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Sample records for inhibits vigna radiata

  1. The complete mitochondrial genome of mungbean Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 and a phylogenetic analysis of crops in angiosperms.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Lo, Hsiao-Feng; Chen, Chien-Yu; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2016-09-01

    The entire mitogenome of the Vigna radiata var. radiata NM92 was identified as a circular molecule of 401 262 bp length (DDBJ accession number: AP014716). The contents of A, T, C, and G in the NM92 mitogenome were found to be 27.48%, 27.41%, 22.63%, and 22.48%, respectively. The NM92 mitogenome encoded 3 rRNAs, 16 tRNAs and 33 proteins. Eight protein-coding genes (nad1, nad2, nad4, nad5, nad7, rps3, and rps10) centain introns. Among them, three (nad1, nad2, and nad5) are trans-spliced genes. A phylogenetic tree was reconstructed using the 21 protein-coding genes of 16 crops. A species of gymnosperms, Cycas, was selected as the outgroup. This complete mitogenome sequence provides useful information to understand the cultivation of Vigna radiata and other crops. PMID:26469726

  2. Potential of Vigna radiata (L.) sprouts in the management of inflammation and arthritis in rats: Possible biochemical alterations.

    PubMed

    Venkateshwarlu, E; Reddy, K Purnima; Dilip, D

    2016-01-01

    Vigna radiata (Fabaceae) is an important pulse crop widespread throughout the tropics and warm temperature regions. In this study, we evaluated the in vitro anti-inflammatory and in vivo antiarthritic activity of Vigna radiata sprouts in rats. The in vitro anti-inflammatory activity was determined by membrane stabilization and protein denaturation method. Whereas, the antiarthritic activity of the ethanolic extract of the sprouts was evaluated by complete Freund's adjuvant model with diclofenac sodium as the standard drug. Body weights, paw volume, biochemical parameters such as lipid peroxidation, total reduced glutathione, myeloperoxidase and lysosomal enzymes like cathepsin-D, N-acetyl β-D-glucosamindase and β-D-glucuronidase were estimated. Treatment with ethanolic extract of V. radiata exhibited significant membrane stabilization activity and protein denaturation activity, and significantly attenuated the biochemical changes induced by administration of complete Freund's adjuvant. The findings of the present study suggest the possible role of Vigna radiata in the therapeutics of arthritis. PMID:26891551

  3. Effects of Nano Silver Oxide and Silver Ions on Growth of Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Divya; Kumar, Arun

    2015-09-01

    Transformation of silver oxide nanoparticles (nano-Ag2O) to silver nanoparticles (nano-Ag) and silver ions in environment is possible which might pose toxicity to plants and other species. The objective of this study was to study effects of nano-Ag2O and silver ions on growth of Mung bean (Vigna radiata) seedlings. V. radiata seeds were exposed to nano-Ag2O and silver ions (concentration range: 4.3 × 10(-7), 4.3 × 10(-6), 4.3 × 10(-5), 4.3 × 10(-4), and 4.3 × 10(-3) mol/L) for 6 days. Root length, shoot length and dry weight of seedlings were found to decrease due to exposure of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. These findings indicate silver ions to be more toxic to V. radiata seeds than nano-Ag2O. Silver content in seedlings was found to increase with increasing concentrations of nano-Ag2O and silver ions. Overall, findings of the present study add to the existing knowledge of phytotoxicity of silver-based nanoparticles of different chemical compositions to V. radiata seeds and need to be considered during use of nanoparticles-contaminated water for irrigation purposes. PMID:26155963

  4. Purification and characterization of high salt-soluble vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Bhattacharyya, S P; Biswas, B B

    1990-01-01

    We report a method for the purification of vicilin from mung bean (Vigna radiata) mainly on the basis of solubility of mung bean vicilin even in high salt. Mung bean vicilin remains in solution even after 90% relative saturation of ammonium sulphate. The resulting supernatant after dialysis was subjected to gel filtration (Sephadex G-150) to remove other contaminant polypeptides, and finally the protein was purified by DEAE cellulose chromatography. This purified fraction exhibited 3 bands on SDS-PAGE compared with vicilin from other legumes which exhibite more than 3 bands generally. The results raise the possibility that the presence of the two small polypeptides in vicilin preparations is the breakdown product of the major larger one of mol.wt. 52 K and that vicilin may be a tetramer of four subunits of Mr 52000. That the high salt-soluble protein containing 52 K subunit is vicilin has been determined by several criteria. PMID:2241993

  5. Isolation and Characterization of Tonoplast from Chilling-Sensitive Etiolated Seedlings of Vigna radiata L. 12

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Shizuo; Kawata, Takefumi; Uemura, Matsuo; Niki, Teruo

    1986-01-01

    Tonoplasts were isolated in a high purity from etiolated young seedlings of Vigna radiata L. (mung bean) utilizing a sucrose density gradient system. The excised hypocotyls were homogenized in a sorbitol-buffer system and the 3,600 to 156,000g pellets obtained after the differential centrifugations were suspended in a sorbitol medium and loaded on a linear sucrose density gradient. After centrifugation at 89,000g for 2 hours, tonoplasts were banded at the sample load/sucrose interface. Assessed by electron microscopy and marker enzymes, the purity and the quantity were found to be sufficient for biochemical and biophysical analyses. The tonoplasts were associated with NO3−-sensitive and vana-date-insensitive ATPase. The tonoplast ATPase was stimulated by proton ionophores such as carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenyl-hydrazone and gramicidin D, suggesting a proton-pumping enzyme. In the presence of ATP and Mg2+, a proton gradient was formed in the isolated tonoplast vesicles as assessed by fluorescence quenching of quinacrine. The tonoplasts contained several kinds of mannosylated or glycosylated glycoproteins and a major protein (65 kilodaltons) which was unique to the membranes. Images Fig. 6 Fig. 7 PMID:16664574

  6. Appraisal of gene action for indeterminate growth in mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Javed; Ahsan, Muhammad; Saleem, Muhammad; Ali, Asghar

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the inheritance pattern of indeterminate growth in Vigna radiata, various related traits were studied. The techniques used for the purpose were generation mean and variance analyses. Narrow sense heritability estimates were also computed. Four out of fifty greengram accessions were selected during preliminary screen trial based on DDd2 and DDh2 values. Two cross combinations were made by utilizing four parents. Generation variance analysis demonstrated the engagement of additive and environmental components, with the pre-pondrance of additive gene action. Narrow sense heritability estimates (>67%) also supported the same. In generation mean analysis both cross combinations manifested non-allelic epistatic digenic interactions for the investigated traits except for plant height at first flower initiation and for seed yield per plant in one cross combination, where only additive and dominance components were important. For pyramiding the additive genes favoring determinate plant growth, higher harvest index and simultaneously purging the genes promoting twining growth habit escorted with low seed yield, any modified breeding scheme which could serve the said purpose may be opted. PMID:26388879

  7. Nutritional Assessment and Antioxidant Activities of Different Varieties of Vigna radiata

    PubMed Central

    Ullah, Zain; Al-Deyab, Salem S.; Adnan, Muhammad; Tariq, Akash

    2014-01-01

    Three cultivars of Vigna radiata, namely, NM-92, NM-98, and NM-06, were analyzed for their proximate composition. The samples were also tested by HPLC for amino acid content. The data showed that all the varieties had same moisture level. The maximum ash content (4.29%) was present in NM-92, and crude fat (2.26%) was highest in NM-98 while NM-06 contained maximum amount of crude protein. About eighteen types of amino acids were detected in each of the three varieties. Acidic amino acids, that is, aspartic and glutamic acids, were in considerable amount ranged from 13 to 23% followed by leucine, isoleucine, alanine, valine, lysine, phenyl alanine, serine, and arginine which fell in the range of 3–8% of total protein. The maximum amount (13.00 and 22.80%) of aspartic and glutamic acids was present in NM-98. Similarly arginine (6.83%) and serine (5.45%) were also in highest amount in this variety. Leucine (7.46%) was maximum in NM-92 variety. NM-06 contained almost all the amino acids in lesser quantity except for few like threonine, proline, glycine, and alanine. It was concluded from the present study that varieties were of different nutritional value and HPLC was a sensitive method for amino acids determination. Antioxidant activities of all three varieties were also assayed and showed significant results. PMID:25401158

  8. A review of phytochemistry, metabolite changes, and medicinal uses of the common food mung bean and its sprouts (Vigna radiata)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The seeds and sprouts of mung bean (Vigna radiata), a common food, contain abundant nutrients with biological activities. This review provides insight into the nutritional value of mung beans and its sprouts, discussing chemical constituents that have been isolated in the past few decades, such as flavonoids, phenolic acids, organic acids, amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipids. Moreover, we also summarize dynamic changes in metabolites during the sprouting process and related biological activities, including antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, antihypertensive, lipid metabolism accommodation, antihypertensive, and antitumor effects, etc., with the goal of providing scientific evidence for better application of this commonly used food as a medicine. PMID:24438453

  9. The mitochondrial genome of the legume Vigna radiata and the analysis of recombination across short mitochondrial repeats.

    PubMed

    Alverson, Andrew J; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W; Sloan, Daniel B; Palmer, Jeffrey D

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38-297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  10. The Mitochondrial Genome of the Legume Vigna radiata and the Analysis of Recombination across Short Mitochondrial Repeats

    PubMed Central

    Alverson, Andrew J.; Zhuo, Shi; Rice, Danny W.; Sloan, Daniel B.; Palmer, Jeffrey D.

    2011-01-01

    The mitochondrial genomes of seed plants are exceptionally fluid in size, structure, and sequence content, with the accumulation and activity of repetitive sequences underlying much of this variation. We report the first fully sequenced mitochondrial genome of a legume, Vigna radiata (mung bean), and show that despite its unexceptional size (401,262 nt), the genome is unusually depauperate in repetitive DNA and "promiscuous" sequences from the chloroplast and nuclear genomes. Although Vigna lacks the large, recombinationally active repeats typical of most other seed plants, a PCR survey of its modest repertoire of short (38–297 nt) repeats nevertheless revealed evidence for recombination across all of them. A set of novel control assays showed, however, that these results could instead reflect, in part or entirely, artifacts of PCR-mediated recombination. Consequently, we recommend that other methods, especially high-depth genome sequencing, be used instead of PCR to infer patterns of plant mitochondrial recombination. The average-sized but repeat- and feature-poor mitochondrial genome of Vigna makes it ever more difficult to generalize about the factors shaping the size and sequence content of plant mitochondrial genomes. PMID:21283772

  11. Nontarget effects of chemical pesticides and biological pesticide on rhizospheric microbial community structure and function in Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sunil; Gupta, Rashi; Kumari, Madhu; Sharma, Shilpi

    2015-08-01

    Intensive agriculture has resulted in an indiscriminate use of pesticides, which demands in-depth analysis of their impact on indigenous rhizospheric microbial community structure and function. Hence, the objective of the present work was to study the impact of two chemical pesticides (chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin) and one biological pesticide (azadirachtin) at two dosages on the microbial community structure using cultivation-dependent approach and on rhizospheric bacterial communities involved in nitrogen cycle in Vigna radiata rhizosphere through cultivation-independent technique of real-time PCR. Cultivation-dependent study highlighted the adverse effects of both chemical pesticide and biopesticide on rhizospheric bacterial and fungal communities at different plant growth stages. Also, an adverse effect on number of genes and transcripts of nifH (nitrogen fixation); amoA (nitrification); and narG, nirK, and nirS (denitrification) was observed. The results from the present study highlighted two points, firstly that nontarget effects of pesticides are significantly detrimental to soil microflora, and despite being of biological origin, azadirachtin exerted negative impact on rhizospheric microbial community of V. radiata behaving similar to chemical pesticides. Hence, such nontarget effects of chemical pesticide and biopesticide in plants' rhizosphere, which bring out the larger picture in terms of their ecotoxicological effect, demand a proper risk assessment before application of pesticides as agricultural amendments. PMID:25801369

  12. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H₂O₂ content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  13. Exogenous Spermidine Alleviates Low Temperature Injury in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) Seedlings by Modulating Ascorbate-Glutathione and Glyoxalase Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Fujita, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    The role of exogenous spermidine (Spd) in alleviating low temperature (LT) stress in mung bean (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-3) seedlings has been investigated. Low temperature stress modulated the non-enzymatic and enzymatic components of ascorbate-glutathione (AsA-GSH) cycle, increased H2O2 content and lipid peroxidation, which indicate oxidative damage of seedlings. Low temperature reduced the leaf relative water content (RWC) and destroyed leaf chlorophyll, which inhibited seedlings growth. Exogenous pretreatment of Spd in LT-affected seedlings significantly increased the contents of non-enzymatic antioxidants of AsA-GSH cycle, which include AsA and GSH. Exogenous Spd decreased dehydroascorbate (DHA), increased AsA/DHA ratio, decreased glutathione disulfide (GSSG) and increased GSH/GSSG ratio under LT stress. Activities of AsA-GSH cycle enzymes such as ascorbate peroxidase (APX), monodehydroascorbate reductase (MDHAR), dehydroascorbate reductase (DHAR) and glutathione reductase (GR) increased after Spd pretreatment in LT affected seedlings. Thus, the oxidative stress was reduced. Protective effects of Spd are also reflected from reduction of methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity by improving glyoxalase cycle components, and by maintaining osmoregulation, water status and improved seedlings growth. The present study reveals the vital roles of AsA-GSH and glyoxalase cycle in alleviating LT injury. PMID:26694373

  14. Assessment of microbial communities in mung bean (Vigna radiata) rhizosphere upon exposure to phytotoxic levels of Copper.

    PubMed

    Sharaff, Murali; Archana, G

    2015-11-01

    Pollution of agricultural soils by Cu is of concern as it could bring about alterations in microbial communities, ultimately eliminating certain plant beneficial bacteria thus disturbing soil fertility and plant growth. To understand the response of rhizobacterial communities upon Cu perturbation, mung bean (Vigna radiata) plants were grown in agricultural soil amended with CuSO4 (0-1000 mg kg(-1) ) under laboratory conditions. Culture-independent and -dependent Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (CI-DGGE and CD-DGGE) fingerprinting techniques were employed to monitor rhizobacterial community shifts upon Cu amendment. In group specific PCR-DGGE, a negative impact was seen on α-Proteobacteria followed by β-Proteobacteria resulting in a concomitant decrease in diversity indices with increased Cu concentration. No significant changes were observed in Firmicutes and Actinomycetes populations. In CD-DGGE rhizobacterial community shift was observed above 500 mg kg(-1) (CuSO4 ), however certain bands were predominantly present in all treatments. Plants showed toxic effects by reduction in growth and elevated Cu accumulation, with root system being affected prominently. From this study it is evident that above 250 mg kg(-1) , rhizobacterial communities are adversely affected. α-Proteobacteria was found to be a sensitive bio-indicator for Cu toxicity and is of particular significance since this group includes majority of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria. PMID:26073767

  15. Strong seed-specific protein expression from the Vigna radiata storage protein 8SGα promoter in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mo-Xian; Zheng, Shu-Xiao; Yang, Yue-Ning; Xu, Chao; Liu, Jie-Sheng; Yang, Wei-Dong; Chye, Mee-Len; Li, Hong-Ye

    2014-03-20

    Vigna radiata (mung bean) is an important crop plant and is a major protein source in developing countries. Mung bean 8S globulins constitute nearly 90% of total seed storage protein and consist of three subunits designated as 8SGα, 8SGα' and 8SGβ. The 5'-flanking sequences of 8SGα' has been reported to confer high expression in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. In this study, a 472-bp 5'-flanking sequence of 8SGα was identified by genome walking. Computational analysis subsequently revealed the presence of numerous putative seed-specific cis-elements within. The 8SGα promoter was then fused to the gene encoding β-glucuronidase (GUS) to create a reporter construct for Arabidopsis thaliana transformation. The spatial and temporal expression of 8SGα∷GUS, as investigated using GUS histochemical assays, showed GUS expression exclusively in transgenic Arabidopsis seeds. Quantitative GUS assays revealed that the 8SGα promoter showed 2- to 4-fold higher activity than the Cauliflower Mosaic Virus (CaMV) 35S promoter. This study has identified a seed-specific promoter of high promoter strength, which is potentially useful for directing foreign protein expression in seed bioreactors. PMID:24503210

  16. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective.

    PubMed

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems-biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  17. Salinity and High Temperature Tolerance in Mungbean [Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek] from a Physiological Perspective

    PubMed Central

    HanumanthaRao, Bindumadhava; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Nayyar, Harsh

    2016-01-01

    Biotic and abiotic constraints seriously affect the productivity of agriculture worldwide. The broadly recognized benefits of legumes in cropping systems—biological nitrogen fixation, improving soil fertility and broadening cereal-based agro-ecologies, are desirable now more than ever. Legume production is affected by hostile environments, especially soil salinity and high temperatures (HTs). Among legumes, mungbean has acceptable intrinsic tolerance mechanisms, but many agro-physiological characteristics of the Vigna species remain to be explored. Mungbean has a distinct advantage of being short-duration and can grow in wide range of soils and environments (as mono or relay legume). This review focuses on salinity and HT stresses on mungbean grown as a fallow crop (mungbean-rice-wheat to replace fallow-rice-wheat) and/or a relay crop in cereal cropping systems. Salinity tolerance comprises multifaceted responses at the molecular, physiological and plant canopy levels. In HTs, adaptation of physiological and biochemical processes gradually may lead to improvement of heat tolerance in plants. At the field level, managing or manipulating cultural practices can mitigate adverse effects of salinity and HT. Greater understanding of physiological and biochemical mechanisms regulating these two stresses will contribute to an evolving profile of the genes, proteins, and metabolites responsible for mungbean survival. We focus on abiotic stresses in legumes in general and mungbean in particular, and highlight gaps that need to be bridged through future mungbean research. Recent findings largely from physiological and biochemical fronts are examined, along with a few agronomic and farm-based management strategies to mitigate stress under field conditions. PMID:27446183

  18. Detoxification potential and expression analysis of eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase (VrALR) during progressive drought and recovery in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Debashree; Mudalkar, Shalini; Reddy, Attipalli R

    2012-10-01

    Generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants is an inevitable consequence of adverse environmental cues and the ability to detoxify deleterious by-products of ROS-mediated oxidation reactions reflect an important defence strategy to combat abiotic stress. Here, we have cloned the eutypine reducing aldehyde reductase gene (VrALR) from Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek roots. We have expressed and purified the VrALR protein and analyzed its enzyme kinetic parameters and catalytic efficiency with three different substrates to confirm its identity. The functional characterization of this enzyme was unravelled through heterologous expression of the gene in Escherichia coli BL21 and an oxidative stress-sensitive Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strain, W3O3-1-A. Finally, the endogenous VrALR enzyme activity and the mRNA expression patterns of the VrALR gene in the roots of V. radiata in response to progressive drought stress in vivo was studied to correlate the ROS-detoxifying role of this important enzyme under the influence of progressive drought stress. Our results, for the first time, demonstrate that eutypine reducing VrALR provides varying degree of stress tolerance in bacteria, yeast systems and also plays a promising protective role against oxidative stress in V. radiata roots during gradual water deprivation. The present study provides an unequivocal evidence to understand the crucial role of aldehyde reductase ROS-detoxifying system which is highly essential for developing stress tolerance in economically important crop plants. PMID:22837052

  19. Metal accumulation and growth response in Vigna radiata L. inoculated with chromate tolerant rhizobacteria and grown on tannery sludge amended soil.

    PubMed

    Singh, N K; Rai, U N; Tewari, A; Singh, M

    2010-01-01

    The effects of inoculation of four chromate tolerant rhizobacterial strains previously isolated from rhizosphere of plants from chromium contaminated area in mung plant Vigna radiata grown on tannery sludge amended soil were evaluated. An increase of 138%, 88%, 256% and 54.14% in root length, shoot length, biomass and total chlorophyll, respectively was observed after 60 days of treatments by consortium. Similarly, a significant enhancement in Fe, Mn, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, Cu and Cd accumulation was observed in consortium inoculated plants as compared to non-inoculated plants. Results showed that rhizobacterial strain helps in ameliorating metal induced phytotoxicity, acquiring higher biomass and metal uptake in the plant may be useful in decontamination of metal from polluted soil. PMID:19784534

  20. Studies on the management of root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita-wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex of green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108

    PubMed Central

    Haseeb, Akhtar; Sharma, Anita; Shukla, Prabhat Kuma

    2005-01-01

    Studies were conducted under pot conditions to determine the comparative efficacy of carbofuran at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, bavistin at 1 mg a.i./kg soil, neem (Azadirachta indica) seed powder at 50 mg/kg soil, green mould (Trichoderma harzianum) at 50.0 ml/kg soil, rhizobacteria (Pseudomonas fluorescens) at 50.0 ml/kg soil against root-knot nematode, Meloidogyne incognita–wilt fungus, Fusarium oxysporum disease complex on green gram, Vigna radiata cv ML-1108. All the treatments significantly improved the growth of the plants as compared to untreated inoculated plants. Analysis of data showed that carbofuran and A. indica seed powder increased plant growth and yield significantly more in comparison to bavistin and P. fluorescens. Carbofuran was highly effective against nematode, bavistin against fungus, A. indica seed powder against both the pathogens and both the bioagents were moderately effective against both the pathogens. PMID:16052706

  1. Effect of soaking and fermentation on content of phenolic compounds of soybean (Glycine max cv. Merit) and mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek).

    PubMed

    María Landete, José; Hernández, Teresa; Robredo, Sergio; Dueñas, Montserrat; de Las Rivas, Blanca; Estrella, Isabel; Muñoz, Rosario

    2015-03-01

    Mung beans (Vigna radiata [L] Wilczek) purchased from a Spanish company as "green soybeans", showed a different phenolic composition than yellow soybeans (Glycine max cv. Merit). Isoflavones were predominant in yellow soybeans, whereas they were completely absent in the green seeds on which flavanones were predominant. In order to enhance their health benefits, both types of bean were subjected to technological processes, such as soaking and fermentation. Soaking increased malonyl glucoside isoflavone extraction in yellow beans and produced an increase in apigenin derivatives in the green beans. Lactobacillus plantarum CECT 748 T fermentation produced an increase in the bioactivity of both beans since a conversion of glycosylated isoflavones into bioactive aglycones and an increase of the bioactive vitexin was observed in yellow and green beans, respectively. In spite of potential consumer confusion, since soybean and "green soybean" are different legumes, the health benefits of both beans were enhanced by lactic fermentation. PMID:25582183

  2. Transcriptional Slippage and RNA Editing Increase the Diversity of Transcripts in Chloroplasts: Insight from Deep Sequencing of Vigna radiata Genome and Transcriptome.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ching-Ping; Ko, Chia-Yun; Kuo, Ching-I; Liu, Mao-Sen; Schafleitner, Roland; Chen, Long-Fang Oliver

    2015-01-01

    We performed deep sequencing of the nuclear and organellar genomes of three mungbean genotypes: Vigna radiata ssp. sublobata TC1966, V. radiata var. radiata NM92 and the recombinant inbred line RIL59 derived from a cross between TC1966 and NM92. Moreover, we performed deep sequencing of the RIL59 transcriptome to investigate transcript variability. The mungbean chloroplast genome has a quadripartite structure including a pair of inverted repeats separated by two single copy regions. A total of 213 simple sequence repeats were identified in the chloroplast genomes of NM92 and RIL59; 78 single nucleotide variants and nine indels were discovered in comparing the chloroplast genomes of TC1966 and NM92. Analysis of the mungbean chloroplast transcriptome revealed mRNAs that were affected by transcriptional slippage and RNA editing. Transcriptional slippage frequency was positively correlated with the length of simple sequence repeats of the mungbean chloroplast genome (R2=0.9911). In total, 41 C-to-U editing sites were found in 23 chloroplast genes and in one intergenic spacer. No editing site that swapped U to C was found. A combination of bioinformatics and experimental methods revealed that the plastid-encoded RNA polymerase-transcribed genes psbF and ndhA are affected by transcriptional slippage in mungbean and in main lineages of land plants, including three dicots (Glycine max, Brassica rapa, and Nicotiana tabacum), two monocots (Oryza sativa and Zea mays), two gymnosperms (Pinus taeda and Ginkgo biloba) and one moss (Physcomitrella patens). Transcript analysis of the rps2 gene showed that transcriptional slippage could affect transcripts at single sequence repeat regions with poly-A runs. It showed that transcriptional slippage together with incomplete RNA editing may cause sequence diversity of transcripts in chloroplasts of land plants. PMID:26076132

  3. A facile biomimetic preparation of highly stabilized silver nanoparticles derived from seed extract of Vigna radiata and evaluation of their antibacterial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Cameotra, Swaranjit Singh; Singh, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    The significant antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles draws the major attention toward the present nanobiotechnology. Also, the use of plant material for the synthesis of metal nanoparticles is considered as a green technology. In this context, a non-toxic, eco-friendly, and cost-effective method has been developed for the synthesis of silver nanoparticles using seed extract of mung beans ( Vigna radiata). The synthesized nanoparticles have been characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The UV-visible spectrum showed an absorption peak at around 440 nm. The different types of phytochemicals present in the seed extract synergistically reduce the Ag metal ions, as each phytochemical is unique in terms of its structure and antioxidant function. The colloidal silver nanoparticles were observed to be highly stable, even after 5 months. XRD analysis showed that the silver nanoparticles are crystalline in nature with face-centered cubic geometry and the TEM micrographs showed spherical particles with an average size of 18 nm. Further, the antibacterial activity of silver nanoparticles was evaluated by well-diffusion method and it was observed that the biogenic silver nanoparticles have an effective antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The outcome of this study could be useful for nanotechnology-based biomedical applications.

  4. Gene Mapping of a Mutant Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) Using New Molecular Markers Suggests a Gene Encoding a YUC4-like Protein Regulates the Chasmogamous Flower Trait.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingbin; Somta, Prakit; Chen, Xin; Cui, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xingxing; Srinives, Peerasak

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is a cleistogamous plant in which flowers are pollinated before they open, which prevents yield improvements through heterosis. We previously generated a chasmogamous mutant (CM) mungbean in which open flowers are pollinated. In this study, we developed insertion/deletion (indel) markers based on the transcriptome differences between CM and Sulu-1 (i.e., normal flowering) plants. An F2 population derived from a cross between CM and Sulu-1 was used for gene mapping. Segregation analyses revealed that a single recessive gene regulates the production of chasmogamous flowers. Using newly developed indel and simple sequence repeat markers, the cha gene responsible for the chasmogamous flower trait was mapped to a 277.1-kb segment on chromosome 6. Twelve candidate genes were detected in this segment, including Vradi06g12650, which encodes a YUCCA family protein associated with floral development. A single base pair deletion producing a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon in Vradi06g12650 was detected only in CM plants. This suggested that Vradi06g12650 is a cha candidate gene. Our results provide important information for the molecular breeding of chasmogamous mungbean lines, which may serve as new genetic resources for hybrid cultivar development. PMID:27375671

  5. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems

    PubMed Central

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md. Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, O2•- generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  6. Detection of quantitative trait loci for mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) resistance in mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) in India and Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Kitsanachandee, Ratanakorn; Somta, Prakit; Chatchawankanphanich, Orawan; Akhtar, Khalid P.; Shah, Tariq Mahmud; Nair, Ramakrishnan M.; Bains, Tejinderjit S.; Sirari, Asmita; Kaur, Livinder; Srinives, Peerasak

    2013-01-01

    Yellow mosaic disease (YMD) is one of the major diseases affecting mungbean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek). In this study, we report the mapping of the quantitative trait locus (QTL) for mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV) resistance in mungbean. An F8 recombinant inbred line (RIL) mapping population was generated in Thailand from a cross between NM10-12-1 (MYMIV resistance) and KPS2 (MYMIV susceptible). One hundred and twenty-two RILs and their parents were evaluated for MYMIV resistance in infested fields in India and Pakistan. A genetic linkage map was developed for the RIL population using simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. Composite interval mapping identified five QTLs for MYMIV resistance: three QTLs for India (qYMIV1, qYMIV2 and qYMIV3) and two QTLs for Pakistan (qYMIV4 and qYMIV5). qYMIV1, qYMIV2, qYMIV3, qYMIV4 and qYMIV5 explained 9.33%, 10.61%, 12.55%, 21.93% and 6.24% of variation in disease responses, respectively. qYMIV1 and qYMIV4 appeared to be the same locus and were common to a major QTL for MYMIV resistance in India identified previously using a different resistant mungbean. PMID:24399908

  7. Gene Mapping of a Mutant Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) Using New Molecular Markers Suggests a Gene Encoding a YUC4-like Protein Regulates the Chasmogamous Flower Trait

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jingbin; Somta, Prakit; Chen, Xin; Cui, Xiaoyan; Yuan, Xingxing; Srinives, Peerasak

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) is a cleistogamous plant in which flowers are pollinated before they open, which prevents yield improvements through heterosis. We previously generated a chasmogamous mutant (CM) mungbean in which open flowers are pollinated. In this study, we developed insertion/deletion (indel) markers based on the transcriptome differences between CM and Sulu-1 (i.e., normal flowering) plants. An F2 population derived from a cross between CM and Sulu-1 was used for gene mapping. Segregation analyses revealed that a single recessive gene regulates the production of chasmogamous flowers. Using newly developed indel and simple sequence repeat markers, the cha gene responsible for the chasmogamous flower trait was mapped to a 277.1-kb segment on chromosome 6. Twelve candidate genes were detected in this segment, including Vradi06g12650, which encodes a YUCCA family protein associated with floral development. A single base pair deletion producing a frame-shift mutation and a premature stop codon in Vradi06g12650 was detected only in CM plants. This suggested that Vradi06g12650 is a cha candidate gene. Our results provide important information for the molecular breeding of chasmogamous mungbean lines, which may serve as new genetic resources for hybrid cultivar development. PMID:27375671

  8. Polyamines Confer Salt Tolerance in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata L.) by Reducing Sodium Uptake, Improving Nutrient Homeostasis, Antioxidant Defense, and Methylglyoxal Detoxification Systems.

    PubMed

    Nahar, Kamrun; Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Rahman, Anisur; Alam, Md Mahabub; Mahmud, Jubayer-Al; Suzuki, Toshisada; Fujita, Masayuki

    2016-01-01

    The physiological roles of PAs (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine) were investigated for their ability to confer salt tolerance (200 mM NaCl, 48 h) in mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L. cv. BARI Mung-2). Salt stress resulted in Na toxicity, decreased K, Ca, Mg, and Zn contents in roots and shoots, and disrupted antioxidant defense system which caused oxidative damage as indicated by increased lipid peroxidation, H2O2 content, [Formula: see text] generation rate, and lipoxygenase activity. Salinity-induced methylglyoxal (MG) toxicity was also clearly evident. Salinity decreased leaf chlorophyll (chl) and relative water content (RWC). Supplementation of salt affected seedlings with exogenous PAs enhanced the contents of glutathione and ascorbate, increased activities of antioxidant enzymes (dehydroascorbate reductase, glutathione reductase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase) and glyoxalase enzyme (glyoxalase II), which reduced salt-induced oxidative stress and MG toxicity, respectively. Exogenous PAs reduced cellular Na content and maintained nutrient homeostasis and modulated endogenous PAs levels in salt affected mung bean seedlings. The overall salt tolerance was reflected through improved tissue water and chl content, and better seedling growth. PMID:27516763

  9. Biogenic green synthesis of monodispersed gum kondagogu (Cochlospermum gossypium) iron nanocomposite material and its application in germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata) as a plant model.

    PubMed

    Raju, Dugyala; Mehta, Urmil J; Beedu, Sashidhar Rao

    2016-06-01

    An eco-friendly green and one-pot synthesis of highly monodispersed iron (Fe) nanoparticles (NPs) by using a natural biopolymer, gum kondagogu (GK) as reducing and capping agent is proposed. The NPs synthesised were characterised by ultra-violet-visible spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. As the concentration of gum and time increases, the intensity of NPs formation increased. The NPs were highly monodispersed with uniform circular shapes of 2-6 nm in size. The formed NPs were crystalline in nature which was confirmed by diffraction analysis. The conversion ratio of Fe ionic form to NPs was 21% which was quantified by inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). Fe is essential for plant growth and development. A study was conducted to examine the effect of these NPs on the growth of mung bean (Vigna radiata). The radical length and biomass was increased in seeds exposed to Fe NPs than the ions. The uptake of Fe NPs by the sprouts was also quantified by ICP-MS, in which Fe was more in mung bean seeds exposed to NPs. The α-amylase activity was increased in the seeds exposed to NPs. The observed increase in the biomass by Fe NPs and seed germination may facilitate its application in the agriculture as an important cost-effective method for plant growth. PMID:27256894

  10. Seed priming with BABA (β-amino butyric acid): a cost-effective method of abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek.

    PubMed

    Jisha, K C; Puthur, Jos T

    2016-03-01

    The effects of β-amino butyric acid (BABA) on abiotic stress tolerance potential of three Vigna radiata varieties were studied. The reduction in the growth of seedlings subjected to NaCl/polyethylene glycol (PEG) stress is alleviated by BABA seed priming, which also enhanced photosynthetic pigment content and photosynthetic and mitochondrial activities, and also modified the chlorophyll a fluorescence-related parameters. Moreover, BABA seed priming reduced malondialdehyde content in the seedlings and enhanced the accumulation of proline, total protein, total carbohydrate, nitrate reductase activity, and activities of antioxidant enzymes like guaiacol peroxidase and superoxide dismutase. Most of these positive features of BABA priming were predominantly exhibited when the plants were encountered with stress (NaCl/PEG). The BABA content in the BABA-treated green gram seeds and seedlings was also detected and quantified with high-performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC), and it revealed that the priming effect of BABA initiated in seeds and further gets carried over to the seedlings. It was concluded that BABA seed priming improved the drought and salinity stress tolerance potential of all the three green gram varieties, and it was evident in the NaCl-tolerant variety Pusa Vishal as compared to Pusa Ratna (abiotic stress sensitive) and Pusa 9531(drought tolerant). Dual mode in cost effectiveness of BABA priming is evident from: (1) the positive features of priming are being exhibited more during the exposure of plants to stress, and (2) priming of seedlings can be carried out by BABA application to seeds at very low concentration and volume. PMID:25837010

  11. Effects of ultraviolet irradiation, pulsed electric field, hot water dip and ethanol vapours treatment on keeping and sensory quality of mung bean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) sprouts.

    PubMed

    Goyal, Ankit; Siddiqui, Saleem

    2014-10-01

    The objective of this research work was to evaluate the effects of UV- irradiation, pulsed electric field (PEF), hot water dip (HWD) and ethanol vapours on the quality and storage life of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek). The sprouts were subjected to various treatments viz., UV-Irradiation (10 kJm(-2) in laminar flow chamber for 1 h), PEF (10,000 V for 10s), HWD (50 °C for 2 min) and ethanol vapours (1 h); and then stored in thermocol cups wrapped with perforated cling films at room (25 ± 1 °C) and low (7 ± 1 °C) temperature conditions. The sprouts were analyzed regularly at 24 h interval for sprout length, sprout weight, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity, non-enzymatic browning, total plate count and overall acceptability. Sprout length and weight increased during storage. There was no significant effect of various treatments on sprout length and weight, except in ethanol treatment, where suppression was observed. HWD showed higher TSS and acidity than that of control. The least browning was observed in ethanol treatment. The total plate count was not significantly affected by various treatments. Overall acceptability under various treatments decreased during storage period both at room and low temperature. Hot water and ethanol vapour treated sprouts showed higher acceptability than other treatments. However, the acceptability scores for sprouts remained within the acceptable range (≥6) up to 72 h at room temperature and 120 h at low temperature conditions. PMID:25328209

  12. Response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to an application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer grown on Olasiti soils from Minjingu-Manyara, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Kisetu, Eliakira; Teveli, Christina Ngomzee Medutieki

    2013-11-15

    A screen-house pot experiment was conducted to assess the response of green gram (Vigna radiata L.) to the application of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer (31% P2O5) on Olasiti soil, Manyara Region-Tanzania. This study was prompted by very low or limited use of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer by smallholder farmers in the country while yields turnout of most crops, green gram inclusive, is not promising. The soil was clay with medium pH (pH 5.5-7.0) and neutral reaction (pH 6.6-7.3). The results showed that the number of pods and seeds increased from 3-6 and 7-9, respectively, at 40 to 160 mg per 4 kg soil of fertilizer applied. Similarly, the tissue N and P increased with treatment levels. The number of pods per plant and seeds per pod showed similar increase, signifying the role of these nutrients in protein synthesis in leguminous plants like green gram. Soil properties could be the spearhead to low responses obtained at low (< 80 mg per 4 kg soil) and high (> 320 mg per 4 kg soil) rates of Minjingu Mazao fertilizer applied. It was concluded that to optimize green gram production in Olasiti soil, Minjingu Mazao fertilizer containing 31% P2O5 should be applied at a rate of 160-320 kg ha(-1) while considering other necessary agronomic practices. However, field studies to confirm the findings of this study and verify the usefulness of this fertilizer brand to green gram in Olasiti soil under field conditions could practically be the viable option before its recommendation to the smallholder farmers. PMID:24511709

  13. Biochemical and physiological characteristics of tropical mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) cultivars against chronic ozone stress: an insight to cultivar-specific response.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Amit Kumar; Agrawal, S B

    2015-05-01

    Surface-level ozone (O3) has been regarded as one of the most significant phytotoxic pollutants worldwide. Investigations addressing adverse impacts of elevated O3 on mung bean (Vigna radiata L.), an important leguminous crop of the Indian subcontinent, are still limited. The present study analyzed the differences on the foliar injury, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, antioxidative defense system, physiology, and foliar protein profile of two tropical mung bean cultivars (HUM-2 and HUM-6) exposed to elevated O3 under near-natural conditions. Both cultivars were negatively affected by the pollutant, but the response was cultivar-specific. Results revealed that elevated O3 induced higher levels of ROS (O2 (·-) and H2O2) and lipid peroxidation leading to greater foliar injury in HUM-2 compared to HUM-6. Photosynthetic pigments, photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance, and photochemical efficiency reduced under elevated O3 exposure and the extent of reduction was higher in HUM-2. Principal component analysis revealed that photosynthetic performance and quantum yield were drastically affected in HUM-2 as compared to HUM-6. Activities of antioxidative enzymes were also stimulated, suggesting generation of oxidative stress under elevated O3. HUM-6 showed higher induction of antioxidative enzymes than HUM-2. One-dimensional gel electrophoresis analysis showed drastic reductions in the abundantly present ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO) large and small subunits and the decrease was higher in HUM-2. Altogether, results suggested that higher accumulation of ROS and limited induction of antioxidant defense system led to more leaf injury and impairment of photosynthesis in HUM-2 than HUM-6 depicting its higher sensitivity towards elevated O3. PMID:25326391

  14. Purification and characterization of an allosteric fructose-1,6-bisphosphate aldolase from germinating mung beans (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Lal, Ashish; Plaxton, William C; Kayastha, Arvind M

    2005-05-01

    Cytosolic fructose-1,6-P(2) (FBP) aldolase (ALD(c)) from germinated mung beans has been purified 1078-fold to electrophoretic homogeneity and a final specific activity of 15.1 micromol FBP cleaved/min per mg of protein. SDS-PAGE of the final preparation revealed a single protein-staining band of 40 kDa that cross-reacted strongly with rabbit anti-(carrot ALD(c))-IgG. The enzyme's native M(r) was determined by gel filtration chromatography to be 160 kDa, indicating a homotetrameric quaternary structure. This ALD is a class I ALD, since EDTA or Mg(2+) had no effect on its activity, and was relatively heat-stable losing 0-25% of its activity when incubated for 5 min at 55-65 degrees C. It demonstrated: (i) a temperature coefficient (Q(10)) of 1.7; (ii) an activation energy of 9.2 kcal/mol active site; and (iii) a broad pH-activity optima of 7.5. Mung bean ALD(c) is bifunctional for FBP and sedoheptulose-1,7-P(2) (K(m) approximately 17 microM for both substrates). ATP, ADP, AMP and ribose-5-P exerted inhibitory effects on the activity of the purified enzyme. Ribose-5-P, ADP and AMP functioned as competitive inhibitors (K(i) values=2.2, 3.1 and 7.5mM, respectively). By contrast, the addition of 2mM ATP: (i) reduced V(max) by about 2-fold, (ii) increased K(m)(FBP) by about 4-fold, and (iii) shifted the FBP saturation kinetic plot from hyperbolic to sigmoidal (h=1.0 and 2.6 in the absence and presence of 2mM ATP, respectively). Potent feedback inhibition of ALD(c) by ATP is suggested to help balance cellular ATP demands with the control of cytosolic glycolysis and respiration in germinating mung beans. PMID:15896364

  15. Alternative respiratory path capacity in plant mitochondria: effect of growth temperature, the electrochemical gradient, and assay pH. [Zea mays L. , Vigna radiata L. , Symplocarpus foetidus L. , Sauromatum guttatum Schott

    SciTech Connect

    Elthon, T.E.; Stewart, C.R.; McCoy, C.A.; Bonner, W.D. Jr.

