyrate (PBA) on BSCB disruption after SCI. After a moderate contusion injury at the T9 level of spinal cord with a vascular clip, PBA was immediately administered into injured rat via intraperitoneal injection (100 mg/kg) and then further treated once a day for 2 weeks for behavior test. Spinal cord was collected at 1 day post-injury for evaluation of the effects of ER stress and PBA on BSCB disruption after SCI. PBA significantly attenuated BSCB permeability and degradation of tight junction molecules such as P120, β-catenin, Occludin and Claudin5 at 1 day after injury and improved functional recovery in the rat model of trauma. The BSCB protective effect of PBA is related to the inhibition of ER stress induced by SCI. In addition, PBA significantly inhibited the increase of ER stress markers and prevents loss of tight junction and adherens junction proteins in TG-treated human brain microvascular endothelial cells (HBMEC). Taken together, our data demonstrate that therapeutic strategies targeting ER stress may be suitable for the therapy of preserving BSCB integrity after SCI. PBA may be a new candidate as a therapeutic agent for protecting SCI by a compromised BSCB. PMID:27186310

  18. Inhibition of autophagy by chloroquine induces apoptosis in primary effusion lymphoma in vitro and in vivo through induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Masud Alam, Md; Kariya, Ryusho; Kawaguchi, Azusa; Matsuda, Kouki; Kudo, Eriko; Okada, Seiji

    2016-10-01

    Autophagy plays a crucial role in cancer cell survival and the inhibition of autophagy is attracting attention as an emerging strategy for the treatment of cancer. Chloroquine (CQ) is an anti-malarial drug, and is also known as an inhibitor of autophagy. Recently, it has been found that CQ induces cancer cell death through the inhibition of autophagy; however, the underlying mechanism is not entirely understood. In this study, we identified the role of CQ-induced cancer cell death using Primary Effusion Lymphoma (PEL) cells. We found that a CQ treatment induced caspase-dependent apoptosis in vitro. CQ also suppressed PEL cell growth in a PEL xenograft mouse model. We showed that CQ activated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress signal pathways and induced CHOP, which is an inducer of apoptosis. CQ-induced cell death was significantly decreased by salbrinal, an ER stress inhibitor, indicating that CQ-induced apoptosis in PEL cells depended on ER stress. We show here for the first time that the inhibition of autophagy induces ER stress-mediated apoptosis in PEL cells. Thus, the inhibition of autophagy is a novel strategy for cancer chemotherapy. PMID:27484211

  19. Dehydroeffusol inhibits gastric cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity by selectively inducing tumor-suppressive endoplasmic reticulum stress and a moderate apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bin; Han, Hongyan; Fu, Shilong; Yang, Ping; Gu, Zhenlun; Zhou, Quansheng; Cao, Zhifei

    2016-03-15

    Gastric cancer is ranked as the third leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. Although extensive efforts have been made in recent decades to treat gastric cancer with various anticancer drugs, effective anti-gastric cancer therapeutics to cure the disease are still lacking in the clinics. Therefore, potent novel anti-gastric cancer drugs are greatly needed. In this study, we explored a novel anti-gastric cancer agent from a medicinal herb named Juncus effusus and found that the active component dehydroeffusol (DHE), a small molecular phenanthrene, effectively inhibited gastric cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis by inducing tumor suppressive endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and by triggering moderate apoptosis. Mechanistic studies revealed that DHE selectively activated the intracellular tumor suppressive stress response by promoting the overexpression of the key ER stress marker DNA damage-inducible transcript 3 (DDIT3), through upregulation of activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4). Concurrently, DHE suppressed the expression of the cell survival and ER stress marker glucose regulated protein of molecular mass 78 (GRP78) via downregulation of the transcription factor ATF6. In addition, DHE markedly activated the stress response signaling pathway MEKK4-MKK3/6-p38-DDIT3, but significantly inhibited ERK signaling. Our data suggest that DHE inhibits gastric cancer cell growth and tumorigenicity through selectively inducing a robust tumor suppressive ER stress response and a moderate apoptosis response. Therefore, DHE may provide a novel drug candidate for further development of potential anti-gastric cancer therapeutics. PMID:26774454

  20. Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress is Involved in the Neuroprotective Effect of bFGF in the 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinson’s Disease Model

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Pingtao; Ye, Jingjing; Zhu, Jingjing; Liu, Dan; Chen, Daqing; Wei, Xiaojie; Johnson, Noah R.; Wang, Zhouguang; Zhang, Hongyu; Cao, Guodong; Xiao, Jian; Ye, Junming; Lin, Li

    2016-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with complicated pathophysiologic mechanisms. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress appears to play a critical role in the progression of PD. We demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), as a neurotropic factor, inhibited ER stress-induced neuronal cell apoptosis and that 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced ER stress was involved in the progression of PD in rats. bFGF administration improved motor function recovery, increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuron survival, and upregulated the levels of neurotransmitters in PD rats. The 6-OHDA-induced ER stress response proteins were inhibited by bFGF treatment. Meanwhile, bFGF also increased expression of TH. The administration of bFGF activated the downstream signals PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 pathways by specific inhibitors partially reduced the protective effect of bFGF. This study provides new insight towards bFGF translational drug development for PD involving the regulation of ER stress. PMID:27493838

  1. Inhibition of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress is Involved in the Neuroprotective Effect of bFGF in the 6-OHDA-Induced Parkinson's Disease Model.

    PubMed

    Cai, Pingtao; Ye, Jingjing; Zhu, Jingjing; Liu, Dan; Chen, Daqing; Wei, Xiaojie; Johnson, Noah R; Wang, Zhouguang; Zhang, Hongyu; Cao, Guodong; Xiao, Jian; Ye, Junming; Lin, Li

    2016-08-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with complicated pathophysiologic mechanisms. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress appears to play a critical role in the progression of PD. We demonstrated that basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), as a neurotropic factor, inhibited ER stress-induced neuronal cell apoptosis and that 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced ER stress was involved in the progression of PD in rats. bFGF administration improved motor function recovery, increased tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive neuron survival, and upregulated the levels of neurotransmitters in PD rats. The 6-OHDA-induced ER stress response proteins were inhibited by bFGF treatment. Meanwhile, bFGF also increased expression of TH. The administration of bFGF activated the downstream signals PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 in vivo and in vitro. Inhibition of the PI3K/Akt and Erk1/2 pathways by specific inhibitors partially reduced the protective effect of bFGF. This study provides new insight towards bFGF translational drug development for PD involving the regulation of ER stress. PMID:27493838

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics

    PubMed Central

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E.; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F.G.; Rothermel, Beverly A.; Lavandero, Sergio

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER–mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum: ER stress regulates mitochondrial bioenergetics.

    PubMed

    Bravo, Roberto; Gutierrez, Tomás; Paredes, Felipe; Gatica, Damián; Rodriguez, Andrea E; Pedrozo, Zully; Chiong, Mario; Parra, Valentina; Quest, Andrew F G; Rothermel, Beverly A; Lavandero, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress activates an adaptive unfolded protein response (UPR) that facilitates cellular repair, however, under prolonged ER stress, the UPR can ultimately trigger apoptosis thereby terminating damaged cells. The molecular mechanisms responsible for execution of the cell death program are relatively well characterized, but the metabolic events taking place during the adaptive phase of ER stress remain largely undefined. Here we discuss emerging evidence regarding the metabolic changes that occur during the onset of ER stress and how ER influences mitochondrial function through mechanisms involving calcium transfer, thereby facilitating cellular adaptation. Finally, we highlight how dysregulation of ER-mitochondrial calcium homeostasis during prolonged ER stress is emerging as a novel mechanism implicated in the onset of metabolic disorders. PMID:22064245

  4. Membrane Protein Insertion at the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Sichen; Hegde, Ramanujan S.

    2014-01-01

    Integral membrane proteins of the cell surface and most intracellular compartments of eukaryotic cells are assembled at the endoplasmic reticulum. Two highly conserved and parallel pathways mediate membrane protein targeting to and insertion into this organelle. The classical cotranslational pathway, utilized by most membrane proteins, involves targeting by the signal recognition particle followed by insertion via the Sec61 translocon. A more specialized posttranslational pathway, employed by many tail-anchored membrane proteins, is composed of entirely different factors centered around a cytosolic ATPase termed TRC40 or Get3. Both of these pathways overcome the same biophysical challenges of ferrying hydrophobic cargo through an aqueous milieu, selectively delivering it to one among several intracellular membranes and asymmetrically integrating its transmembrane domain(s) into the lipid bilayer. Here, we review the conceptual and mechanistic themes underlying these core membrane protein insertion pathways, the complexities that challenge our understanding, and future directions to over-come these obstacles. PMID:21801011

  5. Endoplasmic-Reticulum Calcium Depletion and Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mekahli, Djalila; Bultynck, Geert; Parys, Jan B.; De Smedt, Humbert; Missiaen, Ludwig

    2011-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as an intracellular Ca2+ store not only sets up cytosolic Ca2+ signals, but, among other functions, also assembles and folds newly synthesized proteins. Alterations in ER homeostasis, including severe Ca2+ depletion, are an upstream event in the pathophysiology of many diseases. On the one hand, insufficient release of activator Ca2+ may no longer sustain essential cell functions. On the other hand, loss of luminal Ca2+ causes ER stress and activates an unfolded protein response, which, depending on the duration and severity of the stress, can reestablish normal ER function or lead to cell death. We will review these various diseases by mainly focusing on the mechanisms that cause ER Ca2+ depletion. PMID:21441595

  6. Structural organization of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Voeltz, Gia K; Rolls, Melissa M; Rapoport, Tom A

    2002-10-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a continuous membrane system but consists of various domains that perform different functions. Structurally distinct domains of this organelle include the nuclear envelope (NE), the rough and smooth ER, and the regions that contact other organelles. The establishment of these domains and the targeting of proteins to them are understood to varying degrees. Despite its complexity, the ER is a dynamic structure. In mitosis it must be divided between daughter cells and domains must be re-established, and even in interphase it is constantly rearranged as tubules extend along the cytoskeleton. Throughout these rearrangements the ER maintains its basic structure. How this is accomplished remains mysterious, but some insight has been gained from in vitro systems. PMID:12370207

  7. Barriers to uniformity within the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Wong, Andrew K O; Chao, Jesse T; Loewen, Christopher J R

    2014-08-01

    Differentiating the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) into different physical domains may help the ER spatially regulate its many functions. For example, ER sheets are highly decorated with ribosomes for protein synthesis, whereas tubules usually correspond to smooth ER. Hence, ER morphology may play direct roles in functional diversification within the ER. The ER also makes direct physical contacts with other organelles, called ER junctions, enabling further functional diversification through input from external sources. In yeast, an ER diffusion barrier has now been discovered at the bud neck that compartmentalizes the ER into bud and mother diffusion domains by restricting the lateral diffusion of ER membrane proteins. Therefore, diffusion barriers also likely contribute to functional diversification within the ER by creating suites of molecular factors within ER diffusion domains. PMID:24732434

  8. [Endoplasmic reticulum stress response in osteogenesis].

    PubMed

    Saito, Atsushi; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2013-11-01

    Various cellular conditions such as synthesis of abundant proteins, expressions of mutant proteins and oxidative stress lead to accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. This type of stress is called ER stress. The excessive ER stress causes cellular damages followed by apoptosis. When ER stress occurs, cells are activated ER stress response (unfolded protein response) to avoid cellular damages. Recently, it has been clear that ER stress response plays crucial roles not only in cell survival after ER stress but also in regulating various cellular functions and tissue formations. In particular, ER stress and ER stress response regulate protein quality control, secretory protein production, and smooth secretion of proteins in the cells such as osteoblasts which synthesize and secrete enormous matrix proteins. PMID:24162596

  9. Protein Secretion and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Benham, Adam M.

    2012-01-01

    In a complex multicellular organism, different cell types engage in specialist functions, and as a result, the secretory output of cells and tissues varies widely. Whereas some quiescent cell types secrete minor amounts of proteins, tissues like the pancreas, producing insulin and other hormones, and mature B cells, producing antibodies, place a great demand on their endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Our understanding of how protein secretion in general is controlled in the ER is now quite sophisticated. However, there remain gaps in our knowledge, particularly when applying insight gained from model systems to the more complex situations found in vivo. This article describes recent advances in our understanding of the ER and its role in preparing proteins for secretion, with an emphasis on glycoprotein quality control and pathways of disulfide bond formation. PMID:22700933

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Su, Yingchao; Li, Feng

    2016-08-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an intricate mechanism that mediates numerous responses during brain ischemia, thus being essential to determine the fate of neurons. In recent years, studies of the mechanisms of brain ischemic injury have centered on ER stress, glutamate excitotoxicity, dysfunction of mitochondria, inflammatory reactions, calcium overload and death receptor pathways. The role of ER stress is highly important. In addition to resulting in neuronal cell death through calcium toxicity and apoptotic pathways, ER stress also triggers a series of adaptive responses including unfolded protein response (UPR), autophagy, the expression of pro-survival proteins and the enhancement of ER self-repair ability, leading to less ischemic brain damage. This paper provides an overview of recent advances in understanding of the relations between ER stress and brain ischemia. PMID:26289799

  11. Nonvesicular lipid transfer from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lev, Sima

    2012-01-01

    The transport of lipids from their synthesis site at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to different target membranes could be mediated by both vesicular and nonvesicular transport mechanisms. Nonvesicular lipid transport appears to be the major transport route of certain lipid species, and could be mediated by either spontaneous lipid transport or by lipid-transfer proteins (LTPs). Although nonvesicular lipid transport has been extensively studied for more than four decades, its underlying mechanism, advantage and regulation, have not been fully explored. In particular, the function of LTPs and their involvement in intracellular lipid movement remain largely controversial. In this article, we describe the pathways by which lipids are synthesized at the ER and delivered to different cellular membranes, and discuss the role of LTPs in lipid transport both in vitro and in intact cells. PMID:23028121

  12. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Ethanol Neurotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fanmuyi; Luo, Jia

    2015-01-01

    Ethanol abuse affects virtually all organ systems and the central nervous system (CNS) is particularly vulnerable to excessive ethanol exposure. Ethanol exposure causes profound damages to both the adult and developing brain. Prenatal ethanol exposure induces fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) which is associated with mental retardation and other behavioral deficits. A number of potential mechanisms have been proposed for ethanol-induced brain damage; these include the promotion of neuroinflammation, interference with signaling by neurotrophic factors, induction of oxidative stress, modulation of retinoid acid signaling, and thiamine deficiency. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) regulates posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress and induces unfolded protein response (UPR) which are mediated by three transmembrane ER signaling proteins: pancreatic endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK), inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1), and activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6). UPR is initiated to protect cells from overwhelming ER protein loading. However, sustained ER stress may result in cell death. ER stress has been implied in various CNS injuries, including brain ischemia, traumatic brain injury, and aging-associated neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). However, effects of ethanol on ER stress in the CNS receive less attention. In this review, we discuss recent progress in the study of ER stress in ethanol-induced neurotoxicity. We also examine the potential mechanisms underlying ethanol-mediated ER stress and the interaction among ER stress, oxidative stress and autophagy in the context of ethanol neurotoxicity. PMID:26473940

  13. Proplatelet formation in megakaryocytes is associated with endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Morishima, Nobuhiro; Nakanishi, Keiko

    2016-07-01

    Although previous studies suggest that proplatelet formation in megakaryocytes involves caspase-3, the mechanism underlying the activation of caspase-3 is unknown. Here, we analyzed caspase activation in a human megakaryoblastic cell line, MEG-01, which forms proplatelets spontaneously. Specific activation of caspase-3 and caspase-4 was found in proplatelets. Consistent with previous observations of caspase-4 autoactivation in response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, several ER stress marker proteins were expressed during proplatelet formation. A pharmacological ER stressor enhanced platelet production via proplatelet formation, whereas inhibition of caspase-4 caused suppression. These results suggest that ER stress is a mechanism underlying the maturation of megakaryocytes. PMID:27296088

  14. Unfolded protein stress in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria: a role in neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Bernales, Sebastián; Soto, Marisol Morales; McCullagh, Emma

    2012-01-01

    Protein-folding occurs in several intracellular locations including the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. In normal conditions there is a balance between the levels of unfolded proteins and protein folding machinery. Disruption of homeostasis and an accumulation of unfolded proteins trigger stress responses, or unfolded protein responses (UPR), in these organelles. These pathways signal to increase the folding capacity, inhibit protein import or expression, increase protein degradation, and potentially trigger cell death. Many aging-related neurodegenerative diseases involve the accumulation of misfolded proteins in both the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. The exact participation of the UPRs in the onset of neurodegeneration is unclear, but there is significant evidence for the alteration of these pathways in the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Here we will discuss the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial stress and the possible contributions of the UPR in these organelles to the development of two neurodegenerative diseases, Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD). PMID:22539924

  15. Deficiency of Rac1 Blocks NADPH Oxidase Activation, Inhibits Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, and Reduces Myocardial Remodeling in a Mouse Model of Type 1 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianmin; Zhu, Huaqing; Shen, E; Wan, Li; Arnold, J. Malcolm O.; Peng, Tianqing

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Our recent study demonstrated that Rac1 and NADPH oxidase activation contributes to cardiomyocyte apoptosis in short-term diabetes. This study was undertaken to investigate if disruption of Rac1 and inhibition of NADPH oxidase would prevent myocardial remodeling in chronic diabetes. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Diabetes was induced by injection of streptozotocin in mice with cardiomyocyte-specific Rac1 knockout and their wild-type littermates. In a separate experiment, wild-type diabetic mice were treated with vehicle or apocynin in drinking water. Myocardial hypertrophy, fibrosis, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, inflammatory response, and myocardial function were investigated after 2 months of diabetes. Isolated adult rat cardiomyocytes were cultured and stimulated with high glucose. RESULTS In diabetic hearts, NADPH oxidase activation, its subunits' expression, and reactive oxygen species production were inhibited by Rac1 knockout or apocynin treatment. Myocardial collagen deposition and cardiomyocyte cross-sectional areas were significantly increased in diabetic mice, which were accompanied by elevated expression of pro-fibrotic genes and hypertrophic genes. Deficiency of Rac1 or apocynin administration reduced myocardial fibrosis and hypertrophy, resulting in improved myocardial function. These effects were associated with a normalization of ER stress markers' expression and inflammatory response in diabetic hearts. In cultured cardiomyocytes, high glucose–induced ER stress was inhibited by blocking Rac1 or NADPH oxidase. CONCLUSIONS Rac1 via NADPH oxidase activation induces myocardial remodeling and dysfunction in diabetic mice. The role of Rac1 signaling may be associated with ER stress and inflammation. Thus, targeting inhibition of Rac1 and NADPH oxidase may be a therapeutic approach for diabetic cardiomyopathy. PMID:20522592

  16. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum glucosidases is required for in vitro and in vivo dengue antiviral activity by the iminosugar UV-4.

    PubMed

    Warfield, Kelly L; Plummer, Emily M; Sayce, Andrew C; Alonzi, Dominic S; Tang, William; Tyrrell, Beatrice E; Hill, Michelle L; Caputo, Alessandro T; Killingbeck, Sarah S; Beatty, P Robert; Harris, Eva; Iwaki, Ren; Kinami, Kyoko; Ide, Daisuke; Kiappes, J L; Kato, Atsushi; Buck, Michael D; King, Kevin; Eddy, William; Khaliq, Mansoora; Sampath, Aruna; Treston, Anthony M; Dwek, Raymond A; Enterlein, Sven G; Miller, Joanna L; Zitzmann, Nicole; Ramstedt, Urban; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-05-01

    The antiviral activity of UV-4 was previously demonstrated against dengue virus serotype 2 (DENV2) in multiple mouse models. Herein, step-wise minimal effective dose and therapeutic window of efficacy studies of UV-4B (UV-4 hydrochloride salt) were conducted in an antibody-dependent enhancement (ADE) mouse model of severe DENV2 infection in AG129 mice lacking types I and II interferon receptors. Significant survival benefit was demonstrated with 10-20 mg/kg of UV-4B administered thrice daily (TID) for seven days with initiation of treatment up to 48 h after infection. UV-4B also reduced infectious virus production in in vitro antiviral activity assays against all four DENV serotypes, including clinical isolates. A set of purified enzyme, in vitro, and in vivo studies demonstrated that inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) α-glucosidases and not the glycosphingolipid pathway appears to be responsible for the antiviral activity of UV-4B against DENV. Along with a comprehensive safety package, these and previously published data provided support for an Investigational New Drug (IND) filing and Phases 1 and 2 clinical trials for UV-4B with an indication of acute dengue disease. PMID:26946111

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum vacuolation and unfolded protein response leading to paraptosis like cell death in cyclosporine A treated cancer cervix cells is mediated by cyclophilin B inhibition.

    PubMed

    Ram, Babul Moni; Ramakrishna, Gayatri

    2014-11-01

    Cyclosporine A (CsA), a widely used immunosuppressant shows cytotoxic effects by either inducing apoptosis or redirecting the cell towards non-apoptotic cell death. However, there still remains a lacuna in understanding the mechanism of CsA induced non-apoptotic cell death. In the present study we investigated calcineurin dependent or independent cytotoxic effects of CsA, a calcineurin inhibitor, in cervical cancerous SiHa cells. Decreased cell viability and massive cytoplasmic vacuolations were observed in CsA treated SiHa cells, having increased calcineurin activity. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and unfolded protein response (UPR), accompanied by a decrease in cyclophilin B (ER resident PPIase), preceded the formation of the vacuoles. These vacuoles stained positive for many ER resident markers confirming their ER origin; but the absence of autophagosomal marker, LC3II, ruled out autophagy. Extensively vacuolated cells eventually undergo cell death which lacked the typical apoptotic features, but showed significant decrease in AIP (ALG2 interacting protein) as seen in paraptosis. ER-vacuolation was prevented by cycloheximide and salubrinal thereby indicating requirement of active protein synthesis. Inhibiting calcineurin activity by either Tacrolimus (FK506) or by knockdown of calcineurin B subunit did not result in either ER-stress or cellular vacuolation. However, knockdown of cyclophilin B by siRNA resulted in increased expression of Bip and IRE1α, together with cytoplasmic vacuolation. In conclusion, we report that persistent ER stress due to cyclophilin B inhibition in CsA treated cervical cancer cells caused cellular vacuolation which culminated in a non-apoptotic cell death response similar to paraptosis. Additionally, the paraptotic effects of CsA are independent of calcineurin inhibition. PMID:25003316

  18. A calcium-dependent protein kinase can inhibit a calmodulin-stimulated Ca2+ pump (ACA2) located in the endoplasmic reticulum of Arabidopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hwang, I.; Sze, H.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    The magnitude and duration of a cytosolic Ca(2+) release can potentially be altered by changing the rate of Ca(2+) efflux. In plant cells, Ca(2+) efflux from the cytoplasm is mediated by H(+)/Ca(2+)-antiporters and two types of Ca(2+)-ATPases. ACA2 was recently identified as a calmodulin-regulated Ca(2+)-pump located in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that phosphorylation of its N-terminal regulatory domain by a Ca(2+)-dependent protein kinase (CDPK isoform CPK1), inhibits both basal activity ( approximately 10%) and calmodulin stimulation ( approximately 75%), as shown by Ca(2+)-transport assays with recombinant enzyme expressed in yeast. A CDPK phosphorylation site was mapped to Ser(45) near a calmodulin binding site, using a fusion protein containing the N-terminal domain as an in vitro substrate for a recombinant CPK1. In a full-length enzyme, an Ala substitution for Ser(45) (S45/A) completely blocked the observed CDPK inhibition of both basal and calmodulin-stimulated activities. An Asp substitution (S45/D) mimicked phosphoinhibition, indicating that a negative charge at this position is sufficient to account for phosphoinhibition. Interestingly, prior binding of calmodulin blocked phosphorylation. This suggests that, once ACA2 binds calmodulin, its activation state becomes resistant to phosphoinhibition. These results support the hypothesis that ACA2 activity is regulated as the balance between the initial kinetics of calmodulin stimulation and CDPK inhibition, providing an example in plants for a potential point of crosstalk between two different Ca(2+)-signaling pathways.

  19. Protective effect of S-allyl-L-cysteine against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced neuronal death is mediated by inhibition of calpain.

    PubMed

    Imai, Toru; Kosuge, Yasuhiro; Endo-Umeda, Kaori; Miyagishi, Hiroko; Ishige, Kumiko; Makishima, Makoto; Ito, Yoshihisa

    2014-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, implicated in various neurodegenerative processes, increases the level of intracellular Ca(2+) and leads to activation of calpain, a Ca(2+)-dependent cysteine protease. We have shown previously that S-allyl-L-cysteine (SAC) in aged garlic extracts significantly protects cultured rat hippocampal neurons (HPNs) against ER stress-induced neurotoxicity. The neuroprotective effect of SAC was compared with those of the related antioxidant compounds, L-cysteine (CYS) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC), on calpain activity in HPNs and also in vitro. SAC, but not CYS or NAC, reversibly restored the survival of HPNs and increased the degradation of α-spectrin, a substrate for calpain, induced by tunicamycin, a typical ER stress inducer. Activities of μ- and m-calpains in vitro were also concentration dependently suppressed by SAC, but not by CYS or NAC. At submaximal concentration, although ALLN (5 pM), which blocks the active site of calpain, and calpastatin (100 pM), an endogenous calpain-inhibitor protein, additively inhibited μ-calpain activity in vitro in combination with SAC, the effect of PD150606 (25 μM), which prevents interaction of Ca(2+) with the Ca(2+)-binding site of calpain, was unaffected by SAC. In contrast, SAC (1 mM) significantly reversed the effect of PD150606 at a concentration that elicited supramaximal inhibition (100 μM), but did not affect ALLN (1 nM)- and calpastatin (100 nM)-induced inhibition of μ-calpain activity. These results suggest that the protective effects of SAC against ER stress-induced neuronal cell death are not attributable to antioxidant activity, but to suppression of calpain through interaction with its Ca(2+)-binding site. PMID:24287800

  20. Silencing or inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) suppresses free heavy chain expression and Th17 responses in ankylosing spondylitis

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Liye; Ridley, Anna; Hammitzsch, Ariane; Al-Mossawi, Mohammad Hussein; Bunting, Helen; Georgiadis, Dimitris; Chan, Antoni; Kollnberger, Simon; Bowness, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-B27 and endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) are strongly associated with ankylosing spondylitis (AS). ERAP1 is a key aminopeptidase in HLA class I presentation and can potentially alter surface expression of HLA-B27 free heavy chains (FHCs). We studied the effects of ERAP1 silencing/inhibition/variations on HLA-B27 FHC expression and Th17 responses in AS. Methods Flow cytometry was used to measure surface expression of HLA class I in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from patients with AS carrying different ERAP1 genotypes (rs2287987, rs30187 and rs27044) and in ERAP1-silenced/inhibited/mutated HLA-B27-expressing antigen presenting cells (APCs). ERAP1-silenced/inhibited APCs were cocultured with KIR3DL2CD3ε-reporter cells or AS CD4+ T cells. Th17 responses of AS CD4+ T cells were measured by interleukin (IL)-17A ELISA and Th17 intracellular cytokine staining. FHC cell surface expression and Th17 responses were also measured in AS PBMCs following ERAP1 inhibition. Results The AS-protective ERAP1 variants, K528R and Q730E, were associated with reduced surface FHC expression by monocytes from patients with AS and HLA-B27-expressing APCs. ERAP1 silencing or inhibition in APCs downregulated HLA-B27 FHC surface expression, reduced IL-2 production by KIR3DL2CD3ε-reporter cells and suppressed the Th17 expansion and IL-17A secretion by AS CD4+ T cells. ERAP1 inhibition of AS PBMCs reduced HLA class I FHC surface expression by monocytes and B cells, and suppressed Th17 expansion. Conclusions ERAP1 activity determines surface expression of HLA-B27 FHCs and potentially promotes Th17 responses in AS through binding of HLA-B27 FHCs to KIR3DL2. Our data suggest that ERAP1 inhibition has potential for AS treatment. PMID:26130142

  1. [The progress of study about endoplasmic reticulum stress in glaucoma].

    PubMed

    Hu, J; Jiang, B

    2016-03-01

    In eukaryotic cells, the most secreted proteins and membrane proteins are compounded, modified and folded into the correct structure in the endoplasmic reticulum. Only correctly folded proteins can be transported to the golgi apparatus for further processing. If the endoplasmic reticulum is insufficient to deal with the accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins, balance will be broken, and endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) will be started. To eliminate the unfolded proteins, cells will activate unfolded protein response (UPR) immediately for self-protection. If the induced ERS is strong or persistent, the UPR could not maintain the balance of homeostasis in endoplasmic reticulum. Then the ERS will lead to C/EBP homologous protein activation and initiate cell apoptosis. The continuous ERS may participate in the occurrence and development of many diseases, such as neurodegenerative diseases and type 2 diabetes. In this article, the research progress of ERS and its relationship with glaucoma is reviewed. PMID:26979122

  2. Nox NADPH Oxidases and the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Araujo, Thaís L.S.; Abrahão, Thalita B.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Significance: Understanding isoform- and context-specific subcellular Nox reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase compartmentalization allows relevant functional inferences. This review addresses the interplay between Nox NADPH oxidases and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), an increasingly evident player in redox pathophysiology given its role in redox protein folding and stress responses. Recent Advances: Catalytic/regulatory transmembrane subunits are synthesized in the ER and their processing includes folding, N-glycosylation, heme insertion, p22phox heterodimerization, as shown for phagocyte Nox2. Dual oxidase (Duox) maturation also involves the regulation by ER-resident Duoxa2. The ER is the activation site for some isoforms, typically Nox4, but potentially other isoforms. Such location influences redox/Nox-mediated calcium signaling regulation via ER targets, such as sarcoendoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA). Growing evidence suggests that Noxes are integral signaling elements of the unfolded protein response during ER stress, with Nox4 playing a dual prosurvival/proapoptotic role in this setting, whereas Nox2 enhances proapoptotic signaling. ER chaperones such as protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) closely interact with Noxes. PDI supports growth factor-dependent Nox1 activation and mRNA expression, as well as migration in smooth muscle cells, and PDI overexpression induces acute spontaneous Nox activation. Critical Issues: Mechanisms of PDI effects include possible support of complex formation and RhoGTPase activation. In phagocytes, PDI supports phagocytosis, Nox activation, and redox-dependent interactions with p47phox. Together, the results implicate PDI as possible Nox organizer. Future Directions: We propose that convergence between Noxes and ER may have evolutive roots given ER-related functional contexts, which paved Nox evolution, namely calcium signaling and pathogen killing. Overall, the interplay between

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ulianich, Luca; Insabato, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Endometrial cancer (EC) is a common gynecologic malignancy often diagnosed at early stage. In spite of a huge advance in our understanding of EC biology, therapeutic modalities do not have significantly changed over the past 40 years. A restricted number of genes have been reported to be mutated in EC, mediating cell proliferation and invasiveness. However, besides these alterations, few other groups and ourselves recently identified the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) and GRP78 increase following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress as mechanisms favoring growth and invasion of EC cells. Here, a concise update on currently available data in the field is presented, analyzing the crosstalk between the UPR and the main signaling pathways regulating EC cell proliferation and survival. It is evident that this is a rapidly expanding and promising issue. However, more data are very likely to yield a better understanding on the mechanisms through which EC cells can survive the low oxygen and glucose tumor microenvironment. In this perspective, the UPR and, particularly, GRP78 might constitute a novel target for the treatment of EC in combination with traditional adjuvant therapy. PMID:25593927

  4. Endoplasmic reticulum dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie-Qiong; Yu, Jin-Tai; Jiang, Teng; Tan, Lan

    2015-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) serves many crucial cellular functions. However, when misfolded or unfolded proteins accumulated in the ER, the stress of ER will be induced. Meanwhile, the intracellular signaling network, which is called unfolded protein response, will also be activated to cope with. Those unfolded proteins can be recognized by three kinds of stress sensors which are IRE1, PERK, and ATF6. Based on lots of medical reports, ER stress in postmortem brains from Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients, animals, and vitro models have indicated that ER dysfunction might work as an important part in causing AD. In this review, we demonstrated that the effect of ER stress contributed to the pathogenesis of AD. ER stress associates almost the whole brain pathology processes which can be observed in AD, such as gene mutation of presenilin1, the abnormal clipped mRNA of presenilin2, β-amyloid production, tau phosphorylation, and cell death. The status of ER stress and unfolded protein response in the pathogenesis of AD also suggests they can be used as potential therapeutic agents. PMID:24715417

  5. Shaping the endoplasmic reticulum in vitro.

    PubMed

    Ferencz, Csilla-Maria; Guigas, Gernot; Veres, Andreas; Neumann, Brigitte; Stemmann, Olaf; Weiss, Matthias

    2016-09-01

    Organelles in eukaryotic cells often have complex shapes that deviate significantly from simple spheres. A prime example is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that forms an extensive network of membrane tubules in many mammalian cell types and in reconstitution assays in vitro. Despite the successful hunt for molecular determinants of ER shape we are still far from having a comprehensive understanding of ER network morphogenesis. Here, we have studied the hitherto neglected influence of the host substrate when reconstituting ER networks in vitro as compared to ER networks in vivo. In culture cells we observed cytoplasm-spanning ER networks with tubules being connected almost exclusively by three-way junctions and segment lengths being narrowly distributed around a mean length of about 1μm. In contrast, networks reconstituted from purified ER microsomes on flat glass or gel substrates of varying stiffness showed significantly broader length distributions with an up to fourfold larger mean length. Self-assembly of ER microsomes on small oil droplets, however, yielded networks that resembled more closely the native ER network of mammalian cells. We conclude from these observations that the ER microsomes' inherent self-assembly capacity is sufficient to support network formation with a native geometry if the influence of the host substrate's surface chemistry becomes negligible. We hypothesize that under these conditions the networks' preference for three-way junctions follows from creating 'starfish-shaped' vesicles when ER microsomes with a protein-induced spontaneous curvature undergo fusion. PMID:27287725

  6. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Genome Damage, and Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Dicks, Naomi; Gutierrez, Karina; Michalak, Marek; Bordignon, Vilceu; Agellon, Luis B.

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress has been linked to many diseases, including cancer. A large body of work has focused on the activation of the ER stress response in cancer cells to facilitate their survival and tumor growth; however, there are some studies suggesting that the ER stress response can also mitigate cancer progression. Despite these contradictions, it is clear that the ER stress response is closely associated with cancer biology. The ER stress response classically encompasses activation of three separate pathways, which are collectively categorized the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR has been extensively studied in various cancers and appears to confer a selective advantage to tumor cells to facilitate their enhanced growth and resistance to anti-cancer agents. It has also been shown that ER stress induces chromatin changes, which can also facilitate cell survival. Chromatin remodeling has been linked with many cancers through repression of tumor suppressor and apoptosis genes. Interplay between the classic UPR and genome damage repair mechanisms may have important implications in the transformation process of normal cells into cancer cells. PMID:25692096

  7. Mitotane Inhibits Sterol-O-Acyl Transferase 1 Triggering Lipid-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Apoptosis in Adrenocortical Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Sbiera, Silviu; Leich, Ellen; Liebisch, Gerhard; Sbiera, Iuliu; Schirbel, Andreas; Wiemer, Laura; Matysik, Silke; Eckhardt, Carolin; Gardill, Felix; Gehl, Annemarie; Kendl, Sabine; Weigand, Isabel; Bala, Margarita; Ronchi, Cristina L; Deutschbein, Timo; Schmitz, Gerd; Rosenwald, Andreas; Allolio, Bruno; Fassnacht, Martin; Kroiss, Matthias

    2015-11-01

    Adrenocortical carcinoma (ACC) is a rare malignancy that harbors a dismal prognosis in advanced stages. Mitotane is approved as an orphan drug for treatment of ACC and counteracts tumor growth and steroid hormone production. Despite serious adverse effects, mitotane has been clinically used for decades. Elucidation of its unknown molecular mechanism of action seems essential to develop better ACC therapies. Here, we set out to identify the molecular target of mitotane and altered downstream mechanisms by combining expression genomics and mass spectrometry technology in the NCI-H295 ACC model cell line. Pathway analyses of expression genomics data demonstrated activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and profound alteration of lipid-related genes caused by mitotane treatment. ER stress marker CHOP was strongly induced and the two upstream ER stress signalling events XBP1-mRNA splicing and eukaryotic initiation factor 2 A (eIF2α) phosphorylation were activated by mitotane in NCI-H295 cells but to a much lesser extent in four nonsteroidogenic cell lines. Lipid mass spectrometry revealed mitotane-induced increase of free cholesterol, oxysterols, and fatty acids specifically in NCI-H295 cells as cause of ER stress. We demonstrate that mitotane is an inhibitor of sterol-O-acyl-transferase 1 (SOAT1) leading to accumulation of these toxic lipids. In ACC tissue samples we show variable SOAT1 expression correlating with the response to mitotane treatment. In conclusion, mitotane confers adrenal-specific cytotoxicity and down-regulates steroidogenesis by inhibition of SOAT1 leading to lipid-induced ER stress. Targeting of cancer-specific lipid metabolism opens new avenues for treatment of ACC and potentially other types of cancer. PMID:26305886

  8. Ginsenoside Rg1 ameliorates diabetic cardiomyopathy by inhibiting endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced apoptosis in a streptozotocin-induced diabetes rat model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Haitao; Zhen, Juan; Yang, Yang; Gu, Jinning; Wu, Suisheng; Liu, Quan

    2016-04-01

    Ginsenoside Rg1 has been demonstrated to have cardiovascular protective effects. However, whether the cardioprotective effects of ginsenoside Rg1 are mediated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced apoptosis remain unclear. In this study, among 80 male Wistar rats, 15 rats were randomly selected as controls; the remaining 65 rats received a diet rich in fat and sugar content for 4 weeks, followed by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ, 40 mg/kg) to establish a diabetes model. Seven days after STZ injection, 10 rats were randomly selected as diabetic model (DM) controls, 45 eligible diabetic rats were randomized to three treatment groups and administered ginsenoside Rg1 in a dosage of 10, 15 or 20 mg/kg/day, respectively. After 12 weeks of treatment, rats were killed and serum samples obtained to determine cardiac troponin (cTn)-I. Myocardial tissues were harvested for morphological analysis to detect myocardial cell apoptosis, and to analyse protein expression of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and Caspase-12. Treatment with ginsenoside Rg1 (10-20 mg/kg) significantly reduced serum cTnI levels compared with DM control group (all P < 0.01). Ginsenoside Rg1 (15 and 20 mg/kg) significantly reduced the percentage of apoptotic myocardial cells and improved the parameters of cardiac function. Haematoxylin and eosin and Masson staining indicated that ginsenoside Rg1 could attenuate myocardial lesions and myocardial collagen volume fraction. Additionally, ginsenoside Rg1 significantly reduced GRP78, CHOP, and cleaved Caspase-12 protein expression in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that ginsenoside Rg1 appeared to ameliorate diabetic cardiomyopathy by inhibiting ER stress-induced apoptosis in diabetic rats. PMID:26869403

  9. Sialic Acid Rescues Repurified Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Acute Renal Failure via Inhibiting TLR4/PKC/gp91-Mediated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Apoptosis, Autophagy, and Pyroptosis Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Chih-Ching; Yao, Chien-An; Chien, Chiang-Ting

    2014-01-01

    Lipopolysaccharides (LPS) through Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) activation induce systemic inflammation where oxidative damage plays a key role in multiple organ failure. Because of the neutralization of LPS toxicity by sialic acid (SA), we determined its effect and mechanisms on repurified LPS (rLPS)-evoked acute renal failure. We assessed the effect of intravenous SA (10 mg/kg body weight) on rLPS-induced renal injury in female Wistar rats by evaluating blood and kidney reactive oxygen species (ROS) responses, renal and systemic hemodynamics, renal function, histopathology, and molecular mechanisms. SA can interact with rLPS through a high binding affinity. rLPS dose- and time-dependently reduced arterial blood pressure, renal microcirculation and blood flow, and increased vascular resistance in the rats. rLPS enhanced monocyte/macrophage (ED-1) infiltration and ROS production and impaired kidneys by triggering p-IRE1α/p-JNK/CHOP/GRP78/ATF4-mediated endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, Bax/PARP-mediated apoptosis, Beclin-1/Atg5-Atg12/LC3-II-mediated autophagy, and caspase 1/IL-1β-mediated pyroptosis in the kidneys. SA treatment at 30 min, but not 60 min after rLPS stimulation, gp91 siRNA and protein kinase C-α (PKC) inhibitor efficiently rescued rLPS-induced acute renal failure via inhibition of TLR4/PKC/NADPH oxidase gp91-mediated ER stress, apoptosis, autophagy and pyroptosis in renal proximal tubular cells, and rat kidneys. In response to rLPS or IFNγ, the enhanced Atg5, FADD, LC3-II, and PARP expression can be inhibited by Atg5 siRNA. Albumin (10 mg/kg body weight) did not rescue rLPS-induced injury. In conclusion, early treatment (within 30 min) of SA attenuates rLPS-induced renal failure via the reduction in LPS toxicity and subsequently inhibiting rLPS-activated TLR4/PKC/gp91/ER stress/apoptosis/autophagy/pyroptosis signaling. PMID:24973090

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in liver disease.

    PubMed

    Malhi, Harmeet; Kaufman, Randal J

    2011-04-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated upon the accumulation of misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that are sensed by the binding immunoglobulin protein (BiP)/glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). The accumulation of unfolded proteins sequesters BiP so it dissociates from three ER-transmembrane transducers leading to their activation. These transducers are inositol requiring (IRE) 1α, PKR-like ER kinase (PERK), and activating transcription factor (ATF) 6α. PERK phosphorylates eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha (eIF2α) resulting in global mRNA translation attenuation, and concurrently selectively increases the translation of several mRNAs, including the transcription factor ATF4, and its downstream target CHOP. IRE1α has kinase and endoribonuclease (RNase) activities. IRE1α autophosphorylation activates the RNase activity to splice XBP1 mRNA, to produce the active transcription factor sXBP1. IRE1α activation also recruits and activates the stress kinase JNK. ATF6α transits to the Golgi compartment where it is cleaved by intramembrane proteolysis to generate a soluble active transcription factor. These UPR pathways act in concert to increase ER content, expand the ER protein folding capacity, degrade misfolded proteins, and reduce the load of new proteins entering the ER. All of these are geared toward adaptation to resolve the protein folding defect. Faced with persistent ER stress, adaptation starts to fail and apoptosis occurs, possibly mediated through calcium perturbations, reactive oxygen species, and the proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP. The UPR is activated in several liver diseases; including obesity associated fatty liver disease, viral hepatitis, and alcohol-induced liver injury, all of which are associated with steatosis, raising the possibility that ER stress-dependent alteration in lipid homeostasis is the mechanism that underlies the steatosis. Hepatocyte apoptosis is a pathogenic event in several liver

  11. Endoplasmic Reticulum-Associated Degradation and Lipid Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Stevenson, Julian; Huang, Edmond Y; Olzmann, James A

    2016-07-17

    The endoplasmic reticulum is the port of entry for proteins into the secretory pathway and the site of synthesis for several important lipids, including cholesterol, triacylglycerol, and phospholipids. Protein production within the endoplasmic reticulum is tightly regulated by a cohort of resident machinery that coordinates the folding, modification, and deployment of secreted and integral membrane proteins. Proteins failing to attain their native conformation are degraded through the endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway via a series of tightly coupled steps: substrate recognition, dislocation, and ubiquitin-dependent proteasomal destruction. The same ERAD machinery also controls the flux through various metabolic pathways by coupling the turnover of metabolic enzymes to the levels of key metabolites. We review the current understanding and biological significance of ERAD-mediated regulation of lipid metabolism in mammalian cells. PMID:27296502

  12. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway.

    PubMed

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-01-01

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced--turnover of LC3-II and--accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors--chloroquine and--bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2',7'-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that α-solanine induces

  13. α-Solanine induces ROS-mediated autophagy through activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inhibition of Akt/mTOR pathway

    PubMed Central

    Hasanain, M; Bhattacharjee, A; Pandey, P; Ashraf, R; Singh, N; Sharma, S; Vishwakarma, A L; Datta, D; Mitra, K; Sarkar, J

    2015-01-01

    α-Solanine is a glycoalkaloid found in species of the nightshade family including potato. It was primarily reported to have toxic effects in humans. However, there is a growing body of literature demonstrating in vitro and in vivo anticancer activity of α-solanine. Most of these studies have shown activation of apoptosis as the underlying mechanism in antitumor activity of α-solanine. In this study, we report α-solanine as a potential inducer of autophagy, which may act synergistically or in parallel with apoptosis to exert its cytotoxic effect. Induction of autophagy was demonstrated by several assays including electron microscopy, immunoblotting of autophagy markers and immunofluorescence for LC3 (microtubule-associated protein 1 (MAP1) light chain-3) puncta. α-Solanine-induced autophagic flux was demonstrated by additionally enhanced – turnover of LC3-II and – accumulation of LC3-specific puncta after co-incubation of cells with either of the autophagolysosome inhibitors – chloroquine and – bafilomycin A1. We also demonstrated α-solanine-induced oxidative damage in regulating autophagy where pre-incubation of cells with reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenger resulted in suppression of CM-H2DCFDA (5 (and 6)-chloromethyl-2′,7′-dichlorodihydrofluorescein diacetate acetyl ester) fluorescence as well as decrease in LC3-II turnover. α-Solanine treatment caused an increase in the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress proteins (BiP, activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), X-box-binding protein 1, PERK, inositol-requiring transmembrane kinase/endonuclease 1, ATF4 and CCAAT-enhancer-binding protein (C/EBP)-homologous protein) suggesting activation of unfolded protein response pathway. Moreover, we found downregulation of phosphorylated Akt (Thr308 and Ser473), mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR; Ser2448 and Ser2481) and 4E-BP1 (Thr37/46) by α-solanine implying suppression of the Akt/mTOR pathway. Collectively, our results signify that

  14. The protein translocation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Walter, P; Gilmore, R; Müller, M; Blobel, G

    1982-12-24

    The rough endoplasmic reticulum (r.e.r.) has been postulated to possess a single translation-coupled translocation system (in multiple copies) that effects signal sequence-mediated translocation of all secretory and lysosomal proteins and integration of all integral membrane proteins whose port of entry is the rough endoplasmic reticulum (G. Blobel 1980 Proc. natn. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 77, 1496-1500). Two proteins have been isolated that are components of the r.e.r. translocation system. Their properties and function in protein translocation across and integration into membranes are discussed. PMID:6131460

  15. Cloning of human Ca2+ homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP): regulated expression of antisense cDNA depletes CHERP, inhibits intracellular Ca2+ mobilization and decreases cell proliferation.

    PubMed Central

    Laplante, J M; O'Rourke, F; Lu, X; Fein, A; Olsen, A; Feinstein, M B

    2000-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody which blocks InsP(3)-induced Ca(2+) release from isolated endoplasmic reticulum was used to isolate a novel 4.0 kb cDNA from a human erythroleukaemia (HEL) cell cDNA expression library. A corresponding mRNA transcript of approx. 4.2 kb was present in all human cell lines and tissues examined, but cardiac and skeletal muscle had an additional transcript of 6.4 kb. The identification in GenBank(R) of homologous expressed sequence tags from many tissues and organisms suggests that the gene is ubiquitously expressed in higher eukaryotes. The gene was mapped to human chromosome 19p13.1. The cDNA predicts a 100 kDa protein, designated Ca(2+) homoeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP), with two putative transmembrane domains, multiple consensus phosphorylation sites, a polyglutamine tract of 12 repeats and regions of imperfect tryptophan and histadine octa- and nona-peptide repeats. In vitro translation of the full-length cDNA produced proteins of M(r) 128000 and 100000, corresponding to protein bands detected by Western blotting of many cell types. CHERP was co-localized in HEL cells with the InsP(3) receptor by two-colour immunofluorescence. Transfection of HEL cells with antisense cDNA led to an 80% decline in CHERP within 5 days of antisense induction, with markedly decreased intracellular Ca(2+) mobilization by thrombin, decreased DNA synthesis and growth arrest, indicating that the protein has an important function in Ca(2+) homoeostasis, growth and proliferation. PMID:10794731

  16. Isolation of Endoplasmic Reticulum Fractions from Mammary Epithelial Tissue.

    PubMed

    Chanat, Eric; Le Parc, Annabelle; Lahouassa, Hichem; Badaoui, Bouabid

    2016-06-01

    In the mammary glands of lactating animals, the mammary epithelial cells that surround the lumen of the acini produce and secrete copious amounts of milk. Functional differentiation of these mammary epithelial cells depends on the development of high-efficiency secretory pathways, notably for protein and lipid secretion. Protein secretion is a fundamental process common to all animal cells that involves a subset of cellular organelles, including the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus. In contrast, en masse secretion of triglycerides and cholesterol esters in the form of milk fat globules is a unique feature of the mammary epithelial cell. Cytoplasmic lipid droplets, the intracellular precursors of milk fat globules, originate from the endoplasmic reticulum, as do most milk-specific proteins. This organelle is therefore pivotal in the biogenesis of milk components. Fractionation of the cell into its subcellular parts is an approach that has proven very powerful for understanding organelle function and for studying the specific role of an organelle in a given cell activity. Here we describe a method for the purification of both smooth and rough microsomes, the membrane-bound endoplasmic reticulum fragments that form from endoplasmic reticulum domains when cells are broken up, from mammary gland tissue at lactation. PMID:27048289

  17. Continuous network of endoplasmic reticulum in cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Terasaki, M; Slater, N T; Fein, A; Schmidek, A; Reese, T S

    1994-01-01

    Purkinje neurons in rat cerebellar slices injected with an oil drop saturated with 1,1'-dihexadecyl-3,3,3',3'-tetramethylindocarbocyanine perchlorate [DiIC16(3) or DiI] to label the endoplasmic reticulum were observed by confocal microscopy. DiI spread throughout the cell body and dendrites and into the axon. DiI spreading is due to diffusion in a continuous bilayer and is not due to membrane trafficking because it also spreads in fixed neurons. DiI stained such features of the endoplasmic reticulum as densities at branch points, reticular networks in the cell body and dendrites, nuclear envelope, spines, and aggregates formed during anoxia nuclear envelope, spines, and aggregates formed during anoxia in low extracellular Ca2+. In cultured rat hippocampal neurons, where optical conditions provide more detail, DiI labeled a clearly delineated network of endoplasmic reticulum in the cell body. We conclude that there is a continuous compartment of endoplasmic reticulum extending from the cell body throughout the dendrites. This compartment may coordinate and integrate neuronal functions. Images PMID:7519781

  18. Stressed-Out Endoplasmic Reticulum Inflames the Mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Shin, Sunny; Argon, Yair

    2015-09-15

    Bacterial infection induces inflammasome activation and release of interleukin-1 (IL-1) cytokines. Bronner et al. (2015) show that during Brucella abortus infection, an endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor, IRE1α, initiates NLRP3- and caspase-2-mediated mitochondrial damage that potentiates NLRP3 inflammasome assembly. PMID:26377891

  19. Inhibition of calcium uptake via the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease and prevention by treatment with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin.

    PubMed

    Pelled, Dori; Lloyd-Evans, Emyr; Riebeling, Christian; Jeyakumar, Mylvaganam; Platt, Frances M; Futerman, Anthony H

    2003-08-01

    Gangliosides are found at high levels in neuronal tissues where they play a variety of important functions. In the gangliosidoses, gangliosides accumulate because of defective activity of the lysosomal proteins responsible for their degradation, usually resulting in a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease. However, the molecular mechanism(s) leading from ganglioside accumulation to neurodegeneration is not known. We now examine the effect of ganglioside GM2 accumulation in a mouse model of Sandhoff disease (one of the GM2 gangliosidoses), the Hexb-/- mouse. Microsomes from Hexb-/- mouse brain showed a significant reduction in the rate of Ca2+-uptake via the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA), which was prevented by feeding Hexb-/- mice with N-butyldeoxynojirimycin (NB-DNJ), an inhibitor of glycolipid synthesis that reduces GM2 storage. Changes in SERCA activity were not due to transcriptional regulation but rather because of a decrease in Vmax. Moreover, exogenously added GM2 had a similar effect on SERCA activity. The functional significance of these findings was established by the enhanced sensitivity of neurons cultured from embryonic Hexb-/- mice to cell death induced by thapsigargin, a specific SERCA inhibitor, and by the enhanced sensitivity of Hexb-/- microsomes to calcium-induced calcium release. This study suggests a mechanistic link among GM2 accumulation, reduced SERCA activity, and neuronal cell death, which may be of significance for delineating the neuropathophysiology of Sandhoff disease. PMID:12756243

  20. Autophagy is activated for cell survival after endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ogata, Maiko; Hino, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Atsushi; Morikawa, Keisuke; Kondo, Shinichi; Kanemoto, Soshi; Murakami, Tomohiko; Taniguchi, Manabu; Tanii, Ichiro; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Shiosaka, Sadao; Hammarback, James A; Urano, Fumihiko; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2006-12-01

    Eukaryotic cells deal with accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the unfolded protein response, involving the induction of molecular chaperones, translational attenuation, and ER-associated degradation, to prevent cell death. Here, we found that the autophagy system is activated as a novel signaling pathway in response to ER stress. Treatment of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells with ER stressors markedly induced the formation of autophagosomes, which were recognized at the ultrastructural level. The formation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3-labeled structures (GFP-LC3 "dots"), representing autophagosomes, was extensively induced in cells exposed to ER stress with conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II. In IRE1-deficient cells or cells treated with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, the autophagy induced by ER stress was inhibited, indicating that the IRE1-JNK pathway is required for autophagy activation after ER stress. In contrast, PERK-deficient cells and ATF6 knockdown cells showed that autophagy was induced after ER stress in a manner similar to the wild-type cells. Disturbance of autophagy rendered cells vulnerable to ER stress, suggesting that autophagy plays important roles in cell survival after ER stress. PMID:17030611

  1. Autophagy Is Activated for Cell Survival after Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress▿

    PubMed Central

    Ogata, Maiko; Hino, Shin-ichiro; Saito, Atsushi; Morikawa, Keisuke; Kondo, Shinichi; Kanemoto, Soshi; Murakami, Tomohiko; Taniguchi, Manabu; Tanii, Ichiro; Yoshinaga, Kazuya; Shiosaka, Sadao; Hammarback, James A.; Urano, Fumihiko; Imaizumi, Kazunori

    2006-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells deal with accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) by the unfolded protein response, involving the induction of molecular chaperones, translational attenuation, and ER-associated degradation, to prevent cell death. Here, we found that the autophagy system is activated as a novel signaling pathway in response to ER stress. Treatment of SK-N-SH neuroblastoma cells with ER stressors markedly induced the formation of autophagosomes, which were recognized at the ultrastructural level. The formation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-LC3-labeled structures (GFP-LC3 “dots”), representing autophagosomes, was extensively induced in cells exposed to ER stress with conversion from LC3-I to LC3-II. In IRE1-deficient cells or cells treated with c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) inhibitor, the autophagy induced by ER stress was inhibited, indicating that the IRE1-JNK pathway is required for autophagy activation after ER stress. In contrast, PERK-deficient cells and ATF6 knockdown cells showed that autophagy was induced after ER stress in a manner similar to the wild-type cells. Disturbance of autophagy rendered cells vulnerable to ER stress, suggesting that autophagy plays important roles in cell survival after ER stress. PMID:17030611

  2. [The biological effects of liposome interactions with the endoplasmic reticulum].

    PubMed

    Foia, L; Costuleanu, N; Pavel, M

    1998-01-01

    Liposome research is a thriving field at the confluence of biophysics, cell biology and medicine. The principal medical application of liposomes is based on their potential to act as carriers for a broad spectrum of drugs and other agents, including antigens with or without immunomodulators in vaccination. Treatment of peritoneal macrophages of rats with small unilamellar vesicles of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC SUV) potentiated their activation for tumor cell lysis by endotoxins. The measurement of the fluorescence anisotropy of diphenylhexatriene showed a phase transition. No phase transition was observed in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes of macrophages either treated or not treated with cholesterol/DPPC SUV. The synergistic effect of DPPC SUV on the tumoricidal activity of macrophages induced by endotoxins appears to be correlated with the changes in the properties of the rough endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Both effects were transient; they had the same kinetics of induction and reversion. PMID:10756813

  3. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in mouse decidua during early pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Jia-Qi; Dou, Hai-Ting; Liu, Jie; Liu, Li; Zhao, Meng-Long; Liang, Xiao-Huan; Yang, Zeng-Ming

    2016-10-15

    Unfolded or misfolded protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum lumen leads to endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Although it is known that ER stress is crucial for mammalian reproduction, little is known about its physiological significance and underlying mechanism during decidualization. Here we show that Ire-Xbp1 signal transduction pathway of unfolded protein response (UPR) is activated in decidual cells. The process of decidualization is compromised by ER stress inhibitor tauroursodeoxycholic acid sodium (TUDCA) and Ire specific inhibitor STF-083010 both in vivo and in vitro. A high concentration of ER stress inducer tunicamycin (TM) suppresses stromal cells proliferation and decidualization, while a lower concentration is beneficial. We further show that ER stress induces DNA damage and polyploidization in stromal cells. In conclusion, our data suggest that the GRP78/Ire1/Xbp1 signaling pathway of ER stress-UPR is activated and involved in mouse decidualization. PMID:27283502

  4. Tributyltin induces apoptotic signaling in hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Grondin, Melanie; Marion, Michel; Denizeau, Francine; Averill-Bates, Diana A. . E-mail: averill.diana@uqam.ca

    2007-07-01

    Tri-n-butyltin is a widespread environmental toxicant, which accumulates in the liver. This study investigates whether tri-n-butyltin induces pro-apoptotic signaling in rat liver hepatocytes through pathways involving the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria. Tri-n-butyltin activated the endoplasmic reticulum pathway of apoptosis, which was demonstrated by the activation of the protease calpain, its translocation to the plasma membrane, followed by cleavage of the calpain substrates, cytoskeletal protein vinculin, and caspase-12. Caspase-12 is localized to the cytoplasmic side of the endoplasmic reticulum and is involved in apoptosis mediated by the endoplasmic reticulum. Tri-n-butyltin also caused translocation of the pro-apoptotic proteins Bax and Bad from the cytosol to mitochondria, as well as changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability, events which can activate the mitochondrial death pathway. Tri-n-butyltin induced downstream apoptotic events in rat hepatocytes at the nuclear level, detected by chromatin condensation and by confocal microscopy using acridine orange. We investigated whether the tri-n-butyltin-induced pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes could be linked to perturbation of intracellular calcium homeostasis, using confocal microscopy. Tri-n-butyltin caused changes in intracellular calcium distribution, which were similar to those induced by thapsigargin. Calcium was released from a subcellular compartment, which is likely to be the endoplasmic reticulum, into the cytosol. Cytosolic acidification, which is known to trigger apoptosis, also occurred and involved the Cl{sup -}/HCO{sub 3} {sup -} exchanger. Pro-apoptotic events in hepatocytes were inhibited by the calcium chelator, Bapta-AM, and by a calpain inhibitor, which suggests that changes in intracellular calcium homeostasis are involved in tri-n-butyltin-induced apoptotic signaling in rat hepatocytes.

  5. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: implications for inflammatory bowel disease pathogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Kaser, Arthur; Martínez-Naves, Eduardo; Blumberg, Richard S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To provide an overview of the emerging role of cellular stress responses in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent findings The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a primitive cellular pathway that is engaged when responding to endoplasmic reticulum stress and regulates autophagy. Highly secretory cells such as Paneth cells and goblet cells in the intestines are particularly susceptible to endoplasmic reticulum stress and are exceedingly dependent upon a properly functioning UPR to maintain cellular viability and homeostasis. Primary genetic abnormalities within the components of the UPR (e.g. XBP1, ARG2, ORMDL3), genes that encode proteins reliant upon a robust secretory pathway (e.g. MUC2, HLAB27) and environmental factors that create disturbances in the UPR (e.g. microbial products and inflammatory cytokines) are important factors in the primary development and/or perpetuation of intestinal inflammation. Summary Endoplasmic reticulum stress is an important new pathway involved in the development of intestinal inflammation associated with IBD and likely other intestinal inflammatory disorders. PMID:20495455

  6. Flavokawain C Inhibits Cell Cycle and Promotes Apoptosis, Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulation of MAPKs and Akt Signaling Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells

    PubMed Central

    Phang, Chung-Weng; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sethi, Gautam; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2016-01-01

    Flavokawain C (FKC) is a naturally occurring chalcone which can be found in Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root. The present study evaluated the effect of FKC on the growth of various human cancer cell lines and the underlying associated mechanisms. FKC showed higher cytotoxic activity against HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in comparison to other cell lines (MCF-7, HT-29, A549 and CaSki), with minimal toxicity on normal human colon cells. The apoptosis-inducing capability of FKC on HCT 116 cells was evidenced by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and increased phosphatidylserine externalization. FKC was found to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the release of Smac/DIABLO, AIF and cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Our results also revealed that FKC induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis via upregulation of the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bak) and death receptors (DR5), while downregulation of the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (XIAP, cIAP-1, c-FlipL, Bcl-xL and survivin), resulting in the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). FKC was also found to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as suggested by the elevation of GADD153 protein after FKC treatment. After the cells were exposed to FKC (60μM) over 18hrs, there was a substantial increase in the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. The expression of phosphorylated Akt was also reduced. FKC also caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase in HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and with accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. This was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK4), consistent with the upregulation of CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), and hypophosphorylation of Rb. PMID:26859847

  7. C1q/TNF-Related Protein 9 (CTRP9) attenuates hepatic steatosis via the autophagy-mediated inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Jung, Tae Woo; Hong, Ho Cheol; Hwang, Hwan-Jin; Yoo, Hye Jin; Baik, Sei Hyun; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2015-12-01

    C1q/TNF-Related Protein (CTRP) 9, the closest paralog of adiponectin, has been reported to protect against diet-induced obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully elucidated. We explored the protective effect of CTRP9 against hepatic steatosis and apoptosis, and identified the mechanisms through autophagy and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress using in vitro and in vivo experiments. Treating HepG2 cells with human recombinant CTRP9 significantly ameliorated palmitate- or tunicamycin-induced dysregulation of lipid metabolism, caspase 3 activity and chromatin condensation, which lead to reduction of hepatic triglyceride (TG) accumulation. CTRP9 treatment induced autophagy markers including LC3 conversion, P62 degradation, Beclin1 and ATG7 through AMPK phosphorylation in human primary hepatocytes. Furthermore, CTRP9 decreased palmitate- or tunicamycin-induced ER stress markers, such as eIF2α, CHOP and IRE-1, in HepG2 cells. Compound C, an AMPK inhibitor, and 3 methyladenine (3 MA), an autophagy inhibitor, canceled the effects of CTRP9 on ER stress, apoptosis and hepatic steatosis. In the livers of HFD-fed mice, adenovirus-mediated CTRP9 overexpression significantly induced AMPK phosphorylation and autophagy, whereas suppressed ER stress markers. In addition, both SREBP1-mediated lipogenic gene expression and apoptosis were significantly attenuated, which result in improvement in hepatic steatosis by overexpression of CTRP9. These results demonstrate that CTRP9 alleviates hepatic steatosis through relief of ER stress via the AMPK-mediated induction of autophagy. PMID:26419929

  8. Flavokawain C Inhibits Cell Cycle and Promotes Apoptosis, Associated with Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Regulation of MAPKs and Akt Signaling Pathways in HCT 116 Human Colon Carcinoma Cells.

