Inhomogeneous Elastic Response of Silica Glass
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Léonforte, F.; Tanguy, A.; Wittmer, J. P.; Barrat, J.-L.
2006-08-01
Using large scale molecular dynamics simulations we investigate the properties of the nonaffine displacement field induced by macroscopic uniaxial deformation of amorphous silica, a strong glass according to Angell’s classification. We demonstrate the existence of a length scale ξ characterizing the correlations of this field (corresponding to a volume of about 1000 atoms), and compare its structure to the one observed in a standard fragile model glass. The “boson-peak” anomaly of the density of states can be traced back in both cases to elastic inhomogeneities on wavelengths smaller than ξ where classical continuum elasticity becomes simply unapplicable.
Elastic properties of inhomogeneous media with chaotic structure.
Novikov, V V; Wojciechowski, K W; Belov, D V; Privalko, V P
2001-03-01
The elastic properties of an inhomogeneous medium with chaotic structure were derived within the framework of a fractal model using the iterative averaging approach. The predicted values of a critical index for the bulk elastic modulus and of the Poisson ratio in the vicinity of a percolation threshold were in fair agreement with the available experimental data for inhomogeneous composites. PMID:11308722
Contact instabilities of anisotropic and inhomogeneous soft elastic films
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tomar, Gaurav; Sharma, Ashutosh
2012-02-01
Anisotropy plays important roles in various biological phenomena such as adhesion of geckos and grasshoppers enabled by the attachment pods having hierarchical structures like thin longitudinal setae connected with threads mimicked by anisotropic films. We study the contact instability of a transversely isotropic thin elastic film when it comes in contact proximity of another surface. In the present study we investigate the contact stability of a thin incompressible transversely isotropic film by performing linear stability analysis. Based on the linear stability analysis, we show that an approaching contactor renders the film unstable. The critical wavelength of the instability is a function of the total film thickness and the ratio of the Young's modulus in the longitudinal direction and the shear modulus in the plane containing the longitudinal axis. We also analyze the stability of a thin gradient film that is elastically inhomogeneous across its thickness. Compared to a homogeneous elastic film, it becomes unstable with a longer wavelength when the film becomes softer in going from the surface to the substrate.
Pre-deformation for assembly performance of machine centers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Yongping; Wang, Delun; Dong, Huimin; Xue, Runiu; Yu, Shudong
2014-05-01
The current research of machine center accuracy in workspace mainly focuses on the poor geometric error subjected to thermal and gravity load while in operation, however, there are little researches focusing on the effect of machine center elastic deformations on workspace volume. Therefore, a method called pre-deformation for assembly performance is presented. This method is technically based on the characteristics of machine tool assembly and collaborative computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis. The research goal is to enhance assembly performance, including straightness, positioning, and angular errors, to realize the precision of the machine tool design. A vertical machine center is taken as an example to illustrate the proposed method. The concept of travel error is defined to obtain the law of the guide surface. The machine center assembly performance is analyzed under cold condition and thermal balance condition to establish the function of pre-deformation. Then, the guide surface in normal direction is processed with the pre-deformation function, and the machine tool assembly performance is measured using a laser interferometer. The measuring results show that the straightness deviation of the Z component in the Y-direction is 158.9% of the allowable value primarily because of the gravity of the spindle head, and the straightness of the X and Y components is minimal. When the machine tool is processed in pre-deformation, the straightness of the Z axis moving component is reduced to 91.2%. This research proposes a pre-deformation machine center assembly method which has sufficient capacity to improving assembly accuracy of machine centers.
Reconstruction of the stiffness of an inhomogeneous elastic plate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bogachev, I. V.; Vatul'yan, A. O.; Yavruan, O. V.
2016-05-01
The paper discusses the problem of reconstructing the inhomogeneous cylindrical, symmetric stiffness distribution of a round plate using information on the bias function for established oscillations, which is measured at a certain point. A solution is constructed to the direct problem using the Galerkin method and to the inverse problem of reconstructing the stiffness using an iterative approach based on the regularized linearization method. We present the results of calculation experiments on reconstructing different types of functions that show the efficiency of the proposed approach and make it possible to estimate changes in stiffness.
Nanoscale Visualization of Elastic Inhomogeneities at TiN Coatings Using Ultrasonic Force Microscopy
2009-01-01
Ultrasonic force microscopy has been applied to the characterization of titanium nitride coatings deposited by physical vapor deposition dc magnetron sputtering on stainless steel substrates. The titanium nitride layers exhibit a rich variety of elastic contrast in the ultrasonic force microscopy images. Nanoscale inhomogeneities in stiffness on the titanium nitride films have been attributed to softer substoichiometric titanium nitride species and/or trapped subsurface gas. The results show that increasing the sputtering power at the Ti cathode increases the elastic homogeneity of the titanium nitride layers on the nanometer scale. Ultrasonic force microscopy elastic mapping on titanium nitride layers demonstrates the capability of the technique to provide information of high value for the engineering of improved coatings. PMID:20652153
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheu, Y. C.; Fu, L. S.
1983-01-01
The extended method of equivalent inclusions is applied to study the specific wave problems: (1) the transmission of elastic waves in an infinite medium containing a layer of inhomogeneity, and (2) the scattering of elastic waves in an infinite medium containing a perfect spherical inhomogeneity. Eigenstrains are expanded as a geometric series and a method of integration based on the inhomogeneous Helmholtz operator is adopted. This study compares results, obtained by using limited number of terms in the eigenstrain expansion, with exact solutions for the layer problem and that for a perfect sphere.
Inhomogeneous elastic moduli of the Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fluids close to a sphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sun, Zongli; Zhang, Lihong; Song, Jianmin; Kang, Yanmei
2014-07-01
Based on the classical elastic theory, expressions for the shear and bulk moduli of the inhomogeneous fluids are derived. Both moduli are expressed as functionals of the density function of the particles. The theoretical derivations are firstly applied to the homogeneous Weeks-Chandler-Andersen fluids. Agreement between our results and those from the molecular-dynamics simulations is observed. In their application to the inhomogeneous fluids close to a large sphere, influences of the volume fraction, temperature and the external potential on their values are calculated and analyzed. The satisfactory performance achieved in this work suggests that our results may be applicative and effective in even wider areas of fluid of the micro- or nano-scale, including the mechanical behavior and hydrodynamical properties.
Debonding of an elastic inhomogeneity of arbitrary shape in anti-plane shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xu; Yang, Moxuan; Schiavone, Peter
2016-08-01
We investigate the anti-plane shear problem of a curvilinear crack lying along the interface of an arbitrarily shaped elastic inhomogeneity embedded in an infinite matrix subjected to uniform stresses at infinity. Complex variable and conformal mapping techniques are used to derive an analytical solution in series form. The problem is first reduced to a non-homogeneous Riemann-Hilbert problem, the solution of which can be obtained by evaluating the associated Cauchy integral. A set of linear algebraic equations is obtained from the compatibility condition imposed on the resulting analytic function defined in the inhomogeneity and its Faber series expansion. Each of the unknown coefficients in the corresponding analytic functions can then be uniquely determined by solving the linear algebraic equations, which are written concisely in matrix form. The resulting analytical solution is then used to quantify the displacement jump across the debonded section of the interface as well as the traction distribution along the bonded section of the interface. In addition, our solution allows us to obtain mode-III stress intensity factors at the two crack tips. The solution to the anti-plane problem of a partially debonded elliptical inhomogeneity containing a confocal crack is also derived using a similar method.
Boundary effect on the elastic field of a semi-infinite solid containing inhomogeneities
Liu, Y. J.; Song, G.; Yin, H. M.
2015-01-01
The boundary effect of one inhomogeneity embedded in a semi-infinite solid at different depths has firstly been investigated using the fundamental solution for Mindlin's problem. Expanding the eigenstrain in a polynomial form and using the Eshelby's equivalent inclusion method, one can calculate the eigenstrain and thus obtain the elastic field. When the inhomogeneity is far from the boundary, the solution recovers Eshelby's solution. The method has been extended to a many-particle system in a semi-infinite solid, which is first demonstrated by the cases of two spheres. The comparison of the asymptotic form solution with the finite-element results shows the accuracy and capability of this method. The solution has been used to illustrate the boundary effects on its effective material behaviour of a semi-infinite simple cubic lattice particulate composite. The local field of a semi-infinite composite has been calculated at different volume fractions. A representative unit cell has been taken with different depths to the surface. The average stress and strain of the unit cell have been calculated under uniform loading conditions of normal or shear force on the surface, respectively. The effective elastic moduli of the unit cell not only depend on the material proportion, but also on its distance to the surface. The present model can be extended to other types of particle distribution and ellipsoidal particles. PMID:26345084
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Sheu, Y. C.; Fu, L. S.
1982-01-01
The extended method of equivalent inclusion developed is applied to study the specific wave problems of the transmission of elastic waves in an infinite medium containing a layer of inhomogeneity, and of the scattering of elastic waves in an infinite medium containing a perfect spherical inhomogeneity. The eigenstrains are expanded as a geometric series and the method of integration for the inhomogeneous Helmholtz operator given by Fu and Mura is adopted. The results obtained by using a limited number of terms in the eigenstrain expansion are compared with exact solutions for the layer problem and for a perfect sphere. Two parameters are singled out for this comparison: the ratio of elastic moduli, and the ratio of the mass densities. General trends for three different situations are shown.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nguyen, Hung K.; Ito, Makiko; Nakajima, Ken
2016-08-01
The elastic and viscoelastic responses of inhomogeneous polymers upon interacting with an atomic force microscopy (AFM) probe are simultaneously characterized by a bimodal AFM approach namely the amplitude- and frequency-modulation (AM–FM) method. In this approach, the AFM probe is operated in the AM mode at the first flexural frequency and in the FM mode at a higher flexural frequency. The AM mode provides information about the viscoelasticity of polymers in terms of the mechanical loss tangent, whereas the modulus of polymers is obtained as a function of the frequency shift of flexural frequencies in both modes. For a glassy polymer blend, the AM–FM method provides a consistent result in both the elastic modulus and loss tangent in comparison with those obtained by other methods. Moreover, a significant improvement of the contrast and lateral resolution in the AM–FM modulus image can be observed. However, the current approach shows a substantial increase in the modulus of rubbery polymers.
Zhang, Yanni; Pan, Jie
2015-05-01
This paper studies the effects of an embedded and distributed inhomogeneity on the underwater sound radiation from an elastically coated plate. Embedding a signal conditioning plate (SCP) in the coating material provides an extra parameter for controlling the sound radiation of the plate, as compared with the previous design with an SCP on the coating surface [Y. Zhang and J. Pan, J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(1), 173-185 (2013)]. For such a configuration, the vibration and sound responses of the coated plate to a point force excitation are described by three coupled Fredholm integral equations of the second kind. Its acoustical properties are examined by comparing the radiation powers from plates without an SCP, with a surface SCP, and with an embedded SCP. The differences in the sound powers are explained through resonance and scattering caused by the interaction of the embedded SCP with structural waves. The effects of the depth of the embedded SCP in the coating material on the sound radiation properties of the plate are discussed in detail. PMID:25994718
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vila, F. D.; Rehr, J. J.
Effects of thermal vibrations are essential to obtain a more complete understanding of the properties of complex materials. For example, they are important in the analysis and simulation of x-ray absorption spectra (XAS). In previous work we introduced an ab initio approach for a variety of vibrational effects, such as crystallographic and XAS Debye-Waller factors, Debye and Einstein temperatures, and thermal expansion coefficients. This approach uses theoretical dynamical matrices from which the locally-projected vibrational densities of states are obtained using a Lanczos recursion algorithm. In this talk I present recent improvements to our implementation, which permit simulations of more complex materials with up to two orders of magnitude larger simulation cells. The method takes advantage of parallelization in calculations of the dynamical matrix with VASP. To illustrate these capabilities we discuss two problems of considerable interest: negative thermal expansion in ZrW2O8; and local inhomogeneities in the elastic properties of supported metal nanoparticles. Both cases highlight the importance of a local treatment of vibrational properties. Supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-03ER15476, with computer support from DOE-NERSC.
Chillara, Vamshi Krishna; Ren, Baiyang; Lissenden, Cliff J
2016-04-01
This article describes the use of the frequency domain finite element (FDFE) technique for guided wave mode selection in inhomogeneous waveguides. Problems with Rayleigh-Lamb and Shear-Horizontal mode excitation in isotropic homogeneous plates are first studied to demonstrate the application of the approach. Then, two specific cases of inhomogeneous waveguides are studied using FDFE. Finally, an example of guided wave mode selection for inspecting disbonds in composites is presented. Identification of sensitive and insensitive modes for defect inspection is demonstrated. As the discretization parameters affect the accuracy of the results obtained from FDFE, effect of spatial discretization and the length of the domain used for the spatial fast Fourier transform are studied. Some recommendations with regard to the choice of the above parameters are provided. PMID:26746160
Zorko, A; Kokalj, J; Komelj, M; Adamopoulos, O; Luetkens, H; Arčon, D; Lappas, A
2015-01-01
Inhomogeneity in the ground state is an intriguing, emergent phenomenon in magnetism. Recently, it has been observed in the magnetostructural channel of the geometrically frustrated α-NaMnO2, for the first time in the absence of active charge degrees of freedom. Here we report an in-depth numerical and local-probe experimental study of the isostructural sister compound CuMnO2 that emphasizes and provides an explanation for the crucial differences between the two systems. The experimentally verified, much more homogeneous, ground state of the stoichiometric CuMnO2 is attributed to the reduced magnetoelastic competition between the counteracting magnetic-exchange and elastic-energy contributions. The comparison of the two systems additionally highlights the role of disorder and allows the understanding of the puzzling phenomenon of phase separation in uniform antiferromagnets. PMID:25786810
Zorko, A.; Kokalj, J.; Komelj, M.; Adamopoulos, O.; Luetkens, H.; Arčon, D.; Lappas, A.
2015-01-01
Inhomogeneity in the ground state is an intriguing, emergent phenomenon in magnetism. Recently, it has been observed in the magnetostructural channel of the geometrically frustrated α-NaMnO2, for the first time in the absence of active charge degrees of freedom. Here we report an in-depth numerical and local-probe experimental study of the isostructural sister compound CuMnO2 that emphasizes and provides an explanation for the crucial differences between the two systems. The experimentally verified, much more homogeneous, ground state of the stoichiometric CuMnO2 is attributed to the reduced magnetoelastic competition between the counteracting magnetic-exchange and elastic-energy contributions. The comparison of the two systems additionally highlights the role of disorder and allows the understanding of the puzzling phenomenon of phase separation in uniform antiferromagnets. PMID:25786810
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Hoop, Adrianus T.
2004-06-01
A uniqueness theorem for the (analytic or computational) time-domain modeling of the elastic wave motion in a scattering configuration that consists of inhomogeneous, anisotropic solids with arbitrary relaxation properties, occupying a bounded subdomain in an unbounded homogeneous, isotropic, perfectly elastic embedding, is presented. No direct time-domain uniqueness proof seems to exist for this kind of configuration. As an intermediate step, the one-to-one correspondence between the causal time-domain wavefield components and the constitutive material response functions on the one hand, and their time Laplace-transform counterparts for (a sequence of) real, positive values of the transform parameter on the other hand, seems a necessary tool. It is shown that such an approach leads to simple, explicit, sufficiency conditions on the inertial loss and compliance relaxation tensors describing the solid's constitutive behavior for uniqueness to hold. In it, the property of causality plays an essential role. In Christensen [Theory of Viscoelasticity-An Introduction (Academic, New York, 1971)] a similar approach is applied to the problem of uniqueness of the elastodynamic initial-/boundary-value problem associated with a viscoelastic object of bounded extent, the surface of which is subject to an admissible set of explicit boundary values. In the scattering configuration of unbounded extent, no explicit boundary values occur and the far-field compressional and shear wave radiation characteristics at ``infinity'' in the embedding play a key role in the proof.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pal, Prakash; Mandal, Dinbandhu
2014-02-01
The generation of SH-type waves due to sudden application of a stress discontinuity which moves after creation at the sandy layer of finite thickness overlying an isotropic and inhomogeneous elastic half-space is considered. The displacements are obtained in exact form by the method due to Cagniard modified by De Hoop. The numerical calculations are obtained. Two cases of shearing stress discontinuities are considered for different sandiness parameters. The graphs are drawn to show the effect of sandiness in the displacement components.
Zhang, Neng-Hui; Meng, Wei-Lie; Tan, Zou-Qing
2013-02-01
In nanoscale diagnostic systems, inhomogeneity in near-surface systems and flexibility in biostructures greatly influence the mechanical/electrical/thermal properties of biosensors and resultant detection signals. This study focuses on inhomogeneity and flexibility of DNA biofilm and characterizes its local interactions and mechanical properties. First, a flexible cylinder model of DNA chain is employed to capture the local geometric deformation characteristics of DNA molecules on microcantilever. In order to describe the inhomogeneous properties of DNA biofilm at thickness direction, the Strey's empirical formula for mesoscopic DNA liquid crystal theory is improved with the assumption of a net charge distribution in film. The model parameters are obtained by curve fitting with experimental data. Second, the biaxial iso-strain compression of thought experiment and the energy conservation law are used to predict macroscopic effective tangent modulus of DNA biofilm in terms of nanoscopic properties of dsDNA, buffer salt concentration. PMID:23228426
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stoynov, Y.
2015-10-01
Functionally graded materials (FGM) are extensively used in modern industry. They are composite materials with continuously varying properties in one or more special dimensions, according to the specific purpose. In view of the wide range of applications of FGM, stress analysis is important for their structural integrity and reliable service life. In this study we will consider functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic materials with one or more cracks subjected to SH waves. We assume that the material properties vary in one and the same way, described by an inhomogeneity function. The boundary value problem is reduced to a system of integro-differential equations based on the existence of fundamental solutions. Different inhomogeneity classes are used to obtain a wave equation with constant coefficients. Radon transform is applied to derive the fundamental solution in a closed form. Program code in FORTRAN 77 is developed and validated using available examples from literature. Simulations show the dependence of stress field concentration near the crack tips on the frequency of the applied time-harmonic load for different types of material inhomogeneity.
Stoynov, Y.
2015-10-28
Functionally graded materials (FGM) are extensively used in modern industry. They are composite materials with continuously varying properties in one or more special dimensions, according to the specific purpose. In view of the wide range of applications of FGM, stress analysis is important for their structural integrity and reliable service life. In this study we will consider functionally graded magneto-electro-elastic materials with one or more cracks subjected to SH waves. We assume that the material properties vary in one and the same way, described by an inhomogeneity function. The boundary value problem is reduced to a system of integro-differential equations based on the existence of fundamental solutions. Different inhomogeneity classes are used to obtain a wave equation with constant coefficients. Radon transform is applied to derive the fundamental solution in a closed form. Program code in FORTRAN 77 is developed and validated using available examples from literature. Simulations show the dependence of stress field concentration near the crack tips on the frequency of the applied time-harmonic load for different types of material inhomogeneity.
The Effects of Low Cu Additions and Predeformation on the Precipitation in a 6060 Al-Mg-Si Alloy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Saito, Takeshi; Muraishi, Shinji; Marioara, Calin D.; Andersen, Sigmund J.; Røyset, Jostein; Holmestad, Randi
2013-09-01
Effects of low Cu additions (≤0.10 wt pct) and 10 pct predeformation before aging on precipitates' microstructures and types in a 6060 Al-Mg-Si alloy have been investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). It was found that predeformation enhances precipitation kinetics and leads to formation of heterogeneous precipitate distributions along dislocation lines. These precipitates were often disordered. Cu additions caused finer microstructures, which resulted in the highest hardness of materials, in both the undeformed and the predeformed conditions. The introduced predeformation led to microstructure coarsening. This effect was less pronounced in the presence of Cu. The precipitate structure was studied in detail by high-resolution TEM and high angle annular dark-field scanning TEM (HAADF-STEM). The Cu additions did not alter the respective precipitation sequence in either the undeformed or the predeformed conditions, but caused a large fraction of β″ precipitates to be partially disordered in the undeformed conditions. Cu atomic columns were found in all the investigated precipitates, except for perfect β″. Although no unit cell was observed in the disordered precipitates, the presence of a periodicity having hexagonal symmetry along the precipitate length was inferred from the fast Fourier transforms (FFT) of HRTEM images, and sometimes directly observed in filtered HAADF-STEM images.