    1986-02-01

    Influence of growth temperature on the capacity of the mitochondrial alternative pathway of electron transport was investigated using etiolated corn (Zea mays L.) seedlings. These seedlings were grown to comparable size in either a warm (30/sup 0/C) or a cold (13/sup 0/C) temperature regime, and then their respiration rates were measured as O/sub 2/ uptake at 25/sup 0/C. The capacity of the alternative pathway (KCN-insensitive O/sub 2/ uptake) was found essentially to double in shoots of cold-grown seedlings. When mitochondria were isolated from the shoots a greater potential for flow through the alternative path was observed in mitochondria from the cold-grown seedlings with all substrates used (an average increase of 84%). Using exogenous NADH as the substrate, the effect of the electrochemical gradient on measurable capacities of the cytochrome and alternative pathways was investigated in mitochondria from both etiolated seedlings and thermogenic spadices. In corn shoot and mung bean (Vigna radiata L.) hypocotyl mitochondria increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the electrochemical gradient was found not to influence the potential for flow through the alternative path. However, in mitochondria from skunk cabbage (Symplocarpus foetidus L.) and voodoo lily (Sauromatum gutatum Schott) spadices increased flow through the cytochrome chain in the absence of the gradient occurred at the expense of flow through the alternative pathway. This experiment also revealed that the potential for respiratory control is largely dependent upon the assay pH.

  16. Genome sequence of mungbean and insights into evolution within Vigna species

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Yang Jae; Kim, Sue K.; Kim, Moon Young; Lestari, Puji; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Bo-Keun; Jun, Tae Hwan; Hwang, Won Joo; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Shim, Sangrea; Yoon, Min Young; Jang, Young Eun; Han, Kwang Soo; Taeprayoon, Puntaree; Yoon, Na; Somta, Prakit; Tanya, Patcharin; Kim, Kwang Soo; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Bombarely, Aureliano; Doyle, Jeffrey J.; Jackson, Scott A.; Schafleitner, Roland; Srinives, Peerasak; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2014-01-01

    Mungbean (Vigna radiata) is a fast-growing, warm-season legume crop that is primarily cultivated in developing countries of Asia. Here we construct a draft genome sequence of mungbean to facilitate genome research into the subgenus Ceratotropis, which includes several important dietary legumes in Asia, and to enable a better understanding of the evolution of leguminous species. Based on the de novo assembly of additional wild mungbean species, the divergence of what was eventually domesticated and the sampled wild mungbean species appears to have predated domestication. Moreover, the de novo assembly of a tetraploid Vigna species (V. reflexo-pilosa var. glabra) provides genomic evidence of a recent allopolyploid event. The species tree is constructed using de novo RNA-seq assemblies of 22 accessions of 18 Vigna species and protein sets of Glycine max. The present assembly of V. radiata var. radiata will facilitate genome research and accelerate molecular breeding of the subgenus Ceratotropis. PMID:25384727

  17. Draft genome sequence of adzuki bean, Vigna angularis.

    PubMed

    Kang, Yang Jae; Satyawan, Dani; Shim, Sangrea; Lee, Taeyoung; Lee, Jayern; Hwang, Won Joo; Kim, Sue K; Lestari, Puji; Laosatit, Kularb; Kim, Kil Hyun; Ha, Tae Joung; Chitikineni, Annapurna; Kim, Moon Young; Ko, Jong-Min; Gwag, Jae-Gyun; Moon, Jung-Kyung; Lee, Yeong-Ho; Park, Beom-Seok; Varshney, Rajeev K; Lee, Suk-Ha

    2015-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis var. angularis) is a dietary legume crop in East Asia. The presumed progenitor (Vigna angularis var. nipponensis) is widely found in East Asia, suggesting speciation and domestication in these temperate climate regions. Here, we report a draft genome sequence of adzuki bean. The genome assembly covers 75% of the estimated genome and was mapped to 11 pseudo-chromosomes. Gene prediction revealed 26,857 high confidence protein-coding genes evidenced by RNAseq of different tissues. Comparative gene expression analysis with V. radiata showed that the tissue specificity of orthologous genes was highly conserved. Additional re-sequencing of wild adzuki bean, V. angularis var. nipponensis, and V. nepalensis, was performed to analyze the variations between cultivated and wild adzuki bean. The determined divergence time of adzuki bean and the wild species predated archaeology-based domestication time. The present genome assembly will accelerate the genomics-assisted breeding of adzuki bean. PMID:25626881

  18. Proximate composition and antinutritional factors in rice bean (Vigna umbellata).

    PubMed

    Malhotra, S; Malik, D; Dhindsa, K S

    1988-01-01

    Thirteen promising strains of Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) were analysed for their proximate compositions and antinutritional factors. Protein content in these varieties ranged from 17.50 to 23.10 per cent, ash from 3.06 to 4.48 per cent, ether extract from 2.4 to 3.9 per cent and crude fibre from 1.70 to 4.25 per cent. Trypsin inhibitor activity ranged from 112.63 to 163.98 units/g and polyphenols ranged from 0.58 to 1.19 per cent. Phytohemagglutinating activity was present in all the strains, except one, RB-32. Oligosaccharides, viz., raffinose, stachyose and verbascose, ranged from 0.32 to 0.91, 0.95 to 1.98 and 1.40 to 2.58 per cent, respectively. Attempts have been made to compare the results with a standard variety each of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), moong (Vigna radiata) and mash (Vigna mungo). PMID:3231596

  19. Genetic Confirmation of Mungbean (Vigna radiata) and Mashbean (Vigna mungo) Interspecific Recombinants using Molecular Markers

    PubMed Central

    Abbas, Ghulam; Hameed, Amjad; Rizwan, Muhammad; Ahsan, Muhammad; Asghar, Muhammad J.; Iqbal, Nayyer

    2015-01-01

    Molecular confirmation of interspecific recombinants is essential to overcome the issues like self-pollination, environmental influence, and inadequacy of morphological characteristics during interspecific hybridization. The present study was conducted for genetic confirmation of mungbean (female) and mashbean (male) interspecific crosses using molecular markers. Initially, polymorphic random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), universal rice primers (URP), and simple sequence repeats (SSR) markers differentiating parent genotypes were identified. Recombination in hybrids was confirmed using these polymorphic DNA markers. The NM 2006 × Mash 88 was most successful interspecific cross. Most of true recombinants confirmed by molecular markers were from this cross combination. SSR markers were efficient in detecting genetic variability and recombination with reference to specific chromosomes and particular loci. SSR (RIS) and RAPD identified variability dispersed throughout the genome. In conclusion, DNA based marker assisted selection (MAS) efficiently confirmed the interspecific recombinants. The results provided evidence that MAS can enhance the authenticity of selection in mungbean improvement program. PMID:26697053

  20. Bioassay development using early life stages of the marine macroalga, Ecklonia radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Bidwell, J.R.; Wheeler, K.D.; Roper, J.; Burridge, T.R.

    1995-12-31

    A lack of standard toxicity test methods for species native to Australia has stimulated research to overcome this deficiency. In the present work, germination inhibition was utilized as an endpoint in 48h bioassays with the marine macroalga Ecklonia radiata. E radiata is often a dominant member of temperate subtidal communities in Australia and other parts of the southern hemisphere. The alga fills an ecological niche similar to that of Macrocystis pyrifera, the giant kelp which occurs in the northern hemisphere. In an adaptation of test methods used for M. pyrifera, release of E. radiata zoospores was induced in the laboratory. Settled spores were then exposed to toxicants for 48 h and germination success was determined by scoring the spores for the development of a germination tube. At 20 C, EC{sub 50} values ranging between 53.4 and 77.4 mg/L were generated in tests with hexavalent chromium (potassium chromate). The EC{sub 50} for copper (cupric chloride) was 0.53 mg/L. Sensitivity of E. radiata to metals such as copper may have significance toward assessing the environmental impacts of some antifoulant coatings used on seagoing vessels. In future studies, growth of zoospore germination tubes and comparative sensitivity of different E. radiata populations will be examined.

  1. Differential sensitivity of membrane-associated pyrophosphatases to inhibition by diphosphonates and fluoride delineates two classes of enzyme.

    PubMed

    Baykov, A A; Dubnova, E B; Bakuleva, N P; Evtushenko, O A; Zhen, R G; Rea, P A

    1993-07-26

    1,1-Diphosphonate analogs of pyrophosphate, containing an amino or a hydroxyl group on the bridge carbon atom, are potent inhibitors of the H(+)-translocating pyrophosphatases of chromatophores prepared from the bacterium Rhodospirillum rubrum and vacuolar membrane vesicles prepared from the plant Vigna radiata. The inhibition constant for aminomethylenediphosphonate, which binds competitively with respect to substrate, is below 2 microM. Rat liver mitochondrial pyrophosphatase is two orders of magnitude less sensitive to this compound but extremely sensitive to imidodiphosphate. By contrast, fluoride is highly effective only against the mitochondrial pyrophosphatase. It is concluded that the mitochondrial pyrophosphatase and the H(+)-pyrophosphatases of chromatophores and vacuolar membranes belong to two different classes of enzyme. PMID:8392953

  2. Community Profiling of Culturable Fluorescent Pseudomonads in the Rhizosphere of Green Gram (Vigna radiata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Sarma, Rupak K.; Gogoi, Animesh; Dehury, Budheswar; Debnath, Rajal; Bora, Tarun C.; Saikia, Ratul

    2014-01-01

    Study on microbial diversity in the unexplored rhizosphere is important to understand their community structure, biology and ecological interaction with the host plant. This research assessed the genetic and functional diversity of fluorescent pseudomonads [FP] in the green gram rhizophere. One hundred and twenty types of morphologically distinct fluorescent pseudomonads were isolated during vegetative as well as reproductive growth phase of green gram. Rep PCR, ARDRA and RISA revealed two distinct clusters in each case at 75, 61 and 70% similarity coefficient index respectively. 16S rRNA partial sequencing analysis of 85 distantly related fluorescent pseudomonads depicted Pseudomonas aeruginosa as the dominant group. Out of 120 isolates, 23 (19%) showed antagonistic activity towards phytopathogenic fungi. These bacterial isolates showed varied production of salicylic acid, HCN and chitinase, 2, 4-diacetylphloroglucinol (DAPG), phenazine-1-carboxylic acid (PCA) and pyoluteorin (PLT). Production efficiency of inherent level of plant growth promoting (PGP) traits among the 120 isolates demonstrated that 10 (8%) solubilised inorganic phosphates, 25 (20%) produced indoles and 5 (4%) retained ACC deaminase activity. Pseudomonas aeruginosa GGRJ21 showed the highest production of all antagonistic and plant growth promoting (PGP) traits. In a greenhouse experiment, GGRJ21 suppressed root rot disease of green gram by 28–93% (p = 0.05). Consistent up regulation of three important stress responsive genes, i.e., acdS, KatA and gbsA and elevated production efficiency of different PGP traits could promote GGRJ21 as a potent plant growth regulator. PMID:25279790

  3. [Characterization of aldehyde dehydrogenase gene fragment from mung bean Vigna radiata using the polymerase chain reaction].

    PubMed

    Ponomarev, A G; Bubiakina, V V; Tatarinova, T D; Zelenin, S M

    1998-01-01

    Two degenerate oligonucleotide sequence primers and polymerase chain reactions on total DNA have been utilized to clone on 651--bp gene fragment coding the central part of amino acid sequence of an earlier unknown aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) from mung bean. The deduced partial amino acid sequence for this aldehyde dehydrogenase shows about 65% sequence identity to ALDHs of Vibrio cholerae Rhodococcus sp., Alcaligenes eutrophus and about 45% sequence identity to mammalian ALDHs 1 and 2, ALDHs of Aspergillus niger and A, nidulans, the betain aldehyde dehydrogenase from spinach. Alignment of the mung bean aldehyde dehydrogenase partial amino acid sequence with the sequence of 16 NAD(P)(+)-dependent aldehyde dehydrogenases has demonstrated that all strictly conserved amino acid residues and all three conservative regions are identical. PMID:9778740

  4. Mining SNPs and Indels in Mung Bean (Vigna radiata) by Ecotilling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Ecotilling is a powerful genetic analysis tool. It can provide rapid identification of naturally occurring Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) and small insertion/deletions (indels) in a pool of accessions for a gene of interest. This technique eliminates the time consuming and expensive proced...

  5. Effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts (Vigna radiata).

    PubMed

    Guo, Xinbo; Li, Tong; Tang, Kexuan; Liu, Rui Hai

    2012-11-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that regular consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with reduced risk of chronic diseases. It is recommended to increase consumption of fruits and vegetables to prevent chronic diseases related to free radical-induced oxidative stress. Different varieties of fruits and vegetables provide different vitamins, phenolics, flavonoids, minerals, and dietary fibers for optimal health benefits. Mung bean sprouts are one of the major vegetables in human diet. However, the profiles of phytochemicals and effect of germination on phytochemical content and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts have not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of germination on phytochemical profiles and antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts. Germination of mung beans dramatically increased vitamin C content in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner and reached the peak on day 8 of germination up to 285 mg/100 g DW, almost 24 times higher than the initial concentration in mung bean seeds (p < 0.05). On fresh weight basis, one serving of mung bean sprouts (about 104 g) provides 21.6 mg of vitamin C, which could meet 36% of Daily Value (DV). In addition, the germination dramatically increased total phenolic compounds and total flavonoids in mung bean sprouts in a time-dependent manner, up to 4.5 and 6.8 times higher than the original concentration of mung bean seeds, respectively. Quercetin-3-O-glucoside content was significantly increased in mung bean sprouts after germination. The total antioxidant activity of mung bean sprouts was increased by 6 times higher than that of mung bean seeds. Therefore, the germination of mung bean sprouts significantly increased phytochemical content, vitamin C content, and antioxidant activity. PMID:23088738

  6. 6-benzyladenine metabolism during reinvigoration of mature Pinus radiata buds in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huaibi; Horgan, Kathryn J; Reynolds, Paul H S; Jameson, Paula E

    2010-04-01

    Maturation or phase change is a serious challenge in the deployment of superior trees of Pinus radiata D. Don because of the difficulties associated with propagation of cuttings from mature trees. We used an in vitro system to study 6-benzyladenine (BA)-induced reinvigoration of the fascicle meristems of mature buds during in vitro culture. Anatomical examinations revealed that BA inhibited the development of secondary needle primordia and 'rejuvenated' the fascicle meristems of the mature bud to produce primary needles, which are characteristic of the juvenile phase in P. radiata. Without BA supplement in the culture media, fascicle primordia continued developing secondary needles and quiescent fascicle meristems. BA metabolite analysis showed that the novel cytokinin pathway reported previously in P. radiata (H. Zhang, K.J. Horgan, P.H.S. Reynolds, G.E. Norris and P.E. Jameson. 2001. Novel cytokinins: The predominant forms in mature buds of Pinus radiata. Physiol. Plant. 112: 127-134) was mirrored in vitro, with BA converted into a variety of metabolites including 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine and its novel phosphorylated form, 6-benzylamino-9-glucopyranosylribosyl-purine. The culture of mature buds in the presence of BA caused a reduction in the level of endogenous cytokinins, suggesting a direct action of BA itself. Similar correlations are noted between levels of certain metabolites and the maturation status of buds from field-grown trees and buds in culture, indicating that this in vitro system may be a good model for studying the processes of maturation and reinvigoration. PMID:20144924

  7. Adsorption kinetics and equilibrium study of nitrogen species onto radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust.

    PubMed

    Harmayani, Kadek D; Faisal Anwar, A H M

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen species (NH3-N, NO3-N, and NO2-N) are found as one of the major dissolved constituents in wastewater or stormwater runoff. In this research, laboratory experiments were conducted to remove these pollutants from the water environment using radiata pine (Pinus radiata) sawdust. A series of batch tests was conducted by varying initial concentration, dosage, particle size, pH, and contact time to check the removal performance. Test results confirmed the effectiveness of radiata pine sawdust for removing these contaminants from the aqueous phase (100% removal of NO3-N, and NO2-N; 55% removal of NH3-N). The adsorbent dosage and initial concentration showed a significantly greater effect on the removal process over pH or particle sizes. The optimum dosage for contaminant removal on a laboratory scale was found to be 12 g. Next, the adsorption kinetics were studied using intraparticle diffusion, liquid-film diffusion, and a pseudo-first order and pseudo-second order model. The adsorption of all species followed a pseudo-second order model but NO2-N adsorption followed both models. In addition, the kinetics of NO2-N adsorption showed two-step adsorption following intraparticle diffusion and liquid-film diffusion. The isotherm study showed that NO3-N and NO2-N adsorption fitted slightly better with the Freundlich model but that NH3-N adsorption followed both Freundlich and Langmuir models. PMID:27438245

  8. Constituents from Vigna vexillata and Their Anti-Inflammatory Activity

    PubMed Central

    Leu, Yann-Lii; Hwang, Tsong-Long; Kuo, Ping-Chung; Liou, Kun-Pei; Huang, Bow-Shin; Chen, Guo-Feng

    2012-01-01

    The seeds of Vigna genus are important food resources and there have already been many reports regarding their bioactivities. In our preliminary bioassay, the chloroform layer of methanol extracts of V. vexillata demonstrated significant anti-inflammatory bioactivity. Therefore, the present research is aimed to purify and identify the anti-inflammatory principles of V. vexillata. One new sterol (1) and two new isoflavones (2,3) were reported from the natural sources for the first time and their chemical structures were determined by the spectroscopic and mass spectrometric analyses. In addition, 37 known compounds were identified by comparison of their physical and spectroscopic data with those reported in the literature. Among the isolates, daidzein (23), abscisic acid (25), and quercetin (40) displayed the most significant inhibition of superoxide anion generation and elastase release. PMID:22949828

  9. Copper nanoparticle (CuNP) nanochain arrays with a reduced toxicity response: a biophysical and biochemical outlook on Vigna radiata.

    PubMed

    Pradhan, Saheli; Patra, Prasun; Mitra, Shouvik; Dey, Kushal Kumar; Basu, Satakshi; Chandra, Sourov; Palit, Pratip; Goswami, Arunava

    2015-03-18

    Copper deficiency or toxicity in agricultural soil circumscribes a plant's growth and physiology, hampering photochemical and biochemical networks within the system. So far, copper sulfate (CS) has been used widely despite its toxic effect. To get around this long-standing problem, copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) have been synthesized, characterized, and tested on mung bean plants along with commercially available salt CS, to observe morphological abnormalities enforced if any. CuNPs enhanced photosynthetic activity by modulating fluorescence emission, photophosphorylation, electron transport chain (ETC), and carbon assimilatory pathway under controlled laboratory conditions, as revealed from biochemical and biophysical studies on treated isolated mung bean chloroplast. CuNPs at the recommended dose worked better than CS in plants in terms of basic morphology, pigment contents, and antioxidative activities. CuNPs showed elevated nitrogen assimilation compared to CS. At higher doses CS was found to be toxic to the plant system, whereas CuNP did not impart any toxicity to the system including morphological and/or physiological alterations. This newly synthesized polymer-encapsulated CuNPs can be utilized as nutritional amendment to balance the nutritional disparity enforced by copper imbalance. PMID:25686266

  10. Roller milling fractionation of green gram (Vigna radiata): optimization of milling conditions and chemical characterization of millstreams.

    PubMed

    Sakhare, Suresh D; Inamdar, Aashitosh A; Gaikwad, Shwetha B; D, Indrani; G, Vekateswara Rao

    2014-12-01

    In the view of recent growing interest in utilization of grain fractions as food ingredient, present investigation was carried out to evaluate the roller milling potential of green gram. The effect of conditioning moistures on green gram roller milling were studied. The results showed decrease in flour yield from 85.56 to 58.74 % with increase in conditioning moisture from 10 to 16 %. Higher yield of flour was observed from the first (C1), second (C2) and third (C3) reduction passages; whereas, the first (B1), second (B2) and third (B3) break passages produced less flour. The distribution of protein, dietary fiber, ash and fat in different flour streams and by-products from roller milled fractions of green gram showed wide variation. The protein content increased with increasing numbers of breaks and reductions in the flour streams. The highest protein content of 30.16 % was found in bran duster flour and lowest (11.32 %) in fine seed coat. The protein content of break streams was found lower than reduction streams. The dietary fiber content of coarse seed coat was highest (71.17 %) followed by the fine seed coat (57.22 %). The microstructure studies of milled fractions of green gram showed more deformed and damaged starch granules in reduction flour streams than break flour streams. PMID:25477653

  11. Phytoremediation of dye contaminated soil by Leucaena leucocephala (subabul) seed and growth assessment of Vigna radiata in the remediated soil

    PubMed Central

    Jayanthy, V.; Geetha, R.; Rajendran, R.; Prabhavathi, P.; Karthik Sundaram, S.; Dinesh Kumar, S.; Santhanam, P.

    2013-01-01

    The present study was investigated for soil bioremediation through sababul plant biomass (Leucaena leucocephala). The soil contaminated with textile effluent was collected from Erode (chithode) area. Various physico-chemical characterizations like N, P, and K and electrical conductivity were assessed on both control and dye contaminated soils before and after remediation. Sababul (L. leucocephala) powder used as plant biomass for remediation was a tool for textile dye removal using basic synthetic dyes by column packing and eluting. The concentration of the dye eluted was compared with its original concentration of dye and were analyzed by using UV–vis spectrophotometer. Sababul plant biomass was analyzed for its physico-chemical properties and active compounds were detected by GC–MS, HPTLC and FTIR. Plant growth was assessed with green gram on the textile contaminated soil and sababul had the potential of adsorbing the dye as the contaminated soil and also check the growth of green gram. PMID:25183943

  12. Morphological and Pathogenic Variability among Macrophomina phaseolina Isolates Associated with Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) Wilczek from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Iqbal, Umer

    2014-01-01

    Macrophomina phaseolina is a serious pathogen of many crops. In the present studies, 65 isolates of Macrophomina phaseolina from different agroecological regions of Punjab and Khyber Pakhtunkhwa provinces of Pakistan were analyzed for morphological and pathogenic variability. Regardless of their geographic origins, significant differences were detected among 65 isolates in their radial growth, sclerotial size, and weight as well as in pathogenicity. Sixteen isolates were rated as fast growing, 11 as slow growing, and the rest of the isolates as medium growing. Nine isolates were classified as large sized, 26 as small sized, and the remaining 30 isolates as medium sized. Thirty five isolates were ranked as heavy weight, 12 as low weight, and the rest of isolates were grouped as medium weight. Ten fungal isolates appeared to be least virulent, whereas eight isolates of diverse origin proved to be highly virulent against mungbean cultivars. The remaining isolates were regarded as moderately virulent. No relationship was found among the morphological characters and pathogenicity of the isolates. These morphological and pathogenic variations in various isolates of M. phaseolina may be considered important in disease management systems and will be useful in breeding programmes of mungbean cultivars resistant to charcoal rot. PMID:24558345

  13. Physiochemical Studies of Sodium Chloride on Mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) and Its Possible Recovery with Spermine and Gibberellic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Mitra, Sanglap; Paul, Atreyee

    2015-01-01

    The physiological and biochemical responses to increasing NaCl concentrations, along with low concentrations of gibberellic acid or spermine, either alone or in their combination, were studied in mungbean seedlings. In the test seedlings, the root-shoot elongation, biomass production, and the chlorophyll content were significantly decreased with increasing NaCl concentrations. Salt toxicity severely affected activities of different antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress markers. Activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) increased significantly over water control. Similarly, oxidative stress markers such as proline, malondialdehyde (MDA), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) contents also increased as a result of progressive increase in salt stress. Combined application of NaCl along with low concentrations of either gibberellic acid (5 µM) or spermine (50 µM) in the test seedlings showed significant alterations, that is, drastic increase in seedling elongation, increased biomass production, increased chlorophyll content, and significant lowering in all the antioxidant enzyme activities as well as oxidative stress marker contents in comparison to salt treated test seedlings, leading to better growth and metabolism. Our study shows that low concentrations of either gibberellic acid or spermine will be able to overcome the toxic effects of NaCl stress in mungbean seedlings. PMID:25734186

  14. Rhizodeposition of Nitrogen and Carbon by Mungbean (Vigna radiata L.) and Its Contribution to Intercropped Oats (Avena nuda L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zang, Huadong; Yang, Xuechao; Feng, Xiaomin; Qian, Xin; Hu, Yuegao; Ren, Changzhong; Zeng, Zhaohai

    2015-01-01

    Compounds released by mungbean roots potentially represent an enormous source of nitrogen (N) and carbon (C) in mungbean-oat intercropping systems. In this study, an in situ experiment was conducted using a 15N - 13C double stem-feeding method to measure N and C derived from the rhizodeposition (NdfR and CdfR) of mungbean and their transfer to oats in an intercropping system. Mungbean plants were sole cropped (S) or intercropped (I) with oat. The plants were labeled 5 weeks after planting and were harvested at the beginning of pod setting (Ip and Sp) and at maturity (Im and Sm). More than 60% and 50% of the applied 15N and 13C, respectively, were recovered in each treatment, with 15N and 13C being quite uniformly distributed in the different plant parts. NdfR represented 9.8% (Sp), 9.2% (Ip), 20.1% (Sm), and 21.2% (Im) of total mungbean plant N, whereas CdfR represented 13.3% (Sp), 42.0% (Ip), 15.4% (Sm), and 22.6% (Im) of total mungbean plant C. When considering the part of rhizodeposition transferred to associated oat, intercropping mungbean released more NdfR and CdfR than mungbean alone. About 53.4–83.2% of below-ground plant N (BGP-N) and 58.4–85.9% of BGP-C originated from NdfR and CdfR, respectively. The N in oats derived from mungbean increased from 7.6% at the pod setting stage to 9.7% at maturity, whereas the C in oats increased from 16.2% to 22.0%, respectively. Only a small percentage of rhizodeposition from mungbean was transferred to oats in the intercropping systems, with a large percentage remaining in the soil. This result indicates that mungbean rhizodeposition might contribute to higher N and C availability in the soil for subsequent crops. PMID:25821975

  15. Ethylene and adventitious root formation in hypocotyl segments of etiolated mung-bean (Vigna radiata (L.) Wilczek) seedlings.

    PubMed

    Batten, D J; Mullins, M G

    1978-01-01

    Rooting responses and ethylene production by hypocotyl cuttings from etiolated mung-bean seedlings treated with the auxins α-naphthaleneacetic acid, γ-(indole-3)-n-butyric acid (IBA) and 2,4,5-trichloro-phenoxypropionic acid were determined. There was no relationship between the abilities of the auxins to induce root formation and their capacities for inducing ethylene production. Studies with mixtures of 3-indoleacetic acid, a poor stimulator of rooting but an effective inducer of ethylene production, and IBA, an effective rooting stimulator but a poor inducer of ethylene production, exposure of cuttings to ethylene or (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (Ethephon), hypobaric storage (150 mb) of treated cuttings, and exposure of auxin-treated cuttings to 7% CO2 also indicated that ethylene is not directly involved in initiation of adventitious roots in this plant material. PMID:24414045

  16. Induced drought tolerance through wild and mutant bacterial strain Pseudomonas simiae in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.).

    PubMed

    Kumari, Sarita; Vaishnav, Anukool; Jain, Shekhar; Varma, Ajit; Choudhary, Devendra Kumar

    2016-01-01

    The present study focused on the overproducing mutant of a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium (PGPR) Pseudomonas simiae strain AU (MTCC-12057) for significant drought tolerance in mung bean plants. Five mutants namely AU-M1, AU-M2, AU-M3, AU-M4 and AU-M5 were made after treatment of wild type strain with N-methyl-N-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine. Mutant strain AU-M4 was recorded for enhanced ACC deaminase (ACC-D) activity, indole acetic acid (IAA) production and inorganic phosphate (Pi) solubilization compared to wild strain and other four mutant strains under drought condition. AU-M4 showed higher phosphate solubilization index (8.17) together with higher ACC-D activity (98 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (69.35 µg/ml) compared with the wild type P. simiae strain AU ACC-D activity (79 nmol/mg/h) and IAA concentration (38.98 µg/ml) respectively. In this report, we investigated the effect of both wild and mutant type bacterial strain on mung bean plants under drought stress. Results showed that mutant AU-M4 and wild type strain AU inoculated plants exhibited superior tolerance against drought stress, as shown by their enhanced plant biomass (fresh weight), higher water content, higher proline accumulation and lower osmotic stress injury. Mutant AU-M4 and wild strain AU inoculated plants reduced the ethylene level by 59 and 45% respectively, compared to the control under stress condition. Furthermore, bacterial inoculated plants showed enhanced induced systemic drought tolerance by reducing stomata size and net photosynthesis resulting higher water content in mung bean plants that may help in survival of plants during drought condition. To mitigate the effects of drought stress, use of PGPR will be needed to ensure sufficient production of food from crop plants. Taking current leads available, concerted future research is needed in this area, particularly on field evaluation with application of potential microorganisms. PMID:26712619

  17. Localization of a carboxylic residue possibly involved in the inhibition of vacuolar H+-pyrophosphatase by N, N'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide.

    PubMed Central

    Yang, S J; Jiang, S S; Kuo, S Y; Hung, S H; Tam, M F; Pan, R L

    1999-01-01

    A vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase (EC 3.6.1.1) that catalyses PP(i) hydrolysis and the electrogenic translocation of protons from the cytosol to the vacuole lumen, was purified from etiolated hypocotyls of mung bean seedlings (Vigna radiata L.). Group-specific modification was used to identify a carboxylic residue involved in the inhibition of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase. Carbodi-imides, such as N,N'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide (DCCD) and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylamino-propyl)carbodi-imide, and Woodward's reagent K caused a progressive decline in the enzymic activity of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. The stoichiometry of labelling of the vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase by [(14)C]DCCD determined that DCCD modifies one carboxylic residue per subunit of the enzyme. Protection studies suggest that the DCCD-reactive carboxylic residue resides at or near the substrate-binding site. Furthermore, peptide mapping analysis reveals that Asp(283), located in the putative loop V of a tentative topological model of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase on the cytosolic side, was labelled by radioactive [(14)C]DCCD. Cytosolic loop V contains both DCCD-sensitive Asp(283) and a conserved motif sequence, rendering it a candidate for the catalytic site of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase. A topological picture of the active domain of vacuolar H(+)-pyrophosphatase is tentatively proposed. PMID:10477275

  18. Factors Affecting Growth of Pinus radiata in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alvarez-Munoz, Jose Santos

    The Chilean forestry industry is based on hundreds of thousands of hectares of Pinus radiata plantations that have been established in a variety of soil and climate conditions. This approach has resulted in highly variable plantation productivity even when the best available technology was used. Little information is known about the ecophysiology basis for this variability. We explored the spatial and temporal variation of stand growth in Chile using a network of permanent sample plots from Modelo Nacional de Simulacion de Pino radiata. We hypothesized that the climate would play an important role in the annual variations in productivity. To answer these questions we developed the following projects: (1) Determination of site resource availability from historical data from automatic weather stations (rainfall, temperatures) and a geophysical model for solar irradiation, (2) Determination of peak annual leaf area index (LAI) for selected permanent sample plots using remote sensing technologies, (3) Analysis of soil, climate, canopy and stand factors affecting the Pinus radiata plantation growth and the use efficiency of site resources. For project 1, we estimated solar irradiation using the r.sun , Hargreaves-Samani (HS), and Bristow-Campbell (BC) models and validated model estimates with observations from weather stations. Estimations from a calibrated r.sun model accounted for 94% of the variance (r2=0.94) in monthly mean measured values. The r.sun model performed quite well for a wide range of Chilean conditions when compared with the HS and BC models. Our estimates of global irradiation may be improved with better estimates of cloudiness as they become available. Our model was able to provide spatial estimates of daily, weekly, monthly and yearly solar irradiation. For project 2, we estimated the inter-annual variation of LAI (Leaf Area Index), using remote sensing technologies. We determined LAI using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) data covering a 5 year period

  19. A functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) focusing on tree architecture and wood quality

    PubMed Central

    Fernández, M. Paulina; Norero, Aldo; Vera, Jorge R.; Pérez, Eduardo

    2011-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aims Functional–structural models are interesting tools to relate environmental and management conditions with forest growth. Their three-dimensional images can reveal important characteristics of wood used for industrial products. Like virtual laboratories, they can be used to evaluate relationships among species, sites and management, and to support silvicultural design and decision processes. Our aim was to develop a functional–structural model for radiata pine (Pinus radiata) given its economic importance in many countries. Methods The plant model uses the L-system language. The structure of the model is based on operational units, which obey particular rules, and execute photosynthesis, respiration and morphogenesis, according to their particular characteristics. Plant allometry is adhered to so that harmonic growth and plant development are achieved. Environmental signals for morphogenesis are used. Dynamic turnover guides the normal evolution of the tree. Monthly steps allow for detailed information of wood characteristics. The model is independent of traditional forest inventory relationships and is conceived as a mechanistic model. For model parameterization, three databases which generated new information relating to P. radiata were analysed and incorporated. Key Results Simulations under different and contrasting environmental and management conditions were run and statistically tested. The model was validated against forest inventory data for the same sites and times and against true crown architectural data. The performance of the model for 6-year-old trees was encouraging. Total height, diameter and lengths of growth units were adequately estimated. Branch diameters were slightly overestimated. Wood density values were not satisfactory, but the cyclical pattern and increase of growth rings were reasonably well modelled. Conclusions The model was able to reproduce the development and growth of the species based on mechanistic

  20. Microstructural Changes of Anterior Corona Radiata in Bipolar Depression

    PubMed Central

    Karababa, I. Fatih; Bayazıt, Huseyin; Kılıçaslan, Nihat; Celik, Mustafa; Cece, Hasan; Karakas, Ekrem

    2015-01-01

    Objective In bipolar disorder, dysregulation of mood may result from white matter abnormalities that change fiber tract length and fiber density. There are few studies evaluating the white matter microstructural changes in bipolar I patients (BD) with depressive episodes. The present study aimed to evaluate anterior corona radiata in BD patients with depressive episode using Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI). Methods Twenty-one patients with bipolar depression and 19 healthy controls were investigated and groups were matched for age and gender. Diffusion-weighted echoplanar brain images (DW-EPI) were obtained using a 1.5 T MRI scanner. Regions of interest (ROIs) were manually placed on directional maps based on principal anisotropy. Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and fractional anisotropy (FA) values of white matter were measured in the anterior corona radiata (ACR) bilaterally by diffusion tensor imaging. Results There was not a significant difference between groups of age and gender (p>0.05). Significantly lower FA was observed in bilateral ACR in bipolar patients with depression compared with healthy individuals. And there is significantly higher ADC values in the left frontal corona radiate in bipolar patients. Conclusion White matter abnormalities can be detected in patients with BD using DTI. The neuropathology of these abnormalities is unclear, but neuronal and axonal loss, myelin abnormalities and reduced white matter fiber density are likely to be relevant. PMID:26207131

  1. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich.