    PubMed

    Phang, Chung-Weng; Karsani, Saiful Anuar; Sethi, Gautam; Abd Malek, Sri Nurestri

    2016-01-01

    Flavokawain C (FKC) is a naturally occurring chalcone which can be found in Kava (Piper methysticum Forst) root. The present study evaluated the effect of FKC on the growth of various human cancer cell lines and the underlying associated mechanisms. FKC showed higher cytotoxic activity against HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner in comparison to other cell lines (MCF-7, HT-29, A549 and CaSki), with minimal toxicity on normal human colon cells. The apoptosis-inducing capability of FKC on HCT 116 cells was evidenced by cell shrinkage, chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation and increased phosphatidylserine externalization. FKC was found to disrupt mitochondrial membrane potential, resulting in the release of Smac/DIABLO, AIF and cytochrome c into the cytoplasm. Our results also revealed that FKC induced intrinsic and extrinsic apoptosis via upregulation of the levels of pro-apoptotic proteins (Bak) and death receptors (DR5), while downregulation of the levels of anti-apoptotic proteins (XIAP, cIAP-1, c-FlipL, Bcl-xL and survivin), resulting in the activation of caspase-3, -8 and -9 and cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). FKC was also found to cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as suggested by the elevation of GADD153 protein after FKC treatment. After the cells were exposed to FKC (60μM) over 18hrs, there was a substantial increase in the phosphorylation of ERK 1/2. The expression of phosphorylated Akt was also reduced. FKC also caused cell cycle arrest in the S phase in HCT 116 cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner and with accumulation of cells in the sub-G1 phase. This was accompanied by the downregulation of cyclin-dependent kinases (CDK2 and CDK4), consistent with the upregulation of CDK inhibitors (p21Cip1 and p27Kip1), and hypophosphorylation of Rb. PMID:26859847

  9. Sodium Butyrate Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Autophagy in Colorectal Cells: Implications for Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jintao; Yi, Man; Zha, Longying; Chen, Siqiang; Li, Zhijia; Li, Cheng; Gong, Mingxing; Deng, Hong; Chu, Xinwei; Chen, Jiehua; Zhang, Zheqing; Mao, Limei; Sun, Suxia

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Butyrate, a short-chain fatty acid derived from dietary fiber, inhibits proliferation and induces cell death in colorectal cancer cells. However, clinical trials have shown mixed results regarding the anti-tumor activities of butyrate. We have previously shown that sodium butyrate increases endoplasmic reticulum stress by altering intracellular calcium levels, a well-known autophagy trigger. Here, we investigated whether sodium butyrate-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress mediated autophagy, and whether there was crosstalk between autophagy and the sodium butyrate-induced apoptotic response in human colorectal cancer cells. Methods Human colorectal cancer cell lines (HCT-116 and HT-29) were treated with sodium butyrate at concentrations ranging from 0.5–5mM. Cell proliferation was assessed using MTT tetrazolium salt formation. Autophagy induction was confirmed through a combination of Western blotting for associated proteins, acridine orange staining for acidic vesicles, detection of autolysosomes (MDC staining), and electron microscopy. Apoptosis was quantified by flow cytometry using standard annexinV/propidium iodide staining and by assessing PARP-1 cleavage by Western blot. Results Sodium butyrate suppressed colorectal cancer cell proliferation, induced autophagy, and resulted in apoptotic cell death. The induction of autophagy was supported by the accumulation of acidic vesicular organelles and autolysosomes, and the expression of autophagy-associated proteins, including microtubule-associated protein II light chain 3 (LC3-II), beclin-1, and autophagocytosis-associated protein (Atg)3. The autophagy inhibitors 3-methyladenine (3-MA) and chloroquine inhibited sodium butyrate induced autophagy. Furthermore, sodium butyrate treatment markedly enhanced the expression of endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated proteins, including BIP, CHOP, PDI, and IRE-1a. When endoplasmic reticulum stress was inhibited by pharmacological (cycloheximide and mithramycin

  10. Protein misfolding in the endoplasmic reticulum as a conduit to human disease.

    PubMed

    Wang, Miao; Kaufman, Randal J

    2016-01-21

    In eukaryotic cells, the endoplasmic reticulum is essential for the folding and trafficking of proteins that enter the secretory pathway. Environmental insults or increased protein synthesis often lead to protein misfolding in the organelle, the accumulation of misfolded or unfolded proteins - known as endoplasmic reticulum stress - and the activation of the adaptive unfolded protein response to restore homeostasis. If protein misfolding is not resolved, cells die. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and activation of the unfolded protein response help to determine cell fate and function. Furthermore, endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to the aetiology of many human diseases. PMID:26791723

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress activates transglutaminase 2 leading to protein aggregation

    PubMed Central

    LEE, JIN-HAENG; JEONG, JAEHO; JEONG, EUI MAN; CHO, SUNG-YUP; KANG, JEONG WOOK; LIM, JISUN; HEO, JINBEOM; KANG, HYUNSOOK; KIM, IN-GYU; SHIN, DONG-MYUNG

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant activation of transglutaminase 2 (TGase2) contributes to a variety of protein conformational disorders such as neurodegenerative diseases and age-related cataracts. The accumulation of improperly folded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR), which promotes either repair or degradation of the damaged proteins. Inadequate UPR results in protein aggregation that may contribute to the development of age-related degenerative diseases. TGase2 is a calcium-dependent enzyme that irreversibly modifies proteins by forming cross-linked protein aggregates. Intracellular TGase2 is activated by oxidative stress which generates large quantities of unfolded proteins. However, the relationship between TGase2 activity and UPR has not yet been established. In the present study, we demonstrated that ER stress activated TGase2 in various cell types. TGase2 activation was dependent on the ER stress-induced increase in the intracellular calcium ion concentration but not on the TGase2 protein expression level. Enzyme substrate analysis revealed that TGase2-mediated protein modification promoted protein aggregation concurrently with decreasing water solubility. Moreover, treatment with KCC009, a TGase2 inhibitor, abrogated ER stress-induced TGase2 activation and subsequent protein aggregation. However, TGase2 activation had no effect on ER stress-induced cell death. These results demonstrate that the accumulation of misfolded proteins activates TGase2, which further accelerates the formation of protein aggregates. Therefore, we suggest that inhibition of TGase2 may be a novel strategy by which to prevent the protein aggregation in age-related degenerative diseases. PMID:24481335

  12. Disulfide Mispairing During Proinsulin Folding in the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Haataja, Leena; Manickam, Nandini; Soliman, Ann; Tsai, Billy; Liu, Ming; Arvan, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Proinsulin folding within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) remains incompletely understood, but it is clear that in mutant INS gene-induced diabetes of youth (MIDY), progression of the (three) native disulfide bonds of proinsulin becomes derailed, causing insulin deficiency, β-cell ER stress, and onset of diabetes. Herein, we have undertaken a molecular dissection of proinsulin disulfide bond formation, using bioengineered proinsulins that can form only two (or even only one) of the native proinsulin disulfide bonds. In the absence of preexisting proinsulin disulfide pairing, Cys(B19)-Cys(A20) (a major determinant of ER stress response activation and proinsulin stability) preferentially initiates B-A chain disulfide bond formation, whereas Cys(B7)-Cys(A7) can initiate only under oxidizing conditions beyond that existing within the ER of β-cells. Interestingly, formation of these two "interchain" disulfide bonds demonstrates cooperativity, and together, they are sufficient to confer intracellular transport competence to proinsulin. The three most common proinsulin disulfide mispairings in the ER appear to involve Cys(A11)-Cys(A20), Cys(A7)-Cys(A20), and Cys(B19)-Cys(A11), each disrupting the critical Cys(B19)-Cys(A20) pairing. MIDY mutations inhibit Cys(B19)-Cys(A20) formation, but treatment to force oxidation of this disulfide bond improves folding and results in a small but detectable increase of proinsulin export. These data suggest possible therapeutic avenues to ameliorate ER stress and diabetes. PMID:26822090

  13. Pael receptor, endoplasmic reticulum stress, and Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Ryosuke; Imai, Yuzuru

    2003-10-01

    Autosomal recessive juvenile parkinsonism (AR-JP) is caused by mutations of the parkin gene. Parkin is an E3 ubiquitin ligase that specifically recognizes its substrate protein, promoting its ubiquitination and subsequent degradation. Accordingly, we hypothesized that AR-JP may be caused by accumulation of an unidentified neurotoxic protein, which is a substrate of parkin. Based on this hypothesis, we cloned parkin-binding protein using a yeast two-hybrid system and identified a putative G protein-coupled receptor protein,which we named the Pael receptor (Pael-R). When overexpressed in cells, this receptor became unfolded, insoluble, and ubiquitinated. Accumulation of the insoluble Pael-R subsequently led to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cell death. Parkin specifically ubiquitinates the unfolded Pael-R and promotes its degradation, resulting in suppression of cell death induced by the accumulation of unfolded Pael-R. Moreover, insoluble Pael-R accumulates in the brains of AR-JP patients. It is highly expressed by the dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra, strongly suggesting that accumulation of unfolded Pael-R may lead to selective death of dopaminergic neurons in AR-JP.Recently, we identified Hsp70 and its co-chaperone CHIP as novel parkin-binding partners. We found that CHIP enhanced parkinmediated ubiquitination of Pael-R. In concert with Hsp70, CHIP also enhanced the ability of parkin to inhibit cell death induced by Pael-R, indicating that CHIP and Hsp70 are both co-factors of parkin. PMID:14579121

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and the Inflammatory Basis of Metabolic Disease

    PubMed Central

    Hotamisligil, Gökhan S.

    2010-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the major site in the cell for protein folding and trafficking and is central to many cellular functions. Failure of the ER's adaptive capacity results in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), which intersects with many different inflammatory and stress signaling pathways. These pathways are also critical in chronic metabolic diseases such as obesity, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. The ER and related signaling networks are emerging as a potential site for the intersection of inflammation and metabolic disease. PMID:20303879

  15. One step at a time: endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Vembar, Shruthi S.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2009-01-01

    Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is monitored by ER quality control (ERQC) mechanisms. Proteins that pass ERQC criteria traffic to their final destinations through the secretory pathway, whereas non-native and unassembled subunits of multimeric proteins are degraded by the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) pathway. During ERAD, molecular chaperones and associated factors recognize and target substrates for retrotranslocation to the cytoplasm, where they are degraded by the ubiquitin–proteasome machinery. The discovery of diseases that are associated with ERAD substrates highlights the importance of this pathway. Here, we summarize our current understanding of each step during ERAD, with emphasis on the factors that catalyse distinct activities. PMID:19002207

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: an unrecognized actor in solid organ transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Fougeray, Sophie; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Thervet, Eric; Anglicheau, Dany

    2009-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is an adaptive response to the accumulation of misfolded proteins within the ER, which can trigger cell dedifferentiation and cell suicide. Increasing evidences suggest its implication in mediating allograft injury. Herein, we summarize the mechanisms of ER stress and discuss its implication in allograft injury. Increasing our understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic allograft damages could lead to the development of new biomarkers and to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the initiation of graft dysfunction or to promote the tissue regeneration after injury. PMID:19741454

  17. Identification of 1,2,3-triazole derivatives that protect pancreatic β cells against endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated dysfunction and death through the inhibition of C/EBP-homologous protein expression.

    PubMed

    Duan, Hongliang; Arora, Daleep; Li, Yu; Setiadi, Hendra; Xu, Depeng; Lim, Hui-Ying; Wang, Weidong

    2016-06-15

    The C/EBP-homologous protein (CHOP) acts as a mediator of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced pancreatic insulin-producing β cell death, a key element in the pathogenesis of diabetes. Chemicals that inhibit the expression of CHOP might therefore protect β cells from ER stress-induced apoptosis and prevent or ameliorate diabetes. Here, we used high-throughput screening to identify a series of 1,2,3-triazole amide derivatives that inhibit ER stress-induced CHOP-luciferase reporter activity. Our SAR studies indicate that compounds with an N,1-diphenyl-5-methyl-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-carboxamide backbone potently protect β cell against ER stress. Several representative compounds inhibit ER stress-induced up-regulation of CHOP mRNA and protein, without affecting the basal level of CHOP expression. We further show that a 1,2,3-triazole derivative 4e protects β cell function and survival against ER stress in a CHOP-dependent fashion, as it is inactive in CHOP-deficient β cells. Finally, we show that 4e significantly lowers blood glucose levels and increases concomitant β cell survival and number in a streptozotocin-induced diabetic mouse model. Identification of small molecule inhibitors of CHOP expression that prevent ER stress-induced β cell dysfunction and death may provide a new modality for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:27157393

  18. Molecular Characterization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 from Bombyx mori

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Minchul; Ryou, Hee-Joo; Yun, Eun-Young; Goo, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    We isolated a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 (bERO1, a specific oxidant of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)) from Bombyx mori. This protein has a putative open reading frame (ORF) of 489 amino acids and a predicted size of 57.4 kDa. Although bERO1 protein shares less than 57% amino acid sequence homology with other reported ERO1s, it contains two conserved redox active motifs, a Cys-X-X-X-X-Cys motif of N-terminal and Cys-X-X-Cys-X-X-Cys motif of C-terminal. Both motifs are typically present in ERO1 protein family members. The bEro1 mRNA expression was highest in posterior silk gland on the sixth day of the 5th instar larvae. Expression of bEro1 mRNA also markedly increased during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by stimulation with antimycin, calcium ionophore A23187, dithiothreitol, H2O2, monencin, and tunicamycin. In addition, expression levels of bEro1 exactly coincided with that of bPdi. This is the first result suggesting that bERO1 plays an essential role in ER quality control through the combined activities of bERO1 and bPDI as a catalyst of protein folding in the ER and sustaining cellular redox homeostasis. PMID:26556347

  19. The Cdc48 machine in endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation.

    PubMed

    Wolf, Dieter H; Stolz, Alexandra

    2012-01-01

    The AAA-type ATPase Cdc48 (named p97/VCP in mammals) is a molecular machine in all eukaryotic cells that transforms ATP hydrolysis into mechanic power to unfold and pull proteins against physical forces, which make up a protein's structure and hold it in place. From the many cellular processes, Cdc48 is involved in, its function in endoplasmic reticulum associated protein degradation (ERAD) is understood best. This quality control process for proteins of the secretory pathway scans protein folding and discovers misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), the organelle, destined for folding of these proteins and their further delivery to their site of action. Misfolded lumenal and membrane proteins of the ER are detected by chaperones and lectins and retro-translocated out of the ER for degradation. Here the Cdc48 machinery, recruited to the ER membrane, takes over. After polyubiquitylation of the protein substrate, Cdc48 together with its dimeric co-factor complex Ufd1-Npl4 pulls the misfolded protein out and away from the ER membrane and delivers it to down-stream components for degradation by a cytosolic proteinase machine, the proteasome. The known details of the Cdc48-Ufd1-Npl4 motor complex triggered process are subject of this review article. PMID:21945179

  20. Ricin A chain reaches the endoplasmic reticulum after endocytosis

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Qiong; Zhan Jinbiao . E-mail: jzhan2k@zju.edu.cn; Chen Xinhong; Zheng Shu

    2006-05-12

    Ricin is a potent ribosome inactivating protein and now has been widely used for synthesis of immunotoxins. To target ribosome in the mammalian cytosol, ricin must firstly retrograde transport from the endomembrane system to reach the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where the ricin A chain (RTA) is recognized by ER components that facilitate its membrane translocation to the cytosol. In the study, the fusion gene of enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP)-RTA was expressed with the pET-28a (+) system in Escherichia coli under the control of a T7 promoter. The fusion protein showed a green fluorescence. The recombinant protein can be purified by metal chelated affinity chromatography on a column of NTA. The rabbit anti-GFP antibody can recognize the fusion protein of EGFP-RTA just like the EGFP protein. The cytotoxicity of EGFP-RTA and RTA was evaluated by the MTT assay in HeLa and HEP-G2 cells following fluid-phase endocytosis. The fusion protein had a similar cytotoxicity of RTA. After endocytosis, the subcellular location of the fusion protein can be observed with the laser scanning confocal microscopy and the immuno-gold labeling Electro Microscopy. This study provided important evidence by a visualized way to prove that RTA does reach the endoplasmic reticulum.

  1. Mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum crosstalk in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Manfredi, Giovanni; Kawamata, Hibiki

    2016-06-01

    Physical and functional interactions between mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are crucial for cell life. These two organelles are intimately connected and collaborate to essential processes, such as calcium homeostasis and phospholipid biosynthesis. The connections between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum occur through structures named mitochondria associated membranes (MAMs), which contain lipid rafts and a large number of proteins, many of which serve multiple functions at different cellular sites. Growing evidence strongly suggests that alterations of ER-mitochondria interactions are involved in neurodegenerative disorders, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating and rapidly fatal motor neuron disease. Mutations in proteins that participate in ER-mitochondria interactions and MAM functions are increasingly being associated with genetic forms of ALS and other neurodegenerative diseases. This evidence strongly suggests that, rather than considering the two organelles separately, a better understanding of the disease process can derive from studying the alterations in their crosstalk. In this review we discuss normal and pathological ER-mitochondria interactions and the evidence that link them to ALS. PMID:26282323

  2. Molecular Characterization of Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin 1 from Bombyx mori.

    PubMed

    Seo, Minchul; Ryou, Hee-Joo; Yun, Eun-Young; Goo, Tae-Won

    2015-01-01

    We isolated a complementary DNA (cDNA) clone encoding endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin 1 (bERO1, a specific oxidant of protein disulfide isomerase (PDI)) from Bombyx mori. This protein has a putative open reading frame (ORF) of 489 amino acids and a predicted size of 57.4 kDa. Although bERO1 protein shares less than 57% amino acid sequence homology with other reported ERO1s, it contains two conserved redox active motifs, a Cys-X-X-X-X-Cys motif of N-terminal and Cys-X-X-Cys-X-X-Cys motif of C-terminal. Both motifs are typically present in ERO1 protein family members. The bEro1 mRNA expression was highest in posterior silk gland on the sixth day of the 5th instar larvae. Expression of bEro1 mRNA also markedly increased during endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress induced by stimulation with antimycin, calcium ionophore A23187, dithiothreitol, H₂O₂, monencin, and tunicamycin. In addition, expression levels of bEro1 exactly coincided with that of bPdi. This is the first result suggesting that bERO1 plays an essential role in ER quality control through the combined activities of bERO1 and bPDI as a catalyst of protein folding in the ER and sustaining cellular redox homeostasis. PMID:26556347

  3. Molecular Characterization of the Endoplasmic Reticulum: insights from proteomic studies

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xuequn; Karnovsky, Alla; Sans, Maria Dolors; Andrews, Philip C.; Williams, John A.

    2012-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional intracellular organelle responsible for the synthesis, processing and trafficking of a wide variety of proteins essential for cell growth and survival. Thesefore, comprehensive characterization of the ER proteome is of great importance to the understanding of its functions and has been actively pursued in the past decade by scientists in the proteomics field. This review summarizes major proteomic studies published in the past decade that focused on the ER proteome. We evaluate the data sets obtained from two different organs, liver and pancreas each of which contains a primary cell type (hepatocyte and acinar cell) with specialized functions. We also discuss how the nature of the proteins uncovered is related to the methods of organelle purification, organelle purity and the techniques used for protein separation prior to mass spectrometry. In addition, this review also puts emphasis on the biological insights gained from these studies regarding to the molecular functions of the endoplasmic reticulum including protein synthesis and translocation, protein folding and quality control, ER-associated degradation and ER stress, ER export and membrane trafficking, calcium homeostasis, and detoxification and drug metabolism. PMID:21080494

  4. [Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in solid organ transplantation].

    PubMed

    Pallet, Nicolas; Bouvier, Nicolas; Beaune, Philippe; Legendre, Christophe; Anglicheau, Dany; Thervet, Eric

    2010-04-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a situation caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, triggering an evolutionary conserved adaptive response termed the unfolded protein response. When adaptation fails, excessive and prolonged ER stress triggers cell suicide. Important roles for ER-initiated cell death pathways have been recognized for several diseases, including diabetes, hypoxia, ischemia/reperfusion injury, neurodegenerative and heart diseases. The implication of the ER stress is not well recognized in solid organ transplantation, but increasing evidence suggests its implication in mediating allograft injury. The purpose of this review is to summarize the mechanisms of ER stress and to discuss its implication during tissue injury in solid organ transplantation. The possible implications of the ER stress in the modifications of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes are also discussed beyond the scope of adaptation and cell death. Increasing the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms of acute and chronic allograft damages could lead to the development of new biomarkers and to the discovery of new therapeutic strategies to prevent the initiation of graft dysfunction or to promote the tissue regeneration after injury. PMID:20412745

  5. Cell Death and Survival Through the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondrial Axis

    PubMed Central

    Bravo-Sagua, R.; Rodriguez, A.E.; Kuzmicic, J.; Gutierrez, T.; Lopez-Crisosto, C.; Quiroga, C.; Díaz-Elizondo, J.; Chiong, M.; Gillette, T.G.; Rothermel, B.A.; Lavandero, S.

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum has a central role in biosynthesis of a variety of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria generate ATP, synthesize and process numerous metabolites, and are key regulators of cell death. The architectures of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria change continually via the process of membrane fusion, fission, elongation, degradation, and renewal. These structural changes correlate with important changes in organellar function. Both organelles are capable of moving along the cytoskeleton, thus changing their cellular distribution. Numerous studies have demonstrated coordination and communication between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. A focal point for these interactions is a zone of close contact between them known as the mitochondrial–associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM), which serves as a signaling juncture that facilitates calcium and lipid transfer between organelles. Here we review the emerging data on how communication between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria can modulate organelle function and determine cellular fate. PMID:23228132

  6. Cell death and survival through the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondrial axis.

    PubMed

    Bravo-Sagua, R; Rodriguez, A E; Kuzmicic, J; Gutierrez, T; Lopez-Crisosto, C; Quiroga, C; Díaz-Elizondo, J; Chiong, M; Gillette, T G; Rothermel, B A; Lavandero, S

    2013-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum has a central role in biosynthesis of a variety of proteins and lipids. Mitochondria generate ATP, synthesize and process numerous metabolites, and are key regulators of cell death. The architectures of endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria change continually via the process of membrane fusion, fission, elongation, degradation, and renewal. These structural changes correlate with important changes in organellar function. Both organelles are capable of moving along the cytoskeleton, thus changing their cellular distribution. Numerous studies have demonstrated coordination and communication between mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum. A focal point for these interactions is a zone of close contact between them known as the mitochondrial-associated endoplasmic reticulum membrane (MAM), which serves as a signaling juncture that facilitates calcium and lipid transfer between organelles. Here we review the emerging data on how communication between endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria can modulate organelle function and determine cellular fate. PMID:23228132

  7. Crude Saponins of Panax notoginseng Have Neuroprotective Effects To Inhibit Palmitate-Triggered Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Apoptosis and Loss of Postsynaptic Proteins in Staurosporine Differentiated RGC-5 Retinal Ganglion Cells.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dan-dan; Zhu, Hua-zhang; Li, Shi-wei; Yang, Jia-ming; Xiao, Yang; Kang, Qiang-rong; Li, Chen-yang; Zhao, Yun-shi; Zeng, Yong; Li, Yan; Zhang, Jian; He, Zhen-dan; Ying, Ying

    2016-02-24

    Increased apoptosis of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) contributes to the gradual loss of retinal neurons at the early phase of diabetic retinopathy (DR). There is an urgent need to search for drugs with neuroprotective effects against apoptosis of RGCs for the early treatment of DR. This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective effects of saponins extracted from Panax notoginseng, a traditional Chinese medicine, on apoptosis of RGCs stimulated by palmitate, a metabolic factor for the development of diabetes and its complications, and to explore the potential molecular mechanism. We showed that crude saponins of P. notoginseng (CSPN) inhibited the increased apoptosis and loss of postsynaptic protein PSD-95 by palmitate in staurosporine-differentiated RGC-5 cells. Moreover, CSPN suppressed palmitate-induced reactive oxygen species generation and endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated eIF2α/ATF4/CHOP and caspase 12 pathways. Thus, our findings address the potential therapeutic significance of CSPN for the early stage of DR. PMID:26832452

  8. Pharmacological Modulators of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Metabolic Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Tae Woo; Choi, Kyung Mook

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the principal organelle responsible for correct protein folding, a step in protein synthesis that is critical for the functional conformation of proteins. ER stress is a primary feature of secretory cells and is involved in the pathogenesis of numerous human diseases, such as certain neurodegenerative and cardiometabolic disorders. The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a defense mechanism to attenuate ER stress and maintain the homeostasis of the organism. Two major degradation systems, including the proteasome and autophagy, are involved in this defense system. If ER stress overwhelms the capacity of the cell’s defense mechanisms, apoptotic death may result. This review is focused on the various pharmacological modulators that can protect cells from damage induced by ER stress. The possible mechanisms for cytoprotection are also discussed. PMID:26840310

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Sensing in the Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Gardner, Brooke M.; Pincus, David; Gotthardt, Katja; Gallagher, Ciara M.; Walter, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Secretory and transmembrane proteins enter the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) as unfolded proteins and exit as either folded proteins in transit to their target organelles or as misfolded proteins targeted for degradation. The unfolded protein response (UPR) maintains the protein-folding homeostasis within the ER, ensuring that the protein-folding capacity of the ER meets the load of client proteins. Activation of the UPR depends on three ER stress sensor proteins, Ire1, PERK, and ATF6. Although the consequences of activation are well understood, how these sensors detect ER stress remains unclear. Recent evidence suggests that yeast Ire1 directly binds to unfolded proteins, which induces its oligomerization and activation. BiP dissociation from Ire1 regulates this oligomeric equilibrium, ultimately modulating Ire1’s sensitivity and duration of activation. The mechanistic principles of ER stress sensing are the focus of this review. PMID:23388626

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidases in the pathogenesis of ankylosing spondylitis.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Tony J; Robinson, Philip C; Haroon, Nigil

    2015-09-01

    There has been significant progress in our understanding of the pathogenesis of AS. The advent of genome-wide association studies has increased the known loci associated with AS to more than 40. The endoplasmic reticulum resident aminopeptidases (ERAP) 1 and 2 were identified in this manner and are of particular interest. There appears to be a genetic as well as a functional interaction of ERAP1 and 2 with HLA-B27 based on the known functions of these molecules. Recent studies on the structure, immunological effects and the peptide-trimming properties of ERAP 1 and 2 have helped to provide insight into their pathogenic potential in AS. In this review, we explore the role of ERAP 1 and 2 in the pathogenesis of AS. PMID:26070942

  11. Terasaki Spiral Ramps in the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guven, Jemal; Huber, Greg; Valencia, Dulce María

    2014-10-01

    We present a model describing the morphology as well as the assembly of "Terasaki ramps," the recently discovered helicoidal connections linking adjacent sheets of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The fundamental unit is a localized symmetric double-ramped "parking garage" formed by two separated gently pitched, approximately helicoidal, ramps of opposite chiralities. This geometry is stabilized by a short-range repulsive interaction between ramps associated with bending energy which opposes the long-range attraction associated with tension. The ramp inner boundaries are themselves stabilized by the condensation of membrane-shaping proteins along their length. A mechanism for parking garage self-assembly is proposed involving the nucleation of dipoles at the center of tubular three-way junctions within the smooth ER. Our predictions are compared with the experimental data.

  12. The Gp78 ubiquitin ligase: probing endoplasmic reticulum complexity.

    PubMed

    St Pierre, Pascal; Nabi, Ivan R

    2012-02-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has been classically divided, based on electron microscopy analysis, into parallel ribosome-studded rough ER sheets and a tubular smooth ER network. Recent studies have identified molecular constituents of the ER, the reticulons and DP1, that drive ER tubule formation and whose expression determines expression of ER sheets and tubules and thereby rough and smooth ER. However, segregation of the ER into only two domains remains simplistic and multiple functionally distinct ER domains necessarily exist. In this review, we will discuss the sub-organization of the ER in different domains focusing on the localization and role of the gp78 ubiquitin ligase in the mitochondria-associated smooth ER and on the evidence for a quality control ERAD domain. PMID:22045301

  13. Terasaki spiral ramps in the rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Guven, Jemal; Huber, Greg; Valencia, Dulce María

    2014-10-31

    We present a model describing the morphology as well as the assembly of "Terasaki ramps," the recently discovered helicoidal connections linking adjacent sheets of the rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER). The fundamental unit is a localized symmetric double-ramped "parking garage" formed by two separated gently pitched, approximately helicoidal, ramps of opposite chiralities. This geometry is stabilized by a short-range repulsive interaction between ramps associated with bending energy which opposes the long-range attraction associated with tension. The ramp inner boundaries are themselves stabilized by the condensation of membrane-shaping proteins along their length. A mechanism for parking garage self-assembly is proposed involving the nucleation of dipoles at the center of tubular three-way junctions within the smooth ER. Our predictions are compared with the experimental data. PMID:25396396

  14. Stress Responses from the Endoplasmic Reticulum in Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Hironori; Nishitoh, Hideki

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a dynamic organelle that is essential for multiple cellular functions. During cellular stress conditions, including nutrient deprivation and dysregulation of protein synthesis, unfolded/misfolded proteins accumulate in the ER lumen, resulting in activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR also contributes to the regulation of various intracellular signaling pathways such as calcium signaling and lipid signaling. More recently, the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM), which is a site of close contact between the ER and mitochondria, has been shown to function as a platform for various intracellular stress responses including apoptotic signaling, inflammatory signaling, the autophagic response, and the UPR. Interestingly, in cancer, these signaling pathways from the ER are often dysregulated, contributing to cancer cell metabolism. Thus, the signaling pathway from the ER may be a novel therapeutic target for various cancers. In this review, we discuss recent research on the roles of stress responses from the ER, including the MAM. PMID:25941664

  15. Cytoprotective small molecule modulators of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Soumyabrata; Dahl, Russell

    2016-06-01

    Cellular health depends on the normal function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to fold, assemble, and modify critical proteins to maintain viability. When the ER cannot process proteins effectively, a condition known as ER stress ensues. When this stress is excessive or prolonged, cell death via apoptotic pathways is triggered. Interestingly, most major diseases have been shown to be intimately linked to ER stress, including diabetes, stroke, neurodegeneration, and many cancers. Thus, controlling ER stress presents a significant strategy for drug development for these diseases. The goal of this review is to present various small molecules that alleviate ER stress with the intention that they may serve as useful starting points for therapeutic agent development. PMID:27091069

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in myotonic dystrophy type 1 muscle.

    PubMed

    Ikezoe, Koji; Nakamori, Masayuki; Furuya, Hirokazu; Arahata, Hajime; Kanemoto, Soshi; Kimura, Takashi; Imaizumi, Kazunori; Takahashi, Masanori P; Sakoda, Saburo; Fujii, Naoki; Kira, Jun-ichi

    2007-11-01

    In myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1), alternative splicing of ryanodine receptor 1 (RyR1) and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) genes has been reported. These proteins are essential for maintaining intracellular Ca2+ in skeletal muscle. To clarify involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in DM1 muscles, we examined the activation of ER stress-related proteins by immunohistochemistry, western blot analysis and RT-PCR. In four of five DM1 muscle biopsies, except for a muscle biopsy from a patient with the shortest CTG expansion and no myotonia, increased expression of GRP78 and calnexin, and phosphorylation of PERK and eIF-2 alpha were revealed in fibers with sarcoplasmic masses and in highly atrophic fibers with pyknotic nuclear clumps. Caspase-3 and -7 were also expressed in these fibers. Increased expression of GRP78 in these DM1 muscles was confirmed by western blot analysis. GRP78 mRNA and spliced isoform of XBP1 mRNA were also increased in DM1 muscle biopsies. Furthermore, we demonstrated increased expression of GRP78 in highly atrophic fibers with pyknotic nuclear clumps in all three muscle biopsies from neurogenic muscular atrophies. However, five muscle biopsies from central core disease presumably with disturbed intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and a muscle biopsy from paramyotonia congenita with myotonia showed no activation of these proteins. Taken together, ER stress is involved in muscle wasting in DM1. However, it seems to be evoked not only by disrupted intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis. PMID:17661063

  17. Maternal obesity alters endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in offspring pancreas.

    PubMed

    Soeda, Jumpei; Mouralidarane, Angelina; Cordero, Paul; Li, Jiawei; Nguyen, Vi; Carter, Rebeca; Kapur, Sabrina R; Pombo, Joaquim; Poston, Lucilla; Taylor, Paul D; Vinciguerra, Manlio; Oben, Jude A

    2016-06-01

    The prevalence of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease (NAFPD) is increasing in parallel with obesity rates. Stress-related alterations in endoplasmic reticulum (ER), such as the unfolded protein response (UPR), are associated with obesity. The aim of this study was to investigate ER imbalance in the pancreas of a mice model of adult and perinatal diet-induced obesity. Twenty female C57BL/6J mice were assigned to control (Con) or obesogenic (Ob) diets prior to and during pregnancy and lactation. Their offspring were weaned onto Con or Ob diets up to 6 months post-partum. Then, after sacrifice, plasma biochemical analyses, gene expression, and protein concentrations were measured in pancreata. Offspring of Ob-fed mice had significantly increased body weight (p < 0.001) and plasma leptin (p < 0.001) and decreased insulin (p < 0.01) levels. Maternal obesogenic diet decreased the total and phosphorylated Eif2α and increased spliced X-box binding protein 1 (XBP1). Pancreatic gene expression of downstream regulators of UPR (EDEM, homocysteine-responsive endoplasmic reticulum-resident (HERP), activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP)) and autophagy-related proteins (LC3BI/LC3BII) were differently disrupted by obesogenic feeding in both mothers and offspring (from p < 0.1 to p < 0.001). Maternal obesity and Ob feeding in their offspring alter UPR in NAFPD, with involvement of proapoptotic and autophagy-related markers. Upstream and downstream regulators of PERK, IRE1α, and ATF6 pathways were affected differently following the obesogenic insults. PMID:26979740

  18. Peptidyl prolyl cis-trans-isomerase activity associated with the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Bose, S; Freedman, R B

    1994-01-01

    Peptidyl prolyl cis-trans-isomerase (PPI) activity was detected in microsomal fractions from bovine and rat liver. Extensive washing, proteinase and sonication treatments indicated that although some of this activity was due to adsorbed cytosolic enzymes, there was also an active but latent microsomal PPI activity. Density-gradient subfractionation indicated that activity was associated with vesicles derived from both the rough and the smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER), suggesting that the activity was located within the ER lumen. The luminal PPI activity was inhibited by cyclosporin A and was active towards an unfolded protein substrate as well as towards the standard peptide substrate. PMID:8010971

  19. Agonist-activated Ca2+ influx occurs at stable plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum junctions

    PubMed Central

    Treves, Susan; Vukcevic, Mirko; Griesser, Johanna; Armstrong, Clara-Franzini; Zhu, Michael X.; Zorzato, Fancesco

    2010-01-01

    Junctate is a 33 kDa integral protein of sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum membranes that forms a macromolecular complex with inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P3] receptors and TRPC3 channels. TIRF microscopy shows that junctate enhances the number of fluorescent puncta on the plasma membrane. The size and distribution of these puncta are not affected by the addition of agonists that mobilize Ca2+ from Ins(1,4,5)P3-sensitive stores. Puncta are associated with a significantly larger number of peripheral junctions between endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membrane, which are further enhanced upon stable co-expression of junctate and TRPC3. The gap between the membranes of peripheral junctions is bridged by regularly spaced electron-dense structures of 10 nm. Ins(1,4,5)P3 inhibits the interaction of the cytoplasmic N-terminus of junctate with the ligand-binding domain of the Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptor. Furthermore, Ca2+ influx evoked by activation of Ins(1,4,5)P3 receptors is increased where puncta are located. We conclude that stable peripheral junctions between the plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum are the anatomical sites of agonist-activated Ca2+ entry. PMID:21062895

  20. Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation (ERAD) and Autophagy Cooperate to Degrade Polymerogenic Mutant Serpins*

    PubMed Central

    Kroeger, Heike; Miranda, Elena; MacLeod, Ian; Pérez, Juan; Crowther, Damian C.; Marciniak, Stefan J.; Lomas, David A.

    2009-01-01

    The serpinopathies are a family of diseases characterized by the accumulation of ordered polymers of mutant protein within the endoplasmic reticulum. They are a diverse group including α1-antitrypsin deficiency and the inherited dementia familial encephalopathy with neuroserpin inclusion bodies or FENIB. We have used transient transfection of COS7 cells and mouse embryonic fibroblasts, PC12 cell lines that conditionally express wild type and mutant neuroserpin and fly models of FENIB to assess the cellular handling of wild type and mutant serpins. By using a polymer-specific monoclonal antibody, we show that mutant neuroserpin forms polymers after a delay of at least 30 min and that polymers can be cleared in PC12 cell lines and from the brain in a fly model of FENIB. At steady state, the fractions of intracellular polymerogenic G392E mutant neuroserpin in the monomeric and polymeric states are comparable. Inhibition of the proteasome with MG132 reveals that both mutant neuroserpin and α1-antitrypsin are degraded predominantly by endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Pharmacological and genetic inhibitions demonstrate that autophagy is responsible for bulk turnover of wild type and mutant serpins, but can be stimulated by rapamycin to compensate for proteasome inhibition. The significance of these findings to the treatment of serpinopathies is discussed. PMID:19549782

  1. Uterine Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Its Unfolded Protein Response May Regulate Caspase 3 Activation in the Pregnant Mouse Uterus

    PubMed Central

    Suresh, Arvind; Subedi, Kalpana; Kyathanahalli, Chandrashekara; Jeyasuria, Pancharatnam; Condon, Jennifer C.

    2013-01-01

    We have previously proposed that uterine caspase-3 may modulate uterine contractility in a gestationally regulated fashion. The objective of this study was to determine the mechanism by which uterine caspase-3 is activated and consequently controlled in the pregnant uterus across gestation. Utilizing the mouse uterus as our gestational model we examined the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response as potential activators of uterine caspase-3 at the transcriptional and translational level. Our study revealed robust activation of the uterine myocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress response and its adaptive unfolded protein response during pregnancy coinciding respectively with increased uterine caspase-3 activity and its withdrawal to term. In contrast the intrinsic and extrinsic apoptotic signaling pathways remained inactive across gestation. We speculate that physiological stimuli experienced by the pregnant uterus likely potentiates the uterine myocyte endoplasmic reticulum stress response resulting in elevated caspase-3 activation, which is isolated to the pregnant mouse myometrium. However as term approaches, activation of an elevated adaptive unfolded protein response acts to limit the endoplasmic reticulum stress response inhibiting caspase-3 resulting in its decline towards term. We speculate that these events have the capacity to regulate gestational length in a caspase-3 dependent manner. PMID:24058658

  2. Toll-like receptor 4-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to endothelial dysfunction

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Impairment of vasodilator action of insulin is associated with endothelial dysfunction and insulin resistance. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as one of the mechanisms for pathophysiology of various cardiometabolic syndromes, including insulin resistance and endothelial dysfunction. ...

  3. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress-activated IRE1α-TRAF2-caspase-12 apoptotic pathway is involved in the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan in the rotenone rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Tong, Qiang; Wu, Liang; Jiang, Teng; Ou, Zhou; Zhang, Yingdong; Zhu, Dongya

    2016-04-01

    Telmisartan, one unique angiotensin II type 1 receptor blocker, has been attracting attention due to its putative peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ or β/δ actions. Recently, telmisartan has been reported to exert neuroprotective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the underlying mechanisms have not been fully clarified. Recently, accumulating evidence has shown that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays a crucial role in rotenone-induced neuronal apoptosis. Additionally, studies have revealed that inositol-requiring enzyme/endonuclease 1α (IRE1α) is necessary and sufficient to trigger ER stress. In the present study, we aimed to determine whether ER stress-activated IRE1α-mediated apoptotic pathway is involved in the neuroprotection of telmisartan in the rotenone rats of PD and explore the possible involvement of PPAR-β/δ activation. The catalepsy tests were performed to test the catalepsy symptom. The dopamine content and α-synuclein expression were ascertained through high-performance liquid chromatography and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The expression of IRE1α, TNF receptor associated factor 2 (TRAF2), caspase-12 and PPAR-β/δ was detected by western blot. Neuronal apoptosis was assessed by TUNEL and immunohistochemistry. Our results show that telmisartan ameliorated the catalepsy symptom and attenuated dopamine depletion as well as α-synuclein accumulation. Moreover, telmisartan decreased ER stress-mediated neuronal apoptosis. Furthermore, telmisartan inhibited IRE1α-TRAF2-caspase-12 apoptotic signaling pathway. Additionally, telmisartan activated PPAR β/δ, implying that PPAR-β/δ activation properties of telmisartan are possibly or partially involved in the neuroprotective effects. In conclusion, our findings suggest that suppressing ER stress-activated IRE1α-TRAF2-caspase-12 apoptotic pathway is involved in the neuroprotective effects of telmisartan in the rotenone rats of PD. PMID

  4. HMGB1 induces an inflammatory response in endothelial cells via the RAGE-dependent endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway

    SciTech Connect

    Luo, Ying; Li, Shu-Jun; Yang, Jian; Qiu, Yuan-Zhen; Chen, Fang-Ping

    2013-09-06

    Highlights: •Mechanisms of inflammatory response induced by HMGB1 are incompletely understood. •We found that endoplasmic reticulum stress mediate the inflammatory response induced by HMGB1. •RAGE-mediated ERS pathways are involved in those processes. •We reported a new mechanism for HMGB1 induced inflammatory response. -- Abstract: The high mobility group 1B protein (HMGB1) mediates chronic inflammatory responses in endothelial cells, which play a critical role in atherosclerosis. However, the underlying mechanism is unknown. The goal of our study was to identify the effects of HMGB1 on the RAGE-induced inflammatory response in endothelial cells and test the possible involvement of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway. Our results showed that incubation of endothelial cells with HMGB1 (0.01–1 μg/ml) for 24 h induced a dose-dependent activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress transducers, as assessed by PERK and IRE1 protein expression. Moreover, HMGB1 also promoted nuclear translocation of ATF6. HMGB1-mediated ICAM-1 and P-selectin production was dramatically suppressed by PERK siRNA or IRE1 siRNA. However, non-targeting siRNA had no such effects. HMGB1-induced increases in ICAM-1 and P-selectin expression were also inhibited by a specific eIF2α inhibitor (salubrinal) and a specific JNK inhibitor (SP600125). Importantly, a blocking antibody specifically targeted against RAGE (anti-RAGE antibody) decreased ICAM-1, P-selectin and endoplasmic reticulum stress molecule (PERK, eIF2α, IRE1 and JNK) protein expression levels. Collectively, these novel findings suggest that HMGB1 promotes an inflammatory response by inducing the expression of ICAM-1 and P-selectin via RAGE-mediated stimulation of the endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

  5. The antioxidant machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum: Protection and signaling.

    PubMed

    Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès; Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian

    2015-06-01

    Cellular metabolism is inherently linked to the production of oxidizing by-products, including reactive oxygen species (ROS) hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). When present in excess, H2O2 can damage cellular biomolecules, but when produced in coordinated fashion, it typically serves as a mobile signaling messenger. It is therefore not surprising that cell health critically relies on both low-molecular-weight and enzymatic antioxidant components, which protect from ROS-mediated damage and shape the propagation and duration of ROS signals. This review focuses on H2O2-antioxidant cross talk in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is intimately linked to the process of oxidative protein folding. ER-resident or ER-regulated sources of H2O2 and other ROS, which are subgrouped into constitutive and stimulated sources, are discussed and set into context with the diverse antioxidant mechanisms in the organelle. These include two types of peroxide-reducing enzymes, a high concentration of glutathione derived from the cytosol, and feedback-regulated thiol-disulfide switches, which negatively control the major ER oxidase ER oxidoreductin-1. Finally, new evidence highlighting emerging principles of H2O2-based cues at the ER will likely set a basis for establishing ER redox processes as a major line of future signaling research. A fundamental problem that remains to be solved is the specific, quantitative, time resolved, and targeted detection of H2O2 in the ER and in specialized ER subdomains. PMID:25744411

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum: Where nucleotide sugar transport meets cytokinin control mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Niemann, Michael CE; Werner, Tomáš

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional eukaryotic organelle where the vast majority of secretory proteins are folded and assembled to achieve their correct tertiary structures. The lumen of the ER and Golgi apparatus also provides an environment for numerous glycosylation reactions essential for modifications of proteins and lipids, and for cell wall biosynthesis. These glycosylation reactions require a constant supply of cytosolically synthesized substrate precursors, nucleotide sugars, which are transported by a group of dedicated nucleotide sugar transporters (NST). Recently, we have reported on the identification of a novel ER-localized NST protein, ROCK1, which mediates the transport of UDP-linked acetylated hexosamines across the ER membrane in Arabidopsis. Interestingly, it has been demonstrated that the activity of ROCK1 is important for the regulation of cytokinin-degrading enzymes, cytokinin oxidases/dehydrogenases (CKX), in the ER and, thus, for cytokinin responses. In this addendum we will address the biochemical and cellular activity of the ROCK1 transporter and its phylogenetic relation to other NST proteins. PMID:26418963

  7. A Molecular Web: Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress, Inflammation, and Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhari, Namrata; Talwar, Priti; Parimisetty, Avinash; Lefebvre d’Hellencourt, Christian; Ravanan, Palaniyandi

    2014-01-01

    Execution of fundamental cellular functions demands regulated protein folding homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an active organelle existing to implement this function by folding and modifying secretory and membrane proteins. Loss of protein folding homeostasis is central to various diseases and budding evidences suggest ER stress as being a major contributor in the development or pathology of a diseased state besides other cellular stresses. The trigger for diseases may be diverse but, inflammation and/or ER stress may be basic mechanisms increasing the severity or complicating the condition of the disease. Chronic ER stress and activation of the unfolded-protein response (UPR) through endogenous or exogenous insults may result in impaired calcium and redox homeostasis, oxidative stress via protein overload thereby also influencing vital mitochondrial functions. Calcium released from the ER augments the production of mitochondrial Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS). Toxic accumulation of ROS within ER and mitochondria disturbs fundamental organelle functions. Sustained ER stress is known to potentially elicit inflammatory responses via UPR pathways. Additionally, ROS generated through inflammation or mitochondrial dysfunction could accelerate ER malfunction. Dysfunctional UPR pathways have been associated with a wide range of diseases including several neurodegenerative diseases, stroke, metabolic disorders, cancer, inflammatory disease, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, and others. In this review, we have discussed the UPR signaling pathways, and networking between ER stress-induced inflammatory pathways, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial signaling events, which further induce or exacerbate ER stress. PMID:25120434

  8. Probing Endoplasmic Reticulum Dynamics using Fluorescence Imaging and Photobleaching Techniques

    PubMed Central

    Costantini, Lindsey; Snapp, Erik

    2013-01-01

    This UNIT describes approaches and tools for studying the dynamics and organization of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes and proteins in living cells using commercially available widefield and confocal laser scanning microscopes (CLSM). It has been long appreciated that the ER plays a number of key roles in secretory protein biogenesis, calcium regulation, and lipid synthesis. However, study of these processes has been often restricted to biochemical assays that average the behaviors of millions of lysed cells or to imaging static fixed cells. Now, with new fluorescent protein reporter tools, highly sensitive commercial microscopes, and photobleaching techniques, it is possible to interrogate the behaviors of ER proteins, membranes, and stress pathways in single cells with exquisite spatial and temporal resolution. The ER presents a unique set of imaging challenges including the high mobility of ER membranes, a diverse range of dynamic ER structures, and the influence of post-translational modifications on fluorescent protein reporters. Solutions to these challenges are described and considerations for performing photobleaching assays, especially Fluorescence Recovery after Photobleaching (FRAP) and Fluorescence Loss in Photobleaching (FLIP) for ER proteins will be discussed. In addition, ER reporters and ER-specific pharmacologic compounds are presented with a focus on misfolded secretory protein stress and the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR). PMID:24510787

  9. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Interacts With Inflammation in Human Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Stewart Siyan; Luo, Katherine L.; Shi, Lynn

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum is a critical organelle for normal cell function and homeostasis. Disturbed protein folding process in the ER, termed ER stress, leads to the activation of unfolded protein response (UPR) that encompasses a complex network of intracellular signaling pathways. The UPR can either restore ER homeostasis or activate pro-apoptotic pathways depending on specific insults, intensity and duration of the stress, and cell types. ER stress and the UPR have recently been linked to inflammation in a variety of human pathologies including autoimmune diseases, infection, neurodegenerative disease, and metabolic disorders. In the cell, ER stress and inflammatory signaling share extensive regulators and effectors in a broad spectrum of biological processes. In spite of different etiologies, the two signaling pathways were shown to form a vicious cycle in exacerbating cellular dysfunction and causing apoptosis in many cells and tissues. However, the interaction between ER stress and inflammation in many of these diseases remains elusive. Further understanding of those issues may enable the development of novel therapies that spontaneously target these pathogenic pathways. PMID:26201832

  10. Protein Bodies in Leaves Exchange Contents through the Endoplasmic Reticulum.

    PubMed

    Saberianfar, Reza; Sattarzadeh, Amirali; Joensuu, Jussi J; Kohalmi, Susanne E; Menassa, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Protein bodies (PBs) are organelles found in seeds whose main function is the storage of proteins that are used during germination for sustaining growth. PBs can also be induced to form in leaves when foreign proteins are produced at high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and when fused to one of three tags: Zera®, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP), or hydrophobin-I (HFBI). In this study, we investigate the differences between ELP, HFBI and Zera PB formation, packing, and communication. Our results confirm the ER origin of all three fusion-tag-induced PBs. We show that secretory pathway proteins can be sequestered into all types of PBs but with different patterns, and that different fusion tags can target a specific protein to different PBs. Zera PBs are mobile and dependent on actomyosin motility similar to ELP and HFBI PBs. We show in vivo trafficking of proteins between PBs using GFP photoconversion. We also show that protein trafficking between ELP or HFBI PBs is faster and proteins travel further when compared to Zera PBs. Our results indicate that fusion-tag-induced PBs do not represent terminally stored cytosolic organelles, but that they form in, and remain part of the ER, and dynamically communicate with each other via the ER. We hypothesize that the previously documented PB mobility along the actin cytoskeleton is associated with ER movement rather than independent streaming of detached organelles. PMID:27242885

  11. Proper symmetric and asymmetric endoplasmic reticulum partitioning requires astral microtubules.

    PubMed

    Smyth, Jeremy T; Schoborg, Todd A; Bergman, Zane J; Riggs, Blake; Rusan, Nasser M

    2015-08-01

    Mechanisms that regulate partitioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during cell division are largely unknown. Previous studies have mostly addressed ER partitioning in cultured cells, which may not recapitulate physiological processes that are critical in developing, intact tissues. We have addressed this by analysing ER partitioning in asymmetrically dividing stem cells, in which precise segregation of cellular components is essential for proper development and tissue architecture. We show that in Drosophila neural stem cells, called neuroblasts, the ER asymmetrically partitioned to centrosomes early in mitosis. This correlated closely with the asymmetric nucleation of astral microtubules (MTs) by centrosomes, suggesting that astral MT association may be required for ER partitioning by centrosomes. Consistent with this, the ER also associated with astral MTs in meiotic Drosophila spermatocytes and during syncytial embryonic divisions. Disruption of centrosomes in each of these cell types led to improper ER partitioning, demonstrating the critical role for centrosomes and associated astral MTs in this process. Importantly, we show that the ER also associated with astral MTs in cultured human cells, suggesting that this centrosome/astral MT-based partitioning mechanism is conserved across animal species. PMID:26289801

  12. Quantitative proteomic survey of endoplasmic reticulum in mouse liver.

    PubMed

    Song, Yanping; Jiang, Ying; Ying, Wantao; Gong, Yan; Yan, Yujuan; Yang, Dong; Ma, Jie; Xue, Xiaofang; Zhong, Fan; Wu, Songfeng; Hao, Yunwei; Sun, Aihua; Li, Tao; Sun, Wei; Wei, Handong; Zhu, Yunping; Qian, Xiaohong; He, Fuchu

    2010-03-01

    To gain a better understanding of the critical function of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in liver, we carried out a proteomic survey of mouse liver ER. The ER proteome was profiled with a new three-dimensional, gel-based strategy. From 6152 and 6935 MS spectra, 903 and 1042 proteins were identified with at least two peptides matches at 95% confidence in the rough (r) and smooth (s) ER, respectively. Comparison of the rER and sER proteomes showed that calcium-binding proteins are significantly enriched in the sER suggesting that the ion-binding function of the ER is compartmentalized. Comparison of the rat and mouse ER proteomes showed that 662 proteins were common to both, comprising 53.5% and 49.3% of those proteomes, respectively. We proposed that these proteins were stably expressed proteins that were essential for the maintenance of ER function. GO annotation with a hypergeometric model proved this hypothesis. Unexpectedly, 210 unknown proteins and some proteins previously reported to occur in the cytosol were highly enriched in the ER. This study provides a reference map for the ER proteome of liver. Identification of new ER proteins will enhance our current understanding of the ER and also suggest new functions for this organelle. PMID:20073521

  13. The endoplasmic reticulum: a social network in plant cells.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Doyle, Caitlin; Qi, Xingyun; Zheng, Huanquan

    2012-11-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an interconnected network comprised of ribosome-studded sheets and smooth tubules. The ER plays crucial roles in the biosynthesis and transport of proteins and lipids, and in calcium (Ca(2+) ) regulation in compartmentalized eukaryotic cells including plant cells. To support its well-segregated functions, the shape of the ER undergoes notable changes in response to both developmental cues and outside influences. In this review, we will discuss recent findings on molecular mechanisms underlying the unique morphology and dynamics of the ER, and the importance of the interconnected ER network in cell polarity. In animal and yeast cells, two family proteins, the reticulons and DP1/Yop1, are required for shaping high-curvature ER tubules, while members of the atlastin family of dynamin-like GTPases are involved in the fusion of ER tubules to make an interconnected ER network. In plant cells, recent data also indicate that the reticulons are involved in shaping ER tubules, while RHD3, a plant member of the atlastin GTPases, is required for the generation of an interconnected ER network. We will also summarize the current knowledge on how the ER interacts with other membrane-bound organelles, with a focus on how the ER and Golgi interplay in plant cells. PMID:23046093

  14. N-Linked Protein Glycosylation in the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Breitling, Jörg; Aebi, Markus

    2013-01-01

    The attachment of glycans to asparagine residues of proteins is an abundant and highly conserved essential modification in eukaryotes. The N-glycosylation process includes two principal phases: the assembly of a lipid-linked oligosaccharide (LLO) and the transfer of the oligosaccharide to selected asparagine residues of polypeptide chains. Biosynthesis of the LLO takes place at both sides of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane and it involves a series of specific glycosyltransferases that catalyze the assembly of the branched oligosaccharide in a highly defined way. Oligosaccharyltransferase (OST) selects the Asn-X-Ser/Thr consensus sequence on polypeptide chains and generates the N-glycosidic linkage between the side-chain amide of asparagine and the oligosaccharide. This ER-localized pathway results in a systemic modification of the proteome, the basis for the Golgi-catalyzed modification of the N-linked glycans, generating the large diversity of N-glycoproteome in eukaryotic cells. This article focuses on the processes in the ER. Based on the highly conserved nature of this pathway we concentrate on the mechanisms in the eukaryotic model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. PMID:23751184

  15. Proper symmetric and asymmetric endoplasmic reticulum partitioning requires astral microtubules

    PubMed Central

    Smyth, Jeremy T.; Schoborg, Todd A.; Bergman, Zane J.; Riggs, Blake; Rusan, Nasser M.

    2015-01-01

    Mechanisms that regulate partitioning of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) during cell division are largely unknown. Previous studies have mostly addressed ER partitioning in cultured cells, which may not recapitulate physiological processes that are critical in developing, intact tissues. We have addressed this by analysing ER partitioning in asymmetrically dividing stem cells, in which precise segregation of cellular components is essential for proper development and tissue architecture. We show that in Drosophila neural stem cells, called neuroblasts, the ER asymmetrically partitioned to centrosomes early in mitosis. This correlated closely with the asymmetric nucleation of astral microtubules (MTs) by centrosomes, suggesting that astral MT association may be required for ER partitioning by centrosomes. Consistent with this, the ER also associated with astral MTs in meiotic Drosophila spermatocytes and during syncytial embryonic divisions. Disruption of centrosomes in each of these cell types led to improper ER partitioning, demonstrating the critical role for centrosomes and associated astral MTs in this process. Importantly, we show that the ER also associated with astral MTs in cultured human cells, suggesting that this centrosome/astral MT-based partitioning mechanism is conserved across animal species. PMID:26289801

  16. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds.

    PubMed

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-01-01

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds. PMID:26395408

  17. Supramolecular architecture of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane contact sites.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Busnadiego, Rubén

    2016-04-15

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms membrane contact sites (MCS) with most other cellular organelles and the plasma membrane (PM). These ER-PM MCS, where the membranes of the ER and PM are closely apposed, were discovered in the early days of electron microscopy (EM), but only recently are we starting to understand their functional and structural diversity. ER-PM MCS are nowadays known to mediate excitation-contraction coupling (ECC) in striated muscle cells and to play crucial roles in Ca(2+)and lipid homoeostasis in all metazoan cells. A common feature across ER-PM MCS specialized in different functions is the preponderance of cooperative phenomena that result in the formation of large supramolecular assemblies. Therefore, characterizing the supramolecular architecture of ER-PM MCS is critical to understand their mechanisms of function. Cryo-electron tomography (cryo-ET) is a powerful EM technique uniquely positioned to address this issue, as it allows 3D imaging of fully hydrated, unstained cellular structures at molecular resolution. In this review I summarize our current structural knowledge on the molecular organization of ER-PM MCS and its functional implications, with special emphasis on the emerging contributions of cryo-ET. PMID:27068966

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum localization and activity of maize auxin biosynthetic enzymes.

    PubMed

    Kriechbaumer, Verena; Seo, Hyesu; Park, Woong June; Hawes, Chris

    2015-09-01

    Auxin is a major growth hormone in plants and the first plant hormone to be discovered and studied. Active research over >60 years has shed light on many of the molecular mechanisms of its action including transport, perception, signal transduction, and a variety of biosynthetic pathways in various species, tissues, and developmental stages. The complexity and redundancy of the auxin biosynthetic network and enzymes involved raises the question of how such a system, producing such a potent agent as auxin, can be appropriately controlled at all. Here it is shown that maize auxin biosynthesis takes place in microsomal as well as cytosolic cellular fractions from maize seedlings. Most interestingly, a set of enzymes shown to be involved in auxin biosynthesis via their activity and/or mutant phenotypes and catalysing adjacent steps in YUCCA-dependent biosynthesis are localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Positioning of auxin biosynthetic enzymes at the ER could be necessary to bring auxin biosynthesis in closer proximity to ER-localized factors for transport, conjugation, and signalling, and allow for an additional level of regulation by subcellular compartmentation of auxin action. Furthermore, it might provide a link to ethylene action and be a factor in hormonal cross-talk as all five ethylene receptors are ER localized. PMID:26139824

  19. Protein Bodies in Leaves Exchange Contents through the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Saberianfar, Reza; Sattarzadeh, Amirali; Joensuu, Jussi J.; Kohalmi, Susanne E.; Menassa, Rima

    2016-01-01

    Protein bodies (PBs) are organelles found in seeds whose main function is the storage of proteins that are used during germination for sustaining growth. PBs can also be induced to form in leaves when foreign proteins are produced at high levels in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and when fused to one of three tags: Zera®, elastin-like polypeptides (ELP), or hydrophobin-I (HFBI). In this study, we investigate the differences between ELP, HFBI and Zera PB formation, packing, and communication. Our results confirm the ER origin of all three fusion-tag-induced PBs. We show that secretory pathway proteins can be sequestered into all types of PBs but with different patterns, and that different fusion tags can target a specific protein to different PBs. Zera PBs are mobile and dependent on actomyosin motility similar to ELP and HFBI PBs. We show in vivo trafficking of proteins between PBs using GFP photoconversion. We also show that protein trafficking between ELP or HFBI PBs is faster and proteins travel further when compared to Zera PBs. Our results indicate that fusion-tag-induced PBs do not represent terminally stored cytosolic organelles, but that they form in, and remain part of the ER, and dynamically communicate with each other via the ER. We hypothesize that the previously documented PB mobility along the actin cytoskeleton is associated with ER movement rather than independent streaming of detached organelles. PMID:27242885

  20. Heme oxygenase-1 comes back to endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Hong Pyo; Pae, Hyun-Ock; Back, Sung Hun; Chung, Su Wol; Woo, Je Moon; Son, Yong; Chung, Hun-Taeg

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Although multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. {yields} HO-1 expression at ER is induced by a diverse set of conditions that cause ER stressors. {yields} CO may induce HO-1 expression in human ECs by activating Nrf2 through PERK phosphorylation in a positive-feedback manner. {yields} ER-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress is discussed. -- Abstract: Originally identified as a rate-limiting enzyme for heme catabolism, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) has expanded its roles in anti-inflammation, anti-apoptosis and anti-proliferation for the last decade. Regulation of protein activity by location is well appreciated. Even though multiple compartmentalization of HO-1 has been documented, the functional implication of this enzyme at these subcellular organelles is only partially elucidated. In this review we discuss the endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-residing HO-1 and its cytoprotective activity against ER stress.

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress regulation in hematopoietic stem cells.

    PubMed

    Miharada, Kenichi

    2016-08-01

    Adult hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) reside in bone marrow and are maintained in a dormant state within a special microenvironment, their so-called "niche". Detaching from the niche induces cell cycle progression, resulting in a reduction of the reconstitution capacity of HSCs. In contrast, fetal liver HSCs actively divide without losing their stem cell potentials. Thus, it has been unclear what types of cellular responses and metabolic changes occur in growing HSCs. We previously discovered that HSCs express relatively low levels of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) chaperone proteins governing protein folding, making HSCs vulnerable to an elevation of stress signals caused by accumulation of un-/misfolded proteins (ER stress) upon in vitro culture. Interestingly, fetal liver HSCs do not show ER stress elevation despite unchanged levels of chaperone proteins. Our latest studies utilizing multiple mouse models revealed that in the fetal liver bile acids as chemical chaperones play a key role supporting the protein folding which results in the suppression of ER stress induction. These findings highlight the importance of ER stress regulations in hematopoiesis. PMID:27599423

  2. Involvement of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Orofacial Inflammatory Pain

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Eun Sun; Bae, Jin Young; Kim, Tae Heon; Kim, Yun Sook; Suk, Kyoungho

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in many neurological diseases and inflammatory responses. Inflammatory mediators induce neuronal damage and trigger the neuropathic or inflammatory pain. But there is very little data on the role of the ER stress response in pain mechanisms. In this study, we explored whether the ER stress response is involved in orofacial inflammatory pain by using a complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA)-injected rat model. The thermal pain hypersensitivity increased significantly after CFA injection. We found that the protein and mRNA levels of ER stress response genes, GRP78/Bip and p-eIF2α, increased significantly in trigeminal ganglion (TG) of CFA-injected rats compared to control animals. In immunofluorescence analysis, a significant increase of GRP78 and p-eIF2α immunopositive neurons was observed in CFA-injected TG compared to control TG. When we administered an ER stress modulator, salubrinal, CFA-induced thermal pain hypersensitivity was temporally reduced. Thus, our study suggests that ER stress responses in TG neurons contribute to CFA-induced inflammatory pain, and may comprise an important molecular mechanism underlying the orofacial inflammatory pain pathway. PMID:25548537

  3. Role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in drug-induced toxicity.

    PubMed

    Foufelle, Fabienne; Fromenty, Bernard

    2016-02-01

    Drug-induced toxicity is a key issue for public health because some side effects can be severe and life-threatening. These adverse effects can also be a major concern for the pharmaceutical companies since significant toxicity can lead to the interruption of clinical trials, or the withdrawal of the incriminated drugs from the market. Recent studies suggested that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress could be an important event involved in drug liability, in addition to other key mechanisms such as mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress. Indeed, drug-induced ER stress could lead to several deleterious effects within cells and tissues including accumulation of lipids, cell death, cytolysis, and inflammation. After recalling important information regarding drug-induced adverse reactions and ER stress in diverse pathophysiological situations, this review summarizes the main data pertaining to drug-induced ER stress and its potential involvement in different adverse effects. Drugs presented in this review are for instance acetaminophen (APAP), arsenic trioxide and other anticancer drugs, diclofenac, and different antiretroviral compounds. We also included data on tunicamycin (an antibiotic not used in human medicine because of its toxicity) and thapsigargin (a toxic compound of the Mediterranean plant Thapsia garganica) since both molecules are commonly used as prototypical toxins to induce ER stress in cellular and animal models. PMID:26977301

  4. LDL–cholesterol transport to the endoplasmic reticulum: current concepts

    PubMed Central

    Pfisterer, Simon G.; Peränen, Johan; Ikonen, Elina

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of review In this article, we summarize the present information related to the export of LDL-derived cholesterol from late endosomes, with a focus on Nieman-Pick disease, type C1 (NPC1) cholesterol delivery toward the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We review data suggesting that several pathways may operate in parallel, including membrane transport routes and membrane contact sites (MCSs). Recent findings There is increasing appreciation that MCSs provide an important mechanism for intermembrane lipid transfer. In late endosome–ER contacts, three protein bridges involving oxysterol binding protein related protein (ORP)1L-vesicle associated membrane protein-associated protein (VAP), steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR)D3-VAP and ORP5-NPC1 proteins have been reported. How much they contribute to the flux of LDL–cholesterol to the ER is currently open. Studies for lipid transfer via MCSs have been most advanced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Recently, a new sterol-binding protein family conserved between yeast and man was identified. Its members localize at MCSs and were named lipid transfer protein anchored at membrane contact sites (Lam) proteins. In yeast, sterol transfer between the ER and the yeast lysosome may be facilitated by a Lam protein. Summary Increasing insights into the role of MCSs in directional sterol delivery between membranes propose that they might provide routes for LDL–cholesterol transfer to the ER. Future work should reveal which specific contacts may operate for this, and how they are controlled by cholesterol homeostatic machineries. PMID:27054443

  5. PERK-opathies: An Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Mechanism Underlying Neurodegeneration.

    PubMed

    Bell, Michelle C; Meier, Shelby E; Ingram, Alexandria L; Abisambra, Jose F

    2016-01-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) plays a vital role in maintaining cell homeostasis as a consequence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. However, prolonged UPR activity leads to cell death. This time-dependent dual functionality of the UPR represents the adaptive and cytotoxic pathways that result from ER stress. Chronic UPR activation in systemic and neurodegenerative diseases has been identified as an early sign of cellular dyshomeostasis. The Protein Kinase R-like ER Kinase (PERK) pathway is one of three major branches in the UPR, and it is the only one to modulate protein synthesis as an adaptive response. The specific identification of prolonged PERK activity has been correlated with the progression of disorders such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease, and cancer, suggesting that PERK plays a role in the pathology of these disorders. For the first time, the term "PERK-opathies" is used to group these diseases in which PERK mediates detriment to the cell culminating in chronic disorders. This article reviews the literature documenting links between systemic disorders with the UPR, but with a specific emphasis on the PERK pathway. Then, articles reporting links between the UPR, and more specifically PERK, and neurodegenerative disorders are presented. Finally, a therapeutic perspective is discussed, where PERK interventions could be potential remedies for cellular dysfunction in chronic neurodegenerative disorders. PMID:26679859

  6. STIM Proteins and the Endoplasmic Reticulum-Plasma Membrane Junctions

    PubMed Central

    Carrasco, Silvia; Meyer, Tobias

    2013-01-01

    Eukaryotic organelles can interact with each other through stable junctions where the two membranes are kept in close apposition. The junction that connects the endoplasmic reticulum to the plasma membrane (ER-PM junction) is unique in providing a direct communication link between the ER and the PM. In a recently discovered signaling process, STIM (stromal-interacting molecule) proteins sense a drop in ER Ca2+ levels and directly activate Orai PM Ca2+ channels across the junction space. In an inverse process, a voltage-gated PM Ca2+ channel can directly open ER ryanodine-receptor Ca2+ channels in striated-muscle cells. Although ER-PM junctions were first described 50 years ago, their broad importance in Ca2+ signaling, as well as in the regulation of cholesterol and phosphatidylinositol lipid transfer, has only recently been realized. Here, we discuss research from different fields to provide a broad perspective on the structures and unique roles of ER-PM junctions in controlling signaling and metabolic processes. PMID:21548779

  7. Coordination of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Signaling During Maize Seed Development

    SciTech Connect

    Boston, Rebecca S.