Wu, Fu-Fa; Chan, K. C.; Jiang, Song-Shan; Chen, Shun-Hua; Wang, Gang
2014-01-01
Bulk metallic glasses exhibit high strength and large elastic strain limit but have no tensile ductility. However, bulk metallic glass composites reinforced by in-situ dendrites possess significantly improved toughness but at the expense of high strength and large elastic strain limit. Here, we report a bulk metallic glass composite with strong strain-hardening capability and large elastic strain limit. It was found that, by plastic predeformation, the bulk metallic glass composite can exhibit both a large elastic strain limit and high strength under tension. These unique elastic mechanical properties are attributed to the reversible B2↔B19′ phase transformation and the plastic-predeformation-induced complicated stress state in the metallic glass matrix and the second phase. These findings are significant for the design and application of bulk metallic glass composites with excellent mechanical properties. PMID:24931632
(Fracture mechanics of inhomogeneous materials)
Bass, B.R.
1990-10-01
Discussions were held with Japanese researchers concerning (1) the Elastic-Plastic Fracture Mechanics in Inhomogeneous Materials and Structures (EPI) Program, and (2) ongoing large-scale pressurized- thermal-shock (PTS) experiments in Japan. In the EPI Program, major activities in the current fiscal year include round-robin analyses of measured data from inhomogeneous base metal/weld metal compact- tension (CT) specimens fabricated from welded plates of A533 grade B class 1 steel. The round-robin task involves participants from nine research organizations in Japan and is scheduled for completion by the end of 1990. Additional experiments will be performed on crack growth in inhomogeneous CT specimens and three-point bend (3PB) specimens 10 mm thick. The data will be compared with that generated previously from 19-mm-thick-specimens. A new type of inhomogeneous surface-cracked specimen will be tested this year, with ratio of crack depth to surface length (a/c) satisfying 0.2 {le} (a/c) {le} 0. 8 and using a 3PB type of applied load. Plans are under way to fabricate a new welded plate of A533 grade B class 1 steel (from a different heat than that currently being tested) in order to provide an expanded fracture-toughness data base. Other topics concerning fracture-prevention issues in reactor pressure vessels were discussed with each of the host organizations, including an overview of ongoing work in the Heavy-Section Steel Technology (HSST) Program.
Transient analysis of 1D inhomogeneous media by dynamic inhomogeneous finite element method
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Zailin; Wang, Yao; Hei, Baoping
2013-12-01
The dynamic inhomogeneous finite element method is studied for use in the transient analysis of onedimensional inhomogeneous media. The general formula of the inhomogeneous consistent mass matrix is established based on the shape function. In order to research the advantages of this method, it is compared with the general finite element method. A linear bar element is chosen for the discretization tests of material parameters with two fictitious distributions. And, a numerical example is solved to observe the differences in the results between these two methods. Some characteristics of the dynamic inhomogeneous finite element method that demonstrate its advantages are obtained through comparison with the general finite element method. It is found that the method can be used to solve elastic wave motion problems with a large element scale and a large number of iteration steps.
Inflating an inhomogeneous universe
Easther, Richard; Price, Layne C.; Rasero, Javier E-mail: lpri691@aucklanduni.ac.nz
2014-08-01
While cosmological inflation can erase primordial inhomogeneities, it is possible that inflation may not begin in a significantly inhomogeneous universe. This issue is particularly pressing in multifield scenarios, where even the homogeneous dynamics may depend sensitively on the initial configuration. This paper presents an initial survey of the onset of inflation in multifield models, via qualitative lattice-based simulations that do not include local gravitational backreaction. Using hybrid inflation as a test model, our results suggest that small subhorizon inhomogeneities do play a key role in determining whether inflation begins in multifield scenarios. Interestingly, some configurations which do not inflate in the homogeneous limit ''succeed'' after inhomogeneity is included, while other initial configurations which inflate in the homogeneous limit ''fail'' when inhomogeneity is added.
Radially inhomogeneous bounded plasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zakeri-Khatir, H.; Aghamir, F. M.
2016-07-01
On the basis of kinetic theory along with self-consistent field equations, the expressions for dielectric tensor of radially inhomogeneous magnetized plasma columns are obtained. The study of dielectric tensor characteristics allows the accurate analysis of the inhomogeneous properties, beyond limitations that exist in the conventional method. Through the Bessel–Fourier transformation, the localized form of material equations in a radially inhomogeneous medium are obtained. In order to verify the integrity of the model and reveal the effect of inhomogeneity, a special case of a cylindrical plasma waveguide completely filled with inhomogeneous magnetized cold plasma was considered. The dispersion relation curves for four families of electromagnetic (EH and HE) and electrostatic (SC and C) modes are obtained and compared with the findings of the conventional model. The numerical analysis indicates that the inhomogeneity effect leads to coupling of electromagnetic and electrostatic modes each having different radial eigen numbers. The study also reveals that the electrostatic modes are more sensitive to inhomogeneous effects than the electromagnetic modes.
Inhomogeneous Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hayata, Tomoya; Yamamoto, Arata
2015-05-01
We study the spatial inhomogeneity of the Polyakov loop induced by inhomogeneous chiral condensates. We formulate an effective model of gluons on the background fields of chiral condensates, and perform its lattice simulation. On the background of inhomogeneous chiral condensates, the Polyakov loop exhibits an in-phase spatial oscillation with the chiral condensates. We also analyze the heavy quark potential and show that the inhomogeneous Polyakov loop indicates the inhomogeneous confinement of heavy quarks.
Wakes in inhomogeneous plasmas.
Kompaneets, Roman; Ivlev, Alexei V; Nosenko, Vladimir; Morfill, Gregor E
2014-04-01
The Debye shielding of a charge immersed in a flowing plasma is an old classic problem. It has been given renewed attention in the last two decades in view of experiments with complex plasmas, where charged dust particles are often levitated in a region with strong ion flow. Efforts to describe the shielding of the dust particles in such conditions have been focused on the homogeneous plasma approximation, which ignores the substantial inhomogeneity of the levitation region. We address the role of the plasma inhomogeneity by rigorously calculating the point charge potential in the collisionless Bohm sheath. We demonstrate that the inhomogeneity can dramatically modify the wake, making it nonoscillatory and weaker. PMID:24827356
Cloud Inhomogeneity from MODIS
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Cahalan, Robert F.
2004-01-01
Two full months (July 2003 and January 2004) of MODIS Atmosphere Level-3 data from the Terra and Aqua satellites are analyzed in order to characterize the horizontal variability of cloud optical thickness and water path at global scales. Various options to derive cloud variability parameters are discussed. The climatology of cloud inhomogeneity is built by first calculating daily parameter values at spatial scales of l degree x 1 degree, and then at zonal and global scales, followed by averaging over monthly time scales. Geographical, diurnal, and seasonal changes of inhomogeneity parameters are examined separately for the two cloud phases, and separately over land and ocean. We find that cloud inhomogeneity is weaker in summer than in winter, weaker over land than ocean for liquid clouds, weaker for local morning than local afternoon, about the same for liquid and ice clouds on a global scale, but with wider probability distribution functions (PDFs) and larger latitudinal variations for ice, and relatively insensitive to whether water path or optical thickness products are used. Typical mean values at hemispheric and global scales of the inhomogeneity parameter nu (roughly the mean over the standard deviation of water path or optical thickness), range from approximately 2.5 to 3, while for the inhomogeneity parameter chi (the ratio of the logarithmic to linear mean) from approximately 0.7 to 0.8. Values of chi for zonal averages can occasionally fall below 0.6 and for individual gridpoints below 0.5. Our results demonstrate that MODIS is capable of revealing significant fluctuations in cloud horizontal inhomogenity and stress the need to model their global radiative effect in future studies.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Hongding; La, Peiqing; Shi, Ting; Wei, Yupeng; Jiao, Huisheng
2014-01-01
In this study, a processing route is introduced to control the morphology of carbide and the grain size of nanocrystalline matrix of Fe-Al-Cr alloy. After predeformation followed by annealing treatment, the grain size of nanocrystalline matrix decreased slightly and the Cr7C3 phases transformed from a fiber shape to the globular shape. The yield strength and the flow stress of the alloy increased from 1048 to 1338 MPa and 1150 to 1550 MPa, respectively, while the ductility of the alloy also became better. This proposed method may open a way for controlling the morphology of carbide and the grain size of matrix in bulk nanocrystalline materials to receive higher strength and better plasticity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Haibao; Huang, Wei Min; Lian Wu, Xue; Ge, Yu Chun; Zhang, Fan; Zhao, Yong; Geng, Junfeng
2014-06-01
In this paper, the heating/ethanol-response of a commercial poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) is investigated. All PMMA samples are pre-deformed by means of impression (surface compression with a mold) to introduce a gradient pre-strain/stress field. Two types of molds are applied in impression. One is a Singaporean coin and the other is a particularly designed mold with a variable protrusive feature on top. Two potential applications—temperature sensors to monitor overheating temperatures and anti-counterfeit labels with a water-mark that appears only upon heating to a particular temperature—are demonstrated. Since the heating-responsive shape memory effect (SME) is an intrinsic feature of almost all polymers, other conventional polymers may be used in such applications as well.
Theoretical understanding of chromospheric inhomogeneities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Delache, P.
1973-01-01
Detailed theoretical studies of chromospheric inhomogeneities consider dynamics as well as radiative transfer of mass flow as a consequence of energy deposition. It is shown that pressure is exerted by the heating waves, especially in inhomogeneous structures, where they can be defracted. A dynamical model is formulated that depicts the inhomogeneous structure of the chromosphere-corona transition region through mass flow regimes.
Stabilizing synchrony by inhomogeneity
Bolhasani, Ehsan; Valizadeh, Alireza
2015-01-01
We show that for two weakly coupled identical neuronal oscillators with strictly positive phase resetting curve, isochronous synchrony can only be seen in the absence of noise and an arbitrarily weak noise can destroy entrainment and generate intermittent phase slips. Small inhomogeneity–mismatch in the intrinsic firing rate of the neurons–can stabilize the phase locking and lead to more precise relative spike timing of the two neurons. The results can explain how for a class of neuronal models, including leaky integrate-fire model, inhomogeneity can increase correlation of spike trains when the neurons are synaptically connected. PMID:26338691
Twinning-Induced Elasticity in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birk, Thorsten; Biswas, Somjeet; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther
2016-06-01
Pseudoelasticity (PE) in shape memory alloys relies on the formation of stress-induced martensite during loading and on the reverse transformation during unloading. PE yields reversible strains of up to 8 % and is applied in applications such as medical implants, flexible eye glass frames, damping elements, and others. Unfortunately, PE shows a strong temperature dependence and thus can only be exploited within a relatively narrow temperature window. The present work focuses on a related process, which we refer to as twinning-induced elasticity (TIE). It involves the growth and shrinkage of martensite variants which are stabilized by dislocations, which are introduced by appropriate cold work. TIE yields reversible strains of the order of 3 %. The TIE effect does not suffer from the strong temperature dependence of PE. The weak temperature dependence of mechanical TIE properties makes TIE attractive for applications where temperature fluctuations are large. In the present work, we study the TIE effect focusing on Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloy wires. The degree of plastic pre-deformation of the initial material represents a key parameter of the ingot metallurgy processing route. It governs the exploitable recoverable strain, the apparent Young's modulus, and the widths of the mechanical hysteresis. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to study the effects of pre-deformation on elementary microstructural processes which govern TIE.
Twinning-Induced Elasticity in NiTi Shape Memory Alloys
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Birk, Thorsten; Biswas, Somjeet; Frenzel, Jan; Eggeler, Gunther
2016-03-01
Pseudoelasticity (PE) in shape memory alloys relies on the formation of stress-induced martensite during loading and on the reverse transformation during unloading. PE yields reversible strains of up to 8 % and is applied in applications such as medical implants, flexible eye glass frames, damping elements, and others. Unfortunately, PE shows a strong temperature dependence and thus can only be exploited within a relatively narrow temperature window. The present work focuses on a related process, which we refer to as twinning-induced elasticity (TIE). It involves the growth and shrinkage of martensite variants which are stabilized by dislocations, which are introduced by appropriate cold work. TIE yields reversible strains of the order of 3 %. The TIE effect does not suffer from the strong temperature dependence of PE. The weak temperature dependence of mechanical TIE properties makes TIE attractive for applications where temperature fluctuations are large. In the present work, we study the TIE effect focusing on Ni50Ti50 shape memory alloy wires. The degree of plastic pre-deformation of the initial material represents a key parameter of the ingot metallurgy processing route. It governs the exploitable recoverable strain, the apparent Young's modulus, and the widths of the mechanical hysteresis. Dynamic mechanical analysis is used to study the effects of pre-deformation on elementary microstructural processes which govern TIE.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Diamond, Larryn W.; Tarantola, Alexandre
2015-05-01
A well developed theoretical framework is available in which paleofluid properties, such as chemical composition and density, can be reconstructed from fluid inclusions in minerals that have undergone no ductile deformation. The present study extends this framework to encompass fluid inclusions hosted by quartz that has undergone weak ductile deformation following fluid entrapment. Recent experiments have shown that such deformation causes inclusions to become dismembered into clusters of irregularly shaped relict inclusions surrounded by planar arrays of tiny, new-formed (neonate) inclusions. Comparison of the experimental samples with a naturally sheared quartz vein from Grimsel Pass, Aar Massif, Central Alps, Switzerland, reveals striking similarities. This strong concordance justifies applying the experimentally derived rules of fluid inclusion behaviour to nature. Thus, planar arrays of dismembered inclusions defining cleavage planes in quartz may be taken as diagnostic of small amounts of intracrystalline strain. Deformed inclusions preserve their pre-deformation concentration ratios of gases to electrolytes, but their H2O contents typically have changed. Morphologically intact inclusions, in contrast, preserve the pre-deformation composition and density of their originally trapped fluid. The orientation of the maximum principal compressive stress (σ1) at the time of shear deformation can be derived from the pole to the cleavage plane within which the dismembered inclusions are aligned. Finally, the density of neonate inclusions is commensurate with the pressure value of σ1 at the temperature and time of deformation. This last rule offers a means to estimate magnitudes of shear stresses from fluid inclusion studies. Application of this new paleopiezometer approach to the Grimsel vein yields a differential stress (σ1-σ3) of ˜ 300 MPa at 390 ± 30 °C during late Miocene NNW-SSE orogenic shortening and regional uplift of the Aar Massif. This differential
The calculation of elastic constants from displacement fluctuations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meyers, M. T.; Rickman, J. M.; Delph, T. J.
2005-09-01
We present a methodology for the accurate and efficient extraction of elastic constants in homogeneous solids via the calculation of the atomic displacement correlation function. This approach is validated for cubic solids parametrized by both Lennard-Jones and embedded-atom method potentials. Finally, we also discuss the extension of this method to obtain the elastic properties of inhomogeneous solids.
Averaging the inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paranjape, Aseem
2012-03-01
A basic assumption of modern cosmology is that the universe is homogeneous and isotropic on the largest observable scales. This greatly simplifies Einstein's general relativistic field equations applied at these large scales, and allows a straightforward comparison between theoretical models and observed data. However, Einstein's equations should ideally be imposed at length scales comparable to, say, the solar system, since this is where these equations have been tested. We know that at these scales the universe is highly inhomogeneous. It is therefore essential to perform an explicit averaging of the field equations in order to apply them at large scales. It has long been known that due to the nonlinear nature of Einstein's equations, any explicit averaging scheme will necessarily lead to corrections in the equations applied at large scales. Estimating the magnitude and behavior of these corrections is a challenging task, due to difficulties associated with defining averages in the context of general relativity (GR). It has recently become possible to estimate these effects in a rigorous manner, and we will review some of the averaging schemes that have been proposed in the literature. A tantalizing possibility explored by several authors is that the corrections due to averaging may in fact account for the apparent acceleration of the expansion of the universe. We will explore this idea, reviewing some of the work done in the literature to date. We will argue however, that this rather attractive idea is in fact not viable as a solution of the dark energy problem, when confronted with observational constraints.
Homogeneous and inhomogeneous eddies
Pavia, E.G.
1994-12-31
This work deals with mesoscale warm oceanic eddies; i.e., self-contained bodies of water which transport heat, among other things, for several months and for several hundreds of kilometers. This heat transport is believed to play an important role in the atmospheric and oceanic conditions of the region where it is being transported. Here the author examines the difference in evolution between eddies modeled as blobs of homogeneous water and eddies in which density varies in the horizontal. Preliminary results suggest that instability is enhanced by inhomogeneities, which would imply that traditional modeling studies, based on homogeneous vortices have underestimated the rate of heat-release from oceanic eddies to the surroundings. The approach is modeling in the simplest form; i.e., one single active layer. Although previous studies have shown the drastic effect on stability brought by two or more dynamically-relevant homogeneous layers, the author believes the single-layer eddy-model has not been investigated thoroughly.
Depinning transition in the failure of inhomogeneous brittle materials.
Ponson, Laurent
2009-07-31
The dynamics of cracks propagating in elastic inhomogeneous materials is investigated experimentally. The variations of the average crack velocity with the external driving force are measured for a brittle rock and shown to display two distinct regimes: an exponential law characteristic of subcritical propagation at a low driving force and a power law above a critical threshold. This behavior can be explained quantitatively by extending linear elastic fracture mechanics to disordered systems. In this description, the motion of a crack is analogous to the one of an elastic line driven in a random medium, and critical failure occurs when the external force is sufficiently large to depin the crack front from the heterogeneities of the material. PMID:19792511
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tarantola, Alexandre; Diamond, Larryn W.
2015-04-01
A well developed theoretical framework is available in which paleofluid properties, such as chemical composition and density, can be reconstructed from fluid inclusions in minerals that have undergone no ductile deformation. Fluid inclusions are known to reequilibrate during strong post-entrapment changes in hydrostatic confining pressure (e.g. Sterner and Bodnar 1989). The present study extends this framework to encompass fluid inclusions hosted by quartz that has undergone weak ductile deformation following fluid entrapment. Recent piston-cylinder experiments (Griggs apparatus) made on single quartz crystals have shown that such deformation causes inclusions to become dismembered into clusters of irregularly shaped relict inclusions surrounded by planar arrays of tiny, new-formed (neonate) inclusions (Diamond et al. 2010; Tarantola et al. 2010, 2012). Comparison of the experimental samples with a naturally sheared quartz vein from Grimsel Pass, Central Alps, Switzerland, reveals striking similarities. This strong concordance justifies applying the experimentally derived rules of fluid inclusion behaviour to nature. Thus, planar arrays of dismembered inclusions defining cleavage planes in quartz may be taken as diagnostic of small amounts of intracrystalline strain. Deformed inclusions preserve their pre-deformation concentration ratios of gases to electrolytes, but their H2O contents typically have changed. Morphologically intact inclusions, in contrast, preserve the pre-deformation composition and density of their originally trapped fluid. The orientation of the maximum principal compressive stress (σ1) at the time of shear deformation can be derived from the pole to the cleavage plane within which the dismembered inclusions are aligned. Finally, the density of neonate inclusions is commensurate with the pressure value of σ1 at the temperature and time of deformation. This last rule offers a means to estimate magnitudes of shear stresses from fluid inclusion
Modelling of of hydraulic fractures trajectories in inhomogeneous stress field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, A. A.; Galybin, A.
2013-05-01
The paper examines an actual problem of oil and gas production -- modelling of the hydro-fracture trajectories depending on ihomogeneous distributions of pore pressure. The results could serve for improvement of the design of hydraulic fracturing in the oil/gas fields. The methods of the plane elasticity theory and fracture mechanics are employed. It is assumed, that in addition to the homogeneous field of natural stress the reservoir is also subjected to additional stresses caused by technological reasons, which makes the total stress field to be inhomogeneous. Therefore, the objective is to model a curvilinear crack path in an elastic inhomogeneous-loaded plane depending on the different mechanical parameters that control the stress state of the reservoir. For the simulation of the trajectory of a crack the method of boundary integral equation is used. The algorithms of step-by-step determination of the crack's trajectory development using the criterion of maximum tensile stresses at the end of the cracks have been developed. For the numerical realization of the solution we used a special modification of the method of mechanical quadratures providing effective and fast solution of the corresponding system of singular integral equation. The solution for the hydro-fracture path have been simulated for the case of inhomogeneous stress field due to presence of injection well for several physical models.