    PubMed

    Marubodee, Rusama; Ogiso-Tanaka, Eri; Isemura, Takehisa; Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  2. Construction of an SSR and RAD-Marker Based Molecular Linkage Map of Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich

    PubMed Central

    Chankaew, Sompong; Kaga, Akito; Naito, Ken; Ehara, Hiroshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Vigna vexillata (L.) A. Rich. (tuber cowpea) is an underutilized crop for consuming its tuber and mature seeds. Wild form of V. vexillata is a pan-tropical perennial herbaceous plant which has been used by local people as a food. Wild V. vexillata has also been considered as useful gene(s) source for V. unguiculata (cowpea), since it was reported to have various resistance gene(s) for insects and diseases of cowpea. To exploit the potential of V. vexillata, an SSR-based linkage map of V. vexillata was developed. A total of 874 SSR markers successfully amplified single DNA fragment in V. vexillata among 1,336 SSR markers developed from Vigna angularis (azuki bean), V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean). An F2 population of 300 plants derived from a cross between salt resistant (V1) and susceptible (V5) accessions was used for mapping. A genetic linkage map was constructed using 82 polymorphic SSR markers loci, which could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 511.5 cM in length with a mean distance of 7.2 cM between adjacent markers. To develop higher density molecular linkage map and to confirm SSR markers position in a linkage map, RAD markers were developed and a combined SSR and RAD markers linkage map of V. vexillata was constructed. A total of 559 (84 SSR and 475 RAD) markers loci could be assigned to 11 linkage groups spanning 973.9 cM in length with a mean distance of 1.8 cM between adjacent markers. Linkage and genetic position of all SSR markers in an SSR linkage map were confirmed. When an SSR genetic linkage map of V. vexillata was compared with those of V. radiata and V. unguiculata, it was suggested that the structure of V. vexillata chromosome was considerably differentiated. This map is the first SSR and RAD marker-based V. vexillata linkage map which can be used for the mapping of useful traits. PMID:26398819

  3. Molecular dynamic and docking interaction study of Heterodera glycines serine proteinase with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Prasad, C V S Siva; Gupta, Saurabh; Gaponenko, Alex; Tiwari, Murlidhar

    2013-08-01

    Many plants do produce various defense proteins like proteinase inhibitors (PIs) to protect them against various pests. PIs function as pseudosubstrates of digestive proteinase, which inhibits proteolysis in pests and leads to amino acid deficiency-based mortality. This work reports the structural interaction studies of serine proteinase of Heterodera glycines (SPHG) with Vigna mungo proteinase inhibitor (VMPI). 3D protein structure modeling, validation of SPHG and VMPI, and their putative protein-protein binding sites were predicted. Protein-protein docking followed by molecular dynamic simulation was performed to find the reliable confirmation of SPHG-VMPI complex. Trajectory analysis of each successive conformation concludes better interaction of first loop in comparison with second loop. Lysine residues of first loop were actively participating in complex formation. Overall, this study discloses the structural aspects and interaction mechanisms of VMPI with SPHG, and it would be helpful in the development of pest-resistant genetically modified crops. PMID:23813339

  4. Novel Genetic Resources in the Genus Vigna Unveiled from Gene Bank Accessions

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Somta, Prakit; Muto, Chiaki; Iseki, Kohtaro; Naito, Ken; Pandiyan, Muthaiyan; Natesan, Senthil; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna (Fabaceae) consists of five subgenera, and includes more than 100 wild species. In Vigna, 10 crops have been domesticated from three subgenera, Vigna, Plectrotropis, and Ceratotropis. The habitats of wild Vigna species are so diverse that their genomes could harbor various genes responsible for environmental stress adaptation, which could lead to innovations in agriculture. Since some of the gene bank Vigna accessions were unidentified and they seemed to be novel genetic resources, these accessions were identified based on morphological traits. The phylogenetic positions were estimated based on the DNA sequences of nuclear rDNA-ITS and chloroplast atpB-rbcL spacer regions. Based on the results, the potential usefulness of the recently described species V. indica and V. sahyadriana, and some wild Vigna species, i.e., V. aconitifolia, V. dalzelliana, V. khandalensis, V. marina var. oblonga, and V. vexillata, was discussed. PMID:26800459

  5. Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov., a nitrogen-fixing symbiont isolated from effective nodules of Vigna and Arachis.

    PubMed

    Grönemeyer, Jann Lasse; Hurek, Thomas; Bünger, Wiebke; Reinhold-Hurek, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    Twenty one strains of symbiotic bacteria from root nodules of local races of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and peanuts (Arachis hypogaea) grown on subsistence farmers' fields in the Kavango region of Namibia, were previously characterized as a novel group within the genus Bradyrhizobium. To verify their taxonomic position, the strains were further analysed using a polyphasic approach. 16S rRNA gene sequences were most similar to Bradyrhizobium manausense BR 3351T, with Bradyrhizobium ganzhouense RITF806T being the most closely related type strain in the phylogenetic analysis, and Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense CCBAU 10071T in the ITS sequence analysis. Phylogenetic analysis of concatenated glnII-recA-rpoB-dnaK placed the strains in a highly supported lineage distinct from species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names; they were most closely related to Bradyrhizobium subterraneum 58 2-1T. The status of the species was validated by results of DNA-DNA hybridization. The combination of phenotypic characteristics from several tests, including carbon source utilization and antibiotic resistance, could be used to differentiate representative strains of species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Novel strain 7-2T induced effective nodules on Vigna subterranea, Vigna unguiculata, Arachis hypogaea and on Lablab purpureus. The DNA G+C content of strain 7-2T was 65.4 mol% (Tm). Based on the data presented, we conclude that these strains represent a novel species for which the name Bradyrhizobium vignae sp. nov. is proposed, with strain 7-2T [LMG 28791T, DSMZ 100297T, NTCCM0018T (Windhoek)] as the type strain. PMID:26463703

  6. Toxicity of pesticides to Tamarixia radiata, a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sixteen pesticides including two fungicides were evaluated for toxicity to adult Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), a parasitoid of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae). Percentage mortality data were evaluated to generally assess IPM-com...

  7. Vigna yadavii (Leguminosae: Papilionoideae), a new species from Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao P.; Randive, Sonali D.; Garad, Krushnadeoray U.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract A new species of Vigna Savi, subgenus Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc., Vigna yadavii S.P. Gaikwad, R.D. Gore, S.D. Randive & K.U. Garad, sp. nov. is described and illustrated here. It is morphologically close to Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs in its underground obligate cleistogamous flowers on positively geotropic branches, hairy calyx, small corolla, linear style beak and dimorphic seeds with shiny seed coat. PMID:25589877

  8. Psychosis post corona radiata and lentiform nucleus infarction.

    PubMed

    Abdullah, Khadijah Hasanah Abang; Saini, Suriati Mohamed; Sharip, Shalisah; Rahman, Abdul Hamid Abdul

    2015-01-01

    Complications of stroke can include neuropsychiatric symptoms. However, post-stroke psychosis is rare. We report a case where an acute presentation of psychosis, depression and fluctuating cognitive impairment in a middle-aged man turned out to be related to a silent brain infarction. The patient had a background of poorly controlled type 2 diabetes mellitus with glycated haemoglobin level of 9.0-11.0%, hypertension and ischaemic heart disease. His CT brain results showed multifocal infarct with hypodensities at bilateral lentiform nucleus and bilateral corona radiata. His strong genetic predisposition of psychosis and a history of brief psychotic disorder with complete remission 3 years prior to the current presentation might possibly contribute to his post-stroke atypical neuropsychiatric presentation, and posed diagnostic challenges. He showed marked improvement with risperidone 6 mg nocte, chlorpromazine 50 mg nocte and fluvoxamine of 200 mg nocte. The need of comprehensive treatments to modify his stroke risk factors was addressed. PMID:25837653

  9. CCoAOMT suppression modifies lignin composition in Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Tobimatsu, Yuki; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Torr, Kirk; Donaldson, Lloyd; Pears, Lana; Ralph, John

    2011-07-01

    A cDNA clone encoding the lignin-related enzyme caffeoyl CoA 3-O-methyltransferase (CCoAOMT) was isolated from a Pinus radiata cDNA library derived from differentiating xylem. Suppression of PrCCoAOMT expression in P. radiata tracheary element cultures affected lignin content and composition, resulting in a lignin polymer containing p-hydroxyphenyl (H), catechyl (C) and guaiacyl (G) units. Acetyl bromide-soluble lignin assays revealed reductions in lignin content of up to 20% in PrCCoAOMT-deficient transgenic lines. Pyrolysis-GC/MS and 2D-NMR studies demonstrated that these reductions were due to depletion of G-type lignin. Correspondingly, the proportion of H-type lignin in PrCCoAOMT-deficient transgenic lines increased, resulting in up to a 10-fold increase in the H/G ratio relative to untransformed controls. 2D-NMR spectra revealed that PrCCoAOMT suppression resulted in formation of benzodioxanes in the lignin polymer. This suggested that phenylpropanoids with an ortho-diphenyl structure such as caffeyl alcohol are involved in lignin polymerization. To test this hypothesis, synthetic lignins containing methyl caffeate or caffeyl alcohol were generated and analyzed by 2D-NMR. Comparison of the 2D-NMR spectra from PrCCoAOMT-RNAi lines and synthetic lignins identified caffeyl alcohol as the new lignin constituent in PrCCoAOMT-deficient lines. The incorporation of caffeyl alcohol into lignin created a polymer containing catechyl units, a lignin type that has not been previously identified in recombinant lignin studies. This finding is consistent with the theory that lignin polymerization is based on a radical coupling process that is determined solely by chemical processes. PMID:21426426

  10. Water use by Pinus radiata trees in a plantation.

    PubMed

    Teskey, R. O.; Sheriff, D. W.

    1996-01-01

    We used the heat-pulse velocity technique to estimate transpirational water use of trees in an experimental 16-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don plantation in South Australia during a 4-month period from November 1993 to March 1994 (spring-summer). Fertilization and other silvicultural treatments during the first 8 years of the plantation produced trees ranging in diameter at a height of 1.3 m from 0.251 to 0.436 m, with leaf areas ranging from 83 to 337 m(2). Daily water use was greater for large trees than for small trees, but transpiration per unit leaf area was nearly identical. Daily transpiration was highly correlated with available soil water in the upper 1 m of soil and weakly correlated with irradiance and air temperature. For the stand (0.4 ha), estimated rates of transpiration ranged from 6.8 to 1.4 mm day(-1) in wet and dry soil conditions, respectively. Total water use by the plantation during the 4-month study period was 346 mm. Water transpired by the trees was about three times that extracted from the upper 1 m of soil. Large trees extracted water from the same soil volume as small trees and did not exhibit a greater potential to extract water from deeper soil when the upper horizons become dry. PMID:14871772

  11. Modeling productivity and transpiration of Pinus radiata: climatic effects.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D. W.; Mattay, J. P.; McMurtrie, R. E.

    1996-01-01

    Climatic effects on annual net carbon gain, stem biomass and annual transpiration were simulated for Pinus radiata D. Don at Canberra and Mt. Gambier. Simulations were conducted with an existing process-based forest growth model (BIOMASS, Model 1) and with a modified version of the BIOMASS model (Model 2) in which response functions for carbon assimilation and leaf conductance were replaced with those derived from field gas exchange data collected at Mt. Gambier. Simulated carbon gain was compared with a published report stating that mean annual stem volume increment (MAI) at Mt. Gambier was 1.8 times greater than at Canberra and that the difference could be the result solely of differences in climate. Regional differences in climate resulted in a 20% greater simulated annual transpiration at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier but only small differences in simulated productivity, indicating that climatic differences did not account for the reported differences in productivity. With Model 1, simulated annual net carbon gain and annual increase in stem biomass were greater at Canberra than at Mt. Gambier, whereas Model 2 indicated a similar annual net carbon gain and annual stem biomass increase in both regions. PMID:14871762

  12. Chronic effects of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus kraft mill effluents and phytosterols on Daphnia magna.

    PubMed

    López, D; Chamorro, S; Silva, J; Bay-Schmith, E; Vidal, G

    2011-12-01

    Two kraft pulp mill effluents were compared in terms of their chronic toxicity to Daphnia magna. One resulted from pulping Pinus radiata and the other came from a parallel processing of Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus (mixed kraft pulp mill effluent). The concentration of phytosterols found in the mixed kraft pulp mill effluent was higher than in the effluent from Pinus radiata, with values of 0.1082 and 0.02 μg/L, respectively. The phytosterols per se are responsible for 12.9% and 8.1% of the deviation from the natural shape, while the kraft pulp mill effluents account for 25.6%-27.8% of shape deviation. The role of β-sitosterol and stigmasterol is discussed in relation to endocrine disruption. PMID:21979137

  13. Effectiveness of halo-tolerant, auxin producing Pseudomonas and Rhizobium strains to improve osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean (Vigna radiata L.)

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, Maqshoof; Zahir, Zahir A.; Nazli, Farheen; Akram, Fareeha; Arshad, Muhammad; Khalid, Muhammad

    2013-01-01

    Halo-tolerant, auxin producing bacteria could be used to induce salt tolerance in plants. A number of Rhizobium and auxin producing rhizobacterial strains were assessed for their ability to tolerate salt stress by conducting osmoadaptation assay. The selected strains were further screened for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean seedlings under salt-stressed axenic conditions in growth pouch/jar trials. Three most effective strains of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas containing ACC-deaminase were evaluated in combination, for their ability to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean at original, 4, and 6 dS m−1 under axenic conditions. Results showed that sole inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains improved the total dry matter up to 1.4, and 1.9 fold, respectively, while the increase in salt tolerance index was improved up to 1.3 and 2.0 fold by the Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains, respectively. However, up to 2.2 fold increase in total dry matter and salt tolerance index was observed due to combined inoculation of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains. So, combined application of Rhizobium and Pseudomonas strains could be explored as an effective strategy to induce osmotic stress tolerance in mung bean. PMID:24688532

  14. Modeling the water balance of a small Pinus radiata catchment.

    PubMed

    Whitehead, D.; Kelliher, F. M.

    1991-01-01

    An hourly biophysical model was used to calculate the water balance over a period of one year for an 8.7-ha catchment with a closed-canopy, 13-year-old Pinus radiata D. Don forest in the central North Island, New Zealand. Components of the model are transpiration from the dry tree canopy, evaporation from the partially wet tree canopy and stems, evaporation from the understory and soil, and drainage from a single-layer root zone. The model requires input of hourly weather data (net radiation, air and wet bulb temperatures, windspeed, and rainfall), tree stand characteristics (average height, tree number, leaf area index), physical characteristics of the site (root zone depth, relationship between root zone matric potential and volumetric water content, the relationship between the rate of drainage from the root zone and volumetric water content, and the area of open-stream channels). A submodel of the response of stomatal conductance to air saturation deficit and root zone matric potential is also required. Tree transpiration (704 mm year(-1) or 50% of annual rainfall) was a dominant component of the catchment water balance. Estimated evaporation from the wet tree canopy was 203 mm year(-1) (15%). Evaporation from the understory was much less, amounting to 94 mm year(-1) (7%) and an increase in water storage for the 3.5 m root zone depth was estimated to be 53 mm year(-1) (4%). Estimated daily rates of drainage generally agreed well with measurements of streamflow, although estimated annual drainage (349 mm year(-1), 24%) exceeded measured streamflow (234 mm year(-1)). The significance of the results is discussed in relation to closure of the hydrologic balance. PMID:14972854

  15. Family 34 glycosyltransferase (GT34) genes and proteins in Pinus radiata (radiata pine) and Pinus taeda (loblolly pine).

    PubMed

    Ade, Carsten P; Bemm, Felix; Dickson, James M J; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2014-04-01

    Using a functional genomics approach, four candidate genes (PtGT34A, PtGT34B, PtGT34C and PtGT34D) were identified in Pinus taeda. These genes encode CAZy family GT34 glycosyltransferases that are involved in the synthesis of cell-wall xyloglucans and heteromannans. The full-length coding sequences of three orthologs (PrGT34A, B and C) were isolated from a xylem-specific cDNA library from the closely related Pinus radiata. PrGT34B is the ortholog of XXT1 and XXT2, the two main xyloglucan (1→6)-α-xylosyltransferases in Arabidopsis thaliana. PrGT34C is the ortholog of XXT5 in A. thaliana, which is also involved in the xylosylation of xyloglucans. PrGT34A is an ortholog of a galactosyltransferase from fenugreek (Trigonella foenum-graecum) that is involved in galactomannan synthesis. Truncated coding sequences of the genes were cloned into plasmid vectors and expressed in a Sf9 insect cell-culture system. The heterologous proteins were purified, and in vitro assays showed that, when incubated with UDP-xylose and cellotetraose, cellopentaose or cellohexaose, PrGT34B showed xylosyltransferase activity, and, when incubated with UDP-galactose and the same cello-oligosaccharides, PrGT34B showed some galactosyltransferase activity. The ratio of xylosyltransferase to galactosyltransferase activity was 434:1. Hydrolysis of the galactosyltransferase reaction products using galactosidases showed the linkages formed were α-linkages. Analysis of the products of PrGT34B by MALDI-TOF MS showed that up to three xylosyl residues were transferred from UDP-xylose to cellohexaose. The heterologous proteins PrGT34A and PrGT34C showed no detectable enzymatic activity. PMID:24517843

  16. 90SR UPTAKE BY PINUS PONDEROSA AND PINUS RADIATA SEEDLINGS INOCULATED WITH ECOTOMYCORRHIZAL FUNGI

    EPA Science Inventory

    Strontium-90 (90Sr) is a radionuclide characteristic of fallout from nuclear reactor accidents and nuclear weapons testing. rior studies have shown that Pinus ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings can remove appreciable quantities of 90Sr from soil and store it in plant tissue. n th...

  17. Stand variation in Pinus radiata and its relationship with allometric scaling and critical buckling height

    PubMed Central

    Waghorn, Matthew J.; Watt, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Background and Aims Allometric relationships and the determination of critical buckling heights have been examined for Pinus radiata in the past. However, how they relate to more mature Pinus radiata exhibiting a wide range of stem diameters, slenderness and modulus of elasticity (E) at operationally used stand densities is largely unknown. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between Pinus radiata stand structure variables and allometric scaling and critical buckling height. Methods Utilizing a Pinus radiata Nelder trial with stand density and genetic breed as variables, critical buckling height was calculated whilst reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between critical height (Hcrit), actual height (H), ground line diameter (D), slenderness (S), density-specific stiffness (E/ρ) and modulus of elasticity (E). Key Results Critical buckling height was highly responsive to decreasing diameter and increasing slenderness. Safety factors in this study were typically considerably lower than previously reported margins in other species. As density-specific stiffness scaled negatively with diameter, the exponent of 0·55 between critical height and diameter did not meet the assumed value of 0·67 under constant density-specific stiffness. E scaled positively with stem slenderness to the power of 0·78. Conclusions The findings suggest that within species density-specific stiffness variation may influence critical height and the scaling exponent between critical height and diameter, which is considered so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. PMID:23388878

  18. Extensive haplotype variation in Tamarixia radiata populations from the Americas: multiple groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field collected populations of Tamarixia radiata (n=48) were analyzed by a phylogeographic analysis inferred from the partial mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase subunit I gene (COI) (518-bp). Three populations were from North America, one each from the U. S. states of Florida and Texas and one from t...

  19. MODIFYING LIGNIN IN CONIFERS: THE ROLE OF HCT DURING TRACHEARY ELEMENT FORMATION IN PINUS RADIATA

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The enzyme hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA: shikimate hydroxycinnamoyltransferase (HCT) is involved in the production of methoxylated monolignols that are precursors to guaiacyl and syringyl lignin in angiosperm species. We identified and cloned a putative HCT gene from Pinus radiata, a coniferous gymnosperm, ...

  20. Vigna pandeyana (Fabaceae), a new species from northern Western Ghats, India

    PubMed Central

    Gaikwad, Sayajirao; Randive, Sonali

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background Vigna subg. Ceratotropis (Piper) Verdc. represents a homogenous and distinct group of species with highly specialized complex floral characters. It is most diverse in Asia. India, with 24 species, represents a secondary center of species diversity of the subgenus. New information A new species, Vigna pandeyana RD Gore, SP Gaikwad & SD Randive, is described from hill slopes of the northern Western Ghats of India. It resembles Vigna yadavii Gaikwad et al. and Vigna dalzelliana (Kuntze) Verdc. but differs from the latter in its dimorphic shoots (some subterranean, with cleistogamous flowers) and densely hairy pods, from the former by its curved style, flattened style beak, foveolate seed coat and absence of standard protuberance and horn-like keel pocket in cleistogamous flowers. PMID:25829861

  1. Two distinct regions of response drive differential growth in Vigna root electrotropism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolverton, C.; Mullen, J. L.; Ishikawa, H.; Evans, M. L.

    2000-01-01

    Although exogenous electric fields have been reported to influence the orientation of plant root growth, reports of the ultimate direction of differential growth have been contradictory. Using a high-resolution image analysis approach, the kinetics of electrotropic curvature in Vigna mungo L. roots were investigated. It was found that curvature occurred in the same root toward both the anode and cathode. However, these two responses occurred in two different regions of the root, the central elongation zone (CEZ) and distal elongation zone (DEZ), respectively. These oppositely directed responses could be reproduced individually by a localized electric field application to the region of response. This indicates that both are true responses to the electric field, rather than one being a secondary response to an induced gravitropic stimulation. The individual responses differed in the type of differential growth giving rise to curvature. In the CEZ, curvature was driven by inhibition of elongation, whereas curvature in the DEZ was primarily due to stimulation of elongation. This stimulation of elongation is consistent with the growth response of the DEZ to other environmental stimuli.

  2. Potential of biosorbent developed from fruit peel of Trewia nudiflora for removal of hexavalent chromium from synthetic and industrial effluent: Analyzing phytotoxicity in germinating Vigna seeds.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharya, Priyankari; Banerjee, Priya; Mallick, Kwonit; Ghosh, Sourja; Majumdar, Swachchha; Mukhopadhyay, Aniruddha; Bandyopadhyay, Sibdas

    2013-01-01

    Chromium (VI) removal efficiency of a biosorbent prepared from fruit peel of Trewia nudiflora plant was studied. The effect of pH, sorbent dose, initial metal concentration and temperature was studied with synthetic Cr⁺⁶ solution in batch mode. About 278 mg/g of Cr⁺⁶ sorption was obtained at 293 K at an optimum pH of 2.0 and biosorbent dose of 0.75 g/L. Equilibrium sorption data with varying initial concentration of Cr⁺⁶ (22-248 mg/L) at three different temperatures (293-313 K) were analyzed by various isotherms. Biosorption kinetics and thermodynamics were described using standard model equations. Encouraging results were obtained by the application of the biosorptive treatment for removal of Cr⁺⁶ from wastewater collected from common effluent treatment plant of tannery industry. In addition, C⁺⁶r desorption behavior was studied on different systems. Biosorbent was characterized by FESEM, FT-IR and XRD, etc. Effect of the biosorptive treatement with respect to the phytotoxicity of Cr⁺⁶ was analyzed by studying the seed germination behavior and enzyme activity of a pulse seed (Vigna radiata L.). Different concentrations of Cr⁺⁶ solution in both synthetic medium, as well as, in tannery effluent was employed and the results were compared with that of biosorbent treated medium. The study showed that due to efficient removal of Cr⁺⁶ from aqueous phase, considerable enhancement of seed germination, as well as, increase in root length was obtained for the biosorbent treated solutions which were close to that of the control values. Significant decrease (P < 0.01) in POD activity was observed in seeds irrigated with biosorbent treated wastewater compared to untreated wastewater. The study showed that the novel biosorbent prepared might be utilized for abatement of heavy metal toxicity, i.e., Cr⁺⁶ from industrial effluent. PMID:23445414

  3. Species differences in ligand specificity of auxin-controlled elongation and auxin transport: comparing Zea and Vigna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, Hu; Hertel, Rainer; Ishikawa, Hideo; Evans, Michael L.

    2002-01-01

    The plant hormone auxin affects cell elongation in both roots and shoots. In roots, the predominant action of auxin is to inhibit cell elongation while in shoots auxin, at normal physiological levels, stimulates elongation. The question of whether the primary receptor for auxin is the same in roots and shoots has not been resolved. In addition to its action on cell elongation in roots and shoots, auxin is transported in a polar fashion in both organs. Although auxin transport is well characterized in both roots and shoots, there is relatively little information on the connection, if any, between auxin transport and its action on elongation. In particular, it is not clear whether the protein mediating polar auxin movement is separate from the protein mediating auxin action on cell elongation or whether these two processes might be mediated by one and the same receptor. We examined the identity of the auxin growth receptor in roots and shoots by comparing the response of roots and shoots of the grass Zea mays L. and the legume Vigna mungo L. to indole-3-acetic acid, 2-naphthoxyacetic acid, 4,6-dichloroindoleacetic acid, and 4,7-dichloroindoleacetic acid. We also studied whether or not a single protein might mediate both auxin transport and auxin action by comparing the polar transport of indole-3-acetic acid and 2-naphthoxyacetic acid through segments from Vigna hypocotyls and maize coleoptiles. For all of the assays performed (root elongation, shoot elongation, and polar transport) the action and transport of the auxin derivatives was much greater in the dicots than in the grass species. The preservation of ligand specificity between roots and shoots and the parallels in ligand specificity between auxin transport and auxin action on growth are consistent with the hypothesis that the auxin receptor is the same in roots and shoots and that this protein may mediate auxin efflux as well as auxin action in both organ types.

  4. 90sr uptake by 'pinus ponderosa' and 'pinus radiata' seedlings inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi

    SciTech Connect

    Entry, J.A.; Rygiewicz, P.T.; Emmingham, W.H.

    1994-01-01

    In the study, the authors inoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings with one of five isolates of ectomycorrhizal fungi; inoculated and nonincoculated (control) seedlings were compared for their ability to remove Sr90 from an organic growth medium. Seedlings were grown for 3 months in a growth chamber in glass tubes containing 165 cu cm of sphagnum peat moss and perlite and, except in the controls, the fungal inoculum. After 3 months, 5978 Bq of Sr90 in 1 ml of sterile, distilled, deionized water was added. Seedlings were grown for an additional month and then harvested. P. ponderosa seedlings that were inoculated with ectomycorrhizal fungi accumulated 3.0-6.0% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 98-162. Inoculated P. radiata seedlings accumulated 6.0-6.9% of the Sr90; bioconcentration ratios ranged from 88-133. Noninoculated P. ponderosa and P. radiata seedlings accumulated only 0.6 and 0.7% of the Sr90 and had bioconcentration ratios of 28 and 27, respectively.

  5. Relationships between nutrient status, carbon assimilation and water use efficiency in Pinus radiata (D. Don) needles.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D. W.; Nambiar, E. K. S.; Fife, D. N.

    1986-12-01

    The productivity of Pinus radiata D. Don plantations can be increased on many soils by N and P fertilization. Foliar analyses are usually taken as a guide for nutrient management, but there is little information about the relationship of foliar nutrient status to foliar physiology. This paper provides such information from N and P fertilization experiments. The concentrations and contents of N and P in the needles of P. radiata change because of accumulation during needle growth, retranslocation during shoot growth, and replenishment from current uptake during periods of little shoot growth. Up to 60% P and 50% N may be retranslocated in a single growing season from needles less than one year old. Three years after fertilizer application to a 10-year-old thinned P. radiata stand, net carbon assimilation rate per unit leaf area was in the order NP>P>N. There were positive associations between foliar P and assimilation at full sunlight, diffusive conductance and quantum yield. Foliar N was negatively associated with these variables. Higher concentrations of P and N were both accompanied by higher instantaneous water use efficiency by the foliage. Estimated trends in whole tree assimilation were similar to those in aboveground biomass accumulation. The interplay between the dynamic nature of nutrients in the foliage and their influence on the physiology of needles is discussed. PMID:14975843

  6. A Homoploid Hybrid Between Wild Vigna Species Found in a Limestone Karst

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Yu; Iseki, Kohtaro; Kitazawa, Kumiko; Muto, Chiaki; Somta, Prakit; Irie, Kenji; Naito, Ken; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2015-01-01

    Genus Vigna comprise several domesticated species including cowpea and mungbean, and diverse wild species. We found an introgressive hybrid population derived from two wild species, Vigna umbellata and Vigna exilis, in Ratchaburi district, Thailand. The hybrid was morphologically similar to V. umbellata but habituated in a limestone rock mountain, which is usually dominated by V. exilis. Analyzing simple sequence repeat loci indicated the hybrid has undergone at least one round of backcross by V. umbellata. We found the hybrid acquired vigorous growth from V. umbellata and drought tolerance plus early flowering from V. exilis, and thus has taken over some habitats of V. exilis in limestone karsts. Given the wide crossability of V. umbellata, the hybrid can be a valuable genetic resource to improve drought tolerance of some domesticated species. PMID:26648953

  7. Genistein from Vigna angularis Extends Lifespan in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Ahn, Dalrae; Kim, Ban Ji; Lee, So Yeon; Seo, Hyun Won; Cha, Youn-Soo; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Cha, Dong Seok; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-01-01

    The seed of Vigna angularis has long been cultivated as a food or a folk medicine in East Asia. Genistein (4′,5,7-trihydroxyisoflavone), a dietary phytoestrogen present in this plant, has been known to possess various biological properties. In this study, we investigated the possible lifespan-extending effects of genistein using Caenorhabditis elegans model system. We found that the lifespan of nematode was significantly prolonged in the presence of genistein under normal culture condition. In addition, genistein elevated the survival rate of nematode against stressful environment including heat and oxidative conditions. Further studies demonstrated that genistein-mediated increased stress tolerance of nematode could be attributed to enhanced expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). Moreover, we failed to find genistein-induced significant change in aging-related factors including reproduction, food intake, and growth, indicating genistein exerts longevity activity independent of affecting these factors. Genistein treatment also led to an up-regulation of locomotory ability of aged nematode, suggesting genistein affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. Our results represent that genistein has beneficial effects on the lifespan of C. elegans under both of normal and stress condition via elevating expressions of stress resistance proteins. PMID:25593647

  8. Lethal and Sublethal Impacts of Acaricides on Tamarixia radiata (Hemiptera: Eulophidae), an Important Ectoparasitoid of Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae).

    PubMed

    Lira, A C S; Zanardi, O Z; Beloti, V H; Bordini, G P; Yamamoto, P T; Parra, J R P; Carvalho, G A

    2015-10-01

    The use of synthetic acaricides for management of pest mites may alter the efficacy of the ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) in biological control of Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, the vector of the bacteria associated with huanglongbing (HLB) in citrus orchards. We evaluated the toxicity of 16 acaricides that are recommended for the control of citrus-pest mites to T. radiata. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, carbosulfan, and fenpropathrin caused high acute toxicity and were considered harmful (mortality >77%) to T. radiata. Abamectin, diflubenzuron, etoxazole, fenbutatin oxide, fenpyroximate, flufenoxuron, hexythiazox, propargite, spirodiclofen, and sulfur caused low acute toxicity and affected the parasitism rate and emergence rate of adults (F1 generation), and were considered slightly harmful to T. radiata. Dicofol and pyridaben did not affect the survival and action of the ectoparasitoid, and were considered harmless. In addition to its acute toxicity, carbosulfan caused mortality higher than 25% for >30 d after application, and was considered persistent. Acrinathrin, bifenthrin, fenpropathrin, fenpyroximate, propargite, and sulfur caused mortalities over 25% until 24 d after application and were considered moderately persistent; abamectin was slightly persistent, and fenbutatin oxide was short lived. Our results suggest that most acaricides used to control pest mites in citrus affect the density and efficacy of T. radiata in the biological control of D. citri. However, further evaluations are needed in order to determine the effect of these products on this ectoparasitoid under field conditions. PMID:26453716

  9. The Vigna Genome Server, 'VigGS': A Genomic Knowledge Base of the Genus Vigna Based on High-Quality, Annotated Genome Sequence of the Azuki Bean, Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Hiroaki; Naito, Ken; Takahashi, Yu; Sato, Toshiyuki; Yamamoto, Toshiya; Muto, Isamu; Itoh, Takeshi; Tomooka, Norihiko

    2016-01-01

    The genus Vigna includes legume crops such as cowpea, mungbean and azuki bean, as well as >100 wild species. A number of the wild species are highly tolerant to severe environmental conditions including high-salinity, acid or alkaline soil; drought; flooding; and pests and diseases. These features of the genus Vigna make it a good target for investigation of genetic diversity in adaptation to stressful environments; however, a lack of genomic information has hindered such research in this genus. Here, we present a genome database of the genus Vigna, Vigna Genome Server ('VigGS', http://viggs.dna.affrc.go.jp), based on the recently sequenced azuki bean genome, which incorporates annotated exon-intron structures, along with evidence for transcripts and proteins, visualized in GBrowse. VigGS also facilitates user construction of multiple alignments between azuki bean genes and those of six related dicot species. In addition, the database displays sequence polymorphisms between azuki bean and its wild relatives and enables users to design primer sequences targeting any variant site. VigGS offers a simple keyword search in addition to sequence similarity searches using BLAST and BLAT. To incorporate up to date genomic information, VigGS automatically receives newly deposited mRNA sequences of pre-set species from the public database once a week. Users can refer to not only gene structures mapped on the azuki bean genome on GBrowse but also relevant literature of the genes. VigGS will contribute to genomic research into plant biotic and abiotic stresses and to the future development of new stress-tolerant crops. PMID:26644460

  10. Price sensitivity of bioethanol produced in New Zealand from Pinus radiata wood

    SciTech Connect

    Manderson, G.J.; Spencer, K.; Paterson, A.H.J. . Dept. of Biotechnology); Qureshi, N. ); Jansen, D.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents an analysis conducted of designs for industry-scale ethanol production facilities that use both hexoses and pentoses to produce 97 to 107 tonnes of anhydrous ethanol per day from 960 tonnes of Pinus radiata wood of 50% moisture content (480 oven-dried tonnes). Various process options and available technologies were considered for cost comparisons. The base case plant design was used to assess the probable importance of not fermenting thee wood pentose fraction. When pentose sugars were not fermented, the ethanol price increased from $0.71/L to $0.75/L. The influence of various economic factors on selling price is assessed.

  11. Identification of a digalactosyl ononitol from seeds of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Peterbauer, Thomas; Brereton, Ian; Richter, Andreas

    2003-09-10

    A digalactosyl ononitol was isolated from seeds of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis [Willd.] Ohwi et Ohasi). Analysis of hydrolysis products and NMR spectroscopy established its structure as O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->6)-O-alpha-D-galactopyranosyl-(1-->3)-4-O-methyl-D-myo-inositol. PMID:14499579

  12. Physiological responses of radiata pine roots to soil strength and soil water deficit.

    PubMed

    Zou, Chris; Sands, Roger; Sun, Osbert

    2000-11-01

    We investigated physiological responses of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) roots to soil strength and soil water deficit by measuring the osmotic potential (Psi(pi)) and yield turgor (Y) in the elongation zone of root segments of seedlings growing (i) in polyethylene glycol 4000-containing rooting solution of different water potentials (Psi(s)) and (ii) in soil of different soil strengths (Q) at the same soil matric potential (Psi(m)). Root elongation rate (Deltal/Deltat) decreased progressively with decreasing Psi(s) and was associated with decreased Psi(pi) and decreased turgor pressure (P). Osmotic adjustment occurred at Psi(s) < -0.2 MPa. Over a range in Psi(s) of -0.01 to -1.0 MPa, Psi(pi) fell 0.3 MPa whereas P fell 0.7 MPa. Mean Psi in the solution experiment was 0.37 MPa and did not differ significantly with Psi(s) (P = 0.10). Root elongation rate decreased exponentially as Q increased from 0 to 3.0 MPa, and was associated with an increase in P of 0.11 MPa as a consequence of Psi(pi) decreasing by the same amount. Mean Y in the soil experiment was 0.49 MPa and did not change significantly with Q (P = 0.87). PMID:12651497

  13. Influence of acid-soluble proteins from bivalve Siliqua radiata ligaments on calcium carbonate crystal growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Zeng-Qiong; Zhang, Gang-Sheng

    2016-08-01

    In vitro biomimetic synthesis of calcium carbonate (CaCO3) in the presence of shell proteins is a heavily researched topic in biomineralization. However, little is known regarding the function of bivalve ligament proteins in the growth of CaCO3 crystals. In this study, using fibrous protein K58 from Siliqua radiata ligaments or coverslips as substrates, we report the results of our study of CaCO3 precipitation in the presence or absence of acid-soluble proteins (ASP) from inner ligament layers. ASP can disturb the controlling function of K58 or a coverslip on the crystalline phase, resulting in the formation of aragonite, calcite, and vaterite. In addition, we identified the following four primary components from ASP by mass spectroscopy: alkaline phosphatase (ALP), ABC transporter, keratin type II cytoskeletal 1 (KRT 1), and phosphate ABC transporter, phosphate-binding protein (PstS). Further analysis revealed that the first three proteins and especially ALP, which is important in bone mineralisation, could affect the polymorphism and morphology of CaCO3 crystals by trapping calcium ions in their domains. Our results indicate that ALP may play an important role in the formation of aragonite in S. radiata ligaments. This paper may facilitate our understanding of the biomineralization process.

  14. Ophiostoma species (Ascomycetes: Ophiostomatales) associated with bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) colonizing Pinus radiata in northern Spain.

    PubMed

    Romón, Pedro; Zhou, XuDong; Iturrondobeitia, Juan Carlos; Wingfield, Michael J; Goldarazena, Arturo

    2007-06-01

    Bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytinae) are known to be associated with fungi, especially species of Ophiostoma sensu lato and Ceratocystis. However, very little is known about these fungi in Spain. In this study, we examined the fungi associated with 13 bark beetle species and one weevil (Coleoptera: Entiminae) infesting Pinus radiata in the Basque Country of northern Spain. This study included an examination of 1323 bark beetles or their galleries in P. radiata. Isolations yielded a total of 920 cultures, which included 16 species of Ophiostoma sensu lato or their asexual states. These 16 species included 69 associations between fungi and bark beetles and weevils that have not previously been recorded. The most commonly encountered fungal associates of the bark beetles were Ophiostoma ips, Leptographium guttulatum, Ophiostoma stenoceras, and Ophiostoma piceae. In most cases, the niche of colonization had a significant effect on the abundance and composition of colonizing fungi. This confirms that resource overlap between species is reduced by partial spatial segregation. Interaction between niche and time seldom had a significant effect, which suggests that spatial colonization patterns are rarely flexible throughout timber degradation. The differences in common associates among the bark beetle species could be linked to the different niches that these beetles occupy. PMID:17668036

  15. Incidence of the Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of the devastating citrus disease “huanglongbing” or citrus greening. In the United States, D. citri was first discovered in Florida, in 1998. Tamarixia radiata Waterston, was imported fro...

  16. INDUCTION OF ZONA RADIATA PROTEINS AND VITELLOGENINS IN ESTRADIOL AND NONYLPHENOL EXPOSED MALE SHEEPSHEAD MINNOWS (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Knoebl, Iris, Michael J. Hemmer and Nancy D. Denslow. 2004. Induction of Zona Radiata Proteins and Vitellogenins in Estradiol and Nonylphenol Exposed Male Sheepshead Minnows (Cyprinodon variegatus). Mar. Environ. Res. 58(2-5):547-551. (ERL,GB X1059).

    Several genes normall...

  17. Spatial variability of 13C: 12C and D:H in Ecklonia radiata (C.Ag.) J. Agardh (Laminariales)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Gwen E.; Ritz, David A.

    1989-01-01

    The spatial variability of δ 13C and δD in four individual Ecklonia radiata plants was determined and the range compared to the range of individual values obtained for co-occuring macroalga species. Carbon values varied over a range of 3-4‰ in three of the E. radiata individuals, while values within another plant were found to vary by 7·43‰. Overall the carbon values ranged from -14·01 to -21·44‰, with a mean of overlinex = 16.06‰. SD = 1.43 . Hydrogen values however, exhibited a far greater range; within individual plants they ranged from 43·01‰ to 89·43‰. The isotopic range exhibited within E. radiata was half that of the range of carbon and one and a half times that of hydrogen values recorded for the co-occurring species analysed. This reduces the value of the techique for tracing the origin of detrital matter from seaweeds. The pattern of isotopic composition observed in E.radiata suggests differential storage of isotopically distinct compounds.