    2010-11-20

    Seed storage reserves represent one of the most important sources of renewable fixed carbon and nitrogen found in nature. Seeds are well-adapted for diverting metabolic resources to synthesize storage proteins as well as enzymes and structural proteins needed for their transport and packaging into membrane bound storage protein bodies. Our underlying hypothesis is that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response provides the critical cellular control of metabolic flux required for optimal accumulation of storage reserves in seeds. This highly conserved response is a cellular mechanism to monitor the protein folding environment of the ER and restore homeostasis in the presence of unfolded or misfolded proteins. In seeds, deposition of storage proteins in protein bodies is a highly specialized process that takes place even in the presence of mutant proteins that no longer fold and package properly. The capacity of the ER to deposit these aberrant proteins in protein bodies during a period that extends several weeks provides an excellent model for deconvoluting the ER stress response of plants. We have focused in this project on the means by which the ER senses and responds to functional perturbations and the underlying intracellular communication that occurs among biosynthetic, trafficking and degradative pathways for proteins during seed development.

  8. Terasaki Ramps in the Endoplasmic Reticulum: Structure, Function and Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huber, Greg; Guven, Jemal; Valencia, Dulce-Maria

    2015-03-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has long been considered an exceedingly important and complex cellular organelle in eukaryotes (like you). It is a membrane structure, part folded lamellae, part tubular network, that both envelopes the nucleus and threads its way outward, all the way to the cell's periphery. Despite the elegant mechanics of bilayer membranes offered by the work of Helfrich and Canham, as far as the ER is concerned, theory has mostly sat on the sidelines. However, refined imaging of the ER has recently revealed beautiful and subtle geometrical forms - simple geometries, from the mathematical point of view - which some have called a ``parking garage for ribosomes.'' I'll review the discovery and physics of Terasaki ramps and discuss their relation to cell-biological questions, such as ER and nuclear-membrane re-organization during mitosis. Rather than being a footnote in a textbook on differential geometry, these structures suggest answers to a number of the ER's structure-function problems.

  9. Proteomic analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress responses in rice seeds

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Dandan; Tian, Lihong; Qu, Leqing

    2015-01-01

    The defects in storage proteins secretion in the endosperm of transgenic rice seeds often leads to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which produces floury and shrunken seeds, but the mechanism of this response remains unclear. We used an iTRAQ-based proteomics analysis of ER-stressed rice seeds due to the endosperm-specific suppression of OsSar1 to identify changes in the protein levels in response to ER stress. ER stress changed the expression of 405 proteins in rice seed by >2.0- fold compared with the wild-type control. Of these proteins, 140 were upregulated and 265 were downregulated. The upregulated proteins were mainly involved in protein modification, transport and degradation, and the downregulated proteins were mainly involved in metabolism and stress/defense responses. A KOBAS analysis revealed that protein-processing in the ER and degradation-related proteasome were the predominant upregulated pathways in the rice endosperm in response to ER stress. Trans-Golgi protein transport was also involved in the ER stress response. Combined with bioinformatic and molecular biology analyses, our proteomic data will facilitate our understanding of the systemic responses to ER stress in rice seeds. PMID:26395408

  10. Periostin promotes secretion of fibronectin from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Kii, Isao; Nishiyama, Takashi; Kudo, Akira

    2016-02-19

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), transported to the extracellular milieu through the secretory pathway, and assembled into an extracellular architecture. A previous study of ours showed that periostin, a secretory protein, interacts with fibronectin and is involved in ECM remodeling. Here we show that periostin played a role in fibronectin secretion from the ER. Co-immunoprecipitation and in situ proximity ligation assays revealed an interaction between periostin and fibronectin in the ER. Although accumulation of fibronectin was detected in the ER of fibroblastic C3H10T1/2 cells, forced expression of periostin in those cells decreased the accumulation of fibronectin in the ER, suggesting that periostin promoted the secretion of fibronectin. A substitution mutant of tryptophan at the position 65 to alanine in the EMI domain of periostin, which caused periostin to lose its ability to interact with fibronectin, did not decrease the accumulation. Furthermore, targeted disruption of periostin in mice caused the non-fibrillar and ectopic deposition of fibronectin in the periodontal ligament. Thus, these results demonstrate a subcellular role of periostin in promotion of fibronectin secretion from the ER. PMID:26820539

  11. The protective effect of the earthworm active ingredients on hepatocellular injury induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Duan, Leng-Xin; Xu, Zheng-Shun; Wang, Jian-Gang; Xi, Shou-Min

    2016-08-01

    The earthworm is a widely used Chinese herbal medicine. There are more than 40 prescriptions including earthworms in the "Compendium of Materia Medica". TCM theory holds that earthworms exert antispasmodic and antipyretic effects through the liver meridian to calm the liver. However, the clinical effect of earthworms on liver injury has not been clearly demonstrated. We have previously established a method to extract the active ingredients from earthworms (hereinafter referred to as EWAs) [1]. In the present study, we observed protective effect of the EWAs on tunicamycin-induced ERS (endoplasmic reticulum stress) model in human hepatic L02 cells. The results showed that the EWAs promote proliferation and reduced apoptosis of ERS model in L02 cells (P<0.01). The up-regulation of ERS-related proteins, including PERK (protein kinase RNA-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase), eIF2a (eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2a), ATF4 (activating transcription factor 4) and CHOP (CCAAT/enhancer binding protein homologous protein), in L02 cell under ERS was inhibited by treatment of the EWAs (P<0.01). In summary, our data suggest the EWAs can significant attenuate ERS-induced hepatocyte injury via PERK-eIF2a-ATF4 pathway. PMID:27470367

  12. Role of p97 and Syntaxin 5 in the Assembly of Transitional Endoplasmic Reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Line; Bergeron, John J.M.; Lavoie, Christine; Hendriks, Rob; Gushue, Jennifer; Fazel, Ali; Pelletier, Amélie; Morré, D. James; Subramaniam, V. Nathan; Hong, Wanjin; Paiement, Jacques

    2000-01-01

    Transitional endoplasmic reticulum (tER) consists of confluent rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum (ER) domains. In a cell-free incubation system, low-density microsomes (1.17 g cc−1) isolated from rat liver homogenates reconstitute tER by Mg2+GTP- and Mg2+ATP-hydrolysis–dependent membrane fusion. The ATPases associated with different cellular activities protein p97 has been identified as the relevant ATPase. The ATP depletion by hexokinase or treatment with either N-ethylmaleimide or anti-p97 prevented assembly of the smooth ER domain of tER. High-salt washing of low-density microsomes inhibited assembly of the smooth ER domain of tER, whereas the readdition of purified p97 with associated p47 promoted reconstitution. The t-SNARE syntaxin 5 was observed within the smooth ER domain of tER, and antisyntaxin 5 abrogated formation of this same membrane compartment. Thus, p97 and syntaxin 5 regulate assembly of the smooth ER domain of tER and hence one of the earliest membrane differentiated components of the secretory pathway. PMID:10930451

  13. Effects of a Sublethal and Transient Stress of the Endoplasmic Reticulum on the Mitochondrial Population.

    PubMed

    Vannuvel, Kayleen; Van Steenbrugge, Martine; Demazy, Catherine; Ninane, Noëlle; Fattaccioli, Antoine; Fransolet, Maude; Renard, Patricia; Raes, Martine; Arnould, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria are not discrete intracellular organelles but establish close physical and functional interactions involved in several biological processes including mitochondrial bioenergetics, calcium homeostasis, lipid synthesis, and the regulation of apoptotic cell death pathways. As many cell types might face a transient and sublethal ER stress during their lifetime, it is thus likely that the adaptive UPR response might affect the mitochondrial population. The aim of this work was to study the putative effects of a non-lethal and transient endoplasmic reticulum stress on the mitochondrial population in HepG2 cells. The results show that thapsigargin and brefeldin A, used to induce a transient and sublethal ER stress, rapidly lead to the fragmentation of the mitochondrial network associated with a decrease in mitochondrial membrane potential, O2 (•-) production and less efficient respiration. These changes in mitochondrial function are transient and preceded by the phosphorylation of JNK. Inhibition of JNK activation by SP600125 prevents the decrease in O2 (•-) production and the mitochondrial network fragmentation observed in cells exposed to the ER stress but has no impact on the reduction of the mitochondrial membrane potential. In conclusion, our data show that a non-lethal and transient ER stress triggers a rapid activation of JNK without inducing apoptosis, leading to the fragmentation of the mitochondrial network and a reduction of O2 (•-) production. J. Cell. Physiol. 231: 1913-1931, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26680008

  14. Gelatin Nanostructured Lipid Carriers Incorporating Nerve Growth Factor Inhibit Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis and Improve Recovery in Spinal Cord Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Si-Pin; Wang, Zhou-Guang; Zhao, Ying-Zheng; Wu, Jiang; Shi, Hong-Xue; Ye, Li-Bing; Wu, Fen-Zan; Cheng, Yi; Zhang, Hong-Yu; He, Songbin; Wei, Xiaojie; Fu, Xiao-Bing; Li, Xiao-Kun; Xu, Hua-Zi; Xiao, Jian

    2016-09-01

    Clinical translation of growth factor therapies faces multiple challenges; the most significant one is the short half-life of the naked protein. Gelatin nanostructured lipid carriers (GNLs) had previously been used to encapsulate the basic fibroblast growth factor to enhance the functional recovery in hemiparkinsonian rats. In this research, we comparatively study the enhanced therapy between nerve growth factor (NGF) loaded GNLs (NGF-GNLs) and NGF only in spinal cord injury (SCI). The effects of NGF-GNLs and NGF only were tested by the Basso-Beattie-Bresnahan (BBB) locomotion scale, inclined plane test, and footprint analysis. Western blot analysis and immunofluorescent staining were further performed to identify the expression of ER stress-related proteins, neuron-specific marker neuronal nuclei (NeuN), and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43). Correlated downstream signals Akt/GSK-3β and ERK1/2 were also analyzed with or without inhibitors. Results showed that NGF-GNLs, compared to NGF only, enhanced the neuroprotection effect in SCI rats. The ER stress-induced apoptosis response proteins CHOP, GRP78 and caspase-12 inhibited by NGF-GNL treatment were more obvious. Meanwhile, NGF-GNLs in the recovery of SCI are related to the inhibition of ER stress-induced cell death via the activation of downstream signals PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β and ERK1/2. PMID:26232067

  15. Microdomains of endoplasmic reticulum within the sarcoplasmic reticulum of skeletal myofibers

    SciTech Connect

    Kaakinen, Mika; Papponen, Hinni; Metsikkoe, Kalervo

    2008-01-15

    The relationship between the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of skeletal muscle cells has remained obscure. In this study, we found that ER- and SR-specific membrane proteins exhibited diverse solubility properties when extracted with mild detergents. Accordingly, the major SR-specific protein Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase (SERCA) remained insoluble in Brij 58 and floated in sucrose gradients while typical ER proteins were partially or fully soluble. Sphingomyelinase treatment rendered SERCA soluble in Brij 58. Immunofluorescence staining for resident ER proteins revealed dispersed dots over I bands contrasting the continuous staining pattern of SERCA. Infection of isolated myofibers with enveloped viruses indicated that interfibrillar protein synthesis occurred. Furthermore, we found that GFP-tagged Dad1, able to incorporate into the oligosaccharyltransferase complex, showed the dot-like structures but the fusion protein was also present in membranes over the Z lines. This behaviour mimics that of cargo proteins that accumulated over the Z lines when blocked in the ER. Taken together, the results suggest that resident ER proteins comprised Brij 58-soluble microdomains within the insoluble SR membrane. After synthesis and folding in the ER-microdomains, cargo proteins and non-incorporated GFP-Dad1 diffused into the Z line-flanking compartment which likely represents the ER exit sites.

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced autophagy determines the susceptibility of melanoma cells to dabrafenib

    PubMed Central

    Ji, Chao; Zhang, Ziping; Chen, Lihong; Zhou, Kunli; Li, Dongjun; Wang, Ping; Huang, Shuying; Gong, Ting; Cheng, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is one of the deadliest skin cancers and accounts for most skin-related deaths due to strong resistance to chemotherapy drugs. In the present study, we investigated the mechanisms of dabrafenib-induced drug resistance in human melanoma cell lines A375 and MEL624. Our studies support that both endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy were induced in the melanoma cells after the treatment with dabrafenib. In addition, ER stress-induced autophagy protects melanoma cells from the toxicity of dabrafenib. Moreover, inhibition of both ER stress and autophagy promote the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. Taken together, the data suggest that ER stress-induced autophagy determines the sensitivity of melanoma cells to dabrafenib. These results provide us with promising evidence that the inhibition of autophagy and ER stress could serve a therapeutic effect for the conventional dabrafenib chemotherapy. PMID:27536070

  17. Regulation of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ oscillations in mammalian eggs

    PubMed Central

    Wakai, Takuya; Zhang, Nan; Vangheluwe, Peter; Fissore, Rafael A.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Changes in the intracellular concentration of free calcium ([Ca2+]i) regulate diverse cellular processes including fertilization. In mammalian eggs, the [Ca2+]i changes induced by the sperm unfold in a pattern of periodical rises, also known as [Ca2+]i oscillations. The source of Ca2+ during oscillations is the endoplasmic reticulum ([Ca2+]ER), but it is presently unknown how [Ca2+]ER is regulated. Here, we show using mouse eggs that [Ca2+]i oscillations induced by a variety of agonists, including PLCζ, SrCl2 and thimerosal, provoke simultaneous but opposite changes in [Ca2+]ER and cause differential effects on the refilling and overall load of [Ca2+]ER. We also found that Ca2+ influx is required to refill [Ca2+]ER, because the loss of [Ca2+]ER was accelerated in medium devoid of Ca2+. Pharmacological inactivation of the function of the mitochondria and of the Ca2+-ATPase pumps PMCA and SERCA altered the pattern of oscillations and abruptly reduced [Ca2+]ER, especially after inactivation of mitochondria and SERCA functions. We also examined the expression of SERCA2b protein and found that it was expressed throughout oocyte maturation and attained a conspicuous cortical cluster organization in mature eggs. We show that its overexpression reduces the duration of inositol-1,4,5-trisphosphate-induced [Ca2+]i rises, promotes initiation of oscillations and enhances refilling of [Ca2+]ER. Collectively, our results provide novel insights on the regulation of [Ca2+]ER oscillations, which underlie the unique Ca2+-signalling system that activates the developmental program in mammalian eggs. PMID:24101727

  18. Diverse roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress sensors in bacterial infection.

    PubMed

    Pillich, Helena; Loose, Maria; Zimmer, Klaus-Peter; Chakraborty, Trinad

    2016-12-01

    Bacterial infection often leads to cellular damage, primarily marked by loss of cellular integrity and cell death. However, in recent years, it is being increasingly recognized that, in individual cells, there are graded responses collectively termed cell-autonomous defense mechanisms that induce cellular processes designed to limit cell damage, enable repair, and eliminate bacteria. Many of these responses are triggered not by detection of a particular bacterial effector or ligand but rather by their effects on key cellular processes and changes in homeostasis induced by microbial effectors when recognized. These in turn lead to a decrease in essential cellular functions such as protein translation or mitochondrial respiration and the induction of innate immune responses that may be specific to the cellular deficit induced. These processes are often associated with specific cell compartments, e.g., the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Under non-infection conditions, these systems are generally involved in sensing cellular stress and in inducing and orchestrating the subsequent cellular response. Thus, perturbations of ER homeostasis result in accumulation of unfolded proteins which are detected by ER stress sensors in order to restore the normal condition. The ER is also important during bacterial infection, and bacterial effectors that activate the ER stress sensors have been discovered. Increasing evidence now indicate that bacteria have evolved strategies to differentially activate different arms of ER stress sensors resulting in specific host cell response. In this review, we will describe the mechanisms used by bacteria to activate the ER stress sensors and discuss their role during infection. PMID:26883353

  19. Topography of glycosylation reactions in the rough endoplasmic reticulum membrane

    SciTech Connect

    Perez, M.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1986-05-25

    The translocation of UDP-glucose and GDP-mannose from an external to a luminal compartment has been examined in rat liver vesicles derived from the rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). RER vesicles with the same topographical orientation as in vivo were incubated with a mixture of (/sup 3/H)UDP-glucose and UDP-(/sup 14/C)glucose to demonstrate that the intact sugar nucleotide was translocated into the lumen of the vesicles. The translocation of UDP-glucose was dependent on temperature and was saturable at high concentrations of the sugar nucleotide. The transfer of glucose to endogenous acceptors was dependent on the translocation of UDP-glucose into the lumen of the RER since leaky vesicles resulted in both a decrease in transport and transfer of glucose to endogenous acceptors. Preliminary results suggest that the mechanism of UDP-glucose transport into RER-derived vesicles is via a coupled exchange with luminal UMP. Using the same experimental approach to detect translocation of UDP-glucose into the lumen of RER vesicles, we were unable to detect transport of GDP-mannose. Incubation of leaky vesicles with GDP-mannose resulted in stimulation of the amount of mannose transferred to endogenous acceptors, in marked contrast to that observed for UDP-glucose and UDP-N-acetylglucosamine. These results suggest that whereas UDP-glucose is translocated across the RER membrane in vitro, GDP-mannose is not transported. In addition, these results tentatively suggest that there is asymmetric synthesis of the lipid-linked oligosaccharides within the membrane of the RER.

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 and rheumatic disease: functional variation

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Tri M.; Colbert, Robert A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review To review recent developments in our understanding of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) aminopeptidase-1 (ERAP1) function in relation to its role in MHC class I peptide presentation and HLA class I-associated diseases. Recent findings ERAP1 polymorphisms exhibiting loss-of-function have been associated with protection from ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The aminopeptidase function of ERAP1 optimizes peptides for binding and presentation by MHC class I. Most studies have revealed reduced MHC class I expression in situations of reduced ERAP1 function. Under these circumstances the presented peptides are often N-terminally extended, and cell surface complexes are unstable and fall apart more readily. In contrast, peptides presented by HLA-B*27:05 when ERAP1 is silenced are frequently extended on the C-terminus. Recent work has emphasized the importance of assessing the function of allotypes encoded by ERAP1 haplotypes, rather than effects of single amino acid substitutions. The allotypes found in a series of AS patients were poorer at restoring HLA-B27 expression than allotypes found in unaffected controls, which may seem contrary to the genetic data linking loss-of-function to protection. Summary More work is needed to understand how ERAP1 variants associated with risk and protection influence the quality and quantity of peptides available for binding to HLA class I molecules in the ER. Moreover, we need to determine allele-specific effects of ERAP1 variants in the context of HLA-B*51 and HLA-Cw*6, which are associated with Behçet’s disease and psoriasis, respectively. PMID:26002027

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: key promoter of rosacea pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Melnik, Bodo C

    2014-12-01

    Recent scientific interest in the pathogenesis of rosacea focuses on abnormally high facial skin levels of cathelicidin and the trypsin-like serine protease kallikrein 5 (KLK5) that cleaves the cathelicidin precursor protein into the bioactive fragment LL-37, which exerts crucial proinflammatory, angiogenic and antimicrobial activities. Furthermore, increased expression of toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) has been identified in rosacea skin supporting the participation of the innate immune system. Notably, TLRs are expressed on sensory neurons and increase neuronal excitability linking TLR signalling to the transmission of neuroinflammatory responses. It is the intention of this viewpoint to present a unifying concept that links all known clinical trigger factors of rosacea such as UV irradiation, heat, skin irritants and special foods to one converging point: enhanced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress that activates the unfolded protein response (UPR). ER stress via upregulation of transcription factor ATF4 increases TLR2 expression, resulting in enhanced production of cathelicidin and KLK5 mediating downstream proinflammatory, angiogenic and antimicrobial signalling. The presented concept identifies rosacea trigger factors as environmental stressors that enhance the skin's ER stress response. Exaggerated cutaneous ER stress that stimulates the TLR2-driven inflammatory response may involve sebocytes, keratinocytes, monocyte-macrophages and sensory cutaneous neurons. Finally, all antirosacea drugs are proposed to attenuate the ER stress signalling cascade at some point. Overstimulated ER stress signalling may have evolutionarily evolved as a compensatory mechanism to balance impaired vitamin D-driven LL-37-mediated antimicrobial defenses due to lower exposure of UV-B irradiation of the northern Celtic population. PMID:25047092

  2. The role of endoplasmic reticulum stress in hippocampal insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Sims-Robinson, Catrina; Bakeman, Anna; Glasser, Rebecca; Boggs, Janet; Pacut, Crystal; Feldman, Eva L

    2016-03-01

    Metabolic syndrome, which includes hypertension, hyperglycemia, obesity, insulin resistance, and dyslipidemia, has a negative impact on cognitive health. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is activated during metabolic syndrome, however it is not known which factor associated with metabolic syndrome contributes to this stress. ER stress has been reported to play a role in the development of insulin resistance in peripheral tissues. The role of ER stress in the development of insulin resistance in hippocampal neurons is not known. In the current study, we investigated ER stress in the hippocampus of 3 different mouse models of metabolic syndrome: the C57BL6 mouse on a high fat (HF) diet; apolipoprotein E, leptin, and apolipoprotein B-48 deficient (ApoE 3KO) mice; and the low density lipoprotein receptor, leptin, and apolipoprotein B-48 deficient (LDLR 3KO) mice. We demonstrate that ER stress is activated in the hippocampus of HF mice, and for the first time, in ApoE 3KO mice, but not LDLR 3KO mice. The HF and ApoE 3KO mice are hyperglycemic; however, the LDLR 3KO mice have normal glycemia. This suggests that hyperglycemia may play a role in the activation of ER stress in the hippocampus. Similarly, we also demonstrate that impaired insulin signaling is only present in the HF and ApoE 3KO mice, which suggests that ER stress may play a role in insulin resistance in the hippocampus. To confirm this we pharmacologically induced ER stress with thapsigargin in human hippocampal neurons. We demonstrate for the first time that thapsigargin leads to ER stress and impaired insulin signaling in human hippocampal neurons. Our results may provide a potential mechanism that links metabolic syndrome and cognitive health. PMID:26775176

  3. Ethanol Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in the Developing Brain

    PubMed Central

    Ke, Zunji; Wang, Xin; Liu, Ying; Fan, Zhiqin; Chen, Gang; Xu, Mei; Bower, Kimberley A.; Frank, Jacqueline A.; Li, Mingtao; Fang, Shengyun; Shi, Xianglin; Luo, Jia

    2016-01-01

    Background Ethanol exposure during brain development causes profound damages to the central nervous system (CNS). The underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress, which is characterized by translational attenuation, synthesis of ER chaperone proteins, and activation of transcription factors. Sustained ER stress ultimately leads to cell death. ER stress is implicated in various neurodegenerative processes. Methods Using a third trimester equivalent mouse model of ethanol exposure, we tested the hypothesis that ethanol induces ER stress in the developing brain. Seven-day-old C57BL/6 mice were acutely exposed to ethanol by subcutaneous injection and the expression of ER stress-inducible proteins (ERSIPs) and signaling pathways associated with ER stress were examined. Results Ethanol exposure significantly increased the expression of ERSIPs and activated signaling pathways associated with ER stress; these include ATF6, CHOP/GADD153, GRP78, and mesencephalic astrocyte-derived neurotrophic factor as well as the phosphorylation of IRE1α, eIF2α, PERK, and PKR. The ethanol-induced increase in ERSIPs occurred within 4 hours of ethanol injection, and levels of some ERSIPs remained elevated after 24 hours of ethanol exposure. Ethanol-induced increase in phosphorylated eIF2α, caspase-12, and CHOP was distributed in neurons of specific areas of the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus. Conclusions Our finding indicates that ethanol induces ER stress in immature neurons, providing novel insight into ethanol’s detrimental effect on the developing CNS. PMID:21599712

  4. Targeted induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress induces cartilage pathology.

    PubMed

    Rajpar, M Helen; McDermott, Ben; Kung, Louise; Eardley, Rachel; Knowles, Lynette; Heeran, Mel; Thornton, David J; Wilson, Richard; Bateman, John F; Poulsom, Richard; Arvan, Peter; Kadler, Karl E; Briggs, Michael D; Boot-Handford, Raymond P

    2009-10-01

    Pathologies caused by mutations in extracellular matrix proteins are generally considered to result from the synthesis of extracellular matrices that are defective. Mutations in type X collagen cause metaphyseal chondrodysplasia type Schmid (MCDS), a disorder characterised by dwarfism and an expanded growth plate hypertrophic zone. We generated a knock-in mouse model of an MCDS-causing mutation (COL10A1 p.Asn617Lys) to investigate pathogenic mechanisms linking genotype and phenotype. Mice expressing the collagen X mutation had shortened limbs and an expanded hypertrophic zone. Chondrocytes in the hypertrophic zone exhibited endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and a robust unfolded protein response (UPR) due to intracellular retention of mutant protein. Hypertrophic chondrocyte differentiation and osteoclast recruitment were significantly reduced indicating that the hypertrophic zone was expanded due to a decreased rate of VEGF-mediated vascular invasion of the growth plate. To test directly the role of ER stress and UPR in generating the MCDS phenotype, we produced transgenic mouse lines that used the collagen X promoter to drive expression of an ER stress-inducing protein (the cog mutant of thyroglobulin) in hypertrophic chondrocytes. The hypertrophic chondrocytes in this mouse exhibited ER stress with a characteristic UPR response. In addition, the hypertrophic zone was expanded, gene expression patterns were disrupted, osteoclast recruitment to the vascular invasion front was reduced, and long bone growth decreased. Our data demonstrate that triggering ER stress per se in hypertrophic chondrocytes is sufficient to induce the essential features of the cartilage pathology associated with MCDS and confirm that ER stress is a central pathogenic factor in the disease mechanism. These findings support the contention that ER stress may play a direct role in the pathogenesis of many connective tissue disorders associated with the expression of mutant extracellular matrix

  5. Ca2+-Dependent Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Regulates Mechanical Stress-Mediated Cartilage Thinning.

    PubMed

    Zhu, M; Zhou, S; Huang, Z; Wen, J; Li, H

    2016-07-01

    Our previous study identified that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays a critical role in chondrocyte apoptosis and mandibular cartilage thinning in response to compressive mechanical force, although the underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Because the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a primary site of intracellular Ca(2+) storage, we hypothesized that Ca(2+)-dependent ERS might be involved in mechanical stress-mediated mandibular cartilage thinning. In this study, we used in vitro and in vivo models to determine Ca(2+) concentrations, histological changes, subcellular changes, apoptosis, and the expression of ERS markers in mandibular cartilage and chondrocytes. The results showed that in chondrocytes, cytosolic Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i) was dramatically increased by compressive mechanical force. Interestingly, the inhibition of Ca(2+) channels by ryanodine and 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, inhibitors of ryanodine receptors and inositol trisphosphate receptors, respectively, partially rescued mechanical force-mediated mandibular cartilage thinning. Furthermore, chondrocyte apoptosis was also compromised by inhibiting the increase in [Ca(2+)]i that occurred in response to compressive mechanical force. Mechanistically, the ERS induced by compressive mechanical force was also repressed by [Ca(2+)]i inhibition, as demonstrated by a decrease in the expression of the ER stress markers 78 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78) and 94 kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP94) at both the mRNA and protein levels. Collectively, these data identified [Ca(2+)]i as a critical mediator of the pathological changes that occur in mandibular cartilage under compressive mechanical force and shed light on the treatment of mechanical stress-mediated cartilage degradation. PMID:27053115

  6. Nodal endoplasmic reticulum, a specialized form of endoplasmic reticulum found in gravity-sensing root tip columella cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, H. Q.; Staehelin, L. A.

    2001-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of columella root cap cells has been postulated to play a role in gravity sensing. We have re-examined the ultrastructure of columella cells in tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum) root tips preserved by high-pressure freezing/freeze-substitution techniques to gain more precise information about the organization of the ER in such cells. The most notable findings are: the identification of a specialized form of ER, termed "nodal ER," which is found exclusively in columella cells; the demonstration that the bulk of the ER is organized in the form of a tubular network that is confined to a peripheral layer under the plasma membrane; and the discovery that this ER-rich peripheral region excludes Golgi stacks, vacuoles, and amyloplasts but not mitochondria. Nodal ER domains consist of an approximately 100-nm-diameter central rod composed of oblong subunits to which usually seven sheets of rough ER are attached along their margins. These domains form patches at the interface between the peripheral ER network and the ER-free central region of the cells, and they occupy defined positions within central and flanking columella cells. Over one-half of the nodal ER domains are located along the outer tangential walls of the flanking cells. Cytochalasin D and latrunculin A cause an increase in size and a decrease in numbers of nodal ER domains. We postulate that the nodal ER membranes locally modulate the gravisensing signals produced by the sedimenting amyloplasts, and that the confinement of all ER membranes to the cell periphery serves to enhance the sedimentability of the amyloplasts in the central region of columella cells.

  7. The deadly connection between endoplasmic reticulum, Ca2+, protein synthesis, and the endoplasmic reticulum stress response in malignant glioma cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Guyla G.; White, Misti C.; Wu, Jian-He; Vallejo, Matthew; Grimaldi, Maurizio

    2014-01-01

    Background The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in Ca2+ signaling and protein processing. Accumulation of unfolded proteins following ER Ca2+ depletion triggers the ER stress response (ERSR), which facilitates protein folding and removal of damaged proteins and can induce cell death. Unfolded proteins bind to chaperones, such as the glucose-regulated protein (GRP)78 and cause the release of GRP78-repressed proteins executing ERSR. Methods Several glioma cell lines and primary astrocytes were used to analyze ERSR using standard western blots, reverse transcription–PCR, viability assays, and single cell Ca2+ imaging. Results ERSR induction with thapsigargin results in a more intense ERSR associated with a larger loss of ER Ca2+, activation of ER-associated caspases (4/12) and caspase 3, and a higher rate of malignant glioma cell death than in normal glial cells. Malignant glioma cells have higher levels of protein synthesis and expression of the translocon (a component of the ribosomal complex, guiding protein entry in the ER), the activity of which is associated with the loss of ER Ca2+. Our experiments confirm increased expression of the translocon in malignant glioma cells. In addition, blockade of the ribosome-translocon complex with agents differently affecting translocon Ca2+ permeability causes opposite effects on ERSR deployment and death of malignant glioma cells. Conclusions Excessive ER Ca2+ loss due to translocon activity appears to be responsible for the enhancement of ERSR, leading to the death of glioma cells. The results reveal a characteristic of malignant glioma cells that could be exploited to develop new therapeutic strategies to treat incurable glial malignancies. PMID:24569545

  8. PARM-1 Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Molecule Involved in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Apoptosis in Rat Cardiac Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Isodono, Koji; Takahashi, Tomosaburo; Imoto, Hiroko; Nakanishi, Naohiko; Ogata, Takehiro; Asada, Satoshi; Adachi, Atsuo; Ueyama, Tomomi; Oh, Hidemasa; Matsubara, Hiroaki

    2010-01-01

    To identify novel transmembrane and secretory molecules expressed in cardiac myocytes, signal sequence trap screening was performed in rat neonatal cardiac myocytes. One of the molecules identified was a transmembrane protein, prostatic androgen repressed message-1 (PARM-1). While PARM-1 has been identified as a gene induced in prostate in response to castration, its function is largely unknown. Our expression analysis revealed that PARM-1 was specifically expressed in hearts and skeletal muscles, and in the heart, cardiac myocytes, but not non-myocytes expressed PARM-1. Immunofluorescent staining showed that PARM-1 was predominantly localized in endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In Dahl salt-sensitive rats, high-salt diet resulted in hypertension, cardiac hypertrophy and subsequent heart failure, and significantly stimulated PARM-1 expression in the hearts, with a concomitant increase in ER stress markers such as GRP78 and CHOP. In cultured cardiac myocytes, PARM-1 expression was stimulated by proinflammatory cytokines, but not by hypertrophic stimuli. A marked increase in PARM-1 expression was observed in response to ER stress inducers such as thapsigargin and tunicamycin, which also induced apoptotic cell death. Silencing PARM-1 expression by siRNAs enhanced apoptotic response in cardiac myocytes to ER stresses. PARM-1 silencing also repressed expression of PERK and ATF6, and augmented expression of CHOP without affecting IRE-1 expression and JNK and Caspase-12 activation. Thus, PARM-1 expression is induced by ER stress, which plays a protective role in cardiac myocytes through regulating PERK, ATF6 and CHOP expression. These results suggested that PARM-1 is a novel ER transmembrane molecule involved in cardiac remodeling in hypertensive heart disease. PMID:20305782

  9. A functional equivalent of endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi in axons for secretion of locally synthesized proteins

    PubMed Central

    Merianda, Tanuja T.; Lin, Andrew C.; Lam, Joyce S.Y.; Vuppalanchi, Deepika; Willis, Dianna E.; Karin, Norman; Holt, Christine E.; Twiss, Jeffery L.

    2013-01-01

    Subcellular localization of protein synthesis provides a means to regulate the protein composition in far reaches of a cell. This localized protein synthesis gives neuronal processes autonomy to rapidly respond to extracellular stimuli. Locally synthesized axonal proteins enable neurons to respond to guidance cues and can help to initiate regeneration after injury. Most studies of axonal mRNA translation have concentrated on cytoplasmic proteins. While ultrastructural studies suggest that axons do not have rough endoplasmic reticulum or Golgi apparatus, mRNAs for transmembrane and secreted proteins localize to axons. Here, we show that growing axons with protein synthetic activity contain ER and Golgi components needed for classical protein synthesis and secretion. Isolated axons have the capacity to traffic locally synthesized proteins into secretory pathways and inhibition of Golgi function attenuates translation-dependent axonal growth responses. Finally, the capacity for secreting locally synthesized proteins in axons appears to be increased by injury. PMID:19022387

  10. Soluble forms of polyQ-expanded huntingtin rather than large aggregates cause endoplasmic reticulum stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leitman, Julia; Ulrich Hartl, F.; Lederkremer, Gerardo Z.

    2013-11-01

    In Huntington’s disease, as in other neurodegenerative diseases, it was initially thought that insoluble protein aggregates are the toxic species. However, growing evidence implicates soluble oligomeric polyglutamine-expanded huntingtin in cytotoxicity. Here we show that pathogenic huntingtin inhibits endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-associated degradation and induces ER stress before its aggregation into visible inclusions. All three branches of the unfolded protein response are activated. ER stress can be compensated by overexpression of p97/VCP, suggesting its sequestration by pathogenic huntingtin as a main cause. Stress correlates with the presence of huntingtin oligomers and is independent of continual huntingtin synthesis. Stress levels, measured in striatal neurons, are stabilized but only slowly subside on huntingtin aggregation into inclusions. Our results can be explained by the constant conversion of huntingtin monomers to toxic oligomers; large aggregates sequester the former, precluding further conversion, whereas pre-existing toxic oligomers are only gradually depleted.

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation by promoting endocytosis in skeletal muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Du, Ailian; Huang, Shiqian; Zhao, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yun; Zhu, Lixun; Ding, Ji; Xu, Congfeng

    2016-01-15

    After binding by acetylcholine released from a motor neuron, a nicotinic acetylcholine receptor at the neuromuscular junction produces a localized end-plate potential, which leads to muscle contraction. Improper turnover and renewal of acetylcholine receptors contributes to the pathogenesis of myasthenia gravis. In the present study, we demonstrate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress contributes to acetylcholine receptor degradation in C2C12 myocytes. We further show that ER stress promotes acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and lysosomal degradation, which was dampened by blocking endocytosis or treating with lysosome inhibitor. Knockdown of ER stress proteins inhibited acetylcholine receptor endocytosis and degradation, while rescue assay restored its endocytosis and degradation, confirming the effects of ER stress on promoting endocytosis-mediated degradation of junction acetylcholine receptors. Thus, our studies identify ER stress as a factor promoting acetylcholine receptor degradation through accelerating endocytosis in muscle cells. Blocking ER stress and/or endocytosis might provide a novel therapeutic approach for myasthenia gravis. PMID:26711579

  12. Possible Pharmacological Approach Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress to Ameliorate Leptin Resistance in Obesity

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, Toru; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is associated with metabolic syndrome, such as diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia. Therefore, drug development for the treatment of obesity is needed. Leptin is an anti-obesity hormone that inhibits food intake and increases energy metabolism, and, as such, treatments involving leptin were expected to be beneficial for obesity; however, since most obese patients are in a state of leptin resistance, these treatments may not be useful. Therefore, the amelioration of leptin resistance has recently been attracting interest as a treatment for obesity. The mechanisms underlying the development of leptin resistance need to be elucidated in more detail. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was recently suggested to be involved in the pathogenesis of leptin resistance. The molecular mechanisms responsible for leptin resistance and possible pharmacological treatments for obesity have been discussed herein, with a focus on ER stress. PMID:27375555

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated induction of SESTRIN 2 potentiates cell survival

    PubMed Central

    Ayo, Abiodun; Pakos-Zebrucka, Karolina; Patterson, John B

    2016-01-01

    Upregulation of SESTRIN 2 (SESN2) has been reported in response to diverse cellular stresses. In this study we demonstrate SESTRIN 2 induction following endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. ER stress-induced increases in SESTRIN 2 expression were dependent on both PERK and IRE1/XBP1 arms of the unfolded protein response (UPR). SESTRIN 2 induction, post ER stress, was responsible for mTORC1 inactivation and contributed to autophagy induction. Conversely, knockdown of SESTRIN 2 prolonged mTORC1 signaling, repressed autophagy and increased ER stress-induced cell death. Unexpectedly, the increase in ER stress-induced cell death was not linked to autophagy inhibition. Analysis of UPR pathways identified prolonged eIF2α, ATF4 and CHOP signaling in SESTRIN 2 knockdown cells following ER stress. SESTRIN 2 regulation enables UPR derived signals to indirectly control mTORC1 activity shutting down protein translation thus preventing further exacerbation of ER stress. PMID:26930721

  14. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Signaling in Mammalian Oocytes and Embryos: Life in the Balance

    PubMed Central

    Latham, Keith E.

    2015-01-01

    Mammalian oocytes and embryos are exquisitely sensitive to a wide range of insults related to physical stress, chemical exposure, and exposures to adverse maternal nutrition or health status. Although cells manifest specific responses to various stressors, many of these stressors intersect at the endoplasmic reticulum, where disruptions in protein folding and production of reactive oxygen species initiate downstream signaling events. These signals modulate mRNA translation and gene transcription, leading to recovery, activation of autophagy, or with severe and prolonged stress, apoptosis. ER stress signaling has recently come to the fore as a major contributor to embryo demise. Accordingly, agents that modulate or inhibit ER stress signaling have yielded beneficial effects on embryo survival and long-term developmental potential. We review here the mechanisms of ER stress signaling, their connections to mammalian oocytes and embryos, and the promising indications that interventions in this pathway may provide new opportunities for improving mammalian reproduction and health. PMID:25805126

  15. Rg1 exhibits neuroprotective effects by inhibiting the endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase apoptotic pathway in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Mu, Jun-Shan; Lin, Hang; Ye, Jian-Xin; Lin, Min; Cui, Xiao-Ping

    2015-09-01

    The neuroprotective agents currently used to treat Alzheimer's disease (AD) often only target one aspect of the disease process. Therefore, identifying effective drug targets associated with the pathogenesis of AD is critical for the production of novel AD therapeutic strategies. The present study aimed to investigate the underlying mechanisms of the neuroprotective effects of Rg1 on a rat model of AD. A double transgenic β‑amyloid (Aβ) precursor protein/PS1 rat model was established, which co‑expressed mutations associated with AD. Aβ plaques and neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) were detected by immunohistochemistry. The detection of the protein expression levels of caspase‑3 and terminal deoxynucleotidyl‑transferase‑mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) staining were used to determine the level of apoptosis in the brain tissue. The expression levels of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress biomarker, glucose‑regulated protein 78 (Grp78), and the mitochondrial apoptosis biomarkers, B‑cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl‑2) and Bcl‑2‑associated X protein (Bax), were analyzed by western blotting. Furthermore, the expression of the proteins associated with the ER stress unfolded protein response (UPR) was determined, in order to examine the levels of ER stress. The mRNA expression of downstream genes of UPR were also detected by reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction. The protein expression levels of the apoptosis‑associated phosphorylated‑c‑Jun N‑terminal protein kinase (p‑JNK), caspase‑12 and cAMP response element‑binding transcription factor homologous protein were determined by western blotting. The results of the present study indicated that the accumulation of NFTs and Aβ plaques was significantly decreased in the Rg1‑treated AD rats, compared with untreated AD rats. The expression of caspase‑3 and the number of TUNEL‑positive cells were also significantly decreased in the Rg1‑treated rats, as compared with the AD rats

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum membrane potassium channel dysfunction in high fat diet induced stress in rat hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Khodaee, Naser; Ghasemi, Maedeh; Saghiri, Reza; Eliassi, Afsaneh

    2014-01-01

    In a previous study we reported the presence of a large conductance K+ channel in the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) from rat hepatocytes. The channel open probability (Po) appeared voltage dependent and reached to a minimum 0.2 at +50 mV. Channel activity in this case was found to be totally inhibited at ATP concentration 2.5 mM, glibenclamide 100 µM and tolbutamide 400 µM. Existing evidence indicates an impairment of endoplasmic reticulum functions in ER stress condition. Because ER potassium channels have been involved in several ER functions including cytoprotection, apoptosis and calcium homeostasis, a study was carried out to consider whether the ER potassium channel function is altered in a high fat diet model of ER stress. Male Wistar rats were made ER stress for 2 weeks with a high fat diet. Ion channel incorporation of ER stress model into the bilayer lipid membrane allowed the characterization of K+ channel. Our results indicate that the channel Po was significantly increased at voltages above +30 mV. Interestingly, addition of ATP 7.5 mM, glibenclamide 400 µM and tolbutamide 2400 µM totally inhibited the channel activities, 3-fold, 4-fold and 6-fold higher than that in the control groups, respectively. Our results thus demonstrate a modification in the ER K+ channel gating properties and decreased sensitivity to drugs in membrane preparations coming from ER high fat model of ER stress, an effect potentially linked to a change in ER K+ channel subunits in ER stress condition. Our results may provide new insights into the cellular mechanisms underlying ER dysfunctions in ER stress. PMID:26417322

  17. Tributyltin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and its Ca{sup 2+}-mediated mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Isomura, Midori; Kotake, Yaichiro Masuda, Kyoichi; Miyara, Masatsugu; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Samizo, Shigeyoshi; Sanoh, Seigo; Hosoi, Toru; Ozawa, Koichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    Organotin compounds, especially tributyltin chloride (TBT), have been widely used in antifouling paints for marine vessels, but exhibit various toxicities in mammals. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle that controls post-translational modification and intracellular Ca{sup 2+} signaling. When the capacity of the quality control system of ER is exceeded under stress including ER Ca{sup 2+} homeostasis disruption, ER functions are impaired and unfolded proteins are accumulated in ER lumen, which is called ER stress. Here, we examined whether TBT causes ER stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that 700 nM TBT induced ER stress markers such as CHOP, GRP78, spliced XBP1 mRNA and phosphorylated eIF2α. TBT also decreased the cell viability both concentration- and time-dependently. Dibutyltin and monobutyltin did not induce ER stress markers. We hypothesized that TBT induces ER stress via Ca{sup 2+} depletion, and to test this idea, we examined the effect of TBT on intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration using fura-2 AM, a Ca{sup 2+} fluorescent probe. TBT increased intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration in a TBT-concentration-dependent manner, and Ca{sup 2+} increase in 700 nM TBT was mainly blocked by 50 μM dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist (about 70% inhibition). Dantrolene also partially but significantly inhibited TBT-induced GRP78 expression and cell death. These results suggest that TBT increases intracellular Ca{sup 2+} concentration by releasing Ca{sup 2+} from ER, thereby causing ER stress. - Highlights: • We established that tributyltin induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. • Tributyltin induces ER stress markers in a concentration-dependent manner. • Tributyltin increases Ca{sup 2+} release from ER, thereby causing ER stress. • Dibutyltin and monobutyltin did not increase GRP78 or intracellular Ca{sup 2+}.

  18. The Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Unfolded Protein Response in Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Ekaterina A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.

    2016-01-01

    Pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is a complex process involving several metabolic and signalling pathways. Accumulating evidence demonstrates that endoplasmic reticulum stress and associated apoptosis can be induced in the pathological conditions of atherosclerotic lesions and contribute to the disease progression. Notably, they may play a role in the development of vulnerable plaques that induce thrombosis and are therefore especially dangerous. Endoplasmic reticulum stress response is regulated by several signaling mechanisms that involve protein kinases and transcription factors. Some of these molecules can be regarded as potential therapeutic targets to improve treatment of atherosclerosis. In this review we will discuss the role of endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in atherosclerosis development in different cell types and summarize the current knowledge on potential therapeutic agents targeting molecules regulating these pathways and their possible use for anti-atherosclerotic therapy. PMID:26840309

  19. [Role of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular disease].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ming; Jia, Hang-Huan; Xu, Man; Yu, Xiao-Jiang; Liu, Long-Zhu; Zang, Wei-Jin

    2016-08-25

    Calcium overload is one of the important mechanisms of cardiovascular disease. Endoplasmic reticulum is an important organelle which regulates intracellular calcium homeostasis by uptake, storage and mobilization of calcium. So it plays a critical role in regulation of intracellular calcium homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum, which is widely distributed in cytoplasm, has a large number of membrane junction sites. Recent studies have reported that these junction sites are distributed on plasma membrane and organelle membranes (mitochondria, lysosomes, Golgi apparatus, etc.), separately. They could form complexes to regulate calcium transport. In this review, we briefly outlined the recent research progresses of endoplasmic reticulum-plasma membrane junctions in intracellular calcium homeostasis and cardiovascular disease, which may offer a new strategy for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular disease. PMID:27546511

  20. Sequential NO production by mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum during induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Bustamante, Juanita; Bersier, Geraldine; Badin, Romina Aron; Cymeryng, Cora; Parodi, Armando; Boveris, Alberto

    2002-05-01

    Early stages of rat thymocyte apoptosis measured as annexin-V positive events and induced by methylprednisolone (MPS), etoposide, and thapsigargin, showed a sequential increase in nitric oxide (NO) production by mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Thapsigargin induced the highest NO production, a sevenfold increase as compared with untreated thymocytes, in mitochondrial and microsomal membranes. MPS and etoposide were equally effective in increasing NO production by mitochondrial membranes by a factor of 4-5, with only a slight increase in NO production by endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Western blot analysis of both types of membrane indicated that a nitric oxide synthase (NOS) isoenzyme is present in mitochondrial membranes and reacts with antibodies to i-NOS (type II), while reactivity to antibodies to e-NOS (type III) was restricted to endoplasmic reticulum. The participation of endoplasmic reticulum during apoptosis was further determined by alterations in UDP-Glucosyltransferase (UDP-GT) and NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase. Increased UDP-GT activity was observed after thapsigargin treatment, and no changes were found after treatment with etoposide or MPS. NADPH cytochrome P450 reductase activity markedly decreased during apoptosis, being stronger after thapsigargin treatment. The latest stage of the apoptotic process was measured by caspase activities. Caspase 3 activity was markedly increased by the three apoptosis inducers; caspase 6 was only activated by MPS and etoposide, while caspase 8 was not activated by any of these inducers. It is clear that mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum are involved in thapsigargin induced thymocyte apoptosis. Meanwhile, other thymocyte apoptotic pathways, such as those induced by MPS or etoposide, seem to centrally involve mitochondria but not endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:12009851

  1. Endoplasmic reticulum stress up-regulates Nedd4-2 to induce autophagy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hao; Sun, Ruo-Qiong; Camera, Daria; Zeng, Xiao-Yi; Jo, Eunjung; Chan, Stanley M H; Herbert, Terence P; Molero, Juan C; Ye, Ji-Ming

    2016-07-01

    The accumulation of unfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes ER stress and activation of unfolded protein response (UPR). This response can trigger ER-associated degradation and autophagy, which clear unfolded proteins and restore protein homeostasis. Recently, it has become clear that ubiquitination plays an important role in the regulation of autophagy. In the present study, we investigated how the E3 ubiquitin ligase neural precursor cell-expressed, developmentally down-regulated protein 4-2 (Nedd4-2) interacts with ER stress and autophagy. In mice, we found that an increase in the expression of Nedd4-2, which was concomitant with the activation of the UPR and autophagy, was caused by a prolonged high-fructose and high-fat diet that induces ER stress in the liver. Pharmacologic induction of ER stress also led to an increase in Nedd4-2 expression in cultured cells, which was coincident with UPR and autophagy activation. The inhibition of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 significantly suppressed Nedd4-2 expression. Moreover, increased Nedd4-2 expression in vivo was closely associated with the activation of inositol-requiring enzyme 1 and increased expression of the spliced form of X-box binding protein 1. Furthermore, knockdown of Nedd4-2 in cultured cells suppressed both basal autophagy and ER stress-induced autophagy, whereas overexpression of Nedd4-2-induced autophagy. Taken together, our findings provide evidence that Nedd4-2 is up-regulated in response to ER stress by the spliced form of X-box binding protein 1 and that this is important in the induction of an appropriate autophagic response.-Wang, H. Sun, R.-Q., Camera, D., Zeng, X.-Y., Jo, E., Chan, S. M. H., Herbert, T. P., Molero, J. C., Ye, J.-M. Endoplasmic reticulum stress up-regulates Nedd4-2 to induce autophagy. PMID:27022162

  2. Inhibitors of Endoplasmic Reticulum α-Glucosidases Potently Suppress Hepatitis C Virus Virion Assembly and Release▿

    PubMed Central

    Qu, Xiaowang; Pan, Xiaoben; Weidner, Jessica; Yu, Wenquan; Alonzi, Dominic; Xu, Xiaodong; Butters, Terry; Block, Timothy; Guo, Ju-Tao; Chang, Jinhong

    2011-01-01

    α-Glucosidases I and II are endoplasmic reticulum-resident enzymes that are essential for N-linked glycan processing and subsequent proper folding of glycoproteins. In this report, we first demonstrate that downregulation of the expression of α-glucosidase I, II, or both in Huh7.5 cells by small hairpin RNA technology inhibited the production of hepatitis C virus (HCV). In agreement with the essential role of α-glucosidases in HCV envelope glycoprotein processing and folding, treatment of HCV-infected cells with a panel of imino sugar derivatives, which are competitive inhibitors of α-glucosidases, did not affect intracellular HCV RNA replication and nonstructural protein expression but resulted in the inhibition of glycan processing and subsequent degradation of HCV E2 glycoprotein. As a consequence, HCV virion assembly and secretion were inhibited. In searching for imino sugars with better antiviral activity, we found that a novel imino sugar, PBDNJ0804, had a superior ability to inhibit HCV virion assembly and secretion. In summary, we demonstrated that glucosidases are important host factor-based antiviral targets for HCV infection. The low likelihood of drug-resistant virus emergence and potent antiviral efficacy of the novel glucosidase inhibitor hold promise for its development as a therapeutic agent for the treatment of chronic hepatitis C. PMID:21173177

  3. Cationic polystyrene nanospheres induce autophagic cell death through the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Xia, Tian; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chun-Wan; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2014-12-01

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used to produce a wide range of products that have applications in imaging and drug delivery in medicine. Due to their chemical stability, well-controlled sizes and surface charges, polystyrene (PS) NPs have been developed as biosensors and drug delivery carriers. However, the possible adverse biological effects and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in the regulation of cell death. In this study, we evaluated a library of PS NPs with different surface charges. We found that NH2-labeled polystyrene (NH2-PS) nanospheres were highly toxic with enhanced uptake in macrophage (RAW 264.7) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Furthermore, NH2-PS could induce autophagic cell death. NH2-PS increased autophagic flux due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by misfolded protein aggregation. The inhibition of ER stress decreased cytotoxicity and autophagy in the NH2-PS-treated cells. In addition, the Akt/mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of NH2-PS-triggered autophagic cell death. These results suggest an important role of autophagy in cationic NP-induced cell death and provide mechanistic insights into the inhibition of the toxicity and safe material design.Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used to produce a wide range of products that have applications in imaging and drug delivery in medicine. Due to their chemical stability, well-controlled sizes and surface charges, polystyrene (PS) NPs have been developed as biosensors and drug delivery carriers. However, the possible adverse biological effects and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in the regulation of cell death. In this study, we evaluated a library of PS NPs with different surface charges. We found that NH2-labeled polystyrene (NH2-PS) nanospheres were highly toxic with enhanced uptake in macrophage (RAW 264.7) and lung

  4. ALUMINUM ALTERS CALCIUM TRANSPORT IN PLASMA MEMBRANE AND ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM FROM RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Calcium is actively transported into intracellular organelles and out of the cytoplasm by Ca2+/Mg2+-ATPases located in the endoplasmic reticulum and plasma membranes. he effects of aluminum on calcium transport were examined in the adult rat brain. 5Ca-uptake was examined in micr...

  5. Bright fluorogenic squaraines with tuned cell entry for selective imaging of plasma membrane vs. endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Collot, Mayeul; Kreder, Rémy; Tatarets, Anatoliy L; Patsenker, Leonid D; Mely, Yves; Klymchenko, Andrey S

    2015-12-14

    A rational design of squaraine dyes with lipophilic and zwitterionic groups tunes cell entry, allowing for selective far-red/near-infrared imaging of plasma membrane vs. endoplasmic reticulum. They exhibit up to 110-fold fluorescence enhancement in biomembranes and enable cellular imaging at 1 nM concentration, which make them the brightest membrane probes to date. PMID:26455447

  6. Chlorhexidine-induced apoptosis or necrosis in L929 fibroblasts: A role for endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Faria, Gisele; Cardoso, Cristina R.B.; Larson, Roy E.; Silva, Joao S.; Rossi, Marcos A.

    2009-01-15

    Chlorhexidine (CHX), widely used as antiseptic and therapeutic agent in medicine and dentistry, has a toxic effect both in vivo and in vitro. The intrinsic mechanism underlying CHX-induced cytotoxicity in eukaryotic cells is, however, still unknown. A recent study from our laboratory has suggested that CHX may induce death in cultured L929 fibroblasts via endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. This hypothesis was further tested by means of light and electron microscopy, quantification of apoptosis and necrosis by flow cytometry, fluorescence visualization of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum, and evaluation of the expression of 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein 78 (Grp78), a marker of activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cultured L929 fibroblasts. Our finding showing increased Grp 78 expression in CHX-treated cells and the results of flow cytometry, cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum fluorescence visualization, and scanning and transmission electron microscopy allowed us to suggest that CHX elicits accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum, which causes ER overload, resulting in ER stress and cell death either by necrosis or apoptosis. It must be pointed out, however, that this does not necessarily mean that ER stress is the only way that CHX kills L929 fibroblasts, but rather that ER stress is an important target or indicator of cell death induced by this drug.

  7. Regulation of the unfolded protein response via S-nitrosylation of sensors of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Nakato, Ryosuke; Ohkubo, Yu; Konishi, Akari; Shibata, Mari; Kaneko, Yuki; Iwawaki, Takao; Nakamura, Tomohiro; Lipton, Stuart A.; Uehara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Protein S-nitrosylation modulates important cellular processes, including neurotransmission, vasodilation, proliferation, and apoptosis in various cell types. We have previously reported that protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) is S-nitrosylated in brains of patients with sporadic neurodegenerative diseases. This modification inhibits PDI enzymatic activity and consequently leads to the accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) lumen. Here, we describe S-nitrosylation of additional ER pathways that affect the unfolded protein response (UPR) in cell-based models of Parkinson’s disease (PD). We demonstrate that nitric oxide (NO) can S-nitrosylate the ER stress sensors IRE1α and PERK. While S-nitrosylation of IRE1α inhibited its ribonuclease activity, S-nitrosylation of PERK activated its kinase activity and downstream phosphorylation/inactivation or eIF2α. Site-directed mutagenesis of IRE1α(Cys931) prevented S-nitrosylation and inhibition of its ribonuclease activity, indicating that Cys931 is the predominant site of S-nitrosylation. Importantly, cells overexpressing mutant IRE1α(C931S) were resistant to NO-induced damage. Our findings show that nitrosative stress leads to dysfunctional ER stress signaling, thus contributing to neuronal cell death. PMID:26446798

  8. The endoplasmic reticulum protein folding factory and its chaperones: new targets for drug discovery?

    PubMed Central

    McLaughlin, Martin; Vandenbroeck, Koen

    2011-01-01

    Cytosolic heat shock proteins have received significant attention as emerging therapeutic targets. Much of this excitement has been triggered by the discovery that HSP90 plays a central role in the maintenance and stability of multifarious oncogenic membrane receptors and their resultant tyrosine kinase activity. Numerous studies have dealt with the effects of small molecules on chaperone- and stress-related pathways of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). However, unlike cytosolic chaperones, relatively little emphasis has been placed upon translational avenues towards targeting of the ER for inhibition of folding/secretion of disease-promoting proteins. Here, we summarise existing small molecule inhibitors and potential future targets of ER chaperone-mediated inhibition. Client proteins of translational relevance in disease treatment are outlined, alongside putative future disease treatment modalities based on ER-centric targeted therapies. Particular attention is paid to cancer and autoimmune disorders via the effects of the GRP94 inhibitor geldanamycin and its population of client proteins, overloading of the unfolded protein response, and inhibition of members of the IL-12 family of cytokines by celecoxib and non-coxib analogues. PMID:20942857

  9. Endoplasmic reticulum stress mediates withaferin A-induced apoptosis in human renal carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Choi, Min Jung; Park, Eun Jung; Min, Kyoung Jin; Park, Jong-Wook; Kwon, Taeg Kyu

    2011-04-01

    The accumulation of misfolded proteins in the lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in cellular stress that initiates a specialized response designated as the unfolded protein response. ER stress has been implicated in a variety of common diseases, such as diabetes, ischemia and neurodegenerative disorders. Withaferin A, a major chemical constituent of Withania somnifera, has been reported to inhibit tumor cell growth. We show that withaferin A induced a dose-dependent apoptotic cell death in several types of human cancer cells, as measured by FACS analysis and PARP cleavage. Treatment of Caki cells with withaferin A induced a number of signature ER stress markers, including phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor-2α (eIF-2 α), ER stress-specific XBP1 splicing, and up-regulation of glucose-regulated protein (GRP)-78. In addition, withaferin A caused up-regulation of CAAT/enhancer-binding protein-homologous protein (CHOP), suggesting the induction of ER stress. Pretreatment with N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) significantly inhibited withaferin A-mediated ER stress proteins and cell death, suggesting that reactive oxygen species (ROS) mediate withaferin A-induced ER stress. Furthermore, CHOP siRNA or inhibition of caspase-4 activity attenuated withaferin A-induced apoptosis. Taken together, the present study provides strong evidence supporting an important role of the ER stress response in mediating withaferin A-induced apoptosis. PMID:21266191

  10. Identification of the endoplasmic reticulum targeting signal in vesicle-associated membrane proteins.

    PubMed

    Kim, P K; Hollerbach, C; Trimble, W S; Leber, B; Andrews, D W

    1999-12-24

    The vesicle-associated membrane proteins (Vamp(s)) function as soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment receptor proteins in the intracellular trafficking of vesicles. The membrane attachment of Vamps requires a carboxyl-terminal hydrophobic sequence termed an insertion sequence. Unlike other insertion sequence-containing proteins, targeting of the highly homologous Vamp1 and Vamp2 to the endoplasmic reticulum requires ATP and a membrane-bound receptor. To determine if this mechanism of targeting to the endoplasmic reticulum extends to other Vamps, we compared the membrane binding of Vamp1 and Vamp2 with the distantly related Vamp8. Similar to the other Vamps, Vamp8 requires both ATP and a membrane component to target to the endoplasmic reticulum. Furthermore, binding curves for the three Vamps overlap, suggesting a common receptor-mediated process. We identified a minimal endoplasmic reticulum targeting domain that is both necessary and sufficient to confer receptor-mediated, ATP-dependent, binding of a heterologous protein to microsomes. Surprisingly, this conserved sequence includes four positively charged amino acids spaced along an amphipathic sequence, which unlike the carboxyl-terminal targeting sequence in mitochondrial Vamp isoforms, is amino-terminal to the insertion sequence. Because Vamps do not bind to phospholipid vesicles, it is likely that these residues mediate an interaction with a protein, rather than bind to acidic phospholipids. Therefore, we suggest that a bipartite motif is required for the specific targeting and integration of Vamps into the endoplasmic reticulum with receptor-mediated recognition of specifically configured positive residues leading to the insertion of the hydrophobic tail into the membrane. PMID:10601239

  11. The combination of 1α,25dihydroxyvitaminD3 with resveratrol improves neuronal degeneration by regulating endoplasmic reticulum stress, insulin signaling and inhibiting tau hyperphosphorylation in SH-SY5Y cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jinbo; Xia, Xianghou; Rui, Yehua; Zhang, Zengli; Qin, Liqiang; Han, Shufen; Wan, Zhongxiao

    2016-07-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is a critical factor involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Vitamin D and resveratrol are two nutritional factors that have reported neuroprotective effects, and findings from cellular models suggest that resveratrol could potentiate vitamin D's effects. We aimed to determine the effects of vitamin D & resveratrol on ER stress mediated neurodegeneration and whether synergistic effects existed. Tunicamycin and Aβ25-35 was utilized to induce ER stress in SH-SY5Y cells, cells were then incubated with vitamin D and resveratrol. The combination of vitamin D & resveratrol completely reversed tunicamycin and Aβ25-35 induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells, as well as elevation in ER stress markers (i.e.GRP78, p-eIF2α and CHOP), insulin signaling disruption (i.e. elevation in p-IRS-1serine307 and reduction in p-Akt serine473) and tau phosphorylation (i.e. reduction in p-GSK3β serine9, and elevation in p-Tau serine396 &404). Further studies are required to clarify whether the observed synergistic effects in the present study would also existed in vivo, this will lay scientific foundation whether the combination of vitamin D with resveratrol might be an effective maneuver in the treatment of AD in human subjects. PMID:27133915

  12. Metabolically Regulated Endoplasmic Reticulum-associated Degradation of 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA Reductase

    PubMed Central

    Leichner, Gil S.; Avner, Rachel; Harats, Dror; Roitelman, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    In mammalian cells, the enzyme 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGR), which catalyzes the rate-limiting step in the mevalonate pathway, is ubiquitylated and degraded by the 26 S proteasome when mevalonate-derived metabolites accumulate, representing a case of metabolically regulated endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Here, we studied which mevalonate-derived metabolites signal for HMGR degradation and the ERAD step(s) in which these metabolites are required. In HMGR-deficient UT-2 cells that stably express HMGal, a chimeric protein between β-galactosidase and the membrane region of HMGR, which is necessary and sufficient for the regulated ERAD, we tested inhibitors specific to different steps in the mevalonate pathway. We found that metabolites downstream of farnesyl pyrophosphate but upstream to lanosterol were highly effective in initiating ubiquitylation, dislocation, and degradation of HMGal. Similar results were observed for endogenous HMGR in cells that express this protein. Ubiquitylation, dislocation, and proteasomal degradation of HMGal were severely hampered when production of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate was inhibited. Importantly, inhibition of protein geranylgeranylation markedly attenuated ubiquitylation and dislocation, implicating for the first time a geranylgeranylated protein(s) in the metabolically regulated ERAD of HMGR. PMID:21778231

  13. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-regulated CXCR3 pathway mediates inflammation and neuronal injury in acute glaucoma

    PubMed Central

    Ha, Y; Liu, H; Xu, Z; Yokota, H; Narayanan, S P; Lemtalsi, T; Smith, S B; Caldwell, R W; Caldwell, R B; Zhang, W

    2015-01-01

    Acute glaucoma is a leading cause of irreversible blindness in East Asia. The mechanisms underlying retinal neuronal injury induced by a sudden rise in intraocular pressure (IOP) remain obscure. Here we demonstrate that the activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 axis, which mediates the recruitment and activation of inflammatory cells, has a critical role in a mouse model of acute glaucoma. The mRNA and protein expression levels of CXCL10 and CXCR3 were significantly increased after IOP-induced retinal ischemia. Blockade of the CXCR3 pathway by deleting CXCR3 gene significantly attenuated ischemic injury-induced upregulation of inflammatory molecules (interleukin-1β and E-selectin), inhibited the recruitment of microglia/monocyte to the superficial retina, reduced peroxynitrite formation, and prevented the loss of neurons within the ganglion cell layer. In contrast, intravitreal delivery of CXCL10 increased leukocyte recruitment and retinal cell apoptosis. Inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress with chemical chaperones partially blocked ischemic injury-induced CXCL10 upregulation, whereas induction of ER stress with tunicamycin enhanced CXCL10 expression in retina and primary retinal ganglion cells. Interestingly, deleting CXCR3 attenuated ER stress-induced retinal cell death. In conclusion, these results indicate that ER stress-medicated activation of CXCL10/CXCR3 pathway has an important role in retinal inflammation and neuronal injury after high IOP-induced ischemia. PMID:26448323

  14. The antitumor natural compound falcarindiol promotes cancer cell death by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Jin, H R; Zhao, J; Zhang, Z; Liao, Y; Wang, C-Z; Huang, W-H; Li, S-P; He, T-C; Yuan, C-S; Du, W

    2012-01-01

    Falcarindiol (FAD) is a natural polyyne with various beneficial biological activities. We show here that FAD preferentially kills colon cancer cells but not normal colon epithelial cells. Furthermore, FAD inhibits tumor growth in a xenograft tumor model and exhibits strong synergistic killing of cancer cells with 5-fluorouracil, an approved cancer chemotherapeutic drug. We demonstrate that FAD-induced cell death is mediated by induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR). Decreasing the level of ER stress, either by overexpressing the ER chaperone protein glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) or by knockout of components of the UPR pathway, reduces FAD-induced apoptosis. In contrast, increasing the level of ER stress by knocking down GRP78 potentiates FAD-induced apoptosis. Finally, FAD-induced ER stress and apoptosis is correlated with the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins, suggesting that FAD functions at least in part by interfering with proteasome function, leading to the accumulation of unfolded protein and induction of ER stress. Consistent with this, inhibition of protein synthesis by cycloheximide significantly decreases the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins and blocks FAD-induced ER stress and cell death. Taken together, our study shows that FAD is a potential new anticancer agent that exerts its activity through inducing ER stress and apoptosis. PMID:22914324

  15. Ascorbic acid protects against cadmium-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and germ cell apoptosis in testes.