Radiation transport in inhomogeneous media
Keiter, Paul; Gunderson, Mark; Foster, John; Rosen, Paula; Comley, Andrew; Taylor, Mark; Perry, Ted
2008-05-15
Calculations of radiation transport in heated materials are greatly complicated by the presence of regions in which two or more materials are inhomogeneously mixed. This phenomenon is important in many systems, such as astrophysical systems where density clumps can be found in star-forming regions and molecular clouds. Laboratory experiments have been designed to test the modeling of radiation transport through inhomogeneous plasmas. A laser-heated hohlraum is used as a thermal source to drive radiation through polymer foam containing randomly distributed gold particles. Experimental measurements of radiation transport in foams with gold particle sizes ranging from 5-9 {mu}m to submicrometer diameters as well as the homogeneous foam case are presented. The simulation results of the radiation transport are compared to the experiment and show that an inhomogeneous transport model must be applied to explain radiation transport in foams loaded with 5 {mu}m diameter gold particles.
Volume integrals of ellipsoids associated with the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, L. S.; Mura, T.
1982-01-01
Problems of wave phenomena in the fields of acoustics, electromagnetics and elasticity are often reduced to an integration of the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Results are presented for volume integrals associated with the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation, for an ellipsoidal region. By using appropriate Taylor series expansions and the multinomial theorem, these volume integrals are obtained in series form for regions r greater than r-prime and r less than r-prime, where r and r-prime are the distances from the origin to the point of observation and the source. Derivatives of these integrals are easily evaluated. When the wavenumber approaches zero the results reduce directly to the potentials of ellipsoids of variable densities.
Remarks on inhomogeneous anisotropic cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kaya, Ali
2016-08-01
Recently a new no-global-recollapse argument was given for some inhomogeneous and anisotropic cosmologies that utilizes surface deformation by the mean curvature flow. In this paper we discuss important properties of the mean curvature flow of spacelike surfaces in Lorentzian manifolds. We show that singularities may form during cosmic evolution, and the theorems forbidding the global recollapse lose their validity. The time evolution of the spatial scalar curvature that may kinematically prevent the recollapse is determined in normal coordinates, which shows the impact of inhomogeneities explicitly. Our analysis indicates a caveat in numerical solutions that give rise to inflation.
Inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Selinger, Robin Blumberg; Nittmann, Johann; Stanley, H. E.
1989-01-01
It is demonstrated here that inhomogeneous diffusion-limited aggregation (DLA) model can be used to simulate viscous fingering in a medium with inhomogeneous permeability and homogeneous porosity. The medium consists of a pipe-pore square-lattice network in which all pores have equal volume and the pipes have negligible volume. It is shown that fluctuations in a DLA-based growth process may be tuned by noise reduction, and that fluctuations in the velocity of the moving interface are multiplicative in form.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, L. S. W.
1982-01-01
The scattering of a single ellipsoidal inhomogeneity is studied via an eigenstrain approach. The displacement field is given in terms of volume integrals that involve eigenstrains that are related to mismatch in mass density and that in elastic moduli. The governing equations for these unknown eigenstrains are derived. Agreement with other approaches for the scattering problem is shown. The formulation is general and both the inhomogeneity and the host medium can be anisotrophic. The axisymmetric scattering of an ellipsoidal inhomogeneity in a linear elastic isotropic medium is given as an example. The angular and frequency dependence of the scattered displacement field, the differential and total cross sections are formally given in series expansions for the case of uniformly distributed eigenstrains.
Scattering of shear waves by an elliptical cavity in a radially inhomogeneous isotropic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hei, Baoping; Yang, Zailin; Chen, Zhigang
2016-03-01
Complex function and general conformal mapping methods are used to investigate the scattering of elastic shear waves by an elliptical cylindrical cavity in a radially inhomogeneous medium. The conformal mappings are introduced to solve scattering by an arbitrary cavity for the Helmholtz equation with variable coefficient through the transformed standard Helmholtz equation with a circular cavity. The medium density depends on the distance from the origin with a power-law variation and the shear elastic modulus is constant. The complex-value displacements and stresses of the inhomogeneous medium are explicitly obtained and the distributions of the dynamic stress for the case of an elliptical cavity are discussed. The accuracy of the present approach is verified by comparing the present solution results with the available published data. Numerical results demonstrate that the wave number, inhomogeneous parameters and different values of aspect ratio have significant influence on the dynamic stress concentration factors around the elliptical cavity.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moraru, Gheorghe; Mursa, Condrat
2006-12-01
In this book we present the basic concepts of the theory of elasticity: stress and deformation states (plane and three-dimensional) and generalized Hooke's law. We present a number of problems which have applications in strength analysis. The book includes a synthesis of the theory of elasticity and modern methods of applied mathematics. This book is designed for students, post graduate students and specialists in strength analysis. the book contains a number of appendixes which includes: elements of matrix-calculation, concepts of tensorial calculation, the Fourier transform, the notion of improper integrals,singular and hypersingular integrals, generalized functions, the Dirac Delta function
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Yu-Feng; Tian, Bo
2015-09-01
Under investigation in this paper is an inhomogeneous nonlinear Schrödinger equation, which describes the propagation of a large-wavelength small-amplitude electron plasma wave in a parabolic-distributed and constant-interactional-damping inhomogeneous plasma. Via the Hirota method, Bell-polynomial approach and symbolic computation, bilinear form, Bäcklund transformation and N-soliton solutions are obtained. Influence of the linear density coefficient α and damping coefficient β on the soliton envelopes is also discussed, i.e. α can affect the soliton position, while β is related to the soliton intensity, velocity and phase shift. Periodically attractive and repulsive interactions are shown. Asymptotic analysis shows that the interactions between/among the solitons are elastic.
Simple inhomogeneous cosmological (toy) models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chirinos Isidro, Eddy G.; Zuñiga Vargas, Cristofher; Zimdahl, Winfried
2016-05-01
Based on the Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) metric we consider two flat inhomogeneous big-bang models. We aim at clarifying, as far as possible analytically, basic features of the dynamics of the simplest inhomogeneous models and to point out the potential usefulness of exact inhomogeneous solutions as generalizations of the homogeneous configurations of the cosmological standard model. We discuss explicitly partial successes but also potential pitfalls of these simplest models. Although primarily seen as toy models, the relevant free parameters are fixed by best-fit values using the Joint Light-curve Analysis (JLA)-sample data. On the basis of a likelihood analysis we find that a local hump with an extension of almost 2 Gpc provides a better description of the observations than a local void for which we obtain a best-fit scale of about 30 Mpc. Future redshift-drift measurements are discussed as a promising tool to discriminate between inhomogeneous configurations and the ΛCDM model.
Inhomogeneous turbulence in magnetic reconnection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoi, Nobumitsu
2016-07-01
Turbulence is expected to play an essential role in enhancing magnetic reconnection. Turbulence associated with magnetic reconnection is highly inhomogeneous: it is generated by inhomogeneities of the field configuration such as the velocity shear, temperature gradient, density stratification, magnetic shear, etc. This self-generated turbulence affects the reconnection through the turbulent transport. In this reconnection--turbulence interaction, localization of turbulent transport due to dynamic balance between several turbulence effects plays an essential role. For investigating inhomogeneous turbulence in a strongly nonlinear regime, closure or turbulence modeling approaches provide a powerful tool. A turbulence modeling approach for the magnetic reconnection is introduced. In the model, the mean-field equations with turbulence effects incorporated are solved simultaneously with the equations of turbulent statistical quantities that represent spatiotemporal properties of turbulence under the effect of large-scale field inhomogeneities. Numerical simulations of this Reynolds-averaged turbulence model showed that self-generated turbulence enhances magnetic reconnection. It was pointed out that reconnection states may be divided into three category depending on the turbulence level: (i) laminar reconnection; (ii) turbulent reconnection, and (iii) turbulent diffusion. Recent developments in this direction are also briefly introduced, which includes the magnetic Prandtl number dependence, spectral evolution, and guide-field effects. Also relationship of this fully nonlinear turbulence approach with other important approaches such as plasmoid instability reconnection will be discussed.
Averaging inhomogeneous cosmologies - a dialogue.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Averaging inhomogenous cosmologies - a dialogue
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Buchert, T.
The averaging problem for inhomogeneous cosmologies is discussed in the form of a disputation between two cosmologists, one of them (RED) advocating the standard model, the other (GREEN) advancing some arguments against it. Technical explanations of these arguments as well as the conclusions of this debate are given by BLUE.
Fujita phenomenon in inhomogeneous fast diffusion system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Jinge; Zheng, Sining; Qu, Chengyuan
2013-04-01
This paper deals with the Fujita phenomenon for the Cauchy problem of an inhomogeneous fast diffusion system. Both the critical exponent and the second exponent are obtained. We observe that the inhomogeneous terms in the system substantially contribute to the critical exponent, in that the blow-up exponent region is obviously enlarged, with keeping the second critical exponent unchanged for small inhomogeneous sources.
Topological derivatives for fundamental frequencies of elastic bodies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobelev, Vladimir
2016-01-01
In this article a new method for topological optimization of fundamental frequencies of elastic bodies, which could be considered as an improvement on the bubble method, is introduced. The method is based on generalized topological derivatives. For a body with different types of inclusion the vector genus is introduced. The dimension of the genus is the number of different elastic properties of the inclusions being introduced. The disturbances of stress and strain fields in an elastic matrix due to a newly inserted elastic inhomogeneity are given explicitly in terms of the stresses and strains in the initial body. The iterative positioning of inclusions is carried out by determination of the preferable position of the new inhomogeneity at the extreme points of the characteristic function. The characteristic function was derived using Eshelby's method. The expressions for optimal ratios of the semi-axes of the ellipse and angular orientation of newly inserted infinitesimally small inclusions of elliptical form are derived in closed analytical form.
Multiscale approach to inhomogeneous cosmologies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiegand, Alexander
The backreaction of inhomogeneities on the global expansion history of the Universe suggests a possible link of the formation of structures to the recent accelerated expansion. In this paper, the origin of this conjecture is illustrated and a model without Dark Energy that allows for a more explicit investigation of this link is discussed. Additionally to this conceptually interesting feature, the model leads to a LCDM-like distance-redshift relation that is consistent with SN data.
Quantifying properties of ICM inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhuravleva, I.; Churazov, E.; Kravtsov, A.; Lau, E. T.; Nagai, D.; Sunyaev, R.
2013-02-01
We present a new method to identify and characterize the structure of the intracluster medium (ICM) in simulated galaxy clusters. The method uses the median of gas properties, such as density and pressure, which we show to be very robust to the presence of gas inhomogeneities. In particular, we show that the radial profiles of median gas properties in cosmological simulations of clusters are smooth and do not exhibit fluctuations at locations of massive clumps in contrast to mean and mode properties. Analysis of simulations shows that distribution of gas properties in a given radial shell can be well described by a log-normal probability density function and a tail. The former corresponds to a nearly hydrostatic bulk component, accounting for ˜99 per cent of the volume, while the tail corresponds to high-density inhomogeneities. The clumps can thus be easily identified with the volume elements corresponding to the tail of the distribution. We show that this results in a simple and robust separation of the diffuse and clumpy components of the ICM. The full width at half-maximum of the density distribution in simulated clusters is a growing function of radius and varies from ˜0.15 dex in cluster centre to ˜0.5 dex at 2 r500 in relaxed clusters. The small scatter in the width between relaxed clusters suggests that the degree of inhomogeneity is a robust characteristic of the ICM. It broadly agrees with the amplitude of density perturbations found in the Coma cluster core. We discuss the origin of ICM density variations in spherical shells and show that less than 20 per cent of the width can be attributed to the triaxiality of the cluster gravitational potential. As a link to X-ray observations of real clusters we evaluated the ICM clumping factor, weighted with the temperature-dependent X-ray emissivity, with and without high-density inhomogeneities. We argue that these two cases represent upper and lower limits on the departure of the observed X-ray emissivity
Backflow transformations in inhomogeneous systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lopez Rios, Pablo; Ma, Andrea; Drummond, Neil D.; Needs, Richard J.
2006-03-01
The quality of trial wave-functions, and of their nodal surface in particular, determines the accuracy of the results obtained within the Fixed-Node Diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method. Backflow transformations have been proven capable of improving the nodal surface of Slater-Jastrow (SJ) wave-functions in homogeneous systems. In this work we will present the extension of backflow to inhomogeneous systems, along with DMC results for atoms, molecules and solids which show the improved accuracy of this form of trial wave-function. We will also discuss the advantages of using electron-by-electron algorithms to enhance the computational efficiency of QMC with backflow wave-functions.
Casimir stress in an inhomogeneous medium
Philbin, T.G. Xiong, C.; Leonhardt, U.
2010-03-15
The Casimir effect in an inhomogeneous dielectric is investigated using Lifshitz's theory of electromagnetic vacuum energy. A permittivity function that depends continuously on one Cartesian coordinate is chosen, bounded on each side by homogeneous dielectrics. The result for the Casimir stress is infinite everywhere inside the inhomogeneous region, a divergence that does not occur for piece-wise homogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries. A Casimir force per unit volume can be extracted from the infinite stress but it diverges on the boundaries between the inhomogeneous medium and the homogeneous dielectrics. An alternative regularization of the vacuum stress is considered that removes the contribution of the inhomogeneity over small distances, where macroscopic electromagnetism is invalid. The alternative regularization yields a finite Casimir stress inside the inhomogeneous region, but the stress and force per unit volume diverge on the boundaries with the homogeneous dielectrics. The case of inhomogeneous dielectrics with planar boundaries thus falls outside the current understanding of the Casimir effect.
Transport in partially equilibrated inhomogeneous quantum wires.
Levchenko, A.; Micklitz, T.; Rech, J.; Matveev, K. A.; Materials Science Division; Freie Univ. Berlin; Centre de Physique Theorique
2010-01-01
We study transport properties of weakly interacting one-dimensional electron systems including on an equal footing thermal equilibration due to three-particle collisions and the effects of large-scale inhomogeneities. We show that equilibration in an inhomogeneous quantum wire is characterized by the competition of interaction processes which reduce the electrons total momentum and such which change the number of right- and left-moving electrons. We find that the combined effect of interactions and inhomogeneities can dramatically increase the resistance of the wire. In addition, we find that the interactions strongly affect the thermoelectric properties of inhomogeneous wires and calculate their thermal conductance, thermopower, and Peltier coefficient.
Thomson scattering on inhomogeneous targets
Thiele, R.; Sperling, P.; Bornath, Th.; Kraeft, W.-D.; Redmer, R.; Chen, M.; Faeustlin, R. R.; Toleikis, S.; Fortmann, C.; Glenzer, S. H.; Pukhov, A.; Tschentscher, Th.
2010-11-15
The introduction of brilliant free-electron lasers enables new pump-probe experiments to characterize warm dense matter states. For instance, a short-pulse optical laser irradiates a liquid hydrogen jet that is subsequently probed with brilliant soft x-ray radiation. The strongly inhomogeneous plasma prepared by the optical laser is characterized with particle-in-cell simulations. The interaction of the soft x-ray probe radiation for different time delays between pump and probe with the inhomogeneous plasma is also taken into account via radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We calculate the respective scattering spectrum based on the Born-Mermin approximation for the dynamic structure factor considering the full density and temperature-dependent Thomson scattering cross section throughout the target. We can identify plasmon modes that are generated in different target regions and monitor their temporal evolution. Therefore, such pump-probe experiments are promising tools not only to measure the important plasma parameters density and temperature but also to gain valuable information about their time-dependent profile through the target. The method described here can be applied to various pump-probe scenarios by combining optical lasers and soft x ray, as well as x-ray sources.
Inhomogeneities in the early universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Canuto, V.
1976-01-01
The paper investigates certain nonlinear processes that are viable candidates for the mechanisms which produced large-scale inhomogeneities in the early Universe. Several nonlinear Lagrangians are presented for matter, the Korteweg-de Vries equation is analyzed, and the existence of solitons among its solutions is noted. A model based on the possibility of generating a cascade of solitons from an initial perturbation is proposed, and it is shown how large-scale inhomogeneities can be generated when an initial soliton fragments into many others through the nonlinear action of the terms in the Korteweg-de Vries equation. A second model is examined which is based on the interaction of matter with a strong radiation field (an almost monochromatic photon gas) and which involves changes in the refractive index of the vacuum. It is found that matter and radiation will not mix if the radiation field has a nonuniform intensity and that the matter will separate into dense portions or 'cosmological protogalaxies'. The evolution of these portions of matter is studied, and it is found that conditions would be appropriate for the interface between them and the surrounding radiation field to become unstable, giving rise to a turbulent layer.
Thomson scattering on inhomogeneous targets.
Thiele, R; Sperling, P; Chen, M; Bornath, Th; Fäustlin, R R; Fortmann, C; Glenzer, S H; Kraeft, W-D; Pukhov, A; Toleikis, S; Tschentscher, Th; Redmer, R
2010-11-01
The introduction of brilliant free-electron lasers enables new pump-probe experiments to characterize warm dense matter states. For instance, a short-pulse optical laser irradiates a liquid hydrogen jet that is subsequently probed with brilliant soft x-ray radiation. The strongly inhomogeneous plasma prepared by the optical laser is characterized with particle-in-cell simulations. The interaction of the soft x-ray probe radiation for different time delays between pump and probe with the inhomogeneous plasma is also taken into account via radiative hydrodynamic simulations. We calculate the respective scattering spectrum based on the Born-Mermin approximation for the dynamic structure factor considering the full density and temperature-dependent Thomson scattering cross section throughout the target. We can identify plasmon modes that are generated in different target regions and monitor their temporal evolution. Therefore, such pump-probe experiments are promising tools not only to measure the important plasma parameters density and temperature but also to gain valuable information about their time-dependent profile through the target. The method described here can be applied to various pump-probe scenarios by combining optical lasers and soft x ray, as well as x-ray sources. PMID:21230599
Coherent spectroscopy of Mandelstam-Brillouin scattering in spatially inhomogeneous media
Bunkin, A. F. Mikhalevich, V. G.; Pershin, S. M. Streltsov, V. N.
2011-08-15
Mandelstam-Brillouin (MB) steady-state scattering in an elastic medium with a dense local zone inhomogeneity is considered in the 1D approximation. It is shown that for a certain size of inhomogeneity, the scattered radiation spectrum contains individual resonances whose frequencies depend on the elastic properties of microscopic inclusions. Experiments were performed using coherent four-photon scattering spectroscopy in the range 0-1 cm{sup -1} with a resolution of 0.06 cm{sup -1} in specially processed distilled water and in an aqueous solution of {alpha}-chymotrypsin albumin. In both media, the presence of MB resonances displaced is detected relative to the water resonance ( Almost-Equal-To 0.25 cm{sup -1}) in different directions and corresponding to different types of microinclusions.
Declercq, Nico F; Leroy, Oswald
2011-08-01
Plane waves are solutions of the visco-elastic wave equation. Their wave vector can be real for homogeneous plane waves or complex for inhomogeneous and evanescent plane waves. Although interesting from a theoretical point of view, complex wave vectors normally only emerge naturally when propagation or scattering is studied of sound under the appearance of damping effects. Because of the particular behavior of inhomogeneous and evanescent waves and their estimated efficiency for surface wave generation, bounded beams, experimentally mimicking their infinite counterparts similar to (wide) Gaussian beams imitating infinite harmonic plane waves, are of special interest in this report. The study describes the behavior of bounded inhomogeneous and bounded evanescent waves in terms of amplitude and phase distribution as well as energy flow direction. The outcome is of importance to the applicability of bounded inhomogeneous ultrasonic waves for nondestructive testing. PMID:21453948
Statistical Mechanics of Inhomogeneous Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schofield, P.; Henderson, J. R.
1982-01-01
The nature of the microscopic stress tensor in an inhomogenous fluid is discussed, with emphasis on the statistical mechanics of drops. Changes in free energy for isothermal deformations of a fluid are expressible as volume integrals of the stress tensor 'times' a strain terror. A particular radial distortion of a drop leads to statistical mechanical expressions for the pressure difference across the surface of the drop. We find that the stress tensor is not uniquely defined by the microscopic laws embodying conservation of momentum and angular momentum and that the ambiguity remains in the ensemble average, or pressure tensor, in regions of inhomomogeneity. This leads to difficulties in defining statistical mechanical expressions for the surface tension of a drop.
Inhomogeneous strains in small particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marks, L. D.