  18. Incidence of invasive Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) and its introduced parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) in Florida citrus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP), Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) vectors the bacterium Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus, one of the causal organisms of Huanglongbing or citrus greening, a devastating disease of citrus. A eulophid parasitoid, Tamarixia radiata Waterson, was imported ...

  19. Responses of carbon gain and growth of Pinus radiata stands to thinning and fertilizing.

    PubMed

    Sheriff, D W

    1996-06-01

    Thinning of forest stands is widely carried out to minimize the slowing of growth of individual stems that follows from increasing competition among trees as they become bigger. After thinning, there is an increase in the growth rate of remaining trees because of an increase in the availability of resources per tree. Often, there is also an increase in foliar efficiency (biomass increase/foliage amount). On sites where mineral nutrient supply is limiting, fertilizers may be applied, often in association with thinning, to boost productivity. Growth responses to fertilizer application depend on an adequate supply of other resources, but also involve nonlinear interactions among mineral nutrients and between nutrients and other growth-limiting environmental factors. The effects of thinning and fertilizing on the carbon gain and growth responses of Pinus radiata D. Don to availability of resources (light, mineral nutrients and water) and to changes in the canopy are discussed. PMID:14871706

  20. Application of hydrothermal treatment to affect the fermentability of Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge.

    PubMed

    Andrews, John; Smit, Anne-Marie; Wijeyekoon, Suren; McDonald, Ben; Baroutian, Saeid; Gapes, Daniel

    2014-10-01

    A hybrid technique incorporating a wet oxidation stage and secondary fermentation step was used to process Pinus radiata pulp mill effluent sludge. The effect of hydrothermal oxidation at high temperature and pressure on the hydrolysis of constituents of the waste stream was studied. Biochemical acidogenic potential assays were conducted to assess acid production resulting from anaerobic hydrolysis of the wet oxidised hydrolysate under acidogenic conditions. Significant degradation of the lignin, hemicellulose, suspended solids, carbohydrates and extractives were observed with wet oxidation. In contrast, cellulose showed resistance to degradation under the experimental conditions. Extensive degradation of biologically inhibitory compounds by wet oxidation did not show a beneficial impact on the acidogenic or methanogenic potential compared to untreated samples. PMID:25125197

  1. Assessment of holocellulose for the production of bioethanol by conserving Pinus radiata cones as renewable feedstock.

    PubMed

    Victor, Amudhavalli; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Gedanken, Aharon

    2015-10-01

    Renewable and green energy sources are much sought. Bioethanol is an environmentally friendly transportation fuel. Pine cones from Pinus radiata were shown to be a potential feedstock for the production of bioethanol. Alkaline (NaOH) pretreatment was carried out to delignify the lignocellulosic material and generate holocellulose (72 wt. % yield). The pretreated biomass was hydrolysed using HCl as catalyst under microwave irradiation and hydrothermal conditions. Microwave irradiation was found to be better than the hydrothermal process. Microwave irradiation accelerated the hydrolysis of biomass (42 wt. % conversion) with the reaction conditions being 3 M HCl and 5 min of irradiation time. Interestingly, even the xylose, which is the major component of the hydrolyzate was found to be metabolized to ethanol using Baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) under the experimental conditions. 5.7 g of ethanol could be produced from 100 g of raw pine cones. PMID:26247310

  2. Characterization of leaf apoplastic peroxidases and metabolites in Vigna unguiculata in response to toxic manganese supply and silicon.

    PubMed

    Führs, Hendrik; Götze, Stefanie; Specht, André; Erban, Alexander; Gallien, Sébastien; Heintz, Dimitri; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Kopka, Joachim; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter J

    2009-01-01

    Previous work suggested that the apoplastic phenol composition and its interaction with apoplastic class III peroxidases (PODs) are decisive in the development or avoidance of manganese (Mn) toxicity in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.). This study characterizes apoplastic PODs with particular emphasis on the activities of specific isoenzymes and their modulation by phenols in the Mn-sensitive cowpea cultivar TVu 91 as affected by Mn and silicon (Si) supply. Si reduced Mn-induced toxicity symptoms without affecting the Mn uptake. Blue Native-PAGE combined with Nano-LC-MS/MS allowed identification of a range of POD isoenzymes in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF). In Si-treated plants Mn-mediated induction of POD activity was delayed. Four POD isoenzymes eluted from the BN gels catalysed both H(2)O(2)-consuming and H(2)O(2)-producing activity with pH optima at 6.5 and 5.5, respectively. Four phenols enhanced NADH-peroxidase activity of these isoenzymes in the presence of Mn(2+) (p-coumaric=vanillic>benzoic>ferulic acid). p-Coumaric acid-enhanced NADH-peroxidase activity was inhibited by ferulic acid (50%) and five other phenols (50-90%). An independent component analysis (ICA) of the total and apoplastic GC-MS-based metabolome profile showed that Mn, Si supply, and the AWF fraction (AWF(H(2)O), AWF(NaCl)) significantly changed the metabolite composition. Extracting non-polar metabolites from the AWF allowed the identification of phenols. Predominantly NADH-peroxidase activity-inhibiting ferulic acid appeared to be down-regulated in Mn-sensitive (+Mn, -Si) and up-regulated in Mn-tolerant (+Si) leaf tissue. The results presented here support the previously hypothesized role of apoplastic NADH-peroxidase and its activity-modulating phenols in Mn toxicity and Si-enhanced Mn tolerance. PMID:19286915

  3. Ecological impacts of long-term application of biosolids to a radiata pine plantation.

    PubMed

    Xue, Jianming; Kimberley, Mark O; Ross, Craig; Gielen, Gerty; Tremblay, Louis A; Champeau, Olivier; Horswell, Jacqui; Wang, Hailong

    2015-10-15

    Assessment of the ecological impact of applying biosolids is important for determining both the risks and benefits. This study investigated the impact on soil physical, chemical and biological properties, tree nutrition and growth of long-term biosolids applications to a radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) plantation growing on a Sandy Raw Soil in New Zealand. Biosolids were applied to the trial site every 3 years from tree age 6 to 19 years at three application rates: 0 (Control), 300 (Standard) and 600 (High) kg nitrogen (N) ha(-1), equivalent to 0, 3 and 6 Mg ha(-1) of dry biosolids, respectively. Tree nutrition status and growth have been monitored annually. Soil samples were collected 13 years after the first biosolids application to assess the soil properties and functioning. Both the Standard and High biosolids treatments significantly increased soil (0-50 cm depth) total carbon (C), N, and phosphorus (P), Olsen P and cation exchange capacity (CEC), reduced soil pH, but had no significant effects on soil (0-20 cm depth) physical properties including bulk density, total porosity and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity. The High biosolids treatment also increased concentrations of soil total cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu) and lead (Pb) at 25-50 cm depth, but these concentrations were still considered very low for a soil. Ecotoxicological assessment showed no significant adverse effects of biosolids application on either the reproduction of springtails (Folsomia candida) or substrate utilisation ability of the soil microbial community, indicating no negative ecological impact of bisolids-derived heavy metals or triclosan. This study demonstrated that repeated application of biosolids to a plantation forest on a poor sandy soil could significantly improve soil fertility, tree nutrition and pine productivity. However, the long-term fate of biosolids-derived N, P and litter-retained heavy metals needs to be further monitored in the receiving environment

  4. Suppression of 4-coumarate-CoA ligase in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Armin; Donaldson, Lloyd; Kim, Hoon; Phillips, Lorelle; Flint, Heather; Steward, Diane; Torr, Kirk; Koch, Gerald; Schmitt, Uwe; Ralph, John

    2009-01-01

    Severe suppression of 4-coumarate-coenzyme A ligase (4CL) in the coniferous gymnosperm Pinus radiata substantially affected plant phenotype and resulted in dwarfed plants with a "bonsai tree-like" appearance. Microscopic analyses of stem sections from 2-year-old plants revealed substantial morphological changes in both wood and bark tissues. This included the formation of weakly lignified tracheids that displayed signs of collapse and the development of circumferential bands of axial parenchyma. Acetyl bromide-soluble lignin assays and proton nuclear magnetic resonance studies revealed lignin reductions of 36% to 50% in the most severely affected transgenic plants. Two-dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance and pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry studies indicated that lignin reductions were mainly due to depletion of guaiacyl but not p-hydroxyphenyl lignin. 4CL silencing also caused modifications in the lignin interunit linkage distribution, including elevated beta-aryl ether (beta-O-4 unit) and spirodienone (beta-1) levels, accompanied by lower phenylcoumaran (beta-5), resinol (beta-beta), and dibenzodioxocin (5-5/beta-O-4) levels. A sharp depletion in the level of saturated (dihydroconiferyl alcohol) end groups was also observed. Severe suppression of 4CL also affected carbohydrate metabolism. Most obvious was an up to approximately 2-fold increase in galactose content in wood from transgenic plants due to increased compression wood formation. The molecular, anatomical, and analytical data verified that the isolated 4CL clone is associated with lignin biosynthesis and illustrated that 4CL silencing leads to complex, often surprising, physiological and morphological changes in P. radiata. PMID:18971431

  5. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria "Candidatus Liberibacter spp." and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  6. Macrofauna associated with an introduced oyster, Pinctada radiata: Spatial scale implications of community differences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlig-Zouari, Sabiha; Rabaoui, Lotfi; Cosentino, Andrea; Irathni, Ikram; Ghrairi, Hafedh; Hassine, Oum Kalthoum Ben

    2011-01-01

    The macrozoobenthos associated with the introduced pearl oyster Pinctada radiata has been sampled at two different spatial scales of three sectors (order of hundreds of kilometres) and of eight localities (order of tens of kilometres). Moreover, the NW sector was selected to compare three localities with the presence of P. radiata (low density) and one locality where it was totally absent. The first design was hierarchical, with random localities nested within sectors; the second one was an asymmetrical factorial design, in which the presence/absence of Pinctada and hydrodynamism were considered. Similarity relationships were investigated by means of multivariate clustering, similarity percentage analysis and nm-MDS ordination; the two experimental designs have been tested by permutational MANOVA and analysis of dispersion (PERMDISP). Most of the variability of the associated zoobenthic community appeared to be mainly captured by local environmental factors; the meso-scale variability was more discriminating than differences at larger spatial scale. Large scale NW-SE biogeographic gradient may also have some effects in the assemblage composition. Although the whole arrangement of samples in the MDS plane showed a clear Bray-Curtis distance between the locality without Pinctada and all the remaining sites, pair-wise contrasts were not all significant. The factor "presence/absence" was not significant in this design, whereas the exposure was more indicative of differences in the local assemblage composition. These results may not confirm that the community structure variability is due to the impact of Pincata invasion because the potential and subtle community shift may be masked by the overwhelming influence of just the local environmental gradients. In spite of this, the introduced oyster may play the role of an engineer species at high densities, contributing to the complexity of the benthic habitat and influencing the trophic pattern of its fauna.

  7. Photosynthetic responses of field-grown Pinus radiata trees to artificial and aphid-induced defoliation.

    PubMed

    Eyles, Alieta; Smith, David; Pinkard, Elizabeth A; Smith, Ian; Corkrey, Ross; Elms, Stephen; Beadle, Chris; Mohammed, Caroline

    2011-06-01

    The phloem-feeding aphid Essigella californica represents a potential threat to the productivity of Pinus radiata plantations in south-eastern Australia. Five- and nine-year-old field trials were used to characterize the effects of artificial and natural aphid-induced (E. californica) defoliation, respectively, on shoot photosynthesis and growth. Photosynthetic capacity (A(max)) was significantly greater following a 25% (D25) (13.8 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) and a 50% (D50) (15.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)) single-event upper-crown artificial defoliation, 3 weeks after defoliation than in undefoliated control trees (12.9 µmol m(-2) s(-1)). This response was consistently observed for up to 11 weeks after the defoliation event; by Week 16, there was no difference in A(max) between control and defoliated trees. In the D50 treatment, this increased A(max) was not sufficient to fully compensate for the foliage loss as evidenced by the reduced diameter increment (by 15%) in defoliated trees 36 weeks after defoliation. In contrast, diameter increment of trees in the D25 treatment was unaffected by defoliation. The A(max) of trees experiencing upper-crown defoliation by natural and repeated E. californica infestations varied, depending on host genotype. Despite clear differences in defoliation levels between resistant and susceptible genotypes (17 vs. 35% of tree crown defoliated, respectively), growth of susceptible genotypes was not significantly different from that of resistant genotypes. The observed increases in A(max) in the lower crown of the canopy following attack suggested that susceptible genotypes were able to partly compensate for the loss of foliage by compensatory photosynthesis. The capacity of P. radiata to regulate photosynthesis in response to natural aphid-induced defoliation provides evidence that the impact of E. californica attack on stem growth will be less than expected, at least for up to 35% defoliation. PMID:21697147

  8. Lethal and Sublethal Effects of Insecticides Used on Citrus, on the Ectoparasitoid Tamarixia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Beloti, Vitor Hugo; Alves, Gustavo Rodrigues; Araújo, Diogo Feliciano Dias; Picoli, Mateus Manara; Moral, Rafael de Andrade; Demétrio, Clarice Garcia Borges; Yamamoto, Pedro Takao

    2015-01-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is a disease associated with the bacteria “Candidatus Liberibacter spp.” and has been devastating citrus orchards around the world. Its management involves control of the insect vector, the Asian citrus psyllid Diaphorina citri Kuwayama. However, the indiscriminate use of chemicals has caused pest outbreaks and eliminated the natural enemies of the vector, such as the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston), the main agent for biological control of D. citri. This study assessed the lethal and sublethal effects of insecticides recommended for integrated production of citrus on the parasitoid T. radiata. When adult parasitoids were exposed to residues of 25 insecticides, 20% of them, i.e., gamma-cyhalothrin, etofenprox, azadirachtin, tebufenozide and pyriproxyfen, were considered as harmless (Class 1), 12% as slightly harmful (Class 2), 12% as moderately harmful (Class 3) and 56% as harmful (Class 4), according to the classification proposed by the IOBC/WPRS. Afterward, 14 insecticides (5 harmless and 9 harmful) were sprayed on the parasitoid pupae. Of the 14 insecticides tested, only the organophosphates dimethoate and chlorpyrifos affected the parasitoid emergence. The effects of insecticides on the parasitism capacity of adults exposed to residues of azadirachtin, etofenprox, gamma-cyhalothrin, pyriproxyfen and tebufenozide (harmless) were also evaluated. Tebufenozide and gamma-cyhalothrin affected the parasitism of the F0 generation, but did not affect the emergence of the F1 and F2 generations. Therefore, for an effective IPM program, selective insecticides or harmful pesticides to adult parasitoids could be used in the field, provided that the adults do not occur naturally and the chemical applications do not coincide with parasitoid releases. PMID:26132327

  9. Changes in nutrient and antinutrient composition of Vigna racemosa flour in open and controlled fermentation.

    PubMed

    Difo, V H; Onyike, E; Ameh, D A; Njoku, G C; Ndidi, U S

    2015-09-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of open and controlled fermentation on the proximate composition, mineral elements, antinutritional factors and flatulence-causing oligosaccharides in Vigna racemosa. The open fermentation was carried out using the microorganisms present in the atmosphere while the controlled fermentation was carried out using Aspergillus niger as a starter. The proximate composition of the Vigna racemosa, some anti-nutrients and the mineral elements were analyzed using standard procedures. The protein content was increased by 12.41 ± 1.73 % during open fermentation while it decreased by 29.42 ± 0.1 % during controlled fermentation. The lipids, carbohydrates, crude fibre and ash content were all reduced in both types of fermentation except the moisture content which increased in controlled fermentation. Apart from calcium, the other elements (Fe, Na, Mg, Zn, and K) suffered reduction in both types of fermentation. The phytate, tannin, alkaloids, hydrogen cyanide, lectins, trypsin inhibitors and oxalate content all had drastic reductions in both types of fermentation. Open and controlled fermentation reduced the levels of both raffinose and stachyose. The percentages of reduction due to controlled fermentation were higher than those of open fermentation in the antinutrients studied. Fermentation is an efficient method for detoxifying the antinutrients in the Vigna racemosa studied in this work. PMID:26345026

  10. Vigna unguiculata is nodulated in Spain by endosymbionts of Genisteae legumes and by a new symbiovar (vignae) of the genus Bradyrhizobium.

    PubMed

    Bejarano, Ana; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; Velázquez, Encarna; Peix, Alvaro

    2014-10-01

    Vigna unguiculata was introduced into Europe from its distribution centre in Africa, and it is currently being cultivated in Mediterranean regions with adequate edapho-climatic conditions where the slow growing rhizobia nodulating this legume have not yet been studied. Previous studies based on rrs gene and ITS region analyses have shown that Bradyrhizobium yuanmingense and B. elkanii nodulated V. unguiculata in Africa, but these two species were not found in this study. Using the same phylogenetic markers it was shown that V. unguiculata, a legume from the tribe Phaseolae, was nodulated in Spain by two species of group I, B. cytisi and B. canariense, which are common endosymbionts of Genisteae in both Europe and Africa. These species have not been found to date in V. unguiculata nodules in its African distribution centres. All strains from Bradyrhizobium group I isolated in Spain belonged to the symbiovar genistearum, which is found at present only in Genisteae legumes in both Africa and Europe. V. unguiculata was also nodulated in Spain by a strain from Bradyrhizobium group II that belonged to a novel symbiovar (vignae). Some African V. unguiculata-nodulating strains also belonged to this proposed new symbiovar. PMID:24867807

  11. Effects of compaction and simulated root channels in the subsoil on root development, water uptake and growth of radiata pine.

    PubMed

    Nambiar, E K; Sands, R

    1992-04-01

    Effects of subsoil compaction and simulated root channels (perforations) through the compacted layer on root growth, water uptake, foliar nutrient concentration and growth of radiata pine (Pinus radiata D. Don) were studied in a field experiment where a range of treatments were applied in reconstituted soil profiles. Subsoil compaction adversely affected root penetration in deeper parts of the soil and consequently caused greater water stress in trees. However, the effect of compaction was largely overcome when the subsoil was perforated to render 0.2% of the soil volume into vertical channels. Roots showed a remarkable ability to reach the points of low penetration strength and to travel through them to deeper parts of the profile. Perforations through compacted soil layers at a relatively low frequency may be a practical solution to allow root development into deeper parts of the soil and allow greater soil water exploration by roots. PMID:14969986

  12. Analyses of MYMIV-induced transcriptome in Vigna mungo as revealed by next generation sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Ganguli, Sayak; Dey, Avishek; Banik, Rahul; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean Yellow Mosaic Virus (MYMIV) is the viral pathogen that causes yellow mosaic disease to a number of legumes including Vigna mungo. VM84 is a recombinant inbred line resistant to MYMIV, developed in our laboratory through introgression of resistance trait from V. mungo line VM-1. Here we present the quality control passed transcriptome data of mock inoculated (control) and MYMIV-infected VM84, those have already been submitted in Sequence Read Archive (SRX1032950, SRX1082731) of NCBI. QC reports of FASTQ files generated by ‘SeqQC V2.2’ bioinformatics tool. PMID:26981413

  13. Centrifugal partition chromatography elution gradient for isolation of sesquiterpene lactones and flavonoids from Anvillea radiata.

    PubMed

    Destandau, Emilie; Boukhris, Meryem Alaoui; Zubrzycki, Sandrine; Akssira, Mohamed; Rhaffari, Lhoucine El; Elfakir, Claire

    2015-03-15

    An innovative procedure coupling pressurized solvent extraction and centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) used in linear gradient elution mode was developed to isolate two pure germacranolides (9α-hydroxyparthenolide and 9β-hydroxyparthenolide) and to separate flavonoids (nepetin, isorhamnetin and jaceosidin) and chlorophyll pigments from aerial parts of Anvillea radiata (Coss.&Durieu). The two main germacranolides recovered using this method represent 2 and 5% of the dried plant material respectively. These molecules were extracted using accelerated solvent extraction with chloroform. After optimization of the CPC method, a two-phase solvent system composed of heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (1:5:1:5 v/v/v/v) was employed in descending mode to isolate the germacranolides. Then the lower phase of a heptane/ethyl acetate/methanol/water (6:5:6:5 v/v/v/v) system was pumped in descending mode to generate a linear elution gradient, progressively decreasing the mobile phase polarity, that enabled the flavonoid compounds to be separated in the same run. The efficiency of the preparative separation was controlled through RP-HPLC analysis of the obtained fractions using UV, evaporative light scattering and mass spectrometry detection. The structural identification of the two germacranolides purified over 99% was established by (1)H NMR and (13)C NMR. The least abundant flavonoids were identified by mass spectrometry. PMID:25647341

  14. Production, composition and toxicology studies of Enzogenol® Pinus radiata bark extract.

    PubMed

    Frevel, Mathias A E; Pipingas, Andrew; Grigsby, Warren J; Frampton, Chris M; Gilchrist, Nigel L

    2012-12-01

    Enzogenol® pine bark extract is a dietary supplement and food ingredient produced by water extraction of Pinus radiata. We present production method, composition, and safety data from rat and dog toxicological and human clinical studies. The dry powder contains proanthocyanidins (>80%), taxifolin (1-2%), other flavonoids and phenolic acids (up to 8%), and carbohydrates (5-10%). Reverse mutation assays showed lack of mutagenic activity. Single and 14-day repeat dosing in rats and dogs had no influence on body weight, feed consumption, blood chemistry, and haematology at any dose level. There were no treatment related findings on gross and detailed necroscopy, organ weights, organ weight ratios and histology. The only adverse events were emesis and diarrhoea in dogs occurring mainly in un-fed condition and at the highest dose level in a total of 18% of applications. The MTD and NOAEL in the present rat and dog studies were 2500 and 750 mg/kg/day, respectively. Consumption of 480 mg/day for 6 months and 960 mg/day for 5 weeks in two human studies showed Enzogenol® had no adverse influence on liver and kidney function, haematology, and did not cause any adverse events. Our studies indicate lack of toxicity of Enzogenol® and support safe use as a food ingredient. PMID:22982471

  15. Improved cognitive performance after dietary supplementation with a Pinus radiata bark extract formulation.

    PubMed

    Pipingas, Andrew; Silberstein, Richard B; Vitetta, Luis; Rooy, Cindy Van; Harris, Elizabeth V; Young, Joanna M; Frampton, Christopher M; Sali, Avni; Nastasi, Joseph

    2008-09-01

    Dietary interventions may have the potential to counter age-related cognitive decline. Studies have demonstrated an improvement in age-related cognitive impairment in animals after supplementation with plant extracts containing flavonoids but there are few human studies. This double-blind, controlled study examined the effects on cognitive performance of a 5 week supplementation with Enzogenol Pinus radiata bark extract containing flavonoids, in 42 males aged 50-65 years, with a body mass index >25. Participants were supplemented for 5 weeks either with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, or with vitamin C only. A battery of computerized cognitive tests was administered, and cardiovascular and haematological parameters were assessed prior to and following supplementation. The speed of response for the spatial working memory and immediate recognition tasks improved after supplementation with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, whereas vitamin C alone showed no improvements. A trend in a reduction of systolic blood pressure was observed with Enzogenol plus vitamin C, but not with vitamin C alone. The blood safety parameters were unchanged. The findings suggest a beneficial effect of supplementation with Enzogenol on cognition in older individuals. Larger studies are needed to ascertain its potential as a preventive treatment for age-related cognitive decline. PMID:18683195

  16. Connectivity of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata within and among estuaries and open coast.

    PubMed

    Coleman, Melinda A

    2013-01-01

    With marine protected areas being established worldwide there is a pressing need to understand how the physical setting in which these areas are placed influences patterns of dispersal and connectivity of important marine organisms. This is particularly critical for dynamic and complex nearshore marine environments where patterns of genetic structure of organisms are often chaotic and uncoupled from broad scale physical processes. This study determines the influence of habitat heterogeneity (presence of estuaries) on patterns of genetic structure and connectivity of the common kelp, Ecklonia radiata. There was no genetic differentiation of kelp between estuaries and the open coast and the presence of estuaries did not increase genetic differentiation among open coast populations. Similarly, there were no differences in level of inbreeding or genetic diversity between estuarine and open coast populations. The presence of large estuaries along rocky coastlines does not appear to influence genetic structure of this kelp and factors other than physical heterogeneity of habitat are likely more important determinants of regional connectivity. Marine reserves are currently lacking in this bioregion and may be designated in the future. Knowledge of the factors that influence important habitat forming organisms such as kelp contribute to informed and effective marine protected area design and conservation initiatives to maintain resilience of important marine habitats. PMID:23717648

  17. Polyamine levels as related to growth, differentiation and senescence in protoplast-derived cultures of Vigna aconitifolia and Avena sativa

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaur Sawhney, R.; Shekhawat, N. S.; Galston, A. W.

    1985-01-01

    We have previously reported that aseptically cultured mesophyll protoplasts of Vigna divide rapidly and regenerate into complete plants, while mesophyll protoplasts of Avena divide only sporadically and senesce rapidly after isolation. We measured polyamine titers in such cultures of Vigna and Avena, to study possible correlations between polyamines and cellular behavior. We also deliberately altered polyamine titer by the use of selective inhibitors of polyamine biosynthesis, noting the effects on internal polyamine titer, cell division activity and regenerative events. In Vigna cultures, levels of free and bound putrescine and spermidine increased dramatically as cell division and differentiation progressed. The increase in bound polyamines was largest in embryoid-forming callus tissue while free polyamine titer was highest in root-forming callus. In Avena cultures, the levels of total polyamines decreased as the protoplast senesced. The presence of the inhibitors alpha-difluoromethyl-arginine (specific inhibitor of arginine decarboxylase), alpha-difluoromethylornithine (specific inhibitor of ornithine decarboxylase) and dicyclohexylamine (inhibitor of spermidine synthase) reduced cell division and organogenesis in Vigna cultures. Addition of low concentration of polyamines to such cultures containing inhibitors or removal of inhibitors from the culture medium restored the progress of growth and differentiation with concomitant increase in polyamine levels.

  18. Physiological effects of seed coat darkening in Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp): aging and water uptake

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cowpea bean (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) is an important annual food crop in Northeast Brazil. Dry storage of these seeds leads to a slow and uneven darkening of the seed coat. The mixture of seed colors creates an unacceptable product for consumers. The aim of this study was to determine the kineti...

  19. Title A de novo synthesis citrate transporter VuMATE confers aluminum resistance in rice bean (vigna umbellata)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Al-activated organic acid anion efflux from roots is an important Al resistance mechanism in plants. We have conducted the homologous cloning and isolation of VuMATE (Vigna umbellata multidrug and toxic compound extrusion), a gene encoding a de novo citrate transporter from rice bean. Al treatment u...

  20. [Use of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna sinensis in a fermented dairy drink].

    PubMed

    Granito, Marisela; Trujillo, Lesma; Guerra, Marisa

    2004-06-01

    The objective of this work was to develop a new kind fermented dairy drink, partially substituted with clear varieties of Phaseolus vulgaris (caraota) and Vigna sinensis (frijol). The formulation of fermented dairy drinks included sterile extracts of caraota and frijol, as partial substitutes which replaced milk: 10, 20 and 30%. The mixtures were inoculated with 2% of a mixture of Lactobacillus acidophillus, Streptococcus thermophilus and Bifidobacterium sp. and were incubated at 42 degrees C for 7 hours. Mango and guava jams were used as flavorings at 20%. On the basis of the sensorial evaluation the mixtures 10% frijol-mango, 10% frijol-guava, 30% caraota-mango and 20% caraota-guava were selected. In the selected fermented dairy drinks, the levels of protein, soluble and insoluble fiber, available and resistant starches were increased and the protein digestibility was 81%. The technical feasibility of partial substitution of milk with extracts of Phaseolus vulgaris or Vigna sinensis. For the elaboration of a fermented dairy drink similar to the liquid yogurt kind was demonstrated. PMID:15586693

  1. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-01-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. ‘Sorok’, ‘Sodam’ and ‘Somyeong’. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1–100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  2. First Report of Cucumber mosaic virus Isolated from Wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Jeong, Rae-Dong; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Su-Heon; Kim, Jeong-Soo; Kim, Kook-Hyung; Cha, Byeongjin; Choi, Hong-Soo

    2014-06-01

    A viral disease causing severe mosaic, necrotic, and yellow symptoms on Vigna angularis var. nipponensis was prevalent around Suwon area in Korea. The causal virus was characterized as Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) on the basis of biological and nucleotide sequence properties of RNAs 1, 2 and 3 and named as CMV-wVa. CMV-wVa isolate caused mosaic symptoms on indicator plants, Nicotiana tabacum cv. Xanthi-nc, Petunia hybrida, and Cucumis sativus. Strikingly, CMV-wVa induced severe mosaic and malformation on Cucurbita pepo, and Solanum lycopersicum. Moreover, it caused necrotic or mosaic symptoms on V. angularis and V. radiate of Fabaceae. Symptoms of necrotic local or pin point were observed on inoculated leaves of V. unguiculata, Vicia fava, Pisum sativum and Phaseolus vulgaris. However, CMV-wVa isolate failed to infect in Glycine max cvs. 'Sorok', 'Sodam' and 'Somyeong'. To assess genetic variation between CMV-wVa and the other known CMV isolates, phylogenetic analysis using 16 complete nucleotide sequences of CMV RNA1, RNA2, and RNA3 including CMV-wVa was performed. CMV-wVa was more closely related to CMV isolates belonging to CMV subgroup I showing about 85.1-100% nucleotide sequences identity to those of subgroup I isolates. This is the first report of CMV as the causal virus infecting wild Vigna angularis var. nipponensis in Korea. PMID:25289004

  3. Understanding Trichoderma in the root system of Pinus radiata: associations between rhizosphere colonisation and growth promotion for commercially grown seedlings.

    PubMed

    Hohmann, Pierre; Jones, E Eirian; Hill, Robert A; Stewart, Alison

    2011-08-01

    Two Trichoderma isolates (T. hamatum LU592 and T. atroviride LU132) were tested for their ability to promote the growth and health of commercially grown Pinus radiata seedlings. The colonisation behaviour of the two isolates was investigated to relate rhizosphere competence and root penetration to subsequent effects on plant performance. Trichoderma hamatum LU592 was shown to enhance several plant health and growth parameters. The isolate significantly reduced seedling mortality by up to 29%, and promoted the growth of shoots (e.g. height by up to 16%) and roots (e.g. dry weight by up to 31%). The introduction of LU592 as either seed coat or spray application equally improved seedling health and growth demonstrating the suitability of both application methods for pine nursery situations. However, clear differences in rhizosphere colonisation and root penetration between the two application methods highlighted the need for more research on the impact of inoculum densities. When spray-applied, LU592 was found to be the predominant Trichoderma strain in the plant root system, including bulk potting mix, rhizosphere and endorhizosphere. In contrast, T. atroviride LU132 was shown to colonise the root system poorly, and no biological impact on P. radiata seedlings was detected. This is the first report to demonstrate rhizosphere competence as a useful indicator for determining Trichoderma bio-inoculants for P. radiata. High indigenous Trichoderma populations with similar population dynamics to the introduced strains revealed the limitations of the dilution plating technique, but this constraint was alleviated to some extent by the use of techniques for morphological and molecular identification of the introduced isolates. PMID:21802056

  4. Vigna unguiculata modulates cholesterol induced cardiac markers, genotoxicity and gene expressions profile in an experimental rabbit model.

    PubMed

    Janeesh, P A; Abraham, Annie

    2013-04-25

    Vigna unguiculata (VU) leaves are edible and used as a leafy vegetable in cuisine from traditional times in India. This study was designed to investigate the cardioprotective effect of VU in cholesterol fed rabbits. The animals were randomly divided into 4 groups of 6 animals each and the experimental period was 3 months. Group I-ND [normal diet 40 g feed], Group II-ND + FVU [flavanoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata (150 mg kg (-1) per body weight)], Group III-ND + CH [cholesterol (400 mg)] and Group IV-ND + CH (400 mg) +FVU (150 mg kg(-1) per body weight). After the experimental period, animals were sacrificed and the various parameters, such as cardiac markers, toxicity parameters, genotoxicity and gene expression, were investigated. Cholesterol feeding causes a significant increase in the levels of cardiac marker enzymes, namely lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine phospokinase (CPK), atherogenic index, toxicity parameters like serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT) and serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT) were elevated. Antioxidant enzyme levels were decreased, lipid peroxidation products in heart tissue and inflammatory markers, namely cyclooxygenase (COX2) and lipooxygenase (LOX15) in peripheral blood monocytes (PBMCs), were significantly increased. A genotoxicity study using a Comet assay and gene expression by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) of transforming growth factor-b1 (TGF-b1) and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) from heart tissue showed an altered expression in the disease group. The supplementation of the flavonoid fraction of Vigna unguiculata leaves (FVU) in the CH + FVU group caused the reversal of the above parameters and cardiotoxicity to near normal when compared with the CH group and FVU. This study revealed the cardioprotective nature of Vigna unguiculata in preventing cardiovascular diseases and this effect is attributed to the presence of antioxidants and the antihyperlipidemic properties of the

  5. Realized gain and prediction of yield with genetically improved Pinus radiata in New Zealand

    SciTech Connect

    Carson, S.D.; Hayes, J.D. ); Garcia, O. . Centro de Investigacions Forestais de Lourizan)

    1999-05-01

    Pinus radiata D. Don seedlots of varying genetic quality were compared in block-plot genetic-gain trials at 10 locations representing most of the site types in New Zealand. Permanent sample plots were measured annually for growth from age 6--8 yr from planting to ages 15--17 (midrotation). Seedlots from first-generation open-pollinated seed orchards and a mix of crosses that all involved the top-performing parent were, respectively, on average 4.5 % and 5.3% taller and had 6% and 11% larger mean diameter, 12% and 30% more basal area, and 15% and 34% more stem volume than seedlots originating from mild mass selection in harvested stands (climbing select). The observed growth increases were quantified as changes in the rate of growth from that predicted by pre-existing growth models in order to account for tree size and stocking differences. Seedlots from first-generation seed orchards and crosses of the top clone, respectively, grew 5.1% and 4.5% faster in height, and functions for basal area and stocking changed 13% and 26.4% faster, respectively, than the baseline growth models, which were based on climbing select. This implies that increased basal area growth must be taken into account in order to obtain accurate prediction of gain in stem volume. The incorporation of these observed increases in growth rates into stand growth models as genetic-gain multipliers in order to extrapolate predictions of growth of genetically improved seedlots beyond the sites, silvicultures, and seedlots represented in the genetic gain trials is discussed.

  6. Draft Genome Sequence of Microvirga vignae Strain BR 3299T, a Novel Symbiotic Nitrogen-Fixing Alphaproteobacterium Isolated from a Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Edson Zilli, Jerri; Ribeiro Passos, Samuel; Leite, Jakson; Ribeiro Xavier, Gustavo; Gouvea Rumjaneck, Norma

    2015-01-01

    Microvirga vignae is a recently described species of root-nodule bacteria isolated from cowpeas grown in a Brazilian semiarid region. We report here the 6.4-Mb draft genome sequence and annotation of M. vignae type strain BR 3299. This genome information may help to understand the mechanisms underlying the ability of the organism to grow under drought and high-temperatures conditions. PMID:26159523

  7. Leaf crinkle disease in urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper): An overview on causal agent, vector and host.

    PubMed

    Gautam, Narinder Kumar; Kumar, Krishna; Prasad, Manoj

    2016-05-01

    Urdbean leaf crinkle disease (ULCD) is an economically significant widespread and devastating disease resulting in extreme crinkling, puckering and rugosity of leaves inflicting heavy yield losses annually in major urdbean-producing countries of the world. This disease is caused by urdbean leaf crinkle virus (ULCV). Urdbean (Vigna mungo L. Hepper) is relatively more susceptible than other pulses to leaf crinkle disease. Urdbean is an important and useful crop cultivated in various parts of South-East Asia and well adapted for cultivation under semi-arid and subtropical conditions. Aphids, insects and whiteflies have been reported as vectors of the disease. The virus is also transmitted through sap inoculation, grafting and seed. The loss in seed yield in ULCD-affected urdbean crop ranges from 35 to 81%, which is dependent upon type of genotype location and infection time. The diseased material and favourable climatic conditions contribute for the widespread viral disease. Anatomical and biochemical changes take place in the affected diseased plants. Genetic variations have been reported in the germplasm screening which suggest continuous screening of available varieties and new germplasm to search for new traits (new genes) and identify new sources of disease resistance. There are very few reports on breeding programmes for the development and release of varieties tolerant to ULCD. Mostly random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) as well as inter-simple sequence repeat (ISSR) molecular markers have been utilized for fingerprinting of blackgram, and a few reports are there on sequence-tagged micro-satellite site (STMS) markers. There are so many RNA viruses which have also developed strategies to counteract silencing process by encoding suppressor proteins that create hindrances in the process. But, in the case of ULCV, there is no report available indicating which defence pathway is operating for its resistance in the plants and whether same silencing suppression

  8. Biological control of Asian citrus psyllid (Diaphorina citri) in Florida by the parasitoid Tamarixia radiata in urban plantings of orange jasmine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Asian citrus psyllid is an important invasive citrus pest in the United States because it vectors a bacterium responsible for a devastating disease of citrus known as huanglongbing. A parasitoid of the psyllid, Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae), was imported from Southeast Asia and re...

  9. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata

    PubMed Central

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E.; Revill, Andrew T.; Hurd, Catriona L.; Johnson, Craig R.

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world’s oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  10. Survival of adult Tamarixia radiata subjected to different short-term storage methods prior to field releases for biological control of Asian citrus psyllid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata is regarded as one of the Asian citrus psyllid’s most important natural enemies and is thus currently being mass-reared and released by a number of laboratories in North America. It may not always be possible to immediately release newly-emerged adults, in which case it would be a...

  11. Ocean acidification reverses the positive effects of seawater pH fluctuations on growth and photosynthesis of the habitat-forming kelp, Ecklonia radiata.