    PubMed

    Ji, Yan-Li; Wang, Zhen; Wang, Hua; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Zhao, Mei; Chen, Yuan-Hua; Meng, Xiu-Hong; Xu, De-Xiang

    2012-11-01

    Cadmium (Cd) is a testicular toxicant which induces endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and germ cell apoptosis in testes. This study investigated the effects of ascorbic acid on Cd-evoked ER stress and germ cell apoptosis in testes. Male mice were intraperitoneally injected with CdCl(2) (2.0 mg/kg). As expected, a single dose of Cd induced testicular germ cell apoptosis. Interestingly, Cd-triggered testicular germ cell apoptosis was almost completely inhibited in mice treated with ascorbic acid. Interestingly, ascorbic acid significantly attenuated Cd-induced upregulation of GRP78 in testes. In addition, ascorbic acid significantly attenuated Cd-triggered testicular IRE1α and eIF2α phosphorylation and XBP-1 activation, indicating that this antioxidant counteracts Cd-induced unfolded protein response (UPR) in testes. Finally, ascorbic acid significantly attenuated Cd-evoked upregulation of CHOP and JNK phosphorylation, two components in ER stress-mediated apoptotic pathway. In conclusion, ascorbic acid protects mice from Cd-triggered germ cell apoptosis via inhibiting ER stress and UPR in testes. PMID:22569276

  16. Advanced glycation end products suppress osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cells by activating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Ken-ichiro; Yamaguchi, Toru; Kaji, Hiroshi; Kanazawa, Ippei; Sugimoto, Toshitsugu

    2013-08-30

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are involved in bone quality deterioration in diabetes mellitus. We previously showed that AGE2 or AGE3 inhibited osteoblastic differentiation and mineralization of mouse stromal ST2 cells, and also induced apoptosis and decreased cell growth. Although quality management for synthesized proteins in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is crucial for the maturation of osteoblasts, the effects of AGEs on ER stress in osteoblast lineage are unknown. We thus examined roles of ER stress in AGE2- or AGE3-induced suppression of osteoblastogenesis of ST2 cells. An ER stress inducer, thapsigargin (TG), induced osteoblastic differentiation of ST2 cells by increasing the levels of Osterix, type 1 collagen (Col1), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and osteocalcin (OCN) mRNA. AGE2 or AGE3 suppressed the levels of ER stress sensors such as IRE1α, ATF6 and OASIS, while they increased the levels of PERK and its downstream molecules, ATF4. A reduction in PERK level by siRNA did not affect the AGEs-induced suppression of the levels of Osterix, Col1 and OCN mRNA. In conclusion, AGEs inhibited the osteoblastic differentiation of stromal cells by suppressing ER stress sensors and accumulating abnormal proteins in the cells. This process might accelerate AGEs-induced suppression of bone formation found in diabetes mellitus. PMID:23933252

  17. Stop-and-move of a marginally hydrophobic segment translocating across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Onishi, Yukiko; Yamagishi, Marifu; Imai, Kenta; Fujita, Hidenobu; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2013-09-01

    Many membrane proteins are cotranslationally integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane via the protein-conducting channel, the so-called translocon. The hydrophobic transmembrane segment of the translocating nascent polypeptide chain stops at the translocon and then moves laterally into the membrane. Partitioning of the hydrophobic segment into the membrane is the primary determinant for membrane insertion. Here, we examined the behavior of a marginally hydrophobic segment at the translocon and found that its stop-translocation was greatly affected by the C-terminally attached ribosomes. The marginally hydrophobic segment first stops at the membrane and then moves into the lumen as long as the nascent chain is attached to translating ribosomes. When it is released from the ribosome by the termination codon, the marginally hydrophobic segment does not move. Puromycin or RNase treatment also suppressed movement. The movement was reversibly inhibited by high-salt conditions and irreversibly inhibited by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. There is an unstable state prior to the stable membrane insertion of the transmembrane segment. This characteristic state is maintained by the synthesizing ribosome. PMID:23747484

  18. Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces ligand-independent TNFR1-mediated necroptosis in L929 cells

    PubMed Central

    Saveljeva, S; Mc Laughlin, S L; Vandenabeele, P; Samali, A; Bertrand, M J M

    2015-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-induced cellular dysfunction and death is associated with several human diseases. It has been widely reported that ER stress kills through activation of the intrinsic mitochondrial apoptotic pathway. Here we demonstrate that ER stress can also induce necroptosis, an receptor-interacting protein kinase 1 (RIPK1)/RIPK3/mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL)-dependent form of necrosis. Remarkably, we observed that necroptosis induced by various ER stressors in L929 cells is dependent on tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1), but occurs independently of autocrine TNF or lymphotoxin α production. Moreover, we found that repression of either TNFR1, RIPK1 or MLKL did not protect the cells from death but instead allowed a switch to ER stress-induced apoptosis. Interestingly, while caspase inhibition was sufficient to protect TNFR1- or MLKL-deficient cells from death, rescue of the RIPK1-deficient cells additionally required RIPK3 depletion, indicating a switch back to RIPK3-dependent necroptosis in caspase-inhibited conditions. The finding that ER stress also induces necroptosis may open new therapeutic opportunities for the treatment of pathologies resulting from unresolved ER stress. PMID:25569104

  19. Cationic polystyrene nanospheres induce autophagic cell death through the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Wen; Xia, Tian; Lee, Yu-Hsuan; Chen, Chun-Wan; Tsai, Jui-Chen; Wang, Ying-Jan

    2015-01-14

    Nanoparticles (NPs) have been used to produce a wide range of products that have applications in imaging and drug delivery in medicine. Due to their chemical stability, well-controlled sizes and surface charges, polystyrene (PS) NPs have been developed as biosensors and drug delivery carriers. However, the possible adverse biological effects and underlying mechanisms are still unclear. Recently, autophagy has been implicated in the regulation of cell death. In this study, we evaluated a library of PS NPs with different surface charges. We found that NH2-labeled polystyrene (NH2-PS) nanospheres were highly toxic with enhanced uptake in macrophage (RAW 264.7) and lung epithelial (BEAS-2B) cells. Furthermore, NH2-PS could induce autophagic cell death. NH2-PS increased autophagic flux due to reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress caused by misfolded protein aggregation. The inhibition of ER stress decreased cytotoxicity and autophagy in the NH2-PS-treated cells. In addition, the Akt/mTOR and AMPK signaling pathways were involved in the regulation of NH2-PS-triggered autophagic cell death. These results suggest an important role of autophagy in cationic NP-induced cell death and provide mechanistic insights into the inhibition of the toxicity and safe material design. PMID:25429417

  20. Thioredoxin-1 Increases Survival in Sepsis by Inflammatory Response Through Suppressing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Chen, Guobing; Li, Xiang; Huang, Mengbing; Li, Mei; Zhou, Xiaoshuang; Li, Ye; Bai, Jie

    2016-07-01

    Sepsis is the main cause of death in critically ill patients, pathogenesis of which is still unclear. The nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inflammatory signal pathway mediated by endoplasmic reticulum stress is involved in sepsis. Thioredoxin-1 (Trx-1) is an important protein of regulating oxidative stress. It plays a crucial role in the anti-oxidation, anti-apoptosis, and anti-inflammation. However, the role and the mechanism of Trx-1 in sepsis have not been extensively studied. In the present study, we showed that the survival was longer in sepsis induced by cecal ligation and puncture in Trx-1 overexpression transgenic (Tg) mice compared with wild-type mice. Wet/dry lung weight ratio was decreased in Trx-1 Tg mice. The levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in plasma and lung tissue were inhibited in Tg mice. The expressions of glucose-regulated protein 78, inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE1α), tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 2, C/EBP homologous protein, NF-κB, and inhibitors of NF-κBα were increased in lung tissue. More importantly, the overexpression of Trx-1 in transgenic mice suppressed NF-κB inflammatory signal pathway by inhibiting the activation of molecules involved in ER stress. Our results suggest that Trx-1 may play protective role in extending survival in sepsis by regulating inflammatory response through suppressing ER stress. PMID:27299588

  1. Detection of GTP-binding proteins in purified derivatives of rough endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Lanoix, J; Roy, L; Paiement, J

    1989-01-01

    As a first step in determining the molecular mechanism of membrane fusion stimulated by GTP in rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER), we have looked for GTP-binding proteins. Rough microsomes from rat liver were treated for the release of ribosomes, and the membrane proteins were separated by SDS/polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. The polypeptides were then blotted on to nitrocellulose sheets and incubated with [alpha-32P]GTP [Bhullar & Haslam (1987) Biochem. J. 245, 617-620]. A doublet of polypeptides (23 and 24 kDa) was detected in the presence of 2 microM-MgCl2. Binding of [alpha-32P]GTP was blocked by 1-5 mM-EDTA, 10-10,000 nM-GTP or 10 microM-GDP. Either guanosine 5'-[gamma-thio]triphosphate or guanosine 5'-[beta gamma-imido]triphosphate at 100 nM completely inhibited binding, but ATP, CTP or UTP at 10 mciroM did not. Pretreatment of microsomes by mild trypsin treatment (0.5-10 micrograms of trypsin/ml, concentrations known not to affect microsomal permeability) led to inhibition of [alpha-32P]GTP binding, suggesting a cytosolic membrane orientation for the GTP-binding proteins. Two-dimensional gel-electrophoretic analysis revealed the 23 and 24 kDa [alpha-32P]GTP-binding proteins to have similar acid isoelectric points. [alpha-32P]GTP binding occurred to similar proteins of rough microsomes from rat liver, rat prostate and dog pancreas, as well as to a 23 kDa protein of rough microsomes from frog liver, but occurred to distinctly different proteins in a rat liver plasma-membrane-enriched fraction. Thus [alpha-32P]GTP binding has been demonstrated to two low-molecular-mass (approx. 21 kDa) proteins in the rough endoplasmic reticulum of several varied cell types. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:2508629

  2. The endoplasmic reticulum is a target organelle for trivalent dimethylarsinic acid (DMA{sup III})-induced cytotoxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Naranmandura, Hua; Xu, Shi; Koike, Shota; Pan, Li Qiang; Chen, Bin; Wang, Yan Wei; Rehman, Kanwal; Wu, Bin; Chen, Zhe; Suzuki, Noriyuki

    2012-05-01

    The purpose of present study was to characterize the endoplasmic reticulum stress and generation of ROS in rat liver RLC-16 cells by exposing to trivalent dimethylarsinous acid (DMA{sup III}) and compared with that of trivalent arsenite (iAs{sup III}) and monomethylarsonous acid (MMA{sup III}). Protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) phosphorylation was significantly induced in cells exposed to DMA{sup III}, while there was no change in phosphorylated PERK (P-PERK) detected in cells after exposure to iAs{sup III} or MMA{sup III}. The generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) after DMA{sup III} exposure was found to take place specifically in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), while previous reports showed that ROS was generated in mitochondria following exposure to MMA{sup III}. Meanwhile, cycloheximide (CHX) which is an inhibitor of protein biosynthesis strongly inhibited the DMA{sup III}-induced intracellular ROS generation in the ER and the phosphorylation of PERK, suggesting the induction of ER stress probably occurs through the inhibition of the protein folding process. Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) mRNA were induced by all three arsenic species, however, evidence suggested that they might be induced by different pathways in the case of iAs{sup III} and MMA{sup III}. In addition, ER resident molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein78 (GRP78) was not affected by trivalent arsenicals, while it was induced in positive control only at high concentration (Thapsigargin;Tg), suggesting the GRP78 is less sensitive to low levels of ER stress. In summary, our findings demonstrate that the endoplasmic reticulum is a target organelle for DMA{sup III}-induced cytotoxicity. Highlights: ►ER is a target organelle for trivalent DMA{sup III}-induced cytotoxicity. ►Generation of ROS in ER can be induced specially by trivalent DMA{sup III}. ►ER-stress and generation of ROS are caused by the increase in

  3. Evidence of endoplasmic reticulum-related Ca sup 2+ ATPase in human microvascular endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bikfalvi, A.; Enouf, J.; Bredoux, R.; Dupuy, E.; Bourdeau, N.; Levy-Toledano, S.; Tobelem, G. ); Lompre, A. )

    1989-09-01

    The authors demonstrated by immunological and molecular methods the presence of a reticulum endoplasmic-related Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase in human omental microvascular endothelial cells (HOME cells). HOME cells reacted positively with a previously characterized sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase antibody as demonstrated by indirect immunofluorescence. Western blotting revealed that the antibody recognized a 95-100 kDa protein. {sup 35}S-Metabolic labeling led to the detection of a similar protein with which the purified sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase compete. Dot-blotting experiments indicated that a substantial amount of Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase was present in HOME cell membranes. In addition, Northern blot analysis using a cDNA probe from cardiac sarcoplasmic reticulum showed the presence of mRNA species of 4 kb. As these experiments were conducted in comparison with cell types with well-defined Ca{sup 2+}-ATPases, the results suggest the presence of a endoplasmic reticulum-related Ca{sup 2+}-ATPase in HOME cells.

  4. The exocyst affects protein synthesis by acting on the translocation machinery of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lipschutz, Joshua H; Lingappa, Vishwanath R; Mostov, Keith E

    2003-06-01

    We previously showed that the exocyst complex specifically affected the synthesis and delivery of secretory and basolateral plasma membrane proteins. Significantly, the entire spectrum of secreted proteins was increased when the hSec10 (human Sec10) component of the exocyst complex was overexpressed, suggestive of post-transcriptional regulation (Lipschutz, J. H., Guo, W., O'Brien, L. E., Nguyen, Y. H., Novick, P., and Mostov, K. E. (2000) Mol. Biol. Cell 11, 4259-4275). Here, using an exogenously transfected basolateral protein, the polymeric immunoglobulin receptor (pIgR), and a secretory protein, gp80, we show that pIgR and gp80 protein synthesis and delivery are increased in cells overexpressing Sec10 despite the fact that mRNA levels are unchanged, which is highly indicative of post-transcriptional regulation. To test specificity, we also examined the synthesis and delivery of an exogenous apical protein, CNT1 (concentrative nucleoside transporter 1), and found no increase in CNT1 protein synthesis, delivery, or mRNA levels in cells overexpressing Sec10. Sec10-GFP-overexpressing cell lines were created, and staining was seen in the endoplasmic reticulum. It was demonstrated previously in yeast that high levels of expression of SEB1, the Sec61beta homologue, suppressed sec15-1, an exocyst mutant (Toikkanen, J., Gatti, E., Takei, K., Saloheimo, M., Olkkonen, V. M., Soderlund, H., De Camilli, P., and Keranen, S. (1996) Yeast 12, 425-438). Sec61beta is a member of the Sec61 heterotrimer, which is the main component of the endoplasmic reticulum translocon. By co-immunoprecipitation we show that Sec10, which forms an exocyst subcomplex with Sec15, specifically associates with the Sec61beta component of the translocon and that Sec10 overexpression increases the association of other exocyst complex members with Sec61beta. Proteosome inhibition does not appear to be the mechanism by which increased protein synthesis occurs in the face of equivalent amounts of m

  5. Nucleocapsid Protein from Fig Mosaic Virus Forms Cytoplasmic Agglomerates That Are Hauled by Endoplasmic Reticulum Streaming

    PubMed Central

    Ishikawa, Kazuya; Miura, Chihiro; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Tomomitsu, Tatsuya; Fukuoka, Misato; Yusa, Akira; Yamaji, Yasuyuki

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although many studies have demonstrated intracellular movement of viral proteins or viral replication complexes, little is known about the mechanisms of their motility. In this study, we analyzed the localization and motility of the nucleocapsid protein (NP) of Fig mosaic virus (FMV), a negative-strand RNA virus belonging to the recently established genus Emaravirus. Electron microscopy of FMV-infected cells using immunogold labeling showed that NPs formed cytoplasmic agglomerates that were predominantly enveloped by the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane, while nonenveloped NP agglomerates also localized along the ER. Likewise, transiently expressed NPs formed agglomerates, designated NP bodies (NBs), in close proximity to the ER, as was the case in FMV-infected cells. Subcellular fractionation and electron microscopic analyses of NP-expressing cells revealed that NBs localized in the cytoplasm. Furthermore, we found that NBs moved rapidly with the streaming of the ER in an actomyosin-dependent manner. Brefeldin A treatment at a high concentration to disturb the ER network configuration induced aberrant accumulation of NBs in the perinuclear region, indicating that the ER network configuration is related to NB localization. Dominant negative inhibition of the class XI myosins, XI-1, XI-2, and XI-K, affected both ER streaming and NB movement in a similar pattern. Taken together, these results showed that NBs localize in the cytoplasm but in close proximity to the ER membrane to form enveloped particles and that this causes passive movements of cytoplasmic NBs by ER streaming. IMPORTANCE Intracellular trafficking is a primary and essential step for the cell-to-cell movement of viruses. To date, many studies have demonstrated the rapid intracellular movement of viral factors but have failed to provide evidence for the mechanism or biological significance of this motility. Here, we observed that agglomerates of nucleocapsid protein (NP) moved rapidly

  6. Prodigiosin activates endoplasmic reticulum stress cell death pathway in human breast carcinoma cell lines

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Mu-Yun; Shen, Yuh-Chiang; Lu, Chien-Hsing; Yang, Shu-Yi; Ho, Tsing-Fen; Peng, Yu-Ta; Chang, Chia-Che

    2012-12-15

    Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent cytotoxicity against diverse human cancer cell lines. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is initiated by accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen and may induce cell death when irremediable. In this study, the role of ER stress in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxicity was elucidated for the first time. Comparable to the ER stress inducer thapsigargin, prodigiosin up-regulated signature ER stress markers GRP78 and CHOP in addition to activating the IRE1, PERK and ATF6 branches of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in multiple human breast carcinoma cell lines, confirming prodigiosin as an ER stress inducer. Prodigiosin transcriptionally up-regulated CHOP, as evidenced by its promoting effect on the CHOP promoter activity. Of note, knockdown of CHOP effectively lowered prodigiosin's capacity to evoke PARP cleavage, reduce cell viability and suppress colony formation, highlighting an essential role of CHOP in prodigiosin-induced cytotoxic ER stress response. In addition, prodigiosin down-regulated BCL2 in a CHOP-dependent manner. Importantly, restoration of BCL2 expression blocked prodigiosin-induced PARP cleavage and greatly enhanced the survival of prodigiosin-treated cells, suggesting that CHOP-dependent BCL2 suppression mediates prodigiosin-elicited cell death. Moreover, pharmacological inhibition of JNK by SP600125 or dominant-negative blockade of PERK-mediated eIF2α phosphorylation impaired prodigiosin-induced CHOP up-regulation and PARP cleavage. Collectively, these results identified ER stress-mediated cell death as a mode-of-action of prodigiosin's tumoricidal effect. Mechanistically, prodigiosin engages the IRE1–JNK and PERK–eIF2α branches of the UPR signaling to up-regulate CHOP, which in turn mediates BCL2 suppression to induce cell death. Highlights: ► Prodigiosin is a bacterial tripyrrole pigment with potent anticancer effect. ► Prodigiosin is herein identified as an

  7. Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein induces macrophage endoplasmic reticulum stress via toll-like receptor 4.

    PubMed

    Yao, Shutong; Yang, Nana; Song, Guohua; Sang, Hui; Tian, Hua; Miao, Cheng; Zhang, Ying; Qin, Shucun

    2012-07-01

    Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mm-LDL) induces intimal foam cell formation, which is promoted by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS), a cross-point to link cellular processes with multiple risk factors that exist in all stages of atherosclerosis. However, it remains unclear whether mm-LDL-induced lipid accumulation in macrophages involves ERS and its underlying mechanisms. We showed that mm-LDL induced the accumulation of lipid droplets in RAW264.7 macrophages with increased free cholesterol in the endoplasmic reticulum, which was markedly attenuated by pretreatment with an antibody against toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4). Additionally, mm-LDL stimulated the transport of Cy3-labeled activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), a key sensor to the unfolded protein response (UPR), from cytoplasm into nucleus. The expression of phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (p-IRE1), another sensor to the UPR, and its two downstream molecules, X box binding protein 1 and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), were significantly upregulated by mm-LDL. The alterations induced by mm-LDL were all significantly inhibited by antibodies against TLR4 or CD36. In addition, the upregulation of p-IRE1 and GRP78 and the nuclear translocation of ATF6 induced by mm-LDL were significantly attenuated by TLR4 siRNA. These results suggest that mm-LDL may induce free cholesterol accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum and subsequently stimulate ERS and activate the UPR signaling pathway mediated by ATF6 and IRE1 in macrophages, a process that is potentially mediated by TLR4. PMID:22480542

  8. SK053 triggers tumor cells apoptosis by oxidative stress-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Muchowicz, Angelika; Firczuk, Małgorzata; Wachowska, Małgorzata; Kujawa, Marek; Jankowska-Steifer, Ewa; Gabrysiak, Magdalena; Pilch, Zofia; Kłossowski, Szymon; Ostaszewski, Ryszard; Golab, Jakub

    2015-02-15

    Thioredoxins (Trx) together with thioredoxin reductases (TrxR) participate in the maintenance of protein thiol homeostasis and play cytoprotective roles in tumor cells. Therefore, thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system is considered to be a promising therapeutic target in cancer treatment. We have previously reported that SK053, a peptidomimetic compound targeting the thioredoxin-thioredoxin reductase system, induces oxidative stress and demonstrates antitumor activity in mice. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of SK053-mediated tumor cell death. Our results indicate that SK053 induces apoptosis of Raji cells accompanied by the activation of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and induction of unfolded protein response. Incubation of tumor cells with SK053 induces increase in BiP, CHOP, and spliced XBP-1 levels, which precede induction of apoptosis. CHOP-deficient (CHOP(-/-)) mouse embryonic fibroblasts are more resistant to SK053-induced apoptosis as compared with normal fibroblasts indicating that the apoptosis of tumor cells depends on the expression of this transcription factor. Additionally, the ER-stress-induced apoptosis, caused by SK053, is strongly related with Trx expression levels. Altogether, our results indicate that SK053 induces ER stress-associated apoptosis and reveal a link between thioredoxin inhibition and induction of UPR in tumor cells. PMID:25573101

  9. The Nucleolar Channel System of Human Endometrium Is Related to Endoplasmic Reticulum and R-Rings

    PubMed Central

    Kittur, Nupur; Zapantis, Gregory; Aubuchon, Mira; Santoro, Nanette; Bazett-Jones, David P.

    2007-01-01

    The nucleolar channel system (NCS) is a well-established ultrastructural hallmark of the postovulation endometrium. Its transient presence has been associated with human fertility. Nevertheless, the biogenesis, composition, and function of these intranuclear membrane cisternae are unknown. Membrane systems with a striking ultrastructural resemblance to the NCS, termed R-rings, are induced in nuclei of tissue culture cells by overexpression of the central repeat domain of the nucleolar protein Nopp140. Here we provide a first molecular characterization of the NCS and compare the biogenesis of these two enigmatic organelles. Like the R-rings, the NCS consists of endoplasmic reticulum harboring the marker glucose-6-phosphatase. R-ring formation initiates at the nuclear envelope, apparently by a calcium-mediated Nopp140-membrane interaction, as supported by the calcium-binding ability of Nopp140, the inhibition of R-ring formation by calcium chelators, and the concentration of Nopp140 and complexed calcium in R-rings. Although biogenesis of the NCS may initiate similarly, the reduced presence of complexed calcium and Nopp140 suggests the involvement of additional factors. PMID:17429075

  10. Critical Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Cognitive Impairment Induced by Microcystin-LR

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Fei; Liu, Jue; Li, Cairong; Wang, Jianghua

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies showed that cyanobacteria-derived microcystin-leucine-arginine (MCLR) can cause hippocampal pathological damage and trigger cognitive impairment; but the underlying mechanisms have not been well understood. The objective of the present study was to investigate the mechanism of MCLR-induced cognitive deficit; with a focus on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The Morris water maze test and electrophysiological study demonstrated that MCLR caused spatial memory injury in male Wistar rats; which could be inhibited by ER stress blocker; tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA). Meanwhile; real-time polymerase chain reaction (real-time PCR) and immunohistochemistry demonstrated that the expression level of the 78-kDa glucose-regulated protein (GRP78); C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and caspase 12 were significantly up-regulated. These effects were rescued by co-administration of TUDCA. In agreement with this; we also observed that treatment of rats with TUDCA blocked the alterations in ER ultrastructure and apoptotic cell death in CA1 neurons from rats exposed to MCLR. Taken together; the present results suggested that ER stress plays an important role in potential memory impairments in rats treated with MCLR; and amelioration of ER stress may serve as a novel strategy to alleviate damaged cognitive function triggered by MCLR. PMID:26602924

  11. Miltirone exhibits antileukemic activity by ROS-mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress and mitochondrial dysfunction pathways

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ling; Jiang, Lifeng; Xu, Maolei; Liu, Qun; Gao, Ning; Li, Ping; Liu, E-Hu

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of miltirone in human leukemia cell lines, primary leukemia cells, and nude mice U937 xenograft. Treatment of cells with miltirone resulted in apoptosis, mitochondria membrane potential (MMP) collapses, increase of Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, and cytochrome c release. Miltirone triggered the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress identified through several key molecules of the unfolded protein response, including phosphorylated PERK, eIF2a, GRP78, GRP94, and caspase-12. Miltrone treatment also resulted in the release of Ca2+ from the ER stores and mitochondrial Ca2+ loading in the cells. Further research revealed that miltirone resulted in dose-dependent decrease in complex III activity and elevated reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in these cells. Miltirone-induced apoptosis, dissipation of MMP and ER stress were dramatically blocked by pretreatment with antioxidant N-acetylcysteine (NAC). In contrast, treatment with ER stress inhibitor TUDCA significantly attenuated miltirone-induced ROS and apoptosis in leukemia cells. Moreover, our in vivo findings showed that administration of miltirone markedly inhibited tumor growth and induced apoptosis in U937 xenograft model with low systemic toxicity. Taken together, these findings indicate that miltirone may exert its antileukemic activity by inducing apoptosis through a ROS-dependent destructive cycle involving ER stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:26848099

  12. Angiogenin Mediates Cell-Autonomous Translational Control under Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Attenuates Kidney Injury.

    PubMed

    Mami, Iadh; Bouvier, Nicolas; El Karoui, Khalil; Gallazzini, Morgan; Rabant, Marion; Laurent-Puig, Pierre; Li, Shuping; Tharaux, Pierre-Louis; Beaune, Philippe; Thervet, Eric; Chevet, Eric; Hu, Guo-Fu; Pallet, Nicolas

    2016-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is involved in the pathophysiology of kidney disease and aging, but the molecular bases underlying the biologic outcomes on the evolution of renal disease remain mostly unknown. Angiogenin (ANG) is a ribonuclease that promotes cellular adaptation under stress but its contribution to ER stress signaling remains elusive. In this study, we investigated the ANG-mediated contribution to the signaling and biologic outcomes of ER stress in kidney injury. ANG expression was significantly higher in samples from injured human kidneys than in samples from normal human kidneys, and in mouse and rat kidneys, ANG expression was specifically induced under ER stress. In human renal epithelial cells, ER stress induced ANG expression in a manner dependent on the activity of transcription factor XBP1, and ANG promoted cellular adaptation to ER stress through induction of stress granules and inhibition of translation. Moreover, the severity of renal lesions induced by ER stress was dramatically greater in ANG knockout mice (Ang(-/-)) mice than in wild-type mice. These results indicate that ANG is a critical mediator of tissue adaptation to kidney injury and reveal a physiologically relevant ER stress-mediated adaptive translational control mechanism. PMID:26195817

  13. [Ophiopogonin D protects cardiomyocytes against doxorubicin-induced injury through suppressing endoplasmic reticulum stress].

    PubMed

    Meng, Chen; Yuan, Cai-Hua; Zhang, Chen-Chen; Wen, Ming-Da; Gao, Yan-Hong; Ding, Xiao-Yu; Zhang, Ying-Yu; Zhang, Zhao

    2014-08-01

    This study aimed to examine whether ophiopogonin D (OP-D) is capable of protecting cardiomyocytes against DOX-induced injury and the mechanisms involved. H9c2 cells were cultured. MTT assay was used to evaluate cell viability and toxicity. Mito-tracker as fluorescence probe was used to measure ROS content raised from mitochondria. The mRNA and protein expression of ATF6alpha, GRP78 and CHOP were analyzed using real-time PCR and Western blotting, respectively. The results showed that a significant endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) was induced upon exposure of H9c2 cells to DOX as indicated by the increase in the expression of ERS related proteins, which was paralleled with the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decrease in the viability of H9c2 cells. Whereas, DOX-induced ROS accumulation and up-regulation of ERS related proteins were partially abolished by pretreatment with OP-D. Consequently, a DOX-induced ERS was mitigated by application of OP-D. Similarly, DOX-induced decrease in cell viability was partially attenuated by either inhibiting CHOP or pretreatment with N-acetylcysteine (NAC), an antioxidant. Moreover, cardiac ultrastructural abnormalities seen in mouse receiving DOX injections were obviously ameliorated by pretreatment of OP-D. Taken together, the present study proved that OP-D protects cardiomyocytes against DOX-induced injury, at least in part, through reducing ROS accumulation and alleviating ERS. PMID:25322552

  14. Quantitative Proteomics and Lipidomics Analysis of Endoplasmic Reticulum of Macrophage Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Saquib, Najmuddin Mohd; Jamwal, Shilpa; Midha, Mukul Kumar; Verma, Hirdya Narain; Manivel, Venkatasamy

    2015-01-01

    Even though endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated with mycobacterial infection has been well studied, the molecular basis of ER as a crucial organelle to determine the fate of Mtb is yet to be established. Here, we have studied the ability of Mtb to manipulate the ultrastructural architecture of macrophage ER and found that the ER-phenotypes associated with virulent (H37Rv) and avirulent (H37Ra) strains were different: a rough ER (RER) with the former against a smooth ER (SER) with the later. Further, the functional attributes of these changes were probed by MS-based quantitative proteomics (133 ER proteins) and lipidomics (8 phospholipids). Our omics approaches not only revealed the host pathogen cross-talk but also emphasized how precisely Mtb uses proteins and lipids in combination to give rise to characteristic ER-phenotypes. H37Ra-infected macrophages increased the cytosolic Ca(2+) levels by attenuating the ATP2A2 protein and simultaneous induction of PC/PE expression to facilitate apoptosis. However, H37Rv inhibited apoptosis and further controlled the expression of EST-1 and AMRP proteins to disturb cholesterol homeostasis resulting in sustained infection. This approach offers the potential to decipher the specific roles of ER in understanding the cell biology of mycobacterial infection with special reference to the impact of host response. PMID:25785198

  15. Distinct mechanisms controlling rough and smooth endoplasmic reticulum contacts with mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peter T C; Garcin, Pierre O; Fu, Min; Masoudi, Matthew; St-Pierre, Pascal; Panté, Nelly; Nabi, Ivan R

    2015-08-01

    Gp78 (also known as AMFR), an endoplasmic-reticulum (ER)-associated protein degradation (ERAD) E3 ubiquitin ligase, localizes to mitochondria-associated ER and targets the mitofusin (Mfn1 and Mfn2) mitochondrial fusion proteins for degradation. Gp78 is also the cell surface receptor for autocrine motility factor (AMF), which prevents Gp78-dependent mitofusin degradation. Gp78 ubiquitin ligase activity promotes ER-mitochondria association and ER-mitochondria Ca(2+) coupling, processes that are reversed by AMF. Electron microscopy of HT-1080 fibrosarcoma cancer cells identified both smooth ER (SER; ∼8 nm) and wider (∼50-60 nm) rough ER (RER)-mitochondria contacts. Both short hairpin RNA (shRNA)-mediated knockdown of Gp78 (shGp78) and AMF treatment selectively reduced the extent of RER-mitochondria contacts without impacting on SER--mitochondria contacts. Concomitant small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated knockdown of Mfn1 increased SER-mitochondria contacts in both control and shGp78 cells, whereas knockdown of Mfn2 increased RER-mitochondria contacts selectively in shGp78 HT-1080 cells. The mitofusins therefore inhibit ER-mitochondria interaction. Regulation of close SER-mitochondria contacts by Mfn1 and of RER-mitochondria contacts by AMF-sensitive Gp78-mediated degradation of Mfn2 define new mechanisms that regulate ER-mitochondria interactions. PMID:26065430

  16. Endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondria interplay mediates apoptotic cell death: relevance to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Arduíno, Daniela Moniz; Esteves, A Raquel; Cardoso, Sandra M; Oliveira, Catarina R

    2009-09-01

    Sporadic Parkinson's disease (PD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by a loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta. Many cellular mechanisms are thought to be involved in the death of these specific neurons in PD, including oxidative stress, changes of intracellular calcium homeostasis, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Since recent studies have revealed that also endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in conjunction with abnormal protein degradation can contribute to the PD pathophysiology, we investigated here the molecular mechanisms underlying the interplay between ER and mitochondria and its relevance in the control of neuronal cell death in PD. We observed that MPP+ induced changes in the mitochondrial function, affecting mitochondrial membrane potential and electron transport chain function. Likewise, it was also evident the unfolded protein response activation by an overexpression of GRP78 protein. Moreover, stress stimuli caused the release of Ca2+ from the ER that consistently induced mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, with a rise of mitochondrial matrix free Ca2+. Besides, Ca2+ release inhibition prevented MPP+ mediated mitochondria-dependent caspases activation. Our findings show that ER and mitochondria are in a close communication, establishing a dynamic ER-Ca2+-mitochondria interconnection that can play a prominent role in the neuronal cell death induction under particular stressful circumstances of PD pathology. PMID:19375464

  17. The endoplasmic reticulum, not the pH gradient, drives calcium refilling of lysosomes

    PubMed Central

    Garrity, Abigail G; Wang, Wuyang; Collier, Crystal MD; Levey, Sara A; Gao, Qiong; Xu, Haoxing

    2016-01-01

    Impaired homeostasis of lysosomal Ca2+ causes lysosome dysfunction and lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), but the mechanisms by which lysosomes acquire and refill Ca2+ are not known. We developed a physiological assay to monitor lysosomal Ca2+ store refilling using specific activators of lysosomal Ca2+ channels to repeatedly induce lysosomal Ca2+ release. In contrast to the prevailing view that lysosomal acidification drives Ca2+ into the lysosome, inhibiting the V-ATPase H+ pump did not prevent Ca2+ refilling. Instead, pharmacological depletion or chelation of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Ca2+ prevented lysosomal Ca2+ stores from refilling. More specifically, antagonists of ER IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) rapidly and completely blocked Ca2+ refilling of lysosomes, but not in cells lacking IP3Rs. Furthermore, reducing ER Ca2+ or blocking IP3Rs caused a dramatic LSD-like lysosome storage phenotype. By closely apposing each other, the ER may serve as a direct and primary source of Ca2+for the lysosome. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.15887.001 PMID:27213518

  18. TRAIL death receptors, Bcl-2 protein family, and endoplasmic reticulum calcium pool.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, M Saeed; Huang, Ying

    2004-01-01

    Calcium (Ca(2+)) is one of the highly versatile second messengers critical in cellular pathophysiology. Alterations in Ca(2+) homeostasis affect many cellular processes, including apoptosis. Recent studies have started to unravel the molecular mechanisms of apoptosis regulation in context to intracellular Ca(2+) pools. In this regard, Bcl-2 has been reported to mediate its anti-apoptotic effects, partly, by lowering the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) load and by inhibiting the mitochondrial uptake of Ca(2+). However, the opposite is true for Bax and Bak that promote apoptosis, in part, by increasing the ER Ca(2+) load and Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to mitochondria. Massive ER Ca(2+) depletion coupled with upregulation of DR5 has also been reported to induce apoptosis. The mechanistic details of how some of these molecules affect intracellular Ca(2+) contents and sense perturbations in Ca(2+) homeostasis remain to be elucidated. The recent explosion of information in the fields of cell signaling and apoptosis is likely to facilitate the future investigations aiming to explore these issues. PMID:15110177

  19. Unexpected blockade of adipocyte differentiation by K-7174: Implication for endoplasmic reticulum stress

    SciTech Connect

    Shimada, Tsuyoshi; Hiramatsu, Nobuhiko; Okamura, Maro; Hayakawa, Kunihiro; Kasai, Ayumi; Yao, Jian; Kitamura, Masanori

    2007-11-16

    Preadipocytes constitutively express GATA-2 and GATA-3 that are required to halt the cells at the undifferentiated stage. However, we unexpectedly found that K-7174, a GATA-specific inhibitor, did not induce but rather inhibited differentiation of 3T3-L1 preadipocytes. It was associated with lack of lipid accumulation, blunted expression of adipocyte markers including adiponectin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor {gamma} (PPAR{gamma}), and sustained expression of a preadipocyte marker monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1). Subsequent experiments revealed that K-7174 had the potential to induce endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress evidenced by induction of GRP78 and CHOP. Other inducers of ER stress completely reproduced the effects of K-7174 including suppression of lipid accumulation, blockade of induction of adiponection and PPAR{gamma} and maintenance of MCP-1 expression. These results indicated a possibility that ER stress suppresses adipocyte differentiation and that GATA inhibitor K-7174 has the potential for interfering with adipogenesis through induction of ER stress.

  20. Coronavirus nsp6 proteins generate autophagosomes from the endoplasmic reticulum via an omegasome intermediate

    PubMed Central

    Cottam, Eleanor M; Maier, Helena J; Manifava, Maria; Vaux, Laura C; Chandra-Schoenfelder, Priya; Gerner, Wilhelm; Britton, Paul; Ktistakis, Nick T

    2011-01-01

    Autophagy is a cellular response to starvation which generates autophagosomes to carry cellular organelles and long-lived proteins to lysosomes for degradation. Degradation through autophagy can provide an innate defense against virus infection, or conversely autophagosomes can promote infection by facilitating assembly of replicase proteins. We demonstrate that the avian coronavirus, infectious bronchitis virus (IBV), activates autophagy. A screen of individual IBV nonstructural proteins (nsps) showed that autophagy was activated by IBV nsp6. This property was shared with nsp6 of mammalian coronaviruses mouse hepatitis virus, and severe acute respiratory syndrome virus, and the equivalent nsp5–7 of the arterivirus porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus. These multiple-spanning transmembrane proteins located to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) where they generated Atg5 and LC3II -positive vesicles, and vesicle formation was dependent on Atg5 and class III PI3 kinase. The vesicles recruited double-FYVE-domain containing protein (DFCP) indicating localized concentration of phosphatidylinositol 3 phosphate, and therefore shared many features with omegasomes formed from the ER in response to starvation. Omegasomes induced by viral nsp6 matured into autophagosomes that delivered LC3 to lysosomes and therefore recruited and recycled the proteins needed for autophagosome nucleation, expansion, cellular trafficking and delivery of cargo to lysosomes. The coronavirus nsp6 proteins activated omegasome and autophagosome formation independently of starvation, but activation did not involve direct inhibition of mTOR signaling, activation of sirtuin 1 or induction of ER stress. PMID:21799305

  1. Effects of lipid peroxidation on membrane-bound enzymes of the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Wills, E. D.

    1971-01-01

    1. Induction of the formation of lipid peroxide in suspensions of liver microsomal preparations by incubation with ascorbate or NADPH, or by treatment with ionizing radiation, leads to a marked decrease of the activity of glucose 6-phosphatase. 2. The effect of peroxidation can be imitated by treating microsomal suspensions with detergents such as deoxycholate or with phospholipases. 3. The substrate, glucose 6-phosphate, protects the glucose 6-phosphatase activity of microsomal preparations against peroxidation or detergents. 4. The loss of glucose 6-phosphatase activity is not due to the formation of hydroperoxide or formation of malonaldehyde or other breakdown products of peroxidation, all of which are not toxic to the enzyme. 5. All experiments lead to the conclusion that the loss of activity of glucose 6-phosphatase resulting from peroxidation is a consequence of loss of membrane structure essential for the activity of the enzyme. 6. In addition to glucose 6-phosphatase, oxidative demethylation of aminopyrine or p-chloro-N-methylaniline, hydroxylation of aniline, NADPH oxidation and menadione-dependent NADPH oxidation are also strongly inhibited by peroxidation. However, another group of enzymes separated with the microsomal fraction, including NAD+/NADP+ glycohydrolase, adenosine triphosphatase, esterase and NADH–cytochrome c reductase are not inactivated by peroxidation. This group is not readily inactivated by treatment with detergents. 7. Lipid peroxidation, by controlling membrane integrity, may exert a regulating effect on the oxidative metabolism and carbohydrate metabolism of the endoplasmic reticulum in vivo. PMID:4399403

  2. Endoplasmic reticulum stress as a novel cellular response to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate exposure.

    PubMed

    Peropadre, Ana; Fernández Freire, Paloma; Pérez Martín, José Manuel; Herrero, Óscar; Hazen, María José

    2015-12-25

    Di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate is a high-production chemical widely used as a plasticizer for polyvinyl chloride products. Due to its ubiquitous presence in environmental compartments and the constant exposure of the general population through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption, this compound has been subjected to extensive in vivo and in vitro toxicological studies. Despite the available information, research on the cytotoxicity of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate in mammalian cells is relatively limited.In this paper, an in vitro multi-parametric approach was used to provide further mechanistic data on the toxic activity of this chemical in Vero and HaCaT cells. Our results reveal that a 24 h exposure to di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate causes, in both cell lines, an inhibition of cell proliferation that was linked to cell cycle delay at the G1 phase. Concomitantly, the tested compound induces mild endoplasmic reticulum stress which leads to an adaptive rather than a pro-apoptotic response in mammalian cells. These findings demonstrate that there are multiple potential cellular targets of di (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate-induced toxicity and the need to develop further experimental studies for the risk assessment of this ubiquitous plasticizer. PMID:26514933

  3. Hypoxia-induced gene expression results from selective mRNA partitioning to the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Staudacher, Jonas J.; Naarmann-de Vries, Isabel S.; Ujvari, Stefanie J.; Klinger, Bertram; Kasim, Mumtaz; Benko, Edgar; Ostareck-Lederer, Antje; Ostareck, Dirk H.; Bondke Persson, Anja; Lorenzen, Stephan; Meier, Jochen C.; Blüthgen, Nils; Persson, Pontus B.; Henrion-Caude, Alexandra; Mrowka, Ralf; Fähling, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Protein synthesis is a primary energy-consuming process in the cell. Therefore, under hypoxic conditions, rapid inhibition of global mRNA translation represents a major protective strategy to maintain energy metabolism. How some mRNAs, especially those that encode crucial survival factors, continue to be efficiently translated in hypoxia is not completely understood. By comparing specific transcript levels in ribonucleoprotein complexes, cytoplasmic polysomes and endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-bound ribosomes, we show that the synthesis of proteins encoded by hypoxia marker genes is favoured at the ER in hypoxia. Gene expression profiling revealed that transcripts particularly increased by the HIF-1 transcription factor network show hypoxia-induced enrichment at the ER. We found that mRNAs favourably translated at the ER have higher conservation scores for both the 5′- and 3′-untranslated regions (UTRs) and contain less upstream initiation codons (uAUGs), indicating the significance of these sequence elements for sustained mRNA translation under hypoxic conditions. Furthermore, we found enrichment of specific cis-elements in mRNA 5′- as well as 3′-UTRs that mediate transcript localization to the ER in hypoxia. We conclude that transcriptome partitioning between the cytoplasm and the ER permits selective mRNA translation under conditions of energy shortage. PMID:25753659

  4. A major proportion of N-glycoproteins are transiently glucosylated in the endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Ganan, S.; Cazzulo, J.J.; Parodi, A.J. )

    1991-03-26

    N-Linked, high-mannose-type oligosaccharides lacking glucose residues may be transiently glucosylated directly from UDP-Glc in the endoplasmic reticulum of mammalian, plant, fungal, and protozoan cells. The products formed have been identified as N-linked Glc{sub 1}Man{sub 5-9}GlcNAc{sub 2} and glucosidase II is apparently the enzyme responsible for the in vivo deglucosylation of the compounds. As newly glucosylated glycoproteins are immediately deglucosylated, it is unknown whether transient glucosylation involves all or nearly all N-linked glycoproteins or if, on the contrary, it only affects a minor proportion of them. In order to evaluate the molar proportion of N-linked oligosaccharides that are glucosylated, cells of the trypanosomatid protozoan Trypanosoma cruzi (a parasite transferring Man{sub 9}GlcNAc{sub 2} in protein N-glycosylation) were grown in the presence of ({sup 14}C)glucose and concentrations of the glucosidase II inhibitors deoxynojirimycin and castanospermine that were more than 1,000-fold higher than those required to produce a 50% inhibition of the T. cruzi enzyme. No evidence for the presence of an endomannosidase yielding GlcMan from the glucosylated compounds was obtained. As the average number of N-linked oligosaccharides per molecule in glycoproteins is higher than one, these results indicate that more than 52-33% of total glycoproteins are glucosylated and that transient glucosylation is a major event in the normal processing of glycoproteins.

  5. p53 and Translation Attenuation Regulate Distinct Cell Cycle Checkpoints during Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress*

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Sally E.; Malzer, Elke; Ordóñez, Adriana; Dalton, Lucy E.; van ′t Wout, Emily F. A.; Liniker, Elizabeth; Crowther, Damian C.; Lomas, David A.; Marciniak, Stefan J.

    2013-01-01

    Cell cycle checkpoints ensure that proliferation occurs only under permissive conditions, but their role in linking nutrient availability to cell division is incompletely understood. Protein folding within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is exquisitely sensitive to energy supply and amino acid sources because deficiencies impair luminal protein folding and consequently trigger ER stress signaling. Following ER stress, many cell types arrest within the G1 phase, although recent studies have identified a novel ER stress G2 checkpoint. Here, we report that ER stress affects cell cycle progression via two classes of signal: an early inhibition of protein synthesis leading to G2 delay involving CHK1 and a later induction of G1 arrest associated both with the induction of p53 target genes and loss of cyclin D1. We show that substitution of p53/47 for p53 impairs the ER stress G1 checkpoint, attenuates the recovery of protein translation, and impairs induction of NOXA, a mediator of cell death. We propose that cell cycle regulation in response to ER stress comprises redundant pathways invoked sequentially first to impair G2 progression prior to ultimate G1 arrest. PMID:23341460

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the peripheral nervous system is a significant driver of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Inceoglu, Bora; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A.; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Haj, Fawaz G.; Hammock, Bruce D.

    2015-01-01

    Despite intensive effort and resulting gains in understanding the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain, limited success in therapeutic approaches have been attained. A recently identified, nonchannel, nonneurotransmitter therapeutic target for pain is the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The sEH degrades natural analgesic lipid mediators, epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs), therefore its inhibition stabilizes these bioactive mediators. Here we demonstrate the effects of EpFAs on diabetes induced neuropathic pain and define a previously unknown mechanism of pain, regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The activation of ER stress is first quantified in the peripheral nervous system of type I diabetic rats. We demonstrate that both pain and markers of ER stress are reversed by a chemical chaperone. Next, we identify the EpFAs as upstream modulators of ER stress pathways. Chemical inducers of ER stress invariably lead to pain behavior that is reversed by a chemical chaperone and an inhibitor of sEH. The rapid occurrence of pain behavior with inducers, equally rapid reversal by blockers and natural incidence of ER stress in diabetic peripheral nervous system (PNS) argue for a major role of the ER stress pathways in regulating the excitability of the nociceptive system. Understanding the role of ER stress in generation and maintenance of pain opens routes to exploit this system for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26150506

  7. Quantitative Proteomics and Lipidomics Analysis of Endoplasmic Reticulum of Macrophage Infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Saquib, Najmuddin Mohd; Jamwal, Shilpa; Midha, Mukul Kumar; Verma, Hirdya Narain; Manivel, Venkatasamy

    2015-01-01

    Even though endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress associated with mycobacterial infection has been well studied, the molecular basis of ER as a crucial organelle to determine the fate of Mtb is yet to be established. Here, we have studied the ability of Mtb to manipulate the ultrastructural architecture of macrophage ER and found that the ER-phenotypes associated with virulent (H37Rv) and avirulent (H37Ra) strains were different: a rough ER (RER) with the former against a smooth ER (SER) with the later. Further, the functional attributes of these changes were probed by MS-based quantitative proteomics (133 ER proteins) and lipidomics (8 phospholipids). Our omics approaches not only revealed the host pathogen cross-talk but also emphasized how precisely Mtb uses proteins and lipids in combination to give rise to characteristic ER-phenotypes. H37Ra-infected macrophages increased the cytosolic Ca2+ levels by attenuating the ATP2A2 protein and simultaneous induction of PC/PE expression to facilitate apoptosis. However, H37Rv inhibited apoptosis and further controlled the expression of EST-1 and AMRP proteins to disturb cholesterol homeostasis resulting in sustained infection. This approach offers the potential to decipher the specific roles of ER in understanding the cell biology of mycobacterial infection with special reference to the impact of host response. PMID:25785198

  8. TLR-mediated secretion of endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 from macrophages.

    PubMed

    Goto, Yoshikuni; Ogawa, Kenji; Nakamura, Takahiro J; Hattori, Akira; Tsujimoto, Masafumi

    2014-05-01

    Macrophages play an important role in host defense under several immunological, inflammatory, and/or infectious conditions. In our previous work, we demonstrated that endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase 1 (ERAP1) was secreted from macrophages in response to LPS and IFN-γ, and it enhanced their phagocytic activity. In this study, we analyzed the mechanism of LPS/IFN-γ-induced ERAP1 secretion. LPS/IFN-γ-induced secretion of the enzyme from the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7 was suppressed by polymyxin B. Several agonists of TLRs, such as Pam3CSK4, FSL-1, and ODN1826, induced its secretion. In contrast, neutralizing Abs to IFN-β and TNF-α receptor type 1 suppressed its secretion. Using murine peritoneal macrophages derived from TNF-α and type 1 IFNR knockout mice, we confirmed the involvement of these two cytokines in ERAP1 secretion. In addition, secretion of ERAP1 from both RAW264.7 cells and murine peritoneal macrophages was induced by A23187 and thapsigargin and inhibited by BAPTA-AM and the calmodulin inhibitor W7. These results suggest that LPS/IFN-γ-induced secretion of ERAP1 is mediated by TLRs via induction of intermediate cytokines such as IFN-β and TNF-α, which in turn lead to enhanced cytosolic Ca(2+) levels and calmodulin activation. PMID:24688025

  9. Stressed to Death: Targeting Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response Induced Apoptosis in Gliomas

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Guyla G.; White, Misti C.; Grimaldi, Maurizio

    2012-01-01

    Glial tumors are the main primary adult brain tumor. Even with the most advanced treatments, which include stereotactic microscope aided surgical resection, internal and external radiation therapy and local and systemic chemotherapy, median survival time for patients diagnosed with these malignancies is about 12 months. We explore here the possibility that the endoplasmic reticulum stress response (ERSR) could be a possible target to develop chemotherapeutic agents to induce toxicity in glioma cells. ERSR has the dual capacity of activating repair and/or cytotoxic mechanisms. ERSR is triggered by the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the ER. The presence of unfolded proteins in the ER regulates, via a complex biochemical cascade, the upregulation of molecular chaperones, inhibition of protein synthesis, and an increase of proteasome mediated unfolded protein degradation. ERSR in particular conditions can also contribute to cell death via activation of programmed cell death. Apoptosis activation during ERSR is usually caused by the activation of one or a combination of three biochemical cascades. Induction of these pathways ultimately leads to caspase 3 activation culminating in apoptosis. Glioma cells are in a condition of constant low grade ERSR, which possibly contributes to their resistance to treatment protocols. It is conceivable that small molecules that interact with this phenomenon ultimately could be used to modulate the system to activate apoptosis and cause gliotoxicity. We will discuss here ERSR biochemically relevant features to death mechanisms and already identified small molecules that by modulating ERSR are able to activate glioma cell death. PMID:21348829

  10. Endoplasmic reticulum stress in the peripheral nervous system is a significant driver of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Inceoglu, Bora; Bettaieb, Ahmed; Trindade da Silva, Carlos A; Lee, Kin Sing Stephen; Haj, Fawaz G; Hammock, Bruce D

    2015-07-21

    Despite intensive effort and resulting gains in understanding the mechanisms underlying neuropathic pain, limited success in therapeutic approaches have been attained. A recently identified, nonchannel, nonneurotransmitter therapeutic target for pain is the enzyme soluble epoxide hydrolase (sEH). The sEH degrades natural analgesic lipid mediators, epoxy fatty acids (EpFAs), therefore its inhibition stabilizes these bioactive mediators. Here we demonstrate the effects of EpFAs on diabetes induced neuropathic pain and define a previously unknown mechanism of pain, regulated by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. The activation of ER stress is first quantified in the peripheral nervous system of type I diabetic rats. We demonstrate that both pain and markers of ER stress are reversed by a chemical chaperone. Next, we identify the EpFAs as upstream modulators of ER stress pathways. Chemical inducers of ER stress invariably lead to pain behavior that is reversed by a chemical chaperone and an inhibitor of sEH. The rapid occurrence of pain behavior with inducers, equally rapid reversal by blockers and natural incidence of ER stress in diabetic peripheral nervous system (PNS) argue for a major role of the ER stress pathways in regulating the excitability of the nociceptive system. Understanding the role of ER stress in generation and maintenance of pain opens routes to exploit this system for therapeutic purposes. PMID:26150506

  11. Adaptation of endoplasmic reticulum exit sites to acute and chronic increases in cargo load

    PubMed Central

    Farhan, Hesso; Weiss, Matthias; Tani, Katsuko; Kaufman, Randal J; Hauri, Hans-Peter

    2008-01-01

    The biogenesis of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) exit sites (ERES) involves the formation of phosphatidylinositol-4 phosphate (PI4) and Sec16, but it is entirely unknown how ERES adapt to variations in cargo load. Here, we studied acute and chronic adaptive responses of ERES to an increase in cargo load for ER export. The acute response (within minutes) to increased cargo load stimulated ERES fusion events, leading to larger but less ERES. Silencing either PI4-kinase IIIα (PI4K-IIIα) or Sec16 inhibited the acute response. Overexpression of secretory cargo for 24 h induced the unfolded protein response (UPR), upregulated COPII, and the cells formed more ERES. This chronic response was insensitive to silencing PI4K-IIIα, but was abrogated by silencing Sec16. The UPR was required as the chronic response was absent in cells lacking inositol-requiring protein 1. Mathematical model simulations further support the notion that increasing ERES number together with COPII levels is an efficient way to enhance the secretory flux. These results indicate that chronic and acute increases in cargo load are handled differentially by ERES and are regulated by different factors. PMID:18650939

  12. The endoplasmic reticulum, not the pH gradient, drives calcium refilling of lysosomes.

    PubMed

    Garrity, Abigail G; Wang, Wuyang; Collier, Crystal Md; Levey, Sara A; Gao, Qiong; Xu, Haoxing

    2016-01-01

    Impaired homeostasis of lysosomal Ca(2+) causes lysosome dysfunction and lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs), but the mechanisms by which lysosomes acquire and refill Ca(2+) are not known. We developed a physiological assay to monitor lysosomal Ca(2+) store refilling using specific activators of lysosomal Ca(2+) channels to repeatedly induce lysosomal Ca(2+) release. In contrast to the prevailing view that lysosomal acidification drives Ca(2+) into the lysosome, inhibiting the V-ATPase H(+) pump did not prevent Ca(2+) refilling. Instead, pharmacological depletion or chelation of Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) prevented lysosomal Ca(2+) stores from refilling. More specifically, antagonists of ER IP3 receptors (IP3Rs) rapidly and completely blocked Ca(2+) refilling of lysosomes, but not in cells lacking IP3Rs. Furthermore, reducing ER Ca(2+) or blocking IP3Rs caused a dramatic LSD-like lysosome storage phenotype. By closely apposing each other, the ER may serve as a direct and primary source of Ca(2+)for the lysosome. PMID:27213518

  13. (-)-Epicatechin mitigates high fructose-associated insulin resistance by modulating redox signaling and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Bettaieb, Ahmed; Vazquez Prieto, Marcela A.; Rodriguez Lanzi, Cecilia; Miatello, Roberto M.; Haj, Fawaz G.; Fraga, César G.; Oteiza, Patricia I.