1985-02-01
This paper considers the evidence for strains in small particles. Firstly, the dynamical electron diffraction theory for dark field imaging of small particles is briefly reviewed, considering primarily the effects of strain on wedge crystals and identifying the fingerprint of strain contrast effects under strong beam conditions. Evidence included herein and from published papers by other authors clearly shows inhomogeneous strain effects in both multiply twinned particles and single crystals. Considering these results and earlier reports of lattice parameter changes, there are problems with the uniqueness of these analyses, and the strains in the small single crystals are thought more likely to be due to interfacial stresses or contaminants than any intrinsic particle effect; there are so many different origins of this type of strain that we cannot with confidence isolate a unique source. It is emphasised that the uniqueness of any interpretation of experimental results from small particles must be very carefully considered.
Elasticity, adhesion and actin based propulsion
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gopinathan, Ajay
2006-03-01
When a cells crawls, its shape re-organizes via polymerization and depolymerization of actin filaments. The growing ends of the filaments are oriented towards the outside of the cell, and their polymerization pushes the cell membrane forwards. The same mechanism comes into play when the bacterial pathogen Listeria monocytogenes infects a cell. The bacterium hijacks the host cell's actin machinery to create an actin network (the actin comet tail) that propels the bacterium through cells and into neighboring cells. We propose a mechanism for how polymerization gives rise to motility that incorporates the effects of inhomogeneous polymerization. We treat the actin comet tail as an elastic continuum tethered to the rear of the bacterium. The interplay of polymerization and tethering gives rise to inhomogeneous stresses calculated with a finite element analysis. We quantitatively reproduce many distinctive features of actin propulsion that have been observed experimentally, including stepped motion, hopping, tail shape and the propulsion of flat surfaces.
Quantifying uncertainty from material inhomogeneity.
Battaile, Corbett Chandler; Emery, John M.; Brewer, Luke N.; Boyce, Brad Lee
2009-09-01
Most engineering materials are inherently inhomogeneous in their processing, internal structure, properties, and performance. Their properties are therefore statistical rather than deterministic. These inhomogeneities manifest across multiple length and time scales, leading to variabilities, i.e. statistical distributions, that are necessary to accurately describe each stage in the process-structure-properties hierarchy, and are ultimately the primary source of uncertainty in performance of the material and component. When localized events are responsible for component failure, or when component dimensions are on the order of microstructural features, this uncertainty is particularly important. For ultra-high reliability applications, the uncertainty is compounded by a lack of data describing the extremely rare events. Hands-on testing alone cannot supply sufficient data for this purpose. To date, there is no robust or coherent method to quantify this uncertainty so that it can be used in a predictive manner at the component length scale. The research presented in this report begins to address this lack of capability through a systematic study of the effects of microstructure on the strain concentration at a hole. To achieve the strain concentration, small circular holes (approximately 100 {micro}m in diameter) were machined into brass tensile specimens using a femto-second laser. The brass was annealed at 450 C, 600 C, and 800 C to produce three hole-to-grain size ratios of approximately 7, 1, and 1/7. Electron backscatter diffraction experiments were used to guide the construction of digital microstructures for finite element simulations of uniaxial tension. Digital image correlation experiments were used to qualitatively validate the numerical simulations. The simulations were performed iteratively to generate statistics describing the distribution of plastic strain at the hole in varying microstructural environments. In both the experiments and simulations, the
Inhomogeneities of stratocumulus liquid water
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Cahalan, Robert F.; Snider, Jack B.
1990-01-01
There is a growing body of observational evidence on inhomogeneous cloud structure, most recently from the extensive measurements of the FIRE field program. Knowledge of cloud structure is important because it strongly influences the cloud radiative properties, one of the major factors in determining the global energy balance. Current atmospheric circulation models use plane-parallel radiation, so that the liquid water in each gridbox is assumed to be uniform, which gives an unrealistically large albedo. In reality cloud liquid water occupies only a subset of each gridbox, greatly reducing the mean albedo. If future climate models are to treat the hydrological cycle in a manner consistent with energy balance, a better treatment of cloud liquid is needed. FIRE concentrated upon two cloud types of special interest: cirrus and marine stratocumulus. Cirrus tend to be high and optically thin, thus reducing the effective radiative temperature without increasing the albedo significantly, leading to an enhanced greenhouse heating. In contrast, marine stratocumulus are low and optically thick, thus producing a large increase in reflected radiation with a small change in emitted radiation, giving a net cooling which could potentially mitigate the expected greenhouse warming. The FIRE measurements in California stratocumulus during June and July of 1987 show variations in cloud liquid water on all scales. Such variations are associated with inhomogeneous entrainment, in which entrained dry air, rather than mixing uniformly with cloudy air, remains intact in blobs of all sizes, which decay only slowly by invasion of cloudy air. Two important stratocumulus observations are described, followed by a simple fractal model which reproduces these properties, and finally, the model radiative properties are discussed.
Isotropic expansion of an inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Geng, Wei-Jian; Lü, H.
2014-10-01
We propose a cosmological model that describes isotropic expansion of an inhomogeneous universe. The energy-momentum tensor that creates the spatial inhomogeneity may not affect the uniform expansion scaling factor a(t) in the Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker-like metrics. Such an energy-momentum tensor may not be exotic; in fact any linear or nonlinear σ model has this feature. We show that the classical spatial inhomogeneity can be embedded in both inflation models and the traditional cosmological expansion by perfect fluid. The spatial inhomogeneity resembles the primordial quantum perturbation that was frozen in the comoving frame. We obtain some exact inhomogeneous solutions with spherical or axial symmetries. We also show that some of our cosmological models can be viewed as the dynamical black hole formation.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dai, Ming; Schiavone, Peter; Gao, Cun-Fa
2016-06-01
We re-examine the conclusion established earlier in the literature that in the presence of a homogeneously imperfect interface, the circular inhomogeneity is the only shape of inhomogeneity which can achieve a uniform internal strain field in an isotropic or anisotropic material subjected to anti-plane shear. We show that under certain conditions, it is indeed possible to design such non-circular inhomogeneities despite the limitation of a homogeneously imperfect interface. Our method proceeds by prescribing a uniform strain field inside a non-circular inhomogeneity via perturbations of the uniform strain field inside the analogous circular inhomogeneity and then subsequently identifying the corresponding (non-circular) shape via the use of a conformal mapping whose unknown coefficients are determined from a system of nonlinear equations. We illustrate our results with several examples. We note also that, for a given size of inhomogeneity, the minimum value of the interface parameter required to guarantee the desired uniform internal strain increases as the elastic constants of the inclusion approach those of the matrix. Finally, we discuss in detail the relationship between the curvature of the interface and the displacement jump across the interface in the design of such inhomogeneities.
Shear waves in inhomogeneous, compressible fluids in a gravity field.
Godin, Oleg A
2014-03-01
While elastic solids support compressional and shear waves, waves in ideal compressible fluids are usually thought of as compressional waves. Here, a class of acoustic-gravity waves is studied in which the dilatation is identically zero, and the pressure and density remain constant in each fluid particle. These shear waves are described by an exact analytic solution of linearized hydrodynamics equations in inhomogeneous, quiescent, inviscid, compressible fluids with piecewise continuous parameters in a uniform gravity field. It is demonstrated that the shear acoustic-gravity waves also can be supported by moving fluids as well as quiescent, viscous fluids with and without thermal conductivity. Excitation of a shear-wave normal mode by a point source and the normal mode distortion in realistic environmental models are considered. The shear acoustic-gravity waves are likely to play a significant role in coupling wave processes in the ocean and atmosphere. PMID:24606251
Intrinsic Inhomogeneity and Multiscale Functionality in Transition Metal Oxides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bishop, A. R.
2003-06-01
We briefly review a perspective of transition metal oxides as correlated electron materials governed by functional multiscale complexity. We emphasize several themes: the prevalence of intrinsic complexity realized in the coexistence or competition among broken-symmetry ground states; the origin of landscapes in coupled spin, charge and lattice (orbital) degrees-of-freedom; the importance of co-existing short- and long-range forces; and the importance of multiscale complexity for key material properties, including hierarchies of functional, connected scales, coupled intrinsic inhomogeneities in spin, charge and lattice, consequent intrinsic multiple timescales, and the importance of multifunctional "electro-elastic" materials. Finally, we suggest that such intrinsic multiscale features are characteristic of wide classes of inorganic, organic, and biological matter.
Size effects on magnetoelectric response of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yue, Y. M.; Xu, K. Y.; Chen, T.; Aifantis, E. C.
2015-12-01
This paper investigates the influence of size effects on the magnetoelectric performance of multiferroic composite with inhomogeneities. Based on a simple model of gradient elasticity for multiferroic materials, the governing equations and boundary conditions are obtained from an energy variational principle. The general formulation is applied to consider an anti-plane problem of multiferroic composites with inhomogeneities. This problem is solved analytically and the effective magnetoelectric coefficient is obtained. The influence of the internal length (grain size or particle size) on the effective magnetoelectric coefficients of piezoelectric/piezomagnetic nanoscale fibrous composite is numerically evaluated and analyzed. The results suggest that with the increase of the internal length of piezoelectric matrix (PZT and BaTiO3), the magnetoelectric coefficient increases, but the rate of increase is ratcheting downwards. If the internal length of piezoelectric matrix remains unchanged, the magnetoelectric coefficient will decrease with the increase of internal length scale of piezomagnetic nonfiber (CoFe2O3). In a composite consisiting of a piezomagnetic matrix (CoFe2O3) reinforced with piezoelectric nanofibers (BaTiO3), an increase of the internal length in the piezomagnetic matrix, results to a decrease of the magnetoelectric coefficient, with the rate of decrease diminishing.
Matched Interface and Boundary Method for Elasticity Interface Problems
Wang, Bao; Xia, Kelin; Wei, Guo-Wei
2015-01-01
Elasticity theory is an important component of continuum mechanics and has had widely spread applications in science and engineering. Material interfaces are ubiquity in nature and man-made devices, and often give rise to discontinuous coefficients in the governing elasticity equations. In this work, the matched interface and boundary (MIB) method is developed to address elasticity interface problems. Linear elasticity theory for both isotropic homogeneous and inhomogeneous media is employed. In our approach, Lamé’s parameters can have jumps across the interface and are allowed to be position dependent in modeling isotropic inhomogeneous material. Both strong discontinuity, i.e., discontinuous solution, and weak discontinuity, namely, discontinuous derivatives of the solution, are considered in the present study. In the proposed method, fictitious values are utilized so that the standard central finite different schemes can be employed regardless of the interface. Interface jump conditions are enforced on the interface, which in turn, accurately determines fictitious values. We design new MIB schemes to account for complex interface geometries. In particular, the cross derivatives in the elasticity equations are difficult to handle for complex interface geometries. We propose secondary fictitious values and construct geometry based interpolation schemes to overcome this difficulty. Numerous analytical examples are used to validate the accuracy, convergence and robustness of the present MIB method for elasticity interface problems with both small and large curvatures, strong and weak discontinuities, and constant and variable coefficients. Numerical tests indicate second order accuracy in both L∞ and L2 norms. PMID:25914439
Predicting surface vibration from underground railways through inhomogeneous soil
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Simon; Hunt, Hugh
2012-04-01
Noise and vibration from underground railways is a major source of disturbance to inhabitants near subways. To help designers meet noise and vibration limits, numerical models are used to understand vibration propagation from these underground railways. However, the models commonly assume the ground is homogeneous and neglect to include local variability in the soil properties. Such simplifying assumptions add a level of uncertainty to the predictions which is not well understood. The goal of the current paper is to quantify the effect of soil inhomogeneity on surface vibration. The thin-layer method (TLM) is suggested as an efficient and accurate means of simulating vibration from underground railways in arbitrarily layered half-spaces. Stochastic variability of the soil's elastic modulus is introduced using a K-L expansion; the modulus is assumed to have a log-normal distribution and a modified exponential covariance kernel. The effect of horizontal soil variability is investigated by comparing the stochastic results for soils varied only in the vertical direction to soils with 2D variability. Results suggest that local soil inhomogeneity can significantly affect surface velocity predictions; 90 percent confidence intervals showing 8 dB averages and peak values up to 12 dB are computed. This is a significant source of uncertainty and should be considered when using predictions from models assuming homogeneous soil properties. Furthermore, the effect of horizontal variability of the elastic modulus on the confidence interval appears to be negligible. This suggests that only vertical variation needs to be taken into account when modelling ground vibration from underground railways.
Hydrogen solubility in inhomogeneous Pd alloys
Flanagan, T.B.; Wang, D.; Clewley, J.D.
1998-12-31
As-cast, arc-melted Pd-Ni alloys are inhomogeneous and the H{sub 2} isotherms for these differ from their homogeneous counterparts in the two phase, (dilute + hydride), regions but not in the dilute phase regions. Pd-Ni alloys, which become inhomogeneous via a ternary (Pd + Ni + H) equilibrium phase change, have H{sub 2} isotherms which differ from those of the homogeneous alloy in both the two-phase and the dilute phase regions. These results are discussed with respect to the expected type of inhomogeneities.
Localization of resistive domains in inhomogeneous superconductors
Gurevich, A.V.; Mints, R.G.
1981-01-01
The properties of resistive domains due to the Joule heating in inhomogeneous superconductors with transport currents are studied. The equilibrium of a domain at an inhomogeneity of arbitrary type and with dimensions much smaller than the dimensions of the domain is investigated. It is shown that resistive domains can become localized at inhomogeneities. The temperature distribution in a domain and the current--voltage characteristic of the domain are determined. The stability of localized domains is discussed. It is shown that such domains give rise to a hysteresis in the destruction (recovery) of the superconductivity by the transport current.
Holographic confinement in inhomogeneous backgrounds
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marolf, Donald; Wien, Jason
2016-08-01
As noted by Witten, compactifying a d-dimensional holographic CFT on an S 1 gives a class of ( d - 1)-dimensional confining theories with gravity duals. The proto-typical bulk solution dual to the ground state is a double Wick rotation of the AdS d+1 Schwarzschild black hole known as the AdS soliton. We generalize such examples by allowing slow variations in the size of the S 1, and thus in the confinement scale. Coefficients governing the second order response of the system are computed for 3 ≤ d ≤ 8 using a derivative expansion closely related to the fluid-gravity correspondence. The primary physical results are that i) gauge-theory flux tubes tend to align orthogonal to gradients and along the eigenvector of the Hessian with the lowest eigenvalue, ii) flux tubes aligned orthogonal to gradients are attracted to gradients for d ≤ 6 but repelled by gradients for d ≥ 7, iii) flux tubes are repelled by regions where the second derivative along the tube is large and positive but are attracted to regions where the eigenvalues of the Hessian are large and positive in directions orthogonal to the tube, and iv) for d > 3, inhomogeneities act to raise the total energy of the confining vacuum above its zeroth order value.
Inhomogeneous recombinations during cosmic reionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sobacchi, Emanuele; Mesinger, Andrei
2014-05-01
By depleting the ionizing photon budget available to expand cosmic H II regions, recombining systems (or Lyman limit systems) can have a large impact during (and following) cosmic reionization. Unfortunately, directly resolving such structures in large-scale reionization simulations is computationally impractical. Instead, here we implement a subgrid prescription for tracking inhomogeneous recombinations in the intergalactic medium. Building on previous work parametrizing photoheating feedback on star formation, we present large-scale, seminumeric reionization simulations which self-consistently track the local (subgrid) evolution of both sources and sinks of ionizing photons. Our simple, single-parameter model naturally results in both an extended reionization and a modest, slowly evolving emissivity, consistent with observations. Recombinations are instrumental in slowing the growth of large H II regions, and damping the rapid rise of the ionizing background in the late stages of (and following) reionization. As a result, typical H II regions are smaller by factors of ˜2 to 3 throughout reionization. The large-scale (k ≲ 0.2 Mpc-1) ionization power spectrum is suppressed by factors of ≳2-3 in the second half of reionization. Therefore properly modelling recombinations is important in interpreting virtually all reionization observables, including upcoming interferometry with the redshifted 21cm line. Consistent with previous works, we find the clumping factor of ionized gas to be C H II ˜ 4 at the end of reionization.
Pair-production in inhomogeneous electric fields
Xue Shesheng
2008-01-03
This is a preliminary study on the rate of electron-positron pair production in spatially inhomogeneous electric fields. We study the rate in the Sauter field and compare it to the rate in the homogeneous field.
SURFACE INHOMOGENEITY EFFECTS ON CONVECTIVE DIFFUSION
It is suggested that convectlve scaling, with appropriate extensions, provides the most useful framework for estimating the effects of urban-scale surface inhomogeneities on diffusion in convective conditions. trong contrasts in surface heat flux exist between cropland, forests, ...
Inhomogeneous Einstein-Rosen string cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clancy, Dominic; Feinstein, Alexander; Lidsey, James E.; Tavakol, Reza
1999-08-01
Families of anisotropic and inhomogeneous string cosmologies containing non-trivial dilaton and axion fields are derived by applying the global symmetries of the string effective action to a generalized Einstein-Rosen metric. The models exhibit a two-dimensional group of Abelian isometries. In particular, two classes of exact solutions are found that represent inhomogeneous generalizations of the Bianchi type VIh cosmology. The asymptotic behavior of the solutions is investigated and further applications are briefly discussed.
Inhomogeneities Between and Within Moldavites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lange, J.-M.; Meisel, T.
1995-09-01
Tektites of unusual chemical or textural composition can give us clues to a range of source materials involved in the formation of the whole population of ejected glasses. Inhomogeneities of moldavites are well known [e.g. 1, 2]. There have been several reports on Muong Nong or layered tektites in the moldavite strewn field [e.g. 3]. In a systematical study of 69 specimens of Lusatia and also from the Czech subfields (Moravia, Bohemia, Radomilice) new glasses were discovered with unusual composition. To the etablished groups of: Normal moldavites (SiO2 76-80 wt%, CaO/MgO about 1.3) including the Bohemian (MgO > 1.5 wt%, CaO > 2 wt%) and Moravian (MgO < 1.5 wt%, CaO < 2 wt%) types, HSi-moldavites (> 80 wt% SiO2) which is common in the Radomilice subfield, HCa/Mg-moldavites (CaO/MgO > 2) first described by [4], HFe-moldavites (Fe-rich moldavites FeO > 2 wt% and SiO2 typically < 76 wt% reported by [5] and layered moldavite (one specimen described by [3], with textural similiarities to Muong Nong-type tektites),we want to add new types found at Jankov (Bohemia) and Trebic (Moravia), "MB-JKV12", which is characterized by two optically distinct components of distinct chemical composition: 1. low SiO2 and high FeO (dark colored) areas and 2. areas of normal moldavite composition (pale areas). The halogen content and Cl/Br ratio are similiar to layered tektites from Indochina [6]. Figure 1 displays the inhomogeneity of this sample in the chemical composition of the two areas and "MM-TRB1" a LCa/Mg-moldavite with an low CaO/MgO-ratio of 0.5. In a diagram Eu versus CaO most of the groups above can be discriminated. New REE-analysis of MB-CLM1 (a HCa/Mg type) done with ID-MS display a less pronounced negative Eu anomaly compared to a normal moldavite from the same locality (MB-CLM2). The high Ca and higher Eu content could be indicative of a higher proportion of plagioclas in the source of this specimen. Whereas the Moravia specimens are very homogenous in their element
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karami, Keyhan; Abedi, Majid; Zamani Nejad, Mohammad; Lotfian, Mohammad Hassan
2012-12-01
On the basis of plane elasticity theory (PET), the displacement and stress components in a thick-walled spherical pressure vessels made of heterogeneous materials subjected to internal and external pressure is developed. The mechanical properties except the Poisson's ratio are assumed to obey the parabolic variations throughout the thickness. Effect of material inhomogeneity on the elastic deformations and stresses is investigated. The analytical solutions and the solutions carried out through the FEM have a good agreement. The values used in this study are arbitrary chosen to demonstrate the effect of inhomogeneity on displacements, and stresses distributions.
Atomic picture of elastic deformation in a metallic glass
Wang, X. D.; Aryal, S.; Zhong, C.; Ching, W. Y.; Sheng, H. W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, D. X.; Cao, Q. P.; Jiang, J. Z.
2015-03-17
The tensile behavior of a Ni₆₀Nb₄₀ metallic glass (MG) has been studied by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation with a large cell containing 1024 atoms (614 Ni and 410 Nb). We provide insight into how a super elastic limit can be achieved in a MG. Spatially inhomogeneous responses of single atoms and also major polyhedra are found to change greatly with increasing external stress when the strain is over 2%, causing the intrinsically viscoelastic behavior. We uncover the origin of the observed super elastic strain limit under tension (including linear and viscoelastic strains) in small-sized MG samples, mainly caused by inhomogeneous distribution of excess volumes in the form of newly formed subatomic cavities.