    PubMed

    Britton, Damon; Cornwall, Christopher E; Revill, Andrew T; Hurd, Catriona L; Johnson, Craig R

    2016-01-01

    Ocean acidification (OA) is the reduction in seawater pH due to the absorption of human-released CO2 by the world's oceans. The average surface oceanic pH is predicted to decline by 0.4 units by 2100. However, kelp metabolically modifies seawater pH via photosynthesis and respiration in some temperate coastal systems, resulting in daily pH fluctuations of up to ±0.45 units. It is unknown how these fluctuations in pH influence the growth and physiology of the kelp, or how this might change with OA. In laboratory experiments that mimicked the most extreme pH fluctuations measured within beds of the canopy-forming kelp Ecklonia radiata in Tasmania, the growth and photosynthetic rates of juvenile E. radiata were greater under fluctuating pH (8.4 in the day, 7.8 at night) than in static pH treatments (8.4, 8.1, 7.8). However, pH fluctuations had no effect on growth rates and a negative effect on photosynthesis when the mean pH of each treatment was reduced by 0.3 units. Currently, pH fluctuations have a positive effect on E. radiata but this effect could be reversed in the future under OA, which is likely to impact the future ecological dynamics and productivity of habitats dominated by E. radiata. PMID:27229624

  12. Molecular genetic studies confirm that populations of Tamarixia radiata (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) from Texas and Florida area a single species: natural enemies of the Asian citrus psylild

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tamarixia radiata (Waterston) (Hymenoptera: Eulophidae) is a natural enemy of the Asian citrus pysllid [Diaphorina citri Kuwayama (Hemiptera: Psyllidae]). D. citri is an important economic world-wide pest of citrus that recently invaded Texas, among several other states in the U. S. D. citri vecto...

  13. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-01-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean. PMID:25774112

  14. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S.

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3–10 in a molecular weight range of 11–170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6–8. PMID:27239343

  15. Phytochemical Evaluation of Moth Bean (Vigna aconitifolia L.) Seeds and Their Divergence.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Neha; Shrivastava, Nidhi; Singh, Pramod Kumar; Bhagyawant, Sameer S

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, phytochemical contents of 25 moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia) seed accessions were evaluated. This includes protease inhibitors, phytic acid, radical scavenging activity, and tannins. The studies revealed significant variation in the contents of theses phytochemicals. Presence of photochemical composition was correlated with seed storage proteins like albumin and globulin. Qualitative identification of total seed storage protein abundance across two related moth bean accessions using two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2D-GE) was performed. Over 20 individual protein fractions were distributed over the gel as a series of spots in two moth bean accessions. Seed proteome accumulated spots of high intensity over a broad range of pI values of 3-10 in a molecular weight range of 11-170 kDa. In both seed accessions maximum protein spots are seen in the pI range of 6-8. PMID:27239343

  16. Stem Rot on Adzuki Bean (Vigna angularis) Caused by Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI in China.

    PubMed

    Sun, Suli; Xia, Changjian; Zhang, Jiqing; Duan, Canxing; Wang, Xiaoming; Wu, Xiaofei; Lee, Suk-Ha; Zhu, Zhendong

    2015-03-01

    During late August and early September 2011, stem rot symptoms were observed on adzuki bean plants (Vigna angularis) growing in fields located in Beijing and Hebei Province, China, respectively. In this study, four isolates were obtained from infected stems of adzuki bean plants. Based on their morphology, and sequence and polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analyses of the ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (rDNA-ITS) region, the four isolates were identified as Rhizoctonia solani in anastomosis group (AG) 4 HGI. Pathogenicity tests showed that all isolates were strongly pathogenic to adzuki bean and resulted in serious wilt symptoms which was similar to observations in the fields. Additionally, the isolates infected several other crops and induced related rot on the roots and basal stems. To our knowledge, this is the first report of Rhizoctonia solani AG 4 HGI causing stem rot on adzuki bean. PMID:25774112

  17. Regiospecific Profiles of Fatty Acids in Triacylglycerols and Phospholipids from Adzuki Beans (Vigna angularis)

    PubMed Central

    Yoshida, Hiromi; Tomiyama, Yuka; Yoshida, Naoko; Shibata, Kyoko; Mizushina, Yoshiyuki

    2010-01-01

    Regiospecific distributions of fatty acids (FA) of triacylglycerols (TAG) and phospholipids (PL) isolated from five cultivars of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis) were investigated. The lipids comprised mainly PL (72.2-73.4 wt-%) and TAG (20.6-21.9 wt-%), whilst other components were detected in minor proportions (0.1-3.4 wt-%). The principal profiles of the FA distribution in the TAG and PL were evident in the beans among the five cultivars: unsaturated FA were predominantly distributed in the sn-2 position, whilst saturated FA primarily occupied the sn-1 or the sn-3 position in the these lipids. The results would be useful information to both producers and consumers for manufacturing traditional adzuki confectionaries such as wagashi in Japan. PMID:22253991

  18. Phytostabilization of mine waste: growth and physiological responses of Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.

    PubMed

    Kshirsagar, Shruti; Aery, N C

    2007-07-01

    Greenhouse experiments were carried out for phytoremediation of the Pb/Zn abandoned tailings (pH 3.2 and high metal content) of Rampura-Agucha Mines, Rajasthan. Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (cowpea) was chosen as a test crop. On unamended tailings, the seeds of the test plant showed no germination. The tailing was amended with lime (3% on weight basis), 3% lime + NPK (diammonium phosphate at 60 kg/ha, muriate of potash at 40 kg/ ha) and 3% lime + FYM at 15 t/ha and used for experiments. Quantification of various parameters viz. shoot-root length, shoot-root dry weight, chlorophyll contents (a', 'b' and total) and peroxidase activity of test crop revealed T+ S + 3% lime + NPK to be the most suitable amelioration followed by FYM. The above treatments helped in improving the growth and productivity of the test plants by providing a favorable environment. PMID:18380090

  19. Programmed cell death during development of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) seed coat.

    PubMed

    Lima, Nathália Bastos; Trindade, Fernanda Gomes; da Cunha, Maura; Oliveira, Antônia Elenir Amâncio; Topping, Jennifer; Lindsey, Keith; Fernandes, Kátia Valevski Sales

    2015-04-01

    The seed coat develops primarily from maternal tissues and comprises multiple cell layers at maturity, providing a metabolically dynamic interface between the developing embryo and the environment during embryogenesis, dormancy and germination of seeds. Seed coat development involves dramatic cellular changes, and the aim of this research was to investigate the role of programmed cell death (PCD) events during the development of seed coats of cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.]. We demonstrate that cells of the developing cowpea seed coats undergo a programme of autolytic cell death, detected as cellular morphological changes in nuclei, mitochondria, chloroplasts and vacuoles, DNA fragmentation and oligonucleosome accumulation in the cytoplasm, and loss of membrane viability. We show for the first time that classes 6 and 8 caspase-like enzymes are active during seed coat development, and that these activities may be compartmentalized by translocation between vacuoles and cytoplasm during PCD events. PMID:25142352

  20. Measurements of experimental precision for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes.

    PubMed

    Teodoro, P E; Torres, F E; Santos, A D; Corrêa, A M; Nascimento, M; Barroso, L M A; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the suitability of statistics as experimental precision degree measures for trials with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) genotypes. Cowpea genotype yields were evaluated in 29 trials conducted in Brazil between 2005 and 2012. The genotypes were evaluated with a randomized block design with four replications. Ten statistics that were estimated for each trial were compared using descriptive statistics, Pearson correlations, and path analysis. According to the class limits established, selective accuracy and F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination adequately estimated the degree of experimental precision. Using these statistics, 86.21% of the trials had adequate experimental precision. Selective accuracy and the F-test values for genotype, heritability, and the coefficient of determination were directly related to each other, and were more suitable than the coefficient of variation and the least significant difference (by the Tukey test) to evaluate experimental precision in trials with cowpea genotypes. PMID:27173351

  1. Fine Structure of Bacteroids in Root Nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius

    PubMed Central

    Dart, P. J.; Mercer, F. V.

    1966-01-01

    Dart, P. J. (University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia), and F. V. Mercer. Fine structure of bacteroids in root nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, Viminaria juncea, and Lupinus angustifolius. J. Bacteriol. 91:1314–1319.—In nodules of Vigna sinensis, Acacia longifolia, and Viminaria juncea, membrane envelopes enclose groups of bacteroids. The bacteroids often contain inclusion granules and electron-dense bodies, expand little during development, and retain their rod form with a compact, central nucleoid area. The membrane envelope may persist around bacteroids after host cytoplasm breakdown. In nodules of Lupinus angustifolius, the membrane envelopes enclose only one or two bacteroids, which expand noticeably during development and change from their initial rod structure. Images PMID:5929757

  2. Characterization of an inducible C2 H2 -type zinc finger transcription factor VuSTOP1 in rice bean (Vigna umbellata) reveals differential regulation between low pH and aluminum tolerance mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Fan, Wei; Lou, He Qiang; Gong, Yu Long; Liu, Mei Ya; Cao, Meng Jie; Liu, Yu; Yang, Jian Li; Zheng, Shao Jian

    2015-10-01

    The rice bean (Vigna umbellata) root apex specifically secretes citrate through expression activation of Vigna umbellata Multidrug and Toxic Compound Extrusion 1 (VuMATE1) under aluminum (Al(3+) ) stress. However, the underlying mechanisms regulating VuMATE1 expression remain unknown. We isolated and characterized a gene encoding Sensitive to Proton Rhizotoxicity1 (STOP1)-like protein, VuSTOP1, from rice bean. The role of VuSTOP1 in regulating VuMATE1 expression was investigated using the yeast one-hybrid assay. We characterized the function of VuSTOP1 in Al(3)  (+)  - and H(+) -tolerance using in planta complementation assays. We demonstrated that VuSTOP1 has transactivation potential. We found that VuSTOP1 expression is inducible by Al(3+) and H(+) stress. However, although VuSTOP1 binds to the promoter of VuMATE1, the inconsistent tissue localization patterns of VuSTOP1 and VuMATE1 preclude VuSTOP1 as the major factor regulating VuMATE1 expression. In addition, when a protein translation inhibitor increased expression of VuSTOP1, VuMATE1 expression was inhibited. In planta complementation assay demonstrated that VuSTOP1 could fully restore expression of genes involved in H(+) tolerance, but could only partially restore expression of AtMATE. We conclude that VuSTOP1 plays a major role in H(+) tolerance, but only a minor role in Al(3+) tolerance. The differential transcriptional regulation of VuSTOP1 and VuMATE1 reveals a complex regulatory system controlling VuMATE1 expression. PMID:25970766

  3. Complete genome sequence of Habenaria mosaic virus, a new potyvirus infecting a terrestrial orchid (Habenaria radiata) in Japan.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Hideki; Maeda, Takanori; Gara, I Wayan; Chiba, Sotaro; Maruyama, Kazuyuki; Tamada, Tetsuo; Suzuki, Nobuhiro

    2014-01-01

    The complete genomic sequence of Habenaria mosaic virus (HaMV), which infects terrestrial orchids (Habenaria radiata), has been determined. The genome is composed of 9,499 nucleotides excluding the 3'-terminal poly(A) tail, encoding a large polyprotein of 3,054 amino acids with the genomic features typical of a potyvirus. Putative proteolytic cleavage sites were identified by sequence comparison to those of known potyviruses. The HaMV polyprotein showed 58 % amino acid sequence identity to that encoded by the most closely related potyvirus, tobacco vein banding mosaic virus. Phylogenetic analysis of the polyprotein amino acid sequence and its coding sequences confirmed that HaMV formed a cluster with the chilli veinal mottle virus group, most of which infect solanaceous plants. These results suggest that HaMV is a distinct member of the genus Potyvirus. PMID:23857506

  4. Influence of CO/sub 2/ enrichment and phosphorus deficiency on chlorophyll A fluorescence, photosynthesis and growth of Pinus Radiata

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, J.; Smillie, R.; Kuppers, M.; Barlow, S.

    1987-04-01

    Needles from phosphorus (P) deficient seedlings of P.radiata grown for 8 weeks at either 330 or 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/ displayed chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics characteristic of structural changes within the chloroplast thylakoid membrane. The effect was greatest in plants grown at 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/. By week 22, at 330 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/, acclimation to P deficiency had occurred as shown by the similarity between the deficient and adequate P plants in their fluorescence and photosynthetic characteristics. Acclimation did not occur at 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/. The light saturated rate of photosynthesis was higher at 660 ul CO/sub 2/1/sup -1/ when P was adequate but not when it was deficient. Similarly, growth was only enhanced by high CO/sub 2/ when P was adequate.

  5. The influences of perinatal challenge persist into the adolescent period in socially housed bonnet macaques (Macaca radiata).

    PubMed

    Laudenslager, Mark L; Natvig, Crystal; Corcoran, Christopher A; Blevins, Maria W; Pierre, Peter J; Bennett, Allyson J

    2013-04-01

    Social challenges during the perinatal period influence the mother-infant relationship in nonhuman primates and may affect the offspring's response to later social challenge(s). Relocation of a breeding colony of monkeys (Macaca radiata) created two groups of infants: one group experienced social group relocation to a new housing facility during the perinatal period (ATYPICAL) and the second group developed within a constant environment (TYPICAL). At a mean age of 25 months, all animals were removed from their natal group and placed in same sex adolescent social groups. Behavioral observations were collected after group formation or introduction to a new group. ATYPICAL subjects showed increased aggression and reduced affiliation compared to TYPICAL subjects. Hair cortisol in male subjects collected 6 months after introduction was elevated in the ATYPICAL subjects compared to TYPICAL subjects. These findings demonstrate that early life challenges affect behavior as well as stress hormone responses to social challenge in adolescence. PMID:22488164

  6. Cell differentiation, secondary cell-wall formation and transformation of callus tissue of Pinus radiata D. Don.

    PubMed

    Möller, Ralf; McDonald, Armando G; Walter, Christian; Harris, Philip J

    2003-09-01

    Tracheid and sclereid differentiation was induced in callus cultures of Pinus radiata D. Don by culturing on a basal medium containing activated charcoal but no phytohormones; sclereids differentiated in callus derived from xylem strips, but not in callus derived from hypocotyl segments. The tracheids differentiated in hypocotyl-derived callus had helical, scalariform, reticulated or pitted secondary cell-wall patterns, but those differentiated in xylem-derived callus had a reticulate or pitted pattern. The thickened tracheid and sclereid walls contained lignin as indicated by the red colour reaction given with phloroglucinol-HCl. The presence of lignin in the cell walls of differentiated callus was confirmed using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry by the detection of phenylpropanoid components derived from lignin. Lignin was also detected using solid-state (13)C cross-polarisation/magic-angle spinning nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and quantified as thioglycolic acid lignin. Monosaccharide analyses of the cell walls isolated from differentiated and undifferentiated calli showed that the cell walls of the differentiated calli contained higher proportions of glucose and mannose, consistent with the presence of greater proportions of gluco- and/or galactogluco-mannans in the secondary cell walls of the differentiated cells. A protocol for the stable transformation of undifferentiated, xylem-derived cultures was successfully developed. Transgenic cell lines were established following Biolistic particle bombardment with a plasmid containing the coding region of the nptII gene and the coding region of the cad gene from P. radiata. Expression of the nptII gene in transgenic lines was confirmed by an NPTII-enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The overexpression of cad in the transgenic lines resulted in a down-regulation of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.195) expression. PMID:12811558

  7. Modelling Environmental Variation in Young's Modulus for Pinus radiata and Implications for Determination of Critical Buckling Height

    PubMed Central

    WATT, MICHAEL S.; MOORE, JOHN R.; FAÇON, JEAN-PHILIPPE; DOWNES, GEOFF M.; CLINTON, PETER W.; COKER, GRAHAM; DAVIS, MURRAY R.; SIMCOCK, ROBYN; PARFITT, ROGER L.; DANDO, JOHN; MASON, EUAN G.; BOWN, HORACIO E.

    2006-01-01

    • Background and Aims Although density-specific stiffness, E/ρ, (where E is Young's modulus and ρ is wood density) is often assumed constant by the elastic similarity model, and in determination of critical buckling height (Hcrit), few studies have tested this assumption within species. Here this assumption is tested for Pinus radiata growing across an environmental gradient, and theory is combined with data to develop a model of Young's modulus. • Methods Analyses use an extensive series of environmental plots covering the range of climatic and edaphic conditions over which P. radiata is grown in New Zealand. Reduced major axis regression was used to determine scaling exponents between log–log plots of Hcrit vs. groundline diameter (D), and E/ρ vs. D. Path analysis was used to identify significant direct and indirect (through stem slenderness) edaphic and climatic influences on E. • Key Results Density-specific stiffness exhibited 3-fold variation. As E/ρ scaled positively with D, the exponent of 0·95 between Hcrit and D exceeded the assumed value of 0·67 under constant E/ρ. The final path analysis model included mean air temperature in early autumn (Taut) and slenderness as significant (P < 0·05) positive direct influences on E. Tree leaf area index and Taut were indirectly associated with E through their significant (P < 0·05) positive direct relationship with stem slenderness. Young's modulus was most sensitive to Taut, followed by stem slenderness then leaf area index, and the final model explained 76 % of the variance in E. • Conclusions The findings suggest that within species E/ρ variation may influence Hcrit and the scaling exponent between D and Hcrit so important in assumptions regarding allometric relationships. The model presented may provide a useful means of determining variation in E, E/ρ and Hcrit across environmental gradients. PMID:16868003

  8. Decomposition of litter in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crockford, R. H.; Richardson, D. P.

    2002-12-01

    This study of litter decomposition was part of an extensive project examining the partitioning of rainfall, the associated chemistry, and litterfall in a dry sclerophyll eucalypt forest and a Pinus radiata plantation in southeastern Australia. The eucalypt species studied were Eucalyptus rossii, E. mannifera and E. dives. The components tested were Pinus radiata needles, leaves of the three eucalypt species, and the bark of E. rossii and E. mannifera.During the first 16 weeks of the decomposition experiment there was a rapid decrease in the concentrations of potassium, magnesium, sodium and phosphorus; this was attributed to leaching. During this period, concentrations of nitrogen and calcium increased for most components. After this period, decomposition became the dominant process, during which the concentrations of most elements increased. By the end of the experiment there was, compared with the initial values, a marked reduction in concentrations of sodium, magnesium and potassium for all eucalypt and pine litter. Calcium concentrations increased through time, with eucalypt bark showing a mid-period decline. Phosphorus concentrations decreased for the eucalypt leaves but increased substantially for the pine needles and the eucalypt bark. For all components of both the eucalypts and pines, total nitrogen concentrations rose consistently throughout the decomposition period. This was attributed to the formation of nitrogen-substituted lignin, which was more resistant to decomposition than the other nitrogen-containing compounds, as well as some nitrogen being stored in the micro-organisms responsible for decomposition. Because of loss of fragmented litter from the litter bags after 16 weeks, the weight changes could not be confidently measured after this period.

  9. Genotypic Variation for N2-FIXATION in Voandzou (vigna Subterranea) Under P Deficiency and P Sufficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andry, A.; Mahamadou, M.; Lilia, R.; Laurie, A.; Hélène, V.; Dominique, M.; Christian, M.; Jean-Jacques, D.

    2011-12-01

    Genetic variation associated with N2 fixation exists in numerous legume species (Graham, 2004). High symbiotic N2 fixation under P deficiency is related closely to nodulation which was used in legume selection for N2 fixation (Herridge and Rose, 2000). Until now, study of genetic potential of neglected crops like Vigna subterranea (bambara groundnut or voandzou) is often limited while its agronomic properties is interesting for the farmers of Africa. In order to assess the genotypic variation of voandzou for tolerance to phosphorus deficiency, a physiological approach of cultivar selection was performed with 54 cultivars from Madagascar, Niger and Mali in hydroponic culture under P deficiency and P sufficiency and inoculated with the reference strain of Bradyrhizobium sp. Vigna CB756. The results of nodulation and plant biomass, which are closely related, showed a large dispersion between cultivars (0.05-0.43 g nodule dry weight per plant and 0.50-5.51 g shoot dry weight per plant). The cultivars which presented the maximum growth during the experiment presented a high efficiency in use of the rhizobial symbiosis calculated as the slope of plant biomass regression as a function of nodulation. A large increase in nodulated-root O2 consumption under P deficiency was observed for the two most tolerant cultivars. The microscopic analysis with in situ RT-PCR of the nodule sections showed an increase of a phytase gene expression with tolerance of cultivars to P deficiency. From two most contrasting cultivars, an isotopic exchange method 32P was carried out on rhizosphere soil in rhizotron culture in order to assess the direct effect induced by the roots in terms of phosphorus mobilization. The rhizospheric effect was observed under P deficiency marked by a strong re-supplying capacity of soil solution in the diffusive phosphate ion between solid phase and soil solution leading to great phosphorus nutrition. These results highlight the genotypic variability among voandzou

  10. Flower Morphology, Pollination Biology and Mating System of the Complex Flower of Vigna caracalla (Fabaceae: Papilionoideae)

    PubMed Central

    Etcheverry, Angela Virginia; Alemán, Maria Mercedes; Fleming, Trinidad Figueroa

    2008-01-01

    Background and Aims Vigna caracalla has the most complex flower among asymmetrical Papilionoideae. The objective of this study was to understand the relationships among floral characteristics, specialization, mating system and the role of floral visitors under different ecological contexts. Methods Five populations were studied in north-western Argentina, from 700 to 1570 m a.s.l. Anthesis, colour and odour patterns, stigmatic receptivity, visitors and pollination mechanism were examined and mating-system experiments were performed. Key Results The petals are highly modified and the keel shows 3·75–5·25 revolutions. The sense of asymmetry was always left-handed. Hand-crosses showed that V. caracalla is self-compatible, but depends on pollinators to set seeds. Hand-crossed fruits were more successful than hand-selfed ones, with the exception of the site at the highest elevation. Bombus morio (queens and workers), Centris bicolor, Eufriesea mariana and Xylocopa eximia trigger the pollination mechanism (a ‘brush type’). The greatest level of self-compatibility and autonomous self-pollination were found at the highest elevation, together with the lowest reproductive success and number of pollinators (B. morio workers only). Conclusions Self-fertilization may have evolved in the peripheral population at the highest site of V. caracalla because of the benefits of reproductive assurance under reduced pollinator diversity. PMID:18587133

  11. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ocloo, F. C. K.; Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D. O.; Wilson, D. D.

    2012-01-01

    Cowpeas ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly ( p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant ( p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly ( p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars.

  12. Triple inoculation with Bradyrhizobium, Glomus and Paenibacillus on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata [L.] walp.) development

    PubMed Central

    de Lima, André Suêldo Tavares; Xavier, Terezinha Ferreirab; de Lima, Cláudia Elizabete Pereira; de Paula Oliveira, José; Mergulhão, Adália Cavalcanti do Espírito Santo; Figueiredo, Figueiredo, Márcia do Vale Barreto

    2011-01-01

    The use of microorganisms to improve the availability of nutrients to plants is of great importance to agriculture. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of triple inoculation of cowpea with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF), plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) and rhizobia to maximize biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) and promote plant growth. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse using cowpea plants (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp cv. IPA 206). The treatments included inoculation with strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI – 6) individually and as a mixture, an absolute control (AC) and mineral nitrogen control (NC), all combined with the presence or absence of native AMF (Glomus etunicatum) and PGPB (Paenibacillus brasilensis - 24) in a 5x2x2 factorial design. All treatments were replicated three times. Contrasts were performed to study the treatment of variables. Inoculation with Bradyrhizobium sp. (BR 3267 and EI – 6) and G. etunicatum favored nitrogen acquisition and phosphorus availability for the cowpea plants. Inoculation with P. brasilensis – 24 increased colonization by Bradyrhizobium sp. and G. etunicatum and promoted cowpea growth, while the nitrogen from symbiosis was sufficient to supply the plants nutritional needs. PMID:24031707

  13. Lifespan Extending and Stress Resistant Properties of Vitexin from Vigna angularis in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; Cha, Youn-Soo; Kim, Mina; Song, Seuk Bo; Cha, Dong Seok; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Han, Sooncheon; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-01-01

    Several theories emphasize that aging is closely related to oxidative stress and disease. The formation of excess ROS can lead to DNA damage and the acceleration of aging. Vigna angularis is one of the important medicinal plants in Korea. We isolated vitexin from V. angularis and elucidated the lifespan-extending effect of vitexin using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. Vitexin showed potent lifespan extensive activity and it elevated the survival rates of nematodes against the stressful environments including heat and oxidative conditions. In addition, our results showed that vitexin was able to elevate antioxidant enzyme activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of vitexin-mediated nematode could be attributed to increased expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). In this work, we also studied whether vitexin-mediated longevity activity was associated with aging-related factors such as progeny, food intake, growth and movement. The data revealed that these factors were not affected by vitexin treatment except movement. Vitexin treatment improved the body movement of aged nematode, suggesting vitexin affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. These results suggest that vitexin might be a probable candidate which could extend the human lifespan. PMID:26535084

  14. Evaluation of anti-osteoarthritic activity of Vigna mungo in papain induced osteoarthritis model

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Dhaval V.; Sawant, Mrunal Ghag; Kaur, Ginpreet

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of Vigna mungo hydroalcoholic extract (VMHA) by papain induced osteoarthritis (OA) in the rat model. Materials and Methods: OA was induced by intra-articular injection of papain (4% w/v) along with cysteine (0.03 M) on day 1, 4 and 7 in rats and VMHA was administered orally in three doses (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg) after last papain injection. The anti-osteoarthritic activity was evaluated by measuring knee joint diameter, grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time. Histopathological analysis and acute toxicity study were also performed. Results: VMHA improved inflammatory condition with all the doses, but significant (P < 0.05) attenuation of inflammation was present only with 400 mg/kg dose. The grip strength, locomotion activity and hanging time were also significantly (P < 0.05) improved at dose level of 100 mg/kg however other two doses (200 mg/kg and 400 mg/kg) were not found to be effective. VMHA did not show any mortality or any toxic clinical signs after oral administration of 2 g/kg dose. Conclusion: VMHA improved arthritic condition by significantly reducing pain and inflammation. PMID:25821313

  15. De novo transcriptome assembly of two Vigna angularis varieties collected from Korea.

    PubMed

    Jo, Yeonhwa; Lian, Sen; Cho, Jin Kyong; Choi, Hoseong; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Sun-Lim; Lee, Bong Choon; Cho, Won Kyong

    2016-06-01

    The adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), a member of the family Fabaceae, is widely grown in Asia, from East Asia to the Himalayas. The adzuki bean is known as an ingredient that adds sweetness to diverse desserts made in Eastern Asian countries. Libraries prepared from two V. angularis varieties referred to as Taejin Black and Taejin Red were paired-end sequenced using the Illumina HiSeq 2000 system. The raw data in this study can be available in NCBI SRA database with accession numbers of SRR3406660 and SRR3406553. After de novo transcriptome assembly using Trinity, we obtained 324,219 and 280,056 transcripts from Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively. We predicted a total of 238,321 proteins and 179,519 proteins for Taejin Black and Taejin Red, respectively, by the TransDecoder program. We carried out BLASTP on the predicted proteins against the Swiss-Prot protein sequence database to predict the putative functions of identified proteins. Taken together, we provide transcriptomes of two adzuki bean varieties by RNA-Seq, which might be usefully applied to generate molecular markers. PMID:27257605

  16. In Vitro Seeds Germination and Seedling Growth of Bambara Groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae))

    PubMed Central

    Koné, Mongomaké; Koné, Tchoa; Silué, Nakpalo; Soumahoro, André Brahima; Kouakou, Tanoh Hilaire

    2015-01-01

    Bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) is an indigenous grain legume. It occupies a prominent place in the strategies to ensure food security in sub-Saharan Africa. Development of an efficient in vitro regeneration system, a prerequisite for genetic transformation application, requires the establishment of optimal conditions for seeds germination and plantlets development. Three types of seeds were inoculated on different basal media devoid of growth regulators. Various strengths of the medium of choice and the type and concentration of carbon source were also investigated. Responses to germination varied with the type of seed. Embryonic axis (EA) followed by seeds without coat (SWtC) germinated rapidly and expressed a high rate of germination. The growth performances of plantlets varied with the basal medium composition and the seeds type. The optimal growth performances of plants were displayed on half strength MS basal medium with SWtC and EA as source of seeds. Addition of 3% sucrose in the culture medium was more suitable for a maximum growth of plantlets derived from EA. PMID:26550604

  17. Sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional composition of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Devi, Chingakham Basanti; Kushwaha, Archana; Kumar, Anil

    2015-10-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), is an important arid legume with a good source of energy, protein, vitamins, minerals and dietary fibre. Sprouting of legumes enhances the bioavailability and digestibility of nutrients and therefore plays an important role in human nutrition. Improved varieties of grain cowpea viz. Pant Lobia-1 (PL-1) and Pant Lobia-2 (PL-2) and Pant Lobia-3 (PL-3) were examined for sprouting characteristics and associated changes in nutritional quality. Soaking time, sprouting time and sprouting temperature combinations for desirable sprout length of ¼ to ½ inch for cowpea seed samples were standardized. All the observations were taken in triplicate except soaking time, where six observations were taken in a completely randomized design of three treatments. Results revealed that optimum soaking time of PL-1 and PL-2 seed was 3 h whereas PL-3 required 9 h. Sprouting period of 24 h at 25 °C was found to be desirable for obtaining good sprouts. Significant improvement in nutritional quality was observed after sprouting at 25 °C for 24 h; protein increased by 9-12 %, vitamin C increased by 4-38 times, phytic acid decreased by 4-16 times, trypsin inhibitor activity decreased by 28-55 % along with an increase of 8-20 % in in-vitro protein digestibility. PMID:26396436

  18. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: a case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata).

    PubMed

    Moray, C; Game, E T; Maxted, N

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  19. Removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution by Vigna unguiculata (cowpea) pods biomass.

    PubMed

    Guyo, Upenyu; Sibanda, Kudakwashe; Sebata, Edith; Chigondo, Fidelis; Moyo, Mambo

    2016-01-01

    The potential to remove nickel(II) ions from aqueous solution using a biosorbent prepared from Vigna unguiculata pods (VUPs) was investigated in batch experiments. The batch mode experiments were conducted utilising the independent variables of pH (2 to 8), contact time (5 to 120 min), dosage concentration (0.2 to 1.6 g), nickel(II) concentrations (10 to 80 mg L(-1)) and temperature (20 to 50°C). The biosorption data fitted best to the Freundlich biosorption model with a correlation coefficient (R(2)) of 0.993 and lowest chi-squared value of 31.89. The maximum sorption capacity of the VUP for nickel(II) was 27.70 mg g(-1). Kinetics studies revealed that the biosorption process followed the pseudo-second-order model as it had the lowest sum of square error value (0.808) and correlation coefficient close to unity (R(2) = 0.998). The calculated thermodynamic parameters showed that the biosorption process was feasible, spontaneous and endothermic. Consequently, the study demonstrated that VUP biomass could be used as a biosorbent for the removal of nickel(II) from aqueous solution. PMID:27191550

  20. Simultaneous selection for cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes with adaptability and yield stability using mixed models.

    PubMed

    Torres, F E; Teodoro, P E; Rodrigues, E V; Santos, A; Corrêa, A M; Ceccon, G

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to select erect cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) genotypes simultaneously for high adaptability, stability, and yield grain in Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil using mixed models. We conducted six trials of different cowpea genotypes in 2005 and 2006 in Aquidauana, Chapadão do Sul, Dourados, and Primavera do Leste. The experimental design was randomized complete blocks with four replications and 20 genotypes. Genetic parameters were estimated by restricted maximum likelihood/best linear unbiased prediction, and selection was based on the harmonic mean of the relative performance of genetic values method using three strategies: selection based on the predicted breeding value, having considered the performance mean of the genotypes in all environments (no interaction effect); the performance in each environment (with an interaction effect); and the simultaneous selection for grain yield, stability, and adaptability. The MNC99542F-5 and MNC99-537F-4 genotypes could be grown in various environments, as they exhibited high grain yield, adaptability, and stability. The average heritability of the genotypes was moderate to high and the selective accuracy was 82%, indicating an excellent potential for selection. PMID:27173301

  1. Effects of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) root mucilage on microbial community response and capacity for phenanthrene remediation.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ran; Belcher, Richard W; Liang, Jianqiang; Wang, Li; Thater, Brian; Crowley, David E; Wei, Gehong

    2015-07-01

    Biodegradation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) is normally limited by their low solubility and poor bioavailability. Prior research suggests that biosurfactants are synthesized as intermediates during the production of mucilage at the root tip. To date the effects of mucilage on PAH degradation and microbial community response have not been directly examined. To address this question, our research compared 3 cowpea breeding lines (Vigna unguiculata) that differed in mucilage production for their effects on phenanthrene (PHE) degradation in soil. The High Performance Liquid Chromatography results indicated that the highest PHE degradation rate was achieved in soils planted with mucilage producing cowpea line C1, inoculated with Bradyrhizobium, leading to 91.6% PHE disappearance in 5 weeks. In root printing tests, strings treated with mucilage and bacteria produced larger clearing zones than those produced on mucilage treated strings with no bacteria or bacteria inoculated strings. Experiments with 14C-PHE and purified mucilage in soil slurry confirmed that the root mucilage significantly enhanced PHE mineralization (82.7%), which is 12% more than the control treatment without mucilage. The profiles of the PHE degraders generated by Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis suggested that cowpea C1, producing a high amount of root mucilage, selectively enriched the PHE degrading bacteria population in rhizosphere. These findings indicate that root mucilage may play a significant role in enhancing PHE degradation and suggests that differences in mucilage production may be an important criterion for selection of the best plant species for use in phytoremediation of PAH contaminated soils. PMID:26141877

  2. Effects of ozone on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of Vigna unguiculata.

    PubMed

    Tetteh, Rashied; Yamaguchi, Masahiro; Wada, Yoshiharu; Funada, Ryo; Izuta, Takeshi

    2015-01-01

    To assess the effects of O(3)on growth, net photosynthesis and yield of two African varieties of cowpea(Vigna unguiculata L.), Blackeye and Asontem were exposed as potted plants to air that was either filtered to remove O(3) (FA), non-filtered air (NF), non-filtered with added O3 of approximately 50 nL L(-1) (ppb) from 11:00 to 16:00 (NF + O(3)) for 88 days in open-top chambers. The mean O(3) concentration (11:00-16:00) during the exposure period had a range from 16 ppb in the FA treatment to 118 ppb in the NF + O(3) treatment. Net photosynthetic rate and leaf area per plant were significantly reduced by exposure to O(3), reducing the growth of both varieties. Exposure to O(3) significantly reduced the 100-seed weight and number of seeds per pod. As a result, cowpea yield was significantly reduced by long-term exposure to O(3), with no difference in sensitivity between the varieties. PMID:25463718

  3. Highly distinct chromosomal structures in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), as revealed by molecular cytogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Iwata-Otsubo, Aiko; Lin, Jer-Young; Gill, Navdeep; Jackson, Scott A

    2016-05-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) is an important legume, particularly in developing countries. However, little is known about its genome or chromosome structure. We used molecular cytogenetics to characterize the structure of pachytene chromosomes to advance our knowledge of chromosome and genome organization of cowpea. Our data showed that cowpea has highly distinct chromosomal structures that are cytologically visible as brightly DAPI-stained heterochromatic regions. Analysis of the repetitive fraction of the cowpea genome present at centromeric and pericentromeric regions confirmed that two retrotransposons are major components of pericentromeric regions and that a 455-bp tandem repeat is found at seven out of 11 centromere pairs in cowpea. These repeats likely evolved after the divergence of cowpea from common bean and form chromosomal structure unique to cowpea. The integration of cowpea genetic and physical chromosome maps reveals potential regions of suppressed recombination due to condensed heterochromatin and a lack of pairing in a few chromosomal termini. This study provides fundamental knowledge on cowpea chromosome structure and molecular cytogenetics tools for further chromosome studies. PMID:26758200

  4. A study on Maruca vitrata infestation of Yard-long beans (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis).

    PubMed

    Jayasinghe, R C; Premachandra, W T S Dammini; Neilson, Roy

    2015-09-01

    Globally, Maruca vitrata (Geyer) is a serious yield constraint on food legumes including Yard-long bean (Vigna unguiculata subspecies sesquipedalis). However, there is a dearth of information on its damage potential, distribution and population dynamics in Yard-long beans. In the present study, the level of M. vitrata larval infestation on flowers and pods of Yard-long beans in Sri Lanka was determined with respect to three consecutive cropping seasons, Yala, Off and Maha. Results indicated that larval infestation and abundance varied with developmental stage of flowers and pods, cropping season and their combined interactive effects. Flowers of Yard-long beans were more prone to M. vitrata larval attack compared to pods. Abundance and level of infestation of M. vitrata varied with plant parts, having a ranking of flower buds (highest) > open flowers > mature pods > immature pods (lowest). Peak infestation was observed six and eight weeks after planting on flowers and pods, respectively. Among the three cropping seasons, M. vitrata infestation was found to be higher during Maha and Off seasons compared to Yala. The findings of this study contribute to the identified knowledge gap regarding the field biology of an acknowledged important pest, M. vitrata, in a previously understudied crop in Sri Lanka. PMID:27441212

  5. Effect of gamma irradiation and cooking on cowpea bean grains ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lima, Keila dos Santos Cople; Souza, Luciana Boher e.; Godoy, Ronoel Luiz de Oliveira; França, Tanos Celmar Costa; Lima, Antônio Luís dos Santos

    2011-09-01

    Leguminous plants are important sources of proteins, vitamins, carbohydrates, fibers and minerals. However, some of their non-nutritive elements can present undesirable side effects like flatulence provoked by the anaerobic fermentation of oligosaccharides, such as raffinose and stachyose, in the gut. A way to avoid this inconvenience, without any change in the nutritional value and post-harvesting losses, is an irradiation process. Here, we evaluated the effects of gamma irradiation on the amino acids, thiamine and oligosaccharide contents and on the fungi and their toxin percentages in cowpea bean ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) samples. For irradiation doses of 0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.5, 5.0 and 10.0 kGy the results showed no significant differences in content for the uncooked samples. However, the combination of irradiation and cooking processes reduced the non-nutritive factors responsible for flatulence. Irradiation also significantly reduced the presence of Aspergillus, Penicilium, Rhizopus and Fusarium fungi and was shown to be efficient in grain conservation for a storage time of 6 months.

  6. Genetic diversity of Rhizobia isolates from Amazon soils using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as trap plant

    PubMed Central

    Silva, F.V.; Simões-Araújo, J.L.; Silva Júnior, J.P.; Xavier, G.R.; Rumjanek, N.G.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize rhizobia isolated from the root nodules of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) plants cultivated in Amazon soils samples by means of ARDRA (Amplified rDNA Restriction Analysis) and sequencing analysis, to know their phylogenetic relationships. The 16S rRNA gene of rhizobia was amplified by PCR (polymerase chain reaction) using universal primers Y1 and Y3. The amplification products were analyzed by the restriction enzymes HinfI, MspI and DdeI and also sequenced with Y1, Y3 and six intermediate primers. The clustering analysis based on ARDRA profiles separated the Amazon isolates in three subgroups, which formed a group apart from the reference isolates of Bradyrhizobium japonicum and Bradyrhizobium elkanii. The clustering analysis of 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that the fast-growing isolates had similarity with Enterobacter, Rhizobium, Klebsiella and Bradyrhizobium and all the slow-growing clustered close to Bradyrhizobium. PMID:24031880

  7. Biological Effect of Audible Sound Control on Mung Bean (Vigna radiate) Sprout

    PubMed Central

    Cai, W.; He, H.; Zhu, S.; Wang, N.