    2014-01-01

    We investigated the capacity of dietary (-)-epicatechin (EC) to mitigate insulin resistance through the modulation of redox-regulated mechanisms in a rat model of metabolic syndrome (MetS). Adolescent rats were fed a regular chow diet without or with high fructose (HFr) (10% (w/v)) in drinking water for 8 weeks, and a group of HFr-fed rats was supplemented with EC in the diet. HFr-fed rats developed insulin resistance which was mitigated by EC supplementation. Accordingly, the activation of components of the insulin signaling cascade (insulin receptor (IR), IRS-1, Akt and ERK1/2) was impaired, while negative regulators (PKC, IKK, JNK and PTP1B) were upregulated in the liver and adipose tissue of HFr rats. These alterations were partially or totally prevented by EC supplementation. In addition, EC inhibited events which contribute to insulin resistance: HFr-associated increased expression and activity of NADPH oxidase, activation of redox-sensitive signals, expression of NF-κB-regulated pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, and some sub-arms of endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling. Collectively, these findings indicate that EC supplementation can mitigate HFr-induced insulin resistance and are relevant to define interventions that can prevent/mitigate MetS-associated insulin resistance. PMID:24746618

  14. Immunodominant, protective response to the parasite Toxoplasma gondii requires antigen processing in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Blanchard, Nicolas; Gonzalez, Federico; Schaeffer, Marie; Joncker, Nathalie T; Cheng, Tiffany; Shastri, Anjali J; Robey, Ellen A; Shastri, Nilabh

    2016-01-01

    The parasite Toxoplasma gondii replicates in a specialized intracellular vacuole and causes disease in many species. Protection from toxoplasmosis is mediated by CD8+ T cells, but the T. gondii antigens and host genes required for eliciting protective immunity are poorly defined. Here we identified GRA6, a polymorphic protein secreted in the parasitophorous vacuole, as the source of the immunodominant and protective decapeptide HF10 presented by the H-2Ld major histocompatibility complex class I molecule. Presentation of the HF10–H-2Ld ligand required proteolysis by ERAAP, the endoplasmic reticulum aminopeptidase associated with antigen processing. Consequently, expansion of protective CD8+ T cell populations was impaired in T. gondii–infected ERAAP-deficient mice, which were more susceptible to toxoplasmosis. Thus, endoplasmic reticulum proteolysis is critical for eliciting protective immunity to a vacuolar parasite. PMID:18587399

  15. Protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum as a non-equilibrium phase transition.

    PubMed

    Budrikis, Zoe; Costantini, Giulio; La Porta, Caterina A M; Zapperi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Several neurological disorders are associated with the aggregation of aberrant proteins, often localized in intracellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we study protein aggregation kinetics by mean-field reactions and three dimensional Monte carlo simulations of diffusion-limited aggregation of linear polymers in a confined space, representing the endoplasmic reticulum. By tuning the rates of protein production and degradation, we show that the system undergoes a non-equilibrium phase transition from a physiological phase with little or no polymer accumulation to a pathological phase characterized by persistent polymerization. A combination of external factors accumulating during the lifetime of a patient can thus slightly modify the phase transition control parameters, tipping the balance from a long symptomless lag phase to an accelerated pathological development. The model can be successfully used to interpret experimental data on amyloid-β clearance from the central nervous system. PMID:24722051

  16. Protein accumulation in the endoplasmic reticulum as a non-equilibrium phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Budrikis, Zoe; Costantini, Giulio; La Porta, Caterina A. M.; Zapperi, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Several neurological disorders are associated with the aggregation of aberrant proteins, often localized in intracellular organelles such as the endoplasmic reticulum. Here we study protein aggregation kinetics by mean-field reactions and three dimensional Monte carlo simulations of diffusion-limited aggregation of linear polymers in a confined space, representing the endoplasmic reticulum. By tuning the rates of protein production and degradation, we show that the system undergoes a non-equilibrium phase transition from a physiological phase with little or no polymer accumulation to a pathological phase characterized by persistent polymerization. A combination of external factors accumulating during the lifetime of a patient can thus slightly modify the phase transition control parameters, tipping the balance from a long symptomless lag phase to an accelerated pathological development. The model can be successfully used to interpret experimental data on amyloid-β clearance from the central nervous system. PMID:24722051

  17. The Host Targeting motif in exported Plasmodium proteins is cleaved in the parasite endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Osborne, Andrew R.; Speicher, Kaye D.; Tamez, Pamela A.; Bhattacharjee, Souvik; Speicher, David W.; Haldar, Kasturi

    2010-01-01

    During the blood stage of its lifecycle, the malaria parasite resides and replicates inside a membrane vacuole within its host cell, the human erythrocyte. The parasite exports many proteins across the vacuole membrane and into the host cell cytoplasm. Most exported proteins are characterized by the presence of a Host Targeting (HT) motif, also referred to as a Plasmodium Export Element (PEXEL), which corresponds to the consensus sequence RxLxE/D/Q. During export the HT motif is cleaved by an unknown protease. Here, we generate parasite lines expressing HT motif containing proteins that are localized to different compartments within the parasite or host cell. We find that the HT motif in a protein that is retained in the parasite endoplasmic reticulum, is cleaved and N-acetylated as efficiently as a protein that is exported. This shows that cleavage of the HT motif occurs early in the secretory pathway, in the parasite endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:20117149

  18. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Autophagic Cell Death via Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Disruption in Normal Lung Cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Chang, Seung-Hee; Park, Soo Jin; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jinkyu; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Kim, Jun-Sung; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in diverse fields including food, cosmetic, and medical industries. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) are widely used, but their effects on biological systems and mechanism of toxicity have not been elucidated fully. Here, we report the toxicological mechanism of TiO2-NP in cell organelles. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/mL TiO2-NP for 24 and 48 h. Our results showed that TiO2-NP induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the cells and disrupted the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) and calcium ion balance, thereby increasing autophagy. In contrast, an inhibitor of ER stress, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), mitigated the cellular toxic response, suggesting that TiO2-NP promoted toxicity via ER stress. This novel mechanism of TiO2-NP toxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that further exhaustive research on the harmful effects of these nanoparticles in relevant organisms is needed for their safe application. PMID:26121477

  19. Caveolin-1 binding to endoplasmic reticulum membranes and entry into the regulated secretory pathway are regulated by serine phosphorylation. Protein sorting at the level of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Schlegel, A; Arvan, P; Lisanti, M P

    2001-02-01

    Caveolin-1 serves as the main coat protein of caveolae membranes, as an intracellular cholesterol shuttle, and as a regulator of diverse signaling molecules. Of the 12 residues conserved across all caveolin isoforms from all species examined to date, only Ser(80) and Ser(168) could serve as phosphorylation sites. We show here that mimicking chronic phosphorylation of Ser(80) by mutation to Glu (i.e. Cav-1(S80E)), blocks phosphate incorporation. However, Cav-1(S168E) is phosphorylated to the same extent as wild-type caveolin-1. Cav-1(S80E) targets to the endoplasmic reticulum membrane, remains oligomeric, and maintains normal membrane topology. In contrast, Cav-1(S80A), which cannot be phosphorylated, targets to caveolae membranes. Some exocrine cells secrete caveolin-1 in a regulated manner. Cav-1(S80A) is not secreted by AR42J pancreatic adenocarcinoma cells even in the presence of dexamethasone, an agent that induces the secretory phenotype. Conversely, Cav-1(S80E) is secreted to a greater extent than wild-type caveolin-1 following dexamethasone treatment. We conclude that caveolin-1 phosphorylation on invariant serine residue 80 is required for endoplasmic reticulum retention and entry into the regulated secretory pathway. PMID:11078729

  20. Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles Induce Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Mediated Autophagic Cell Death via Mitochondria-Associated Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Disruption in Normal Lung Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Kyeong-Nam; Chang, Seung-Hee; Park, Soo Jin; Lim, Joohyun; Lee, Jinkyu; Yoon, Tae-Jong; Kim, Jun-Sung; Cho, Myung-Haing

    2015-01-01

    Nanomaterials are used in diverse fields including food, cosmetic, and medical industries. Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2-NP) are widely used, but their effects on biological systems and mechanism of toxicity have not been elucidated fully. Here, we report the toxicological mechanism of TiO2-NP in cell organelles. Human bronchial epithelial cells (16HBE14o-) were exposed to 50 and 100 μg/mL TiO2-NP for 24 and 48 h. Our results showed that TiO2-NP induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the cells and disrupted the mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes (MAMs) and calcium ion balance, thereby increasing autophagy. In contrast, an inhibitor of ER stress, tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), mitigated the cellular toxic response, suggesting that TiO2-NP promoted toxicity via ER stress. This novel mechanism of TiO2-NP toxicity in human bronchial epithelial cells suggests that further exhaustive research on the harmful effects of these nanoparticles in relevant organisms is needed for their safe application. PMID:26121477

  1. Hepatic Extracellular Signal–Regulated Kinase 2 Suppresses Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Protects From Oxidative Stress and Endothelial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Kujiraoka, Takehiko; Satoh, Yasushi; Ayaori, Makoto; Shiraishi, Yasunaga; Arai‐Nakaya, Yuko; Hakuno, Daihiko; Yada, Hirotaka; Kuwada, Naruo; Endo, Shogo; Isoda, Kikuo; Adachi, Takeshi

    2013-01-01

    Background Insulin signaling comprises 2 major cascades: the insulin receptor substrate/phosphatidylinositol 3′‐kinase/protein kinase B and Ras/Raf/mitogen‐activated protein kinase/kinase/ERK pathways. While many studies on the tissue‐specific effects of the insulin receptor substrate/phosphatidylinositol 3′ ‐kinase/protein kinase B pathway have been conducted, the role of the other cascade in tissue‐specific insulin resistance has not been investigated. High glucose/fatty acid toxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress, all of which are associated with insulin resistance, can activate ERK. The liver plays a central role in metabolism, and hepatosteatosis is associated with vascular diseases. The aim of study was to elucidate the role of hepatic ERK2 in hepatosteatosis, metabolic remodeling, and endothelial dysfunction. Methods and Results We created liver‐specific ERK2 knockout mice and fed them with a high‐fat/high‐sucrose diet for 20 weeks. The high‐fat/high‐sucrose diet–fed liver‐specific ERK2 knockout mice exhibited a marked deterioration in hepatosteatosis and metabolic remodeling represented by impairment of glucose tolerance and decreased insulin sensitivity without changes in body weight, blood pressure, and serum cholesterol/triglyceride levels. In the mice, endoplasmic reticulum stress was induced together with decreased mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+‐ATPase 2. In a hepatoma cell line, inhibition of ERK activation– induced endoplasmic reticulum stress only in the presence of palmitate. Vascular reactive oxygen species were elevated with upregulation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase1 (Nox1) and Nox4 and decreased phosphorylation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, which resulted in the remarkable endothelial dysfunction in high‐fat/high‐sucrose diet–fed liver‐specific ERK2 knockout mice. Conclusions Hepatic ERK2 suppresses endoplasmic reticulum

  2. Salusins protect myocardium against ischemic injury by alleviating endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianfei; Wang, Yin; Shan, Shifu; Hu, Tiantian; Chen, Huyan; Tian, Jing; Ren, Anjing; Zhou, Xu; Yuan, Wenjun; Lin, Li

    2012-04-01

    Salusins are regulatory peptides that affect cardiovascular function. We previously reported that salusin-α and -β protected cultured cardiomyocytes from serum deprivation-induced cell death through upregulating glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident protein whose overexpression acts as a marker and suppressor of ER stress. The present study examined whether salusin-α and -β inhibit ER stress in ischemic myocardium. In a rat model of myocardial infarction created by ligating the left anterior descending coronary artery (LAD), salusin-α or -β was intravenously injected at 5 or 15 nmol kg(-1) 15 min prior to 2 h of LAD occlusion. The high dose of salusin-α and -β significantly improved heart function and hemodynamics in LAD-occluded rats, but had no effects in sham-operated rats. The arrhythmias caused by LAD occlusion were markedly attenuated by salusin-α and -β. The apoptotic rate in ischemic myocardium was reduced from 31.5%±3.7% to 19.8%±2.2% and 12.3%±2.2%, and the infarct size was reduced from 53.4%±4.0% of the risk area to 26.5%±9.7% and 23.7%±8.9% by 15 nmol kg(-1) salusin-α and -β, respectively. Furthermore, salusin-α and -β prevented the activation of GRP78 and ER stress-specific apoptotic effectors caspase-12 and CHOP (C/EBP homologous protein), and attenuated the reduction of an ER stress-associated antiapoptotic protein Bcl-2 in ischemic cardiac tissue. The salusins also inhibited the ER stress induced by tunicamycin in cultured rat H9c2 cardiomyocytes. These results indicate that salusins protect myocardium against ischemic injury by inhibiting ER stress and ER stress-associated apoptosis. PMID:22566093

  3. Calcium transport in tonoplast and endoplasmic reticulum vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells. [Daucus carota Danvers

    SciTech Connect

    Bush, D.R.; Sze, H.

    1986-02-01

    Two active calcium (Ca/sup 2 +/) transport systems have been identified and partially characterized in membrane vesicles isolated from cultured carrot cells (Daucus carota Danvers). Both transport systems required MgATP for activity and were enhanced by 10 millimolar oxalate. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in membrane vesicles derived from isolated vacuoles equilibrated at 1.10 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with Cl/sup -/-stimulated, NO/sub 3//sup -/-inhibited ATPase activity on sucrose density gradients. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport in this system was insensitive to vanadate, but was inhibited by nitrate, carbonyl cyanide-m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (DCCD), and 4,4-diisothiocyano-2,2'-stilbene disulfonic acid (DIDS). The K/sub m/ for MgATP and Ca/sup 2 +/ were 0.1 mM and 21 micromolar, respectively. The predominant Ca/sup 2 +/ transport system detectable in microsomal membrane preparations equilibrated at a density of 1.13 grams per cubic centimeter and comigrated with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) marker, antimycin A-insensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductase. Ca/sup 2 +/ transport activity and the ER marker also shifted in parallel in ER shifting experiments. This transport system was inhibited by vanadate (I/sub 50/ = 12 micromolar) and was insensitive to nitrate, CCCP, DCCD, and DIDS. Transport exhibited cooperative MgATP dependent kinetics. Ca/sup 2 +/ dependent kinetics were complex with an apparent K/sub m/ ranging from 0.7 to 2 micromolar. We conclude that the vacuolar-derived system is a Ca/sup 2 +//H/sup +/ antiport located on the tonoplast and that the microsomal transport system is a Ca,Mg-ATPase enriched on the ER. These two Ca/sup 2 +/ transport systems are proposed to restore and maintain cytoplasmic Ca/sup 2 +/ homeostasis under changing cellular and environmental conditions.

  4. EDEM1 targets misfolded HLA-B27 dimers for endoplasmic reticulum associated degradation

    PubMed Central

    Guiliano, David B.; Fussell, Helen; Lenart, Izabela; Tsao, Edward; Nesbeth, Darren; Fletcher, Adam J.; Campbell, Elaine C.; Yousaf, Nasim; Williams, Sarah; Santos, Susana; Cameron, Amy; Towers, Greg J.; Kellam, Paul; Hebert, Daniel N.; Gould, Keith; Powis, Simon J.; Antoniou, Antony N.

    2015-01-01

    Objective HLA-B27 forms misfolded heavy chain dimers, which may predispose individuals to inflammatory arthritis by inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR). We wanted to define the role of the UPR induced ER associated degradation (ERAD) pathway in the disposal of HLA-B27 dimeric conformers. Methods HeLa cell lines expressing only two copies of a carboxy terminally Sv5 tagged HLA-B27 were generated. The ER stress induced EDEM1 protein was over expressed by transfection and dimer levels monitored by immunoblotting. EDEM1, the UPR associated transcription factor XBP-1, the E3 ubiquitin ligase HRD1, the degradation associated derlin 1 and 2 proteins were inhibited by either short hairpin RNA or dominant negative mutants. The UPR associated ERAD of HLA-B27 was confirmed using ER stress inducing pharamacological agents in kinetic and pulse chase assays. Results We demonstrate that UPR induced machinery can target HLA-B27 dimers, and that dimer formation can be controlled by alterations to expression levels of components of the UPR induced ERAD pathway. HLA-B27 dimers and misfolded MHC class I monomeric molecules were detected bound to EDEM1, with overexpression of EDEM1 inhibiting HLA-B27 dimer formation. EDEM1 inhibition resulted in upregulation of HLA-B27 dimers, whilst UPR induced ERAD of dimers was prevented in the absence of EDEM1. HLA-B27 dimer formation was also enhanced in the absence of XBP-1, HRD1 and derlin1/2. Conclusion The UPR ERAD pathway as described here can dispose of HLA-B27 dimers and presents a potential novel therapeutic target for the modulation of HLA-B27 associated inflammatory disease. PMID:25132672

  5. The liver isoform of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 is not targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Broadway, Neil M; Pease, Richard J; Birdsey, Graeme; Shayeghi, Majid; Turner, Nigel A; David Saggerson, E

    2003-01-01

    Liver microsomal fractions contain a malonyl-CoA-inhibitable carnitine acyltransferase (CAT) activity. It has been proposed [Fraser, Corstorphine, Price and Zammit (1999) FEBS Lett. 446, 69-74] that this microsomal CAT activity is due to the liver form of carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 (L-CPT1) being targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane as well as to mitochondria, possibly by an N-terminal signal sequence [Cohen, Guillerault, Girard and Prip-Buus (2001) J. Biol. Chem. 276, 5403-5411]. COS-1 cells were transiently transfected to express a fusion protein in which enhanced green fluorescent protein was fused to the C-terminus of L-CPT1. Confocal microscopy showed that this fusion protein was localized to mitochondria, and possibly to peroxisomes, but not to the ER. cDNAs corresponding to truncated (amino acids 1-328) or full-length L-CPT1 were transcribed and translated in the presence of canine pancreatic microsomes. However, there was no evidence of authentic insertion of CPT1 into the ER membrane. Rat liver microsomal fractions purified by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation contained an 88 kDa protein (p88) which was recognized by an anti-L-CPT1 antibody and by 2,4-dinitrophenol-etomoxiryl-CoA, a covalent inhibitor of L-CPT1. Abundance of p88 and malonyl-CoA-inhibitable CAT activity were increased approx. 3-fold by starvation for 24 h. Deoxycholate solubilized p88 and malonyl-CoA-inhibitable CAT activity from microsomes to approximately the same extent. The microsomal fraction contained porin, which, relative to total protein, was as abundant as in crude mitochondrial outer membranes fractions. It is concluded that L-CPT1 is not targeted to the ER membrane and that malonyl-CoA CAT in microsomal fractions is L-CPT1 that is derived from mitochondria, possibly from membrane contact sites. PMID:12401113

  6. Fluoride induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kaori; Lee, Daniel H; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Young, Conan S; Everett, Eric T; Martinez-Mier, Esperanza A; Snead, Malcolm L; Nguyen, Linh; Urano, Fumihiko; Bartlett, John D

    2005-06-17

    The mechanism of how fluoride causes fluorosis remains unknown. Exposure to fluoride can inhibit protein synthesis, and this may also occur by agents that cause endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. When translated proteins fail to fold properly or become misfolded, ER stress response genes are induced that together comprise the unfolded protein response. Because ameloblasts are responsible for dental enamel formation, we used an ameloblast-derived cell line (LS8) to characterize specific responses to fluoride treatment. LS8 cells were growth-inhibited by as little as 1.9-3.8 ppm fluoride, whereas higher doses induced ER stress and caspase-mediated DNA fragmentation. Growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible proteins (GADD153/CHOP, GADD45alpha), binding protein (BiP/glucose-responsive protein 78 (GRP78), the non-secreted form of carbonic anhydrase VI (CA-VI), and active X-box-binding protein-1 (Xbp-1) were all induced significantly after exposure to 38 ppm fluoride. Unexpectedly, DNA fragmentation increased when GADD153 expression was inhibited by short interfering RNA treatment but remained unaffected by transient GADD153 overexpression. Analysis of control and GADD153(-/-) embryonic fibroblasts demonstrated that caspase-3 mediated the increased DNA fragmentation observed in the GADD153 null cells. We also demonstrate that mouse incisor ameloblasts are sensitive to the toxic effects of high dose fluoride in drinking water. Activated Ire1 initiates an ER stress response pathway, and mouse ameloblasts were shown to express activated Ire1. Ire1 levels appeared induced by fluoride treatment, indicating that ER stress may play a role in dental fluorosis. Low dose fluoride, such as that present in fluoridated drinking water, did not induce ER stress. PMID:15849362

  7. Endoplasmic reticulum stress: a novel mechanism and therapeutic target for cardiovascular diseases

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Mei-qing; Chen, Zhe; Chen, Lin-xi

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum is a principal organelle responsible for folding, post-translational modifications and transport of secretory, luminal and membrane proteins, thus palys an important rale in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) is a condition that is accelerated by accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins after endoplasmic reticulum environment disturbance, triggered by a variety of physiological and pathological factors, such as nutrient deprivation, altered glycosylation, calcium depletion, oxidative stress, DNA damage and energy disturbance, etc. ERS may initiate the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore cellular homeostasis or lead to apoptosis. Numerous studies have clarified the link between ERS and cardiovascular diseases. This review focuses on ERS-associated molecular mechanisms that participate in physiological and pathophysiological processes of heart and blood vessels. In addition, a number of drugs that regulate ERS was introduced, which may be used to treat cardiovascular diseases. This review may open new avenues for studying the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases and discovering novel drugs targeting ERS. PMID:26838072

  8. Aging induced endoplasmic reticulum stress alters sleep and sleep homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Marishka K; Chan, May T; Zimmerman, John E; Pack, Allan I; Jackson, Nicholas E; Naidoo, Nirinjini

    2014-06-01

    Alterations in the quality, quantity, and architecture of baseline and recovery sleep have been shown to occur during aging. Sleep deprivation induces endoplasmic reticular (ER) stress and upregulates a protective signaling pathway termed the unfolded protein response. The effectiveness of the adaptive unfolded protein response is diminished by age. Previously, we showed that endogenous chaperone levels altered recovery sleep in Drosophila melanogaster. We now report that acute administration of the chemical chaperone sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA) reduces ER stress and ameliorates age-associated sleep changes in Drosophila. PBA consolidates both baseline and recovery sleep in aging flies. The behavioral modifications of PBA are linked to its suppression of ER stress. PBA decreased splicing of X-box binding protein 1 and upregulation of phosphorylated elongation initiation factor 2 α, in flies that were subjected to sleep deprivation. We also demonstrate that directly activating ER stress in young flies fragments baseline sleep and alters recovery sleep. Alleviating prolonged or sustained ER stress during aging contributes to sleep consolidation and improves recovery sleep or sleep debt discharge. PMID:24444805

  9. Regulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in rat liver endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Sribney, M; Knowles, C L; Lyman, E M

    1976-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phosphatidylcholine in rat liver microsomal preparations catalysed by CDP-choline-1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (EC 2.7.8.2) was inhibited by a combination of ATP and CoA or ATP and pantetheine. ATP alone at high concentrations (20 mM) inhibits phosphatidylcholine formation to the extent of 70%. In the presence of 0.1 mM-CoA, ATP (2 mM) inhibits to the extent of 80% and in the presence of 1 mM-pantetheine to the extent of 90%. ADP and other nucleotide triphosphates in combination with either CoA or pantetheine are only 10-30% as effective in inhibiting phosphatidylcholine synthesis. AMP(CH2)PP [adenosine 5'-(alphabeta-methylene)triphosphate] together with CoA inhibits to the extent of 59% and with pantetheine by 48%. AMP-P(CH2)P [adenosine 5'-(betagamma-methylene)triphosphate] together with either CoA or pantetheine had no significant effect on phosphatidylcholine formation. Other closely related derivatives of pantothenic acid were without effect either alone or in the presence of ATP, as were thiol compounds such as cysteine, homocysteine, cysteamine, dithiothreitol and glutathione. Several mechanisms by which this inhibition might take place were ruled out and it is concluded that ATP together with either CoA or pantetheine interacts reversibly with phosphatidylcholine synthetase to cause temporarily the inhibition of phosphatidylcholine formation. PMID:182154

  10. Lipid-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Impairs Selective Autophagy at the Step of Autophagosome-Lysosome Fusion in Hepatocytes.

    PubMed

    Miyagawa, Koichiro; Oe, Shinji; Honma, Yuichi; Izumi, Hiroto; Baba, Ryoko; Harada, Masaru

    2016-07-01

    Blockage of hepatic autophagic degradation system occurs in obesity and is associated with the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease. However, the mechanism of this blockage remains unclear. We found a high-fat diet induced accumulation of autophagosomes in the mice livers. However, autophagy substrates such as p62 and ubiquitinated proteins also accumulated in the livers in this model. These findings indicate the possibility that a high-fat diet impairs autophagic flux in the liver. Then, to assess the autophagic flux in more detail, we performed analyses of autophagic flux in cultured hepatocytes exposed to monounsaturated fatty acids (FAs) or saturated FAs (SFAs). SFAs but not monounsaturated FAs suppressed degradation of contents in the autophagosomes. We analyzed each stage of the autophagy pathway (ie, autophagosome formation, autophagosome-lysosome fusion, lysosomal degradation) in cultured hepatocytes treated with monounsaturated FAs or SFAs and found that SFAs impaired autophagosome-lysosome fusion. This impairment occurred in an endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent manner. Moreover, ubiquitin and p62-positive inclusions observed in high-fat diet-fed mice livers and SFA-treated cells were sequestered within autophagosomes. We also found that SFA-induced accumulation of Ser351-phosphorylated p62, which is indispensable for selective autophagy, further increased on administration of a lysosomal proteinase inhibitor. Although lipid-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress interferes with the autophagosome-lysosome fusion, selective autophagic sequestration of aggregated proteins is not inhibited. PMID:27157992

  11. Discovery of a novel glucose metabolism in cancer: The role of endoplasmic reticulum beyond glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt

    PubMed Central

    Marini, Cecilia; Ravera, Silvia; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Bianchi, Giovanna; Orengo, Anna Maria; Bruno, Silvia; Bottoni, Gianluca; Emionite, Laura; Pastorino, Fabio; Monteverde, Elena; Garaboldi, Lucia; Martella, Roberto; Salani, Barbara; Maggi, Davide; Ponzoni, Mirco; Fais, Franco; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metabolism is characterized by an accelerated glycolytic rate facing reduced activity of oxidative phosphorylation. This “Warburg effect” represents a standard to diagnose and monitor tumor aggressiveness with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose whose uptake is currently regarded as an accurate index of total glucose consumption. Studying cancer metabolic response to respiratory chain inhibition by metformin, we repeatedly observed a reduction of tracer uptake facing a marked increase in glucose consumption. This puzzling discordance brought us to discover that 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose preferentially accumulates within endoplasmic reticulum by exploiting the catalytic function of hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. Silencing enzyme expression and activity decreased both tracer uptake and glucose consumption, caused severe energy depletion and decreased NADPH content without altering mitochondrial function. These data document the existence of an unknown glucose metabolism triggered by hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase within endoplasmic reticulum of cancer cells. Besides its basic relevance, this finding can improve clinical cancer diagnosis and might represent potential target for therapy. PMID:27121192

  12. Discovery of a novel glucose metabolism in cancer: The role of endoplasmic reticulum beyond glycolysis and pentose phosphate shunt.

    PubMed

    Marini, Cecilia; Ravera, Silvia; Buschiazzo, Ambra; Bianchi, Giovanna; Orengo, Anna Maria; Bruno, Silvia; Bottoni, Gianluca; Emionite, Laura; Pastorino, Fabio; Monteverde, Elena; Garaboldi, Lucia; Martella, Roberto; Salani, Barbara; Maggi, Davide; Ponzoni, Mirco; Fais, Franco; Raffaghello, Lizzia; Sambuceti, Gianmario

    2016-01-01

    Cancer metabolism is characterized by an accelerated glycolytic rate facing reduced activity of oxidative phosphorylation. This "Warburg effect" represents a standard to diagnose and monitor tumor aggressiveness with (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose whose uptake is currently regarded as an accurate index of total glucose consumption. Studying cancer metabolic response to respiratory chain inhibition by metformin, we repeatedly observed a reduction of tracer uptake facing a marked increase in glucose consumption. This puzzling discordance brought us to discover that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose preferentially accumulates within endoplasmic reticulum by exploiting the catalytic function of hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase. Silencing enzyme expression and activity decreased both tracer uptake and glucose consumption, caused severe energy depletion and decreased NADPH content without altering mitochondrial function. These data document the existence of an unknown glucose metabolism triggered by hexose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase within endoplasmic reticulum of cancer cells. Besides its basic relevance, this finding can improve clinical cancer diagnosis and might represent potential target for therapy. PMID:27121192

  13. Ursodeoxycholic acid and 4-phenylbutyrate prevent endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced podocyte apoptosis in diabetic nephropathy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ai-Li; Wang, Li; Chen, Xia; Wang, Yun-Man; Guo, Heng-Jiang; Chu, Shuang; Liu, Cheng; Zhang, Xue-Mei; Peng, Wen

    2016-06-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, resulting from the accumulation of misfolded and/or unfolded proteins in ER membranes, is involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The aim of this study was to investigate the role of ER stress inhibitors ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) in the treatment of DN in db/db mice. Findings have revealed that diabetic db/db mice were more hyperglycemic than their non-diabetic controls, and exhibited a marked increase in body weight, water intake, urine volume, fasting plasma glucose, systolic blood pressure, glucose and insulin tolerance. UDCA (40 mg/kg/day) or 4-PBA (100 mg/kg/day) treatment for 12 weeks resulted in an improvement in these biochemical and physical parameters. Moreover, UDCA or 4-PBA intervention markedly decreased urinary albuminuria and attenuated mesangial expansion in diabetic db/db mice, compared with db/db mice treated with vehicle. These beneficial effects of UDCA or 4-PBA on DN were associated with the inhibition of ER stress, as evidenced by the decreased expression of BiP, phospho-IRE1α, phospho-eIF2α, CHOP, ATF-6 and spliced X-box binding protein-1 in vitro and in vivo. UDCA or 4-PBA prevented hyperglycemia-induced or high glucose (HG)-induced apoptosis in podocytes in vivo and in vitro via the inhibition of caspase-3 and caspase-12 activation. Autophagy deficiency was also seen in glomeruli in diabetic mice and HG-incubated podocytes, exhibiting decreased expression of LC3B and Beclin-1, which could be restored by UDCA or 4-PBA treatment. Taken together, our results have revealed an important role of ER stress in the development of DN, and UDCA or 4-PBA treatment may be a potential novel therapeutic approach for the treatment of DN. PMID:26999661

  14. The Dichotomy of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Liver Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Haomming; Zhu, Jianjun; Yue, Shi; Lu, Ling; Busuttil, Ronald W; Kupiec-Weglinski, Jerzy W; Wang, Xuehao; Zhai, Yuan

    2016-02-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress plays critical roles in the pathogenesis of liver ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI). As ER stress triggers an adaptive cellular response, the question of what determines its functional outcome in liver IRI remains to be defined. In a murine liver partial warm ischemia model, we studied how transient (30 minutes) or prolonged (90 minutes) liver ischemia regulated local ER stress response and autophagy activities and their relationship with liver IRI. Effects of chemical chaperon 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) or autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine (3-MA) were evaluated. Our results showed that although the activating transcription factor 6 branch of ER stress response was induced in livers by both types of ischemia, liver autophagy was activated by transient, but inhibited by prolonged, ischemia. Although 3-MA had no effects on liver IRI after prolonged ischemia, it significantly increased liver IRI after transient ischemia. The 4-PBA treatment protected livers from IRI after prolonged ischemia by restoring autophagy flux, and the adjunctive 3-MA treatment abrogated its liver protective effect. The same 4-PBA treatment, however, increased liver IRI and disrupted autophagy flux after transient ischemia. Although both types of ischemia activated 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and inactivated protein kinase B (Akt), prolonged ischemia also resulted in downregulations of autophagy-related gene 3 and autophagy-related gene 5 in ischemic livers. These results indicate a functional dichotomy of ER stress response in liver IRI via its regulation of autophagy. Transient ischemia activates autophagy to protect livers from IRI, whereas prolonged ischemia inhibits autophagy to promote the development of liver IRI. PMID:26683513

  15. Fluoxetine induces cytotoxic endoplasmic reticulum stress and autophagy in triple negative breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bowie, Michelle; Pilie, Patrick; Wulfkuhle, Julia; Lem, Siya; Hoffman, Abigail; Desai, Shraddha; Petricoin, Emanuel; Carter, Amira; Ambrose, Adrian; Seewaldt, Victoria; Yu, Dihua; Ibarra Drendall, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanism of action of lipophilic antidepressant fluoxetine (FLX) in representative molecular subtypes of breast cancer. METHODS: The anti-proliferative effects and mechanistic action of FLX in triple-negative (SUM149PT) and luminal (T47D and Au565) cancer cells and non-transformed MCF10A were investigated. Reverse phase protein microarray (RPPM) was performed with and without 10 μmol/L FLX for 24 and 48 h to determine which proteins are significantly changed. Viability and cell cycle analysis were also performed to determine drug effects on cell growth. Western blotting was used to confirm the change in protein expression examined by RPPM or pursue other signaling proteins. RESULTS: The FLX-induced cell growth inhibition in all cell lines was concentration- and time-dependent but less pronounced in early passage MCF10A. In comparison to the other lines, cell growth reduction in SUM149PT coincided with significant induction of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and autophagy after 24 and 48 h of 10 μmol/L FLX, resulting in decreased translation of proteins along the receptor tyrosine kinase/Akt/mammalian target of rapamycin pathways. The increase in autophagy marker, cleaved microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3, in SUM149PT after 24 h of FLX was likely due to increased metabolic demands of rapidly dividing cells and ER stress. Consequently, the unfolded protein response mediated by double-stranded RNA-dependent protein kinase-like ER kinase resulted in inhibition of protein synthesis, growth arrest at the G1 phase, autophagy, and caspase-7-mediated cell death. CONCLUSION: Our study suggests a new role for FLX as an inducer of ER stress and autophagy, resulting in death of aggressive triple negative breast cancer SUM149PT. PMID:26677444

  16. Tributyltin-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and its Ca(2+)-mediated mechanism.

    PubMed

    Isomura, Midori; Kotake, Yaichiro; Masuda, Kyoichi; Miyara, Masatsugu; Okuda, Katsuhiro; Samizo, Shigeyoshi; Sanoh, Seigo; Hosoi, Toru; Ozawa, Koichiro; Ohta, Shigeru

    2013-10-01

    Organotin compounds, especially tributyltin chloride (TBT), have been widely used in antifouling paints for marine vessels, but exhibit various toxicities in mammals. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multifunctional organelle that controls post-translational modification and intracellular Ca(2+) signaling. When the capacity of the quality control system of ER is exceeded under stress including ER Ca(2+) homeostasis disruption, ER functions are impaired and unfolded proteins are accumulated in ER lumen, which is called ER stress. Here, we examined whether TBT causes ER stress in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. We found that 700nM TBT induced ER stress markers such as CHOP, GRP78, spliced XBP1 mRNA and phosphorylated eIF2α. TBT also decreased the cell viability both concentration- and time-dependently. Dibutyltin and monobutyltin did not induce ER stress markers. We hypothesized that TBT induces ER stress via Ca(2+) depletion, and to test this idea, we examined the effect of TBT on intracellular Ca(2+) concentration using fura-2 AM, a Ca(2+) fluorescent probe. TBT increased intracellular Ca(2+) concentration in a TBT-concentration-dependent manner, and Ca(2+) increase in 700nM TBT was mainly blocked by 50μM dantrolene, a ryanodine receptor antagonist (about 70% inhibition). Dantrolene also partially but significantly inhibited TBT-induced GRP78 expression and cell death. These results suggest that TBT increases intracellular Ca(2+) concentration by releasing Ca(2+) from ER, thereby causing ER stress. PMID:23743301

  17. Uncovering a Dual Regulatory Role for Caspases During Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-induced Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Anania, Veronica G.; Yu, Kebing; Gnad, Florian; Pferdehirt, Rebecca R.; Li, Han; Ma, Taylur P.; Jeon, Diana; Fortelny, Nikolaus; Forrest, William; Ashkenazi, Avi; Overall, Christopher M.; Lill, Jennie R.

    2016-01-01

    Many diseases are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which results from an accumulation of misfolded proteins. This triggers an adaptive response called the “unfolded protein response” (UPR), and prolonged exposure to ER stress leads to cell death. Caspases are reported to play a critical role in ER stress-induced cell death but the underlying mechanisms by which they exert their effect continue to remain elusive. To understand the role caspases play during ER stress, a systems level approach integrating analysis of the transcriptome, proteome, and proteolytic substrate profile was employed. This quantitative analysis revealed transcriptional profiles for most human genes, provided information on protein abundance for 4476 proteins, and identified 445 caspase substrates. Based on these data sets many caspase substrates were shown to be downregulated at the protein level during ER stress suggesting caspase activity inhibits their cellular function. Additionally, RNA sequencing revealed a role for caspases in regulation of ER stress-induced transcriptional pathways and gene set enrichment analysis showed expression of multiple gene targets of essential transcription factors to be upregulated during ER stress upon inhibition of caspases. Furthermore, these transcription factors were degraded in a caspase-dependent manner during ER stress. These results indicate that caspases play a dual role in regulating the cellular response to ER stress through both post-translational and transcriptional regulatory mechanisms. Moreover, this study provides unique insight into progression of the unfolded protein response into cell death, which may help identify therapeutic strategies to treat ER stress-related diseases. PMID:27125827

  18. RIPK1 regulates survival of human melanoma cells upon endoplasmic reticulum stress through autophagy.

    PubMed

    Luan, Qi; Jin, Lei; Jiang, Chen Chen; Tay, Kwang Hong; Lai, Fritz; Liu, Xiao Ying; Liu, Yi Lun; Guo, Su Tang; Li, Chun Ying; Yan, Xu Guang; Tseng, Hsin-Yi; Zhang, Xu Dong

    2015-01-01

    Although RIPK1 (receptor [TNFRSF]-interacting protein kinase 1) is emerging as a critical determinant of cell fate in response to cellular stress resulting from activation of death receptors and DNA damage, its potential role in cell response to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress remains undefined. Here we report that RIPK1 functions as an important prosurvival mechanism in melanoma cells undergoing pharmacological ER stress induced by tunicamycin (TM) or thapsigargin (TG) through activation of autophagy. While treatment with TM or TG upregulated RIPK1 and triggered autophagy in melanoma cells, knockdown of RIPK1 inhibited autophagy and rendered the cells sensitive to killing by TM or TG, recapitulating the effect of inhibition of autophagy. Consistently, overexpression of RIPK1 enhanced induction of autophagy and conferred resistance of melanoma cells to TM- or TG-induced cell death. Activation of MAPK8/JNK1 or MAPK9/JNK2, which phosphorylated BCL2L11/BIM leading to its dissociation from BECN1/Beclin 1, was involved in TM- or TG-induced, RIPK1-mediated activation of autophagy; whereas, activation of the transcription factor HSF1 (heat shock factor protein 1) downstream of the ERN1/IRE1-XBP1 axis of the unfolded protein response was responsible for the increase in RIPK1 in melanoma cells undergoing pharmacological ER stress. Collectively, these results identify upregulation of RIPK1 as an important resistance mechanism of melanoma cells to TM- or TG-induced ER stress by protecting against cell death through activation of autophagy, and suggest that targeting the autophagy-activating mechanism of RIPK1 may be a useful strategy to enhance sensitivity of melanoma cells to therapeutic agents that induce ER stress. PMID:26018731

  19. Hepatitis C Virus NS2 Protein Triggers Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Suppresses its Own Viral Replication

    PubMed Central

    von dem Bussche, Annette; Machida, Raiki; Li, Ke; Loevinsohn, Gideon; Khander, Amrin; Wang, Jianguo; Wakita, Takaji; Wands, Jack R.; Li, Jisu

    2010-01-01

    Background & Aims We previously reported that the NS2 protein of hepatitis C virus (HCV) inhibits the expression of reporter genes driven by a variety of cellular and viral promoters. The aim of the study was to determine whether the broad transcriptional repression is caused by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Methods Phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α and HCV replication were detected by Western and Northern blot, respectively. De novo protein synthesis was measured by metabolic labeling. Activation of ER stress responsive genes was determined by promoter reporter assay, as well as mRNA and protein measurement by real time PCR and Western blot. Results Transient or inducible NS2 protein expression increased eIF2α phosphorylation and reduced de novo protein synthesis. It up-regulated promoter activities and transcript levels of ER stress inducible genes including GRP78, ATF6, and GADD153, as well as GRP78 protein level. The same effect was observed when NS2 was synthesized as part of the core-E1-E2-p7-NS2 polypeptide. NS2 protein also inhibited reporter gene expression from the HCV internal ribosome entry site and consequently reduced HCV replication. The full-length HCV replicon activated GRP78, ATF6, and GADD153 promoters more efficiently than the subgenomic replicon lacking the coding sequence for both the structural proteins and NS2. Abrogation of HCV infection/replication, by an inhibitor of the NS3 protease, relieved ER stress. Conclusions HCV infection can induce ER stress, with NS2 protein being a major mediator. The stress can be relieved by a feedback mechanism. PMID:20801537

  20. Secretion and apparent activation of human hepatic lipase requires proper oligosaccharide processing in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Verhoeven, A J; Neve, B P; Jansen, H

    1999-01-01

    Human hepatic lipase (HL) is a glycoprotein with four N-linked oligosaccharide side chains. The importance of glycosylation for the secretion of catalytically active HL was studied in HepG2 cells by using inhibitors of intracellular trafficking, N-glycosylation and oligosaccharide processing. Secretion of HL was inhibited by carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP), monensin, brefeldin A (BFA), tunicamycin, castanospermine and N-methyldeoxynojirimycin, but not by 1-deoxymannojirimycin. Secretion of alpha1-antitrypsin, an unrelated N-glycoprotein, was also inhibited by monensin, BFA and tunicamycin, but not by CCCP, castanospermine or N-methyldeoxynojirimycin. Intracellular HL activity decreased with CCCP, tunicamycin, castanospermine and N-methyldeoxynojirimycin, but increased with monensin and BFA. In the absence of protein synthesis de novo, HL activity secreted into the medium was 7.8+/-2.1-fold higher (mean+/-S.D., n=7) than the simultaneous fall in intracellular HL activity. In cells pretreated with monensin or BFA, this factor decreased to 1.3+/-0.5, indicating that the apparent increase in HL activity had already occurred within these cells. After chromatography on Sepharose-heparin, the specific triacylglycerol hydrolase activity of secreted HL was only 1.7+/-0. 3-fold higher than that of intracellular HL, indicating that the secretion-coupled increase in HL activity is only partly explained by true activation. We conclude that oligosaccharide processing by glucosidases in the endoplasmic reticulum is necessary for the transport of newly synthesized human HL, but not alpha1-antitrypsin, to the Golgi, where the catalytic activity of HL is unmasked. PMID:9854035

  1. Evidence that BCL-2 represses apoptosis by regulating endoplasmic reticulum-associated Ca2+ fluxes.

    PubMed Central

    Lam, M; Dubyak, G; Chen, L; Nuñez, G; Miesfeld, R L; Distelhorst, C W

    1994-01-01

    BCL-2 is a 26-kDa integral membrane protein that represses apoptosis by an unknown mechanism. Recent findings indicate that Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) mediates apoptosis in mouse lymphoma cells. In view of growing evidence that BCL-2 localizes to the ER, as well as mitochondria and the perinuclear membrane, we investigated the possibility that BCL-2 represses apoptosis by regulating Ca2+ fluxes through the ER membrane. A cDNA encoding BCL-2 was introduced into WEHI7.2 cells and two subclones, W.Hb12 and W.Hb13, which express high and low levels of BCL-2 mRNA and protein, respectively, were isolated. WEHI7.2 cells underwent apoptosis in response to treatment with the glucocorticoid hormone dexamethasone, whereas W.Hb12 and W.Hb13 cells were protected from apoptosis, revealing a direct relationship between the level of BCL-2 expression and the degree of protection. Significantly, BCL-2 also blocked induction of apoptosis by thapsigargin (TG), a highly specific inhibitor of the ER-associated Ca2+ pump. TG completely inhibited ER Ca2+ pumping in both WEHI7.2 and W.Hb12 cells, but the release of Ca2+ into the cytosol after inhibition of ER Ca2+ pumping was significantly less in W.Hb12 cells than in WEHI7.2 cells, indicating that BCL-2 reduces Ca2+ efflux through the ER membrane. By reducing ER Ca2+ efflux, BCL-2 interfered with a signal for "capacitative" entry of extracellular Ca2+, preventing a sustained increase of cytosolic Ca2+ in TG-treated cells. These findings suggest that BCL-2 either directly or indirectly regulates the flux of Ca2+ across the ER membrane, thereby abrogating Ca2+ signaling of apoptosis. Images PMID:8022822

  2. Evidence for a KATP Channel in Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum (rerKATP Channel) of Rat Hepatocytes

    PubMed Central

    Fahanik-Babaei, Javad; Saghiri, Reza; Sauve, Remy; Eliassi, Afsaneh

    2015-01-01

    We report in a previous study the presence of a large conductance K+ channel in the membrane of rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER) from rat hepatocytes incorporated into lipid bilayers. Channel activity in this case was found to decrease in presence of ATP 100 µM on the cytoplasmic side and was totally inhibited at ATP concentrations greater than 0.25 mM. Although such features would be compatible with the presence of a KATP channel in the RER, recent data obtained from a brain mitochondrial inner membrane preparation have provided evidence for a Maxi-K channel which could also be blocked by ATP within the mM concentration range. A series of channel incorporation experiments was thus undertaken to determine if the ATP-sensitive channel originally observed in the RER corresponds to KATP channel. Our results indicate that the gating and permeation properties of this channel are unaffected by the addition of 800 nM charybdotoxin and 1 µM iberiotoxin, but appeared sensitive to 10 mM TEA and 2.5 mM ATP. Furthermore, adding 100 µM glibenclamide at positive potentials and 400 µM tolbutamide at negative or positive voltages caused a strong inhibition of channel activity. Finally Western blot analyses provided evidence for Kir6.2, SUR1 and/or SUR2B, and SUR2A expression in our RER fractions. It was concluded on the basis of these observations that the channel previously characterized in RER membranes corresponds to KATP, suggesting that opening of this channel may enhance Ca2+ releases, alter the dynamics of the Ca2+ transient and prevent accumulation of Ca2+ in the ER during Ca2+ overload. PMID:25950903

  3. Stress of endoplasmic reticulum modulates differentiation and lipogenesis of human adipocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Koc, Michal; Mayerová, Veronika; Kračmerová, Jana; Mairal, Aline; Mališová, Lucia; Štich, Vladimír; Langin, Dominique; Rossmeislová, Lenka

    2015-05-08

    Background: Adipocytes are cells specialized for storage of neutral lipids. This storage capacity is dependent on lipogenesis and is diminished in obesity. The reason for the decline in lipogenic activity of adipocytes in obesity remains unknown. Recent data show that lipogenesis in liver is regulated by pathways initiated by endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). Thus, we aimed at investigating the effect of ERS on lipogenesis in adipose cells. Methods: Preadipocytes were isolated from subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue from obese volunteers and in vitro differentiated into adipocytes. ERS was induced pharmacologically by thapsigargin (TG) or tunicamycin (TM). Activation of Unfolded Protein Response pathway (UPR) was monitored on the level of eIF2α phosphorylation and mRNA expression of downstream targets of UPR sensors. Adipogenic and lipogenic capacity was evaluated by Oil Red O staining, measurement of incorporation of radio-labelled glucose or acetic acid into lipids and mRNA analysis of adipogenic/lipogenic markers. Results: Exposition of adipocytes to high doses of TG (100 nM) and TM (1 μg/ml) for 1–24 h enhanced expression of several UPR markers (HSPA5, EDEM1, ATF4, XBP1s) and phosphorylation of eIF2α. This acute ERS substantially inhibited expression of lipogenic genes (DGAT2, FASN, SCD1) and glucose incorporation into lipids. Moreover, chronic exposure of preadipocytes to low dose of TG (2.5 nM) during the early phases of adipogenic conversion of preadipocytes impaired both, lipogenesis and adipogenesis. On the other hand, chronic low ERS had no apparent effect on lipogenesis in mature adipocytes. Conclusions: Acute ERS weakened a capacity of mature adipocytes to store lipids and chronic ERS diminished adipogenic potential of preadipocytes. - Highlights: • High intensity ERS inhibits lipogenic capacity of adipocytes. • ERS impairs adipogenesis when present in early stages of adipogenesis. • Lipogenesis in mature adipocytes is not

  4. Protein kinase RNA- like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (PERK) signaling pathway plays a major role in reactive oxygen species (ROS)- mediated endoplasmic reticulum stress- induced apoptosis in diabetic cardiomyopathy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is considered one of the mechanisms contributing to reactive oxygen species (ROS)- mediated cell apoptosis. In diabetic cardiomyopathy (DCM), cell apoptosis is generally accepted as the etiological factor and closely related to cardiac ROS generation. ER stress is proposed the link between ROS and cell apoptosis; however, the signaling pathways and their roles in participating ER stress- induced apoptosis in DCM are still unclear. Methods In this study, we investigated the signaling transductions in ROS- dependent ER stress- induced cardiomocyte apoptosis in animal model of DCM. Moreover, in order to clarify the roles of IRE1 (inositol - requiring enzyme-1), PERK (protein kinase RNA (PKR)- like ER kinase) and ATF6 (activating transcription factor-6) in conducting apoptotic signal in ROS- dependent ER stress- induced cardiomocyte apoptosis, we further investigated apoptosis in high- glucose incubated cardiomyocytes with IRE1, ATF6 and PERK- knocked down respectively. Results we demonstrated that the ER stress sensors, referred as PERK, IRE1 and ATF6, were activated in ROS- mediated ER stress- induced cell apoptosis in rat model of DCM which was characterized by cardiac pump and electrical dysfunctions. The deletion of PERK in myocytes exhibited stronger protective effect against apoptosis induced by high- glucose incubation than deletion of ATF6 or IRE in the same myocytes. By subcellular fractionation, rather than ATF6 and IRE1, in primary cardiomyocytes, PERK was found a component of MAMs (mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes) which was the functional and physical contact site between ER and mitochondria. Conclusions ROS- stimulated activation of PERK signaling pathway takes the major responsibility rather than IRE1 or ATF6 signaling pathways in ROS- medicated ER stress- induced myocyte apoptosis in DCM. PMID:24180212

  5. Upregulation of the SERCA-type Ca2+ pump activity in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in PC12 cells

    PubMed Central

    Højmann Larsen, Annette; Frandsen, Aase; Treiman, Marek

    2001-01-01

    Background Ca2+-ATPases of endoplasmic reticulum (SERCAs) are responsible for maintenance of the micro- to millimolar Ca2+ ion concentrations within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of eukaryotic cells. This intralumenal Ca2+ storage is important for the generation of Ca2+ signals as well as for the correct folding and posttranslational processing of proteins entering ER after synthesis. ER perturbations such as depletion of Ca2+ or abolishing the oxidative potential, inhibition of glycosylation, or block of secretory pathway, activate the Unfolded Protein Response, consisting of an upregulation of a number of ER-resident chaperones/stress proteins in an effort to boost the impaired folding capacity. Results We show here that in PC12 cells, depletion of ER Ca2+ by EGTA, as well as inhibition of disulphide bridge formation within the ER by dithiotreitol or inhibition of N-glycosylation by tunicamycin, led to a 2- to 3-fold increase of the SERCA-mediated 45Ca2+ transport to microsomes isolated from cells exposed to these stress agents. The time course of this response corresponded to that for transcriptional upregulation of ER stress proteins, as well as to the increase in the SERCA2b mRNA, as we recently observed in an independent study. Conclusions These findings provide the first functional evidence for the increase of SERCA pumping capacity in cells subjected to the ER stress. Since at least three different and unrelated mechanisms of eliciting the ER stress response were found to cause this functional upregulation of Ca2+ transport into the ER, these results support the existence of a coupling between the induction of the UPR pathway in general, and the regulation of expression of at least one of the SERCA pump isoforms. PMID:11319943

  6. Paeonol protects against endoplasmic reticulum stress-induced endothelial dysfunction via AMPK/PPARδ signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Choy, Ker-Woon; Mustafa, Mohd Rais; Lau, Yeh Siang; Liu, Jian; Murugan, Dharmani; Lau, Chi Wai; Wang, Li; Zhao, Lei; Huang, Yu

    2016-09-15

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in endothelial cells often leads to endothelial dysfunction which underlies the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Paeonol, a major phenolic component extracted from Moutan Cortex, possesses various medicinal benefits which have been used extensively in traditional Chinese medicine. The present study investigated the protective mechanism of paeonol against tunicamycin-induced ER stress in isolated mouse aortas and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Vascular reactivity in aorta was measured using a wire myograph. The effects of paeonol on protein expression of ER stress markers, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) activity in the vascular wall were assessed by Western blot, dihydroethidium fluorescence (DHE) or lucigenin enhanced-chemiluminescence, 4-amino-5-methylamino-2',7'-difluorofluorescein (DAF-FM DA) and dual luciferase reporter assay, respectively. Ex vivo treatment with paeonol (0.1μM) for 16h reversed the impaired endothelium-dependent relaxations in C57BJ/6J and PPARδ wild type (WT) mouse aortas following incubation with tunicamycin (0.5μg/mL). Elevated ER stress markers, oxidative stress and reduction of NO bioavailability induced by tunicamycin in HUVECs, C57BJ/6J and PPARδ WT mouse aortas were reversed by paeonol treatment. These beneficial effects of paeonol were diminished in PPARδ knockout (KO) mouse aortas. Paeonol increased the expression of 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and PPARδ expression and activity while restoring the decreased phosphorylation of eNOS. The present study delineates that paeonol protects against tunicamycin-induced vascular endothelial dysfunction by inhibition of ER stress and oxidative stress, thus elevating NO bioavailability via the AMPK/PPARδ signaling pathway. PMID:27449753

  7. A physical/psychological and biological stress combine to enhance endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Mondal, Tapan Kumar; Emeny, Rebecca T; Gao, Donghong; Ault, Jeffrey G; Kasten-Jolly, Jane; Lawrence, David A

    2015-12-01

    The generation of an immune response against infectious and other foreign agents is substantially modified by allostatic load, which is increased with chemical, physical and/or psychological stressors. The physical/psychological stress from cold-restraint (CR) inhibits host defense against Listeria monocytogenes (LM), due to early effects of the catecholamine norepinephrine (NE) from sympathetic nerves on β1-adrenoceptors (β1AR) of immune cells. Although CR activates innate immunity within 2h, host defenses against bacterial growth are suppressed 2-3 days after infection (Cao and Lawrence 2002). CR enhances inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and NO production. The early innate activation leads to cellular reduction-oxidation (redox) changes of immune cells. Lymphocytes from CR-treated mice express fewer surface thiols. Splenic and hepatic immune cells also have fewer proteins with free thiols after CR and/or LM, and macrophages have less glutathione after the in vivo CR exposure or exposure to NE in vitro. The early induction of CR-induced oxidative stress elevates endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which could interfere with keeping phagocytized LM within the phagosome or re-encapsuling LM by autophagy once they escape from the phagosome. ER stress-related proteins, such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), have elevated expression with CR and LM. The results indicate that CR enhances the unfolded protein response (UPR), which interferes with host defenses against LM. Thus, it is postulated that increased stress, as exists with living conditions at low socioeconomic conditions, can lower host defenses against pathogens because of oxidative and ER stress processes. PMID:26391182

  8. High-Density Lipoprotein Prevents Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Induced Downregulation of Liver LOX-1 Expression.

    PubMed

    Hong, Dan; Li, Ling-Fang; Gao, Hai-Chao; Wang, Xiang; Li, Chuan-Chang; Luo, Ying; Bai, Yong-Ping; Zhang, Guo-Gang

    2015-01-01

    Lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (LOX-1) is a specific cell-surface receptor for oxidized-low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL). The impact of high-density lipoprotein (HDL) on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-mediated alteration of the LOX-1 level in hepatocytes remains unclear. We aimed to investigate the impact on LOX-1 expression by tunicamycin (TM)-induced ER stress and to determine the effect of HDL on TM-affected LOX-1 expression in hepatic L02 cells. Overexpression or silencing of related cellular genes was conducted in TM-treated cells. mRNA expression was evaluated using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Protein expression was analyzed by western blot and immunocytochemistry. Lipid uptake was examined by DiI-ox-LDL, followed by flow cytometric analysis. The results showed that TM induced the upregulation of ER chaperone GRP78, downregulation of LOX-1 expression, and lipid uptake. Knock down of IRE1 or XBP-1 effectively restored LOX-1 expression and improved lipid uptake in TM-treated cells. HDL treatment prevented the negative impact on LOX-1 expression and lipid uptake induced by TM. Additionally, 1-10 μg/mL HDL significantly reduced the GRP78, IRE1, and XBP-1 expression levels in TM-treated cells. Our findings reveal that HDL could prevent the TM-induced reduction of LOX-1 expression via inhibiting the IRE1/XBP-1 pathway, suggesting a new mechanism for beneficial roles of HDL in improving lipid metabolism. PMID:25923692

  9. Methylglyoxal induces cell death through endoplasmic reticulum stress-associated ROS production and mitochondrial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Chan, Chi-Ming; Huang, Duen-Yi; Huang, Yi-Pin; Hsu, Shu-Hao; Kang, Lan-Ya; Shen, Chung-Min; Lin, Wan-Wan

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy (DR) and age-related macular degeneration (AMD) are two important leading causes of acquired blindness in developed countries. As accumulation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs) in retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells plays an important role in both DR and AMD, and the methylglyoxal (MGO) within the AGEs exerts irreversible effects on protein structure and function, it is crucial to understand the underlying mechanism of MGO-induced RPE cell death. Using ARPE-19 as the cell model, this study revealed that MGO induces RPE cell death through a caspase-independent manner, which relying on reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) loss, intracellular calcium elevation and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response. Suppression of ROS generation can reverse the MGO-induced ROS production, MMP loss, intracellular calcium increase and cell death. Moreover, store-operated calcium channel inhibitors MRS1845 and YM-58483, but not the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor xestospongin C, can block MGO-induced ROS production, MMP loss and sustained intracellular calcium increase in ARPE-19 cells. Lastly, inhibition of ER stress by salubrinal and 4-PBA can reduce the MGO-induced intracellular events and cell death. Therefore, our data indicate that MGO can decrease RPE cell viability, resulting from the ER stress-dependent intracellular ROS production, MMP loss and increased intracellular calcium increase. As MGO is one of the components of drusen in AMD and is the AGEs adduct in DR, this study could provide a valuable insight into the molecular pathogenesis and therapeutic intervention of AMD and DR. PMID:27307396

  10. Protein disulfide isomerases in the endoplasmic reticulum promote anchorage-independent growth of breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Wise, Randi; Duhachek-Muggy, Sara; Qi, Yue; Zolkiewski, Michal; Zolkiewska, Anna

    2016-06-01

    Metastatic breast cancer cells are exposed to stress of detachment from the extracellular matrix (ECM). Cultured breast cancer cells that survive this stress and are capable of anchorage-independent proliferation form mammospheres. The purpose of this study was to explore a link between mammosphere growth, ECM gene expression, and the protein quality control system in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). We compared the mRNA and protein levels of ER folding factors in SUM159PT and MCF10DCIS.com breast cancer cells grown as mammospheres versus adherent conditions. Publicly available gene expression data for mammospheres formed by primary breast cancer cells and for circulating tumor cells (CTCs) were analyzed to assess the status of ECM/ER folding factor genes in clinically relevant samples. Knock-down of selected protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family members was performed to examine their roles in SUM159PT mammosphere growth. We found that cells grown as mammospheres had elevated expression of ECM genes and ER folding quality control genes. CTC gene expression data for an index patient indicated that upregulation of ECM and ER folding factor genes occurred at the time of acquired therapy resistance and disease progression. Knock-down of PDI, ERp44, or ERp57, three members of the PDI family with elevated protein levels in mammospheres, in SUM159PT cells partially inhibited the mammosphere growth. Thus, breast cancer cell survival and growth under detachment conditions require enhanced assistance of the ER protein folding machinery. Targeting ER folding factors, in particular members of the PDI family, may improve the therapeutic outcomes in metastatic breast cancer. PMID:27161215

  11. Nongenomic STAT5-dependent effects on Golgi apparatus and endoplasmic reticulum structure and function.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jason E; Yang, Yang-Ming; Liang, Feng-Xia; Gough, Daniel J; Levy, David E; Sehgal, Pravin B

    2012-03-01

    We report unexpected nongenomic functions of signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) 5 species in the cytoplasm aimed at preserving the structure and function of the Golgi apparatus and rough endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in vascular cells. Immunoimaging and green fluorescent protein-tagged-STAT5a protein localization studies showed the constitutive association of nonphosphorylated STAT5a, and to a lesser extent STAT5b, with the Golgi apparatus and of STAT5a with centrosomes in human pulmonary arterial endothelial and smooth muscle cells. Acute knockdown of STAT5a/b species using small interfering RNAs (siRNAs), including in the presence of an mRNA synthesis inhibitor (5,6-dichloro-1-β-d-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole), produced a dramatic phenotype within 1 day, consisting of dilatation and fragmentation of Golgi cisternae, a marked tubule-to-cyst change in the ER, increased accumulation of reticulon-4 (RTN4)/Nogo-B and atlastin-3 (ATL3) at cyst-zone boundaries, cystic separation of the outer and inner nuclear membranes, accompanied by scalloped/lunate distortion of the nucleus, with accumulation of RTN4 on convex sides of distorted nuclei. These cells showed inhibition of vesicular stomatitis virus G protein glycoprotein trafficking, mitochondrial fragmentation, and reduced mitochondrial function. STAT5a/b(-/-) mouse embryo fibroblasts also showed altered ER/Golgi dynamics. RTN4 knockdown using siRNA did not affect development of the cystic phenotype; ATL3 siRNA led to effacement of cyst-zone boundaries. In magnetic-bead cross-immunopanning assays, ATL3 bound both STAT5a and STAT5b. Remarkably, this novel cystic ER/lunate nucleus phenotype was characteristic of vascular cells in arterial lesions of idiopathic pulmonary hypertension, an unrelentingly fatal human disease. These data provide evidence of a STAT-family protein regulating the structure of a cytoplasmic organelle and implicate this mechanism in the pathogenesis of a human disease. PMID

  12. Involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress in the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages after spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Fan, H; Tang, H-B; Kang, J; Shan, L; Song, H; Zhu, K; Wang, J; Ju, G; Wang, Y-Z

    2015-12-17

    Microglia/macrophages play a crucial role in inflammation after spinal cord injury (SCI). Although extensive studies have been performed on the mechanisms of microglia/macrophage activation and recruitment, how microglia/macrophages are eliminated remains unclear. In the present study, we observed a high-level expression of mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL), a key molecule in the execution of necroptosis, in microglia/macrophages after SCI in mice. In vivo PI-labeling and Necrostatin-1 treatment confirmed the necroptosis of microglia/macrophages. Interestingly, our electronic microscopic (EM) study revealed that MLKL localized not only at the membrane but also on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. Furthermore, receptor-interacting protein 3 (RIP3), another necrosome component, was also found on the ER of necroptotic microglia/macrophages. And Glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), an ER stress sensor, was up-regulated in MLKL-positive microglia/macrophages after SCI, suggesting a possible link between necroptosis and ER stress. In vitro, oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) stress induced ER stress and necroptosis in microglia. Inhibiting ER stress by 4-phenylbutyrate (4-PBA) significantly blocked the OGD-induced necroptosis of microglia. In the end, our data showed that, GRP78 and phosphorylated MLKL were co-expressed by the microglia/macrophages in the injured human spinal cord. Taken together, these results suggested that microglia/macrophages undergo an ER-stress involved necroptosis after SCI, implying that ER stress and necroptosis could be manipulated for modulating inflammation post-SCI. PMID:26523978

  13. Simultaneously targeting mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum by photodynamic therapy induces apoptosis in human lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Shahzidi, Susan; Cunderlíková, Beata; Więdłocha, Antoni; Zhen, Yan; Vasovič, Vlada; Nesland, Jahn M; Peng, Qian

    2011-11-01

    Photodynamic therapy (PDT) and photodetection with protoporphyrin IX (PpIX) precursors have widely been used in the diseases with abnormally proliferative cells, but the mechanism of the modality is not fully understood yet. In this study 70-95% of apoptotic cells after PDT with PpIX precursor, hexaminolevulinate (HAL) in two human lymphoma cell lines, Namalwa and Bjab, were confirmed by fluorescence microscopy, electron microscopy and flow cytometry. HAL-derived PpIX was mainly distributed in the mitochondria and endoplasmic reticulum (ER), both of which were initial targets after light exposure causing two major pathways simultaneously involved in the apoptotic induction. One was the mitochondrial pathway including the release of cytochrome c, cleavage of caspases-9/-3, poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase and DNA fragmentation factor. The other was the ER stress-mediated pathway triggering a transient increase in the cytosolic Ca(2+) level after photodamage to the ER calcium pump protein SERCA2. The released Ca(2+) further initiated the caspase-8 cleavage. The use of both extracellular Ca(2+) chelator EGTA and intracellular Ca(2+) chelator BAPTA-AM confirmed that such cytosolic Ca(2+) originated from the ER rather than extracellular Ca(2+)-containing medium. About 30% of the apoptosis was blocked with BAPTA-AM alone; while a complete inhibition of such apoptosis was achieved with a combination of the caspase-9 inhibitor Z-LEHD-FMK and caspase-8 inhibitor Z-IETD-FMK, thus quantifying each role of the mitochondrial and ER pathways. PMID:21881674

  14. Overexpression of endoplasmic reticulum omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene improves chilling tolerance in tomato.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chao; Wang, Hua-Sen; Yang, Sha; Tang, Xian-Feng; Duan, Ming; Meng, Qing-Wei

    2009-01-01

    An endoplasmic reticulum-localized tomato omega-3 fatty acid desaturase gene (LeFAD3) was isolated and characterized with regard to its sequence, response to various temperatures and function in transgenic tomato plants. Northern blot analysis showed that LeFAD3 was expressed in all organs tested and was markedly abundant in roots. Meanwhile, the expression of LeFAD3 was induced by chilling stress (4 degrees C), but inhibited by high temperature (40 degrees C). The transgenic plants were obtained under the control of the cauliflower mosaic virus 35S promoter (35S-CaMV). Northern and western blot analyses confirmed that sense LeFAD3 was transferred into tomato genome and overexpressed. Level of linolenic acids (18:3) increased and correspondingly level of linoleic acid (18:2) decreased in leaves and roots. After chilling stress, the fresh weight of the aerial parts of transgenic plants was higher than that of the wild type (WT) plants, and the membrane system ultrastructure of chloroplast in leaf cell and all the subcellular organelles in root tips of transgenic plants kept more intact than those of WT. Relative electric conductivity increased less in transgenic plants than that in WT, and the respiration rate of the transgenic plants was notably higher than that of WT. The maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII (F(v)/F(m)) and the O(2) evolution rate in WT decreased more than those in transgenic plants under chilling stress. Together with other data, results showed that the overexpression of LeFAD3 led to increased level of 18:3 and alleviated the injuries under chilling stress. PMID:19648018

  15. Vemurafenib potently induces endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis in BRAFV600E melanoma cells

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Daniela; Niessner, Heike; Smalley, Keiran S.M.; Flaherty, Keith; Paraiso, Kim H.T.; Busch, Christian; Sinnberg, Tobias; Vasseur, Sophie; Iovanna, Juan Lucio; Drießen, Stefan; Stork, Björn; Wesselborg, Sebastian; Schaller, Martin; Biedermann, Tilo; Bauer, Jürgen; Lasithiotakis, Konstantinos; Weide, Benjamin; Eberle, Jürgen; Schittek, Birgit; Schadendorf, Dirk; Garbe, Claus; Kulms, Dagmar; Meier, Friedegund

    2013-01-01

    The V600E mutation in the kinase BRAF is frequently detected in melanomas and results in constitutive activation of BRAF, which then promotes cell proliferation by the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Although the BRAFV600E kinase inhibitor vemurafenib has remarkable antitumor activity in patients with BRAFV600E-mutated melanoma, its effects are limited by the onset of drug resistance. We found that exposure of melanoma cell lines with the BRAFV600E mutation to vemurafenib decreased the abundance of anti-apoptotic proteins and induced intrinsic mitochondrial apoptosis. Vemurafenib-treated melanoma cells showed increased cytosolic concentration of calcium, a potential trigger for endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, which can lead to apoptosis. Consistent with an ER stress-induced response, vemurafenib decreased the abundance of the ER chaperone protein GRP78, increased the abundance of the spliced isoform of the transcription factor X-box protein 1 (XBP1) (which transcriptionally activates genes involved in ER stress responses), increased the phosphorylation of the translation initiation factor eIF2α (which would be expected to inhibit protein synthesis), and induced the expression of ER stress-related genes. Knockdown of the ER stress response protein ATF4 significantly reduced vemurafenib-induced apoptosis. Moreover, the ER stress inducer thapsigargin prevented invasive growth of tumors formed from vemurafenib-sensitive melanoma cells in vivo. In melanoma cells with low sensitivity or resistance to vemurafenib, combination treatment with thapsigargin augmented or induced apoptosis. Thus, thapsigargin or other inducers of ER stress may be useful in combination therapies to overcome vemurafenib resistance. PMID:23362240

  16. The garlic compound ajoene targets protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kaschula, Catherine H; Hunter, Roger; Cotton, Jonathan; Tuveri, Rossana; Ngarande, Ellen; Dzobo, Kevin; Schäfer, Georgia; Siyo, Vuyolwethu; Lang, Dirk; Kusza, Daniel A; Davies, Bronwen; Katz, Arieh A; Parker, M Iqbal

    2016-08-01

    Ajoene is a natural allylsulfur compound found in crushed garlic that arrests growth and induces apoptosis in cancer cells. To gain mechanistic insights into the cytotoxicity of ajoene in cancer cells, two fluorescently labelled ajoene analogs with dansyl- (DP) and fluorescein- (FOX) tags were synthesized. The tagged ajoenes were found to retain their activity at inhibiting proliferation and inducing apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 human breast-cancer and WHCO1 human esophageal-cancer cells. Both tagged ajoenes localized to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by live cell confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and confirmed by generating an MDA-MB-231 cell line expressing yellow fluorescent protein (YFP) in the ER. DP appears to S-thiolate multiple protein targets in MDA-MB-231 cells as observed by immunoblotting under non-reducing conditions only; and a competition assay demonstrated that DP and Z-ajoene in fact share the same target. Ajoene S-thiolation interfered with protein folding and led to an accumulation of misfolded protein aggregates and activated the unfolded protein response (UPR). Consistent with this mechanism, increased levels of GRP78 and total ubiquitinated proteins were observed; and an ER-folded protein, type-1 collagen, was tracked to the proteasome following ajoene treatment. The intracellular protein aggregates were observed by CLSM and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). This is the first time that ajoene has been shown to target protein folding in the ER of cancer cells. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26207910

  17. InsP3-induced Ca2+ excitability of the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Keizer, J; Li, Y X; Stojilković, S; Rinzel, J

    1995-01-01

    Oscillations in intracellular Ca2+ can be induced by a variety of cellular signalling processes (Woods et al., 1986; Berridge 1988; Jacob et al., 1988) and appear to play a role in secretion (Stojilković et al., 1994), fertilization (Miyazaki et al., 1993), and smooth muscle contraction (Iino and Tsukioka, 1994). Recently, great progress has been made in understanding the mechanisms involved in a particular class of Ca2+ oscillation, associated with the second messenger inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (InsP3) (Berridge, 1993). Working in concert with intracellular Ca2+, InsP3 controls Ca2+ release via the InsP3 receptor in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) (Berridge and Irvine, 1989). The IP3 receptor is regulated by its coagonists InsP3 and Ca2+, which both activate and inhibit Ca2+ release (Finch et al., 1991; Bezprozvanny et al., 1991; De Young and Keizer, 1992). These processes, together with the periodic activation of Ca2+ uptake into the ER, have been identified as key features in the mechanism of InsP3-induced Ca2+ oscillations in pituitary gonadotrophs (Li et al., 1994), Xenopus laevis oocytes (Lechleiter and Clapham, 1992; Atri et al., 1993), and other cell types (Keizer and De Young, 1993). Earlier discussions and models of InsP3-induced Ca2+ oscillations focused on the nature and number of internal releasable pools of Ca2+ (Goldbeter et al., 1990; Swillens and Mercan, 1990; Somogyi and Stucki, 1991), the importance of oscillations in InsP3 (Meyer and Stryer, 1988), and other issues not based on detailed experimental findings in specific cells types. PMID:7579710

  18. Prolonged Endoplasmic Reticulum-Stressed Hepatocytes Drive an Alternative Macrophage Polarization.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Fangming; Catapano, Michael; Diao, Li; Stanojcic, Mile; Jeschke, Marc G

    2015-07-01

    Relatively little is known about the effects of hepatocytes on hepatic macrophages, particularly under the situation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. We examined the effects of hepatocytes conditioned media (CM) from HepG2 treated with ER stress inducers, tunicamycin or thapsigargin, on the secretion of cytokines, expression of ER stress markers, and polarization of phorbol myristate acetate-activated THP-1 cells (pTHP-1). We found that CM decreased the production of the proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 (IL-6), and IL-1β as well as other cytokines and chemokines from pTHP-1 cells. These effects are mediated by the inhibition of TLR4 expression and nuclear factor κB signaling pathway. In addition, hepatocytes CM increased the expression of binding immunoglobulin protein and the transcription factor C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) in pTHP-1 cells. Preconditioning with ER stress inhibitor, small molecular chaperone 4-phenylbutyrate before addition of ER stressors, attenuated the ER stress in macrophages, the property of hepatocytes CM to alter tumor necrosis factor α production and nuclear factor κB expression by macrophages. Remarkably, treatment of macrophage with these CM leads to an alternative activation of macrophages mediated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ signaling pathway, which might be resulted from the secretion of IL-10 and IL-4 as well as releasing apoptotic bodies from hepatocytes under ER stress. Our results highlight a mechanism of ER stress transmission from hepatocytes to macrophage that drives an alternative activation of macrophages, which depends on the exposure of hepatocytes to severe and prolonged ER stress. PMID:25944791

  19. Akt-1 mediates survival of chondrocytes from endoplasmic reticulum-induced stress.

    PubMed

    Price, Jeremy; Zaidi, Asifa K; Bohensky, Jolene; Srinivas, Vickram; Shapiro, Irving M; Ali, Hydar

    2010-03-01

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is an evolutionary conserved adaptive mechanism that permits cells to react and adjust to conditions of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. In addition to UPR, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt and extracellular signal regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways protect a variety of cells from ER stress. The goal of the present study was to assess the susceptibility of chondrocytes to ER stress and to determine the signaling pathways involved in their survival. We found that low concentration of thapsigargin (10 nM) reduced the viability of a chondrocyte cell line (N1511 cells) and that these cells were approximately 100 fold more susceptible to thapsigargin-induced stress than fibroblasts. Interestingly, in thapsigargin and tunicamycin-stressed chondrocytes induction of the proapoptotic transcription factor CHOP preceded that of the anti-apoptotic BiP by 12 h. Although both of these agents caused sustained Akt and ERK phosphorylation; inhibition of Akt phosphorylation sensitized chondrocytes to ER stress, while blocking ERK signaling by U0126 had no effect. We found that Akt-1, but not Akt-2 or Akt-3, is predominantly expressed in N1511 chondrocytes. Furthermore, siRNA-mediated knockdown of Akt-1 sensitized chondrocytes to ER stress, which was associated with increased capsase-3 activity and decreased Bcl(XL) expression. These data suggest that under condition of ER stress, multiple signaling processes regulate chondrocyte's survival-death decisions. Thus, rapid upregulation of CHOP likely contributes to chondrocyte death, while Akt-1-mediated inactivation of caspase 3 and induction of BclXL promotes survival. PMID:20020442

  20. Propofol Decreases Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress–Mediated Apoptosis in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Yue; Zhang, Ting; Zhang, Shaochong

    2016-01-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the major cause of loss of sight globally. There is currently no effective treatment available. Retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells are an important part of the outer blood-retina barrier and their death is a determinant of AMD. Propofol, a common clinically used intravenous anesthetic agent, has been shown to act as an efficacious neuroprotective agent with antioxidative and anti-inflammatory properties in vivo and in vitro. However, little is known about its effects on RPE cells. The purpose of our research was to investigate whether propofol could protect RPE cells from apoptosis through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress–dependent pathways. To this end, prior to stimulation with thapsigargin (TG), ARPE-19 cells were pretreated with varying concentrations of propofol. A protective effect of propofol in TG-treated ARPE-9 was apparent, TUNEL and flow cytometric assays showed decreased apoptosis. We further demonstrated that propofol pretreatment attenuated or inhibited the effects caused by TG, such as upregulation of Bax, BiP, C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), active caspase 12, and cleaved caspase 3, and downregulation of Bcl2. It also decreased the TG-induced levels of ER stress–related molecules such as p-PERK, p-eIF2α, and ATF4. Furthermore, it downregulated the expression of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB). This study elucidated novel propofol-induced cellular mechanisms for antiapoptotic activities in RPE cells undergoing ER stress and demonstrated the potential value of using propofol in the treatment of AMD. PMID:27311010

  1. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Stimulates p53 Expression through NF-κB Activation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Chi; Chuang, Yu-Chi; Chang, Yung-Sheng; Lai, Ming-Derg; Teng, Yen-Ni; Su, Ih-Jen; Wang, Clay C. C.; Lee, Kuan-Han; Hung, Jui-Hsiang

    2012-01-01

    Background Induction of apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is implicated as the major factor in the development of multiple diseases. ER stress also appears to be a potentially useful major response to many chemotherapeutic drugs and environmental chemical compounds. A previous study has indicated that one major apoptotic regulator, p53, is significantly increased in response to ER stress, and participates in ER stress-induced apoptosis. However, the regulators of p53 expression during ER stress are still not fully understood. Principal Findings In this report, we demonstrate that induction of p53 expression is mediated through NF-κB signaling pathways during ER stress in MCF-7 cells. Tunicamycin or brefeldin A, two ER stress inducers, increased p53 expression in MCF-7 and Hela cells. We found p53 nuclear localization, activity, and phosphorylation at serine 15 on p53 increased during ER stress. Nuclear translocation of NF-κB and activity of NF-κB were also observed during ER stress. ER stress-induced p53 expression was significantly inhibited by coincubation with the NF-κB inhibitor, Bay 11-7082 and downregulation of NF-κB p65 expression. The role of p53 in mediating Brefeldin A-induced apoptosis was also investigated. Induction of p53 expression by Brefeldin A was correlated to Brefeldin A-induced apoptosis. Furthermore, downregulation of p53 expression by p53 siRNA significantly reduced Brefeldin A-induced apoptosis in MCF-7 cells. Significance Taken together, NF-κB activation and induction of p53 expression is essential for ER stress-induced cell death which is important for therapeutic effects of clinical cancer drugs. Our results may provide insight into the mechanism of cancer chemotherapy efficacy that is associated with induction of ER stress. PMID:22859938

  2. Identification, characterization, and expression of the BiP endoplasmic reticulum resident chaperonins in Pneumocystis carinii.