Atomic picture of elastic deformation in a metallic glass
Wang, X. D.; Aryal, S.; Zhong, C.; Ching, W. Y.; Sheng, H. W.; Zhang, H.; Zhang, D. X.; Cao, Q. P.; Jiang, J. Z.
2015-03-17
The tensile behavior of a Ni₆₀Nb₄₀ metallic glass (MG) has been studied by using ab initio density functional theory (DFT) calculation with a large cell containing 1024 atoms (614 Ni and 410 Nb). We provide insight into how a super elastic limit can be achieved in a MG. Spatially inhomogeneous responses of single atoms and also major polyhedra are found to change greatly with increasing external stress when the strain is over 2%, causing the intrinsically viscoelastic behavior. We uncover the origin of the observed super elastic strain limit under tension (including linear and viscoelastic strains) in small-sized MG samples,more » mainly caused by inhomogeneous distribution of excess volumes in the form of newly formed subatomic cavities.« less
Laser-driven electron acceleration in an inhomogeneous plasma channel
Zhang, Rong; Cheng, Li-Hong; Xue, Ju-Kui
2015-12-15
We study the laser-driven electron acceleration in a transversely inhomogeneous plasma channel. We find that, in inhomogeneous plasma channel, the developing of instability for electron acceleration and the electron energy gain can be controlled by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of plasma channel. That is, we can short the accelerating length and enhance the energy gain in inhomogeneous plasma channel by adjusting the laser polarization angle and inhomogeneity of the plasma channel.
Light propagation and large-scale inhomogeneities
Brouzakis, Nikolaos; Tetradis, Nikolaos; Tzavara, Eleftheria E-mail: ntetrad@phys.uoa.gr
2008-04-15
We consider the effect on the propagation of light of inhomogeneities with sizes of order 10 Mpc or larger. The Universe is approximated through a variation of the Swiss-cheese model. The spherical inhomogeneities are void-like, with central underdensities surrounded by compensating overdense shells. We study the propagation of light in this background, assuming that the source and the observer occupy random positions, so that each beam travels through several inhomogeneities at random angles. The distribution of luminosity distances for sources with the same redshift is asymmetric, with a peak at a value larger than the average one. The width of the distribution and the location of the maximum increase with increasing redshift and length scale of the inhomogeneities. We compute the induced dispersion and bias of cosmological parameters derived from the supernova data. They are too small to explain the perceived acceleration without dark energy, even when the length scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to the horizon distance. Moreover, the dispersion and bias induced by gravitational lensing at the scales of galaxies or clusters of galaxies are larger by at least an order of magnitude.
Inhomogeneous mixmaster universes: Some exact solutions
Carmeli, M.; Charach, C.; Feinstein, A.
1983-10-15
Algorithms for generating new exact solutions of the Einstein-Klein-Gordon field equations, which describe inhomogeneous universes with S/sup 3/ topology of spatial sections, are developed. The known exact vacuum and still-fluid solutions with S/sup 3/ topology are used as an input. The methods developed are further applied to derive inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type IX solutions and inhomogeneous S/sup 3/ Gowdy models with gravitational and scalar waves. It is shown that the new solutions, which are generalizations of the Bianchi type IX models, permit identification of the scalar field with the velocity potential of the stiff irrotational fluid. The latter result is further used to study the growth rate of density perturbations of the isotropic and anisotropic Bianchi type IX universes in a fully nonlinear relativistic regime. The role of anisotropy on the rate of growth of density perturbations is studied in detail.
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous strings
Amore, Paolo
2013-11-15
We derive explicit expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous strings with arbitrary density and with different boundary conditions. We show that the sum rule of order N may be obtained in terms of a diagrammatic expansion, with (N−1)!/2 independent diagrams. These sum rules are used to derive upper and lower bounds to the energy of the fundamental mode of an inhomogeneous string; we also show that it is possible to improve these approximations taking into account the asymptotic behavior of the spectrum and applying the Shanks transformation to the sequence of approximations obtained to the different orders. We discuss three applications of these results. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of an inhomogeneous string. •We obtain a diagrammatic representation for the sum rules of a given order. •We obtain precise bounds on the lowest eigenvalue of the string.
Inhomogeneous screening near the dielectric interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Rui; Wang, Zhen-Gang
2016-04-01
Screening is one of the most important concepts in the study of charged systems. Near a dielectric interface, the ion distribution in a salt solution can be highly nonuniform. Here, we develop a theory that self-consistently treats the inhomogeneous screening effects. At higher concentrations when the bulk Debye screening length is comparable to the Bjerrum length, the double layer structure and interfacial properties are significantly affected by the inhomogeneous screening. In particular, the depletion zone is considerably wider than that predicted by the bulk screening approximation or the WKB approximation. The characteristic length of the depletion layer in this regime scales with the Bjerrum length, resulting in a linear increase of the negative adsorption of ions with concentration, in agreement with experiments. For asymmetric salts, inhomogeneous screening leads to enhanced charge separation and surface potential.
Refraction in electrically thin inhomogeneous media.
Ruphuy, Miguel; Ramahi, Omar M
2016-04-01
This work presents a new formulation for refraction from flat electrically thin lenses and reflectors comprised of inhomogeneous material. Inhomogeneous electrically thin flat lenses and reflectors cannot make use of the Snell law since this classical formulation works solely at interfaces of planar homogeneous media. The refraction of a perpendicularly incident plane wave at a planar interface is physically explained through the phase advance of the rays within the medium. The Huygens principle is then used to construct the refracted wavefront. The formulation is validated using numerical full wave simulation for several examples where the refractive angle is predicted with good accuracy. Furthermore, the formulation gives a physical insight of the phenomenon of refraction from electrically thin inhomogeneous media. PMID:27140761
Dendritic inhomogeneity of stainless maraging steels
Krasnikova, S.I.; Drobot, A.V.; Shmelev, A.Y.; Vukelich, S.B.
1986-03-01
The authors investigated dendritic inhomogeneity in industrial ingots 630 mm (steel I) in diameter and 500 mm (steel II) in diameter. The variation in the degree of dendritic inhomogeneity was investigated over the height of the ingots and across the sections on an MS-46 microprobe. It was established that the elements can be placed in the following order in accordance with the degree of reduction in the liquation factor: titanium, molybdenum, nickel, chromium, and cobalt. Titanium and molybdenum exhibit forward liquation in both steels, and chromium in steel II. The distribution of nickel and chromium in the steel I ingots and cobalt in the steel II ingots is unconventional. Dendritic inhomogeneity, which must be considered in assigning the heat treatment for finished articles, develops during the crystallization of stainless maraging steels.
Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
East, William E.; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-09-01
Using numerical solutions of the full Einstein field equations coupled to a scalar inflaton field in 3+1 dimensions, we study the conditions under which a universe that is initially expanding, highly inhomogeneous and dominated by gradient energy can transition to an inflationary period. If the initial scalar field variations are contained within a sufficiently flat region of the inflaton potential, and the universe is spatially flat or open on average, inflation will occur following the dilution of the gradient and kinetic energy due to expansion. This is the case even when the scale of the inhomogeneities is comparable to the initial Hubble length, and overdense regions collapse and form black holes, because underdense regions continue expanding, allowing inflation to eventually begin. This establishes that inflation can arise from highly inhomogeneous initial conditions and solve the horizon and flatness problems, at least as long as the variations in the scalar field do not include values that exceed the inflationary plateau.
Two Dimensional Inhomogeneous Magnetic Electron Drift Modes
Shaikh, Dastgeer; Eliasson, Bengt; Shukla, P. K.
2009-11-10
We present simulations of the magnetic electron drift vortex (MEDV) mode turbulence in a magnetoplasma in the presence of inhomogeneities in the plasma temperature and density, as well as in the external magnetic field. The study shows that the influence of the magnetic field in-homogeneity is to suppress streamer-like structures observed in previous simulation studies without background magnetic fields. The MEDV mode turbulence exhibits non-universal (non-Kolmogorov type) spectra for different sets of the plasma parameters. In the presence of an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the spectrum changes to a 7/3 power law, which is flatter than without magnetic field gradients. The relevance of this work to laboratory and cosmic plasmas is briefly mentioned.
Braginsky, A. Ya.
2007-07-15
A phenomenological continuum theory of phase transitions to a global inhomogeneous state of a crystal must take into account the compensating fields that represent the fields of stresses caused by dislocations appearing at the boundaries between local homogeneous regions. These compensating fields, which are introduced in order to satisfy the condition of invariance of the Landau potential with respect to the operation of translation, enter into the theory via extended derivatives of the local order parameters with respect to macroscopic coordinates of the local homogeneous regions in the crystal. Because of this extension of derivatives, the theory of phase transitions to an inhomogeneous state must include the theory of elasticity, in which a potential of the stress field induced by the phase transition is proportional to the compensating field magnitude. The Kroener equation, which describes the state of dislocations induced by spatially inhomogeneous ordering, appears in this theory as a result of minimization of the Landau potential with respect to the compensating fields.
A piezoelectric screw dislocation near an elliptical inhomogeneity containing a confocal rigid line
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jiang, C. Z.; Zhao, Y. X.; Liu, Y. W.
2012-09-01
The interaction between a piezoelectric screw dislocation and an elliptical inhomogeneity in piezoelectric composite material which contains an electrically conductive confocal rigid line is studied, especially analyzing the shielding effect of a piezoelectric screw dislocation near an elliptical inhomogeneity. By applying the complex variable method, the analytical solution to the elastic field and the electric field, the field intensity factors at the tip of the rigid line are derived. The image force acting on the piezoelectric screw dislocation is calculated by using the generalized Peach-Koehler formula. Accordingly, the location and the orientation of the dislocation, the material properties upon the shielding or anti-shielding effect on the stress intensity factors, as well as the effects of the rigid line and the electroelastic properties of the piezoelectric materials on the image force are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamamoto, Akio; Miwa, Hiroshi; Wang, Wen Jun; Hashimoto, Akihiro
2006-01-01
This paper reports the in-depth and in-plane inhomogeneities in InN films. Samples of InN are grown on sapphire substrates without or with a buffer using the atmospheric-pressure MOVPE. For the in-depth inhomogeneity analysis, the conventional PL measurement using an excitation source with a different wavelength is made from both the front surface and the film/substrate interface sides of samples. The measurement reveals that samples grown for a long time without buffer contain a deteriorated layer, which shows a higher PL peak energy, near the film/substrate interface. Such a layer is never found on the surface side. The deterioration is markedly enhanced when the sample is annealed in an NH3 flow. Since the coexistence of TMI and NH3 (growth environment) suppresses the deterioration and the InN samples used in this experiment have an In-polarity, such a deterioration is hydrogen-related degradation on the N-face of InN film. In-plane inhomogeneity of InN grown with a different buffer is studied by analyzing PL and absorption data. A wider PL spectrum and a larger discrepancy between PL peak energy and absorption edge, those are observed for films grown without buffer, are well explained by taking account of a large in-plane inhomogeneity in the samples. The existence of the large in-plane inhomogeneity is confirmed by the near-field PL mapping obtained by the SNOM. The SNOM analysis also shows that, although the use of the buffer improves the apparent in-plane uniformity, such a film has a fine inhomogeneity due to small grains of the buffer.
Polarization and adiabatic pumping in inhomogeneous crystals.
Xiao, Di; Shi, Junren; Clougherty, Dennis P; Niu, Qian
2009-02-27
We develop a general theory of electric polarization in crystals with inhomogeneous order. We show that the inhomogeneity-induced polarization can be classified into two parts: a perturbative contribution stemming from a correction to the basis functions and a topological contribution described in terms of the Chern-Simons form of the Berry gauge fields. The latter is determined up to an uncertainty quantum, which is the second Chern number in appropriate units. Our theory provides an exhaustive link between microscopic models and the macroscopic polarization. PMID:19257787
Polarization and Adiabatic Pumping in Inhomogeneous Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Di; Shi, Junren; Clougherty, Dennis P.; Niu, Qian
2009-02-01
We develop a general theory of electric polarization in crystals with inhomogeneous order. We show that the inhomogeneity-induced polarization can be classified into two parts: a perturbative contribution stemming from a correction to the basis functions and a topological contribution described in terms of the Chern-Simons form of the Berry gauge fields. The latter is determined up to an uncertainty quantum, which is the second Chern number in appropriate units. Our theory provides an exhaustive link between microscopic models and the macroscopic polarization.
On electromagnetic field problems in inhomogeneous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mohsen, A.
1973-01-01
Analysis of electromagnetic fields in inhomogeneous media is of practical interest in general scattering and propagation problems and in the study of lenses. For certain types of inhomogeneities, the fields may be represented in terms of two scalars. In a general orthogonal coordinate system, these potentials satisfy second order differential equations. Exact solutions of these equations are known only for a few particular cases and in general, an approximate or numerical technique must be employed. The present work reviews and generalizes some of the main methods of attack of the problem. The results are presented in a form appropriate for numerical computation.
Growing inhomogeneities in cosmological Goldstone modes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Benson, Katherine M.
1992-08-01
We examine the evolution of initial inhomogeneities in a Goldstone field in an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We find subhorizon inhomogeneities grow, relative to the homogeneous state. This stems not from growing fluctuations - which simply redshift - but from rapid (ϱ ~ a-6) decay of the homogeneous state. We show how Goldstone modes escape assumptions - some inapplicable, some ill-founded - underpinning conventional analyses of cosmological fluctuations. Finally, we reconcile our analysis to standard cosmology, noting that the Goldstone evolution is essentially decoupled and dynamical. This material is based upon work supported by NSF grants PHY-87-14654 (while the author was at Harvard University) and PHY91-06210.
Cosmic Inhomogeneities and Averaged Cosmological Dynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paranjape, Aseem; Singh, T. P.
2008-10-01
If general relativity (GR) describes the expansion of the Universe, the observed cosmic acceleration implies the existence of a “dark energy.” However, while the Universe is on average homogeneous on large scales, it is inhomogeneous on smaller scales. While GR governs the dynamics of the inhomogeneous Universe, the averaged homogeneous Universe obeys modified Einstein equations. Can such modifications alone explain the acceleration? For a simple generic model with realistic initial conditions, we show the answer to be “no.” Averaging effects negligibly influence the cosmological dynamics.
Filamentation of laser in an inhomogeneous plasma
Singh, Ranjeet; Tripathi, V. K.
2011-02-15
Filamentation of an intense short pulse laser in an inhomogeneous plasma is investigated when laser propagates along the direction of density gradient and nonlinearity arises due to the relativistic mass variation and ponderomotive force. The ion motion is neglected; however, the effect of dielectric swelling is included. The inhomogeneity in the density profile introduces dielectric swelling of the pump intensity enhancing the plasma permittivity and the growth rate of the instability. The perturbation in laser amplitude grows faster than exponential as the laser penetrates deeper into the denser plasma.
Canonical Hamiltonians for waves in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gershgorin, Boris; Lvov, Yuri V.; Nazarenko, Sergey
2009-01-01
We obtain a canonical form of a quadratic Hamiltonian for linear waves in a weakly inhomogeneous medium. This is achieved by using the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin representation of wave packets. The canonical form of the Hamiltonian is obtained via the series of canonical Bogolyubov-type and near-identical transformations. Various examples of the application illustrating the main features of our approach are presented. The knowledge of the Hamiltonian structure for linear wave systems provides a basis for developing a theory of weakly nonlinear random waves in inhomogeneous media generalizing the theory of homogeneous wave turbulence.
Inhomogeneous generalization of some Bianchi models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carmeli, M.; Charach, Ch.
1980-02-01
Vacuum Bianchi models which can be transformed to the Einstein-Rosen metric are considered. The models are used in order to construct new inhomogeneous universes, which are generalizations of Bianchi cosmologies of types III, V and VIh. Recent generalizations of these Bianchi models, considered by Wainwright et al., are also discussed.
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous drums
Amore, Paolo
2013-09-15
We derive general expressions for the sum rules of the eigenvalues of drums of arbitrary shape and arbitrary density, obeying different boundary conditions. The formulas that we present are a generalization of the analogous formulas for one dimensional inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in a previous paper. We also discuss the extension of these formulas to higher dimensions. We show that in the special case of a density depending only on one variable the sum rules of any integer order can be expressed in terms of a single series. As an application of our result we derive exact sum rules for the homogeneous circular annulus with different boundary conditions, for a homogeneous circular sector and for a radially inhomogeneous circular annulus with Dirichlet boundary conditions. -- Highlights: •We derive an explicit expression for the sum rules of inhomogeneous drums. •We discuss the extension to higher dimensions. •We discuss the special case of an inhomogeneity only along one direction.
Optical properties of nonextensive inhomogeneous plasma sheath
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mousavi, A.; Esfandiari-Kalejahi, A.; Akbari-Moghanjoughi, M.
2016-07-01
Propagation of electromagnetic wave through an inhomogeneous magnetized nonextensive plasma sheath is numerically examined for a realistic density profile of a reentry problem around a hypersonic vehicle. The effect of nonextensivity and inhomogeneity on radio wave communication is studied parametrically. Variation of reflection and transmission coefficients, total attenuation, and total phase shift over the plasma sheath with respect to the strength of applied magnetic field are derived and compared for different values of q-nonextensive parameter. The obtained results for inhomogeneous plasma sheath are compared with previously obtained results of authors for homogeneous plasma sheath. The comparison shows that radio communication in the inhomogeneous plasma sheath is more advantageous than that in the homogeneous case. The transmission coefficient of a plasma sheath with superthermal electrons ( /1 3 < q < 1 ) has larger value compared to that with q > 1. Moreover, for ω c e > ω , the minimum value of total attenuation corresponds to the range /1 3 < q < 1 . An interesting result is that nonextensivity effect on wave propagation in plasma sheath depends on the strength of the ambient magnetic field. The effect of nonextensivity on attenuation coefficient is found to be negligible for ω c e < ω while it is significant for ω c e > ω .
Spectral models of strongly inhomogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy
2015-11-01
We compare results from a spectral model for inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al., Theor. Comp. Fluid. Dyn., vol. 8, pp 1-35, 1996) with DNS data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al., Phys. Rev. E, vol. 77, 016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space energy transport can be tested in a flow with strong inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long-times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model does not work so well. It may be argued that the discrepancy arises due to the local approximation to the intrinsically non-local pressure transport in physical-space, the effect of which would be particularly strong at short-times when the inhomogeneity of the SFML is strongest. Motivated by these results, we briefly discuss a new model that captures the non-local transport effects, for arbitrarily strong inhomogeneities of the flow.
Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai
2016-06-01
We present a novel dark matter candidate, an elastically decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its elastic scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10-3- 1 fb range.
Elastically Decoupling Dark Matter.
Kuflik, Eric; Perelstein, Maxim; Lorier, Nicolas Rey-Le; Tsai, Yu-Dai
2016-06-01
We present a novel dark matter candidate, an elastically decoupling relic, which is a cold thermal relic whose present abundance is determined by the cross section of its elastic scattering on standard model particles. The dark matter candidate is predicted to have a mass ranging from a few to a few hundred MeV, and an elastic scattering cross section with electrons, photons and/or neutrinos in the 10^{-3}-1 fb range. PMID:27314712
Volume integrals associated with the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Part 1: Ellipsoidal region
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fu, L. S.; Mura, T.
1983-01-01
Problems of wave phenomena in fields of acoustics, electromagnetics and elasticity are often reduced to an integration of the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Results are presented for volume integrals associated with the Helmholtz operator, nabla(2) to alpha(2), for the case of an ellipsoidal region. By using appropriate Taylor series expansions and multinomial theorem, these volume integrals are obtained in series form for regions r 4' and r r', where r and r' are distances from the origin to the point of observation and source, respectively. Derivatives of these integrals are easily evaluated. When the wave number approaches zero, the results reduce directly to the potentials of variable densities.
Elastic internal flywheel gimbal
Rabenhorst, D.W.
1981-01-13
An elastic joint mounting and rotatably coupling a rotary inertial energy storage device or flywheel, to a shaft, the present gimbal structure reduces vibration and shock while allowing precession of the flywheel without the need for external gimbal mounts. The present elastic joint usually takes the form of an annular elastic member either integrally formed into the flywheel as a centermost segment thereof or attached to the flywheel or flywheel hub member at the center thereof, the rotary shaft then being mounted centrally to the elastic member.