    2014-01-01

    Audible sound (20–20000 Hz) widely exists in natural world. However, the interaction between audible sound and the growth of plants is usually neglected in biophysics research. Not much effort has been put forth in studying the relation of plant and audible sound. In this work, the effect of audible sound on germination and growth of mung bean (Vigna radiate) was studied under laboratory condition. Audible sound ranging 1000–1500 Hz, 1500–2000 Hz, and 2000–2500 Hz and intensities [80 dB (A), 90 dB (A), 100 dB (A)] were used to stimulate mung bean for 72 hours. The growth of mung bean was evaluated in terms of mean germination time, total length, and total fresh weight. Experimental results indicated that the sound wave can reduce the germination period of mung bean and the mung bean under treatments of sound with intensity around 90 dB and frequency around 2000 Hz and significant increase in growth. Audible sound treatment can promote the growth of mung bean differently for distinct frequency and intensity. The study provides us with a way to understand the effects and rules of sound field on plant growth and a new way to improve the production of mung bean. PMID:25170517

  8. Active aggregation among sexes in bean flower thrips (Megalurothrips sjostedti) on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Niassy, Saliou; Ekesi, Sunday; Maniania, Nguya K; Orindi, Benedict; Moritz, Gerald B; de Kogel, Willem J; Subramanian, Sevgan

    2016-01-01

    Male sexual aggregations are a common territorial, mating-related or resource-based, behaviour observed in diverse organisms, including insects such as thrips. The influence of factors such as plant substrate, time of day, and geographic location on aggregation of thrips is uncertain, therefore we monitored the dispersion of male and female bean flower thrips (BFT), Megalurothrips sjostedti (Trybom) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), on cowpea, Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. (Fabaceae), over three cowpea growth stages and across three cowpea-growing areas of Kenya. Our results indicated that for all the crop growth stages, the density of BFTs varied over the time of day, with higher densities at 10:00, 13:00, and 16:00 hours than at 07:00 hours. Thrips densities did not differ among blocks at the budding stage, but they did at peak flowering and podding stages. Dispersion indices suggested that both male and female BFTs were aggregated. Active male aggregation occurred only on green plant parts and it varied across blocks, crop stages, and locations. Similarly, active female aggregation was observed in peak flowering and podding stages. Such active aggregation indicates a semiochemical or behaviour-mediated aggregation. Identification of such a semiochemical may offer new opportunities for refining monitoring and management strategies for BFT on cowpea, the most important grain legume in sub-Saharan Africa. PMID:26726262

  9. Lifespan Extending and Stress Resistant Properties of Vitexin from Vigna angularis in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun Byeol; Kim, Jun Hyeong; Cha, Youn-Soo; Kim, Mina; Song, Seuk Bo; Cha, Dong Seok; Jeon, Hoon; Eun, Jae Soon; Han, Sooncheon; Kim, Dae Keun

    2015-11-01

    Several theories emphasize that aging is closely related to oxidative stress and disease. The formation of excess ROS can lead to DNA damage and the acceleration of aging. Vigna angularis is one of the important medicinal plants in Korea. We isolated vitexin from V. angularis and elucidated the lifespan-extending effect of vitexin using the Caenorhabditis elegans model system. Vitexin showed potent lifespan extensive activity and it elevated the survival rates of nematodes against the stressful environments including heat and oxidative conditions. In addition, our results showed that vitexin was able to elevate antioxidant enzyme activities of worms and reduce intracellular ROS accumulation in a dose-dependent manner. These studies demonstrated that the increased stress tolerance of vitexin-mediated nematode could be attributed to increased expressions of stress resistance proteins such as superoxide dismutase (SOD-3) and heat shock protein (HSP-16.2). In this work, we also studied whether vitexin-mediated longevity activity was associated with aging-related factors such as progeny, food intake, growth and movement. The data revealed that these factors were not affected by vitexin treatment except movement. Vitexin treatment improved the body movement of aged nematode, suggesting vitexin affects healthspan as well as lifespan of nematode. These results suggest that vitexin might be a probable candidate which could extend the human lifespan. PMID:26535084

  10. Prioritising in situ conservation of crop resources: A case study of African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata)

    PubMed Central

    Moray, C.; Game, E. T.; Maxted, N.

    2014-01-01

    Conserving crop wild relatives (CWR) is critical for maintaining food security. However, CWR-focused conservation plans are lacking, and are often based on the entire genus, even though only a few taxa are useful for crop improvement. We used taxonomic and geographic prioritisation to identify the best locations for in situ conservation of the most important (priority) CWR, using African cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) as a case study. Cowpea is an important crop for subsistence farmers in sub-Saharan Africa, yet its CWR are under-collected, under-conserved and under-utilised in breeding. We identified the most efficient sites to focus in situ cowpea CWR conservation and assessed whether priority CWR would be adequately represented in a genus-based conservation plan. We also investigated whether priority cowpea CWR are likely to be found in existing conservation areas and in areas important for mammal conservation. The genus-based method captured most priority CWR, and the distributions of many priority CWR overlapped with established conservation reserves and targets. These results suggest that priority cowpea CWR can be conserved by building on conservation initiatives established for other species. PMID:24936740

  11. Ameliorating Effects of Iron and Zinc on Vigna mungo L. Treated with Tannery Effluent

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Shefali; Mishra, Kumkum; Tandon, Pramod Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Different dilutions, that is, 25, 50, 75, and 100%, of tannery effluent (TE) were chosen for the present study to assess the phytotoxic effects on Vigna mungo L. For amelioration purposes, different levels and combinations of iron and zinc were supplied to the plants along with 50% TE that is chosen on the basis of prior test under Petri dish culture. Cytotoxic and biochemical analysis and plant tolerance index (PTI) of plant were observed. Mitotic index deceased with increase in effluent concentration whereas abnormality % was increased. The pigments (chlorophyll a, total, and carotenoids) were decreased with increasing treatment levels of TE at both growth stages. However, carotenoid content increased significantly at all dilution levels of TE after first growth stage. Chlorophyll b was increased significantly after 35 days of growth but decreased after 70 days. The protein contents were also significantly decreased with increase in all TE treatments and increased significantly in zinc recovery treatments. Activities of catalase and peroxidase enzymes were significantly affected and increased significantly with effluent treatments. PTI showed an enhanced tolerance capacity of plant with treatment of iron and zinc. A negative correlation was found (r = −0.97) between plant height and different dilutions of effluent whereas it was positively correlated (r = 0.95) with iron and zinc treatments. The study represents the ameliorative effect of iron and zinc for phytotoxic damage in V. mungo caused by tannery effluent. PMID:25505908

  12. Bionomics of Asian Citrus Psyllid (Hemiptera: Liviidae) Associated with Orange Jasmine Hedges in Southeast Central Florida, with Special Reference to Biological Control by Tamarixia radiata.

    PubMed

    Hall, David G; Rohrig, Eric

    2015-06-01

    The Asian citrus psyllid, Diaphorina citri Kuwayama, is an important pest in Florida because it transmits bacteria responsible for citrus huanglongbing disease. In addition to infesting citrus, orange jasmine (Murraya exotica L.) is one of Asian citrus psyllid's preferred host plants and is widely grown as an ornamental hedge. We report on Asian citrus psyllid bionomics over three years at five urban plantings of orange jasmine and on biological control of Asian citrus psyllid by a parasitoid Tamarixia radiata (Waterston). T. radiata had been released in Florida shortly after Asian citrus psyllid was first found, and the parasitoid was known to be established at each planting. Additionally, three new T. radiata haplotypes were released every 3 wk at three plantings during the first study year (one haplotype per planting, over all releases an average of 17 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge); all three haplotypes were released at a fourth planting beginning midway through the study (over all releases, an average combined total of 202 parasitoids per linear meter of hedge). Asian citrus psyllid populations were present year-round at each planting, often at large levels. Such plantings may pose risk to commercial citrus as Asian citrus psyllid reservoirs. Releases of the new haplotypes did not cause any measurable reduction in Asian citrus psyllid population levels during the study, and ironically percentage parasitism was generally highest at a planting where no releases were made. Higher release rates might have been more effective. The probability is discussed that repetitive pruning of orange jasmine reduced the full potential of T. radiata against Asian citrus psyllid in this study. PMID:26470246

  13. Aerobic moving bed bioreactor performance: a comparative study of removal efficiencies of kraft mill effluents from Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globulus as raw material.

    PubMed

    Villamar, C A; Jarpa, M; Decap, J; Vidal, G

    2009-01-01

    A Moving Bed Bioreactor (MBBR) was operated during 333 days. Two different effluents were fed in six different phases. Phases I and II were fed with effluent where Pinus radiata was used as raw material, while phases III to VI were fed with effluent where Eucalyptus globulus was used as raw material. The HRT was reduced from 85 to 4 h, and the BOD(5):N:P ratio (100:5:1, 100:3:1 and 100:1:1) was also simultaneously evaluated as an operation strategy. When MBBR was operated with Pinus radiata influent, the performance presents a high BOD(5) removal level (above 95%), although COD removal is below 60%. Most of the recalcitrant COD contained in the effluent has a molecular weight higher than 10,000 Da. When MBBR was operated with Eucalyptus globulus influent, the performance is around 97.9-97.6% and 68.6-65.1% for BOD(5) and COD, respectively (with HRT up to 17 h). In the Pinus radiata and Eucalyptus globus effluents, the color was mainly found in the molecular weight fraction up to 10,000 Daltons. PMID:19214005

  14. Effects of the legume Vigna unguiculata crop on carbon and nitrogen cycles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sánchez-Navarro, Virginia; Zornoza, Raúl; Fernández, Juan; Faz Cano, Ángel

    2015-04-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects of a legume crop (Vigna unguiculata) on soil properties related to the carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) cycles, taking into account different management practices (conventional and organic) and two genotypes. The study was randomly designed in blocks with four replications, in plots of 10 m2. The crop cycle spanned from 29 May 2014 to 13 August 2014. We collected soil samples (0-30 cm) from each plot at the beginning and at the end of the cycle to measure soil total N, organic C, recalcitrant C, organic C labile fractions, microbial biomass C (MBC) and the enzyme activities β-glucosidase and β-glucosaminidase. We collected plant samples (seeds, pods, roots and stem/leaves) at two different maturity stages (fresh and dry pods) to assess the influence of management practices and genotype in the accumulation of N, as indicative of the content of proteins in the crop. In the final plant sampling, we also determined crop production. The results showed that no significant differences were observed between management practices and genotypes in any of the soil properties measured. However, total N, recalcitrant C, most labile C fraction, MBC and β-glucosidase increased at the final sampling compared to initial values. We observed that genotype had a significant effect on the concentration of the second fraction of labile C under organic management. N content in the different plant tissues was significantly higher in the intermediate sampling than in the final harvest, without significant differences between management practices and genotypes. We observed a significant positive correlation between N content in roots, seeds and pods. N content was always higher in seeds, indicating the high quantity of proteins in this crop. C content was significantly lower in stem/leaves than in the rest of tissues, without significant differences among them. No effect of management practice, maturity stage or genotype was observed with regard to C

  15. Diallelic analysis to obtain cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) populations tolerant to water deficit.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, E V; Damasceno-Silva, K J; Rocha, M M; Bastos, E A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify parents and obtain segregating populations of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) with the potential for tolerance to water deficit. A full diallel was performed with six cowpea genotypes, and two experiments were conducted in Teresina, PI, Brazil in 2011 to evaluate 30 F2 populations and their parents, one under water deficit and the other under full irrigation. A triple-lattice experimental design was used, with six 2-m-long rows in each plot. Sixteen plants were sampled per plot. The data were subjected to analysis of variance, and general and specific combining ability estimates were obtained based on the means. Additive effects were more important than non-additive effects, and maternal inheritance had occurred. The genotypes BRS Xiquexique, Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 were the most promising for use in selection programs aimed at water deficit tolerance. The hybrid combinations Pingo de Ouro-1-2 x BRS Xiquexique, BRS Xiquexique x Santo Inácio, CNCx 698-128G x MNC99-510F-16-1, Santo Inácio x CNCx 698-128G, MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Paraguaçu, MNC99- 510F-16-1 x Pingo de Ouro-1-2, and MNC99-510F-16-1 x BRS Xiquexique have the potential to increase grain production and tolerate water deficit. PMID:27323025

  16. [Response of photosynthesis and growth to weak light regime in different Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) varieties].

    PubMed

    Zou, Chang-ming; Wang, Yun-qing; Cao, Wei-dong; Liu, Ying; Zhang, Xiao-hong; Tang, Shan

    2015-12-01

    In order to determine the adaptability of Adzuki beans as the interplanting crops in fruit yards, field and pot experimental treatments with full natural light and weak light (48% of full natural light) regimes were conducted to test the shade tolerance and physiological responses of three Adzuki bean varieties including Funan green Vigna angularis (FGVA), early-mature black V. angularis (EBVA) and late-mature black V. angularis (LBVA). The leaf photosynthetic characteristic parameters, photosynthetic pigment contents and the activity of RuBPCase were measured during the first bloom stage. The response of growth to weak light was likewise studied. The results showed that the photosynthetic characteristic parameters, i.e., the maximum net photosynthetic rate, light saturation point and light compensation point of the three Adzuki bean varieties under the weak light stress changed differently. The weak light stress induced the reduction of net photosynthetic rate, water use efficiency and RuBPCase activity of the three Adzuki bean varieties significantly. The contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b in leaves of FGVA increased significantly, while Chl a/b and carotenoid content in the leaves decreased significantly after shading. But the other two varieties did not change obviously in photosynthetic pigments content after shading. The weak light changed the growth of the three Adzuki bean varieties, such as decreasing dry matter yield and dry matter accumulation efficiency, reducing root nodule and root-shoot ratio, debasing leaves quantity and leaf area index. The first bloom stage and maturing stage of FGVA advanced, while that of EBVA delayed under weak light. However, flowers were not strong enough to seed for LBVA under the weak light. In conclusion, according to the photosynthetic characteristics changes after shading, as well as the growth status, we concluded that the shade tolerance of the three Adzuki beans was ranked as FGVA>EBVA>LBVA. PMID:27112006

  17. Reproductive toxicity of chromium in adult bonnet monkeys (Macaca radiata Geoffrey). Reversible oxidative stress in the semen

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Senthivinayagam . E-mail: subbi100@yahoo.co.uk; Rajendiran, Gopalakrishnan; Sekhar, Pasupathi; Gowri, Chandrahasan; Govindarajulu, Pera; Aruldhas, Mariajoseph Michael

    2006-09-15

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that oxidative stress mediates chromium-induced reproductive toxicity. Monthly semen samples were collected from adult monkeys (Macaca radiata), which were exposed to varying doses (50, 100, 200 and 400 ppm) of chromium (as potassium dichromate) for 6 months through drinking water. Chromium treatment decreased sperm count, sperm forward motility and the specific activities of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase and catalase, and the concentration of reduced glutathione in both seminal plasma and sperm in a dose- and duration-dependent manner. On the other hand, the quantum of hydrogen peroxide in the seminal plasma/sperm from monkeys exposed to chromium increased with increasing dose and duration of chromium exposure. All these changes were reversed after 6 months of chromium-free exposure period. Simultaneous supplementation of vitamin C (0.5 g/L; 1.0 g/L; 2.0 g/L) prevented the development of chromium-induced oxidative stress. Data support the hypothesis and show that chronic chromium exposure induces a reversible oxidative stress in the seminal plasma and sperm by creating an imbalance between reactive oxygen species and antioxidant system, leading to sperm death and reduced motility of live sperm.

  18. Genes Expressed in Pinus radiata Male Cones Include Homologs to Anther-Specific and Pathogenesis Response Genes1

    PubMed Central

    Walden, Adrian R.; Walter, Christian; Gardner, Richard C.

    1999-01-01

    We describe the isolation and characterization of 13 cDNA clones that are differentially expressed in male cones of Pinus radiata (D. Don). The transcripts of the 13 genes are expressed at different times between meiosis and microspore mitosis, timing that corresponds to a burst in tapetal activity in the developing anthers. In situ hybridization showed that four of the genes are expressed in the tapetum, while a fifth is expressed in tetrads during a brief developmental window. Six of the seven cDNAs identified in database searches have striking similarity to genes expressed in angiosperm anthers. Seven cDNAs are homologs of defense and pathogen response genes. The cDNAs identified are predicted to encode a chalcone-synthase-like protein, a thaumatin-like protein, a serine hydrolase thought to be a putative regulator of programmed cell death, two lipid-transfer proteins, and two homologs of the anther-specific A9 genes from Brassica napus and Arabidopsis. Overall, our results support the hypothesis that many of the reproductive processes in the angiosperms and gymnosperms were inherited from a common ancestor. PMID:10594098

  19. Allelic Variation in Cell Wall Candidate Genes Affecting Solid Wood Properties in Natural Populations and Land Races of Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Dillon, S. K.; Nolan, M.; Li, W.; Bell, C.; Wu, H. X.; Southerton, S. G.

    2010-01-01

    Forest trees are ideally suited to association mapping due to their high levels of diversity and low genomic linkage disequilibrium. Using an association mapping approach, single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers influencing quantitative variation in wood quality were identified in a natural population of Pinus radiata. Of 149 sites examined, 10 demonstrated significant associations (P < 0.05, q < 0.1) with one or more traits after accounting for population structure and experimentwise error. Without accounting for marker interactions, phenotypic variation attributed to individual SNPs ranged from 2 to 6.5%. Undesirable negative correlations between wood quality and growth were not observed, indicating potential to break negative correlations by selecting for individual SNPs in breeding programs. Markers that yielded significant associations were reexamined in an Australian land race. SNPs from three genes (PAL1, PCBER, and SUSY) yielded significant associations. Importantly, associations with two of these genes validated associations with density previously observed in the discovery population. In both cases, decreased wood density was associated with the minor allele, suggesting that these SNPs may be under weak negative purifying selection for density in the natural populations. These results demonstrate the utility of LD mapping to detect associations, even when the power to detect SNPs with small effect is anticipated to be low. PMID:20498299

  20. The relationship between physical variables on topographically simple and complex reefs and algal assemblage structure beneath an Ecklonia radiata canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toohey, Benjamin D.

    2007-01-01

    Limestone reefs in South-Western Australia range in topographic complexity at the 1-10 m scale from simple, flat, planar reef structures to topographically complex reefs with many rock walls, overhangs and channels. Algal assemblage structure is known to differ between topographically simple and complex reefs. This research assessed if differences in algal assemblage structure could be associated with the physical environment present on each reef type. Sampling of the physical environment and algal assemblage was carried out on simple, planar reefs and complex, rugose reefs. The physical environment described almost 80% of the algal assemblage structure under an Ecklonia radiata canopy. It was found that topographically simple reefs had greater sediment cover and water depth than adjacent reefs with more complex topography which had more downwelling light, stronger and more turbulent water motion and a greater range of substrate slopes. Greater variation in most physical variables on topographically complex reef shows a greater diversity of microenvironments on that reef type. It is argued that these differences in physical environment between reef types have a considerable influence on algal assemblages by altering key biological processes such as recruitment and interspecific competition.

  1. Fourier transform infrared imaging and microscopy studies of Pinus radiata pulps regarding the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process.

    PubMed

    Castillo, Rosario del P; Araya, Juan; Troncoso, Eduardo; Vinet, Silenne; Freer, Juanita

    2015-03-25

    The distribution and chemical patterns of lignocellulosic components at microscopic scale and their effect on the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) in the production of bioethanol from Pinus radiata pulps were analyzed by the application of diverse microscopical techniques, including scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) - Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. This last technique was accompanied with multivariate methods, including principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate curve resolution with alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) to evaluate the distribution patterns and to generate pure spectra of the lignocellulosic components of fibers. The results indicate that the information obtained by the techniques is complementary (ultrastructure, confocality and chemical characterization) and that the distribution of components affects the SSF yield, identifying lignin coalescence droplets as a characteristic factor to increase the SSF yield. Therefore, multivariate analysis of the infrared spectra enabled the in situ identification of the cellulose, lignin and lignin-carbohydrates arrangements. These techniques could be used to investigate the lignocellulosic components distribution and consequently their recalcitrance in many applications where minimal sample manipulation and microscale chemical information is required. PMID:25732688

  2. Dataset of UV induced changes in nuclear proteome obtained by GeLC-Orbitrap/MS in Pinus radiata needles.

    PubMed

    Alegre, Sara; Pascual, Jesús; Nagler, Matthias; Weckwerth, Wolfram; Cañal, María Jesús; Valledor, Luis

    2016-06-01

    Although responses to UV stress have been characterised at system and cellular levels, the dynamics of the nuclear proteome triggered in this situation are still unknown, despite its essential role in regulating gene expression and in last term plant physiology. To fill this gap, we characterised the variations in the nuclear proteome after 2 h and 16 h (8 h/day) of UV irradiation by using state-of-the-art mass spectrometry-based shotgun proteomics methods combined with novel bioinformatics workflows that were employed in the manuscript entitled "The variations in the nuclear proteome reveal new transcription factors and mechanisms involved in UV stress response in Pinus radiata" (Pascual et al., 2016) [1]. We employed in-gel digestion followed by a 120 min gradient prior to MS analysis. Data was processed following two approaches: a database dependent employing the SEQUEST algorithm and custom databases, and a database independent by mass accuracy precursor alignment (MAPA). 388 proteins were identified by SEQUEST search and 9094 m/z were quantified by MAPA. Significant m/z were de novo sequenced using the Novor algorithm. We present here the complete datasets and the analysis workflow. PMID:27182543

  3. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short term (48 h) experiments were conducted using cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solution...

  4. Isoenzymes of superoxide dismutase in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L. , Pisum sativum L. , and Vigna unguiculata (L. ) Walp

    SciTech Connect

    Becana, M.; Paris, F.J.; Sandalio, L.M.; Del Rio, L.A. Unidad de Bioquimica Vegetal, Granada )

    1989-08-01

    The activity and isozymic composition of superoxide dismutase were determined in nodules of Phaseolus vulgaris L., Pisum sativum L., and Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp. A Mn-SOD was present in Rhizobium and two in Bradyrhizobium and bacteroids. Nodule mitochondria from all three legume species had a single Mn-SOD with similar relative mobility, whereas the cytosol contained several CuZn-SODs: two in Phaseolus and Pisum, and four in Vigna. In the cytoplasm of V. unguiculata nodules, a Fe-containing SOD was also present, with an electrophoretic mobility between those of CuZn- and Mn-SODs, and an estimated molecular weight of 57,000. Total SOD activity of the soluble fraction of host cells, expressed on a nodule fresh weight basis, exceeded markedly that of bacteroids. Likewise, specific SOD activities of free-living bacteria were superior or equal to those of their symbiotic forms. Soluble extracts of bacteria and bacteroids did not show peroxidase activity, but the nodule cell cytoplasm contained diverse peroxidase isozymes which were readily distinguishable from leghemoglobin components by electrophoresis. Data indicated that peroxidases and leghemoglobins did not significantly interfere with SOD localization on gels. Treatment with chloroform-ethanol scarcely affected the isozymic pattern of SODs and peroxidases, and had limited success in the removal of leghemoglobin.

  5. Genetic diversity of the black gram [Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper] gene pool as revealed by SSR markers

    PubMed Central

    Kaewwongwal, Anochar; Kongjaimun, Alisa; Somta, Prakit; Chankaew, Sompong; Yimram, Tarikar; Srinives, Peerasak

    2015-01-01

    In this study, 520 cultivated and 14 wild accessions of black gram (Vigna mungo (L.) Hepper) were assessed for diversity using 22 SSR markers. Totally, 199 alleles were detected with a mean of 9.05 alleles per locus. Wild black gram showed higher gene diversity than cultivated black gram. Gene diversity of cultivated accessions among regions was comparable, while allelic richness of South Asia was higher than that of other regions. 78.67% of the wild gene diversity presented in cultivated accessions, indicating that the domestication bottleneck effect in black gram is relatively low. Genetic distance analysis revealed that cultivated black gram was more closely related to wild black gram from South Asia than that from Southeast Asia. STRUCTURE, principal coordinate and neighbor-joining analyses consistently revealed that 534 black gram accessions were grouped into three major subpopulations. The analyses also revealed that cultivated black gram from South Asia was genetically distinct from that from West Asia. Comparison by SSR analysis with other closely related Vigna species, including mungbean, azuki bean, and rice bean, revealed that level of gene diversity of black gram is comparable to that of mungbean and rice bean but lower than that of azuki bean. PMID:26069442

  6. Mitochondrial Genome of Phlebia radiata Is the Second Largest (156 kbp) among Fungi and Features Signs of Genome Flexibility and Recent Recombination Events

    PubMed Central

    Salavirta, Heikki; Oksanen, Ilona; Kuuskeri, Jaana; Mäkelä, Miia; Laine, Pia; Paulin, Lars; Lundell, Taina

    2014-01-01

    Mitochondria are eukaryotic organelles supporting individual life-style via generation of proton motive force and cellular energy, and indispensable metabolic pathways. As part of genome sequencing of the white rot Basidiomycota species Phlebia radiata, we first assembled its mitochondrial genome (mtDNA). So far, the 156 348 bp mtDNA is the second largest described for fungi, and of considerable size among eukaryotes. The P. radiata mtDNA assembled as single circular dsDNA molecule containing genes for the large and small ribosomal RNAs, 28 transfer RNAs, and over 100 open reading frames encoding the 14 fungal conserved protein subunits of the mitochondrial complexes I, III, IV, and V. Two genes (atp6 and tRNA-IleGAU) were duplicated within 6.1 kbp inverted region, which is a unique feature of the genome. The large mtDNA size, however, is explained by the dominance of intronic and intergenic regions (sum 80% of mtDNA sequence). The intergenic DNA stretches harness short (≤200 nt) repetitive, dispersed and overlapping sequence elements in abundance. Long self-splicing introns of types I and II interrupt eleven of the conserved genes (cox1,2,3; cob; nad1,2,4,4L,5; rnl; rns). The introns embrace a total of 57 homing endonucleases with LAGLIDADGD and GYI-YIG core motifs, which makes P. radiata mtDNA to one of the largest known reservoirs of intron-homing endonucleases. The inverted duplication, intergenic stretches, and intronic features are indications of dynamics and genetic flexibility of the mtDNA, not fully recognized to this extent in fungal mitochondrial genomes previously, thus giving new insights for the evolution of organelle genomes in eukaryotes. PMID:24824642

  7. Localization of cell wall polysaccharides in normal and compression wood of radiata pine: relationships with lignification and microfibril orientation.

    PubMed

    Donaldson, Lloyd A; Knox, J Paul

    2012-02-01

    The distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides in cell walls of tracheids and xylem parenchyma cells in normal and compression wood of Pinus radiata, was examined to determine the relationships with lignification and cellulose microfibril orientation. Using fluorescence microscopy combined with immunocytochemistry, monoclonal antibodies were used to detect xyloglucan (LM15), β(1,4)-galactan (LM5), heteroxylan (LM10 and LM11), and galactoglucomannan (LM21 and LM22). Lignin and crystalline cellulose were localized on the same sections used for immunocytochemistry by autofluorescence and polarized light microscopy, respectively. Changes in the distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides between normal and compression wood were associated with changes in lignin distribution. Increased lignification of compression wood secondary walls was associated with novel deposition of β(1,4)-galactan and with reduced amounts of xylan and mannan in the outer S2 (S2L) region of tracheids. Xylan and mannan were detected in all lignified xylem cell types (tracheids, ray tracheids, and thick-walled ray parenchyma) but were not detected in unlignified cell types (thin-walled ray parenchyma and resin canal parenchyma). Mannan was absent from the highly lignified compound middle lamella, but xylan occurred throughout the cell walls of tracheids. Using colocalization measurements, we confirmed that polysaccharides containing galactose, mannose, and xylose have consistent correlations with lignification. Low or unsubstituted xylans were localized in cell wall layers characterized by transverse cellulose microfibril orientation in both normal and compression wood tracheids. Our results support the theory that the assembly of wood cell walls, including lignification and microfibril orientation, may be mediated by changes in the amount and distribution of noncellulosic polysaccharides. PMID:22147521

  8. Gene Expression Profiling of Shoot-Derived Calli from Adult Radiata Pine and Zygotic Embryo-Derived Embryonal Masses

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Mendiguren, O.; Montalbán, I. A.; Stewart, D.; Moncaleán, P.; Klimaszewska, K.; Rutledge, R. G.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although somatic embryogenesis has an unprecedented potential for large-scale clonal propagation of conifers, the ability to efficiently induce the embryonal cultures required for somatic embryo production has long been a challenge. Furthermore, because early stage zygotic embryos remain the only responsive explants for pines, it is not possible to clone individual trees from vegetative explants at a commercial scale. This is of particular interest for adult trees because many elite characteristics only become apparent following sexual maturation. Findings Shoot explants collected from adult radiata pine trees were cultured on four induction media differing in plant growth regulator composition, either directly after collection or from in vitro-generated axillary shoots. Six callus lines were selected for microscopic examination, which failed to reveal any embryonal masses (EM). qPCR expression profiling of five of these lines indicated that explant type influenced the absolute level of gene expression, but not the type of genes that were expressed. The analysis, which also included three EM lines induced from immature zygotic embryos, encompassed five categories of genes reflective of metabolic, mitotic and meristematic activity, along with putative markers of embryogenicity. Culture medium was found to have no significant impact on gene expression, although differences specific to the explant’s origin were apparent. Expression of transcriptional factors associated with vegetative meristems further suggested that all of the callus lines possessed a substantive vegetative character. Most notable, however, was that they all also expressed a putative embryogenic marker (LEC1). Conclusions While limited in scope, these results illustrate the utility of expression profiling for characterizing tissues in culture. For example, although the biological significance of LEC1 expression is unclear, it does present the possibility that these callus lines possess

  9. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome.

    PubMed

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  10. Axial Diffusivity of the Corona Radiata at 24 Hours Post-Stroke: A New Biomarker for Motor and Global Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Moulton, Eric; Amor-Sahli, Mélika; Perlbarg, Vincent; Pires, Christine; Crozier, Sophie; Galanaud, Damien; Valabregue, Romain; Yger, Marion; Baronnet-Chauvet, Flore; Samson, Yves; Dormont, Didier; Rosso, Charlotte

    2015-01-01

    Fractional anisotropy (FA) is an effective marker of motor outcome at the chronic stage of stroke yet proves to be less efficient at early time points. This study aims to determine which diffusion metric in which location is the best marker of long-term stroke outcome after thrombolysis with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) at 24 hours post-stroke. Twenty-eight thrombolyzed patients underwent DTI at 24 hours post-stroke onset. Ipsilesional and contralesional FA, mean (MD), axial (AD), and radial (RD) diffusivities values were calculated in different Regions-of-Interest (ROIs): (1) the white matter underlying the precentral gyrus (M1), (2) the corona radiata (CoRad), (3) the posterior limb of the internal capsule (PLIC) and (4) the cerebral peduncles (CP). NIHSS scores were acquired at admission, day 1, and day 7; modified Rankin Scores (mRS) at 3 months. Significant decreases were found in FA, MD, and AD of the ipsilesional CoRad and M1. MD and AD were also significantly lower in the PLIC. The ratio of ipsi and contralesional AD of the CoRad (CoRad-rAD) was the strongest diffusion parameter correlated with motor NIHSS scores on day 7 and with the mRS at 3 months. A Receiver-Operator Curve analysis yielded a model for the CoRad-rAD to predict good outcome based on upper limb NIHSS motor scores and mRS with high specificity and sensitivity. FA values were not correlated with clinical outcome. In conclusion, axial diffusivity of the CoRad from clinical DTI at 24 hours post-stroke is the most appropriate diffusion metric for quantifying stroke damage to predict outcome, suggesting the importance of early axonal damage. PMID:26562509

  11. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities.

    PubMed

    Rúa, Megan A; Wilson, Emily C; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R; Hoeksema, Jason D; Frank, Anna C

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors - biotic or abiotic - in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic species

  12. Associations between Ectomycorrhizal Fungi and Bacterial Needle Endophytes in Pinus radiata: Implications for Biotic Selection of Microbial Communities

    PubMed Central

    Rúa, Megan A.; Wilson, Emily C.; Steele, Sarah; Munters, Arielle R.; Hoeksema, Jason D.; Frank, Anna C.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of the ecological and evolutionary relationships between plants and their associated microbes have long been focused on single microbes, or single microbial guilds, but in reality, plants associate with a diverse array of microbes from a varied set of guilds. As such, multitrophic interactions among plant-associated microbes from multiple guilds represent an area of developing research, and can reveal how complex microbial communities are structured around plants. Interactions between coniferous plants and their associated microbes provide a good model system for such studies, as conifers host a suite of microorganisms including mutualistic ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi and foliar bacterial endophytes. To investigate the potential role ECM fungi play in structuring foliar bacterial endophyte communities, we sampled three isolated, native populations of Monterey pine (Pinus radiata), and used constrained analysis of principal coordinates to relate the community matrices of the ECM fungi and bacterial endophytes. Our results suggest that ECM fungi may be important factors for explaining variation in bacterial endophyte communities but this effect is influenced by population and environmental characteristics, emphasizing the potential importance of other factors — biotic or abiotic — in determining the composition of bacterial communities. We also classified ECM fungi into categories based on known fungal traits associated with substrate exploration and nutrient mobilization strategies since variation in these traits allows the fungi to acquire nutrients across a wide range of abiotic conditions and may influence the outcome of multi-species interactions. Across populations and environmental factors, none of the traits associated with fungal foraging strategy types significantly structured bacterial assemblages, suggesting these ECM fungal traits are not important for understanding endophyte-ECM interactions. Overall, our results suggest that both biotic

  13. Transcriptome Sequencing of Mung Bean (Vigna radiate L.) Genes and the Identification of EST-SSR Markers

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglin; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liu, Chunji; Blair, Matthew Wohlgemuth; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2015-01-01

    Mung bean (Vigna radiate (L.) Wilczek) is an important traditional food legume crop, with high economic and nutritional value. It is widely grown in China and other Asian countries. Despite its importance, genomic information is currently unavailable for this crop plant species or some of its close relatives in the Vigna genus. In this study, more than 103 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from mung bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology. The processed reads were assembled into 48,693 unigenes with an average length of 874 bp. Of these unigenes, 25,820 (53.0%) and 23,235 (47.7%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases, respectively. Furthermore, 19,242 (39.5%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 18,316 (37.6%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 10,918 (22.4%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 6,585 (8.3%) were mapped onto 244 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. Among the unigenes, 10,053 sequences contained a unique simple sequence repeat (SSR), and 2,303 sequences contained more than one SSR together in the same expressed sequence tag (EST). A total of 13,134 EST-SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers, with mono-nucleotide A/T repeats being the most abundant motif class and G/C repeats being rare. In this SSR analysis, we found five main repeat motifs: AG/CT (30.8%), GAA/TTC (12.6%), AAAT/ATTT (6.8%), AAAAT/ATTTT (6.2%) and AAAAAT/ATTTTT (1.9%). A total of 200 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by PCR amplification as EST-SSR markers. Of these, 66 marker primer pairs produced reproducible amplicons that were polymorphic among 31 mung bean accessions selected from diverse geographical locations. The large number of SSR-containing sequences found in this study will be valuable for the construction of a high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or

  14. Development of Gene-Based SSR Markers in Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata L.) Based on Transcriptome Data

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Honglin; Chen, Xin; Tian, Jing; Yang, Yong; Liu, Zhenxing; Hao, Xiyu; Wang, Lixia; Wang, Suhua; Liang, Jie; Zhang, Liya; Yin, Fengxiang; Cheng, Xuzhen

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata (Thunb.) Ohwi & Ohashi) is a warm season annual legume mainly grown in East Asia. Only scarce genomic resources are currently available for this legume crop species and no simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers have been specifically developed for rice bean yet. In this study, approximately 26 million high quality cDNA sequence reads were obtained from rice bean using Illumina paired-end sequencing technology and assembled into 71,929 unigenes with an average length of 986 bp. Of these unigenes, 38,840 (33.2%) showed significant similarity to proteins in the NCBI non-redundant protein and nucleotide sequence databases. Furthermore, 30,170 (76.3%) could be classified into gene ontology categories, 25,451 (64.4%) into Swiss-Prot categories and 21,982 (55.6%) into KOG database categories (E-value < 1.0E-5). A total of 9,301 (23.5%) were mapped onto 118 pathways using the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genome (KEGG) pathway database. A total of 3,011 genic SSRs were identified as potential molecular markers. AG/CT (30.3%), AAG/CTT (8.1%) and AGAA/TTCT (20.0%) are the three main repeat motifs. A total of 300 SSR loci were randomly selected for validation by using PCR amplification. Of these loci, 23 primer pairs were polymorphic among 32 rice bean accessions. A UPGMA dendrogram revealed three major clusters among 32 rice bean accessions. The large number of SSR-containing sequences and genic SSRs in this study will be valuable for the construction of high-resolution genetic linkage maps, association or comparative mapping and genetic analyses of various Vigna species. PMID:26950544

  15. Biomarker genes highlight intraspecific and interspecific variations in the responses of Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don to Sirex noctilio F. acid gland secretions.

    PubMed

    Bordeaux, John Michael; Lorenz, W Walter; Dean, Jeffrey F D

    2012-10-01

    Sirex noctilio F., a Eurasian horntail woodwasp recently introduced into North America, oviposits in pines and other conifers and in the process spreads a phytopathogenic fungus that serves as a food source for its larvae. During oviposition the woodwasp also deposits mucus produced in its acid (venom) gland that alters pine defense responses and facilitates infection by the fungus. A 26,496-feature loblolly pine cDNA microarray was used to survey gene expression of pine tissue responding to S. noctilio venom. Six genes were selected for further assessment by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR), including one that encoded an apparent PR-4 protein and another that encoded a thaumatin-like protein. Expression of both was strongly induced in response to venom, while expression of an apparent actin gene (ACT1) was stable in response to the venom. The pattern of gene response was similar in Pinus taeda L. and Pinus radiata D. Don, but the magnitude of response in P. radiata was significantly stronger for each of the induced genes. The magnitude of the biomarker gene response to venom also varied according to genotype within these two species. The qRT-PCR assay was used to demonstrate that the primary bioactive component in S. noctilio venom is a polypeptide. PMID:23042767

  16. Gill tissue reactions in walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum and common carp Cyprinus carpio to glochidia of the freshwater mussel Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Waller, D.L.; Mitchell, L.G.