    PubMed Central

    Stedman, T T; Buck, G A

    1996-01-01

    We have isolated, characterized, and examined the expression of the genes encoding BiP endoplasmic reticulum (ER) resident chaperonins responsible for transport, maturation, and proper folding of membrane and secreted proteins from two divergent strains of Pneumocystis carinii. The BiP genes, Pcbip and Prbip, from the P. c. carinii (prototype) strain and the P. c. rattus (variant) strain, respectively, are single-copy genes that reside on chromosomes of approximately 330 and approximately 350 kbp. Both genes encode approximately 72.5-kDa proteins that are most homologous to BiP genes from other organisms and exhibit the amino-terminal signal peptides and carboxyl-terminal ER retention sequences that are hallmarks of BiP proteins. We established short-term P. carinii cultures to examine expression and induction of Pcbip in response to heat shock, glucose starvation, inhibition of protein transport or N-linked glycosylation, and other conditions known to affect proper transport, glycosylation, and maturation of membrane and secreted proteins. These studies indicated that Pcbip mRNA is constitutively expressed but induced under conditions known to induce BiP expression in other organisms. In contrast to mammalian BiP genes but like other fungal BiP genes, P. carinii BiP mRNA levels are induced by heat shock. Finally, the Prbip and Pcbip coding sequences surprisingly exhibit only approximately 83% DNA and approximately 90% amino acid sequence identity and show only limited conservation in noncoding flanking and intron sequences. Analyses of the P. carinii BiP gene sequences support inclusion of P. carinii among the fungi but suggest a large divergence and possible speciation among P. carinii strains infecting a given host. PMID:8890193

  3. Conformational aberrance of the sendai virus F0 protein in thapsigargin-treated cells allowing exit from the endoplasmic reticulum but causing arrest at the Golgi complex.

    PubMed

    Ono, A; Kawakita, M

    1995-12-01

    Thapsigargin and ionomycin inhibited the intracellular transport of the Sendai virus F0 protein. Depletion of Ca2+ from intracellular Ca2+ store(s) is critical for the inhibition, since ionomycin was more effective in the absence of extracellular Ca2+ than in its presence. Transport of F0 was arrested between the trans-Golgi complex and the plasma membrane [Ono, A. and Kawakita, M. (1994) J. Biochem. 116, 649-656], but only when thapsigargin was added before the synthesis of F0. This implies that F0 was committed to later arrest in the endoplasmic reticulum. Non-reducing SDS-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis revealed a conformational abnormality of F0 immediately after pulse-labeling in thapsigargin-treated cells. The abnormality did not affect the exit of F0 from the endoplasmic reticulum, but paralleled its later arrest at the trans-Golgi stage. Pulse-labeled and 1-h-chased F0 was endoglycosidase H-resistant even in thapsigargin-treated cells, but was not recognized by mAb f-49, a monoclonal antibody that recognizes the corresponding F0 intermediate in uninhibited cells. The misfolded F0 may escape from recognition by means of the quality control system of the endoplasmic reticulum, but another system in the Golgi complex may complement the former. The arrested F0 was rapidly degraded. PMID:8720142

  4. Phosphoregulatory protein 14-3-3 facilitates SAC1 transport from the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj Pahuja, Kanika; Wang, Jinzhi; Blagoveshchenskaya, Anastasia; Lim, Lillian; Madhusudhan, M. S.; Mayinger, Peter; Schekman, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Most secretory cargo proteins in eukaryotes are synthesized in the endoplasmic reticulum and actively exported in membrane-bound vesicles that are formed by the cytosolic coat protein complex II (COPII). COPII proteins are assisted by a variety of cargo-specific adaptor proteins required for the concentration and export of secretory proteins from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Adaptor proteins are key regulators of cargo export, and defects in their function may result in disease phenotypes in mammals. Here we report the role of 14-3-3 proteins as a cytosolic adaptor in mediating SAC1 transport in COPII-coated vesicles. Sac1 is a phosphatidyl inositol-4 phosphate (PI4P) lipid phosphatase that undergoes serum dependent translocation between the endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex and controls cellular PI4P lipid levels. We developed a cell-free COPII vesicle budding reaction to examine SAC1 exit from the ER that requires COPII and at least one additional cytosolic factor, the 14-3-3 protein. Recombinant 14-3-3 protein stimulates the packaging of SAC1 into COPII vesicles and the sorting subunit of COPII, Sec24, interacts with 14-3-3. We identified a minimal sorting motif of SAC1 that is important for 14-3-3 binding and which controls SAC1 export from the ER. This LS motif is part of a 7-aa stretch, RLSNTSP, which is similar to the consensus 14-3-3 binding sequence. Homology models, based on the SAC1 structure from yeast, predict this region to be in the exposed exterior of the protein. Our data suggest a model in which the 14-3-3 protein mediates SAC1 traffic from the ER through direct interaction with a sorting signal and COPII. PMID:26056309

  5. Quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum: lessons from hereditary myeloperoxidase deficiency.

    PubMed

    Nauseef, W M

    1999-09-01

    The optimal level of oxygen-dependent microbicidal activity in human neutrophils depends on the generation of highly toxic products, including hypochlorous acid, by hydrogen peroxide in the presence of chloride anion and the neutrophil granule protein myeloperoxidase (MPO). The biosynthesis of MPO is normally restricted to the promyelocytic stage of myeloid development and includes N-linked glycosylation, heme insertion, proteolytic processing, subunit dimerization, and eventual targeting to the azurophilic granule. In the endoplasmic reticulum, MPO precursors interact transiently with calreticulin and calnexin, presumably in their capacity as molecular chaperones. In light of the important role of the MPO-H2O2-chloride system in human host defense, the relatively high prevalence of inherited MPO deficiency was an unanticipated insight provided by the widespread use of automated flow cytometry for the enumeration of leukocytes in clinical specimens. In many cases of inherited MPO deficiency, affected neutrophils have immunochemical evidence of precursor protein but lack the subunits of mature MPO, peroxidase activity, or the ability to chlorinate target proteins. To date, four genotypes have been reported to cause inherited MPO deficiency, each of which results in missense mutations. In the genotype Y173C, the mutant precursor is retained in the endoplasmic reticulum by virtue of its prolonged interaction with calnexin, and it eventually undergoes degradation in the 20S proteasome. In this way, the quality control system operating in the endoplasmic reticulum retrieves malfolded MPO precursors from the biosynthetic pathway and creates the biochemical phenotype of MPO deficiency. Thus MPO deficiency caused by Y173C joins the ranks of cystic fibrosis, protein C deficiency, and other genetic disorders that reflect abnormalities in protein folding. PMID:10482305

  6. The Involvement of SMILE/TMTC3 in Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response

    PubMed Central

    Racapé, Maud; Duong Van Huyen, Jean-Paul; Danger, Richard; Giral, Magali; Bleicher, Françoise; Foucher, Yohann; Pallier, Annaïck; Pilet, Paul; Tafelmeyer, Petra; Ashton-Chess, Joanna; Dugast, Emilie; Pettré, Ségolène; Charreau, Béatrice; Soulillou, Jean-Paul; Brouard, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    Background Thestate of operational tolerance has been detected sporadically in some renal transplanted patients that stopped immunosuppressive drugs, demonstrating that allograft tolerance might exist in humans. Several years ago, a study by Brouard et al. identified a molecular signature of several genes that were significantly differentially expressed in the blood of such patients compared with patients with other clinical situations. The aim of the present study is to analyze the role of one of these molecules over-expressed in the blood of operationally tolerant patients, SMILE or TMTC3, a protein whose function is still unknown. Methodology/Principal Findings We first confirmed that SMILE mRNA is differentially expressed in the blood of operationally tolerant patients with drug-free long term graft function compared to stable and rejecting patients. Using a yeast two-hybrid approach and a colocalization study by confocal microscopy we furthermore report an interaction of SMILE with PDIA3, a molecule resident in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In accordance with this observation, SMILE silencing in HeLa cells correlated with the modulation of several transcripts involved in proteolysis and a decrease in proteasome activity. Finally, SMILE silencing increased HeLa cell sensitivity to the proteasome inhibitor Bortezomib, a drug that induces ER stress via protein overload, and increased transcript expression of a stress response protein, XBP-1, in HeLa cells and keratinocytes. Conclusion/Significance In this study we showed that SMILE is involved in the endoplasmic reticulum stress response, by modulating proteasome activity and XBP-1 transcript expression. This function of SMILE may influence immune cell behavior in the context of transplantation, and the analysis of endoplasmic reticulum stress in transplantation may reveal new pathways of regulation in long-term graft acceptance thereby increasing our understanding of tolerance. PMID:21603654

  7. Calcium Flux between the Endoplasmic Reticulum and Mitochondrion Contributes to Poliovirus-Induced Apoptosis▿

    PubMed Central

    Brisac, Cynthia; Téoulé, François; Autret, Arnaud; Pelletier, Isabelle; Colbère-Garapin, Florence; Brenner, Catherine; Lemaire, Christophe; Blondel, Bruno

    2010-01-01

    We show that poliovirus (PV) infection induces an increase in cytosolic calcium (Ca2+) concentration in neuroblastoma IMR5 cells, at least partly through Ca2+ release from the endoplasmic reticulum lumen via the inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor (IP3R) and ryanodine receptor (RyR) channels. This leads to Ca2+ accumulation in mitochondria through the mitochondrial Ca2+ uniporter and the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC). This increase in mitochondrial Ca2+ concentration in PV-infected cells leads to mitochondrial dysfunction and apoptosis. PMID:20861253

  8. N-Myristoyltransferase 1 interacts with calnexin at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Elzbieta; Millott, Robyn; Liu, Wen-Xin; Beauchamp, Erwan; Berthiaume, Luc G; Michalak, Marek

    2015-12-25

    Calnexin is a type 1 integral endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane molecular chaperone with a highly conserved C-terminal domain oriented to the cytoplasm. Protein N-myristoylation plays an important role in a wide variety of cellular signal transduction pathways and it is catalyzed by N-myristoyltransferase (NMT), a cytoplasmic and ER associated enzyme. Here using yeast two-hybrid screen, Western blot analysis, immunoprecipitation, immunolocalization and cellular fractionation we discovered that N-myristoyltransferase 1 interacts with calnexin at the ER. These observations point at a previously unrecognized contribution of calnexin to the retention of NMT1 at the ER membrane. PMID:26603938

  9. Oncogenic and oncosuppressive signal transduction at mitochondria-associated endoplasmic reticulum membranes

    PubMed Central

    Marchi, Saverio; Giorgi, Carlotta; Oparka, Monika; Duszynski, Jerzy; Wieckowski, Mariusz R; Pinton, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    The different mechanisms employed by proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressors to regulate cell death pathways are strictly linked to their localization. In addition to the canonical control of apoptosis at a transcriptional/nuclear level, intracellular zones are emerging as pivotal sites for the activities of several proapoptotic and antiapoptotic factors. Here, we review the function of the endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria interface as a primary platform for decoding danger signals as well as a structural accommodation for several regulator or effector proteins. PMID:27308328

  10. Monitoring peptide processing for MHC class I molecules in the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Shastri, Nilabh; Nagarajan, Niranjana; Lind, Kristin C; Kanaseki, Takayuki

    2014-02-01

    Classical MHC class I molecules open a window into the cell by presenting intracellular peptides (pMHC I) on the surface. The peptides are used for immune surveillance by circulating CD8+ T and NK cells to detect and eliminate infected or tumor cells. Not surprisingly, viruses and tumor cells have evolved immune evasion mechanisms to keep the window shades down and the cytotoxic cells oblivious to their presence. Here, we review counter mechanisms that nevertheless allow the immune system to detect and eliminate cells unable to properly process antigenic peptides in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:24556408

  11. The Yin-Yang Principle of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and oral cancer.

    PubMed

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Patil, Shankargouda

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an organelle, which performs several cellular functions and is thus an important site for maintaining cellular homeostasis. Sometimes pathways within the ER are disturbed, especially those regulating the protein folding, gene expression, cellular metabolism, and calcium signaling, and is called an "ER stress."(1) The accumulation of unfolded, misfolded, or damaged proteins can irreparably damage cellular functions and can pose a severe threat to the existence of the cell. Under such circumstances, ER functions become overwhelmed triggering the homeostatic "ER stress response" or "unfolded protein response" (UPR).(2). PMID:27595714

  12. Manganese suppresses ATP-dependent intercellular calcium waves in astrocyte networks through alteration of mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum calcium dynamics.

    PubMed

    Tjalkens, Ronald B; Zoran, Mark J; Mohl, Brianne; Barhoumi, Roula

    2006-10-01

    The neurotoxicity of manganese [Mn] is due in part to glutamate excitotoxicity. Release of ATP by astrocytes is a critical modulator of glutamatergic neurotransmission, which is regulated by calcium (Ca(2+)) waves that propagate through astrocytic networks in response to synaptic activity. It was postulated that Mn alters ATP-dependent intracellular Ca(2+) dynamics in astrocytes, thereby suppressing Ca(2+) wave activity. Confluent primary cultures of cortical astrocytes were loaded with the Ca(2+)-sensitive dye fluo-4 and examined by fluorescence microscopy for Ca(2+) wave activity following micropipet mechanical stimulation of a single cell. Mitochondrial Ca(2+) was evaluated by fluorescence microscopy following addition of ATP using the mitochondrial-specific Ca(2+) dye rhod-2-AM. Imaging studies revealed that pretreatment of astrocytes with 1-10 microM Mn significantly reduced the rate, area, and amplitude of mechanically induced Ca(2+) waves. This attenuation was not a result of inhibited mitochondrial calcium uptake because robust calcium waves were still observed following pretreatment of astrocytes with Ru360, an inhibitor of mitochondrial Ca(2+) uptake, either in coupling or uncoupling conditions. However, determination of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) levels in cells using the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase inhibitor thapsigargin indicated that Mn reduced the available pool of releasable ER Ca(2+) at concentrations as low as 1 muM. Examination of ATP-stimulated changes in mitochondrial Ca(2+) indicated that, in cells pretreated with Mn, mitochondria retained high levels of Ca(2+). It is concluded that exposure of astrocytes to low concentrations of Mn(2+) results in sequestration of Ca(2+) within the mitochondria that reduces the available pool of releasable Ca(2+) within the ER, thereby inhibiting calcium wave activity. PMID:16934782

  13. Dehydrocostuslactone, a medicinal plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone, induces apoptosis coupled to endoplasmic reticulum stress in liver cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ya-Ling; Wu, Ling-Yu; Kuo, Po-Lin

    2009-05-01

    This study is the first to investigate the anticancer effect of dehydrocostuslactone [DHE (3aS,6aR,9aR,9bS)-decahydro-3,6,9-tris(methylene) azuleno[4,5-b]furan-2(3H)-one)], a medicinal plant-derived sesquiterpene lactone, on hepatocellular carcinoma. Our results showed that DHE inhibits the proliferation of HepG2 and PLC/PRF/5 cells by inducing apoptosis. DHE induces up-regulation of Bax and Bak, down-regulation of Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL, and nuclear relocation of the mitochondrial factors apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and endonuclease G (Endo G). DHE triggered endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, as indicated by changes in cytosol-calcium levels, double-stranded RNA-activated protein kinase-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase phosphorylation, inositol-requiring protein 1 (IRE1) and CHOP/GADD153 up-regulation, X-box transcription factor-1 mRNA splicing, and caspase-4 activation. Enhancement of ER stress by DHE is through p38 and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2-dependent manners and subsequently causes c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase activation, resulting in AIF and Endo G nuclear relocation. Both of IRE1 small interfering RNA transfection and 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid-acetoxymethyl ester pretreatment inhibit DHE-mediated apoptosis, supporting the hypothesis that DHE induces cell death through ER stress. It is noteworthy that animal studies have revealed a dramatic 50% reduction in tumor volume after 45 days of treatment. This study demonstrates that DHE may be a novel anticancer agent for the treatment of liver cancer. PMID:19188481

  14. Glutamine treatment attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Irene; San-Miguel, Beatriz; Prause, Carolina; Marroni, Norma; Cuevas, María J; González-Gallego, Javier; Tuñón, María J

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptotic cell death play an important role in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to explore the potential of glutamine to reduce ER stress and apoptosis in a rat model of experimental IBD. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by intracolonic administration of 30 mg of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Glutamine (25 mg/dL) was given by rectal route daily for 2 d or 7 d. Both oxidative stress (TBARS concentration and oxidised/reduced glutathione ratio) and ER stress markers (CHOP, BiP, calpain-1 and caspase-12 expression) increased significantly within 48 h of TNBS instillation, and glutamine attenuated the extent of the changes. Glutamine also inhibited the significant increases of ATF6, ATF4 and spliced XBP-1 mRNA levels induced by TNBS instillation. TNBS-colitis resulted in a significant increase in p53 and cytochrome c expression, and a reduced Bcl-xL expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These effects were significantly inhibited by glutamine. Treatment with the amino acid also resulted in significant decreases of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 activities. Double immunofluorescence staining showed co-localization of CHOP and cleaved caspase-3 in colon sections. Phospho-JNK and PARP-1 expression was also significantly higher in TNBS-treated rats, and treatment with glutamine significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation and PARP-1 proteolysis. To directly address the effect of glutamine on ER stress and apoptosis in epithelial cells, the ER stress inducers brefeldin A and tunicamycin were added to Caco-2 cells that were treated with glutamine (5 mM and 10 mM). The significant enhancement in PERK, ATF6 phosphorylated IRE1, BiP and cleaved caspase-3 expression induced by brefeldin A and tunicamycin was partly prevented by glutamine. Data obtained indicated that modulation of ER stress signalling and anti-apoptotic effects contribute to protection by glutamine against damage

  15. Lipid homeostasis is involved in plasma membrane and endoplasmic reticulum stress in Pichia pastoris.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Meng; Yu, Qilin; Liang, Chen; Zhang, Biao; Li, Mingchun

    2016-09-16

    Maintaining cellular lipid composition is essential for many cell processes. Our previous study has demonstrated that Spt23 is an important transcription factor within the cell and responsible for the regulation of fatty acid desaturase genes. Disruption of SPT23 results in increased lipid saturation. In the present study, we found that lipid saturation caused by SPT23 deletion exhibited a growth defect under ethanol stress and increased chitin contents. Ergosterol synthesis-related genes were up-regulated to protect cells from plasma membrane damage in the presence of ethanol. The cell wall stress caused by increased chitin contents could not be attenuated by up-regulation of phospholipids synthesis-related genes in spt23Δ. Besides, lipid saturation induced expression of unfolded protein response (UPR) genes and reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation followed by activation of the cellular antioxidant system, which is associated with endoplasmic reticulum functions. Taken together, our data suggested that lipid homeostasis has a close connection with cell responses to both plasma membrane stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:27524240

  16. Overlapping signal sequences control nuclear localization and endoplasmic reticulum retention of GRP58

    SciTech Connect

    Adikesavan, Anbu Karani; Unni, Emmanual; Jaiswal, Anil K.

    2008-12-12

    Glucose-regulated GRP58 has shown clinical applications to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and cancer. GRP58 is localized in the cytosol, endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and nucleus. Twenty-four amino acids at the N-terminal hydrophobic region are known to target GRP58 to ER for synthesis at the ER membrane and translocation into the ER lumen. In addition, GRP58 contains putative nuclear localization (494KPKKKKK500) and ER retention (502QEDL505) signals. However, the role of these signals in nuclear import and ER retention of GRP58 remains unknown. Present studies investigated the signals that control nuclear localization and ER retention of GRP58. Deletion/mutation of nuclear localization signal (NLS) abrogated nuclear import of GRP58. NLS attached to EGFP localized EGFP in the nucleus. However, deletion/mutation of putative ER retention signal alone did not alter ER retention of GRP58. Interestingly, a combined deletion/mutation of NLS and ER retention signals blocked the GRP58 retention in the ER. These results concluded that overlapping NLS and ER retention signal sequences regulate nuclear localization and ER retention of GRP58.

  17. Intrinsic membrane glycoproteins with cytosol-oriented sugars in the endoplasmic reticulum

    SciTech Connect

    Abeijon, C.; Hirschberg, C.B.

    1988-02-01

    The authors have examined the topography of N-acetylglucosamine-terminating glycoproteins in membranes from rat liver smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum (SER and RER). It was found that some of these glycoproteins are intrinsic membrane proteins with their sugars facing the cytosolic rather than the luminal side. This conclusion was reached by using vesicles from the SER and RER that were sealed and of the same topographical orientation as in vivo. These vesicles were incubated with UDP-(/sup 14/C)galactose (which does not enter the vesicles) and saturating amounts of soluble galactosyltransferase from milk, an enzyme that does not penetrate the lumen of the vesicles and that specifically adds galactose to terminal N-acetylglucosamine in a ..beta..1-4 linkage. Radioactive galactose was mainly transferred to SER proteins of apparent molecular mass 56 and 110 kDa and to a lesser extent RER and SER proteins of apparent molecular mass 46 and 72 kDa. These proteins are intrinsic membrane proteins, based on the inability of sodium carbonate at pH 11.5 to remove them from the membranes. Studies with peptide N-glycosidase F and chemical ..beta..-elimination showed that the 56-kDa protein of the SER vesicles contained terminal N-acetylglucosamine in an O-linkage to the protein. The above results suggest that some sugars of glycoproteins in the endoplasmic reticulum may attain their final orientation in the membrane by mechanisms yet to be determined.

  18. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast.

    PubMed

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and metabolism. Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the calcium-depleted lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections linking disturbance of ER calcium equilibrium to ER stress and UPR signaling are evolutionary conserved and highlight the crucial role of metabolism in modulating the effects induced by calcium shortage. PMID:27305947

  19. THE DELICATE BALANCE BETWEEN SECRETED PROTEIN FOLDING AND ENDOPLASMIC RETICULUM-ASSOCIATED DEGRADATION IN HUMAN PHYSIOLOGY

    PubMed Central

    Guerriero, Christopher J.; Brodsky, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    Protein folding is a complex, error-prone process that often results in an irreparable protein by-product. These by-products can be recognized by cellular quality control machineries and targeted for proteasome-dependent degradation. The folding of proteins in the secretory pathway adds another layer to the protein folding “problem,” as the endoplasmic reticulum maintains a unique chemical environment within the cell. In fact, a growing number of diseases are attributed to defects in secretory protein folding, and many of these by-products are targeted for a process known as endoplasmic reticulum-associated degradation (ERAD). Since its discovery, research on the mechanisms underlying the ERAD pathway has provided new insights into how ERAD contributes to human health during both normal and diseases states. Links between ERAD and disease are evidenced from the loss of protein function as a result of degradation, chronic cellular stress when ERAD fails to keep up with misfolded protein production, and the ability of some pathogens to coopt the ERAD pathway. The growing number of ERAD substrates has also illuminated the differences in the machineries used to recognize and degrade a vast array of potential clients for this pathway. Despite all that is known about ERAD, many questions remain, and new paradigms will likely emerge. Clearly, the key to successful disease treatment lies within defining the molecular details of the ERAD pathway and in understanding how this conserved pathway selects and degrades an innumerable cast of substrates. PMID:22535891

  20. Oxidative stress contributes to autophagy induction in response to endoplasmic reticulum stress in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Martín, Marta; Pérez-Pérez, María Esther; Lemaire, Stéphane D; Crespo, José L

    2014-10-01

    The accumulation of unfolded/misfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) results in the activation of stress responses, such as the unfolded protein response or the catabolic process of autophagy to ultimately recover cellular homeostasis. ER stress also promotes the production of reactive oxygen species, which play an important role in autophagy regulation. However, it remains unknown whether reactive oxygen species are involved in ER stress-induced autophagy. In this study, we provide evidence connecting redox imbalance caused by ER stress and autophagy activation in the model unicellular green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. Treatment of C. reinhardtii cells with the ER stressors tunicamycin or dithiothreitol resulted in up-regulation of the expression of genes encoding ER resident endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductin1 oxidoreductase and protein disulfide isomerases. ER stress also triggered autophagy in C. reinhardtii based on the protein abundance, lipidation, cellular distribution, and mRNA levels of the autophagy marker ATG8. Moreover, increases in the oxidation of the glutathione pool and the expression of oxidative stress-related genes were detected in tunicamycin-treated cells. Our results revealed that the antioxidant glutathione partially suppressed ER stress-induced autophagy and decreased the toxicity of tunicamycin, suggesting that oxidative stress participates in the control of autophagy in response to ER stress in C. reinhardtii In close agreement, we also found that autophagy activation by tunicamycin was more pronounced in the C. reinhardtii sor1 mutant, which shows increased expression of oxidative stress-related genes. PMID:25143584

  1. A few positively charged residues slow movement of a polypeptide chain across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane.

    PubMed

    Yamagishi, Marifu; Onishi, Yukiko; Yoshimura, Shotaro; Fujita, Hidenobu; Imai, Kenta; Kida, Yuichiro; Sakaguchi, Masao

    2014-08-26

    Many polypeptide chains are translocated across and integrated into the endoplasmic reticulum membrane through protein-conducting channels. During the process, amino acid sequences of translocating polypeptide chains are scanned by the channels and classified to be retained in the membrane or translocated into the lumen. We established an experimental system with which the kinetic effect of each amino acid residue on the polypeptide chain movement can be analyzed with a time resolution of tens of seconds. Positive charges greatly slow movement; only two lysine residues caused a remarkable slow down, and their effects were additive. The lysine residue was more effective than arginine. In contrast, clusters comprising three residues of each of the other 18 amino acids had little effect on chain movement. We also demonstrated that a four lysine cluster can exert the effect after being fully exposed from the ribosome. We concluded that as few as two to three residues of positively charged amino acids can slow the movement of the nascent polypeptide chain across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane. This effect provides a fundamental basis of the topogenic function of positively charged amino acids. PMID:25093244

  2. Respiratory metabolism and calorie restriction relieve persistent endoplasmic reticulum stress induced by calcium shortage in yeast

    PubMed Central

    Busti, Stefano; Mapelli, Valeria; Tripodi, Farida; Sanvito, Rossella; Magni, Fulvio; Coccetti, Paola; Rocchetti, Marcella; Nielsen, Jens; Alberghina, Lilia; Vanoni, Marco

    2016-01-01

    Calcium homeostasis is crucial to eukaryotic cell survival. By acting as an enzyme cofactor and a second messenger in several signal transduction pathways, the calcium ion controls many essential biological processes. Inside the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium concentration is carefully regulated to safeguard the correct folding and processing of secretory proteins. By using the model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae we show that calcium shortage leads to a slowdown of cell growth and metabolism. Accumulation of unfolded proteins within the calcium-depleted lumen of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) triggers the unfolded protein response (UPR) and generates a state of oxidative stress that decreases cell viability. These effects are severe during growth on rapidly fermentable carbon sources and can be mitigated by decreasing the protein synthesis rate or by inducing cellular respiration. Calcium homeostasis, protein biosynthesis and the unfolded protein response are tightly intertwined and the consequences of facing calcium starvation are determined by whether cellular energy production is balanced with demands for anabolic functions. Our findings confirm that the connections linking disturbance of ER calcium equilibrium to ER stress and UPR signaling are evolutionary conserved and highlight the crucial role of metabolism in modulating the effects induced by calcium shortage. PMID:27305947

  3. The Endoplasmic Reticulum Chaperone Calnexin Is a NADPH Oxidase NOX4 Interacting Protein*

    PubMed Central

    Prior, Kim-Kristin; Wittig, Ilka; Leisegang, Matthias S.; Groenendyk, Jody; Weissmann, Norbert; Michalak, Marek; Jansen-Dürr, Pidder; Shah, Ajay M.; Brandes, Ralf P.

    2016-01-01

    Within the family of NADPH oxidases, NOX4 is unique as it is predominantly localized in the endoplasmic reticulum, has constitutive activity, and generates hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). We hypothesize that these features are consequences of a so far unidentified NOX4-interacting protein. Two-dimensional blue native (BN) electrophorese combined with SDS-PAGE yielded NOX4 to reside in macromolecular complexes. Interacting proteins were screened by quantitative SILAC (stable isotope labeling of amino acids in cell culture) co-immunoprecipitation (Co-IP) in HEK293 cells stably overexpressing NOX4. By this technique, several interacting proteins were identified with calnexin showing the most robust interaction. Calnexin also resided in NOX4-containing complexes as demonstrated by complexome profiling from BN-PAGE. The calnexin NOX4 interaction could be confirmed by reverse Co-IP and proximity ligation assay, whereas NOX1, NOX2, or NOX5 did not interact with calnexin. Calnexin deficiency as studied in mouse embryonic fibroblasts from calnexin−/− mice or in response to calnexin shRNA reduced cellular NOX4 protein expression and reactive oxygen species formation. Our results suggest that endogenous NOX4 forms macromolecular complexes with calnexin, which are needed for the proper maturation, processing, and function of NOX4 in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:26861875

  4. Sphingosine-1-phosphate Phosphatase 2 Regulates Pancreatic Islet β-Cell Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Proliferation.

    PubMed

    Taguchi, Yoshimitsu; Allende, Maria L; Mizukami, Hiroki; Cook, Emily K; Gavrilova, Oksana; Tuymetova, Galina; Clarke, Benjamin A; Chen, Weiping; Olivera, Ana; Proia, Richard L

    2016-06-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a sphingolipid metabolite that regulates basic cell functions through metabolic and signaling pathways. Intracellular metabolism of S1P is controlled, in part, by two homologous S1P phosphatases (SPPases), 1 and 2, which are encoded by the Sgpp1 and Sgpp2 genes, respectively. SPPase activity is needed for efficient recycling of sphingosine into the sphingolipid synthesis pathway. SPPase 1 is important for skin homeostasis, but little is known about the functional role of SPPase 2. To identify the functions of SPPase 2 in vivo, we studied mice with the Sgpp2 gene deleted. In contrast to Sgpp1(-/-) mice, Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal skin and were viable into adulthood. Unexpectedly, WT mice expressed Sgpp2 mRNA at high levels in pancreatic islets when compared with other tissues. Sgpp2(-/-) mice had normal pancreatic islet size; however, they exhibited defective adaptive β-cell proliferation that was demonstrated after treatment with either a high-fat diet or the β-cell-specific toxin, streptozotocin. Importantly, β-cells from untreated Sgpp2(-/-) mice showed significantly increased expression of proteins characteristic of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response compared with β-cells from WT mice, indicating a basal islet defect. Our results show that Sgpp2 deletion causes β-cell endoplasmic reticulum stress, which is a known cause of β-cell dysfunction, and reveal a juncture in the sphingolipid recycling pathway that could impact the development of diabetes. PMID:27059959

  5. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Is a Determinant of Retrovirus-Induced Spongiform Neurodegeneration

    PubMed Central

    Dimcheff, Derek E.; Askovic, Srdjan; Baker, Audrey H.; Johnson-Fowler, Cedar; Portis, John L.

    2003-01-01

    FrCasE is a mouse retrovirus that causes a fatal noninflammatory spongiform neurodegenerative disease with pathological features strikingly similar to those induced by transmissible spongiform encephalopathy (TSE) agents. Neurovirulence is determined by the sequence of the viral envelope protein, though the specific role of this protein in disease pathogenesis is not known. In the present study, we compared host gene expression in the brain stems of mice infected with either FrCasE or the avirulent virus F43, differing from FrCasE in the sequence of the envelope gene. Four of the 12 disease-specific transcripts up-regulated during the preclinical period represent responses linked to the accumulation of unfolded proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Among these genes was CHOP/GADD153, which is induced in response to conditions that perturb endoplasmic reticulum function. In vitro studies with NIH 3T3 cells revealed up-regulation of CHOP as well as BiP, calreticulin, and Grp58/ERp57 in cells infected with FrCasE but not with F43. Immunoblot analysis of infected NIH 3T3 cells demonstrated the accumulation of uncleaved envelope precursor protein in FrCasE- but not F43-infected cells, consistent with ER retention. These results suggest that retrovirus-induced spongiform neurodegeneration represents a protein-folding disease and thus may provide a useful tool for exploring the causal link between protein misfolding and the cytopathology that it causes. PMID:14610184

  6. Relevance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cell Signaling in Liver Cold Ischemia Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Folch-Puy, Emma; Panisello, Arnau; Oliva, Joan; Lopez, Alexandre; Castro Benítez, Carlos; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in calcium homeostasis, protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Perturbations in its normal functions lead to a condition called endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). This can be triggered by many physiopathological conditions such as alcoholic steatohepatitis, insulin resistance or ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cell reacts to ERS by initiating a defensive process known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), which comprises cellular mechanisms for adaptation and the safeguarding of cell survival or, in cases of excessively severe stress, for the initiation of the cell death program. Recent experimental data suggest the involvement of ERS in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver graft, which has been considered as one of major problems influencing outcome after liver transplantation. The purpose of this review is to summarize updated data on the molecular mechanisms of ERS/UPR and the consequences of this pathology, focusing specifically on solid organ preservation and liver transplantation models. We will also discuss the potential role of ERS, beyond the simple adaptive response and the regulation of cell death, in the modification of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes. PMID:27231901

  7. Relevance of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Cell Signaling in Liver Cold Ischemia Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Folch-Puy, Emma; Panisello, Arnau; Oliva, Joan; Lopez, Alexandre; Castro Benítez, Carlos; Adam, René; Roselló-Catafau, Joan

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in calcium homeostasis, protein folding and lipid biosynthesis. Perturbations in its normal functions lead to a condition called endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS). This can be triggered by many physiopathological conditions such as alcoholic steatohepatitis, insulin resistance or ischemia-reperfusion injury. The cell reacts to ERS by initiating a defensive process known as the unfolded protein response (UPR), which comprises cellular mechanisms for adaptation and the safeguarding of cell survival or, in cases of excessively severe stress, for the initiation of the cell death program. Recent experimental data suggest the involvement of ERS in ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) of the liver graft, which has been considered as one of major problems influencing outcome after liver transplantation. The purpose of this review is to summarize updated data on the molecular mechanisms of ERS/UPR and the consequences of this pathology, focusing specifically on solid organ preservation and liver transplantation models. We will also discuss the potential role of ERS, beyond the simple adaptive response and the regulation of cell death, in the modification of cell functional properties and phenotypic changes. PMID:27231901

  8. Cloning, expression, and functional characterization of a Ca(2+)-dependent endoplasmic reticulum nucleoside diphosphatase.

    PubMed

    Failer, Bernd U; Braun, Norbert; Zimmermann, Herbert

    2002-10-01

    We have isolated and characterized the cDNA encoding a Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase (EC ) related to two secreted ATP- and ADP-hydrolyzing apyrases of the bloodsucking insects, Cimex lectularius and Phlebotomus papatasi. The rat brain-derived cDNA has an open reading frame of 1209 bp encoding a protein of 403 amino acids and a calculated molecular mass of 45.7 kDa. The mRNA was expressed in all tissues investigated, revealing two major transcripts with varying preponderance. The immunohistochemical analysis of the Myc-His-tagged enzyme expressed in Chinese hamster ovary cells revealed its association with the endoplasmic reticulum and also with pre-Golgi intermediates. Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase is a membrane protein with its catalytic site facing the organelle lumen. It hydrolyzes nucleoside 5'-diphosphates in the order UDP >GDP = IDP >CDP but not ADP. Nucleoside 5'-triphosphates were hydrolyzed to a minor extent, and no hydrolysis of nucleoside 5'-monophosphates was observed. The enzyme was strongly activated by Ca(2+), insensitive to Mg(2+), and had a K(m) for UDP of 216 microm. Ca(2+)-dependent nucleoside diphosphatase may support glycosylation reactions related to quality control in the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:12167635

  9. The Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR Ortholog Is an Endoplasmic Reticulum and Golgi Protein with Roles during Development

    PubMed Central

    Deckstein, Jaqueline; van Appeldorn, Jennifer; Tsangarides, Marios; Yiannakou, Kyriacos; Müller, Rolf; Stumpf, Maria; Sukumaran, Salil K.; Eichinger, Ludwig

    2014-01-01

    Dictyostelium discoideum GPHR (Golgi pH regulator)/Gpr89 is a developmentally regulated transmembrane protein present on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and the Golgi apparatus. Transcript levels are low during growth and vary during development, reaching high levels during the aggregation and late developmental stages. The Arabidopsis ortholog was described as a G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) for abscisic acid present at the plasma membrane, whereas the mammalian ortholog is a Golgi apparatus-associated anion channel functioning as a Golgi apparatus pH regulator. To probe its role in D. discoideum, we generated a strain lacking GPHR. The mutant had different growth characteristics than the AX2 parent strain, exhibited changes during late development, and formed abnormally shaped small slugs and fruiting bodies. An analysis of development-specific markers revealed that their expression was disturbed. The distributions of the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi apparatus were unaltered at the immunofluorescence level. Likewise, their functions did not appear to be impaired, since membrane proteins were properly processed and glycosylated. Also, changes in the external pH were sensed by the ER, as indicated by a pH-sensitive ER probe, as in the wild type. PMID:25380752

  10. Unveiling the Role of the Integrated Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response in Leishmania Infection – Future Perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Dias-Teixeira, K. L.; Pereira, R. M.; Silva, J. S.; Fasel, N.; Aktas, B. H.; Lopes, U. G.

    2016-01-01

    The integrated endoplasmic reticulum stress response (IERSR) is an evolutionarily conserved adaptive mechanism that ensures endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis and cellular survival in the presence of stress including nutrient deprivation, hypoxia, and imbalance of Ca+ homeostasis, toxins, and microbial infection. Three transmembrane proteins regulate integrated signaling pathways that comprise the IERSR, namely, IRE-1 that activates XBP-1, the pancreatic ER kinase (PERK) that phosphorylates the eukaryotic translation initiation factor 2 and transcription factor 6 (ATF6). The roles of IRE-1, PERK, and ATF4 in viral and some bacterial infections are well characterized. The role of IERSR in infections by intracellular parasites is still poorly understood, although one could anticipate that IERSR may play an important role on the host’s cell response. Recently, our group reported the important aspects of XBP-1 activation in Leishmania amazonensis infection. It is, however, necessary to address the relevance of the other IERSR branches, together with the possible role of IERSR in infections by other Leishmania species, and furthermore, to pursue the possible implications in the pathogenesis and control of parasite replication in macrophages. PMID:27499755

  11. Role of ZnS Nanoparticles on Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-mediated Apoptosis in Retinal Pigment Epithelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Bose; Arun, Arumugaperumal; Harini, Lakshminarasimhan; Sundar, Krishnan; Kathiresan, Thandavarayan

    2016-04-01

    Age-related macular degeneration (AMD) is the leading cause for irreversible visual impairment affecting 30-50 million individuals every year. Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress have been identified as crucial factors for the pathogenesis of AMD. Current treatments do not focus on underlying stimuli responsible for the disease like AMD. Zinc is an important trace metal in retina and its deficiency leads to AMD. Recent studies on zinc sulphide nanoparticles (ZnS-NPs) are gaining attention in the field of physical and biological research. In this present study, in investigating the role of ZnS-NPs on hydrogen peroxide and thapsigargin-treated primary mice retinal pigment epithelial (MRPE) cells, we synthesized ZnS-NPs and characterized using atomic force microscope (AFM) and SEM-EDX. The ZnS-NPs abrogate the primary MRPE cell death through inhibition of oxidative stress-induced reactive oxygen species production and cell permeability. Oxidant molecules hydrogen peroxide and thapsigargin alter unfolded protein response such as glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78) and C/EBP homology protein (CHOP) expressions, whereas ZnS-NPs-pre-treated primary MRPE cells downregulated the overexpression of such proteins. The expressions of apoptotic proteins caspase 12 and cleaved caspase 9 and caspase 3 were also significantly controlled in ZnS-NPs-treated primary MRPE cells when comparing with thapsigargin- and hydrogen peroxide-treated cells. From these results, ZnS-NPs stabilize reactive oxygen species elevation, when subjected to hydrogen peroxide- and thapsigargin-mediated oxidant injury and helps in maintaining normal homeostasis through regulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response proteins which is the lead cause for apoptosis-mediated pathogenesis of AMD. PMID:26329999

  12. Discovery of Tricyclic Clerodane Diterpenes as Sarco/Endoplasmic Reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase Inhibitors and Structure-Activity Relationships.

    PubMed

    De Ford, Christian; Calderón, Carlos; Sehgal, Pankaj; Fedosova, Natalya U; Murillo, Renato; Olesen, Claus; Nissen, Poul; Møller, Jesper V; Merfort, Irmgard

    2015-06-26

    Tricyclic clerodane diterpenes (TCDs) are natural compounds that often show potent cytotoxicity for cancer cells, but their mode of action remains elusive. A computationally based similarity search (CDRUG), combined with principal component analysis (ChemGPS-NP) and docking calculations (GOLD 5.2), suggested TCDs to be inhibitors of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) pump, which is also the target of the sesquiterpene lactone thapsigargin. Biochemical studies were performed with 11 TCDs on purified rabbit skeletal muscle sarcoplasmic reticulum membranes, which are highly enriched with the SERCA1a isoform. Casearborin D (2) exhibited the highest affinity, with a KD value of 2 μM and giving rise to complete inhibition of SERCA1a activity. Structure-activity relationships revealed that functionalization of two acyl side chains (R1 and R4) and the hydrophobicity imparted by the aliphatic chain at C-9, as well as a C-3,C-4 double bond, play crucial roles for inhibitory activity. Docking studies also suggested that hydrophobic interactions in the binding site, especially with Phe256 and Phe834, may be important for a strong inhibitory activity of the TCDs. In conclusion, a novel class of SERCA inhibitory compounds is presented. PMID:25993619

  13. Calcium Efflux From the Endoplasmic Reticulum Leads to β-Cell Death

    PubMed Central

    Hara, Takashi; Mahadevan, Jana; Kanekura, Kohsuke; Hara, Mariko; Lu, Simin

    2014-01-01

    It has been established that intracellular calcium homeostasis is critical for survival and function of pancreatic β-cells. However, the role of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) calcium homeostasis in β-cell survival and death is not clear. Here we show that ER calcium depletion plays a critical role in β-cell death. Various pathological conditions associated with β-cell death, including ER stress, oxidative stress, palmitate, and chronic high glucose, decreased ER calcium levels and sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b expression, leading to β-cell death. Ectopic expression of mutant insulin and genetic ablation of WFS1, a causative gene for Wolfram syndrome, also decreased ER calcium levels and induced β-cell death. Hyperactivation of calpain-2, a calcium-dependent proapoptotic protease, was detected in β-cells undergoing ER calcium depletion. Ectopic expression of sarcoendoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase 2b, as well as pioglitazone and rapamycin treatment, could prevent calcium efflux from the ER and mitigate β-cell death under various stress conditions. Our results reveal a critical role of ER calcium depletion in β-cell death and indicate that identification of pathways and chemical compounds restoring ER calcium levels will lead to novel therapeutic modalities and pharmacological interventions for type 1 and type 2 diabetes and other ER-related diseases including Wolfram syndrome. PMID:24424032

  14. Severe Injury Is Associated With Insulin Resistance, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Response, and Unfolded Protein Response

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Finnerty, Celeste C.; Herndon, David N.; Song, Juquan; Boehning, Darren; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Baker, Henry V.; Gauglitz, Gerd G.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We determined whether postburn hyperglycemia and insulin resistance are associated with endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress/unfolded protein response (UPR) activation leading to impaired insulin receptor signaling. Background Inflammation and cellular stress, hallmarks of severely burned and critically ill patients, have been causally linked to insulin resistance in type 2 diabetes via induction of ER stress and the UPR. Methods Twenty severely burned pediatric patients were compared with 36 nonburned children. Clinical markers, protein, and GeneChip analysis were used to identify transcriptional changes in ER stress and UPR and insulin resistance–related signaling cascades in peripheral blood leukocytes, fat, and muscle at admission and up to 466 days postburn. Results Burn-induced inflammatory and stress responses are accompanied by profound insulin resistance and hyperglycemia. Genomic and protein analysis revealed that burn injury was associated with alterations in the signaling pathways that affect insulin resistance, ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress, inflammation, and cell growth/apoptosis up to 466 days postburn. Conclusion Burn-induced insulin resistance is associated with persistent ER/sarcoplasmic reticulum stress/UPR and subsequent suppressed insulin receptor signaling over a prolonged period of time. PMID:22241293

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum Oxidoreductin-1-Like β (ERO1lβ) Regulates Susceptibility to Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Is Induced by Insulin Flux in β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Khoo, Cynthia; Yang, Juxiang; Rajpal, Gautam; Wang, You; Liu, Jiangying; Arvan, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Hyperglycemia increases insulin flux through the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of pancreatic β-cells, and the unfolded protein response pathway is required to enhance insulin processing. Pancreatic and duodenal homeobox 1 (PDX1), a key pancreatic transcription factor, regulates insulin along with targets involved in insulin processing and secretion. Here we find that PDX1 is a direct transcriptional regulator of ER oxidoreductin-1-like β (Ero1lβ), which maintains the oxidative environment of the ER to facilitate disulfide bond formation. PDX1 deficiency reduced Ero1lβ transcript levels in mouse islets and mouse insulinoma (MIN6) cells; moreover, PDX1 occupied the Ero1lβ promoter in β-cells. ERO1lβ levels were induced by high glucose concentrations and by the reducing agent dithiothreitol, indicating potential roles in adaptation to increased oxidative protein folding load in the β-cell ER. In MIN6 cells, small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of Ero1lβ decreased insulin content and increased susceptibility to ER stress-induced apoptosis. These findings demonstrate roles for the PDX1 target ERO1lβ in maintaining insulin content and regulating cell survival during ER stress. PMID:21540283

  16. Intracellular potassium stabilizes human ether-à-go-go-related gene channels for export from endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lu; Dennis, Adrienne T; Trieu, Phan; Charron, Francois; Ethier, Natalie; Hebert, Terence E; Wan, Xiaoping; Ficker, Eckhard

    2009-04-01

    Several therapeutic compounds have been identified that prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and cause torsade de pointes arrhythmias not by direct block of the cardiac potassium channel human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) but via disruption of hERG trafficking to the cell surface membrane. One example of a clinically important compound class that potently inhibits hERG trafficking are cardiac glycosides. We have shown previously that inhibition of hERG trafficking by cardiac glycosides is initiated via direct block of Na(+)/K(+) pumps and not via off-target interactions with hERG or any other protein. However, it was not known how pump inhibition at the cell surface is coupled to hERG processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that depletion of intracellular K(+)-either indirectly after long-term exposure to cardiac glycosides or directly after exposure to gramicidin in low sodium media-is sufficient to disrupt hERG trafficking. In K(+)-depleted cells, hERG trafficking can be restored by permeating K(+) or Rb(+) ions, incubation at low temperature, exposure to the pharmacological chaperone astemizole, or specific mutations in the selectivity filter of hERG. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for drug-induced trafficking inhibition in which cardiac glycosides produce a [K(+)](i)-mediated conformational defect directly in the hERG channel protein. PMID:19139152

  17. Intracellular Potassium Stabilizes Human Ether-à-go-go-Related Gene Channels for Export from Endoplasmic ReticulumS⃞

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lu; Dennis, Adrienne T.; Trieu, Phan; Charron, Francois; Ethier, Natalie; Hebert, Terence E.; Wan, Xiaoping; Ficker, Eckhard

    2009-01-01

    Several therapeutic compounds have been identified that prolong the QT interval on the electrocardiogram and cause torsade de pointes arrhythmias not by direct block of the cardiac potassium channel human ether-à-go-go-related gene (hERG) but via disruption of hERG trafficking to the cell surface membrane. One example of a clinically important compound class that potently inhibits hERG trafficking are cardiac glycosides. We have shown previously that inhibition of hERG trafficking by cardiac glycosides is initiated via direct block of Na+/K+ pumps and not via off-target interactions with hERG or any other protein. However, it was not known how pump inhibition at the cell surface is coupled to hERG processing in the endoplasmic reticulum. Here, we show that depletion of intracellular K+—either indirectly after long-term exposure to cardiac glycosides or directly after exposure to gramicidin in low sodium media—is sufficient to disrupt hERG trafficking. In K+-depleted cells, hERG trafficking can be restored by permeating K+ or Rb+ ions, incubation at low temperature, exposure to the pharmacological chaperone astemizole, or specific mutations in the selectivity filter of hERG. Our data suggest a novel mechanism for drug-induced trafficking inhibition in which cardiac glycosides produce a [K+]i-mediated conformational defect directly in the hERG channel protein. PMID:19139152

  18. [Oxidized low density lipoprotein induces macrophage endoplasmic reticulum stress via CD36.].

    PubMed

    Yao, Shu-Tong; Sang, Hui; Yang, Na-Na; Kang, Li; Tian, Hua; Zhang, Ying; Song, Guo-Hua; Qin, Shu-Cun

    2010-10-25

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the effect of oxidized low density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) on the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) and the underlying mechanisms in ox-LDL-induced macrophage foam-forming process. RAW264.7 macrophages were cultured in DMEM medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum, and then treated with ox-LDL (25, 50 and 100 mg/L), anti-CD36 monoclonal antibody+ox-LDL and tunicamycin (TM), respectively. After incubation for 24 h, the cells were collected. The cellular lipid accumulation was showed by oil red O staining and the content of cellular total cholesterol was quantified by enzymatic colorimetry. The expression of glucose-regulated protein 94 (GRP94), a molecular marker of ERS, was determined by immunocytochemistry assay. The levels of GRP94 protein, phosphorylated inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (p-IRE1) and X box binding protein 1 (XBP1) in RAW264.7 cells were detected by Western blotting. The results indicated that after incubation with ox-LDL (25, 50 and 100 mg/L) for 24 h, a large amount of lipid droplets were found in the cytoplasm, and the contents of cellular total cholesterol were increased by 2.1, 2.8 and 3.1 folds compared with the control, respectively. Anti-CD36 antibody decreased markedly the cellular lipid accumulation induced by ox-LDL at 100 mg/L. Both ox-LDL and TM, a specific ERS inducer, could up-regulate the protein expression of GRP94 in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, p-IRE1 and XBP1, two key components of the unfolded protein response, were also significantly induced by the treatment with ox-LDL. The up-regulations of the three proteins induced by ox-LDL were inhibited significantly when the macrophages were pre-incubated with anti-CD36 antibody. These results suggest that ox-LDL may induce ERS in a dose-dependent way and subsequently activate the unfolded protein response signaling pathway in RAW264.7 macrophages, which is potentially mediated by scavenger receptor CD36. PMID:20945046

  19. Nuclear receptor LRH-1/NR5A2 is required and targetable for liver endoplasmic reticulum stress resolution

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chronic endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress results in toxicity that contributes to multiple human disorders. We report a stress resolution pathway initiated by the nuclear receptor LRH-1 that is independent of known unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Like mice lacking primary UPR components, h...

  20. Cis-element of the rice PDIL2-3 promoter is responsible for inducing the endoplasmic reticulum stress response.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hideyuki; Wang, Shuyi; Hayashi, Shimpei; Wakasa, Yuhya; Takaiwa, Fumio

    2014-05-01

    A protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family oxidoreductase, PDIL2-3, is involved in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress responses in rice. We identified a critical cis-element required for induction of the ER stress response. The activation of PDIL2-3 in response to ER stress strongly depends on the IRE1-OsbZIP50 signaling pathway. PMID:24315532

  1. Electro-optical imaging of F-actin and endoplasmic reticulum in living and fixed plant cells.

    PubMed

    Allen, N S; Bennett, M N

    1996-01-01

    Confocal and video micrographs of living and fixed alfalfa roots, onion epithelial and pear pollen cells illustrate the architecture of the cytoskeleton and endoplasmic reticulum in plant cells. Fixation of plant tissues to preserve cytoplasmic structure poses special problems. When possible, emphasis should be placed on the imaging of structures in stained living cells over time. The early events that occur when Nod factors or bacteria elicit nodule formation in alfalfa roots will illustrate several approaches to plant cell fixation, staining and imaging. The first observable events after Nod factor stimulation occur in root hairs and are changes in rates of cytoplasmic streaming, nuclear movements, and changes in the shape of the vacuole. Within ten minutes, the endoplasmic reticulum shifts position towards the tip of the root hair. For comparison, the endoplasmic reticulum localization in pollen tubes and onion epithelial cells will be illustrated. The actin cytoskeleton undergoes a series of changes over a twelve hour period. These changes in the cytoskeleton are spatially and temporally correlated with the observed growth changes of the root hairs. This dynamic change of the actin filament and endoplasmic reticulum and associated secretory vesicles in these root hairs suggests a mechanism for the observed root hair growth changes. PMID:9601538

  2. Regulation of calcium and phosphoinositides at endoplasmic reticulum-membrane junctions.

    PubMed

    Dickson, Eamonn J; Jensen, Jill B; Hille, Bertil

    2016-04-15

    Effective cellular function requires both compartmentalization of tasks in space and time, and coordination of those efforts. The endoplasmic reticulum's (ER) expansive and ramifying structure makes it ideally suited to serve as a regulatory platform for organelle-organelle communication through membrane contacts. These contact sites consist of two membranes juxtaposed at a distance less than 30 nm that mediate the exchange of lipids and ions without the need for membrane fission or fusion, a process distinct from classical vesicular transport. Membrane contact sites are positioned by organelle-specific membrane-membrane tethering proteins and contain a growing number of additional proteins that organize information transfer to shape membrane identity. Here we briefly review the role of ER-containing membrane junctions in two important cellular functions: calcium signalling and phosphoinositide processing. PMID:27068956

  3. Dysfunctional tubular endoplasmic reticulum constitutes a pathological feature of Alzheimer’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Sharoar, Md. Golam; Shi, Qi; Ge, Yingying; He, Wanxia; Hu, Xiangyou; Perry, George; Zhu, Xiongwei; Yan, Riqiang

    2015-01-01

    Pathological features in Alzheimer’s brains include mitochondrial dysfunction and dystrophic neurites (DNs) in areas surrounding amyloid plaques. Using a mouse model that overexpresses reticulon 3 (RTN3) and spontaneously develops age-dependent hippocampal DNs, here we report that DNs contain both RTN3 and REEPs, topologically similar proteins that can shape tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Importantly, ultrastructural examinations of such DNs revealed gradual accumulation of tubular ER in axonal termini, and such abnormal tubular ER inclusion is found in areas surrounding amyloid plaques in biopsy samples from AD brains. Functionally, abnormally clustered tubular ER induces enhanced mitochondrial fission in the early stages of DN formation and eventual mitochondrial degeneration at later stages. Furthermore, such DNs are abrogated when RTN3 is ablated in aging and AD mouse models. Hence, abnormally clustered tubular ER can be pathogenic in brain regions: disrupting mitochondrial integrity, inducing DNs formation and impairing cognitive function in AD and aging brains PMID:26619807

  4. Protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum: lessons from the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit.

    PubMed Central

    Ruddon, R. W.; Sherman, S. A.; Bedows, E.

    1996-01-01

    There have been few studies of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum of intact mammalian cells. In the one case where the in vivo and in vitro folding pathways of a mammalian secretory protein have been compared, the folding of the human chorionic gonadotropin beta subunit (hCG-beta), the order of formation of the detected folding intermediates is the same. The rate and efficiency with which multidomain proteins such as hCG-beta fold to native structure in intact cells is higher than in vitro, although intracellular rates of folding of the beta subunit can be approached in vitro in the presence of an optimal redox potential and protein disulfide isomerase. Understanding how proteins fold in vivo may provide a new way to diagnose and treat human illnesses that occur due to folding defects. PMID:8844836

  5. Electron probe microanalysis of calcium release and magnesium uptake by endoplasmic reticulum in bee photoreceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Baumann, O.; Walz, B. ); Somlyo, A.V.; Somlyo, A.P. )

    1991-02-01

    Honey bee photoreceptors contain large sacs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that can be located unequivocally in freeze-dried cryosections. The elemental compositon of the ER was determined by electron probe x-ray microanalysis and was visualized in high-resolution x-ray maps. In the ER of dark-adapted photoreceptors, the Ca concentration was 47.5 {plus minus} 1.1 mmol/kg (dry weight). During a 3-sec nonsaturating light stimulus, {approximately}50% of the Ca content was released from the ER. Light stimulation also caused a highly significant increase in the Mg content of the ER; the ratio of Mg uptake to Ca released was {approximately}0.7. Our results show unambiguously that the ER is the source of Ca{sup 2+} release during cell stimulation and suggest the Mg{sup 2+} can nearly balance the charge movement of Ca{sup 2+}.