Multiscale simulation of 2D elastic wave propagation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Wensheng; Zheng, Hui
2016-06-01
In this paper, we develop the multiscale method for simulation of elastic wave propagation. Based on the first-order velocity-stress hyperbolic form of 2D elastic wave equation, the particle velocities are solved first ona coarse grid by the finite volume method. Then the stress tensor is solved by using the multiscale basis functions which can represent the fine-scale variation of the wavefield on the coarse grid. The basis functions are computed by solving a local problem with the finite element method. The theoretical formulae and description of the multiscale method for elastic wave equation are given in more detail. The numerical computations for an inhomogeneous model with random scatter are completed. The results show the effectiveness of the multiscale method.
Rayleigh scattering and nonlinear inversion of elastic waves
Gritto, R.
1995-12-01
Rayleigh scattering of elastic waves by an inclusion is investigated and the limitations determined. In the near field of the inhomogeneity, the scattered waves are up to a factor of 300 stronger than in the far field, excluding the application of the far field Rayleigh approximation for this range. The investigation of the relative error as a function of parameter perturbation shows a range of applicability broader than previously assumed, with errors of 37% and 17% for perturbations of {minus}100% and +100%, respectively. The validity range for the Rayleigh limit is controlled by large inequalities, and therefore, the exact limit is determined as a function of various parameter configurations, resulting in surprisingly high values of up to k{sub p}R = 0.9. The nonlinear scattering problem can be solved by inverting for equivalent source terms (moments) of the scatterer, before the elastic parameters are determined. The nonlinear dependence between the moments and the elastic parameters reveals a strong asymmetry around the origin, which will produce different results for weak scattering approximations depending on the sign of the anomaly. Numerical modeling of cross hole situations shows that near field terms are important to yield correct estimates of the inhomogeneities in the vicinity of the receivers, while a few well positioned sources and receivers considerably increase the angular coverage, and thus the model resolution of the inversion parameters. The pattern of scattered energy by an inhomogeneity is complicated and varies depending on the object, the wavelength of the incident wave, and the elastic parameters involved. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate the direction of scattered amplitudes to determine the best survey geometry.
Elastic properties of minerals
Aleksandrov, K.S.; Prodaivoda, G.T.
1993-09-01
Investigations of the elastic properties of the main rock-forming minerals were begun by T.V. Ryzhova and K.S. Aleksandrov over 30 years ago on the initiative of B.P. Belikov. At the time, information on the elasticity of single crystals in general, and especially of minerals, was very scanty. In the surveys of that time there was information on the elasticity of 20 or 30 minerals. These, as a rule, did not include the main rock-forming minerals; silicates were represented only by garnets, quartz, topaz, tourmaline, zircon, beryl, and staurolite, which are often found in nature in the form of large and fairly high-quality crystals. Then and even much later it was still necessary to prove a supposition which now seems obvious: The elastic properties of rocks, and hence the velocities of elastic (seismic) waves in the earth`s crust, are primarily determined by the elastic characteristics of the minerals composing these rocks. Proof of this assertion, with rare exceptions of mono-mineralic rocks (marble, quartzite, etc.) cannot be obtained without information on the elasticities of a sufficiently large number of minerals, primarily framework, layer, and chain silicates which constitute the basis of most rocks. This also served as the starting point and main problem of the undertakings of Aleksandrov, Ryzhova, and Belikov - systematic investigations of the elastic properties of minerals and then of various rocks. 108 refs., 7 tabs.
Postinstability models in elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Zak, M.
1984-01-01
It is demonstrated that the instability caused by the failure of hyperbolicity in elasticity and associated with the problem of unpredictability in classical mechanics expresses the incompleteness of the original model of an elastic medium. The instability as well as the ill-posedness of the Cauchy problem are eliminated by reformulating the original model.
Peng, Qing; De, Suvranu
2014-10-21
Silicane is a fully hydrogenated silicene-a counterpart of graphene-having promising applications in hydrogen storage with capacities larger than 6 wt%. Knowledge of its elastic limit is critical in its applications as well as tailoring its electronic properties by strain. Here we investigate the mechanical response of silicane to various strains using first-principles calculations based on density functional theory. We illustrate that non-linear elastic behavior is prominent in two-dimensional nanomaterials as opposed to bulk materials. The elastic limits defined by ultimate tensile strains are 0.22, 0.28, and 0.25 along armchair, zigzag, and biaxial directions, respectively, an increase of 29%, 33%, and 24% respectively in reference to silicene. The in-plane stiffness and Poisson ratio are reduced by a factor of 16% and 26%, respectively. However, hydrogenation/dehydrogenation has little effect on its ultimate tensile strengths. We obtained high order elastic constants for a rigorous continuum description of the nonlinear elastic response. The limitation of second, third, fourth, and fifth order elastic constants are in the strain range of 0.02, 0.08, and 0.13, and 0.21, respectively. The pressure effect on the second order elastic constants and Poisson's ratio were predicted from the third order elastic constants. Our results could provide a safe guide for promising applications and strain-engineering the functions and properties of silicane monolayers. PMID:25190587
Theory of Superfluorescence in Highly Inhomogeneous Quantum Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ishikawa, Akira; Miyajima, Kensuke; Ashida, Masaaki; Itoh, Tadashi; Ishihara, Hajime
2016-03-01
Superfluorescence originates from quantum coherence between polarizations in a radiation field. In general, system homogeneity is essential for superfluorescence because inhomogeneity causes decoherence. However, superfluorescence has been recently realized using solid-state materials with large inhomogeneity, with regard to the application for a coherent-light source, etc. This study proposes theoretical criteria for classifying superfluorescence in highly inhomogeneous systems into two regimes on the basis of competition between the generation of coherence due to the strong light-matter coupling in solid-state materials and decoherence caused by the system inhomogeneity. These criteria supports controlling and designing the system inhomogeneity with limited available fabrication technologies.
Beginning inflation in an inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
East, William; Kleban, Matthew; Linde, Andrei; Senatore, Leonardo
2016-03-01
The idea that a period of exponential expansion occurred early in the Universe's history was originally proposed in order to explain the large scale homogeneity and isotropy of the Universe. However, there remain open questions about the conditions under which inflation can eventually arise when homogeneity is not assumed to begin with it. I will describe an investigation, utilizing simulations in full general relativity, of the very inhomogeneous regime where initially the gradient energy of the scalar inflaton field dominates over the potential energy, including the strong-field regime where the wavelength of the inhomogeneities are comparable to the Hubble radius, and black holes form. The results show that inflation can eventually arise from a general class of such initial conditions, at least as long as the scalar field variations do not include values off the inflationary plateau. I will also comment on future directions for using the tools of numerical relativity to explore nonlinear and strong-field dynamics in cosmology.
Cyclotron resonance in an inhomogeneous magnetic field
Albert, J.M. )
1993-08-01
Relativistic test particles interacting with a small monochromatic electromagnetic wave are studied in the presence of an inhomogeneous background magnetic field. A resonance-averaged Hamiltonian is derived which retains the effects of passage through resonance. Two distinct regimes are found. In the strongly inhomogeneous case, the resonant phase angle at successive resonances is random, and multiple resonant interactions lead to a random walk in phase space. In the other, adiabatic limit, the phase angle is determined by the phase portrait of the Hamiltonian and leads to a systematic change in the appropriate canonical action (and therefore in the energy and pitch angle), so that the cumulative effect increases directly with the number of resonances.
Criterion for convection in an inhomogeneous star
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Stothers, Richard B.; Chin, Chao-Wen
1992-01-01
To resolve the question of whether the Schwarzschild criterion or the Ledoux criterion should be used to test for convective instability in a star, a well-observed cluster of chemically inhomogeneous massive stars, in which the choice of the criterion for convection makes a crucial and easily observable difference, is required. NGC 330, a metal-poor cluster in the Small Magellanic Cloud, is ideal for this test. Its large evolved stellar population contains both blue and red supergiants, of which its many red supergiants should be absent if a gradient of mean molecular weight did not choke off rapid convective motions in the inhomogeneous region connecting the envelope and core. Thus the Ledoux criterion for convection is strongly indicated as being correct.
Temporal inhomogeneities in radiosonde temperature records
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gaffen, Dian J.
1994-02-01
Historical information on changes in radiosonde instruments and observing methods is combined with time series of upper-air temperature data to estimate the effects of (1) changes in sensors, (2) changes in solar radiation corrections to the data, and (3) changes in the length of the train between the balloon and the instrument package. These changes can induce discontinuities in the temperature records from several tenths to as high as several degrees Celsius. The discontinuities can be larger than the temperature trends of a few tenths of a degree per decade, computed by previous investigators from radiosonde observations. An assessment of the 63-station network used by Angell to monitor tropospheric and stratospheric temperature suggests that about 43% of those stations' records have inhomogeneities, most notably in the stratosphere. These findings suggest that some previously computed temperature trends, especially estimates of stratospheric cooling, may be influenced by data inhomogeneities.
Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlowski, P. M.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Gericke, D. O.; Regan, S. P.; Gregori, G.
2016-04-01
Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems.
Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media.
Kozlowski, P M; Crowley, B J B; Gericke, D O; Regan, S P; Gregori, G
2016-01-01
Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems. PMID:27068215
Large-scale inhomogeneities and galaxy statistics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schaeffer, R.; Silk, J.
1984-01-01
The density fluctuations associated with the formation of large-scale cosmic pancake-like and filamentary structures are evaluated using the Zel'dovich approximation for the evolution of nonlinear inhomogeneities in the expanding universe. It is shown that the large-scale nonlinear density fluctuations in the galaxy distribution due to pancakes modify the standard scale-invariant correlation function xi(r) at scales comparable to the coherence length of adiabatic fluctuations. The typical contribution of pancakes and filaments to the J3 integral, and more generally to the moments of galaxy counts in a volume of approximately (15-40 per h Mpc)exp 3, provides a statistical test for the existence of large scale inhomogeneities. An application to several recent three dimensional data sets shows that despite large observational uncertainties over the relevant scales characteristic features may be present that can be attributed to pancakes in most, but not all, of the various galaxy samples.
Anomalous Maxwell equations for inhomogeneous chiral plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorbar, E. V.; Shovkovy, I. A.; Vilchinskii, S.; Rudenok, I.; Boyarsky, A.; Ruchayskiy, O.
2016-05-01
Using the chiral kinetic theory we derive the electric and chiral current densities in inhomogeneous relativistic plasma. We also derive equations for the electric and chiral chemical potentials that close the Maxwell equations in such a plasma. The analysis is done in the regimes with and without a drift of the plasma as a whole. In addition to the currents present in the homogeneous plasma (Hall current, chiral magnetic, chiral separation, and chiral electric separation effects, as well as Ohm's current) we derive several new terms associated with inhomogeneities of the plasma. Apart from various diffusionlike terms, we find also new dissipationless terms that are independent of relaxation time. Their origin can be traced to the Berry curvature modifications of the kinetic theory.
Theory of Thomson scattering in inhomogeneous media
Kozlowski, P. M.; Crowley, B. J. B.; Gericke, D. O.; Regan, S. P.; Gregori, G.
2016-01-01
Thomson scattering of laser light is one of the most fundamental diagnostics of plasma density, temperature and magnetic fields. It relies on the assumption that the properties in the probed volume are homogeneous and constant during the probing time. On the other hand, laboratory plasmas are seldom uniform and homogeneous on the temporal and spatial dimensions over which data is collected. This is particularly true for laser-produced high-energy-density matter, which often exhibits steep gradients in temperature, density and pressure, on a scale determined by the laser focus. Here, we discuss the modification of the cross section for Thomson scattering in fully-ionized media exhibiting steep spatial inhomogeneities and/or fast temporal fluctuations. We show that the predicted Thomson scattering spectra are greatly altered compared to the uniform case, and may lead to violations of detailed balance. Therefore, careful interpretation of the spectra is necessary for spatially or temporally inhomogeneous systems. PMID:27068215
Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data.
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1993-08-18
Version 00 The Proton Nucleus Elastic Scattering Data file PNESD contains the numerical data and the related bibliography for the differential elastic cross sections, polarization and integral nonelastic cross sections for elastic proton-nucleus scattering.
Inhomogeneous Monte Carlo simulations of dermoscopic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gareau, Daniel S.; Li, Ting; Jacques, Steven; Krueger, James
2012-03-01
Clinical skin-lesion diagnosis uses dermoscopy: 10X epiluminescence microscopy. Skin appearance ranges from black to white with shades of blue, red, gray and orange. Color is an important diagnostic criteria for diseases including melanoma. Melanin and blood content and distribution impact the diffuse spectral remittance (300-1000nm). Skin layers: immersion medium, stratum corneum, spinous epidermis, basal epidermis and dermis as well as laterally asymmetric features (eg. melanocytic invasion) were modeled in an inhomogeneous Monte Carlo model.
Inversion identities for inhomogeneous face models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Frahm, Holger; Karaiskos, Nikos
2014-10-01
We derive exact inversion identities satisfied by the transfer matrix of inhomogeneous interaction-round-a-face (IRF) models with arbitrary boundary conditions using the underlying integrable structure and crossing properties of the local Boltzmann weights. For the critical restricted solid-on-solid (RSOS) models these identities together with some information on the analytical properties of the transfer matrix determine the spectrum completely and allow to derive the Bethe equations for both periodic and general open boundary conditions.
Controlling Charged Particles with Inhomogeneous Electrostatic Fields
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Herrero, Federico A. (Inventor)
2016-01-01
An energy analyzer for a charged-particle spectrometer may include a top deflection plate and a bottom deflection plate. The top and bottom deflection plates may be non-symmetric and configured to generate an inhomogeneous electrostatic field when a voltage is applied to one of the top or bottom deflection plates. In some instances, the top and bottom deflection plates may be L-shaped deflection plates.
Gaussian beam evolution in nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, P.; Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Tikhonchuk, V.; Tikhonchuk
2014-04-01
The method of nonlinear complex geometrical optics (NCGO) is proposed in this paper for description of the evolution of a spatially narrow Gaussian beam (GB) in an inhomogeneous nonlinear plasma. NCGO method deals with first-order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude and for second-order ordinary differential equation for GB width. Thus, NCGO simplifies the description of GB diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the known methods of plasma physics and this way it can be assumed to be attractive and comprehensive approach in problems of plasma heating by electromagnetic waves. Moreover, we demonstrate in this paper some regularity for nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma in the framework of which central ray of a GB is not subjected to nonlinear refraction within NCGO method boundary applicability. On the contrary, the beam width, wave front curvature, and GB amplitude are modified by diffraction and self-focusing processes. General properties of the beam propagation are illustrated with results of numerical modeling for two particular cases: GB diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory with torsion in axially symmetric plasma column and GB reflection from nonlinear inhomogeneous plasma layer. We prove in this paper that NCGO is new effective method of plasma physics, which can be applied for improvement of ray tracing techniques and plasma diagnostics.
Wealth inhomogeneity applied to crash rate theory.
Shuler, Robert L
2015-11-01
A crash rate theory based on corporate economic utility maximization is applied to individual behavior in U.S. and German motorway death rates, by using wealth inhomogeneity data in ten-percentile bins to account for variations of utility maximization in the population. Germany and the U.S. have similar median wealth figures, a well-known indicator of accident risk, but different motorway death rates. It is found that inhomogeneity in roughly the 10(th) to 30(th) percentile, not revealed by popular measures such as the Gini index which focus on differences at the higher percentiles, provides a satisfactory explanation of the data. The inhomogeneity analysis reduces data disparity from a factor of 2.88 to 1.75 as compared with median wealth assumed homogeneity, and further to 1.09 with average wealth assumed homogeneity. The first reduction from 2.88 to 1.75 is attributable to inequality at lower percentiles and suggests it may be as important in indicating socioeconomic risk as extremes in the upper percentile ranges, and that therefore the U.S. socioeconomic risk may be higher than generally realized. PMID:27441226
Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.
1994-01-01
The effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in man were studied by performing hyperventilation-breathhold single-breath measurements before, during and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase 4, were both markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60 of their preflight standing size, while the height of phase 4 was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of preflights standing. The terminal change in CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close at the end of expiration and units that remain open. This may result from the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographical inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiographic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity at a level larger than acinar.
Viscosity of confined inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Junfang; Todd, B. D.; Travis, Karl P.
2004-12-01
We use the nonlocal linear hydrodynamic constitutive model, proposed by Evans and Morriss [Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids (Academic, London, 1990)], for computing an effective spatially dependent shear viscosity of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids. The model is applied to a simple atomic fluid undergoing planar Poiseuille flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width. We compare the spatially dependent viscosity with a local generalization of Newton's law of viscosity and the Navier-Stokes viscosity, both of which are known to suffer extreme inaccuracies for highly inhomogeneous systems. The nonlocal constitutive model calculates effective position dependent viscosities that are free from the notorious singularities experienced by applying the commonly used local constitutive model. It is simple, general, and has widespread applicability in nanofluidics where experimental measurement of position dependent transport coefficients is currently inaccessible. In principle the method can be used to predict approximate flow profiles of any arbitrary inhomogeneous system. We demonstrate this by predicting the flow profile for a simple fluid undergoing planar Couette flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width.
Viscosity of confined inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids.
Zhang, Junfang; Todd, B D; Travis, Karl P
2004-12-01
We use the nonlocal linear hydrodynamic constitutive model, proposed by Evans and Morriss [Statistical Mechanics of Nonequilibrium Liquids (Academic, London, 1990)], for computing an effective spatially dependent shear viscosity of inhomogeneous nonequilibrium fluids. The model is applied to a simple atomic fluid undergoing planar Poiseuille flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width. We compare the spatially dependent viscosity with a local generalization of Newton's law of viscosity and the Navier-Stokes viscosity, both of which are known to suffer extreme inaccuracies for highly inhomogeneous systems. The nonlocal constitutive model calculates effective position dependent viscosities that are free from the notorious singularities experienced by applying the commonly used local constitutive model. It is simple, general, and has widespread applicability in nanofluidics where experimental measurement of position dependent transport coefficients is currently inaccessible. In principle the method can be used to predict approximate flow profiles of any arbitrary inhomogeneous system. We demonstrate this by predicting the flow profile for a simple fluid undergoing planar Couette flow in a confined channel of several atomic diameters width. PMID:15549963
Inhomogeneous CDMFT and nonmagnetic impurities in graphene
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Charlebois, M.; Sénéchal, D.; Gagnon, A.-M.; Tremblay, A.-M. S.
In cluster dynamical mean-field theory (CDMFT), we usually apply the self-consistency condition on an infinite super-lattice of identical clusters. However, in some problems a large unit cell is required, for instance in the presence of a periodically repeated impurity. Since the impurity solver (exact diagonalization) can only treat small clusters, we break the unit cell into multiple small clusters that can be solved individually. This new technique is called inhomogeneous CDMFT (1) and is analogous to inhomogeneous DMFT (2). In this presentation, we will explain both the CDMFT and inhomogeneous CDMFT self-consistency loops within a unified, simple picture. We then apply this technique to a nonmagnetic impurity in graphene and study the emerging magnetism. Our results take into account dynamical correlations; nevertheless they qualitatively agree with previous mean-field and density functional theory studies. (1) Charlebois, M. et al., Phys. Rev. B 91, 035132 (2015). (2) Snoek, M. et al., New J. Phys. 10, 093008 (2008). Supported by NSERC, CIFAR and the Tier I Canada Research Chair Program.
Voting and catalytic processes with inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mobilia, Mauro; Georgiev, Ivan T.
2005-04-01
We consider the dynamics of the voter model and of the monomer-monomer catalytic process in the presence of many “competing” inhomogeneities and show, through exact calculations and numerical simulations, that their presence results in a nontrivial fluctuating steady state whose properties are studied and turn out to specifically depend on the dimensionality of the system, the strength of the inhomogeneities, and their separating distances. In fact, in arbitrary dimensions, we obtain an exact (yet formal) expression of the order parameters (magnetization and concentration of adsorbed particles) in the presence of an arbitrary number n of inhomogeneities (“zealots” in the voter language) and formal similarities with suitable electrostatic systems are pointed out. In the nontrivial cases n=1,2 , we explicitly compute the static and long-time properties of the order parameters and therefore capture the generic features of the systems. When n>2 , the problems are studied through numerical simulations. In one spatial dimension, we also compute the expressions of the stationary order parameters in the completely disordered case, where n is arbitrary large. Particular attention is paid to the spatial dependence of the stationary order parameters and formal connections with electrostatics.