    1989-01-01

    The glochidia of many freshwater mussels, which are obligate parasites on the gills, fins, and other body parts of specific fishes, attach to a suitable host, become encapsulated, and develop to the free-living juvenile stage. Using light and electron microscopy we compared gill tissue reactions in a suitable host (walleye Stizostedion vitreum vitreum) and unsuitable host (common carp Cyprinus carpio) infected with Lampsilis radiata siliquoidea. Encapsulation of glochidia on walleye gills was completed by 6 h post-infection at 20 to 22°C. Capsular formation and compaction were accompanied by a general increase in epithelioid cells. Fibrotic material appeared in capsules at about 48 h and virtually filled capsular cells from about Day 5 to Day 11 post-infection. Liberation of juvenile mussels was accompanied by thinning of the capsule from about Day 11 to Day l7. Although glochidia attached to the gills of common carp, few became encapsulated. By 48 h post-infection, preliminary capsular growth was evident and necrotic cells and cellular debris appeared at the edges of the growth. However, all glochidia were sloughed from carp gills by 60 h. Host specificity of L. radiata siliquoidea apparently depended on a combination of the attachment response of glochidia, differences in the encapsulation process, and tissue reactions in the fish.

  17. Early induced protein 1 (PrELIP1) and other photosynthetic, stress and epigenetic regulation genes are involved in Pinus radiata D. don UV-B radiation response.

    PubMed

    Valledor, Luis; Cañal, María Jesús; Pascual, Jesús; Rodríguez, Roberto; Meijón, Mónica

    2012-11-01

    The continuous atmospheric and environmental deterioration is likely to increase, among others, the influx of ultraviolet B (UV-B) radiation. The plants have photoprotective responses, which are complex mechanisms involving different physiological responses, to avoid the damages caused by this radiation that may lead to plant death. We have studied the adaptive responses to UV-B in Pinus radiata, given the importance of this species in conifer forests and reforestation programs. We analyzed the photosynthetic activity, pigments content, and gene expression of candidate genes related to photosynthesis, stress and gene regulation in needles exposed to UV-B during a 96 h time course. The results reveal a clear increase of pigments under UV-B stress while photosynthetic activity decreased. The expression levels of the studied genes drastically changed after UV-B exposure, were stress related genes were upregulated while photosynthesis (RBCA and RBCS) and epigenetic regulation were downregulated (MSI1, CSDP2, SHM4). The novel gene PrELIP1, fully sequenced for this work, was upregulated and expressed mainly in the palisade parenchyma of needles. This gene has conserved domains related to the dissipation of the UV-B radiation that give to this protein a key role during photoprotection response of the needles in Pinus radiata. PMID:22471584

  18. [STUDIES IN VITRO INHIBITION OF THE ANGIOTENSIN-CONVERTING ENZYME-I, HYPOTENSIVE AND ANTIHYPERTENSIVE EFFECTS OF PEPTIDE FRACTIONS OF V. UNGUICULATA].

    PubMed

    Cú-Cañetas, Trinidad; Betancur Ancona, David; Gallegos Tintoré, Santiago; Sandoval Peraza, Mukthar; Chel Guerrero, Luis

    2015-01-01

    Inhibition of angiotensin-converting enzyme I (ACE-I) in vitro and in vivo from peptide fractions by enzymatic hydrolysis of the Vigna unguiculata protein concentrate was evaluated. Hydrolysis was done with Pepsin-Pancreatin and Flavourzima in two separate systems. The resulting hidrolysates were ultrafiltrated to obtain fractions with different molecular weight. The fractions with better inhibition Flavourzima were size > 1 kDa (> 1 kDa-F) and < 1 kDa (< 1 kDa-F), with an IC50 of 1222.84 and 1098.6 μg/ml respectively. Pepsin-Pancreatin fraction. PMID:26545668

  19. Comparison of laboratory colonies and field populations of Tamarixia radiata, an ecto-parasitoid of the Asian Citrus Psyllid, using internal transcribed spacer and cytochrome oxidase subunit l DNA sequences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The genetic diversity of Tamarixia radiata laboratory colonies derived from collections in China, northern Vietnam, Pakistan, and a mixed colony from Taiwan and southern Vietnam was evaluated using the internal transcribed spacer region 1 (ITS-1), internal transcribed spacer region 2 (ITS-2) and the...

  20. Micromorphological changes and mechanism associated with wet ball milling of Pinus radiata substrate and consequences for saccharification at low enzyme loading.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, Alankar A; Donaldson, Lloyd A; Newman, Roger H; Suckling, Ian D; Campion, Sylke H; Lloyd, John A; Murton, Karl D

    2016-08-01

    In this work, substrates prepared from thermo-mechanical treatment of Pinus radiata chips were vibratory ball milled for different times. In subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis, percent glucan conversion passed through a maximum value at a milling time of around 120min and then declined. Scanning electron microscopy revealed breakage of fibers to porous fragments in which lamellae and fibrils were exposed during ball milling. Over-milling caused compression of the porous fragments to compact globular particles with a granular texture, decreasing accessibility to enzymes. Carbon-13 NMR spectroscopy showed partial loss of interior cellulose in crystallites, leveling off once fiber breakage was complete. A mathematical model based on observed micromorphological changes supports ball milling mechanism. At a low enzyme loading of 2FPU/g of substrate and milling time of 120min gave a total monomeric sugar yield of 306g/kg of pulp which is higher than conventional pretreatment method such as steam exploded wood. PMID:27131293

  1. Multiple-response optimization of the acidic treatment of the brown alga Ecklonia radiata for the sequential extraction of fucoidan and alginate.

    PubMed

    Lorbeer, Andrew John; Lahnstein, Jelle; Bulone, Vincent; Nguyen, Trung; Zhang, Wei

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to optimize the acidic treatment of the brown alga Ecklonia radiata in order to extract fucoidan and facilitate the efficient sequential extraction of alginates. Response surface methodology was used to determine the effects of the temperature, pH, and duration of the acidic treatment on fucoidan yield, alginate extractability, and the molecular weight of sequentially extracted alginates. Desirability functions were then used to predict the best overall combinations of responses. The most desirable compromise allowed for the recovery of a fucoidan-rich fraction with a yield of 3.75% (w/w of alga) and the sequential extraction of alginates having an average molecular weight of 730kDa at a yield of 44% (w/w of alga), with low cross-contamination between the products. The optimized acidic treatment could form the basis of an industrial biorefinery process for the production of both fucoidan and alginate. PMID:26342343

  2. NaCl Effects on In Vitro Germination and Growth of Some Senegalese Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) Cultivars

    PubMed Central

    Thiam, Mahamadou; Ourèye SY, Mame

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.) is one of the most important grain legumes in sub-Saharian regions. It contributes to man food security by providing a protein-rich diet. However, its production is limited by abiotic stresses such as salinity. This study aims to evaluate the salt tolerance of 15 cowpea cultivars, at germination stage. The seed germination process consisted of sowing them in agarified water (8 g·L−1) supplemented with 6 different concentrations of NaCl (0, 10, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mM). Results highlighted that high salt concentrations drastically reduced germination and significantly delayed the process for all varieties. A cowpea varietal effect towards the salt tolerance was noticed. Genotypes Diongoma, 58-78, and 58-191 were more salt-tolerant cultivars while Mougne and Yacine were more salt-sensitive ones as confirmed in the three groups of the dendrogram. NaCl effects on the early vegetative growth of seedlings were assessed with a tolerant (58-191) and a susceptible (Yacine) cultivar. Morphological (length and dry biomass) and physiological (chlorophyll and proline contents) parameter measurements revealed a negative effect of high (NaCl). However, 58-191 was much more salt tolerant, and the chlorophyll and proline contents were higher than those of Yacine genotype at increasing salt concentrations. PMID:25937976

  3. [Nutritional and taste properties of canned cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp). I. Effect of the canning process].

    PubMed

    Lira, G M; Guerra, N B; Pessoa, D C

    1992-09-01

    The effects of canning in brine on cowpea quality (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) were determined. Beans were steamed-blanched at 100 degrees C for 2 minutes, and then canned and autoclaved at 121 degrees C for 10 minutes. These samples were compared to home-cooked cowpea samples through physicochemical, sensory and biological analyses. Significant reductions (p < or = 0.01) in canned bean composition as to values for protein, carbohydrate and fiber were determined when compared to cooked samples. The available methionine content was identical for both processes, but canned beans produced higher values of available lysine than cooked ones. Values for Net Protein Ratio (NPR)--3.19 showed that canning did not affect protein quality of canned beans. These results were similar to the ones found in home-cooked cowpeas (2.96). According to physicochemical analyses, quantitative losses did not seem to affect protein quality, and acceptance of product was found to be satisfactory to tasters. PMID:1342165

  4. Bradyrhizobium manausense sp. nov., isolated from effective nodules of Vigna unguiculata grown in Brazilian Amazonian rainforest soils.

    PubMed

    Silva, Flavia V; De Meyer, Sofie E; Simões-Araújo, Jean L; Barbé, Tatiane da Costa; Xavier, Gustavo R; O'Hara, Graham; Ardley, Julie K; Rumjanek, Norma G; Willems, Anne; Zilli, Jerri E

    2014-07-01

    Root nodule bacteria were trapped within cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) in soils with different cultivation histories collected from the Amazonian rainforest in northern Brazil. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences of six strains (BR 3351(T), BR 3307, BR 3310, BR 3315, BR 3323 BR and BR 3361) isolated from cowpea nodules showed that they formed a distinct group within the genus Bradyrhizobium, which was separate from previously identified type strains. Phylogenetic analyses of three housekeeping genes (glnII, recA and rpoB) revealed that Bradyrhizobium huanghuaihaiense CCBAU 23303(T) was the most closely related type strain (96% sequence similarity or lower). Chemotaxonomic data, including fatty acid profiles (predominant fatty acids being C16 : 0 and summed feature 8), the slow growth rate and carbon compound utilization patterns supported the assignment of the strains to the genus Bradyrhizobium. The results of DNA-DNA hybridizations, antibiotic resistance and physiological tests differentiated these novel strains from the most closely related species of the genus Bradyrhizobium with validly published names. Symbiosis-related genes for nodulation (nodC) and nitrogen fixation (nifH) grouped the novel strains of the genus Bradyrhizobium together with Bradyrhizobium iriomotense strain EK05(T), with 94% and 96% sequence similarity, respectively. Based on these data, these six strains represent a novel species for which the name Brabyrhizobium manausense sp. nov. (BR 3351(T) = HAMBI 3596(T)), is proposed. PMID:24744018

  5. Functional properties of purified vicilins from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) and cowpea protein isolate.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Alessandra; Domont, Gilberto B; Pedrosa, Cristiana; Ferreira, Sérgio T

    2003-09-10

    The major storage globulins (vicilins) of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) and pea (Pisum sativum) seeds were purified by ammonium sulfate precipitation, and a semipurified cowpea protein isolate (CPI) was prepared by isoelectric precipitation. Some of the functional properties of these proteins, including solubility, foaming, and emulsifying capacities, were investigated and compared. The solubility of purified cowpea vicilin was reduced at pH 5.0, increasing markedly below and above this value. Pea vicilin exhibited poor solubility between pH 5.0 and pH 6.0, and CPI was little soluble in the pH range from 4.0 to 6.0. At neutral pH, the emulsifying activity indexes (EAI) of purified pea vicilin and CPI were 194 and 291 m(2)/g, respectively, which compare quite favorably to EAIs of 110 and 133 m(2)/g for casein and albumin, respectively. Remarkably, purified cowpea vicilin exhibited an EAI of 490 m(2)/g, indicating a very high emulsifying activity. Purified cowpea and pea vicilins exhibited lower foaming capacities and foam stablity indexes (FSI) than CPI. FSI values of 80 and 260 min were obtained for purified pea and cowpea vicilin, respectively, whereas a FSI value of 380 min was obtained for CPI. These results are discussed in terms of the possible utilization of purified vicilins or protein isolates from pea and cowpea in the food processing industry. PMID:12952435

  6. Vigna angularis water extracts protect against ultraviolet b-exposed skin aging in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Lee, Hyun Ji; Sun, Zheng-wang; Lee, Tae Youp; Song, Hyun Geun; Shin, Heon-Sub; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-12-01

    Exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation induces various pathological changes, such as thickened skin and wrinkle formation. In particular, UVB irradiation increases matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 production and collagen degradation, leading to premature aging, termed photoaging. The azuki bean (Vigna angularis; VA) has been widely used as a food product as well as a traditional medicine. However, its activity needs additional study to confirm its functional application in foods and cosmetics for protecting skin. In this study, hot-water extract from VA (VAE) and its active component, rutin, were investigated to determine their antiphotoaging effects. VAE was found to have antioxidant activity. In UVB-exposed normal human dermal fibroblasts cells with VAE and rutin treatments, MMP-1 production was significantly suppressed (90% and 47%, respectively). The effects of both topical and oral administration of VAE were tested in UVB-irradiated hairless mice. VAE suppressed wrinkle formation and skin thickness by promoting elastin, procollagen type I, and TGF-β1 expression (118%, 156%, and 136%, respectively) and by diminishing MMP-1 production. These results suggest that VAE may be effective for preventing skin photoaging accelerated by UVB radiation. PMID:25369199

  7. Identification and expression profiling of Vigna mungo microRNAs from leaf small RNA transcriptome by deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sujay; Kundu, Anirban; Pal, Amita

    2014-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) represent a class of small non-coding RNA molecules that play a crucial role in post-transcriptional gene regulation. Several conserved and species-specific miRNAs have been characterized to date, predominantly from the plant species whose genome is well characterized. However, information on the variability of these regulatory RNAs in economically important but genetically less characterized crop species are limited. Vigna mungo is an important grain legume, which is grown primarily for its protein-rich edible seeds. miRNAs from this species have not been identified to date due to lack of genome sequence information. To identify miRNAs from V. mungo, a small RNA library was constructed from young leaves. High-throughput Illumina sequencing technology and bioinformatic analysis of the small RNA reads led to the identification of 66 miRNA loci represented by 45 conserved miRNAs belonging to 19 families and eight non-conserved miRNAs belonging to seven families. Besides, 13 novel miRNA candidates in V. mungo were also identified. Expression patterns of selected conserved, non-conserved, and novel miRNA candidates have been demonstrated in leaf, stem, and root tissues by quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and potential target genes were predicted for most of the conserved miRNAs. This information offers genomic resources for better understanding of miRNA mediated post-transcriptional gene regulation. PMID:24138283

  8. Nitric oxide increases tolerance responses to moderate water deficit in leaves of Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna unguiculata bean species.

    PubMed

    Zimmer-Prados, Lucas Martins; Moreira, Ana Sílvia Franco Pinheiro; Magalhaes, Jose Ronaldo; França, Marcel Giovanni Costa

    2014-07-01

    Drought stress is one of the most intensively studied and widespread constraints, and nitric oxide (NO) is a key signaling molecule involved in the mediation of abiotic stresses in plants. We demonstrated that a sprayed solution of NO from donor sodium nitroprusside increased drought stress tolerance responses in both sensitive (Phaseolus vulgaris) and tolerant (Vigna unguiculata) beans. In intact plants subjected to halting irrigation, NO increased the leaf relative water content and stomatal conductance in both species. After cutting leaf discs and washing them, NO induced increased electrolyte leakage, which was more evident in the tolerant species. These leaf discs were then subjected to different water deficits, simulating moderate and severe drought stress conditions through polyethylene glycol solutions. NO supplied at moderate drought stress revealed a reduced membrane injury index in sensitive species. In hydrated discs and at this level of water deficit, NO increased the electron transport rate in both species, and a reduction of these rates was observed at severe stress levels. Taken together, it can be shown that NO has an effective role in ameliorating drought stress effects, activating tolerance responses at moderate water deficit levels and in both bean species which present differential drought tolerance. PMID:25049456

  9. Multiple abiotic stress tolerance in Vigna mungo is altered by overexpression of ALDRXV4 gene via reactive carbonyl detoxification.

    PubMed

    Singh, Preeti; Kumar, Deepak; Sarin, Neera Bhalla

    2016-06-01

    Vigna mungo (blackgram) is an important leguminous pulse crop, which is grown for its protein rich edible seeds. Drought and salinity are the major abiotic stresses which adversely affect the growth and productivity of crop plants including blackgram. The ALDRXV4 belongs to the aldo-keto reductase superfamily of enzymes that catalyze the reduction of carbonyl metabolites in the cells and plays an important role in the osmoprotection and detoxification of the reactive carbonyl species. In the present study, we developed transgenic plants of V. mungo using Agrobacterium mediated transformation. The transgene integration was confirmed by Southern blot analysis whereas the expression was confirmed by RT-PCR, Western blot and enzyme activity. The T1 generation transgenic plants displayed improved tolerance to various environmental stresses, including drought, salt, methyl viologen and H2O2 induced oxidative stress. The increased aldose reductase activity, higher sorbitol content and less accumulation of the toxic metabolite, methylglyoxal in the transgenic lines under non-stress and stress (drought and salinity) conditions resulted in increased protection through maintenance of better photosynthetic efficiency, higher relative water content and less photooxidative damage. The accumulation of reactive oxygen species was remarkably decreased in the transgenic lines as compared with the wild type plants. This study of engineering multiple stress tolerance in blackgram, is the first report to date and this strategy for trait improvement is proposed to provide a novel germplasm for blackgram production on marginal lands. PMID:26956699

  10. Effect of legume seed extracts on the inhibition of proteolytic activity and muscle degradation of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachiumrosenbergii).

    PubMed

    Sriket, Chodsana; Benjakul, Soottawat; Visessanguan, Wonnop; Hara, Kenji

    2011-12-01

    Trypsin inhibitors in the extracts from soybean (Glycine max), adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), bambara groundnut (Vigna subterranea) and red kidney bean (Phaseoulus vulgaris) varied in amount and molecular weight. The soybean extract had the highest level of trypsin inhibitor with molecular weight (MW) of 21kDa, followed by bambara groundnut extract possessing trypsin inhibitor with MW of 15kDa. Both extracts showed a more effective inhibition towards crude protease extract (CE) from the hepatopancreas of fresh water prawn (Macrobrachium rosenbergii) than the extracts from adzuki and red kidney beans. Activity staining also reconfirmed the higher inhibitory activity on CE from hepatopancreas by the extracts from both soybean and bambara groundnut. The extracts from all seeds were able to inhibit the degradation of fresh water prawn meat containing CE in a concentration dependent manner. Based on inhibitor study, the extracts from soybean and bambara groundnut can be a potential aid to suppress the muscle softening of fresh water prawn, mediated by trypsin-like proteases released from hepatopancreas, during extended iced storage. PMID:25212342

  11. Variant vicilins from a resistant Vigna unguiculata lineage (IT81D-1053) accumulate inside Callosobruchus maculatus larval midgut epithelium.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Gabriel B; Kunz, Daniele; Peres, Tanara V; Leal, Rodrigo B; Uchôa, Adriana F; Samuels, Richard I; Macedo, Maria Lígia R; Carlini, Célia R; Ribeiro, Alberto F; Grangeiro, Thalles B; Terra, Walter R; Xavier-Filho, José; Silva, Carlos P

    2014-02-01

    It has been demonstrated that variant vicilins are the main resistance factor of cowpea seeds (Vigna unguiculata) against attack by the cowpea beetle Callosobruchus maculatus. There is evidence that the toxic properties of these storage proteins may be related to their interaction with glycoproteins and other microvillar membrane constituents along the digestive tract of the larvae. New findings have shown that following interaction with the microvilli, the vicilins are absorbed across the intestinal epithelium and thus reach the internal environment of the larvae. In the present paper we studied the insecticidal activity of the variant vicilins purified from a resistant cowpea variety (IT81D-1053). Bioassays showed that the seeds of this genotype affected larval growth, causing developmental retardation and 100% mortality. By feeding C. maculatus larvae on susceptible and IT81D-1053 derived vicilins (FITC labelled or unlabelled), followed by fluorescence and immunogold cytolocalization, we were able to demonstrate that both susceptible and variant forms are internalized in the midgut cells and migrate inside vesicular structures from the apex to the basal portion of the enterocytes. However, when larvae were fed with the labelled vicilins for 24h and then returned to a control diet, the concentration of the variant form remained relatively high, suggesting that variant vicilins are not removed from the cells at the same rate as the non-variant vicilins. We suggest that the toxic effects of variant vicilins on midgut cells involve the binding of these proteins to the cell surface followed by internalization and interference with the normal physiology of the enterocytes, thereby affecting larval development in vivo. PMID:24220155

  12. Assessment of hybridization among wild and cultivated Vigna unguiculata subspecies revealed by arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction analysis

    PubMed Central

    Vijaykumar, Archana; Saini, Ajay; Jawali, Narendra

    2012-01-01

    Background and aims Intra-species hybridization and incompletely homogenized ribosomal RNA repeat units have earlier been reported in 21 accessions of Vigna unguiculata from six subspecies using internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 5S intergenic spacer (IGS) analyses. However, the relationships among these accessions were not clear from these analyses. We therefore assessed intra-species hybridization in the same set of accessions. Methodology Arbitrarily primed polymerase chain reaction (AP-PCR) analysis was carried out using 12 primers. The PCR products were resolved on agarose gels and the DNA fragments were scored manually. Genetic relationships were inferred by TREECON software using unweighted paired group method with arithmetic averages (UPGMA) cluster analysis evaluated by bootstrapping and compared with previous analyses based on ITS and 5S IGS. Principal results A total of 202 (86 %) fragments were found to be polymorphic and used for generating a genetic distance matrix. Twenty-one V. unguiculata accessions were grouped into three main clusters. The cultivated subspecies (var. unguiculata) and most of its wild progenitors (var. spontanea) were placed in cluster I along with ssp. pubescens and ssp. stenophylla. Whereas var. spontanea were grouped with ssp. alba and ssp. tenuis accessions in cluster II, ssp. alba and ssp. baoulensis were included in cluster III. Close affinities of ssp. unguiculata, ssp. alba and ssp. tenuis suggested inter-subspecies hybridization. Conclusions Multi-locus AP-PCR analysis reveals that intra-species hybridization is prevalent among V. unguiculata subspecies and suggests that grouping of accessions from two different subspecies is not solely due to the similarity in the ITS and 5S IGS regions but also due to other regions of the genome. PMID:22619698

  13. Nodulation of cowpeas and survival of cowpeas Rhizobia in acid, aluminum-rich soils. [Vigna unguiculata; Rhizobium

    SciTech Connect

    Hartel, P.G.; Whelan, A.M.; Alexander, M.

    1983-01-01

    A study was undertaken to determine whether the reduced nodulation of cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp) grown in certain acid, Alrich soils resulted from the poor survival of the potentially infective rhizobia. Two strains of Rhizobium capable of nodulating cowpeas were used. The lowest pH for growth in defined liquid medium was 4.2 for one strain and 3.9 for the other. Only the latter was Al tolerant and could grow in a defined liquid medium containing 50 ..mu..M KAl(SO/sub 4/)/sub 2/. The survival of the bacteria and their ability to nodulate cowpeas in three soils were measured after the soils were amended with Ca or Al salts to give pH values ranging from 5.7 to 4.1 and extractable-Al concentrations from < 0.1 to 3.7 cmol(p/sup +/)/kg of soil. Only small differences in survival in 7 or 8 weeks were noted between the two strains. Plants inoculated with the Al-sensitive strain bore significantly fewer nodules in the more acid, Al-rich soils than in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. No significant reduction in nodule number was evident for plants inoculated with the Al-tolerant strain and grown in the more acid, Al-rich soils compared to cowpeas grown in the same soils with higher pH values and less extractable Al. It is suggested that the Al content of soil is not a major factor in the survival of cowpea rhizobia but that it does have a significant effect on nodulation. 24 references, 3 figures, 2 tables.

  14. Feeding value of hays of tropical forage legumes in pigs: Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis.

    PubMed

    Kambashi, Bienvenu; Boudry, Christelle; Picron, Pascale; Kiatoko, Honoré; Bindelle, Jérôme

    2014-12-01

    The effects of four tropical forage legume hays (Vigna unguiculata, Psophocarpus scandens, Pueraria phaseoloides and Stylosanthes guianensis) on voluntary feed intake (VFI) and their nutritive value were studied in growing pigs using a corn-soybean meal-based diet containing varying proportions of forage legume hays (0, 10, 20 and 40 % or 0, 12.5 and 25 % for VFI and nutritive value determination, respectively). There was no difference in VFI between species (P > 0.20), but a linear response to forage inclusion level (P < 0.05) was observed decreasing from 126 for 0 % to approximately 84 g/kg of body weight for the 40 % forage diets, except for V. unguiculata, where the response was quadratic (P = 0.01). All four forage species linearly decreased the total tract apparent digestibility (TTAD) from 0.76 to 0.61, 0.80 to 0.68, 0.54 to 0.40 and 0.58 to 0.31 except for S. guianensis (0.44) for DM, N, NDF and N retention, respectively. Differences in digestibility (P < 0.05) between species were also observed. Due to their negative influence on the overall digestibility, the contribution of hays should not exceed 12.5 %, except for S. guianensis, in which N retention remained quite high (0.44) at the highest inclusion level (25 %). P. phaseoloides hay should be avoided in pigs as it combines the lowest VFI with the lowest nutrient digestibility. PMID:25069970

  15. Genome sequencing of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis) provides insight into high starch and low fat accumulation and domestication

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Kai; Tian, Zhixi; Chen, Chunhai; Luo, Longhai; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Zhuo; Yu, Lili; Li, Yisong; Sun, Yudong; Li, Weiyu; Chen, Yan; Li, Yongqiang; Zhang, Yueyang; Ai, Danjiao; Zhao, Jinyang; Shang, Cheng; Ma, Yong; Wu, Bin; Wang, Mingli; Gao, Li; Sun, Dongjing; Zhang, Peng; Guo, Fangfang; Wang, Weiwei; Li, Yuan; Wang, Jinlong; Varshney, Rajeev K.; Wang, Jun; Ling, Hong-Qing; Wan, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), an important legume crop, is grown in more than 30 countries of the world. The seed of adzuki bean, as an important source of starch, digestible protein, mineral elements, and vitamins, is widely used foods for at least a billion people. Here, we generated a high-quality draft genome sequence of adzuki bean by whole-genome shotgun sequencing. The assembled contig sequences reached to 450 Mb (83% of the genome) with an N50 of 38 kb, and the total scaffold sequences were 466.7 Mb with an N50 of 1.29 Mb. Of them, 372.9 Mb of scaffold sequences were assigned to the 11 chromosomes of adzuki bean by using a single nucleotide polymorphism genetic map. A total of 34,183 protein-coding genes were predicted. Functional analysis revealed that significant differences in starch and fat content between adzuki bean and soybean were likely due to transcriptional abundance, rather than copy number variations, of the genes related to starch and oil synthesis. We detected strong selection signals in domestication by the population analysis of 50 accessions including 11 wild, 11 semiwild, 17 landraces, and 11 improved varieties. In addition, the semiwild accessions were illuminated to have a closer relationship to the cultigen accessions than the wild type, suggesting that the semiwild adzuki bean might be a preliminary landrace and play some roles in the adzuki bean domestication. The genome sequence of adzuki bean will facilitate the identification of agronomically important genes and accelerate the improvement of adzuki bean. PMID:26460024

  16. Genotypic difference in (137)Cs accumulation and transfer from the contaminated field in Fukushima to azuki bean (Vigna angularis).

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Kojima, Katsuhiro; Salem, Djedidi; Yamaya, Hiroko; Bellingrath-Kimura, Sonoko Dorothea; Tomooka, Norihiko; Kaga, Akito; Ohkama-Ohtsu, Naoko; Yokoyama, Tadashi

    2016-07-01

    The screening of mini-core collection of azuki bean accessions (Vigna angularis (Willd.) Ohwi & Ohashi) for comparative uptake of (137)Cs in their edible portions was done in field trials on land contaminated by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (FDNPP) accident. Ninety seven azuki bean accessions including their wild relatives from a Japanese gene bank, were grown in a field in the Fukushima prefecture, which is located approximately 51 km north of FDNPP. The contamination level of the soil was 3665 ± 480 Bq kg(-1) dry weight ((137)Cs, average ± SD). The soil type comprised clay loam, where the sand: silt: clay proportion was 42:21:37. There was a significant varietal difference in the biomass production, radiocaesium accumulation and transfer factor (TF) of radiocaesium from the soil to edible portion. Under identical agricultural practice, the extent of (137)Cs accumulation by seeds differed between the accessions by as much as 10-fold. Inter-varietal variation was expressed at the ratio of the maximum to minimum observed (137)Cs transfer factor for seeds ranged from 0.092 to 0.009. The total biomass, time to flowering and maturity, and seed yield had negative relationship to (137)Cs activity concentration in seeds. The results suggest that certain variety/varieties of azuki bean which accumulated less (137)Cs in edible portion with preferable agronomic traits are suitable to reduce the (137)Cs accumulation in food chain on contaminated land. PMID:27105146

  17. Subgroups of the Cowpea Miscellany: Symbiotic Specificity within Bradyrhizobium spp. for Vigna unguiculata, Phaseolus lunatus, Arachis hypogaea, and Macroptilium atropurpureum†

    PubMed Central

    Thies, Janice E.; Bohlool, B. Ben; Singleton, Paul W.

    1991-01-01

    Rhizobia classified as Bradyrhizobium spp. comprise a highly heterogeneous group of bacteria that exhibit differential symbiotic characteristics on hosts in the cowpea miscellany cross-inoculation group. To delineate the degree of specificity exhibited by four legumes in the cowpea miscellany, we tested the symbiotic characteristics of indigenous cowpea bradyrhizobia on cowpea (Vigna unguiculata), siratro (Macroptilium atropurpureum), lima bean (Phaseolus lunatus), and peanut (Arachis hypogaea). The most-probable-number counts of indigenous bradyrhizobia at three sites on Maui, Hawaii, were substantially different on the four hosts: highest on siratro, intermediate on cowpea, and significantly lower on both lima bean and peanut. Bradyrhizobia from single cowpea nodules from the most-probable-number assays were inoculated onto the four hosts. Effectiveness patterns of these rhizobia on cowpea followed a normal distribution but were strikingly different on the other legumes. The effectiveness profiles on siratro and cowpea were similar but not identical. The indigenous cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia were of only moderate effectiveness on siratro and were in all cases lower than the inoculant-quality reference strain. Between 5 and 51% of the bradyrhizobia, depending on site, failed to nodulate peanut, whereas 0 to 32% failed to nodulate lima bean. No significant correlation was observed between the relative effectiveness of the bradyrhizobia on cowpea and their corresponding effectiveness on either lima bean or peanut. At all sites, bradyrhizobia that were ineffective on cowpea but that effectively nodulated lima bean, peanut, or both were found. Eighteen percent or fewer of the bradyrhizobia were as effective on lima bean as the reference inoculant strain; 44% or fewer were as effective on peanut as the reference strain. Only 18% of all cowpea-derived bradyrhizobia tested were able to form N2-fixing nodules on both lima bean and peanut. These results indicate the need

  18. Thermal stability of ascorbic acid and ascorbic acid oxidase in african cowpea leaves ( Vigna unguiculata ) of different maturities.

    PubMed

    Wawire, Michael; Oey, Indrawati; Mathooko, Francis; Njoroge, Charles; Shitanda, Douglas; Hendrickx, Marc

    2011-03-01

    Cowpea, an African leafy vegetable ( Vigna unguiculata ), contains a high level of vitamin C. The leaves harvested at 4-9 weeks are highly prone to vitamin C losses during handling and processing. Therefore, the purpose of this research was to study the effect of thermal treatment on the stability of ascorbic acid oxidase (AAO), total vitamin C content (l-ascorbic acid, l-AA), and dehydroascorbic acid (DHAA) and l-AA/DHAA ratio in cowpea leaves harvested at different maturities (4, 6, and 8 weeks old). The results showed that AAO activity, total vitamin C content, and l-AA/DHAA ratio in cowpea leaves increased with increasing maturity (up to 8 weeks). Eight-week-old leaves were the best source of total vitamin C and showed a high ratio of l-AA/DHAA (4:1). Thermal inactivation of AAO followed first-order reaction kinetics. Heating at temperatures above 90 °C for short times resulted in a complete AAO inactivation, resulting in a protective effect of l-AA toward enzyme-catalyzed oxidation. Total vitamin C in young leaves (harvested at 4 and 6 weeks) was predominantly in the form of DHAA, and therefore temperature treatment at 30-90 °C for 10 min decreased the total vitamin C content, whereas total vitamin C in 8-week-old cowpea leaves was more than 80% in the form of l-AA, so that a high retention of the total vitamin C can be obtained even after heating and/or reheating (30-90 °C for 10 min) before consumption. The results indicated that the stability of total vitamin C in situ was strongly dependent on the plant maturity stage and the processing conditions applied. PMID:21309563

  19. Intra- and interchromosomal rearrangements between cowpea [Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp.] and common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) revealed by BAC-FISH.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Emanuelle Varão; de Andrade Fonsêca, Artur Fellipe; Pedrosa-Harand, Andrea; de Andrade Bortoleti, Kyria Cilene; Benko-Iseppon, Ana Maria; da Costa, Antônio Félix; Brasileiro-Vidal, Ana Christina

    2015-06-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is an annual legume grown in tropical and subtropical regions, which is economically relevant due to high protein content in dried beans, green pods, and leaves. In this work, a comparative cytogenetic study between V. unguiculata and Phaseolus vulgaris (common bean) was conducted using BAC-FISH. Sequences previously mapped in P. vulgaris chromosomes (Pv) were used as probes in V. unguiculata chromosomes (Vu), contributing to the analysis of macrosynteny between both legumes. Thirty-seven clones from P. vulgaris 'BAT93' BAC library, corresponding to its 11 linkage groups, were hybridized in situ. Several chromosomal rearrangements were identified, such as translocations (between BACs from Pv1 and Pv8; Pv2 and Pv3; as well as Pv2 and Pv11), duplications (BAC from Pv3), as well as paracentric and pericentric inversions (BACs from Pv3, and Pv4, respectively). Two BACs (from Pv2 and Pv7), which hybridized at terminal regions in almost all P. vulgaris chromosomes, showed single-copy signal in Vu. Additionally, 17 BACs showed no signal in V. unguiculata chromosomes. The present results demonstrate the feasibility of using BAC libraries in comparative chromosomal mapping and karyotype evolution studies between Phaseolus and Vigna species, and revealed several macrosynteny and collinearity breaks among both legumes. PMID:25634499

  20. Elicitation of Necrosis in Vigna unguiculata Walp. by Homogeneous Aspergillus niger Endo-Polygalacturonase and by α-d-Galacturonate Oligomers 1

    PubMed Central

    Cervone, Felice; De Lorenzo, Giulia; Degrà, Luisa; Salvi, Giovanni

    1987-01-01

    Endo-polygalacturonase (PG) was purified from a commercial preparation of Aspergillus niger pectinase by means of carboxymethylcellulose chromatography, preparative isoelectric focusing, and gel permeation through Sephadex G-50. The enzyme was electrophoretically homogeneous and consisted of a single polypeptide chain with a molecular weight of 33,500. The enzyme exhibited a specific activity significantly higher than those of purified polygalacturonases from phytopathogenic fungi. Galacturonate oligomers with a degree of polymerization higher than four appeared quickly as products of the enzymic hydrolysis of Napolygalacturonate. The oligomers were later degraded to di- and monogalacturonate. The homogeneous enzyme and growing mycelium of Aspergillus niger separately elicited a necrotic response in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata Walp.) pods. Heat-inactivated PG and PG inactivated with specific antibodies did not elicit necrosis, suggesting that the catalytic activity of the enzyme is necessary for its function as an elicitor. The PG-released oligosaccharides from Vigna cell wall and the galacturonides with a degree of polymerization greater than four separately elicited necrosis, whereas di- and monogalacturonate did not. Images Fig. 2 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 PMID:16665750

  1. Genome-wide gene expression dynamics of the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum throughout its infection cycle of the gymnosperm host Pinus radiata.

    PubMed

    Bradshaw, Rosie E; Guo, Yanan; Sim, Andre D; Kabir, M Shahjahan; Chettri, Pranav; Ozturk, Ibrahim K; Hunziker, Lukas; Ganley, Rebecca J; Cox, Murray P

    2016-02-01

    We present genome-wide gene expression patterns as a time series through the infection cycle of the fungal pine needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, as it invades its gymnosperm host, Pinus radiata. We determined the molecular changes at three stages of the disease cycle: epiphytic/biotrophic (early), initial necrosis (mid) and mature sporulating lesion (late). Over 1.7 billion combined plant and fungal reads were sequenced to obtain 3.2 million fungal-specific reads, which comprised as little as 0.1% of the sample reads early in infection. This enriched dataset shows that the initial biotrophic stage is characterized by the up-regulation of genes encoding fungal cell wall-modifying enzymes and signalling proteins. Later necrotrophic stages show the up-regulation of genes for secondary metabolism, putative effectors, oxidoreductases, transporters and starch degradation. This in-depth through-time transcriptomic study provides our first snapshot of the gene expression dynamics that characterize infection by this fungal pathogen in its gymnosperm host. PMID:25919703

  2. Effect of liming and organic and inorganic fertilization on soil carbon sequestered in macro-and microaggregates in a 17-year old Pinus radiata silvopastoral system.

    PubMed

    Mosquera-Losada, M R; Rigueiro-Rodríguez, A; Ferreiro-Domínguez, N

    2015-03-01

    Agroforestry systems have been recognized as a potential greenhouse gas mitigation strategy under the Kyoto Protocol because of their ability to absorb carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and store carbon mainly in the soil. Soil particle size and land management practices are known to have a considerable influence on carbon storage in soils. This study evaluated changes in soil chemical and physical properties, and quantified and compared the amount of C stored in the bulk soil and in three different soil fractions (250-2000, 53-250 and <53 μm) at each of four soil depths (0-25, 25-50, 50-75 and 75-100 cm) in a silvopastoral system located on an acidic forest soil under Pinus radiata D. Don. Areas of this system were subjected ten years ago to one of nine fertilization treatments: three different doses of sewage sludge or no fertilization, all with or without the addition of lime, and mineral fertilizer with no liming. Seventeen years after reforestation and seven years after canopy closure, strong gradients with soil depth were found regarding soil bulk density, pH and carbon storage. Intense soil management (high doses of sewage sludge and liming) generally reduced soil carbon storage, mainly in coarse aggregates, but this could be compensated by the increase in tree and pasture development observed in soils subject to intermediate sewage sludge doses. PMID:25460421

  3. Genome‐wide gene expression dynamics of the fungal pathogen Dothistroma septosporum throughout its infection cycle of the gymnosperm host Pinus radiata

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Yanan; Sim, Andre D.; Kabir, M. Shahjahan; Chettri, Pranav; Ozturk, Ibrahim K.; Hunziker, Lukas; Ganley, Rebecca J.; Cox, Murray P.