  6. Real-time Redox Measurements during Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress Reveal Interlinked Protein Folding Functions

    PubMed Central

    Merksamer, Philip I.; Trusina, Ala; Papa, Feroz R.

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY Disruption of protein folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes unfolded proteins to accumulate, triggering the unfolded protein response (UPR). UPR outputs in turn decrease ER unfolded proteins to close a negative feedback loop. However, because it is infeasible to directly measure the concentration of unfolded proteins in vivo, cells are generically described as experiencing “ER stress” whenever the UPR is active. Because ER redox potential is optimized for oxidative protein folding, we reasoned that measureable redox changes should accompany unfolded protein accumulation. To test this concept, we employed fluorescent protein reporters to dynamically measure ER redox status and UPR activity in single cells. Using these tools, we show that diverse stressors, both experimental and physiological, compromise ER protein oxidation when UPR-imposed homeostatic control is lost. Using genetic analysis we uncovered redox heterogeneities in isogenic cell populations, and revealed functional interlinks between ER protein folding, modification, and quality control systems. PMID:19026441

  7. Taking organelles apart, putting them back together and creating new ones: lessons from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Christine; Roy, Line; Lanoix, Joël; Taheri, Mariam; Young, Robin; Thibault, Geneviève; Farah, Carol Abi; Leclerc, Nicole; Paiement, Jacques

    2011-06-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a highly dynamic organelle. It is composed of four subcompartments including nuclear envelope (NE), rough ER (rER), smooth ER (sER) and transitional ER (tER). The subcompartments are interconnected, can fragment and dissociate and are able to reassemble again. They coordinate with cell function by way of protein regulators in the surrounding cytosol. The activity of the many associated molecular machines of the ER as well as the fluid nature of the limiting membrane of the ER contribute extensively to the dynamics of the ER. This review examines the properties of the ER that permit its isolation and purification and the physiological conditions that permit reconstitution both in vitro and in vivo in normal and in disease conditions. PMID:21536318

  8. The roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress response in female mammalian reproduction.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yanzhou; Pei, Xiuying; Jin, Yaping; Wang, Yanrong; Zhang, Cheng

    2016-03-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) activates a protective pathway, called the unfold protein response, for maintaining cellular homeostasis, but cellular apoptosis is triggered by excessive or persistent ERS. Several recent studies imply that the ERS response might have broader physiological roles in the various reproductive processes of female mammals, including embryo implantation, decidualization, preimplantation embryonic development, follicle atresia, and the development of the placenta. This review summarizes the existing data concerning the molecular and biological roles of the ERS response. The study of the functions of the ERS response in mammalian reproduction might provide novel insights into and an understanding of reproductive cell survival and apoptosis under physiological and pathological conditions. The ERS response is a novel signaling pathway for reproductive cell survival and apoptosis. Infertility might be a result of disturbing the ERS response during the process of female reproduction. PMID:26022337

  9. Establishment of a system for monitoring endoplasmic reticulum redox state in mammalian cells

    PubMed Central

    Kanekura, Kohsuke; Ishigaki, Shinsuke; Merksamer, Philip I.; Papa, Feroz R.; Urano, Fumihiko

    2014-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) performs a critical role in the oxidative folding of nascent proteins such that perturbations to ER homeostasis may lead to protein misfolding and subsequent pathological processes. Among the mechanisms for maintaining ER homeostasis is a redox regulation, which is a critical determinant of the fate of ER stressed cells. Here we report the establishment of a system for monitoring ER redox state in mammalian cells. The new ER redox sensing system was developed based on the previously described monitoring system in yeast. Our system could successfully monitor the dynamic ER redox state in mammalian cells. Using this system, we find that manipulation of ER oxidases changes ER redox state. The mammalian ER redox sensing system could be used to study the mechanisms of ER redox regulation and provide a foundation for an approach to develop novel therapeutic modalities for human diseases related to dysregulated ER homeostasis including diabetes, neurodegeneration and Wolfram syndrome. PMID:24042438

  10. Transit of H2O2 across the endoplasmic reticulum membrane is not sluggish.

    PubMed

    Appenzeller-Herzog, Christian; Bánhegyi, Gabor; Bogeski, Ivan; Davies, Kelvin J A; Delaunay-Moisan, Agnès; Forman, Henry Jay; Görlach, Agnes; Kietzmann, Thomas; Laurindo, Francisco; Margittai, Eva; Meyer, Andreas J; Riemer, Jan; Rützler, Michael; Simmen, Thomas; Sitia, Roberto; Toledano, Michel B; Touw, Ivo P

    2016-05-01

    Cellular metabolism provides various sources of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in different organelles and compartments. The suitability of H2O2 as an intracellular signaling molecule therefore also depends on its ability to pass cellular membranes. The propensity of the membranous boundary of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to let pass H2O2 has been discussed controversially. In this essay, we challenge the recent proposal that the ER membrane constitutes a simple barrier for H2O2 diffusion and support earlier data showing that (i) ample H2O2 permeability of the ER membrane is a prerequisite for signal transduction, (ii) aquaporin channels are crucially involved in the facilitation of H2O2 permeation, and (iii) a proper experimental framework not prone to artifacts is necessary to further unravel the role of H2O2 permeation in signal transduction and organelle biology. PMID:26928585

  11. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated pathways to both apoptosis and autophagy: Significance for melanoma treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Mohamed; Selimovic, Denis; Hannig, Matthias; Haikel, Youssef; Brodell, Robert T; Megahed, Mossaad

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Disrupted intracellular signaling pathways are responsible for melanoma's extraordinary resistance to current chemotherapeutic modalities. The pathophysiologic basis for resistance to both chemo- and radiation therapy is rooted in altered genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that, in turn, result in the impairing of cell death machinery and/or excessive activation of cell growth and survival-dependent pathways. Although most current melanoma therapies target mitochondrial dysregulation, there is increasing evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pathways play a role in the potentiation, initiation and maintenance of cell death machinery and autophagy. This review focuses on the reliability of ER-associated pathways as therapeutic targets for melanoma treatment. PMID:26618107

  12. Transcription Factor ATF4 Induces NLRP1 Inflammasome Expression during Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    PubMed Central

    D’Osualdo, Andrea; Anania, Veronica G.; Yu, Kebing; Lill, Jennie R.; Kaufman, Randal J.; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Reed, John C.

    2015-01-01

    Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis triggers the ER stress response (also known as Unfolded Protein Response), a hallmark of many pathological disorders. However the connection between ER stress and inflammation remains largely unexplored. Recent data suggest that ER stress controls the activity of inflammasomes, key signaling platforms that mediate innate immune responses. Here we report that expression of NLRP1, a core inflammasome component, is specifically up-regulated during severe ER stress conditions in human cell lines. Both IRE1α and PERK, but not the ATF6 pathway, modulate NLRP1 gene expression. Furthermore, using mutagenesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing technology, we demonstrate that ATF4 transcription factor directly binds to NLRP1 promoter during ER stress. Although involved in different types of inflammatory responses, XBP-1 splicing was not required for NLRP1 induction. This study provides further evidence that links ER stress with innate PMID:26086088

  13. ER-phagy mediates selective degradation of endoplasmic reticulum independently of the core autophagy machinery

    PubMed Central

    Schuck, Sebastian; Gallagher, Ciara M.; Walter, Peter

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Selective autophagy of damaged or redundant organelles is an important mechanism for maintaining cell homeostasis. We found previously that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae causes massive ER expansion and triggers the formation of large ER whorls. Here, we show that stress-induced ER whorls are selectively taken up into the vacuole, the yeast lysosome, by a process termed ER-phagy. Import into the vacuole does not involve autophagosomes but occurs through invagination of the vacuolar membrane, indicating that ER-phagy is topologically equivalent to microautophagy. Even so, ER-phagy requires neither the core autophagy machinery nor several other proteins specifically implicated in microautophagy. Thus, autophagy of ER whorls represents a distinct type of organelle-selective autophagy. Finally, we provide evidence that ER-phagy degrades excess ER membrane, suggesting that it contributes to cell homeostasis by controlling organelle size. PMID:25052096

  14. Endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated pathways to both apoptosis and autophagy: Significance for melanoma treatment.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Mohamed; Selimovic, Denis; Hannig, Matthias; Haikel, Youssef; Brodell, Robert T; Megahed, Mossaad

    2015-11-20

    Melanoma is the most aggressive form of skin cancer. Disrupted intracellular signaling pathways are responsible for melanoma's extraordinary resistance to current chemotherapeutic modalities. The pathophysiologic basis for resistance to both chemo- and radiation therapy is rooted in altered genetic and epigenetic mechanisms that, in turn, result in the impairing of cell death machinery and/or excessive activation of cell growth and survival-dependent pathways. Although most current melanoma therapies target mitochondrial dysregulation, there is increasing evidence that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-associated pathways play a role in the potentiation, initiation and maintenance of cell death machinery and autophagy. This review focuses on the reliability of ER-associated pathways as therapeutic targets for melanoma treatment. PMID:26618107

  15. Alterations in Mitochondrial and Endoplasmic Reticulum Signaling by p53 Mutants

    PubMed Central

    Giorgi, Carlotta; Bonora, Massimo; Missiroli, Sonia; Morganti, Claudia; Morciano, Giampaolo; Wieckowski, Mariusz R.; Pinton, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    The p53 protein is probably the most important tumor suppressor, acting as a nuclear transcription factor primarily through the modulation of cell death. However, currently, it is well accepted that p53 can also exert important transcription-independent pro-cell death actions. Indeed, cytosolic localization of endogenous wild-type or transactivation-deficient p53 is necessary and sufficient for the induction of apoptosis and autophagy. Here, we present the extra-nuclear activities of p53 associated with the mitochondria and the endoplasmic reticulum, highlighting the activities of the p53 mutants on these compartments. These two intracellular organelles play crucial roles in the regulation of cell death, and it is now well established that they also represent sites where p53 can accumulate. PMID:26942128

  16. Presenilin 2 Modulates Endoplasmic Reticulum-Mitochondria Coupling by Tuning the Antagonistic Effect of Mitofusin 2.

    PubMed

    Filadi, Riccardo; Greotti, Elisa; Turacchio, Gabriele; Luini, Alberto; Pozzan, Tullio; Pizzo, Paola

    2016-06-01

    Communication between organelles plays key roles in cell biology. In particular, physical and functional coupling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and mitochondria is crucial for regulation of various physiological and pathophysiological processes. Here, we demonstrate that Presenilin 2 (PS2), mutations in which underlie familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD), promotes ER-mitochondria coupling only in the presence of mitofusin 2 (Mfn2). PS2 is not necessary for the antagonistic effect of Mfn2 on organelle coupling, although its abundance can tune it. The two proteins physically interact, whereas their homologues Mfn1 and PS1 are dispensable for this interplay. Moreover, PS2 mutants associated with FAD are more effective than the wild-type form in modulating ER-mitochondria tethering because their binding to Mfn2 in mitochondria-associated membranes is favored. We propose a revised model for ER-mitochondria interaction to account for these findings and discuss possible implications for FAD pathogenesis. PMID:27239030

  17. The essential functions of endoplasmic reticulum chaperones in hepatic lipid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, LiChun; Wang, Hong-Hui

    2016-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is an essential organelle for protein and lipid synthesis in hepatocytes. ER homeostasis is vital to maintain normal hepatocyte physiology. Perturbed ER functions causes ER stress associated with accumulation of unfolded protein in the ER that activates a series of adaptive signalling pathways, termed unfolded protein response (UPR). The UPR regulates ER chaperone levels to preserve ER protein-folding environment to protect the cell from ER stress. Recent findings reveal an array of ER chaperones that alter the protein-folding environment in the ER of hepatocytes and contribute to dysregulation of hepatocyte lipid metabolism and liver disease. In this review, we will discuss the specific functions of these chaperones in regulation of lipid metabolism, especially de novo lipogenesis and lipid transport and demonstrate their homeostatic role not only for ER-protein synthesis but also for lipid metabolism in hepatocyte. PMID:27133206

  18. Targeting the hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress

    PubMed Central

    Garg, Abhishek D; Maes, Hannelore; van Vliet, Alexander R; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is at the center of a number of vital cellular processes such as cell growth, death, and differentiation, crosstalk with immune or stromal cells, and maintenance of proteostasis or homeostasis, and ER functions have implications for various pathologies including cancer. Recently, a number of major hallmarks of cancer have been delineated that are expected to facilitate the development of anticancer therapies. However, therapeutic induction of ER stress as a strategy to broadly target multiple hallmarks of cancer has been seldom discussed despite the fact that several primary or secondary ER stress-inducing therapies have been found to exhibit positive clinical activity in cancer patients. In the present review we provide a brief historical overview of the major discoveries and milestones in the field of ER stress biology with important implications for anticancer therapy. Furthermore, we comprehensively discuss possible strategies enabling the targeting of multiple hallmarks of cancer with therapy-induced ER stress. PMID:27308392

  19. VCP and ATL1 regulate endoplasmic reticulum and protein synthesis for dendritic spine formation

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Yu-Tzu; Hsueh, Yi-Ping

    2016-01-01

    Imbalanced protein homeostasis, such as excessive protein synthesis and protein aggregation, is a pathogenic hallmark of a range of neurological disorders. Here, using expression of mutant proteins, a knockdown approach and disease mutation knockin mice, we show that VCP (valosin-containing protein), together with its cofactor P47 and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) morphology regulator ATL1 (Atlastin-1), regulates tubular ER formation and influences the efficiency of protein synthesis to control dendritic spine formation in neurons. Strengthening the significance of protein synthesis in dendritic spinogenesis, the translation blocker cyclohexamide and the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin reduce dendritic spine density, while a leucine supplement that increases protein synthesis ameliorates the dendritic spine defects caused by Vcp and Atl1 deficiencies. Because VCP and ATL1 are the causative genes of several neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental disorders, we suggest that impaired ER formation and inefficient protein synthesis are significant in the pathogenesis of multiple neurological disorders. PMID:26984393

  20. Expanded polyglutamine embedded in the endoplasmic reticulum causes membrane distortion and coincides with Bax insertion.

    PubMed

    Ueda, Masashi; Li, Shimo; Itoh, Masanori; Wang, Miao-Xing; Hayakawa, Miki; Islam, Saiful; Tana; Nakagawa, Kiyomi; Chen, Huayue; Nakagawa, Toshiyuki

    2016-05-27

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is important in various cellular functions, such as secretary and membrane protein biosynthesis, lipid synthesis, and calcium storage. ER stress, including membrane distortion, is associated with many diseases such as Huntington's disease. In particular, nuclear envelope distortion is related to neuronal cell death associated with polyglutamine. However, the mechanism by which polyglutamine causes ER membrane distortion remains unclear. We used electron microscopy, fluorescence protease protection assay, and alkaline treatment to analyze the localization of polyglutamine in cells. We characterized polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane and noted an effect on morphology, including the dilation of ER luminal space and elongation of ER-mitochondria contact sites, in addition to the distortion of the nuclear envelope. The polyglutamine embedded in the ER membrane was observed at the same time as Bax insertion. These results demonstrated that the ER membrane may be a target of polyglutamine, which triggers cell death through Bax. PMID:27079237

  1. Coordination of stress, Ca2+, and immunogenic signaling pathways by PERK at the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    van Vliet, Alexander R; Garg, Abhishek D; Agostinis, Patrizia

    2016-07-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main coordinator of intracellular Ca2+ signaling, protein synthesis, and folding. The ER is also implicated in the formation of contact sites with other organelles and structures, including mitochondria, plasma membrane (PM), and endosomes, thereby orchestrating through interorganelle signaling pathways, a variety of cellular responses including Ca2+ homeostasis, metabolism, and cell death signaling. Upon loss of its folding capacity, incited by a number of stress signals including those elicited by various anticancer therapies, the unfolded protein response (UPR) is launched to restore ER homeostasis. The ER stress sensor protein kinase RNA-like ER kinase (PERK) is a key mediator of the UPR and its role during ER stress has been largely recognized. However, growing evidence suggests that PERK may govern signaling pathways through UPR-independent functions. Here, we discuss emerging noncanonical roles of PERK with particular relevance for the induction of danger or immunogenic signaling and interorganelle communication. PMID:26872313

  2. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly

    PubMed Central

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles. PMID:27338443

  3. The unfolded protein response triggers selective mRNA release from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Reid, David W; Chen, Qiang; Tay, Angeline S-L; Shenolikar, Shirish; Nicchitta, Christopher V

    2014-09-11

    The unfolded protein response (UPR) is a stress response program that reprograms cellular translation and gene expression in response to proteotoxic stress in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). One of the primary means by which the UPR alleviates this stress is by reducing protein flux into the ER via a general suppression of protein synthesis and ER-specific mRNA degradation. We report here an additional UPR-induced mechanism for the reduction of protein flux into the ER, where mRNAs that encode signal sequences are released from the ER to the cytosol. By removing mRNAs from the site of translocation, this mechanism may serve as a potent means to transiently reduce ER protein folding load and restore proteostasis. These findings identify the dynamic subcellular localization of mRNAs and translation as a selective and rapid regulatory feature of the cellular response to protein folding stress. PMID:25215492

  4. Cell Biology of the Endoplasmic Reticulum and the Golgi Apparatus through Proteomics

    PubMed Central

    Smirle, Jeffrey; Au, Catherine E.; Jain, Michael; Dejgaard, Kurt; Nilsson, Tommy; Bergeron, John

    2013-01-01

    Enriched endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and Golgi membranes subjected to mass spectrometry have uncovered over a thousand different proteins assigned to the ER and Golgi apparatus of rat liver. This, in turn, led to the uncovering of several hundred proteins of poorly understood function and, through hierarchical clustering, showed that proteins distributed in patterns suggestive of microdomains in cognate organelles. This has led to new insights with respect to their intracellular localization and function. Another outcome has been the critical testing of the cisternal maturation hypothesis showing overwhelming support for a predominant role of COPI vesicles in the transport of resident proteins of the ER and Golgi apparatus (as opposed to biosynthetic cargo). Here we will discuss new insights gained and also highlight new avenues undertaken to further explore the cell biology of the ER and the Golgi apparatus through tandem mass spectrometry. PMID:23284051

  5. Dysfunctional tubular endoplasmic reticulum constitutes a pathological feature of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Sharoar, M G; Shi, Q; Ge, Y; He, W; Hu, X; Perry, G; Zhu, X; Yan, R

    2016-09-01

    Pathological features in Alzheimer's brains include mitochondrial dysfunction and dystrophic neurites (DNs) in areas surrounding amyloid plaques. Using a mouse model that overexpresses reticulon 3 (RTN3) and spontaneously develops age-dependent hippocampal DNs, here we report that DNs contain both RTN3 and REEPs, topologically similar proteins that can shape tubular endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Importantly, ultrastructural examinations of such DNs revealed gradual accumulation of tubular ER in axonal termini, and such abnormal tubular ER inclusion is found in areas surrounding amyloid plaques in biopsy samples from Alzheimer's disease (AD) brains. Functionally, abnormally clustered tubular ER induces enhanced mitochondrial fission in the early stages of DN formation and eventual mitochondrial degeneration at later stages. Furthermore, such DNs are abrogated when RTN3 is ablated in aging and AD mouse models. Hence, abnormally clustered tubular ER can be pathogenic in brain regions: disrupting mitochondrial integrity, inducing DNs formation and impairing cognitive function in AD and aging brains. PMID:26619807

  6. Endoplasmic reticulum stress and the on site function of resident PTP1B.

    PubMed

    Popov, Doina

    2012-06-15

    Growing evidence links the stress at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to pathologies such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, liver, heart, renal and neurodegenerative diseases, endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis, and cancer. Therefore, identification of molecular pathways beyond ER stress and their appropriate modulation might alleviate the stress, and direct toward novel tools to fight this disturbance. An interesting resident of the ER membrane is protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B), an enzyme that negatively regulates insulin and leptin signaling, contributing to insulin and leptin resistance. Recently, new functions of PTP1B have been established linked to ER stress response. This review evaluates the novel data on ER stressors, discusses the mechanisms beyond PTP1B function in the ER stress response, and emphasizes the potential therapeutic exploitation of PTP1B to relieve ER stress. PMID:22609202

  7. Electron probe microanalysis of calcium release and magnesium uptake by endoplasmic reticulum in bee photoreceptors.

    PubMed Central

    Baumann, O; Walz, B; Somlyo, A V; Somlyo, A P

    1991-01-01

    Honey bee photoreceptors contain large sacs of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that can be located unequivocally in freeze-dried cryosections. The elemental composition of the ER was determined by electron probe x-ray microanalysis and was visualized in high-resolution x-ray maps. In the ER of dark-adapted photoreceptors, the Ca concentration was 47.5 +/- 1.1 mmol/kg (dry weight) (mean +/- SEM). During a 3-sec nonsaturating light stimulus, approximately 50% of the Ca content was released from the ER. Light stimulation also caused a highly significant increase in the Mg content of the ER; the ratio of Mg uptake to Ca released was approximately 0.7. Our results show unambiguously that the ER is the source of Ca2+ release during cell stimulation and suggest that Mg2+ can nearly balance the charge movement of Ca2+. Images PMID:1992466

  8. Crystal structures reveal transient PERK luminal domain tetramerization in endoplasmic reticulum stress signaling

    PubMed Central

    Carrara, Marta; Prischi, Filippo; Nowak, Piotr R; Ali, Maruf MU

    2015-01-01

    Stress caused by accumulation of misfolded proteins within the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) elicits a cellular unfolded protein response (UPR) aimed at maintaining protein-folding capacity. PERK, a key upstream component, recognizes ER stress via its luminal sensor/transducer domain, but the molecular events that lead to UPR activation remain unclear. Here, we describe the crystal structures of mammalian PERK luminal domains captured in dimeric state as well as in a novel tetrameric state. Small angle X-ray scattering analysis (SAXS) supports the existence of both crystal structures also in solution. The salient feature of the tetramer interface, a helix swapped between dimers, implies transient association. Moreover, interface mutations that disrupt tetramer formation in vitro reduce phosphorylation of PERK and its target eIF2α in cells. These results suggest that transient conversion from dimeric to tetrameric state may be a key regulatory step in UPR activation. PMID:25925385

  9. Transcription Factor ATF4 Induces NLRP1 Inflammasome Expression during Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    D'Osualdo, Andrea; Anania, Veronica G; Yu, Kebing; Lill, Jennie R; Kaufman, Randal J; Matsuzawa, Shu-ichi; Reed, John C

    2015-01-01

    Perturbation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) homeostasis triggers the ER stress response (also known as Unfolded Protein Response), a hallmark of many pathological disorders. However the connection between ER stress and inflammation remains largely unexplored. Recent data suggest that ER stress controls the activity of inflammasomes, key signaling platforms that mediate innate immune responses. Here we report that expression of NLRP1, a core inflammasome component, is specifically up-regulated during severe ER stress conditions in human cell lines. Both IRE1α and PERK, but not the ATF6 pathway, modulate NLRP1 gene expression. Furthermore, using mutagenesis, chromatin immunoprecipitation and CRISPR-Cas9-mediated genome editing technology, we demonstrate that ATF4 transcription factor directly binds to NLRP1 promoter during ER stress. Although involved in different types of inflammatory responses, XBP-1 splicing was not required for NLRP1 induction. This study provides further evidence that links ER stress with innate. PMID:26086088

  10. High osmotic pressure increases reactive oxygen species generation in rabbit corneal epithelial cells by endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Sheng, Minjie; Li, Bing; Jiang, Yaping; Chen, Yihui

    2016-01-01

    Tear high osmotic pressure (HOP) has been recognized as the core mechanism underlying ocular surface inflammation, injury and symptoms and is closely associated with many ocular surface diseases, especially dry eye. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is a multi-functional organelle responsible for protein synthesis, folding and transport, biological synthesis of lipids, vesicle transport and intracellular calcium storage. Accumulation of unfolded proteins and imbalance of calcium ion in the ER would induce ER stress and protective unfolded protein response (UPR). Many studies have demonstrated that ER stress can induce cell apoptosis. However, the association between tear HOP and ER stress has not been studied systematically. In the present study, rabbit corneal epithelial cells were treated with HOP and results showed that the production of reactive oxygen species increased markedly, which further activated the ER signaling pathway and ultimately induced cell apoptosis. These findings shed new lights on the pathogenesis and clinical treatment of dry eye and other ocular surface diseases. PMID:27158374

  11. Rheumatoid arthritis as a hyper-endoplasmic-reticulum-associated degradation disease.

    PubMed

    Yamasaki, Satoshi; Yagishita, Naoko; Tsuchimochi, Kaneyuki; Nishioka, Kusuki; Nakajima, Toshihiro

    2005-01-01

    We introduce Synoviolin as a novel pathogenic factor in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Experimental studies indicate that this endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-resident E3 ubiquitin ligase has important functions in the ER-associated degradation (ERAD) system, an essential system for ER homeostasis. Overexpression of Synoviolin in mice causes arthropathy with synovial hyperplasia, whereas heterozygous knockdown results in increased apoptosis of synovial cells and resistance to collagen-induced arthritis in mice. On the basis of these experimental data, we propose that excess elimination of unfolded proteins (that is, 'hyper-ERAD') by overexpression of Synoviolin triggers synovial cell overgrowth and hence a worsening of RA. Further analysis of the hyper-ERAD system may permit the complex pathomechanisms of RA to be uncovered. PMID:16207344

  12. Flurbiprofen ameliorated obesity by attenuating leptin resistance induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Hosoi, Toru; Yamaguchi, Rie; Noji, Kikuko; Matsuo, Suguru; Baba, Sachiko; Toyoda, Keisuke; Suezawa, Takahiro; Kayano, Takaaki; Tanaka, Shinpei; Ozawa, Koichiro

    2014-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress, caused by the accumulation of unfolded proteins, is involved in the development of obesity. We demonstrated that flurbiprofen, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID), exhibited chaperone activity, which reduced protein aggregation and alleviated ER stress-induced leptin resistance, characterized by insensitivity to the actions of the anti-obesity hormone leptin. This result was further supported by flurbiprofen attenuating high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice. The other NSAIDs tested did not exhibit such effects, which suggested that this anti-obesity action is mediated independent of NSAIDs. Using ferriteglycidyl methacrylate beads, we identified aldehyde dehydrogenase as the target of flurbiprofen, but not of the other NSAIDs. These results suggest that flurbiprofen may have unique pharmacological properties that reduce the accumulation of unfolded proteins and may represent a new class of drug for the fundamental treatment of obesity. Subject Categories Metabolism; Pharmacology & Drug Discovery PMID:24421337

  13. Facilitation of DNA damage-induced apoptosis by endoplasmic reticulum protein mitsugumin23

    SciTech Connect

    Yamazaki, Tetsuo; Sasaki, Nozomi; Nishi, Miyuki; Takeshima, Hiroshi

    2010-02-05

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) emanates context-dependent signals, thereby mediating cellular response to a variety of stresses. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms have been enigmatic. To better understand the signaling capacity of the ER, we focused on roles played by mitsugumin23 (MG23), a protein residing predominantly in this organelle. Overexpression of MG23 in human embryonic kidney 293T cells specifically enhanced apoptosis triggered by etoposide, a DNA-damaging anti-cancer drug. Conversely, genetic deletion of MG23 reduced susceptibility of thymocytes to DNA damage-induced apoptosis, which was demonstrated by whole-body irradiation experiments. In this setting, induction of the tumor-suppressor gene p53 was attenuated in MG23-knockout thymocytes as compared with their wild-type counterparts, consistent with the elevated radioresistance. It is therefore suggested that MG23 is an essential component of ER-generated lethal signals provoked upon DNA damage, specifying cell fate under pathophysiological conditions.

  14. A Molecular Fluorescent Probe for Targeted Visualization of Temperature at the Endoplasmic Reticulum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arai, Satoshi; Lee, Sung-Chan; Zhai, Duanting; Suzuki, Madoka; Chang, Young Tae

    2014-10-01

    The dynamics of cellular heat production and propagation remains elusive at a subcellular level. Here we report the first small molecule fluorescent thermometer selectively targeting the endoplasmic reticulum (ER thermo yellow), with the highest sensitivity reported so far (3.9%/°C). Unlike nanoparticle thermometers, ER thermo yellow stains the target organelle evenly without the commonly encountered problem of aggregation, and successfully demonstrates the ability to monitor intracellular temperature gradients generated by external heat sources in various cell types. We further confirm the ability of ER thermo yellow to monitor heat production by intracellular Ca2+ changes in HeLa cells. Our thermometer anchored at nearly-zero distance from the ER, i.e. the heat source, allowed the detection of the heat as it readily dissipated, and revealed the dynamics of heat production in real time at a subcellular level.

  15. Endoplasmic Reticulum: The Favorite Intracellular Niche for Viral Replication and Assembly.

    PubMed

    Romero-Brey, Inés; Bartenschlager, Ralf

    2016-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the largest intracellular organelle. It forms a complex network of continuous sheets and tubules, extending from the nuclear envelope (NE) to the plasma membrane. This network is frequently perturbed by positive-strand RNA viruses utilizing the ER to create membranous replication factories (RFs), where amplification of their genomes occurs. In addition, many enveloped viruses assemble progeny virions in association with ER membranes, and viruses replicating in the nucleus need to overcome the NE barrier, requiring transient changes of the NE morphology. This review first summarizes some key aspects of ER morphology and then focuses on the exploitation of the ER by viruses for the sake of promoting the different steps of their replication cycles. PMID:27338443

  16. Targeting of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Membrane Proteins and Ribosomes in Invertebrate Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Rolls, Melissa M.; Hall, David H.; Victor, Martin; Stelzer, Ernst H. K.; Rapoport, Tom A.

    2002-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is divided into rough and smooth domains (RER and SER). The two domains share most proteins, but RER is enriched in some membrane proteins by an unknown mechanism. We studied RER protein targeting by expressing fluorescent protein fusions to ER membrane proteins in Caenorhabditis elegans. In several cell types RER and general ER proteins colocalized, but in neurons RER proteins were concentrated in the cell body, whereas general ER proteins were also found in neurites. Surprisingly RER membrane proteins diffused rapidly within the cell body, indicating they are not localized by immobilization. Ribosomes were also concentrated in the cell body, suggesting they may be in part responsible for targeting RER membrane proteins. PMID:12006669

  17. Conditions of endoplasmic reticulum stress stimulate lipid droplet formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    PubMed

    Fei, Weihua; Wang, Han; Fu, Xin; Bielby, Christopher; Yang, Hongyuan

    2009-11-15

    LDs (lipid droplets) are cellular organelles which can be found in nearly all eukaryotic cells. Despite their importance in cell biology, the mechanism underlying LD biogenesis remains largely unknown. In the present study we report that conditions of ER (endoplasmic reticulum) stress stimulate LD formation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We found that LDs accumulated in yeast mutants with compromised protein glycosylation or ER-associated protein degradation. Moreover, tunicamycin and Brefeldin A, agents which induce ER stress, were found to stimulate LD formation. In contrast, the restoration of protein glycosylation reduced LD accumulation. Interestingly, enhanced neutral lipids synthesis and LD formation under conditions of ER stress was not dependent on Ire1p. Lastly, we demonstrated that the absence of LDs did not compromise cell viability under ER stress. Our results suggest that although more LDs are produced, LDs are not essential to cell survival under ER stress. PMID:19708857

  18. Sc65-Null Mice Provide Evidence for a Novel Endoplasmic Reticulum Complex Regulating Collagen Lysyl Hydroxylation

    PubMed Central

    Weis, MaryAnn; Rai, Jyoti; Hudson, David M.; Dimori, Milena; Zimmerman, Sarah M.; Hogue, William R.; Swain, Frances L.; Burdine, Marie S.; Mackintosh, Samuel G.; Tackett, Alan J.; Suva, Larry J.; Eyre, David R.

    2016-01-01

    Collagen is a major component of the extracellular matrix and its integrity is essential for connective tissue and organ function. The importance of proteins involved in intracellular collagen post-translational modification, folding and transport was recently highlighted from studies on recessive forms of osteogenesis imperfecta (OI). Here we describe the critical role of SC65 (Synaptonemal Complex 65, P3H4), a leprecan-family member, as part of an endoplasmic reticulum (ER) complex with prolyl 3-hydroxylase 3. This complex affects the activity of lysyl-hydroxylase 1 potentially through interactions with the enzyme and/or cyclophilin B. Loss of Sc65 in the mouse results in instability of this complex, altered collagen lysine hydroxylation and cross-linking leading to connective tissue defects that include low bone mass and skin fragility. This is the first indication of a prolyl-hydroxylase complex in the ER controlling lysyl-hydroxylase activity during collagen synthesis. PMID:27119146

  19. Lidocaine Induces Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Associated Apoptosis in Vitro and in Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Dae Young; Kwon, Kisang; Lee, Kyeong Ryong; Choi, Young Jin; Goo, Tae-Won; Yu, Kweon; Kim, Seung-Whan; Kwon, O-Yu

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated that upregulation of both gene expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress chaperones (BiP, calnexin, calreticulin, and PDI) and ER stress sensors (ATF6, IRE1 and PERK) was induced by lidocaine, a local anesthetic, in PC12 cells. In addition to gene regulation, lidocaine also induced typical ER stress phenomena such as ART6 proteolytic cleavage, eIF2 alpha phosphorylation, and XBP1 mRNA splicing. In in vivo experiments, while lidocaine downregulated gene expression of antiapoptotic factors (Bcl-2 and Bcl-xl), pro-apoptotic factor (Bak and Bax) gene expression was upregulated. Furthermore, lidocaine induced apoptosis, as measured histochemically, and upregulated PARP1, a DNA damage repair enzyme. These results are the first to show that lidocaine induces apoptosis through ER stress in vitro and in vivo. PMID:22174623

  20. Calcium Release from Intra-Axonal Endoplasmic Reticulum Leads to Axon Degeneration through Mitochondrial Dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Villegas, Rosario; Martinez, Nicolas W.; Lillo, Jorge; Pihan, Phillipe; Hernandez, Diego; Twiss, Jeffery L.

    2014-01-01

    Axonal degeneration represents an early pathological event in neurodegeneration, constituting an important target for neuroprotection. Regardless of the initial injury, which could be toxic, mechanical, metabolic, or genetic, degeneration of axons shares a common mechanism involving mitochondrial dysfunction and production of reactive oxygen species. Critical steps in this degenerative process are still unknown. Here we show that calcium release from the axonal endoplasmic reticulum (ER) through ryanodine and IP3 channels activates the mitochondrial permeability transition pore and contributes to axonal degeneration triggered by both mechanical and toxic insults in ex vivo and in vitro mouse and rat model systems. These data reveal a critical and early ER-dependent step during axonal degeneration, providing novel targets for axonal protection in neurodegenerative conditions. PMID:24849352

  1. Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Atherosclerosis and Diabetic Macrovascular Complications

    PubMed Central

    Chistiakov, Dmitry A.; Sobenin, Igor A.; Orekhov, Alexander N.; Bobryshev, Yuri V.

    2014-01-01

    Age-related changes in endoplasmic reticulum (ER) are associated with stress of this cell organelle. Unfolded protein response (UPR) is a normal physiological reaction of a cell in order to prevent accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER and improve the normal ER function. However, in pathologic conditions such as atherosclerosis, obesity, and diabetes, ER function becomes impaired, leading to the development of ER stress. In chronic ER stress, defective posttranslational protein folding results in deposits of aberrantly folded proteins in the ER and the induction of cell apoptosis mediated by UPR sensors C/EBPα-homologous protein (CHOP) and inositol requiring protein-1 (IRE1). Since ER stress and ER-induced cell death play a nonredundant role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and diabetic macrovascular complications, pharmaceutical targeting of ER stress components and pathways may be beneficial in the treatment and prevention of cardiovascular pathology. PMID:25061609

  2. Protein 600 is a microtubule/endoplasmic reticulum-associated protein in CNS neurons.

    PubMed

    Shim, Su Yeon; Wang, Jian; Asada, Naoyuki; Neumayer, Gernot; Tran, Hong Chi; Ishiguro, Kei-ichiro; Sanada, Kamon; Nakatani, Yoshihiro; Nguyen, Minh Dang

    2008-04-01

    There is an increasing body of literature pointing to cytoskeletal proteins as spatial organizers and interactors of organelles. In this study, we identified protein 600 (p600) as a novel microtubule-associated protein (MAP) developmentally regulated in neurons. p600 exhibits the unique feature to interact with the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Silencing of p600 by RNA interference (RNAi) destabilizes neuronal processes in young primary neurons undergoing neurite extension and containing scarce staining of the ER marker Bip. Furthermore, in utero electroporation of p600 RNAi alters neuronal migration, a process that depends on synergistic actions of microtubule dynamics and ER functions. p600-depleted migrating neurons display thin, crooked, and "zigzag" leading process with very few ER membranes. Thus, p600 constitutes the only known MAP to associate with the ER in neurons, and this interaction may impact on multiple cellular processes ranging from neuronal development to neuronal maturation and plasticity. PMID:18385319

  3. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Intestinal Epithelial Cell Function and Inflammatory Bowel Disease

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Katherine; Cao, Stewart Siyan

    2015-01-01

    In eukaryotic cells, perturbation of protein folding homeostasis in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) causes accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER lumen, which activates intracellular signaling pathways termed the unfolded protein response (UPR). Recent studies have linked ER stress and the UPR to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The microenvironment of the ER is affected by a myriad of intestinal luminal molecules, implicating ER stress and the UPR in proper maintenance of intestinal homeostasis. Several intestinal cell populations, including Paneth and goblet cells, require robust ER function for protein folding, maturation, and secretion. Prolonged ER stress and impaired UPR signaling may cause IBD through: (1) induction of intestinal epithelial cell apoptosis, (2) disruption of mucosal barrier function, and (3) induction of the proinflammatory response in the gut. Based on our increased understanding of ER stress in IBD, new pharmacological approaches can be developed to improve intestinal homeostasis by targeting ER protein-folding in the intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). PMID:25755668

  4. Inflammation and epithelial cell injury in AIDS enteropathy: involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Maingat, Ferdinand; Halloran, Brendan; Acharjee, Shaona; van Marle, Guido; Church, Deirdre; Gill, M. John; Uwiera, Richard R. E.; Cohen, Eric A.; Meddings, Jon; Madsen, Karen; Power, Christopher

    2011-01-01

    Immunosuppressive lentivirus infections, including human, simian, and feline immunodeficiency viruses (HIV, SIV, and FIV, respectively), cause the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), frequently associated with AIDS enteropathy. Herein, we investigated the extent to which lentivirus infections affected mucosal integrity and intestinal permeability in conjunction with immune responses and activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress pathways. Duodenal biopsies from individuals with HIV/AIDS exhibited induction of IL-1β, CD3ε, HLA-DRA, spliced XBP-1(Xbp-1s), and CHOP expression compared to uninfected persons (P<0.05). Gut epithelial cells exposed to HIV-1 Vpr demonstrated elevated TNF-α, IL-1β, spliced Xbp-1s, and CHOP expression (P<0.05) together with calcium activation and disruption of epithelial cell monolayer permeability. In addition to reduced blood CD4+ T lymphocyte levels, viral loads in the gut and plasma were high in FIV-infected animals (P<0.05). FIV-infected animals also exhibited a failure to gain weight and increased lactulose/mannitol ratios compared with uninfected animals (P<0.05). Proinflammatory and ER stress gene expression were activated in the ileum of FIV-infected animals (P<0.05), accompanied by intestinal epithelial damage with loss of epithelial cells and leukocyte infiltration of the lamina propria. Lentivirus infections cause gut inflammation and ensuing damage to intestinal epithelial cells, likely through induction of ER stress pathways, resulting in disruption of gut functional integrity.—Maingat, F., Halloran, B., Acharjee, S., van Marle, G., Church, D., Gill, M. J., Uwiera, R. R. E., Cohen, E. A., Meddings, J., Madsen, K., Power, C. Inflammation and epithelial cell injury in AIDS enteropathy: involvement of endoplasmic reticulum stress. PMID:21427211

  5. Intermittent selective clamping improves rat liver regeneration by attenuating oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress

    PubMed Central

    Ben Mosbah, I; Duval, H; Mbatchi, S-F; Ribault, C; Grandadam, S; Pajaud, J; Morel, F; Boudjema, K; Compagnon, P; Corlu, A

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent clamping of the portal trial is an effective method to avoid excessive blood loss during hepatic resection, but this procedure may cause ischemic damage to liver. Intermittent selective clamping of the lobes to be resected may represent a good alternative as it exposes the remnant liver only to the reperfusion stress. We compared the effect of intermittent total or selective clamping on hepatocellular injury and liver regeneration. Entire hepatic lobes or only lobes to be resected were subjected twice to 10 min of ischemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion before hepatectomy. We provided evidence that the effect of intermittent clamping can be damaging or beneficial depending to its mode of application. Although transaminase levels were similar in all groups, intermittent total clamping impaired liver regeneration and increased apoptosis. In contrast, intermittent selective clamping improved liver protein secretion and hepatocyte proliferation when compared with standard hepatectomy. This beneficial effect was linked to better adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP) recovery, nitric oxide production, antioxidant activities and endoplasmic reticulum adaptation leading to limit mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Interestingly, transient and early chaperone inductions resulted in a controlled activation of the unfolded protein response concomitantly to endothelial nitric oxide synthase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK activation that favors liver regeneration. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a central target through which intermittent selective clamping exerts its cytoprotective effect and improves liver regeneration. This procedure could be applied as a powerful protective modality in the field of living donor liver transplantation and liver surgery. PMID:24603335

  6. CYP2J2-Derived Epoxyeicosatrienoic Acids Suppress Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xingxu; Ni, Li; Yang, Lei; Duan, Quanlu; Chen, Chen; Edin, Matthew L.; Zeldin, Darryl C.

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes apoptosis and is associated with heart failure. Whether CYP2J2 and its arachidonic acid metabolites [epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)] have a protective influence on ER stress and heart failure has not been studied. Assays of myocardial samples from patients with end-stage heart failure showed evidence of ER stress. Chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO) or angiotensin II (AngII) by osmotic mini-pump induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mice as evaluated by hemodynamic measurements and echocardiography. Interestingly, transgenic (Tr) mice with cardiomyocyte-specific CYP2J2 expression were protected against heart failure compared with wild-type mice. ISO or AngII administration induced ER stress and apoptosis, and increased levels of intracellular Ca2+. These phenotypes were abolished by CYP2J2 overexpression in vivo or exogenous EETs treatment of cardiomyocytes in vitro. ISO or AngII reduced sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) expression in hearts or isolated cardiomyocytes; however, loss of SERCA2a expression was prevented in CYP2J2 Tr hearts in vivo or in cardiomyocytes treated with EETs in vitro. The reduction of SERCA2a activity was concomitant with increased oxidation of SERCA2a. EETs reversed SERCA2a oxidation through increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduced reactive oxygen species levels. Tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, similarly decreased oxidized SERCA2a levels, restored SERCA2a activity, and markedly reduced ER stress response in the mice treated with ISO. In conclusion, CYP2J2-derived EETs suppress ER stress response in the heart and protect against cardiac failure by maintaining intracellular Ca2+ homeostasis and SERCA2a expression and activity. PMID:24145329

  7. CYP2J2-derived epoxyeicosatrienoic acids suppress endoplasmic reticulum stress in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingxu; Ni, Li; Yang, Lei; Duan, Quanlu; Chen, Chen; Edin, Matthew L; Zeldin, Darryl C; Wang, Dao Wen

    2014-01-01

    Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress causes apoptosis and is associated with heart failure. Whether CYP2J2 and its arachidonic acid metabolites [epoxyeicosatrienoic acids (EETs)] have a protective influence on ER stress and heart failure has not been studied. Assays of myocardial samples from patients with end-stage heart failure showed evidence of ER stress. Chronic infusion of isoproterenol (ISO) or angiotensin II (AngII) by osmotic mini-pump induced cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure in mice as evaluated by hemodynamic measurements and echocardiography. Interestingly, transgenic (Tr) mice with cardiomyocyte-specific CYP2J2 expression were protected against heart failure compared with wild-type mice. ISO or AngII administration induced ER stress and apoptosis, and increased levels of intracellular Ca(2+). These phenotypes were abolished by CYP2J2 overexpression in vivo or exogenous EETs treatment of cardiomyocytes in vitro. ISO or AngII reduced sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase (SERCA2a) expression in hearts or isolated cardiomyocytes; however, loss of SERCA2a expression was prevented in CYP2J2 Tr hearts in vivo or in cardiomyocytes treated with EETs in vitro. The reduction of SERCA2a activity was concomitant with increased oxidation of SERCA2a. EETs reversed SERCA2a oxidation through increased expression of antioxidant enzymes and reduced reactive oxygen species levels. Tempol, a membrane-permeable radical scavenger, similarly decreased oxidized SERCA2a levels, restored SERCA2a activity, and markedly reduced ER stress response in the mice treated with ISO. In conclusion, CYP2J2-derived EETs suppress ER stress response in the heart and protect against cardiac failure by maintaining intracellular Ca(2+) homeostasis and SERCA2a expression and activity. PMID:24145329

  8. Severe Burn–Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Hepatic Damage in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Song, Juquan; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren; Jeschke, Marc G

    2009-01-01

    Severe burn injury results in liver dysfunction and damage, with subsequent metabolic derangements contributing to patient morbidity and mortality. On a cellular level, significant postburn hepatocyte apoptosis occurs and likely contributes to liver dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanisms of hepatocyte apoptosis are poorly understood. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response/unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway can lead to hepatocyte apoptosis under conditions of liver dysfunction. Thus, we hypothesized that ER stress/UPR may mediate hepatic dysfunction in response to burn injury. We investigated the temporal activation of hepatic ER stress in mice after a severe burn injury. Mice received a scald burn over 35% of their body surface and were killed at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d postburn. We found that severe burn induces hepatocyte apoptosis as indicated by increased caspase-3 activity (P < 0.05). Serum albumin levels decreased postburn and remained lowered for up to 21 d, indicating that constitutive secretory protein synthesis was reduced. Significantly, upregulation of the ER stress markers glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78)/BIP, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), p–protein kinase R–like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1α (IRE-1α) were found beginning 1 d postburn (P < 0.05) and persisted up to 21 d postburn (P < 0.05). Hepatic ER stress induced by burn injury was associated with compensatory upregulation of the calcium chaperone/storage proteins calnexin and calreticulin (P < 0.05), suggesting that ER calcium store depletion was the primary trigger for induction of the ER stress response. In summary, thermal injury in mice causes long-term adaptive and deleterious hepatic function alterations characterized by significant upregulation of the ER stress response. PMID:19603103

  9. Induction of apurinic endonuclease 1 overexpression by endoplasmic reticulum stress in hepatoma cells.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsung-Lin; Chen, Pin-Shern; Li, Ren-Hao; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou; Su, Ih-Jen; Hung, Jui-Hsiang

    2014-01-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignancies worldwide with poor prognosis due to resistance to conventional chemotherapy and limited efficacy of radiotherapy. Previous studies have noted the induction of endoplasmic reticulum stress or apurinic endonuclease 1 (APE1) expression in many tumors. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress) and APE1 in hepatocellular carcinoma. Here we investigate the expression of APE1 during ER stress in HepG2 and Huh-7 cell lines. Tunicamycin or brefeldin A, two ER stress inducers, increased APE1 and GRP78, an ER stress marker, expression in HepG2 and Huh-7 cells. Induction of APE1 expression was observed through transcription level in response to ER stress. APE1 nuclear localization during ER stress was determined using immunofluorescence assays in HepG2 cells. Furthermore, expression of Hepatitis B virus pre-S2∆ large mutant surface protein (pre-S2∆), an ER stress-induced protein, also increased GRP78 and APE1 expression in the normal hepatocyte NeHepLxHT cell line. Similarly, tumor samples showed higher expression of APE1 in ER stress-correlated liver cancer tissue in vivo. Our results demonstrate that ER stress and HBV pre-S2∆ increased APE1 expression, which may play an important role in resistance to chemotherapeutic agents or tumor development. Therefore, these data provide an important chemotherapeutic strategy in ER stress and HBV pre-S2∆-associated tumors. PMID:25026174

  10. Severe burn-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress and hepatic damage in mice.

    PubMed

    Song, Juquan; Finnerty, Celeste C; Herndon, David N; Boehning, Darren; Jeschke, Marc G

    2009-01-01

    Severe burn injury results in liver dysfunction and damage, with subsequent metabolic derangements contributing to patient morbidity and mortality. On a cellular level, significant postburn hepatocyte apoptosis occurs and likely contributes to liver dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanisms of hepatocyte apoptosis are poorly understood. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response/unfolded protein response (UPR) pathway can lead to hepatocyte apoptosis under conditions of liver dysfunction. Thus, we hypothesized that ER stress/UPR may mediate hepatic dysfunction in response to burn injury. We investigated the temporal activation of hepatic ER stress in mice after a severe burn injury. Mice received a scald burn over 35% of their body surface and were killed at 1, 7, 14, and 21 d postburn. We found that severe burn induces hepatocyte apoptosis as indicated by increased caspase-3 activity (P < 0.05). Serum albumin levels decreased postburn and remained lowered for up to 21 d, indicating that constitutive secretory protein synthesis was reduced. Significantly, upregulation of the ER stress markers glucose-related protein 78 (GRP78)/BIP, protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), p-protein kinase R-like endoplasmic reticulum kinase (p-PERK), and inositol-requiring enzyme 1alpha (IRE-1alpha) were found beginning 1 d postburn (P < 0.05) and persisted up to 21 d postburn (P < 0.05). Hepatic ER stress induced by burn injury was associated with compensatory upregulation of the calcium chaperone/storage proteins calnexin and calreticulin (P < 0.05), suggesting that ER calcium store depletion was the primary trigger for induction of the ER stress response. In summary, thermal injury in mice causes long-term adaptive and deleterious hepatic function alterations characterized by significant upregulation of the ER stress response. PMID:19603103

  11. Intermittent selective clamping improves rat liver regeneration by attenuating oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Ben Mosbah, I; Duval, H; Mbatchi, S-F; Ribault, C; Grandadam, S; Pajaud, J; Morel, F; Boudjema, K; Compagnon, P; Corlu, A

    2014-01-01

    Intermittent clamping of the portal trial is an effective method to avoid excessive blood loss during hepatic resection, but this procedure may cause ischemic damage to liver. Intermittent selective clamping of the lobes to be resected may represent a good alternative as it exposes the remnant liver only to the reperfusion stress. We compared the effect of intermittent total or selective clamping on hepatocellular injury and liver regeneration. Entire hepatic lobes or only lobes to be resected were subjected twice to 10 min of ischemia followed by 5 min of reperfusion before hepatectomy. We provided evidence that the effect of intermittent clamping can be damaging or beneficial depending to its mode of application. Although transaminase levels were similar in all groups, intermittent total clamping impaired liver regeneration and increased apoptosis. In contrast, intermittent selective clamping improved liver protein secretion and hepatocyte proliferation when compared with standard hepatectomy. This beneficial effect was linked to better adenosine-5'-triphosphate (ATP) recovery, nitric oxide production, antioxidant activities and endoplasmic reticulum adaptation leading to limit mitochondrial damage and apoptosis. Interestingly, transient and early chaperone inductions resulted in a controlled activation of the unfolded protein response concomitantly to endothelial nitric oxide synthase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase-1/2 (ERK1/2) and p38 MAPK activation that favors liver regeneration. Endoplasmic reticulum stress is a central target through which intermittent selective clamping exerts its cytoprotective effect and improves liver regeneration. This procedure could be applied as a powerful protective modality in the field of living donor liver transplantation and liver surgery. PMID:24603335

  12. Inhibin beta E is upregulated by drug-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress as a transcriptional target gene of ATF4

    SciTech Connect

    Brüning, Ansgar Matsingou, Christina; Brem, German Johannes; Rahmeh, Martina; Mylonas, Ioannis

    2012-10-15

    Inhibins and activins are gonadal peptide hormones of the transforming growth factor-β super family with important functions in the reproductive system. By contrast, the recently identified inhibin βE subunit, primarily expressed in liver cells, appears to exert functions unrelated to the reproductive system. Previously shown downregulation of inhibin βE in hepatoma cells and anti-proliferative effects of ectopic inhibin βE overexpression indicated growth-regulatory effects of inhibin βE. We observed a selective re-expression of the inhibin βE subunit in HepG2 hepatoblastoma cells, MCF7 breast cancer cells, and HeLa cervical cancer cells under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions induced by tunicamycin, thapsigargin, and nelfinavir. Analysis of XPB1 splicing and ATF4 activation revealed that inhibin βE re-expression was associated with induction of the endoplasmic reticulum stress reaction by these drugs. Transfection of an ATF4 expression plasmid specifically induced inhibin βE expression in HeLa cells and indicates inhibin βE as a hitherto unidentified target gene of ATF4, a key transcription factor of the endoplasmic reticulum stress response. Therefore, the inhibin βE subunit defines not only a new player but also a possible new marker for drug-induced endoplasmic reticulum stress. -- Highlights: ► Endoplasmic reticulum stress induces inhibin beta E expression. ► Inhibin beta E is regulated by the transcription factor ATF4. ► Inhibin beta E expression can be used as a marker for drug-induced ER stress.

  13. New insights in the role of Bcl-2 Bcl-2 and the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed

    Rudner, J; Jendrossek, V; Belka, C

    2002-10-01

    The oncogenic protein Bcl-2 which is expressed in membranes of different subcellular organelles protects cells from apoptosis induced by endogenic stimuli. Most of the results published so far emphasise the importance of Bcl-2 at the mitochondria. Several recent observations suggest a role of Bcl-2 at the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Bcl-2 located at the ER was shown to interfere with apoptosis induction by Bax, ceramides, ionising radiation, serum withdrawal and c-myc expression. Although the detailed functions of Bcl-2 at the ER remain elusive, several speculative mechanisms may be supposed. For instance, Bcl-2 at the ER may regulate calcium fluxes between the ER and the mitochondria. In addition, Bcl-2 is able to interact with the endoplasmic protein Bap31 thus avoiding caspase activation at the ER. Bcl-2 may also abrogate the function of ER located pro-apoptotic Bcl-2 like proteins by heterodimerization. Current data on the function of Bcl-2 at the ER, its role for the modulation of calcium fluxes and its influence on caspase activation at the ER are reviewed. PMID:12207177

  14. Identification of a calmodulin-regulated Ca2+-ATPase in the endoplasmic reticulum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hong, B.; Ichida, A.; Wang, Y.; Gens, J. S.; Pickard, B. G.; Harper, J. F.; Evans, M. L. (Principal Investigator)

    1999-01-01

    A unique subfamily of calmodulin-dependent Ca2+-ATPases was recently identified in plants. In contrast to the most closely related pumps in animals, plasma membrane-type Ca2+-ATPases, members of this new subfamily are distinguished by a calmodulin-regulated autoinhibitor located at the N-terminal instead of a C-terminal end. In addition, at least some isoforms appear to reside in non-plasma membrane locations. To begin delineating their functions, we investigated the subcellular localization of isoform ACA2p (Arabidopsis Ca2+-ATPase, isoform 2 protein) in Arabidopsis. Here we provide evidence that ACA2p resides in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). In buoyant density sucrose gradients performed with and without Mg2+, ACA2p cofractionated with an ER membrane marker and a typical "ER-type" Ca2+-ATPase, ACA3p/ECA1p. To visualize its subcellular localization, ACA2p was tagged with a green fluorescence protein at its C terminus (ACA2-GFPp) and expressed in transgenic Arabidopsis. We collected fluorescence images from live root cells using confocal and computational optical-sectioning microscopy. ACA2-GFPp appeared as a fluorescent reticulum, consistent with an ER location. In addition, we observed strong fluorescence around the nuclei of mature epidermal cells, which is consistent with the hypothesis that ACA2p may also function in the nuclear envelope. An ER location makes ACA2p distinct from all other calmodulin-regulated pumps identified in plants or animals.

  15. Potential Role of Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress in Pathogenesis of Diabetic Retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Chávez, Gustavo; Hernández-Ramírez, Ernesto; Osorio-Paz, Ixchel; Hernández-Espinosa, Claudia; Salceda, Rocío

    2016-05-01

    Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disease that leads to several complications which include retinopathy. Multiple biochemical abnormalities have been proposed to explain the development of retinopathy, including oxidative stress. Although the existence of oxidative stress has been established in the retina from long standing diabetic animals, pathogenesis and progression of retinopathy remain unclear. In order to gain insight into the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, we analyzed the levels of different oxidative stress biomarkers in the retina at early stages during the progress of streptozotocin-induced diabetes. No significant changes in glutathione content, expression of NADPH-oxidase, levels of lipid peroxidation, nor production of free radicals were observed in the retina up to 45 days of diabetes induction. Likewise, a transient decrease in aconitase activity, parallel to an increase in the superoxide dismutase activity was observed at 20 days of hyperglycemia, suggesting a high capacity of retina to maintain its redox homeostasis, at least at early stages of diabetes. Nonetheless, we found an early and time-dependent increase in the levels of oxidized proteins, which was not affected by the administration of the antioxidant quercetin. Also, positive immunoreactivity to the reticulum stress protein CHOP was found in glial Müller cells of diabetic rat retinas. These findings suggest the occurrence of endoplasmic reticulum stress as a primary event in retina pathogenesis in diabetes. PMID:26721508

  16. NCB5OR Is a Novel Soluble NAD(P)H Reductase Localized in the Endoplasmic Reticulum*S

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Hao; Larade, Kevin; Jackson, Timothy A.; Xie, Jianxin; Ladoux, Annie; Acker, Helmut; Berchner-Pfannschmidt, Utta; Fandrey, Joachim; Cross, Andrew R.; Lukat-Rodgers, Gudrun S.; Rodgers, Kenton R.; Bunn, H. Franklin

    2011-01-01

    The NAD(P)H cytochrome b5 oxidoreductase, Ncb5or (previously named b5+b5R), is widely expressed in human tissues and broadly distributed among the animal kingdom. NCB5OR is the first example of an animal flavohemoprotein containing cytochrome b5 and cytochrome b5 reductase domains. We initially reported human NCB5OR to be a 487-residue soluble protein that reduces cytochrome c, methemoglobin, ferricyanide, and molecular oxygen in vitro. Bioinformatic analysis of genomic sequences suggested the presence of an upstream start codon. We confirm that endogenous NCB5OR indeed has additional NH2-terminal residues. By performing fractionation of subcellular organelles and confocal microscopy, we show that NCB5OR colocalizes with calreticulin, a marker for endoplasmic reticulum. Recombinant NCB5OR is soluble and has stoichiometric amounts of heme and flavin adenine dinucleotide. Resonance Raman spectroscopy of NCB5OR presents typical signatures of a six-coordinate low-spin heme similar to those found in other cytochrome b5 proteins. Kinetic measurements showed that full-length and truncated NCB5OR reduce cytochrome c actively in vitro. However, both full-length and truncated NCB5OR produce superoxide from oxygen with slow turnover rates: kcat = ~0.05 and ~1 s−1, respectively. The redox potential at the heme center of NCB5OR is −108 mV, as determined by potentiometric titrations. Taken together, these data suggest that endogenous NCB5OR is a soluble NAD(P)H reductase preferentially reducing substrate(s) rather than transferring electrons to molecular oxygen and therefore not an NAD(P)H oxidase for superoxide production. The subcellular localization and redox properties of NCB5OR provide important insights into the biology of NCB5OR and the phenotype of the Ncb5or-null mouse. PMID:15131110

  17. Impact of 60-GHz millimeter waves and corresponding heat effect on endoplasmic reticulum stress sensor gene expression.

    PubMed

    Le Quément, Catherine; Nicolaz, Christophe Nicolas; Habauzit, Denis; Zhadobov, Maxim; Sauleau, Ronan; Le Dréan, Yves

    2014-09-01

    Emerging high data rate wireless communication systems, currently under development, will operate at millimeter waves (MMW) and specifically in the 60 GHz band for broadband short-range communications. The aim of this study was to investigate potential effects of MMW radiation on the cellular endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Human skin cell lines were exposed at 60.4 GHz, with incident power densities (IPD) ranging between 1 and 20 mW/cm(2) . The upper IPD limits correspond to the ICNIRP local exposure limit for the general public. The expression of ER-stress sensors, namely BIP and ORP150, was then examined by real-time RT-PCR. Our experimental data demonstrated that MMW radiations do not change BIP or ORP150 mRNA basal levels, whatever the cell line, the exposure duration or the IPD level. Co-exposure to the well-known ER-stress inducer thapsigargin (TG) and MMW were then assessed. Our results show that MMW exposure at 20 mW/cm(2) inhibits TG-induced BIP and ORP150 over expression. Experimental controls showed that this inhibition is linked to the thermal effect resulting from the MMW exposure. PMID:25099539

  18. Oxalicumone A, a new dihydrothiophene-condensed sulfur chromone induces apoptosis in leukemia cells through endoplasmic reticulum stress pathway.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jie; Wang, Qiao-Li; Nong, Xu-Hua; Zhang, Xiao-Yong; Xu, Xin-Ya; Qi, Shu-Hua; Wang, Yi-Fei

    2016-07-15

    Oxalicumone A (POA1), a novel dihydrothiophene-condensed sulfur chromone isolated from the marine fungus Penicillium oxalicum SCSGAF 0023, showed cytotoxicity against several cancer cells previously. In this study, its anti-cancer activity and underlying mechanism of this action were investigated in leukemia cells like KG-1a, HL60, U937, and K562. The results showed that POA1 inhibited dose-/time-dependently cell growth and induced apoptosis in leukemia cells. Also, POA1 caused cleavages of caspase-3, 8, 9 and PARP1, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, up-regulations of phosphorylated p38 and JNK, and activation of endoplasmic reticulum stress (ER stress). Furthermore, 4-PBA (an ER stress inhibitor) but not SP600125 and SB203580 (JNK and p38 inhibitor, respectively) could largely inhibit POA1-induced growth suppression. Additionally, 4-PBA obstructed mitochondrial depolarization and cleavage of PARP1. These data suggested that ER stress pathway might be an important mediator in POA1-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, POA1 may have antitumor effects in leukemia cells through the induction of ER stress pathway. PMID:27132813

  19. GLP-1 promotes mitochondrial metabolism in vascular smooth muscle cells by enhancing endoplasmic reticulum-mitochondria coupling.

    PubMed

    Morales, Pablo E; Torres, Gloria; Sotomayor-Flores, Cristian; Peña-Oyarzún, Daniel; Rivera-Mejías, Pablo; Paredes, Felipe; Chiong, Mario

    2014-03-28

    Incretin GLP-1 has important metabolic effects on several tissues, mainly through the regulation of glucose uptake and usage. One mechanism for increasing cell metabolism is modulating endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-mitochondria communication, as it allows for a more efficient transfer of Ca(2+) into the mitochondria, thereby increasing activity. Control of glucose metabolism is essential for proper vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) function. GLP-1 has been shown to produce varied metabolic actions, but whether it regulates glucose metabolism in VSMC remains unknown. In this report, we show that GLP-1 increases mitochondrial activity in the aortic cell line A7r5 by increasing ER-mitochondria coupling. GLP-1 increases intracellular glucose and diminishes glucose uptake without altering glycogen content. ATP, mitochondrial potential and oxygen consumption increase at 3h of GLP-1 treatment, paralleled by increased Ca(2+) transfer from the ER to the mitochondria. Furthermore, GLP-1 increases levels of Mitofusin-2 (Mfn2), an ER-mitochondria tethering protein, via a PKA-dependent mechanism. Accordingly, PKA inhibition and Mfn2 down-regulation prevented mitochondrial Ca(2+) increases in GLP-1 treated cells. Inhibiting both Ca(2+) release from the ER and Ca(2+) entry into mitochondria as well as diminishing Mfn2 levels blunted the increase in mitochondrial activity in response to GLP-1. Altogether, these results strongly suggest that GLP-1 increases ER-mitochondria communication in VSMC, resulting in higher mitochondrial activity. PMID:24613839

  20. Fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum and mitochondrial outer membrane in rats brown adipose tissue: activation of thermogenesis by Ca2+.