Sun, Qicheng; Jin, Feng; Wang, Guangqian; Song, Shixiong; Zhang, Guohua
2015-01-01
Mesoscopic structures form in dense granular materials due to the self-organisation of the constituent particles. These structures have internal structural degrees of freedom in addition to the translational degree of freedom. The resultant granular elasticity, which exhibits intrinsic variations and inevitable relaxation, is a key quantity that accounts for macroscopic solid- or fluid-like properties and the transitions between them. In this work, we propose a potential energy landscape (PEL) with local stable basins and low elastic energy barriers to analyse the nature of granular elasticity. A function for the elastic energy density is proposed for stable states and is further calibrated with ultrasonic measurements. Fluctuations in the elastic energy due to the evolution of internal structures are proposed to describe a so-called configuration temperature Tc as a counterpart of the classical kinetic granular temperature Tk that is attributed to the translational degrees of freedom. The two granular temperatures are chosen as the state variables, and a fundamental equation is established to develop non-equilibrium thermodynamics for granular materials. Due to the relatively low elastic energy barrier in the PEL, granular elasticity relaxes more under common mechanical loadings, and a simple model based on mean-field theory is developed to account for this behaviour. PMID:25951049
Eshelby's solution for ellipsoidal inhomogeneous inclusions with applications to compaction bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meng, Chunfang; Pollard, David D.
2014-10-01
Eshelby's solution for an ellipsoidal inhomogeneous inclusion in an infinite elastic body is applied to compaction and shear-enhanced compaction bands in the Aztec sandstone at Valley of Fire State Park, NV. The inclusion and matrix are linear elastic and isotropic, but have different elastic moduli, and a remote stress represents tectonic loading. A prescribed uniform strain within the inclusion accounts for inelastic compaction for a porosity change from 25 to 10%. Differences in elastic moduli between the matrix and inclusion are based on laboratory data. We generalize earlier results, limited to 2D and axisymmetric geometries, by considering ellipsoids with different intermediate and greatest axial lengths, consistent with field observations. Stiffness contrasts and non-circular tip-line shapes produce modest concentrations of the remote stress, but compaction strains of 1-10% produce significant triaxial compressive stress concentrations, which presumably are responsible for band propagation. The plastic strain is triaxial, but dominated by the normal strain across the inclusion. The stress diminution on the band flank is easily overcome by minor increases in the tectonic loading, enabling bands to be closely spaced. For the shear-enhanced band, if the plastic shear and normal strains are approximately equal, the ratio of shear to normal stress is about 1.3 at the tip.
Elastic membranes in confinement
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bostwick, Joshua; Miksis, Michael; Davis, Stephen
2014-11-01
An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and DNA, have finer internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically ``confined'' by another object. We study the shape stability of elastic membranes in a ``confining'' box and introduce repulsive van der Waals forces to prevent the membrane from intersecting the wall. We aim to define the parameter space associated with mitochondria-like deformations. We compare the confined to `unconfined' solutions and show how the structure and stability of the membrane shapes changes with the system parameters.
Mechanism of Resilin Elasticity
Qin, Guokui; Hu, Xiao; Cebe, Peggy; Kaplan, David L.
2012-01-01
Resilin is critical in the flight and jumping systems of insects as a polymeric rubber-like protein with outstanding elasticity. However, insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for resilin elasticity remains undefined. Here we report the structure and function of resilin from Drosophila CG15920. A reversible beta-turn transition was identified in the peptide encoded by exon III and for full length resilin during energy input and release, features that correlate to the rapid deformation of resilin during functions in vivo. Micellar structures and nano-porous patterns formed after beta-turn structures were present via changes in either the thermal or mechanical inputs. A model is proposed to explain the super elasticity and energy conversion mechanisms of resilin, providing important insight into structure-function relationships for this protein. Further, this model offers a view of elastomeric proteins in general where beta-turn related structures serve as fundamental units of the structure and elasticity. PMID:22893127
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Quilliet, Catherine; Quemeneur, François; Marmottant, Philippe; Imhof, Arnout; Pépin-Donat, Brigitte; van Blaaderen, Alfons
2010-03-01
The deflation of elastic spherical surfaces has been numerically investigated, and show very different types of deformations according the range of elastic parameters, some of them being quantitatively explained through simple calculations. This allows to retrieve various shapes observed on hollow shells (from colloidal to centimeter scale), on lipid vesicles, or on some biological objects. The extension of this process to other geometries allows to modelize vegetal objects such as the ultrafast trap of carnivorous plants.
Elastic Collisions and Gravity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ball, Steven
2009-04-01
Elastic collisions are fascinating demonstrations of conservation principles. The mediating force must be conservative in an elastic collision. Truly elastic collisions take place only when the objects in collision do not touch, e.g. magnetic bumpers on low friction carts. This requires that we define a collision as a momentum transfer. Elastic collisions in 1-D can be solved in general and the implications are quite remarkable. For example, a heavy object moving initially towards a light object followed by an elastic collision results in a final velocity of the light object greater than either initial velocity. This is easily demonstrated with low friction carts. Gravitational elastic collisions involving a light spacecraft and an extremely massive body like a moon or planet can be approximated as 1-D collisions, such as the ``free return'' trajectory of Apollo 13 around the moon. The most fascinating gravitational collisions involve the gravitational slingshot effect used to boost spacecraft velocities. The maximum gravitational slingshot effect occurs when approaching a nearly 1-D collision, revealing that the spacecraft can be boosted to greater than twice the planet velocity, enabling the spacecraft to travel much further away from the Sun.
Wang, Xu; Schiavone, Peter
2014-10-01
We propose an elegant and concise general method for the solution of a problem involving the interaction of a screw dislocation and a nano-sized, arbitrarily shaped, elastic inhomogeneity in which the contribution of interface/surface elasticity is incorporated using a version of the Gurtin-Murdoch model. The analytic function inside the arbitrarily shaped inhomogeneity is represented in the form of a Faber series. The real periodic function arising from the contribution of the surface mechanics is then expanded as a Fourier series. The resulting system of linear algebraic equations is solved through the use of simple matrix algebra. When the elastic inhomogeneity represents a hole, our solution method simplifies considerably. Furthermore, we undertake an analytical investigation of the challenging problem of a screw dislocation interacting with two closely spaced nano-sized holes of arbitrary shape in the presence of surface stresses. Our solutions quite clearly demonstrate that the induced elastic fields and image force acting on the dislocation are indeed size-dependent. PMID:25294965
Contribution to the theory of tidal oscillations of an elastic earth. External tidal potential
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Musen, P.
1974-01-01
The differential equations of the tidal oscillations of the earth were established under the assumption that the interior of the earth is laterally inhomogeneous. The theory was developed using vectorial and dyadic symbolism to shorten the exposition and to reduce the differential equations to a symmetric form convenient for programming and for numerical integration. The formation of tidal buldges on the surfaces of discontinuity and the changes in the internal density produce small periodic variations in the exterior geopotential which are reflected in the motion of artificial satellites. The analoques of Love elastic parameters in the expansion of exterior tidal potential reflect the asymmetric and inhomogeneous structure of the interior of the earth.
Gaio, Eduardo; Amado, Veronica; Rangel, Leonardo; Huang, Wilson; Storck, Rodrigo; Melo-Silva, César Augusto
2013-12-01
The administration of antibiotics decreases bacterial translocation, reduces the activity of nitric oxide synthase and improves the gas exchange of hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS) in rats. We hypothesized that levofloxacin could reduce HPS-induced respiratory mechanical inhomogeneities and airway and pulmonary vascular remodeling. We assessed the respiratory mechanical properties and lung tissue structure in 24 rats assigned to the control, HPS (eHPS) and HPS+levofloxacin (eHPS+L) groups. The administration of levofloxacin reduced the HPS-induced chest wall but not the lung mechanical inhomogeneities. The eHPS airway proportion of elastic fibers increased 20% but was similar between the control and eHPS+L groups. The eHPS vascular collagen increased 25% in eHPS but was similar between the control and eHPS+L groups. Compared to the control group, the vascular proportion of elastic fibers of the eHPS and eHPS+L groups increased by 60% and 16%, respectively. The administration of levofloxacin decreased the HPS-induced chest wall mechanical inhomogeneities and airway and vascular remodeling. PMID:23994178
Modeling Electromagnetic Scattering From Complex Inhomogeneous Objects
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Deshpande, Manohar; Reddy, C. J.
2011-01-01
This software innovation is designed to develop a mathematical formulation to estimate the electromagnetic scattering characteristics of complex, inhomogeneous objects using the finite-element-method (FEM) and method-of-moments (MoM) concepts, as well as to develop a FORTRAN code called FEMOM3DS (Finite Element Method and Method of Moments for 3-Dimensional Scattering), which will implement the steps that are described in the mathematical formulation. Very complex objects can be easily modeled, and the operator of the code is not required to know the details of electromagnetic theory to study electromagnetic scattering.
Inhomogeneous thermal conductivity enhances thermoelectric cooling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Tingyu; Zhou, Jun; Li, Nianbei; Yang, Ronggui; Li, Baowen
2014-12-01
We theoretically investigate the enhancement of thermoelectric cooling performance in thermoelectric refrigerators made of materials with inhomogeneous thermal conductivity, beyond the usual practice of enhancing thermoelectric figure of merit (ZT) of materials. The dissipation of the Joule heat in such thermoelectric refrigerators is asymmetric which can give rise to better thermoelectric cooling performance. Although the thermoelectric figure of merit and the coefficient-of-performance are slightly enhanced, both the maximum cooling power and the maximum cooling temperature difference can be enhanced significantly. This finding can be used to increase the heat absorption at the cold end. We further find that the asymmetric dissipation of Joule heat leads to thermal rectification.
Inhomogeneous and anisotropic Universe and apparent acceleration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fanizza, G.; Tedesco, L.
2015-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a Lemaître-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) Bianchi type I (plane symmetric) model of the Universe. We study and solve Einstein field equations. We investigate the effects of such a model of the Universe; in particular, these results are important in understanding the effect of the combined presence of an inhomogeneous and anisotropic universe. The observational magnitude-redshift data deviated from the UNION 2 catalog have been analyzed in the framework of this LTB anisotropic universe, and the fit has been achieved without the inclusion of any dark energy.
Albedo and transmittance of inhomogeneous stratus clouds
Zuev, V.E.; Kasyanov, E.I.; Titov, G.A.
1996-04-01
A highly important topic is the study of the relationship between the statistical parameters of optical and radiative charactertistics of inhomogeneous stratus clouds. This is important because the radiation codes of general circulation models need improvement, and it is important for geophysical information. A cascade model has been developed at the Goddard Space Flight Center to treat stratocumulus clouds with the simplest geometry and horizontal fluctuations of the liquid water path (optical thickness). The model evaluates the strength with which the stochastic geometry of clouds influences the statistical characteristics of albedo and the trnasmittance of solar radiation.
Complementary Variational Theorems for inhomogeneous superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choy, T. C.
1997-03-01
Complementary variational theorems are derived for an inhomogeneous London (local) superconductor in which both the magnetic permeability μ(r) and the London penetration length λ_L(r) vary randomly in space (T.C. Choy, Physical Review B (1997) (to appear)). An essential feature is the close coupling between magnetic and supercurrent polarisation effects, developed self-consistently in this work. Using these theorems and a suitable ansatz for the single particle polarisabilities, we obtained complementary bounds for a composite superconductor near Tc and T=0^circ K. Our results may be important for the empirical study of systems containing magnetic (normal) and superconducting mixtures, including the high Tc oxide superconductors.
Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation
Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Wands, David; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein E-mail: firouz@mail.ipm.ir E-mail: david.wands@port.ac.uk
2012-12-01
We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, f{sub NL}, recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late.
Curvaton and the inhomogeneous end of inflation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Assadullahi, Hooshyar; Firouzjahi, Hassan; Namjoo, Mohammad Hossein; Wands, David
2012-12-01
We study the primordial density perturbations and non-Gaussianities generated from the combined effects of an inhomogeneous end of inflation and curvaton decay in hybrid inflation. This dual role is played by a single isocurvature field which is massless during inflation but acquire a mass at the end of inflation via the waterfall phase transition. We calculate the resulting primordial non-Gaussianity characterized by the non-linearity parameter, fNL, recovering the usual end-of-inflation result when the field decays promptly and the usual curvaton result if the field decays sufficiently late.
Fusion Reaction Rate in an Inhomogeneous Plasma
S. Son; N.J. Fisch
2004-09-03
The local fusion rate, obtained from the assumption that the distribution is a local Maxwellian, is inaccurate if mean-free-paths of fusing particles are not sufficiently small compared with the inhomogeneity length of the plasma. We calculate the first order correction of P0 in terms of the small spatial gradient and obtain a non-local modification of P(sub)0 in a shock region when the gradient is not small. Use is made of the fact that the fusion reaction cross section has a relatively sharp peak as a function of energy.
Elasticity of plagioclase feldspars
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brown, J. Michael; Angel, Ross J.; Ross, Nancy L.
2016-02-01
Elastic properties are reported for eight plagioclase feldspars that span compositions from albite (NaSi3AlO8) to anorthite (CaSi2Al2O8). Surface acoustic wave velocities measured using Impulsive Stimulated Light Scattering and compliance sums from high-pressure X-ray compression studies accurately determine all 21 components of the elasticity tensor for these triclinic minerals. The overall pattern of elasticity and the changes in individual elastic components with composition can be rationalized on the basis of the evolution of crystal structures and chemistry across this solid-solution join. All plagioclase feldspars have high elastic anisotropy; a* (the direction perpendicular to the b and c axes) is the softest direction by a factor of 3 in albite. From albite to anorthite the stiffness of this direction undergoes the greatest change, increasing twofold. Small discontinuities in the elastic components, inferred to occur between the three plagioclase phases with distinct symmetry (C1>¯, I1>¯, and P1>¯), appear consistent with the nature of the underlying conformation of the framework-linked tetrahedra and the associated structural changes. Measured body wave velocities of plagioclase-rich rocks, reported over the last five decades, are consistent with calculated Hill-averaged velocities using the current moduli. This confirms long-standing speculation that previously reported elastic moduli for plagioclase feldspars are systematically in error. The current results provide greater assurance that the seismic structure of the middle and lower crusts can be accurately estimated on the basis of specified mineral modes, chemistry, and fabric.
Elastic Moduli Inheritance and Weakest Link in Bulk Metallic Glasses
Stoica, Alexandru Dan; Wang, Xun-Li; Lu, Z.P.; Clausen, Bjorn; Brown, Donald
2012-01-01
We show that a variety of bulk metallic glasses (BMGs) inherit their Young s modulus and shear modulus from the solvent components. This is attributed to preferential straining of locally solvent-rich configurations among tightly bonded atomic clusters, which constitute the weakest link in an amorphous structure. This aspect of inhomogeneous deformation, also revealed by our in-situ neutron diffraction studies of an elastically deformed BMG, suggests a scenario of rubber-like viscoelasticity owing to a hierarchy of atomic bonds in BMGs.
Local Equilibrium in Inhomogeneous Stochastic Models of Heat Transport
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nándori, Péter
2016-07-01
We extend the duality of Kipnis et al. (J Stat Phys 27:65-74, 1982) to inhomogeneous lattice gas systems where either the components have different degrees of freedom or the rate of interaction depends on the spatial location. Then the dual process is applied to prove local equilibrium in the hydrodynamic limit for some inhomogeneous high dimensional systems and in the nonequilibrium steady state for one dimensional systems with arbitrary inhomogeneity.
Effective quantum dynamics of interacting systems with inhomogeneous coupling
Lopez, C. E.; Retamal, J. C.; Christ, H.; Solano, E.
2007-03-15
We study the quantum dynamics of a single mode (particle) interacting inhomogeneously with a large number of particles and introduce an effective approach to find the accessible Hilbert space, where the dynamics takes place. Two relevant examples are given: the inhomogeneous Tavis-Cummings model (e.g., N atomic qubits coupled to a single cavity mode, or to a motional mode in trapped ions) and the inhomogeneous coupling of an electron spin to N nuclear spins in a quantum dot.
Gradient effects on the fracture of inhomogeneous materials
Becker, T.L.
2000-05-01
Functionally Graded Materials (FGMs) have a spatial variation in physical properties that can be tailored to meet the needs of a specific application and/or to minimize internal stresses arising from thermal and elastic mismatch. Modeling these materials as inhomogeneous continua allows assessment of the role of the gradient without requiring detailed knowledge of the microstructure. Motivated by the relative difficulty of obtaining analytical solutions to boundary value problems for FGMs, an accurate finite-element code is developed for obtaining numerical planar and axisymmetric linear thermoelastic solutions. In addition an approximate analytical technique for mapping homogeneous-modulus solutions to those for FGMs is assessed and classes of problems to which it applies accurately are identified. The fracture mechanics analysis of FGMs can be characterized by the classic stress intensities, KI and KII, but there has been scarce progress in understanding the role of the modulus gradient in determining fracture initiation and propagation. To address this question, a statistical fracture model is used to correlate near-tip stresses with brittle fracture initiation behavior. This describes the behavior of a material experiencing fracture initiation away from the crack tip. Widely dispersed zones of fracture initiation sites are expected. Finite-length kinks are analyzed to describe the crack path for continuous crack growth. For kink lengths much shorter than the gradient dimension, a parallel stress term describes the deviation of the kinking angle from that for homogeneous materials. For longer kinks there is a divergence of the kink angle predicted by the maximum energy release rate and the pure opening mode criteria.
Nonlinear acoustics of micro-inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nazarov, Veniamin E.; Ostrovsky, Lev A.; Soustova, Irina A.; Sutin, Aleksandr M.
1988-01-01
Acoustic waves can interact in micro-inhomogeneous media much more intensively than in homogeneous media. This has been repeatedly observed in experiments with ground species, marine sediments, porous materials and metals. This paper considers two models of such media which seem to be applicable to the description of these results. One of them is based on the consideration of nonlinear sound scattering by separate spherical cavities in liquids and solids. The second model is based on the phenomenological stress-deformation relation in solids with microplasticity which often has hysteresis (heritage) properties associated with the micro-inhomogeneities. In metals, for example, it is caused by the movement of dislocations. Different nonlinear effects in such media (harmonic and combination frequency generation, nonlinear, variations of resonance frequency amplitude-dependent losses) are considered. Some results of experiments with metallic resonators supporting the theory developed here are also presented. These mechanisms may determine the nonlinear properties of real soils and rocks summarized in a table given in the paper.
Multidimensional Plasma Sheaths over Electrically Inhomogeneous Surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Economou, Demetre
2004-09-01
Multidimensional plasma sheaths are encountered in a number of applications including plasma immersion ion implantation, extraction of ions (or plasma) through grids, MEMS fabrication, neutral beam sources, and plasma in contact with internal reactor parts (e.g., wafer chuck edge). The sheath may be multidimensional when: (a) plasma is in contact with surface topography, and the size of the topographical features is comparable to or larger than the plasma sheath thickness, or (b) the surface is flat but inhomogeneous, i.e., a conducting surface next to an insulating surface. In either case, the flux, energy and angular distributions of energetic species incident on the substrate are of primary importance. These quantities depend critically on the shape of the meniscus (plasma-sheath boundary) formed over the surface. A two-dimensional fluid/Monte Carlo simulation model was developed to study multidimensional sheaths. The radio frequency (RF) sheath potential evolution, and ion density and flux profiles over the surface were predicted with a self-consistent fluid simulation. The trajectories of ions and energetic neutrals (resulting by ion neutralization on surfaces or charge exchange collisions in the gas phase) were then followed with a Monte Carlo simulation. Ion flow and energy and angular distributions of ions bombarding a flat but electrically inhomogeneous surface will be reported in detail. Ion flow over trenches and holes will also be reported. Work supported by the NSF, Sandia National Laboratories and NIST.
Resistance switching in oxides with inhomogeneous conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shang, Da-Shan; Sun, Ji-Rong; Shen, Bao-Gen; Wuttig, Matthias
2013-06-01
Electric-field-induced resistance switching (RS) phenomena have been studied for over 60 years in metal/dielectrics/metal structures. In these experiments a wide range of dielectrics have been studied including binary transition metal oxides, perovskite oxides, chalcogenides, carbon- and silicon-based materials, as well as organic materials. RS phenomena can be used to store information and offer an attractive performance, which encompasses fast switching speeds, high scalability, and the desirable compatibility with Si-based complementary metal—oxide—semiconductor fabrication. This is promising for nonvolatile memory technology, i.e., resistance random access memory (RRAM). However, a comprehensive understanding of the underlying mechanism is still lacking. This impedes faster product development as well as accurate assessment of the device performance potential. Generally speaking, RS occurs not in the entire dielectric but only in a small, confined region, which results from the local variation of conductivity in dielectrics. In this review, we focus on the RS in oxides with such an inhomogeneous conductivity. According to the origin of the conductivity inhomogeneity, the RS phenomena and their working mechanism are reviewed by dividing them into two aspects: interface RS, based on the change of contact resistance at metal/oxide interface due to the change of Schottky barrier and interface chemical layer, and bulk RS, realized by the formation, connection, and disconnection of conductive channels in the oxides. Finally the current challenges of RS investigation and the potential improvement of the RS performance for the nonvolatile memories are discussed.