    2015-01-01

    Summary We present genome‐wide gene expression patterns as a time series through the infection cycle of the fungal pine needle blight pathogen, Dothistroma septosporum, as it invades its gymnosperm host, Pinus radiata. We determined the molecular changes at three stages of the disease cycle: epiphytic/biotrophic (early), initial necrosis (mid) and mature sporulating lesion (late). Over 1.7 billion combined plant and fungal reads were sequenced to obtain 3.2 million fungal‐specific reads, which comprised as little as 0.1% of the sample reads early in infection. This enriched dataset shows that the initial biotrophic stage is characterized by the up‐regulation of genes encoding fungal cell wall‐modifying enzymes and signalling proteins. Later necrotrophic stages show the up‐regulation of genes for secondary metabolism, putative effectors, oxidoreductases, transporters and starch degradation. This in‐depth through‐time transcriptomic study provides our first snapshot of the gene expression dynamics that characterize infection by this fungal pathogen in its gymnosperm host. PMID:25919703

  4. Cloning, characterization, expression analysis and inhibition studies of a novel gene encoding Bowman-Birk type protease inhibitor from rice bean.

    PubMed

    Katoch, Rajan; Singh, Sunil Kumar; Thakur, Neelam; Dutt, Som; Yadav, Sudesh Kumar; Shukle, Rich

    2014-08-10

    This paper presents the first study describing the isolation, cloning and characterization of a full length gene encoding Bowman-Birk protease inhibitor (RbTI) from rice bean (Vigna umbellata). A full-length protease inhibitor gene with complete open reading frame of 327 bp encoding 109 amino acids was cloned from rice bean seeds using degenerate primer set. BlastP search revealed that the RbTI encoded amino acid of approx 13.0 kDa and shared 99% homology each with BBI from Phaseolus parvulus, Vigna trilobata and Vigna vexilata. Phylogenetic tree also showed close relationship of RbTI with BBI from other members of Leguminaceae family. RbTI gene was further confirmed as intronless (GenBank accession no. KJ159908). The secondary and 3D-structural models for the RbTI were predicted with homology modeling. qRT-PCR studies revealed the highest RbTI expression in the seeds nearing maturity, whereas the low expression of the gene was noticed in young leaves. The isolated RbTI was successfully expressed in Escherichiacoli and the highest expression was recorded after 5.5h of induction. Study on the inhibitory activity of expressed protein against the gut proteases of Hessian fly larvae revealed 87% inhibition. The novel RbTI gene will further broaden the pool of plant defense genes and could be an ideal choice for developing transgenic crops resistant to insect pests with high economic value. In addition, it has the potential to be used as a probe for selection of insect- and pathogen-resistant genotypes. PMID:24905651

  5. Activities of Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase and Phosphoenolpyruvate Carboxylase and 14C-Bicarbonate Fixation during in Vitro Culture of Pinus radiata Cotyledons 1

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Prakash P.; Bender, Ludwig; Thorpe, Trevor A.

    1988-01-01

    The activities of ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase (RuBPC) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC), as indicators of autotrophic and nonautotrophic CO2 fixation, were measured in excised cotyledons of Pinus radiata D. Don cultured for 21 days under shoot-forming (SF) and nonshoot-forming (NSF) conditions. The activity of RuBPC was found to increase in both SF and NSF cultures during the initial 5 days of culture. However, it leveled off from day 5 to day 10 and subsequently began to decrease until the end of the culture period under the SF conditions. In contrast, in the NSF cultures, RuBPC activity increased until day 15, when it was twofold higher than the maximum activity found in the SF cultures. An increase in PEPC activity of about 2.5 times the level of activity in freshly excised cotyledons was observed during the initial 5 days of culture under the SF conditions. PEPC activity began to decline after day 5 until it reached the level of activity seen in NSF cotyledons by day 15. In contrast, the activity of PEPC did not show any significant increase during the initial 10 days of culture under the NSF conditions. The Km (phosphoenolpyruvate) of PEPC from SF cotyledons was about 35% higher than that of NSF cotyledons. Cotyledons from two culture periods (days 5 and 15) were incubated for 15 seconds with NaH14CO3. The label in the malate and asparatate fractions as a percentage of total 14C incorporation was 3 times higher in the SF cotyledons than in the NSF cotyledons. A higher incorporation of 14C into products of photosynthesis under the NSF conditions was also observed. PMID:16666206

  6. Reduced white matter integrity in the cingulum and anterior corona radiata in posttraumatic stress disorder in male combat veterans: A diffusion tensor imaging study

    PubMed Central

    Sanjuan, Pilar Margaret; Thoma, Robert; Claus, Eric Daniel; Mays, Nicci; Caprihan, Arvind

    2014-01-01

    Posttraumatic stress (PTSD) and alcohol use (AUD) disorders are associated with abnormal anterior cingulate cortex/ventromedial prefrontal cortex, thalamus, and amygdala function, yet microstructural white matter (WM) differences in executive-limbic tracts are likely also involved. Investigating WM in limbic-thalamo-cortical tracts, this study hypothesized (1) fractional anisotropy (FA) in dorsal cingulum, parahippocampal cingulum, and anterior corona radiata (ACR) would be lower in individuals with comorbid PTSD/AUD compared to in individuals with AUD-only and (2) that FA would be related to both AUD and PTSD severity. 22 combat veterans with comorbid PTSD/AUD or AUD-only completed DTI scans. ANCOVAs indicated lower FA in right (F(df= 1,19)=9.091, P=0.0071) and left (F(df= 1,19) = 10.375, P=0.0045) dorsal cingulum and right ACR (F(df= 1,19) = 18.914, P= 0.0003) for individuals with comorbid PTSD/AUD vs. individuals with AUD-only, even controlling for alcohol use. Multiple linear regressions revealed that FA in the right ACR was inversely related to PTSD severity (r= −0.683, P=0.004). FA was not significantly related to alcohol severity. Reduced WM integrity in limbic-thalamo-cortical tracts is implicated in PTSD, even in the presence of comorbid AUD. These findings suggest that diminished WM integrity in tracts important for top-down control may be an important anomaly in PTSD and/or comorbid PTSD/AUD. PMID:24074963

  7. Accumulation of copper, nickel, lead and zinc by snail, Lunella coronatus and pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata from the Kuwait coast before and after the Gulf War oil spill.

    PubMed

    Bu-Olayan, A H; Subrahmanyam, M N

    1997-04-30

    This study investigated the contribution of the 1991 oil spill to heavy metal contamination in the marine environment of the Gulf in Kuwait by analyzing moleskin organisms (gastropod snail, Lunella coronatus and bivalve Pearl oyster, Pinctada radiata) for their heavy metal contents before and after the spill. Concentrations of copper (Cu), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn) were determined in the soft tissue of both snail and oyster samples from three coastal stations during 1990 and 1994. In the 1990 samples, the metal concentrations in snail and oysters from different sampling stations were between 0.35 and 0.67; 0.11 and 2.29 micrograms/g for Cu, 1.50 and 4.50; 0.47 and 1.33 micrograms/g for Ni, 0.16 and 2.98; 0.44 and 0.69 microgram/g for Pb and 19.94 and 54.79; 247.20 and 1204.40 micrograms/g for Zn, respectively. In the 1994 samples, the metal concentrations were between 11.24 and 55.00; 28.90 and 168.43 micrograms/g for Cu, 15.33 and 16.96; 0.08 and 1.54 micrograms/g for Ni, 0.37 and 0.57 microgram/g; 0.07 and 0.44 microgram/g for Pb and 28.86 and 486.61; 17.75 and 575.00 micrograms/g for Zn respectively. The 1994 samples have significantly higher mean concentrations of Cu, Ni and Zn than the 1990 samples, except Pb in the 1994 samples, which showed a slightly lower mean concentration. The difference in patterns of metal occurrence and the significant increase in the Cu, Ni, and Zn concentrations in the 1994 snail and oyster samples were due to a contribution from the 1991 Gulf War oil spill. PMID:9151438

  8. Chloroplast DNA Diversity among Trees, Populations and Species in the California Closed-Cone Pines (Pinus Radiata, Pinus Muricata and Pinus Attenuata)

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Y. P.; Hipkins, V. D.; Strauss, S. H.

    1993-01-01

    The amount, distribution and mutational nature of chloroplast DNA polymorphisms were studied via analysis of restriction fragment length polymorphisms in three closely related species of conifers, the California closed-cone pines-knobcone pine: Pinus attenuata Lemm.; bishop pine: Pinus muricata D. Don; and Monterey pine: Pinus radiata D. Don. Genomic DNA from 384 trees representing 19 populations were digested with 9-20 restriction enzymes and probed with cloned cpDNA fragments from Douglas-fir [Pseudotsuga menziesii (Mirb.) Franco] that comprise 82% of the chloroplast genome. Up to 313 restriction sites were surveyed, and 25 of these were observed to be polymorphic among or within species. Differences among species accounted for the majority of genetic (haplotypic) diversity observed [G(st) = 84(+/-13)%]; nucleotide diversity among species was estimated to be 0.3(+/-0.1)%. Knobcone pine and Monterey pine displayed almost no genetic variation within or among populations. Bishop pine also showed little variability within populations, but did display strong population differences [G(st) = 87(+/-8)%] that were a result of three distinct geographic groups. Mean nucleotide diversity within populations was 0.003(+/-0.002)%; intrapopulation polymorphisms were found in only five populations. This pattern of genetic variation contrasts strongly with findings from study of nuclear genes (allozymes) in the group, where most genetic diversity resides within populations rather than among populations or species. Regions of the genome subject to frequent length mutations were identified; estimates of subdivision based on length variant frequencies in one region differed strikingly from those based on site mutations or allozymes. Two trees were identified with a major chloroplast DNA inversion that closely resembled one documented between Pinus and Pseudotsuga. PMID:7905846

  9. Chlorophyll a fluorescence and photosynthetic and growth responses of Pinus radiata to phosphorus deficiency, drought stress, and high CO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Conroy, J.P.; Smillie, R.M.; Kueppers, M.; Bevege, D.I.; Barlow, E.W.

    1986-06-01

    Needles from phosphorus deficient seedlings of Pinus radiata D. Don grown for 8 weeks at either 330 or 660 microliters CO/sub 2/ per liter displayed chlorophyll a fluorescence induction kinetics characteristic of structural changes within the thylakoid chloroplast membrane, i.e. constant yield fluorescence (F/sub O/) was increased and induced fluorescence ((F/sub P/-F/sub I/)/F /sub O/) was reduced. The effect was greatest in the undroughted plants grown at 660 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/. By week 22 at 330 ..mu..lCO/sub 2/L/sup -1/ acclimation to P deficiency had occurred as shown by the similarity in the fluorescence characteristics and maximum rates of photosynthesis of the needles from the two P treatments. However, acclimation did not occur in the plants grown at 660 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/. The light saturated rate of photosynthesis of needles with adequate P was higher at 660 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/ than at 330 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/, whereas photosynthesis of P deficient plants showed no increase when grown at the higher CO/sub 2/ concentration. The average growth increase due to CO/sub 2/ enrichment was 14% in P deficient plants and 32% when P was adequate. In drought stressed plants grown at 330 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/ L/sup -1/, there was a reduction in the maximal rate of quenching of fluorescence (R/sub Q/) after the major peak. Constant yield fluorescence was unaffected but induced fluorescence was lower. These results indicate that electron flow subsequent to photosystem II was affected by drought stress. At 660 ..mu..l CO/sub 2/L/sup -1/ this response was eliminated showing that CO/sub 2/ enrichment improved the ability of the seedlings to acclimate to drought stress. The average growth increase with CO/sub 2/ enrichment was 37% in drought stressed plants and 19% in unstressed plants.

  10. Accumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons and heavy metals in the tree foliage of Eucalyptus rostrata, Pinus radiata and Populus hybridus in the vicinity of a large aluminium smelter in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, J. H.; Wannaz, E. D.; Salazar, M. J.; Pignata, M. L.; Fangmeier, A.; Franzaring, J.

    2012-08-01

    A pollution gradient of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) was observed in tree foliage sampled in the vicinity of a large aluminium production facility in Patagonia (Argentina). Leaves of Eucalyptus rostrata, Populus hybridus and one-year-old needles of Pinus radiata were collected, and concentrations of 12 PAHs including the so-called EPA priority pollutants as well as heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni and Zn) were analysed. The PAH concentrations indicated a steep pollution gradient in the study area associated with the Al-industry, while the heavy metal content was unrelated to this activity. The present study confirms that aluminium smelting results in the deposition of PAH in the study area, and therefore further studies should be carried out taking into account the potentially adverse effects of these compounds on human and ecosystem health.

  11. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d'Ivoire.

    PubMed

    Yao, Denis N'Dri; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d'Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d'Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  12. Comparative assessment of feeding damage by pod-sucking bugs (Heteroptera: Coreoidea) associated with cowpea, Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Soyelu, O L; Akingbohungbe, A E

    2007-02-01

    Feeding trials were conducted on three (young, mid-fill and mature) developmental stages of cowpea Vigna unguiculata ssp. unguiculata pods in the screenhouse using fourth instar nymphs and adults of Anoplocnemis curvipes (Fabricius), Riptortus dentipes (Fabricius), Mirperus jaculus (Thunberg), Clavigralla tomentosicollis Stål and C. shadabi Dolling. Anoplocnemis curvipes was observed to be the most damaging coreoid species causing a yield reduction of 26.4-51.7% followed by R. dentipes (24.4-29.4%), M. jaculus (21.9-26.9%), C. tomentosicollis (17.9-22.4%) and C. shadabi (15.9-20.4%). The fourth instar nymphs of each pod-sucking bug species caused a significantly higher cowpea yield reduction than their respective adults. Similarly, infestation on young pods compared to mid-fill and mature stages resulted in significantly higher yield reduction. The results suggest that infestation levels of two fourth instar nymphs of A. curvipes or three fourth instar nymphs of the other four pod-sucking bug species per young pod should be adequate for screening of cowpea varieties for resistance to the coreoid bugs. PMID:17298676

  13. Pathways of nitrogen assimilation in cowpea nodules studied using /sup 15/N/sub 2/ and allopurinol. [Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, C.A.; Storer, P.J.; Pate, J.S.

    1988-01-01

    In the presence of 0.5 millimolar allopurinol (4-hydroxypyrazolo (3,4-d)pyrimidine), an inhibitor of NAD:xanthine oxidoreductase (EC 1.2.3.2), intact attached nodules of cowpea (vigna unguiculata L. Walp. cv Vita 3) formed (/sup 15/N)xanthine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ at rates equivalent to those of ureide synthesis, confirming the direct assimilation of fixed nitrogen into purines. Xanthine accumulated in nodules and was exported in increasing amounts in xylem of allopurinol-treated plants. Other intermediates of purine oxidation, de novo purine synthesis, and ammonia assimilation did not increase and, over the time course of experiments (4 hours), allopurinol had no effect on nitrogenase (EC 1.87.99.2) activity. Negligible /sup 15/N -labeling of asparagine from /sup 15/N/sub 2/ was observed, suggesting that the significant pool (up to 14 micromoles per gram of nodule fresh weight) of this amide in cowpea nodules was not formed directly from fixation but may have accumulated as a consequence of phloem delivery.

  14. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released. PMID:27148333

  15. Changes in hydraulic conductance cause the difference in growth response to short-term salt stress between salt-tolerant and -sensitive black gram (Vigna mungo) varieties.

    PubMed

    Win, Khin Thuzar; Oo, Aung Zaw; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Kanekatsu, Motoki; Hirasawa, Tadashii

    2016-04-01

    Black gram (Vigna mungo) is an important crop in Asia, However, most black gram varieties are salt-sensitive. The causes of varietal differences in salt-induced growth reduction between two black gram varieties, 'U-Taung-2' (salt-tolerant; BT) and 'Mut Pe Khaing To' (salt-sensitive; BS), were examined the potential for the first step toward the genetic improvement of salt tolerance. Seedlings grown in vermiculite irrigated with full-strength Hoagland solution were treated with 0mM NaCl (control) or 225mM NaCl for up to 10 days. In the 225mM NaCl treatment, plant growth rate, net assimilation rate, mean leaf area, leaf water potential, and leaf photosynthesis were reduced more in BS than in BT plants. Leaf water potential was closely related to leaf photosynthesis, net assimilation rate, and increase in leaf area. In response to salinity stress, hydraulic conductance of the root, stem, and petiole decreased more strongly in BS than in BT plants. The reduction in stem and petiole hydraulic conductance was caused by cavitation, whereas the reduction in root hydraulic conductance in BS plants was caused by a reduction in root surface area and hydraulic conductivity. We conclude that the different reduction in hydraulic conductance is a cause of the differences in the growth response between the two black gram varieties under short-term salt stress. PMID:26962708

  16. Use of two varieties of hard-to-cook beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata) in the processing of koki (a steamed legume product).

    PubMed

    Mbofung, C M; Rigby, N; Waldron, K

    1999-01-01

    Koki is a nutritious cowpea-based food product usually processed by steam cooking whipped cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) paste mixed with spices and palm oil. A study was carried out to investigate the effect of the partial replacement of cowpeas (CP) with hard-to-cook (HTC) beans on the chemical, nutritional and sensory characteristics of koki. Towards this objective, two varieties of beans--Phaseolus vulgaris (red kidney beans--RKB and mottled brown beans--MBB), each with the HTC defect, were separately incorporated into cowpea paste in the following Bean:CP ratios 0:100, 20:80, 30:70, 40:60, 50:50, 60:40 and processed into koki. Incorporation of dry HTC beans into cowpeas in the making of koki affected the bulking properties of the uncooked paste, the nutrient composition, essential amino acid content, antinutritional factors, digestibility as well as the sensory attributes of cooked koki. Sensory tests showed that a highly acceptable, nutritious and digestible koki can be processed from cowpeas partially replaced with dry HTC bean paste up to levels of about 40-50% depending on the variety of dry bean used. PMID:10646560

  17. Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp), a renewed multipurpose crop for a more sustainable agri-food system: nutritional advantages and constraints.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, Alexandre; Goufo, Piebiep; Barros, Ana; Domínguez-Perles, Raúl; Trindade, Henrique; Rosa, Eduardo A S; Ferreira, Luis; Rodrigues, Miguel

    2016-07-01

    The growing awareness of the relevance of food composition for human health has increased the interest of the inclusion of high proportions of fruits and vegetables in diets. To reach the objective of more balanced diets, an increased consumption of legumes, which constitutes a sustainable source of essential nutrients, particularly low-cost protein, is of special relevance. However, the consumption of legumes also entails some constraints that need to be addressed to avoid a deleterious impact on consumers' wellbeing and health. The value of legumes as a source of nutrients depends on a plethora of factors, including genetic characteristics, agro-climatic conditions, and postharvest management that modulate the dietary effect of edible seeds and vegetative material. Thus, more comprehensive information regarding composition, especially their nutritional and anti-nutritional compounds, digestibility, and alternative processing procedures is essential. These were the challenges to write this review, which focusses on the nutritional and anti-nutritional composition of Vigna unguiculata L. Walp, an emerging crop all over the world intended to provide a rational support for the development of valuable foods and feeds of increased commercial value. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. PMID:26804459

  18. Polyphenolic extracts from cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) protect colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co cells) from lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation--modulation of microRNA 126.

    PubMed

    Ojwang, Leonnard O; Banerjee, Nivedita; Noratto, Giuliana D; Angel-Morales, Gabriela; Hachibamba, Twambo; Awika, Joseph M; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U

    2015-01-01

    Cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) is a drought tolerant crop with several agronomic advantages over other legumes. This study evaluated varieties from four major cowpea phenotypes (black, red, light brown and white) containing different phenolic profiles for their anti-inflammatory property on non-malignant colonic myofibroblasts (CCD18Co) cells challenged with an endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS). Intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) assay on the LPS-stimulated cells revealed antioxidative potential of black and red cowpea varieties. Real-time qRT-PCR analysis in LPS-stimulated cells revealed down-regulation of proinflammatory cytokines (IL-8, TNF-α, VCAM-1), transcription factor NF-κB and modulation of microRNA-126 (specific post-transcriptional regulator of VCAM-1) by cowpea polyphenolics. The ability of cowpea polyphenols to modulate miR-126 signaling and its target gene VCAM-1 were studied in LPS-stimulated endothelial cells transfected with a specific inhibitor of miR-126, and treated with 10 mg GAE/L black cowpea extract where the extract in part reversed the effect of the miR-126 inhibitor. This suggests that cowpea may exert their anti-inflammatory activities at least in part through induction of miR-126 that then down-regulate VCAM-1 mRNA and protein expressions. Overall, Cowpea therefore is promising as an anti-inflammatory dietary component. PMID:25300227

  19. Alleviation of Cu and Pb rhizotoxicities in cowpea (Vigna unguiculata) as related to ion activities at root-cell plasma membrane surface.

    PubMed

    Kopittke, Peter M; Kinraide, Thomas B; Wang, Peng; Blamey, F Pax C; Reichman, Suzie M; Menzies, Neal W

    2011-06-01

    Cations, such as Ca and Mg, are generally thought to alleviate toxicities of trace metals through site-specific competition (as incorporated in the biotic ligand model, BLM). Short-term experiments were conducted with cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp.) seedlings in simple nutrient solutions to examine the alleviation of Cu and Pb toxicities by Al, Ca, H, Mg, and Na. For Cu, the cations depolarized the plasma membrane (PM) and reduced the negativity of ψ(0)(o) (electrical potential at the outer surface of the PM) and thereby decreased {Cu(2+)}(0)(o) (activity of Cu(2+) at the outer surface of the PM). For Pb, root elongation was generally better correlated to the activity of Pb(2+) in the bulk solution than to {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). However, we propose that the addition of cations resulted in a decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o) but a simultaneous increase in the rate of Pb uptake (due to an increase in the negativity of E(m,surf), the difference in potential between the inner and outer surfaces of the PM) thus offsetting the decrease in {Pb(2+)}(0)(o). In addition, Ca was found to alleviate Pb toxicity through a specific effect. Although our data do not preclude site-specific competition (as incorporated in the BLM), we suggest that electrostatic effects have an important role. PMID:21563792

  20. MAP65 in tubulin/colchicine paracrystals of Vigna sinensis root cells: possible role in the assembly and stabilization of atypical tubulin polymers.

    PubMed

    Panteris, Emmanuel; Komis, George; Adamakis, Ioannis-Dimosthenis S; Samaj, Jozef; Bosabalidis, Artemios M

    2010-03-01

    Members of the MAP65 family, colocalizing with microtubule arrays, have been identified in Vigna sinensis root cells by Western blotting and immunofluorescence. MAP65 proteins were also found in tubulin/colchicine paracrystals, which were formed during colchicine treatment by both immunofluorescence and immunogold microscopy. During recovery from colchicine, MAP65 signal was depleted from disintegrating paracrystals appearing in the reinstating microtubule arrays. MAP65-free perinuclear tubulin/colchicine aggregates were observed in plasmolyzed colchicine-treated cells. Deplasmolysis of the above cells resulted in the formation of MAP65-decorated paracrystals. As confirmed by appropriate biochemical assays with the Phos-tag reagent, MAP65 proteins underwent phosphorylation during plasmolysis, which was reversible by deplasmolysis. According to the effect of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitor UO126, the phosphorylation status of MAP65, as well as its presence in tubulin/colchicine polymers is probably controlled by MAPK-mediated phosphorylation. According to the above, it seems likely that apart from binding to microtubules, MAP65 proteins may act as "tubulin associated proteins" in a broader manner, promoting the polymerization and/or stabilization of atypical polymers such as tubulin/colchicine paracrystals. PMID:20217678

  1. Characterization of VuMATE1 Expression in Response to Iron Nutrition and Aluminum Stress Reveals Adaptation of Rice Bean (Vigna umbellata) to Acid Soils through Cis Regulation.

    PubMed

    Liu, Meiya; Xu, Jiameng; Lou, Heqiang; Fan, Wei; Yang, Jianli; Zheng, Shaojian

    2016-01-01

    Rice bean (Vigna umbellata) VuMATE1 appears to be constitutively expressed at vascular system but root apex, and Al stress extends its expression to root apex. Whether VuMATE1 participates in both Al tolerance and Fe nutrition, and how VuMATE1 expression is regulated is of great interest. In this study, the role of VuMATE1 in Fe nutrition was characterized through in planta complementation assays. The transcriptional regulation of VuMATE1 was investigated through promoter analysis and promoter-GUS reporter assays. The results showed that the expression of VuMATE1 was regulated by Al stress but not Fe status. Complementation of frd3-1 with VuMATE1 under VuMATE1 promoter could not restore phenotype, but restored with 35SCaMV promoter. Immunostaining of VuMATE1 revealed abnormal localization of VuMATE1 in vasculature. In planta GUS reporter assay identified Al-responsive cis-acting elements resided between -1228 and -574 bp. Promoter analysis revealed several cis-acting elements, but transcription is not simply regulated by one of these elements. We demonstrated that cis regulation of VuMATE1 expression is involved in Al tolerance mechanism, while not involved in Fe nutrition. These results reveal the evolution of VuMATE1 expression for better adaptation of rice bean to acid soils where Al stress imposed but Fe deficiency pressure released. PMID:27148333

  2. High-Resolution Transcriptomic Analyses of Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 Bacteroids in Determinate Nodules of Vigna unguiculata and Indeterminate Nodules of Leucaena leucocephala

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yan; Tian, Chang Fu; Chen, Wen Feng; Wang, Lei; Sui, Xin Hua; Chen, Wen Xin

    2013-01-01

    The rhizobium-legume symbiosis is a model system for studying mutualistic interactions between bacteria and eukaryotes. Sinorhizobium sp. NGR234 is distinguished by its ability to form either indeterminate nodules or determinate nodules with diverse legumes. Here, we presented a high-resolution RNA-seq transcriptomic analysis of NGR234 bacteroids in indeterminate nodules of Leucaena leucocephala and determinate nodules of Vigna unguiculata. In contrast to exponentially growing free-living bacteria, non-growing bacteroids from both legumes recruited several common cellular functions such as cbb3 oxidase, thiamine biosynthesis, nitrate reduction pathway (NO-producing), succinate metabolism, PHB (poly-3-hydroxybutyrate) biosynthesis and phosphate/phosphonate transporters. However, different transcription profiles between bacteroids from two legumes were also uncovered for genes involved in the biosynthesis of exopolysaccharides, lipopolysaccharides, T3SS (type three secretion system) and effector proteins, cytochrome bd ubiquinol oxidase, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone), cytochrome c550, pseudoazurin, biotin, phasins and glycolate oxidase, and in the metabolism of glutamate and phenylalanine. Noteworthy were the distinct expression patterns of genes encoding phasins, which are thought to be involved in regulating the surface/volume ratio of PHB granules. These patterns are in good agreement with the observed granule size difference between bacteroids from L. leucocephala and V. unguiculata. PMID:23936444

  3. Nutritive Evaluation of the Bambara Groundnut Ci12 Landrace [Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc. (Fabaceae)] Produced in Côte d’Ivoire

    PubMed Central

    N’Dri Yao, Denis; Kouassi, Kouakou Nestor; Erba, Daniela; Scazzina, Francesca; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Casiraghi, Maria Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The nutritional evaluation of the Bambara groundnut Ci12 landrace (Vigna subterranea (L.) Verdc.) seeds produced in Côte d’Ivoire shows a 19% content of protein, containing all the essential amino acids with tryptophan as the limiting amino acid, a total dietary fiber level of 10%, with a low soluble fraction content, and a fat content of 1.4%, with a high proportion of total unsaturated fatty acids (61%) of which 36% were n-6 fatty acids. This legume contains phosphorus, as the major mineral, followed by magnesium and calcium, and trace elements (iron, copper and zinc). It is characterized by the same amount of α-tocopherol and antioxidant capacity as common legumes. The high concentration of essential amino acids, n-6 fatty acids and minerals, mainly Fe, in the Ci12 landrace of Bambara groundnut indicates that this local legume has the potentiality to improve the nutritional status in Côte d’Ivoire and it could be regarded as a nutrient dense food. PMID:26370971

  4. Protection of DNA and erythrocytes from free radical induced oxidative damage by black gram (Vigna mungo L.) husk extract.

    PubMed

    Girish, Talakatta K; Vasudevaraju, Padmaraju; Prasada Rao, Ummiti J S

    2012-05-01

    Antioxidants present in various plant tissues exhibit health benefits by scavenging reactive oxygen species generated under various pathophysiological conditions. In the present study, bioactive compounds from black gram husk were extracted with water and the protection of black gram husk (BGH) extract against oxidative damage in DNA and erythrocytes were studied. BGH extract had total polyphenol content of 59 mg of gallic acid equivalents (GAE). The phenolic acids identified in the extract using RP-HPLC were gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and ferulic acids. The extract showed good antioxidant properties. The IC(50) value for DPPH radical scavenging activity was found to be 3.92 μg of GAE. The BGH extract also showed α-glucosidase inhibition and the IC(50) value was found to be 2.78 μg of GAE. The oxidative hemolysis caused by hydrogen peroxide in rat erythrocytes was inhibited by BGH extract in a dose dependent manner. The IC(50) values for BGH extract and BHA for hemolysis were 11.5 and 14 μg of GAE, respectively. Morphological changes in erythrocyte membrane caused by hydrogen peroxide were protected by BGH extract. As BGH extract exhibited various antioxidant properties in different systems, it could be used as a functional food or nutraceutical product for health benefits. PMID:22330200

  5. Effect of different home-cooking methods on the bioaccessibility of zinc and iron in conventionally bred cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) consumed in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Elenilda J.; Carvalho, Lucia M. J.; Dellamora-Ortiz, Gisela M.; Cardoso, Flávio S. N.; Carvalho, José L. V.

    2016-01-01

    Background The cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Wap.) is an excellent source of iron and zinc. However, iron from plant sources is poorly absorbed compared with iron from animal sources. Objectives The objective of this study was to evaluate iron and zinc bioaccessibility in cowpea cultivars after processing. Methods Zinc and iron bioaccessibilities in cowpea samples were determined based on an in vitro method involving simulated gastrointestinal digestion with suitable modifications. Results When water-soaked beans were cooked in a regular pan, the highest percentage of bioaccessible iron obtained was 8.92%, whereas when they were cooked in a pressure cooker without previous soaking, the highest percentage was 44.33%. Also, the percentage of bioaccessible zinc was 52.78% when they were cooked in a regular pan without prior soaking. Higher percentages of bioaccessible iron were found when cooking was done in a pressure cooker compared with regular pan cooking. In all cultivars, cooking of cowpea beans in both pressure cooker and in a regular pan yielded higher percentages of bioaccessible zinc compared with availability of bioaccessible iron. Conclusions Iron bioaccessibility values suggest that cooking in a regular pan did not have a good effect on iron availability, since the percentage of bioaccessible iron was lower than that of zinc. The determination of iron and zinc bioaccessibility makes it possible to find out the actual percentage of absorption of such minerals and allows the development of efficient strategies for low-income groups to access foods with high levels of these micronutrients. PMID:26945231

  6. Transcript dynamics at early stages of molecular interactions of MYMIV with resistant and susceptible genotypes of the leguminous host, Vigna mungo.

    PubMed

    Kundu, Anirban; Patel, Anju; Paul, Sujay; Pal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Initial phases of the MYMIV-Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA) pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in

  7. Transcript Dynamics at Early Stages of Molecular Interactions of MYMIV with Resistant and Susceptible Genotypes of the Leguminous Host, Vigna mungo

    PubMed Central

    Kundu, Anirban; Patel, Anju; Paul, Sujay; Pal, Amita

    2015-01-01

    Initial phases of the MYMIV- Vigna mungo interaction is crucial in determining the infection phenotype upon challenging with the virus. During incompatible interaction, the plant deploys multiple stratagems that include extensive transcriptional alterations defying the virulence factors of the pathogen. Such molecular events are not frequently addressed by genomic tools. In order to obtain a critical insight to unravel how V. mungo respond to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), we have employed the PCR based suppression subtractive hybridization technique to identify genes that exhibit altered expressions. Dynamics of 345 candidate genes are illustrated that differentially expressed either in compatible or incompatible reactions and their possible biological and cellular functions are predicted. The MYMIV-induced physiological aspects of the resistant host include reactive oxygen species generation, induction of Ca2+ mediated signaling, enhanced expression of transcripts involved in phenylpropanoid and ubiquitin-proteasomal pathways; all these together confer resistance against the invader. Elicitation of genes implicated in salicylic acid (SA) pathway suggests that immune response is under the regulation of SA signaling. A significant fraction of modulated transcripts are of unknown function indicating participation of novel candidate genes in restricting this viral pathogen. Susceptibility on the other hand, as exhibited by V. mungo Cv. T9 is perhaps due to the poor execution of these transcript modulation exhibiting remarkable repression of photosynthesis related genes resulting in chlorosis of leaves followed by penalty in crop yield. Thus, the present findings revealed an insight on the molecular warfare during host-virus interaction suggesting plausible signaling mechanisms and key biochemical pathways overriding MYMIV invasion in resistant genotype of V. mungo. In addition to inflate the existing knowledge base, the genomic resources identified in

  8. Transport and partitioning of CO/sub 2/ fixed by root nodules of ureide and amide producing legumes. [Vigna angularis; Glycine max; Medicago sativa

    SciTech Connect

    Vance, C.P.; Boylan, K.L.M.; Maxwell, C.A.; Heichel, G.H.; Hardman, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    Nodulated and denodulated roots of adzuki bean (Vigna angularis), soybean (Glycine max), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa) were exposed to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ to investigate the contribution of nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. The distribution of radioactivity in xylem sap and partitioning of carbon fixed by nodules to the whole plant were measured. Radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated soybean and adzuki bean was located primarily (70 to 87%) in the acid fraction while the basic (amino acid) fraction contained 10 to 22%. In contrast radioactivity in the xylem sap of nodulated alfalfa was primarily in amino acids with about 20% in organic acids. Total ureide concentration was 8.1, 4.7, and 0.0 micromoles per milliliter xylem sap for soybean, adzuki bean, and alfalfa, respectively. While the major nitrogen transport products in soybeans and adzuki beans are ureides, this class of metabolites contained less than 20% of the the total radioactivity. When nodules of plants were removed, radioactivity in xylem sap decreased by 90% or more. Pulse-chase experiments indicated that CO/sub 2/ fixed by nodules was rapidly transported to shoots and incorporated into acid stable constituents. The data are consistent with a role for nodule CO/sub 2/ fixation providing carbon for the assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen in amide-based legumes. In contrast, CO/sub 2/ fixation by nodules of ureide transporting legumes appears to contribute little to assimilation and transport of fixed nitrogen. 19 references, 2 figures, 5 tables.

  9. Transcriptome Profiling Identifies Candidate Genes Associated with the Accumulation of Distinct Sulfur γ-Glutamyl Dipeptides in Phaseolus vulgaris and Vigna mungo Seeds

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Dengqun; Cram, Dustin; Sharpe, Andrew G.; Marsolais, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) and black gram (Vigna mungo) accumulate γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine and γ-Glutamyl-methionine in seed, respectively. Transcripts were profiled by 454 pyrosequencing data at a similar developmental stage coinciding with the beginning of the accumulation of these metabolites. Expressed sequence tags were assembled into Unigenes, which were assigned to specific genes in the early release chromosomal assembly of the P. vulgaris genome. Genes involved in multiple sulfur metabolic processes were expressed in both species. Expression of Sultr3 members was predominant in P. vulgaris, whereas expression of Sultr5 members predominated in V. mungo. Expression of the cytosolic SERAT1;1 and -1;2 was approximately fourfold higher in P. vulgaris while expression of the plastidic SERAT2;1 was twofold higher in V. mungo. Among BSAS family members, BSAS4;1, encoding a cytosolic cysteine desulfhydrase, and BSAS1;1, encoding a cytosolic O-acetylserine sulphydrylase were most highly expressed in both species. This was followed by BSAS3;1 encoding a plastidic β-cyanoalanine synthase which was more highly expressed by 10-fold in P. vulgaris. The data identify BSAS3;1 as a candidate enzyme for the biosynthesis of S-methylcysteine through the use of methanethiol as substrate instead of cyanide. Expression of GLC1 would provide a complete sequence leading to the biosynthesis of γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine in plastids. The detection of S-methylhomoglutathione in P. vulgaris suggested that homoglutathione synthetase may accept, to some extent, γ-Glutamyl-S-methylcysteine as substrate, which might lead to the formation of S-methylated phytochelatins. In conclusion, 454 sequencing was effective at revealing differences in the expression of sulfur metabolic genes, providing information on candidate genes for the biosynthesis of distinct sulfur amino acid γ-Glutamyl dipeptides between P. vulgaris and V. mungo. PMID:23532826

  10. Bioactive Properties of Phaseolus lunatus (Lima Bean) and Vigna unguiculata (Cowpea) Hydrolyzates Incorporated into Pasta. Residual Activity after Pasta Cooking.

    PubMed

    Drago, Silvina R; Franco-Miranda, Hanai; Cian, Raúl E; Betancur-Ancona, David; Chel-Guerrero, Luis

    2016-09-01

    The aims of the study were to study the inclusion of P. lunatus (PLH) and V. unguiculata (VUH) protein hydrolyzates with bioactive properties into a pasta-extruded product and determine residual activity after extrusion or pasta cooking. Both protein hydrolyzates showed angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) and antioxidant activity (TEAC). PLH showed higher ACEI but lower TEAC than VUH (97.19 ± 0.23 vs. 91.95 ± 0.29 % and 244.7 ± 3.4 vs. 293.7 ± 3.3 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). They were included at 5 or 10 % into wheat pasta. Control pasta had the lowest ACEI activity or TEAC (22.01 ± 0.76 % or 14.14 ± 1.28 μmol Trolox/g, respectively). Higher activity remained in pasta with PLH than VUH after extrusion, and higher the level of addition, higher the ACEI was. Pasta had practically the same ACEI activity after cooking, thus active compounds were not lost by temperature or lixiviation. Regarding TEAC, higher activity remained in pasta with 10 % VUH (31.84 ± 0.17 μmol Trolox/g). Other samples with hydrolyzates had the same activity. After cooking, pasta with hydrolyzates had higher TEAC values than control, but these were not modified by the level of incorporation. Moreover, the profile changed because pasta with PLH had the highest TEAC values (21.39 ± 0.01 and 20.34 ± 0.15 for 5 or 10 % hydrolyzates, respectively). Cooking decreased this activity (~ 20 %), for all samples. Although a certain loss of antioxidant activity was observed, pasta could be a good vehicle for bioactive compounds becoming a functional food. PMID:27422785