    PubMed

    de Meis, Leopoldo; Ketzer, Luisa A; da Costa, Rodrigo Madeiro; de Andrade, Ivone Rosa; Benchimol, Marlene

    2010-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) mitochondria thermogenesis is regulated by uncoupling protein 1 (UCP 1), GDP and fatty acids. In this report, we observed fusion of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membrane with the mitochondrial outer membrane of rats BAT. Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA 1) was identified by immunoelectron microscopy in both ER and mitochondria. This finding led us to test the Ca(2+) effect in BAT mitochondria thermogenesis. We found that Ca(2+) increased the rate of respiration and heat production measured with a microcalorimeter both in coupled and uncoupled mitochondria, but had no effect on the rate of ATP synthesis. The Ca(2+) concentration needed for half-maximal activation varied between 0.08 and 0.11 microM. The activation of respiration was less pronounced than that of heat production. Heat production and ATP synthesis were inhibited by rotenone and KCN. Liver mitochondria have no UCP1 and during respiration synthesize a large amount of ATP, produce little heat, GDP had no effect on mitochondria coupling, Ca(2+) strongly inhibited ATP synthesis and had little or no effect on the small amount of heat released. These finding indicate that Ca(2+) activation of thermogenesis may be a specific feature of BAT mitochondria not found in other mitochondria such as liver. PMID:20209153

  1. Glucolipotoxicity impairs ceramide flow from the endoplasmic reticulum to the Golgi apparatus in INS-1 β-cells.

    PubMed

    Gjoni, Enida; Brioschi, Loredana; Cinque, Alessandra; Coant, Nicolas; Islam, M Nurul; Ng, Carl K-Y; Verderio, Claudia; Magnan, Christophe; Riboni, Laura; Viani, Paola; Le Stunff, Hervé; Giussani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that glucolipotoxicity, arising from the combined actions of elevated glucose and free fatty acid levels, acts as a key pathogenic component in type II diabetes, contributing to β-cell dysfunction and death. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is among the molecular pathways and regulators involved in these negative effects, and ceramide accumulation due to glucolipotoxicity can be associated with the induction of ER stress. Increased levels of ceramide in ER may be due to enhanced ceramide biosynthesis and/or decreased ceramide utilization. Here, we studied the effect of glucolipotoxic conditions on ceramide traffic in INS-1 cells in order to gain insights into the molecular mechanism(s) of glucolipotoxicity. We showed that glucolipotoxicity inhibited ceramide utilization for complex sphingolipid biosynthesis, thereby reducing the flow of ceramide from the ER to Golgi. Glucolipotoxicity impaired both vesicular- and CERT-mediated ceramide transport through (1) the decreasing of phospho-Akt levels which in turn possibly inhibits vesicular traffic, and (2) the reducing of the amount of active CERT mainly due to a lower protein levels and increased protein phosphorylation to prevent its localization to the Golgi. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that glucolipotoxicity-induced ceramide overload in the ER, arising from a defect in ceramide trafficking may be a mechanism that contributes to dysfunction and/or death of β-cells exposed to glucolipotoxicity. PMID:25350564

  2. Glucolipotoxicity Impairs Ceramide Flow from the Endoplasmic Reticulum to the Golgi Apparatus in INS-1 β-Cells

    PubMed Central

    Gjoni, Enida; Brioschi, Loredana; Cinque, Alessandra; Coant, Nicolas; Islam, M. Nurul; Ng, Carl K. -Y.; Verderio, Claudia; Magnan, Christophe; Riboni, Laura; Viani, Paola; Le Stunff, Hervé; Giussani, Paola

    2014-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that glucolipotoxicity, arising from the combined actions of elevated glucose and free fatty acid levels, acts as a key pathogenic component in type II diabetes, contributing to β-cell dysfunction and death. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is among the molecular pathways and regulators involved in these negative effects, and ceramide accumulation due to glucolipotoxicity can be associated with the induction of ER stress. Increased levels of ceramide in ER may be due to enhanced ceramide biosynthesis and/or decreased ceramide utilization. Here, we studied the effect of glucolipotoxic conditions on ceramide traffic in INS-1 cells in order to gain insights into the molecular mechanism(s) of glucolipotoxicity. We showed that glucolipotoxicity inhibited ceramide utilization for complex sphingolipid biosynthesis, thereby reducing the flow of ceramide from the ER to Golgi. Glucolipotoxicity impaired both vesicular- and CERT-mediated ceramide transport through (1) the decreasing of phospho-Akt levels which in turn possibly inhibits vesicular traffic, and (2) the reducing of the amount of active CERT mainly due to a lower protein levels and increased protein phosphorylation to prevent its localization to the Golgi. In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that glucolipotoxicity-induced ceramide overload in the ER, arising from a defect in ceramide trafficking may be a mechanism that contributes to dysfunction and/or death of β-cells exposed to glucolipotoxicity. PMID:25350564

  3. Calcium efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum regulates cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells

    PubMed Central

    SHEN, LUYAN; WEN, NAIYAN; XIA, MEIHUI; ZHANG, YU; LIU, WEIMIN; XU, YE; SUN, LIANKUN

    2016-01-01

    The function of calcium efflux from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) in cisplatin-induced apoptosis is not fully understood in cancer cells. The present study used western blot analysis, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5 diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay to investigate calcium signaling in human cervical cancer cells exposed to cisplatin. In the present study, treatment with cisplatin increased free Ca2+ levels in the cytoplasm and mitochondria of human cervical cancer HeLa cells, which further triggers the mitochondria-mediated and ER stress-associated apoptosis pathways. Notably, blocking calcium signaling using the calcium chelating agent bis-(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetra-acetic acid acetoxymethyl ester inhibited cisplatin-induced apoptosis via downregulation of the calcium-dependent proteases, the calpains, and innate apoptosis proteins, such as caspsae-3, caspase-4 and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP). In addition, use of the inositol triphosphate receptor inhibitor, 2-aminoethyl diphenylborinate, to inhibit calcium efflux from the ER resulted in similar effects. This data indicated that calcium efflux from the ER plays a significant role in cisplatin-induced apoptosis in human cervical cancer HeLa cells, which provides further mechanistic insights into the tumor cell-killing effect of cisplatin and potential therapeutic strategies to improve cisplatin chemotherapy. PMID:27073489

  4. ACSL3 and GSK-3β are essential for lipid upregulation induced by endoplasmic reticulum stress in liver cells.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yung-Sheng; Tsai, Chien-Ting; Huangfu, Chien-An; Huang, Wen-Ya; Lei, Huan-Yao; Lin, Chiou-Feng; Su, Ih-Jen; Chang, Wen-Tsan; Wu, Pei-Huan; Chen, Ya-Ting; Hung, Jui-Hsiang; Young, Kung-Chia; Lai, Ming-Derg

    2011-03-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is essential for lipid biosynthesis, and stress signals in this organelle are thought to alter lipid metabolism. Elucidating the mechanisms that underlie the dysregulation of lipid metabolism in hepatocytes may lead to novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of lipid accumulation. We first tested the effects of several inhibitors on lipid dysregulation induced by tunicamycin, an ER stress inducer. Triacsin C, an inhibitor of long-chain acyl-CoA synthetase (ACSL) 1, 3, and 4, was the most potent among these inhibitors. We then analyzed the expression of the ACSL family during ER stress. The expression of ACSL3 was induced by ER stress in HuH-7 cells and in mice livers. ACSL3 shRNA, but not ACSL1 shRNA, inhibited the induction of lipid accumulation. GSK-3β inhibitors attenuated ACSL3 expression and the lipid accumulation induced by ER stress in HuH-7 cells. shRNA that target GSK-3β also inhibited the upregulation of ACSL3 and lipid accumulation in HuH-7 and HepG2 cells. The hepatitis B virus mutant large surface protein, which is known to induce ER stress, increased the lipid content of cells. Similarly, Triacsin C, and GSK-3β inhibitors abrogated the lipid dysregulation caused by the hepatitis B virus mutant large surface protein. Altogether, ACSL3 and GSK-3β represent novel therapeutic targets for lipid dysregulation by ER stress. PMID:21328461

  5. LcBiP, a endoplasmic reticulum chaperone binding protein gene from Lycium chinense, confers cadmium tolerance in transgenic tobacco.

    PubMed

    Guan, Chunfeng; Jin, Chao; Ji, Jing; Wang, Gang; Li, Xiaozhou

    2015-01-01

    Cadmium (Cd) accumulation is very toxic to plants. The presence of Cd may lead to excessive production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and then cause inhibition of plant growth. The endoplasmic reticulum chaperone binding protein (BiP) is an important functional protein, which has been shown to function as a sensor of alterations in the ER environment. BiP overexpression in plants was shown to increase drought tolerance through inhibition of ROS accumulation. Due to the above relationships, it is likely that there may be a link between Cd stress tolerance, ROS accumulation and the BiP transcript expression in plants. In this study, a BiP gene, LcBiP, from L. chinense was isolated and characterized. Overexpression of LcBiP in tobacco conferred Cd tolerance. Under Cd stress conditions, the transgenic tobacco lines exhibited better chlorophyll retention, less accumulation of ROS, longer root length, more glutathione (GSH) content, and less antioxidant enzyme activity than the wild type. These data demonstrated that LcBiP act as a positive regulator in Cd stress tolerance. It is hypothesized that the improved Cd tolerance of the transgenic tobacco plants may be due to the enhanced ROS scavenging capacity. The enhancement of GSH content might contribute to this ROS scavenging capacity in the transgenic plants. However, the underlying mechanism for BiP-mediated increase in Cd stress tolerance need to be further clarified. PMID:25589446

  6. A plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase of 120 kilodaltons on the endoplasmic reticulum from carrot (Daucus carota) cells

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, F.H.; Ratterman, D.M.; Sze, H. )

    1993-06-01

    Cytosolic Ca[sup 2+] levels are regulated in part by Ca[sup 2+]-pumping ATPases that export Ca[sup 2+] from the cytoplasm; The types and properties of Ca[sup 2+] pumps in plants are not well understood. The kinetic properties of a 120-kD phosphoenzyme (PE) intermediate formed during the reaction cycle of a Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase from suspension-cultured carrot (Daucus carota) cells are characterized. Only one Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was formed when carrot membrane vesicles were incubated with [[gamma]-[sup 32]P]ATP. Formation of this 120-kD phosphoprotein was inhibited by vanadate, enhanced by La[sup 3+], and decreased by hydroxylamine, confirming its identification as an intermediate of a phosphorylated-type Ca[sup 2+]-translocating ATPase. The 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was most abundant in endoplasmic reticulum-enriched fractions, in which the Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase was estimated to be 0.1% of membrane protein. Direct quantitation of Ca[sup 2+]-dependent phosphoprotein was used to examine the kinetics of PE formation. PE formation exhibited a K[sub m] for Ca[sup 2+] of 1 to 2 [mu]m and a K[sub m] for ATP of 67 nm. Relative affinities of substrates, determined by competition experiments, were 0.075 [mu]m for ATP, 1 [mu]m for ADP, 100 [mu]m for ITP, and 250 [mu]m for GTP. Thapsigargin and cyclopiazonic acid, specific inhibitors of animal sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase, had no effect on PE formation; erythrosin B inhibited with 50% inhibition at <0.1 [mu]m. Calmodulin (1 [mu]m) stimulated PE formation by 25%. The results indicate that the carrot 120-kD Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase is similar but not identical to animal plasma membrane-type Ca[sup 2+]-ATPase and yet is located on endomembranes, such as the endoplasmic reticulum. This type of Ca[sup 2+] pump may reside on the cortical endoplasmic reticulum, thought to play a major role in anchoring the cytoskeleton and in facilitating secretion. 34 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Proliferation of smooth endoplasmic reticulum and induction of microsomal drug-metabolizing enzymes after ether or halothane.

    PubMed

    Ross, W T; Cardell, R R

    1978-05-01

    Hepatic drug-metabolizing enzymes and hepatic ultrastructure were studied in rats after two hours of anesthesia with 1 MAC halothane or diethyl ether. Twelve hours after cessation of either anesthetic smooth endoplasmic reticulum was increased in centrilobular but not in periportal hepatocytes. This change persisted at 24- and 36-hour sampling times. Microsomal cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 decreased after halothane anesthesia (by 7 to 20 per cent of control). Diethyl ether caused increased cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5 (27 and 18 per cent, respectively) at the 36-hour sampling time. NADPH cytochrome c reductase did not change significantly after either agent. The authors interpret these results to mean that both agents promote conversion of rough endoplasmic reticulum to smooth endoplasmic reticulum or, alternatively, that the anesthetics decrease degradation of smooth endoplasmic membranes. Since only ether caused an increase in the microsomal content of enzymes of the drug-metabolizing enzyme system, it is concluded that these two anesthetics act on hepatic cells by dissimilar mechanisms. PMID:646150

  8. The rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein NSP4 mobilizes Ca2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum.

    PubMed Central

    Tian, P; Estes, M K; Hu, Y; Ball, J M; Zeng, C Q; Schilling, W P

    1995-01-01

    We previously reported that expression of rotavirus nonstructural glycoprotein NSP4 is responsible for an increase in cytosolic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) in Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) insect cells (P. Tian, Y. Hu, W. P. Schilling, D. A. Lindsay, J. Eiden, and M. K. Estes, J. Virol. 68:251-257, 1994). The purpose of the present study was to determine the mechanism by which NSP4 causes an increase in [Ca2+]i by measuring the permeability of the cytoplasmic and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) membranes in recombinant-baculovirus-infected Sf9 cells. No obvious change in plasmalemma permeability to divalent cations was observed in cells expressing NSP4 compared with that in cells expressing another rotaviral glycoprotein (VP7) when the influx of Ba2+, a Ca2+ surrogate, was monitored. The basal Ca2+ permeability of the internal Ca2+ store was evaluated by measuring the release of Ca2+ induced by ionomycin, a Ca2+ ionophore, or thapsigargin, an inhibitor of the ER Ca(2+)-ATPase pump, following suspension of the cells in Ca(2+)-free extracellular buffer. Releasable Ca2+ decreased with time to a greater extent in cells expressing NSP4 compared with that in cells expressing VP7, suggesting that NSP4 increases the basal Ca2+ permeability of the ER membrane. To determine the possible mechanism by which NSP4 increases ER permeability, purified NSP4 protein or a 22-amino-acid synthetic peptide consisting of residues 114 to 135 (NSP4(114-135) was added exogenously to noninfected Sf9 cells during measurement of [Ca2+]i. Both NSP4 and the NSP4(114-135 peptide produced a time-dependent increase in [Ca2+]i that was attenuated by prior inhibition of phospholipase C with U-73122. Pretreatment of the cells with thapsigargin completely blocked the increase in [Ca2+]i produced by NSP4(114-135, but the peptide only partially reduced the change in [Ca2+]i produced by thapsigargin. No changes in [Ca2+]i were seen in cells treated with control peptides. These results suggest that (i

  9. Nitric oxide scavenging causes remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum, Golgi apparatus and mitochondria in pulmonary arterial endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jason E.; Yuan, Huijuan; Liang, Feng-Xia; Sehgal, Pravin B.

    2013-01-01

    The dependence of the structure and function of cytoplasmic organelles in endothelial cells on constitutively produced intracellular nitric oxide (NO) remains largely unexplored. We previously reported fragmentation of the Golgi apparatus in cells exposed to NO scavengers or after siRNA-mediated knockdown of eNOS. Others have reported increased mitochondrial fission in response to an NO donor. Functionally, we previously reported that bovine pulmonary arterial endothelial cells (PAECs) exposed to the NO scavenger 2-(4-carboxyphenyl)-4,4,5,5- tetramethylimidazoline-1-oxyl-3-oxide (c-PTIO) developed a prosecretory phenotype characterized by prolonged secretion of soluble proteins. In the present study, we investigated whether NO scavenging led to remodeling of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Live-cell DAF-2DA imaging confirmed the presence of intracellular NO in association with the BODIPY C5- ceramide-labelled Golgi apparatus. Untreated human PAECs displayed a pattern of peripheral tubulo-reticular ER with a juxtanuclear accumulation of ER sheets. Cells exposed to c-PTIO showed a dramatic increase in ER sheets as assayed using immunofluoresence for the ER structural protein reticulon-4b/Nogo-B and the ER-resident GTPase atlastin-3, live-cell fluorescence assays using RTN4-GFP and KDEL-mCherry, and electron microscopy methods. These ER changes were inhibited by the NO donor diethylamine NONOate, and also produced by L-NAME, but not D-NAME or 8-br-cGMP. This ER remodeling was accompanied by Golgi fragmentation and increased fibrillarity and function of mitochondria (uptake of tetramethyl- rhodamine, TMRE). Despite Golgi fragmentation the functional ER/Golgi trafficking unit was preserved as seen by the accumulation of Sec31A ER exit sites adjacent to the dispersed Golgi elements and a 1.8-fold increase in secretion of soluble cargo. Western blotting and immunopanning data showed that RTN4b was increasingly ubiquitinated following c-PTIO exposure, especially in the

  10. Sphingosine inhibits the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA) activity.

    PubMed

    Benaim, Gustavo; Pimentel, Adriana A; Felibertt, Pimali; Mayora, Adriana; Colman, Laura; Sojo, Felipe; Rojas, Héctor; De Sanctis, Juan B

    2016-04-29

    The increase in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]i) is the key variable for many different processes, ranging from regulation of cell proliferation to apoptosis. In this work we demonstrated that the sphingolipid sphingosine (Sph) increases the [Ca(2+)]i by inhibiting the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase (SERCA), in a similar manner to thapsigargin (Tg), a specific inhibitor of this Ca(2+) pump. The results showed that addition of sphingosine produced a release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum followed by a Ca(2+) entrance from the outside mileu. The results presented in this work support that this sphingolipid could control the activity of the SERCA, and hence sphingosine may participate in the regulation of [Ca(2+)]I in mammalian cells. PMID:27033604

  11. Fluoride-elicited developmental testicular toxicity in rats: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Shun; Jiang, Chunyang; Liu, Hongliang; Guan, Zhizhong; Zeng, Qiang; Zhang, Cheng; Lei, Rongrong; Xia, Tao; Gao, Hui; Yang, Lu; Chen, Yihu; Wu, Xue; Zhang, Xiaofei; Cui, Yushan; Yu, Linyu; Wang, Zhenglun; Wang, Aiguo

    2013-09-01

    Long-term excessive fluoride intake is known to be toxic and can damage a variety of organs and tissues in the human body. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying fluoride-induced male reproductive toxicity are not well understood. In this study, we used a rat model to simulate the situations of human exposure and aimed to evaluate the roles of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and inflammatory response in fluoride-induced testicular injury. Sprague–Dawley rats were administered with sodium fluoride (NaF) at 25, 50 and 100 mg/L via drinking water from pre-pregnancy to gestation, birth and finally to post-puberty. And then the testes of male offspring were studied at 8 weeks of age. Our results demonstrated that fluoride treatment increased MDA accumulation, decreased SOD activity, and enhanced germ cell apoptosis. In addition, fluoride elevated mRNA and protein levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), inositol requiring ER-to-nucleus signal kinase 1 (IRE1), and C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), indicating activation of ER stress signaling. Furthermore, fluoride also induced testicular inflammation, as manifested by gene up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), in a nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB)-dependent manner. These were associated with marked histopathological lesions including injury of spermatogonia, decrease of spermatocytes and absence of elongated spermatids, as well as severe ultrastructural abnormalities in testes. Taken together, our results provide compelling evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be novel and significant mechanisms responsible for fluoride-induced disturbance of spermatogenesis and germ cell loss in addition to oxidative stress. - Highlights: • We used a rat model to simulate the situations of human fluoride (F) exposure. • Developmental F exposure induces testicular damage related with oxidative stress.

  12. The role of cholesterol in the association of endoplasmic reticulum membranes with mitochondria

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, Michiko; Hayashi, Teruo; Su, Tsung-Ping

    2012-01-06

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The endoplasmic reticulum subdomain termed MAM associates with mitochondria. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The biophysical role of lipids in the MAM-mitochondria association is unknown. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The in vitro membrane association assay was used to examine the role of lipids. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cholesterol was found to negatively regulate the association. -- Abstract: The unique endoplasmic reticulum (ER) subdomain termed the mitochondria-associated ER membrane (MAM) engages the physical connection between the ER and the mitochondrial outer membrane and plays a role in regulating IP{sub 3} receptor-mediated Ca{sup 2+} influx and the phospholipid transport between the two organelles. The MAM contains certain signaling and membrane-tethering proteins but also lipids including cholesterol. The biophysical role of lipids at the MAM, specifically in the physical interaction between the MAM of the ER and mitochondria, remains not totally clarified. Here we employed the in vitro membrane association assay to investigate the role of cholesterol in the association between MAMs and mitochondria. The purified MAMs and mitochondria were mixed in vitro in a test tube and then the physical association of the two subcellular organelles was quantified indirectly by measuring the presence of the MAM-specific protein sigma-1 receptors in the mitochondria fraction. Purified MAMs contained free cholesterol approximately 7 times higher than that in microsomes. We found that depletion of cholesterol in MAMs with methyl-{beta}-cyclodextrin (M{beta}C) significantly increases the association between MAMs and mitochondria, whereas M{beta}C saturated with cholesterol does not change the association. {sup 14}C-Serine pulse-labeling demonstrated that the treatment of living cells with M{beta}C decreases the level of de novo synthesized {sup 14}C-phosphatidylserine (PtSer) and concomitantly increases greatly the synthesis of

  13. Alpha2B-adrenergic receptor interaction with tubulin controls its transport from the endoplasmic reticulum to the cell surface.

    PubMed

    Duvernay, Matthew T; Wang, Hong; Dong, Chunmin; Guidry, Jesse J; Sackett, Dan L; Wu, Guangyu

    2011-04-22

    It is well recognized that the C terminus (CT) plays a crucial role in modulating G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) transport from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to the cell surface. However the molecular mechanisms that govern CT-dependent ER export remain elusive. To address this issue, we used α(2B)-adrenergic receptor (α(2B)-AR) as a model GPCR to search for proteins interacting with the CT. By using peptide-conjugated affinity matrix combined with proteomics and glutathione S-transferase fusion protein pull-down assays, we identified tubulin directly interacting with the α(2B)-AR CT. The interaction domains were mapped to the acidic CT of tubulin and the basic Arg residues in the α(2B)-AR CT, particularly Arg-437, Arg-441, and Arg-446. More importantly, mutation of these Arg residues to disrupt tubulin interaction markedly inhibited α(2B)-AR transport to the cell surface and strongly arrested the receptor in the ER. These data provide the first evidence indicating that the α(2B)-AR C-terminal Arg cluster mediates its association with tubulin to coordinate its ER-to-cell surface traffic and suggest a novel mechanism of GPCR export through physical contact with microtubules. PMID:21357695

  14. Analysis of Conditional Paralytic Mutants in Drosophila Sarco-Endoplasmic Reticulum Calcium ATPase Reveals Novel Mechanisms for Regulating Membrane Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Sanyal, S.; Consoulas, C.; Kuromi, H.; Basole, A.; Mukai, L.; Kidokoro, Y.; Krishnan, K. S.; Ramaswami, M.

    2005-01-01

    Individual contributions made by different calcium release and sequestration mechanisms to various aspects of excitable cell physiology are incompletely understood. SERCA, a sarco-endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase, being the main agent for calcium uptake into the ER, plays a central role in this process. By isolation and extensive characterization of conditional mutations in the Drosophila SERCA gene, we describe novel roles of this key protein in neuromuscular physiology and enable a genetic analysis of SERCA function. At motor nerve terminals, SERCA inhibition retards calcium sequestration and reduces the amplitude of evoked excitatory junctional currents. This suggests a direct contribution of store-derived calcium in determining the quantal content of evoked release. Conditional paralysis of SERCA mutants is also marked by prolonged neural activity-driven muscle contraction, thus reflecting the phylogenetically conserved role of SERCA in terminating contraction. Further analysis of ionic currents from mutants uncovers SERCA-dependent mechanisms regulating voltage-gated calcium channels and calcium-activated potassium channels that together control muscle excitability. Finally, our identification of dominant loss-of-function mutations in SERCA indicates novel intra- and intermolecular interactions for SERCA in vivo, overlooked by current structural models. PMID:15520268

  15. Bifidobacteria Prevent Tunicamycin-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Subsequent Barrier Disruption in Human Intestinal Epithelial Caco-2 Monolayers.

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Takuya; Oishi, Kenji; Wullaert, Andy

    2016-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress is caused by accumulation of unfolded and misfolded proteins in the ER, thereby compromising its vital cellular functions in protein production and secretion. Genome wide association studies in humans as well as experimental animal models linked ER stress in intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) with intestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel diseases. However, the mechanisms linking the outcomes of ER stress in IECs to intestinal disease have not been clarified. In this study, we investigated the impact of ER stress on intestinal epithelial barrier function using human colon carcinoma-derived Caco-2 monolayers. Tunicamycin-induced ER stress decreased the trans-epithelial electrical resistance of Caco-2 monolayers, concomitant with loss of cellular plasma membrane integrity. Epithelial barrier disruption in Caco-2 cells after ER stress was not caused by caspase- or RIPK1-dependent cell death but was accompanied by lysosomal rupture and up-regulation of the ER stress markers Grp78, sXBP1 and Chop. Interestingly, several bifidobacteria species inhibited tunicamycin-induced ER stress and thereby diminished barrier disruption in Caco-2 monolayers. Together, these results showed that ER stress compromises the epithelial barrier function of Caco-2 monolayers and demonstrate beneficial impacts of bifidobacteria on ER stress in IECs. Our results identify epithelial barrier loss as a potential link between ER stress and intestinal disease development, and suggest that bifidobacteria could exert beneficial effects on this phenomenon. PMID:27611782

  16. Violacein Induces Death of Resistant Leukaemia Cells via Kinome Reprogramming, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Golgi Apparatus Collapse

    PubMed Central

    Queiroz, Karla C. S.; Milani, Renato; Ruela-de-Sousa, Roberta R.; Fuhler, Gwenny M.; Justo, Giselle Z.; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Duran, Nelson; Diks, Sander H.; Spek, C. Arnold; Ferreira, Carmen V.; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P.

    2012-01-01

    It is now generally recognised that different modes of programmed cell death (PCD) are intimately linked to the cancerous process. However, the mechanism of PCD involved in cancer chemoprevention is much less clear and may be different between types of chemopreventive agents and tumour cell types involved. Therefore, from a pharmacological view, it is crucial during the earlier steps of drug development to define the cellular specificity of the candidate as well as its capacity to bypass dysfunctional tumoral signalling pathways providing insensitivity to death stimuli. Studying the cytotoxic effects of violacein, an antibiotic dihydro-indolone synthesised by an Amazon river Chromobacterium, we observed that death induced in CD34+/c-Kit+/P-glycoprotein+/MRP1+ TF1 leukaemia progenitor cells is not mediated by apoptosis and/or autophagy, since biomarkers of both types of cell death were not significantly affected by this compound. To clarify the working mechanism of violacein, we performed kinome profiling using peptide arrays to yield comprehensive descriptions of cellular kinase activities. Pro-death activity of violacein is actually carried out by inhibition of calpain and DAPK1 and activation of PKA, AKT and PDK, followed by structural changes caused by endoplasmic reticulum stress and Golgi apparatus collapse, leading to cellular demise. Our results demonstrate that violacein induces kinome reprogramming, overcoming death signaling dysfunctions of intrinsically resistant human leukaemia cells. PMID:23071514

  17. Endoplasmic reticulum is a key organella in bradykinin-triggered ATP release from cultured smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yumei; Migita, Keisuke; Sato, Chiemi; Usune, Sadaharu; Iwamoto, Takahiro; Katsuragi, Takeshi

    2007-09-01

    ATP has broad functions as an autocrine/paracrine molecule. The mode of ATP release and its intracellular source, however, are little understood. Here we show that bradykinin via B(2)-receptor stimulation induces the extracellular release of ATP via the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate [Ins(1,4,5)P(3)]-signaling pathway in cultured taenia coli smooth muscle cells. It was found that bradykinin also increased the production of Ins(1,4,5)P(3) and 2-APB-inhibitable [Ca(2+)](i). The evoked release of ATP was suppressed by the Ca(2+)-channel blockers, nifedipine, and verapamil. Moreover, the extracellular release of ATP was elicited by photoliberation of Ins(1,4,5)P(3). Bradykinin caused a quick and transient accumulation of intracellular ATP from cells treated with 1% perchloric acid solution (PCA), but not with the cell lysis buffer. Peak accumulation was prevented by 2-APB and thapsigargin, but not by nifedipine or verapamil, inhibitors of extracellular release of ATP. These findings suggest that bradykinin elicits the extracellular release of ATP that is mediated by the Ins(1,4,5)P(3)-induced Ca(2+) signaling and, finally, leads to a Ca(2+)-dependent export of ATP from the cells. Furthermore, the bradykinin-induced transient accumulation of ATP in the cells treated with PCA may imply a possible release of ATP from the endoplasmic reticulum. PMID:17827868

  18. Heme-dependent Metabolite Switching Regulates H2S Synthesis in Response to Endoplasmic Reticulum (ER) Stress.

    PubMed

    Kabil, Omer; Yadav, Vinita; Banerjee, Ruma

    2016-08-01

    Substrate ambiguity and relaxed reaction specificity underlie the diversity of reactions catalyzed by the transsulfuration pathway enzymes, cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) and γ-cystathionase (CSE). These enzymes either commit sulfur metabolism to cysteine synthesis from homocysteine or utilize cysteine and/or homocysteine for synthesis of H2S, a signaling molecule. We demonstrate that a kinetically controlled heme-dependent metabolite switch in CBS regulates these competing reactions where by cystathionine, the product of CBS, inhibits H2S synthesis by the second enzyme, CSE. Under endoplasmic reticulum stress conditions, induction of CSE and up-regulation of the CBS inhibitor, CO, a product of heme oxygenase-1, flip the operating preference of CSE from cystathionine to cysteine, transiently stimulating H2S production. In contrast, genetic deficiency of CBS leads to chronic stimulation of H2S production. This metabolite switch from cystathionine to cysteine and/or homocysteine renders H2S synthesis by CSE responsive to the known modulators of CBS: S-adenosylmethionine, NO, and CO. Used acutely, it regulates H2S synthesis; used chronically, it might contribute to disease pathology. PMID:27365395

  19. Zoledronate and Molecular Iodine Cause Synergistic Cell Death in Triple Negative Breast Cancer through Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Ranu; Singh, Preeti; Singh, Aru; Chagtoo, Megha; Khan, Sajid; Tiwari, Swasti; Agarwal, Gaurav; Meeran, Syed Musthapa; Godbole, Madan M

    2016-01-01

    Women consuming molecular iodine (I2) through seaweeds suffer the least from breast cancers. Zoledronate (Zol) is in clinical use for alleviation of bone pain in cancer patients. Triple negative breast cancers exhibit high mortality due to lack of neoadjuvant chemotherapy. I2 and Zol independently cause weak antiproliferative and apoptotic effect. So far, their combined effects have not been tested. We analyzed the effect of combination of I2 with Zol as a potent adjuvant therapeutic agent for triple negative breast cancer cells (MDA-MBA-231) and in the mice model of breast cancer. Cell viability, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling staining, Western blotting, real-time PCR, flow cytometry, and other assays were performed for assessing cell death, calcium levels, and migration potential, respectively, in treated cells. The increased caspase 8, increased [Ca(2+)]c levels, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress resulted in apoptosis. Real time and fluorescence-based analysis demonstrated that the combination treatment targets ER Ca(2+) homeostasis chaperons leading to apoptosis. Combination therapy reduces metalloproteinases 2 and 9, inhibits invasion/migration of cells, and prevents growth of tumor in mice. I2 + Zol combination treatment induces synergistic increase in ER-mediated apoptosis, reduces invasion/migration potential of MDA-MB-231 cells, and exhibits antiproliferative property in vivo demonstrating its potential as combination therapy. PMID:27116040

  20. Andrographolide-induced apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial cells: Roles of endoplasmic reticulum stress and inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Gu, Li-Li; Zhang, Xin-Yue; Xing, Wen-Min; Xu, Jia-Dong; Lu, Hong

    2016-07-01

    Andrographolide sodium bisulfate as a kind of soluble derivative of andrographolide (AD), is obviously known to be nephrotoxicity, but AD has not been reported clearly. Our study aimed to investigate the induction of apoptosis in human renal tubular epithelial (HK-2) cells by AD and its possible mechanism. Our results demonstrated that AD (0-250μmol/L) inhibited Hk-2 cells proliferation in a dose- and time-dependent manner and induced apoptosis, accompanied by decreased of superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and increased of malondialdehvde (MDA) content. Simultaneously, AD regulated the expression of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) molecular chaperone glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78/Bip) protein, elevated the expressions of C/EBP homologous protein (CHOP) and Caspase-4, indicating activation of ER stress signaling, and induced the alterative expression of kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) proteins. It provided evidence that ER stress and inflammation would be significant mechanisms responsible for AD-induced apoptosis in addition to oxidative stress. PMID:27344125

  1. Localization of a cyclopentenone prostaglandin to the endoplasmic reticulum and induction of BiP mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, S; Odani, N; Tomokiyo, K; Furuta, K; Suzuki, M; Ichikawa, A; Negishi, M

    1998-01-01

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (PGs) are transported into cells and stimulate the expression of various stress genes, such as that coding for BiP (an ER luminal protein). To reveal the site of action of the PGs for the induction of stress-gene expression, we introduced a fluorescent probe, pyrene, into two types of PG analogue, GIF0010 (a cyclopentenone type) and GIF0037 (a cyclopentanone type) and examined their intracellular localization in normal rat kidney cells and their ability to induce the BiP gene expression. GIF0010 accumulated around the nuclei and coincided with BiP, a resident protein in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and markedly induced BiP gene expression. By contrast, GIF0037 and pyrene neither accumulated in the cell nor induced BiP gene expression. Thus the ER localization of GIF0010 and the induction of gene expression by GIF0010 are ascribed to the cyclopentenone structure. Treatment with cycloheximide inhibited both the accumulation of GIF0010 and the induction of the BiP mRNA, suggesting that the ER localization of the PG and subsequent gene expression require the nascent protein synthesis. These results demonstrate that the cyclopentenone PG is specifically accumulated in the ER, transducing a signal for BiP gene expression in the nuclei. PMID:9742210

  2. Statins Prevent Dextrose-Induced Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Oxidative Stress in Endothelial and HepG2 Cells.

    PubMed

    Kojanian, Hagop; Szafran-Swietlik, Anna; Onstead-Haas, Luisa M; Haas, Michael J; Mooradian, Arshag D

    2014-05-01

    Statins have favorable effects on endothelial function partly because of their capacity to reduce oxidative stress. However, antioxidant vitamins, unlike statins, are not as cardioprotective, and this paradox has been explained by failure of vitamin antioxidants to ameliorate endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. To determine whether statins prevent dextrose-induced ER stress in addition to their antioxidative effects, human umbilical vein endothelial cells and HepG2 hepatocytes were treated with 27.5 mM dextrose in the presence of simvastatin (lipophilic statin that is a prodrug) and pravastatin (water-soluble active drug), and oxidative stress, ER stress, and cell death were measured. Superoxide generation was measured using 2-methyl-6-(4-methoxyphenyl)-3,7-dihydroimidazo[1,2-A]pyrazin-3-one hydrochloride. ER stress was measured using the placental alkaline phosphatase assay and Western blot of glucose-regulated protein 75, c-jun-N-terminal kinase, phospho-JNK, eukaryotic initiating factor 2α and phospho-eIF2α, and X-box binding protein 1 mRNA splicing. Cell viability was measured by propidium iodide staining. Superoxide anion production, ER stress, and cell death induced by 27.5 mM dextrose were inhibited by therapeutic concentrations of simvastatin and pravastatin. The salutary effects of statins on endothelial cells in reducing both ER stress and oxidative stress observed with pravastatin and the prodrug simvastatin suggest that the effects may be independent of cholesterol-lowering activity. PMID:24800792

  3. Myricetin induces apoptosis via endoplasmic reticulum stress and DNA double-strand breaks in human ovarian cancer cells

    PubMed Central

    XU, YE; XIE, QI; WU, SHAOHUA; YI, DAN; YU, YANG; LIU, SHIBING; LI, SONGYAN; LI, ZHIXIN

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms underlying myricetin-induced cancer cell apoptosis remain to be elucidated. Certain previous studies have shown that myricetin induces apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway. Apoptosis, however, can also be induced by other classical pathways, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). The aim of the present study was to assess whether these two apoptotic pathways are involved in myricetin-induced cell death in SKOV3 ovarian cancer cells. The results revealed that treatment with myricetin inhibited viability of SKOV3 cells in a dose-dependent manner. Myricetin induced nuclear chromatin condensation and fragmentation, and also upregulated the protein levels of active caspase 3 in a time-dependent manner. In addition, myricetin upregulated ER stress-associated proteins, glucose-regulated protein-78 and C/EBP homologous protein in SKOV3 cells. Phosphorylation of H2AX, a marker of DNA DSBs, was revealed to be upregulated in myricetin-treated cells. The data indicated that myricetin induces DNA DSBs and ER stress, which leads to apoptosis in SKOV3 cells. PMID:26782830

  4. ERdj3 is an Endoplasmic Reticulum Degradation Factor for Mutant Glucocerebrosidase Variants Linked to Gaucher’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Yun Lei; Genereux, Joseph C.; Pankow, Sandra; Aerts, Johannes M.F.G.; Yates, John R.; Kelly, Jeffery W.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Gaucher’s disease (GD) is caused by mutations that compromise β-glucocerebrosidase (GCase) folding in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), leading to excessive degradation instead of trafficking, which results in insufficient lysosomal function. We hypothesized that ER GCase interacting proteins play critical roles in making quality control decisions, i.e., facilitating ER-associated degradation (ERAD) instead of folding and trafficking. Utilizing GCase immunoprecipitation followed by mass spectrometry-based proteomics, we identified endogenous HeLa cell GCase protein interactors, including ERdj3, an ER resident Hsp40 not previously established to interact with GCase. Depleting ERdj3 reduced the rate of mutant GCase degradation in patient-derived fibroblasts, while increasing folding, trafficking and function by directing GCase to the pro-folding ER calnexin pathway. Inhibiting ERdj3-mediated mutant GCase degradation while simultaneously enhancing calnexin-associated folding, by way of a diltiazem-mediated increase in ER Ca2+ levels, yields a synergistic rescue of L444P GCase lysosomal function. Our findings suggest a combination therapeutic strategy for ameliorating GD. PMID:25126989

  5. Newcastle disease virus NP and P proteins induce autophagy via the endoplasmic reticulum stress-related unfolded protein response

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Jing-Hua; Sun, Ying-Jie; Zhang, Fan-Qing; Zhang, Xiao-Rong; Qiu, Xv-Sheng; Yu, Li-Ping; Wu, Yan-Tao; Ding, Chan

    2016-01-01

    Newcastle disease virus (NDV) can replicate and trigger autophagy in human tumor cells. Our previous study confirmed the critical role of autophagy in NDV infection. Here we studied the role of NDV structural proteins in the induction of autophagy through endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress-related unfolded protein response (UPR) pathways. Ectopic expression of the NDV nucleocapsid protein (NP) or phosphoprotein (P) was sufficient to induce autophagy. NP or P expression also altered ER homeostasis. The PERK and ATF6 pathways, but not the XBP1 pathway, all of which are components of the UPR, were activated in both NDV-infected and NP or P-transfected cells. Knockdown of PERK or ATF6 inhibited NDV-induced autophagy and reduced the extent of NDV replication. Collectively, these data suggest not only roles for the NDV NP and P proteins in autophagy, but also offer new insights into the mechanisms of NDV-induced autophagy through activation of the ER stress-related UPR pathway. PMID:27097866

  6. Human MUC5AC mucin dimerizes in the rough endoplasmic reticulum, similarly to the MUC2 mucin.

    PubMed Central

    Asker, N; Axelsson, M A; Olofsson, S O; Hansson, G C

    1998-01-01

    Biosynthetic studies on the human MUC5AC mucin were performed by immunoprecipitations with antisera recognizing only the non-O-glycosylated apomucin in the colon adenocarcinoma cell line LS 174T. Pulse-chase studies and subcellular fractionations showed that MUC5AC formed dimers in the rough endoplasmic reticulum within 15 min of the initiation of biosynthesis. No non-O-glycosylated species larger than dimers were identified. The dimerization was N-glycosylation-dependent, because tunicamycin treatment significantly lowered the rate of dimerization. When the biosynthesis of MUC5AC apomucin was compared with that of MUC2 apomucin, also produced in the LS 174T cell line, both apomucins were assembled in similar ways with respect to their rates of dimerization with and without inhibition of N-glycosylation. No heterodimerization was observed between the human MUC5AC and the MUC2 apomucins despite the extensive sequence similarities in the positions of the cysteine residues in the C-termini proposed to be involved in mucin dimerization. PMID:9761738

  7. Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress-Activated Transcription Factor ATF6α Requires the Disulfide Isomerase PDIA5 To Modulate Chemoresistance

    PubMed Central

    Higa, Arisa; Taouji, Said; Lhomond, Stéphanie; Jensen, Devon; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.; Simpson, Jeremy C.; Pasquet, Jean-Max; Schekman, Randy

    2014-01-01

    ATF6α, a membrane-anchored transcription factor from the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) that modulates the cellular response to stress as an effector of the unfolded-protein response (UPR), is a key player in the development of tumors of different origin. ATF6α activation has been linked to oncogenic transformation and tumor maintenance; however, the mechanism(s) underlying this phenomenon remains elusive. Here, using a phenotypic small interfering RNA (siRNA) screening, we identified a novel role for ATF6α in chemoresistance and defined the protein disulfide isomerase A5 (PDIA5) as necessary for ATF6α activation upon ER stress. PDIA5 contributed to disulfide bond rearrangement in ATF6α under stress conditions, thereby leading to ATF6α export from the ER and activation of its target genes. Further analysis of the mechanism demonstrated that PDIA5 promotes ATF6α packaging into coat protein complex II (COPII) vesicles and that the PDIA5/ATF6α activation loop is essential to confer chemoresistance on cancer cells. Genetic and pharmacological inhibition of the PDIA5/ATF6α axis restored sensitivity to the drug treatment. This work defines the mechanisms underlying the role of ATF6α activation in carcinogenesis and chemoresistance; furthermore, it identifies PDIA5 as a key regulator ATF6α-mediated cellular functions in cancer. PMID:24636989

  8. Endoplasmic reticulum and lysosomal Ca2+ stores are remodelled in GBA1-linked Parkinson disease patient fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Kilpatrick, Bethan S.; Magalhaes, Joana; Beavan, Michelle S.; McNeill, Alisdair; Gegg, Matthew E.; Cleeter, Michael W.J.; Bloor-Young, Duncan; Churchill, Grant C.; Duchen, Michael R.; Schapira, Anthony H.; Patel, Sandip

    2016-01-01

    Mutations in β-glucocerebrosidase (encoded by GBA1) cause Gaucher disease (GD), a lysosomal storage disorder, and increase the risk of developing Parkinson disease (PD). The pathogenetic relationship between the two disorders is unclear. Here, we characterised Ca2+ release in fibroblasts from type I GD and PD patients together with age-matched, asymptomatic carriers, all with the common N370S mutation in β-glucocerebrosidase. We show that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca2+ release was potentiated in GD and PD patient fibroblasts but not in cells from asymptomatic carriers. ER Ca2+ signalling was also potentiated in fibroblasts from aged healthy subjects relative to younger individuals but not further increased in aged PD patient cells. Chemical or molecular inhibition of β-glucocerebrosidase in fibroblasts and a neuronal cell line did not affect ER Ca2+ signalling suggesting defects are independent of enzymatic activity loss. Conversely, lysosomal Ca2+ store content was reduced in PD fibroblasts and associated with age-dependent alterations in lysosomal morphology. Accelerated remodelling of Ca2+ stores by pathogenic GBA1 mutations may therefore feature in PD. PMID:26691915

  9. Attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum stress in Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease by an anti-malaria drug, chloroquine.

    PubMed

    Morimura, Toshifumi; Numata, Yurika; Nakamura, Shoko; Hirano, Eriko; Gotoh, Leo; Goto, Yu-ich; Urushitani, Makoto; Inoue, Ken

    2014-04-01

    Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease (PMD) is a hypomyelinating disorder caused by the duplication and missense mutations of the proteolipid protein 1 (PLP1) gene. PLP1 missense proteins accumulate in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of premature oligodendrocytes and induce severe ER stress followed by apoptosis of the cells. Here, we demonstrate that an anti-malaria drug, chloroquine, decreases the amount of an ER-resident mutant PLP1 containing an alanine-243 to valine (A243V) substitution, which induces severe PMD in human. By preventing mutant PLP1 translation through enhancing the phosphorylation of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 alpha, chloroquine ameliorated the ER stress induced by the mutant protein in HeLa cells. Chroloquine also attenuated ER stress in the primary oligodendrocytes obtained from myelin synthesis deficit (msd) mice, which carry the same PLP1 mutation. In the spinal cords of msd mice, chloroquine inhibited ER stress and upregulated the expression of marker genes of mature oligodendrocytes. Chloroquine-mediated attenuation of ER stress was observed in HeLa cells treated with tunicamycin, an N-glycosylation inhibitor, but not with thapsigargin, a sarco/ER Ca(2+)ATPase inhibitor, which confirms its efficacy against ER stress caused by nascent proteins. These findings indicate that chloroquine is an ER stress attenuator with potential use in treating PMD and possibly other ER stress-related diseases. PMID:24521562

  10. Loss of Oca2 disrupts the unfolded protein response and increases resistance to endoplasmic reticulum stress in melanocytes.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Tsing; Orlow, Seth J; Manga, Prashiela

    2013-11-01

    Accumulation of proteins in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) typically induces stress and initiates the unfolded protein response (UPR) to facilitate recovery. If homeostasis is not restored, apoptosis is induced. However, adaptation to chronic UPR activation can increase resistance to subsequent acute ER stress. We therefore investigated adaptive mechanisms in Oculocutaneous albinism type 2 (Oca2)-null melanocytes where UPR signaling is arrested despite continued tyrosinase accumulation leading to resistance to the chemical ER stressor thapsigargin. Although thapsigargin triggers UPR activation, instead of Perk-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2α, in Oca2-null melanocytes, eIF2α was rapidly dephosphorylated upon treatment. Dephosphorylation was mediated by the Gadd34-PP1α phosphatase complex. Gadd34-complex inhibition blocked eIF2α dephosphorylation and significantly increased Oca2-null melanocyte sensitivity to thapsigargin. Thus, Oca2-null melanocytes adapt to acute ER stress by disruption of pro-apoptotic Perk signaling, which promotes cell survival. This is the first study to demonstrate rapid eIF2α dephosphorylation as an adaptive mechanism to ER stress. PMID:23962237

  11. Mycotoxin zearalenone induces apoptosis in mouse Leydig cells via an endoplasmic reticulum stress-dependent signalling pathway.

    PubMed

    Lin, Pengfei; Chen, Fenglei; Sun, Jin; Zhou, Jinhua; Wang, Xiangguo; Wang, Nan; Li, Xiao; Zhang, Zhe; Wang, Aihua; Jin, YaPing

    2015-04-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) is a Fusarium mycotoxin that causes several reproductive disorders and genotoxic effects. This study demonstrated the involvement of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in ZEN-induced mouse Leydig cell death. Our study showed that ZEN reduced cell proliferation in a murine Leydig tumour cell line in a dose-dependent manner. The involvement of apoptosis as a major cause of ZEN-induced cell death was further confirmed by the results of a caspase-3 activity assay, which showed a ZEN dose-dependent increase in cell death. Treatment of MLTC-1 and primary mouse Leydig cells with ZEN upregulated the expression of the ER stress-typical markers GRP78, CHOP and caspase-12 protein. Further, pre-treating the cells with 4-phenylbutyrate or knocking down GRP78 using lentivirus-encoded shRNA significantly diminished ZEN-induced apoptosis and inhibited the expression of CHOP and caspase-12. In summary, these results suggest that the activation of an ER stress pathway plays a key role in ZEN-induced apoptosis in the mouse Leydig cells. PMID:25720297

  12. Trimeric intracellular cation channels and sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum calcium homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xinyu; Lin, Peihui; Yamazaki, Daiju; Park, Ki Ho; Komazaki, Shinji; Chen, S R Wayne; Takeshima, Hiroshi; Ma, Jianjie

    2014-02-14

    Trimeric intracellular cation channels (TRIC) represents a novel class of trimeric intracellular cation channels. Two TRIC isoforms have been identified in both the human and the mouse genomes: TRIC-A, a subtype predominantly expressed in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) of muscle cells, and TRIC-B, a ubiquitous subtype expressed in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) of all tissues. Genetic ablation of either TRIC-A or TRIC-B leads to compromised K(+) permeation and Ca(2+) release across the SR/ER membrane, supporting the hypothesis that TRIC channels provide a counter balancing K(+) flux that reduces SR/ER membrane depolarization for maintenance of the electrochemical gradient that drives SR/ER Ca(2+) release. TRIC-A and TRIC-B seem to have differential functions in Ca(2+) signaling in excitable and nonexcitable cells. Tric-a(-/-) mice display defective Ca(2+) sparks and spontaneous transient outward currents in arterial smooth muscle and develop hypertension, in addition to skeletal muscle dysfunction. Knockout of TRIC-B results in abnormal IP3 receptor-mediated Ca(2+) release in airway epithelial cells, respiratory defects, and neonatal lethality. Double knockout mice lacking both TRIC-A and TRIC-B show embryonic lethality as a result of cardiac arrest. Such an aggravated lethality indicates that TRIC-A and TRIC-B share complementary physiological functions in Ca(2+) signaling in embryonic cardiomyocytes. Tric-a(-/-) and Tric-b(+/-) mice are viable and susceptible to stress-induced heart failure. Recent evidence suggests that TRIC-A directly modulates the function of the cardiac ryanodine receptor 2 Ca(2+) release channel, which in turn controls store-overload-induced Ca(2+) release from the SR. Thus, the TRIC channels, in addition to providing a countercurrent for SR/ER Ca(2+) release, may also function as accessory proteins that directly modulate the ryanodine receptor/IP3 receptor channel functions. PMID:24526676

  13. Streptozotocin induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis via disruption of calcium homeostasis in mouse pancreas.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Changhwan; An, Beum-Soo; Jeung, Eui-Bae

    2015-09-01

    Calcium homeostasis refers to the regulation of calcium ion concentration in the body. This concentration is tightly controlled by a stabilizing system consisting of calcium channels and calcium buffering proteins. Calcium homeostasis is crucial for cell survival. Various forms of cell death (e.g., necrosis and apoptosis) also share calcium signaling pathways and molecular effectors. Calcium acts not only as a ubiquitous second messenger involved in apoptosis along with various cell death inducers but also a regulator for the synthesis of enzymes/hormones such as insulin. We hypothesized that streptozotocin disrupts calcium homeostasis and the altered intracellular calcium levels may induce cell death. After streptozotocin administration, blood glucose level was increased while insulin levels decreased. The expression of insulin response markers also decreased relative to the vehicle group. L-type voltage-gated calcium channel expression and sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) ATPase were increased by streptozotocin. Calcium buffering protein calbindin-D9k and calmodulin family members were also increased. The expression of genes involved in transporting calcium ions to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) was decrease while the expression of those affecting the removal of calcium from the ER was increased. Depletion of calcium from the ER leads to ER-stress and can induce apoptosis. In the streptozotocin-treatment group, apoptosis markers were increased. Taken together, these results imply that the disruption of calcium homeostasis by streptozotocin induces ER-stress and leads to the apoptosis of pancreatic cells. Additionally, findings from this study suggest that imbalances in calcium homeostasis could promote pancreatic beta cell death and result in type I diabetes. PMID:26003140

  14. Cholesterol and steroid synthesizing smooth endoplasmic reticulum of adrenocortical cells contains high levels of translocation apparatus proteins.

    PubMed

    Black, V H; Sanjay, A; van Leyen, K; Möeller, I; Lauring, B; Kreibich, G

    2002-11-01

    Steroid-secreting cells possess abundant smooth endoplasmic reticulum whose membranes contain many enzymes involved in sterol and steroid synthesis. In this study we demonstrate that adrenal smooth microsomal subfractions enriched in these membranes also possess high levels of proteins belonging to the translocation apparatus, proteins previously assumed to be confined to morphologically identifiable rough endoplasmic reticulum (RER). We further demonstrate that these smooth microsomal subfractions are capable of effecting the functions of these protein complexes: co-translational translocation, signal peptide cleavage and N-glycosylation of newly synthesized polypeptides. We hypothesize that these elements participate in regulating the levels of ER-targeted membrane proteins involved in cholesterol and steroid metabolism in a sterol-dependent and hormonally-regulated manner. PMID:12530645

  15. Catestatin attenuates endoplasmic reticulum induced cell apoptosis by activation type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Feng; Zheng, Yang; Cai, Junyan; Fan, Jinghui; Wang, Jing; Yang, Jichun; Cui, Qinghua; Xu, Guoheng; Tang, Chaoshu; Geng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Catestatin (CST) is a catecholamine secretion inhibiting peptide as non-competitive inhibitor of nicotinic acetylcholine receptor. CST play a protective role in cardiac ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) but the molecular mechanism remains unclear. Cardiomyocytes endogenously produced CST and its expression was reduced after I/R. CST pretreatment decreased apoptosis especially endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress response during I/R. The protection of CST was confirmed in H9c2 cardiomyoblasts under Anoxia/reoxygenation (A/R). In contrast, siRNA-mediated knockdown of CST exaggerated ER stress induced apoptosis. The protective effects of CST were blocked by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2) inhibitor PD90895 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3 K) inhibitor wortmannin. CST also increased ERK1/2 and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation and which was blocked by atropine and selective type 2 muscarinic acetylcholine (M2) receptor, but not type 1 muscarinic acetylcholine (M1) receptor antagonist. Receptor binding assay revealed that CST competitively bound to the M2 receptor with a 50% inhibitory concentration of 25.7 nM. Accordingly, CST inhibited cellular cAMP stimulated by isoproterenol or forskolin, and which was blocked by selective M2 receptor antagonist. Our findings revealed that CST binds to M2 receptor, then activates ERK1/2 and PI3 K/Akt pathway to inhibit ER stress-induced cell apoptosis resulting in attenuation cardiac I/R injury. PMID:26567709

  16. Re-evaluation of the Role of Calcium Homeostasis Endoplasmic Reticulum Protein (CHERP) in Cellular Calcium Signaling*

    PubMed Central

    Lin-Moshier, Yaping; Sebastian, Peter J.; Higgins, LeeAnn; Sampson, Natalie D.; Hewitt, Jane E.; Marchant, Jonathan S.

    2013-01-01

    Changes in cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentration, resulting from activation of intracellular Ca2+ channels within the endoplasmic reticulum, regulate several aspects of cellular growth and differentiation. Ca2+ homeostasis endoplasmic reticulum protein (CHERP) is a ubiquitously expressed protein that has been proposed as a regulator of both major families of endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ channels, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptors (IP3Rs) and ryanodine receptors (RyRs), with resulting effects on mitotic cycling. However, the manner by which CHERP regulates intracellular Ca2+ channels to impact cellular growth is unknown. Here, we challenge previous findings that CHERP acts as a direct cytoplasmic regulator of IP3Rs and RyRs and propose that CHERP acts in the nucleus to impact cellular proliferation by regulating the function of the U2 snRNA spliceosomal complex. The previously reported effects of CHERP on cellular growth therefore are likely indirect effects of altered spliceosomal function, consistent with prior data showing that loss of function of U2 snRNP components can interfere with cell growth and induce cell cycle arrest. PMID:23148228

  17. Peroxisomes, lipid droplets, and endoplasmic reticulum “hitchhike” on motile early endosomes

    PubMed Central

    Guimaraes, Sofia C.; Schuster, Martin; Bielska, Ewa; Dagdas, Gulay; Kilaru, Sreedhar; Meadows, Ben R.A.; Schrader, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Intracellular transport is mediated by molecular motors that bind cargo to be transported along the cytoskeleton. Here, we report, for the first time, that peroxisomes (POs), lipid droplets (LDs), and the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) rely on early endosomes (EEs) for intracellular movement in a fungal model system. We show that POs undergo kinesin-3– and dynein-dependent transport along microtubules. Surprisingly, kinesin-3 does not colocalize with POs. Instead, the motor moves EEs that drag the POs through the cell. PO motility is abolished when EE motility is blocked in various mutants. Most LD and ER motility also depends on EE motility, whereas mitochondria move independently of EEs. Covisualization studies show that EE-mediated ER motility is not required for PO or LD movement, suggesting that the organelles interact with EEs independently. In the absence of EE motility, POs and LDs cluster at the growing tip, whereas ER is partially retracted to subapical regions. Collectively, our results show that moving EEs interact transiently with other organelles, thereby mediating their directed transport and distribution in the cell. PMID:26620910

  18. Real-time monitoring of redox changes in the mammalian endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    van Lith, Marcel; Tiwari, Shweta; Pediani, John; Milligan, Graeme; Bulleid, Neil J.

    2011-01-01

    Redox-sensitive GFPs with engineered disulphide bonds have been used previously to monitor redox status in the cytosol and mitochondria of living cells. The usefulness of these redox probes depends on the reduction potential of the disulphide, with low values suiting the cytosol and mitochondrion, and higher values suiting the more oxidising environment of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). Here, we targeted a modified redox-sensitive GFP (roGFP1-iL), with a relatively high reduction potential, to the ER of mammalian cells. We showed that the disulphide is partially oxidised, allowing roGFP1-iL to monitor changes in ER redox status. When cells were treated with puromycin, the redox balance became more reducing, suggesting that the release of nascent chains from ribosomes alters the ER redox balance. In addition, downregulating Ero1α prevented normal rapid recovery from dithiothreitol (DTT), whereas downregulating peroxiredoxin IV had no such effect. This result illustrates the contribution of the Ero1α oxidative pathway to ER redox balance. This first report of the use of roGFP to study the ER of mammalian cells demonstrates that roGFP1-iL can be used to monitor real-time changes to the redox status in individual living cells. PMID:21693587

  19. Reactive Oxygen Species, Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Mitochondrial Dysfunction: The Link with Cardiac Arrhythmogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Tse, Gary; Yan, Bryan P.; Chan, Yin W. F.; Tian, Xiao Yu; Huang, Yu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cardiac arrhythmias represent a significant problem globally, leading to cerebrovascular accidents, myocardial infarction, and sudden cardiac death. There is increasing evidence to suggest that increased oxidative stress from reactive oxygen species (ROS), which is elevated in conditions such as diabetes and hypertension, can lead to arrhythmogenesis. Method: A literature review was undertaken to screen for articles that investigated the effects of ROS on cardiac ion channel function, remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Results: Prolonged endoplasmic reticulum stress is observed in heart failure, leading to increased production of ROS. Mitochondrial ROS, which is elevated in diabetes and hypertension, can stimulate its own production in a positive feedback loop, termed ROS-induced ROS release. Together with activation of mitochondrial inner membrane anion channels, it leads to mitochondrial depolarization. Abnormal function of these organelles can then activate downstream signaling pathways, ultimately culminating in altered function or expression of cardiac ion channels responsible for generating the cardiac action potential (AP). Vascular and cardiac endothelial cells become dysfunctional, leading to altered paracrine signaling to influence the electrophysiology of adjacent cardiomyocytes. All of these changes can in turn produce abnormalities in AP repolarization or conduction, thereby increasing likelihood of triggered activity and reentry. Conclusion: ROS plays a significant role in producing arrhythmic substrate. Therapeutic strategies targeting upstream events include production of a strong reducing environment or the use of pharmacological agents that target organelle-specific proteins and ion channels. These may relieve oxidative stress and in turn prevent arrhythmic complications in patients with diabetes, hypertension, and heart failure. PMID:27536244

  20. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response (UPR) in plants.

    PubMed

    Wan, Shucen; Jiang, Liwen

    2016-05-01

    Being a major factory for protein synthesis, assembly, and export, the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) has a precise and robust ER quality control (ERQC) system monitoring its product line. However, when organisms are subjected to environmental stress, whether biotic or abiotic, the levels of misfolded proteins may overwhelm the ERQC system, tilting the balance between the capacity of and demand for ER quality control and resulting in a scenario termed ER stress. Intense or prolonged ER stress may cause damage to the ER as well as to other organelles, or even lead to cell death in extreme cases. To avoid such serious consequences, cells activate self-rescue programs to restore protein homeostasis in the ER, either through the enhancement of protein-folding and degradation competence or by alleviating the demands for such reactions. These are collectively called the unfolded protein response (UPR). Long investigated in mammalian cells and yeasts, the UPR is also of great interest to plant scientists. Among the three branches of UPR discovered in mammals, two have been studied in plants with plant homologs existing of the ER-membrane-associated activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6) and inositol-requiring enzyme 1 (IRE1). This review discusses the molecular mechanisms of these two types of UPR in plants, as well as the consequences of insufficient UPR, with a focus on experiments using model plants. PMID:26060134

  1. HIF-2α dependent lipid storage promotes endoplasmic reticulum homeostasis in clear cell renal cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bo; Ackerman, Daniel; Sanchez, Danielle J.; Li, Bo; Ochocki, Joshua D.; Grazioli, Alison; Bobrovnikova-Marjon, Ekaterina; Diehl, J. Alan; Keith, Brian; Simon, M. Celeste

    2015-01-01

    Two hallmarks of clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC) are constitutive hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) signaling and abundant intracellular lipid droplets (LDs). However, regulation of lipid storage and its role in ccRCC are incompletely understood. Transcriptional profiling of primary ccRCC samples revealed that expression of the LD coat protein gene PLIN2 was elevated in tumors and correlated with HIF-2α, but not HIF-1α, activation. HIF-2α dependent PLIN2 expression promoted lipid storage, proliferation, and viability in xenograft tumors. Mechanistically, lipid storage maintained integrity of the endoplasmic reticulum (ER), which is functionally and physically associated with LDs. Specifically, PLIN2 dependent lipid storage suppressed cytotoxic ER stress responses that otherwise result from elevated protein synthetic activity characteristic of ccRCC cells. Thus, in addition to promoting ccRCC proliferation and anabolic metabolism, HIF-2α modulates lipid storage to sustain ER homeostasis, particularly under conditions of nutrient and oxygen limitation, thereby promoting tumor cell survival. PMID:25829424

  2. AMPylation matches BiP activity to client protein load in the endoplasmic reticulum

    PubMed Central

    Preissler, Steffen; Rato, Cláudia; Chen, Ruming; Antrobus, Robin; Ding, Shujing; Fearnley, Ian M; Ron, David

    2015-01-01

    The endoplasmic reticulum (ER)-localized Hsp70 chaperone BiP affects protein folding homeostasis and the response to ER stress. Reversible inactivating covalent modification of BiP is believed to contribute to the balance between chaperones and unfolded ER proteins, but the nature of this modification has so far been hinted at indirectly. We report that deletion of FICD, a gene encoding an ER-localized AMPylating enzyme, abolished detectable modification of endogenous BiP enhancing ER buffering of unfolded protein stress in mammalian cells, whilst deregulated FICD activity had the opposite effect. In vitro, FICD AMPylated BiP to completion on a single residue, Thr518. AMPylation increased, in a strictly FICD-dependent manner, as the flux of proteins entering the ER was attenuated in vivo. In vitro, Thr518 AMPylation enhanced peptide dissociation from BiP 6-fold and abolished stimulation of ATP hydrolysis by J-domain cofactor. These findings expose the molecular basis for covalent inactivation of BiP. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.12621.001 PMID:26673894

  3. Ero1-α and PDIs constitute a hierarchical electron transfer network of endoplasmic reticulum oxidoreductases.

    PubMed

    Araki, Kazutaka; Iemura, Shun-ichiro; Kamiya, Yukiko; Ron, David; Kato, Koichi; Natsume, Tohru; Nagata, Kazuhiro

    2013-09-16

    Ero1-α and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) oxidoreductases of the protein disulfide isomerase (PDI) family promote the efficient introduction of disulfide bonds into nascent polypeptides in the ER. However, the hierarchy of electron transfer among these oxidoreductases is poorly understood. In this paper, Ero1-α-associated oxidoreductases were identified by proteomic analysis and further confirmed by surface plasmon resonance. Ero1-α and PDI were found to constitute a regulatory hub, whereby PDI induced conformational flexibility in an Ero1-α shuttle cysteine (Cys99) facilitated intramolecular electron transfer to the active site. In isolation, Ero1-α also oxidized ERp46, ERp57, and P5; however, kinetic measurements and redox equilibrium analysis revealed that PDI preferentially oxidized other oxidoreductases. PDI accepted electrons from the other oxidoreductases via its a' domain, bypassing the a domain, which serves as the electron acceptor from reduced glutathione. These observations provide an integrated picture of the hierarchy of cooperative redox interactions among ER oxidoreductases in mammalian cells. PMID:24043701

  4. Microdomains bounded by endoplasmic reticulum segregate cell cycle calcium transients in syncytial Drosophila embryos

    PubMed Central

    Parry, Huw; McDougall, Alex; Whitaker, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Cell cycle calcium signals are generated by the inositol trisphosphate (InsP3)–mediated release of calcium from internal stores (Ciapa, B., D. Pesando, M. Wilding, and M. Whitaker. 1994. Nature. 368:875–878; Groigno, L., and M. Whitaker. 1998. Cell. 92:193–204). The major internal calcium store is the endoplasmic reticulum (ER); thus, the spatial organization of the ER during mitosis may be important in shaping and defining calcium signals. In early Drosophila melanogaster embryos, ER surrounds the nucleus and mitotic spindle during mitosis, offering an opportunity to determine whether perinuclear localization of ER conditions calcium signaling during mitosis. We establish that the nuclear divisions in syncytial Drosophila embryos are accompanied by