Reheating in the presence of inhomogeneous noise
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zanchin, V.; Maia, A., Jr.; Craig, W.; Brandenberger, R.
1999-07-01
Explosive particle production due to parametric resonance is a crucial feature of reheating in inflationary cosmology. Coherent oscillations of the inflaton field lead to a periodically varying mass in the evolution equation of matter and gravitational fluctuations and often induce a parametric resonance instability. In a previous paper [V. Zanchin et al., Phys. Rev. D 57, 4651 (1998)] it was shown that homogeneous (i.e. space-independent) noise leads to an increase of the generalized Floquet exponent for all modes, at least if the noise is temporally uncorrelated. Here we extend the results to the physically more realistic case of spatially inhomogeneous noise. We demonstrate-modulo some mathematical fine points which are addressed in a companion paper-that the Floquet exponent is a non-decreasing function of the amplitude of the noise. We provide numerical evidence for an even stronger statement, namely that in the presence of inhomogeneous noise, the Floquet exponent of each mode is larger than the maximal Floquet exponent of the system in the absence of noise.
Coupling dark energy to dark matter inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marra, Valerio
2016-09-01
We propose that dark energy in the form of a scalar field could effectively couple to dark matter inhomogeneities. Through this coupling energy could be transferred to/from the scalar field, which could possibly enter an accelerated regime. Though phenomenological, this scenario is interesting as it provides a natural trigger for the onset of the acceleration of the universe, since dark energy starts driving the expansion of the universe when matter inhomogeneities become sufficiently strong. Here we study a possible realization of this idea by coupling dark energy to dark matter via the linear growth function of matter perturbations. The numerical results show that it is indeed possible to obtain a viable cosmology with the expected series of radiation, matter and dark-energy dominated eras. In particular, the current density of dark energy is given by the value of the coupling parameters rather than by very special initial conditions for the scalar field. In other words, this model-unlike standard models of cosmic late acceleration-does not suffer from the so-called "coincidence problem" and its related fine tuning of initial conditions.
Model of non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bragg, Andrew D.; Kurien, Susan; Clark, Timothy T.
2016-07-01
We compare results from a spectral model for non-stationary, inhomogeneous turbulence (Besnard et al. in Theor Comp Fluid Dyn 8:1-35, 1996) with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data of a shear-free mixing layer (SFML) (Tordella et al. in Phys Rev E 77:016309, 2008). The SFML is used as a test case in which the efficacy of the model closure for the physical-space transport of the fluid velocity field can be tested in a flow with inhomogeneity, without the additional complexity of mean-flow coupling. The model is able to capture certain features of the SFML quite well for intermediate to long times, including the evolution of the mixing-layer width and turbulent kinetic energy. At short-times, and for more sensitive statistics such as the generation of the velocity field anisotropy, the model is less accurate. We propose two possible causes for the discrepancies. The first is the local approximation to the pressure-transport and the second is the a priori spherical averaging used to reduce the dimensionality of the solution space of the model, from wavevector to wavenumber space. DNS data are then used to gauge the relative importance of both possible deficiencies in the model.
NMR quantitation: influence of RF inhomogeneity
Mo, Huaping; Harwood, John; Raftery, Daniel
2016-01-01
The NMR peak integral is ideally linearly dependent on the sine of excitation angle (θ), which has provided unsurpassed flexibility in quantitative NMR by allowing the use of a signal of any concentration as the internal concentration reference. Controlling the excitation angle is particularly critical for solvent proton concentration referencing to minimize the negative impact of radiation damping, and to reduce the risk of receiver gain compression. In practice, due to the influence of RF inhomogeneity for any given probe, the observed peak integral is not exactly proportional to sin θ. To evaluate the impact quantitatively, we introduce a RF inhomogeneity factor I(θ) as a function of the nominal pulse excitation angle and propose a simple calibration procedure. Alternatively, I(θ) can be calculated from the probe’s RF profile, which can be readily obtained as a gradient image of an aqueous sample. Our results show that without consideration of I(θ), even for a probe with good RF homogeneity, up to 5% error can be introduced due to different excitation pulse angles used for the analyte and the reference. Hence, a simple calibration of I(θ) can eliminate such errors and allow an accurate description of the observed NMR signal’s dependence on the excitation angle in quantitative analysis. PMID:21919056
Inhomogeneous radiative forcing of homogeneous greenhouse gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Yi; Tan, Xiaoxiao; Xia, Yan
2016-03-01
Radiative forcing of a homogeneous greenhouse gas (HGG) can be very inhomogeneous because the forcing is dependent on other atmospheric and surface variables. In the case of doubling CO2, the monthly mean instantaneous forcing at the top of the atmosphere is found to vary geographically and temporally from positive to negative values, with the range (-2.5-5.1 W m-2) being more than 3 times the magnitude of the global mean value (2.3 W m-2). The vertical temperature change across the atmospheric column (temperature lapse rate) is found to be the best single predictor for explaining forcing variation. In addition, the masking effects of clouds and water vapor also contribute to forcing inhomogeneity. A regression model that predicts forcing from geophysical variables is constructed. This model can explain more than 90% of the variance of the forcing. Applying this model to analyzing the forcing variation in the Climate Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 models, we find that intermodel discrepancy in CO2 forcing caused by model climatology leads to considerable discrepancy in their projected change in poleward energy transport.
Quasar Accretion Disks are Strongly Inhomogeneous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dexter, Jason; Agol, Eric
2011-01-01
Active galactic nuclei have been observed to vary stochastically with 10%-20% rms amplitudes over a range of optical wavelengths where the emission arises in an accretion disk. Since the accretion disk is unlikely to vary coherently, local fluctuations may be significantly larger than the global rms variability. We investigate toy models of quasar accretion disks consisting of a number of regions, n, whose temperatures vary independently with an amplitude of σ T in dex. Models with large fluctuations (σ T = 0.35-0.50) in 102-103 independently fluctuating zones for every factor of two in radius can explain the observed discrepancy between thin accretion disk sizes inferred from microlensing events and optical luminosity while matching the observed optical variability. For the same range of σ T , inhomogeneous disk spectra provide excellent fits to the Hubble Space Telescope quasar composite without invoking global Compton scattering atmospheres to explain the high levels of observed UV emission. Simulated microlensing light curves for the Einstein cross from our time-varying toy models are well fit using a time-steady power-law temperature disk and produce magnification light curves that are consistent with current microlensing observations. Deviations due to the inhomogeneous, time-dependent disk structure should occur above the 1% level in the light curves, detectable in future microlensing observations with millimagnitude sensitivity.
Inhomogeneous chemical enrichment in the Galactic Halo
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kobayashi, Chiaki
2016-08-01
In a galaxy, chemical enrichment takes place in an inhomogeneous fashion, and the Galactic Halo is one of the places where the inhomogeneous effects are imprinted and can be constrained from observations. I show this using my chemodynamical simulations of Milky Way type galaxies. The scatter in the elemental abundances originate from radial migration, merging/accretion of satellite galaxies, local variation of star formation and chemical enrichment, and intrinsic variation of nucleosynthesis yields. In the simulated galaxies, there is no strong age-metallicity relation. This means that the most metal-poor stars are not always the oldest stars, and can be formed in chemically unevolved clouds at later times. The long-lifetime sources of chemical enrichment such as asymptotic giant branch stars or neutron star mergers can contribute at low metallicities. The intrinsic variation of yields are important in the early Universe or metal-poor systems such as in the Galactic halo. The carbon enhancement of extremely metal-poor (EMP) stars can be best explained by faint supernovae, the low [α/Fe] ratios in some EMP stars naturally arise from low-mass (~ 13 - 15M ⊙) supernovae, and finally, the [α/Fe] knee in dwarf spheroidal galaxies can be produced by subclasses of Type Ia supernovae such as SN 2002cx-like objects and sub-Chandrasekhar mass explosions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zacharias, Mario; Paul, Indranil; Garst, Markus
2015-07-01
We discuss elastic instabilities of the atomic crystal lattice at zero temperature. Because of long-range shear forces of the solid, at such transitions the phonon velocities vanish, if at all, only along certain crystallographic directions, and, consequently, the critical phonon fluctuations are suppressed to a lower dimensional manifold and governed by a Gaussian fixed point. In the case of symmetry-breaking elastic transitions, a characteristic critical phonon thermodynamics arises that is found, e.g., to violate Debye's T3 law for the specific heat. We point out that quantum critical elasticity is triggered whenever a critical soft mode couples linearly to the strain tensor. In particular, this is relevant for the electronic Ising-nematic quantum phase transition in a tetragonal crystal as discussed in the context of certain cuprates, ruthenates, and iron-based superconductors.
Norris, Andrew N.
2014-01-01
We consider a periodic lattice structure in d=2 or 3 dimensions with unit cell comprising Z thin elastic members emanating from a similarly situated central node. A general theoretical approach provides an algebraic formula for the effective elasticity of such frameworks. The method yields the effective cubic elastic constants for three-dimensional space-filling lattices with Z=4, 6, 8, 12 and 14, the last being the ‘stiffest’ lattice proposed by Gurtner & Durand (Gurtner & Durand 2014 Proc. R. Soc. A 470, 20130611. (doi:10.1098/rspa.2013.0611)). The analytical expressions provide explicit formulae for the effective properties of pentamode materials, both isotropic and anisotropic, obtained from the general formulation in the stretch-dominated limit for Z=d+1. PMID:25484608
Sewell, T. D.; Bedrov, D.; Menikoff, Ralph; Smith, G. D.
2001-01-01
Atomistic molecular dynamics simulations have been used to calculate isothermal elastic properties for {beta}-, {alpha}-, and {delta}-HMX. The complete elastic tensor for each polymorph was determined at room temperature and pressure via analysis of microscopic strain fluctuations using formalism due to Rahman and Parrinello [J. Chem. Phys. 76,2662 (1982)]. Additionally, the isothermal compression curve was computed for {beta}-HMX for 0 {le} p {le} 10.6 GPa; the bulk modulus K and its pressure derivative K{prime} were obtained from two fitting forms employed previously in experimental studies of the {beta}-HMX equation of state. Overall, the results indicate good agreement between the bulk modulus predicted from the measured and calculated compression curves. The bulk modulus determined directly from the elastic tensor of {beta}-HMX is in significant disagreement with the compression curve-based results. The explanation for this discrepancy is an area of current research.
Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G; Sakamoto, Fernanda H; Gilchrest, Barbara A; Anderson, R Rox; Langer, Robert
2016-08-01
We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings. PMID:27159017
Elastic membranes in confinement.
Bostwick, J B; Miksis, M J; Davis, S H
2016-07-01
An elastic membrane stretched between two walls takes a shape defined by its length and the volume of fluid it encloses. Many biological structures, such as cells, mitochondria and coiled DNA, have fine internal structure in which a membrane (or elastic member) is geometrically 'confined' by another object. Here, the two-dimensional shape of an elastic membrane in a 'confining' box is studied by introducing a repulsive confinement pressure that prevents the membrane from intersecting the wall. The stage is set by contrasting confined and unconfined solutions. Continuation methods are then used to compute response diagrams, from which we identify the particular membrane mechanics that generate mitochondria-like shapes. Large confinement pressures yield complex response diagrams with secondary bifurcations and multiple turning points where modal identities may change. Regions in parameter space where such behaviour occurs are then mapped. PMID:27440257
Peselnick, L.; Robie, R.A.
1962-01-01
The recent measurements of the elastic constants of calcite by Reddy and Subrahmanyam (1960) disagree with the values obtained independently by Voigt (1910) and Bhimasenachar (1945). The present authors, using an ultrasonic pulse technique at 3 Mc and 25??C, determined the elastic constants of calcite using the exact equations governing the wave velocities in the single crystal. The results are C11=13.7, C33=8.11, C44=3.50, C12=4.82, C13=5.68, and C14=-2.00, in units of 1011 dyncm2. Independent checks of several of the elastic constants were made employing other directions and polarizations of the wave velocities. With the exception of C13, these values substantially agree with the data of Voigt and Bhimasenachar. ?? 1962 The American Institute of Physics.
Zacharias, Mario; Paul, Indranil; Garst, Markus
2015-07-10
We discuss elastic instabilities of the atomic crystal lattice at zero temperature. Because of long-range shear forces of the solid, at such transitions the phonon velocities vanish, if at all, only along certain crystallographic directions, and, consequently, the critical phonon fluctuations are suppressed to a lower dimensional manifold and governed by a Gaussian fixed point. In the case of symmetry-breaking elastic transitions, a characteristic critical phonon thermodynamics arises that is found, e.g., to violate Debye's T(3) law for the specific heat. We point out that quantum critical elasticity is triggered whenever a critical soft mode couples linearly to the strain tensor. In particular, this is relevant for the electronic Ising-nematic quantum phase transition in a tetragonal crystal as discussed in the context of certain cuprates, ruthenates, and iron-based superconductors. PMID:26207483
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Betty; Kang, Soo-Young; Akthakul, Ariya; Ramadurai, Nithin; Pilkenton, Morgan; Patel, Alpesh; Nashat, Amir; Anderson, Daniel G.; Sakamoto, Fernanda H.; Gilchrest, Barbara A.; Anderson, R. Rox; Langer, Robert
2016-08-01
We report the synthesis and application of an elastic, wearable crosslinked polymer layer (XPL) that mimics the properties of normal, youthful skin. XPL is made of a tunable polysiloxane-based material that can be engineered with specific elasticity, contractility, adhesion, tensile strength and occlusivity. XPL can be topically applied, rapidly curing at the skin interface without the need for heat- or light-mediated activation. In a pilot human study, we examined the performance of a prototype XPL that has a tensile modulus matching normal skin responses at low strain (<40%), and that withstands elongations exceeding 250%, elastically recoiling with minimal strain-energy loss on repeated deformation. The application of XPL to the herniated lower eyelid fat pads of 12 subjects resulted in an average 2-grade decrease in herniation appearance in a 5-point severity scale. The XPL platform may offer advanced solutions to compromised skin barrier function, pharmaceutical delivery and wound dressings.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Hui-Qin; Zhang, Jian-Wen
2015-05-01
In this paper, we investigate the inhomogeneous reduced Maxwell-Bloch system, which describes the propagation of the intense ultra-short optical pulses through an inhomogeneous two-level dielectric medium. Through symbolic computation, the integrability aspects including the Painlevé integrable condition, Lax pair and infinite conservation laws are derived. By virtue of the Darboux transformation method, one- and two-soliton solutions are generated on the nonvanishing background, including the bright solitons, dark solitons, periodic solutions and some two-soliton solutions. The asymptotic analysis method is performed to verify the elastic interaction between two solitons. Furthermore, by virtue of some figures, the dynamic properties of those solitons are discussed. The results may be useful in the study of the ultrashort pulses propagation in such situations as the model of the two-level dielectric media.
A theoretical description of elastic pillar substrates in biophysical experiments.
Mohrdieck, Camilla; Wanner, Alexander; Roos, Wouter; Roth, Alexander; Sackmann, Erich; Spatz, Joachim P; Arzt, Eduard
2005-08-12
Arrays of elastic pillars are used in biophysical experiments as sensors for traction forces. The evaluation of the forces can be complicated if they are coupled to the pillar displacements over large distances. This is the case if many of the pillars are interconnected by elastic linkages as, for example, in fiber networks that are grown on top of pillars. To calculate the traction forces in such a network, we developed a set of nonlinear inhomogeneous equations relating the forces in the linking elements to the resulting pillar deflections. We chose a homogeneous, activated two-dimensional network of cytoskeletal actin filaments to illustrate that a pillar substrate is generally not a force sensor but a force-gradient sensor. In homogeneous networks the forces acting along the filaments can be approximated by analyzing only pillar deflections in the edge zones of the substrate and by integration over the corresponding force gradients. PMID:16082672
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Habibi, M.; Ribe, N. M.; Bonn, Daniel
2007-10-01
A rope falling onto a solid surface typically forms a series of regular coils. Here, we study this phenomenon using laboratory experiments (with cotton threads and softened spaghetti) and an asymptotic “slender-rope” numerical model. The excellent agreement between the two with no adjustable parameters allows us to determine a complete phase diagram for elastic coiling comprising three basic regimes involving different force balances (elastic, gravitational, and inertial) together with resonant “whirling string” and “whirling shaft” eigenmodes in the inertial regime.
Tests of Cosmological Inhomogeneity Using WMAP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shubert, Richard; Tatineni, Mahidhar
2016-06-01
This paper reports on the latest results obtained from studies of the calibrated Time-Ordered Data of the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (9-yr) mission that has in the past been used to determine the anisotropy of the Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation, although with a novel objective. The purpose of this work has been to examine what can be inferred from these data about the local inhomogeneity of the CMBR, which would be in this case an apparent radial variation of the brightness (or effective temperature) at the same point of the celestial sky as seen by the WMAP spacecraft instruments from the center of observation, namely the Sun. The usual studies of anisotropy normally have averaged the observed temperature of any given point on the celestial sky over one full annual orbit of the WMAP spacecraft around the Sun to produce the well-known maps. Inhomogeneity of the kind being sought here, however, would manifest itself as a systematic variation of the apparent temperature at that point as a function of the orbital position of the spacecraft. The detection of such inhomogeneity, if it could be confirmed by subsequent observations, could significantly impact the standard cosmological paradigm. The computational approach used thus far in that search, over the last four years of study by supercomputer facilities at UCSD, has been to examine the differences of temperature seen of the same points on the sky, taken in pairs corresponding to the pointing directions of the A and B radiometer horns of the instrument, from different orbital positions of the spacecraft. From those observed differences of temperature and the corresponding angular separations of the respective orbital positions — here limited to values greater than or equal to 44 degrees out of a maximum available range of 1 – 45 degrees — an apparent radial gradient of temperature could be computed with lowest uncertainties. A small but significant gradient of temperature tentatively has been
Elastic and Inelastic Collisions
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gluck, Paul
2010-01-01
There have been two articles in this journal that described a pair of collision carts used to demonstrate vividly the difference between elastic and inelastic collisions. One cart had a series of washers that were mounted rigidly on a rigid wooden framework, the other had washers mounted on rubber bands stretched across a framework. The rigidly…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Gordon, Warren B.
2006-01-01
This paper examines the elasticity of demand, and shows that geometrically, it may be interpreted as the ratio of two simple distances along the tangent line: the distance from the point on the curve to the x-intercept to the distance from the point on the curve to the y-intercept. It also shows that total revenue is maximized at the transition…
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Cocco, Alberto; Masin, Sergio Cesare
2010-01-01
Participants estimated the imagined elongation of a spring while they were imagining that a load was stretching the spring. This elongation turned out to be a multiplicative function of spring length and load weight--a cognitive law analogous to Hooke's law of elasticity. Participants also estimated the total imagined elongation of springs joined…
Elastically tailored composite structures
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
2000-01-01
Elastically tailored composite structures using out-of-autoclave processes. Several unsymetric autoclave-cured and electron-beam-cured composite laminates are compared. Cantilevered beam (unbalanced/asymetric laminate) used to demonstrate bend-twist coupling effects. Photographed in building 1145, photographic studio.
Hydrodynamic Elastic Magneto Plastic
Energy Science and Technology Software Center (ESTSC)
1985-02-01
The HEMP code solves the conservation equations of two-dimensional elastic-plastic flow, in plane x-y coordinates or in cylindrical symmetry around the x-axis. Provisions for calculation of fixed boundaries, free surfaces, pistons, and boundary slide planes have been included, along with other special conditions.
Mass spectrometry and inhomogeneous ion optics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
White, F. A.
1973-01-01
Work done in several areas to advance the state of the art of magnetic mass spectrometers is described. The calculations and data necessary for the design of inhomogeneous field mass spectrometers, and the calculation of ion trajectories through such fields are presented. The development and testing of solid state ion detection devices providing the capability of counting single ions is discussed. New techniques in the preparation and operation of thermal-ionization ion sources are described. Data obtained on the concentrations of copper in rainfall and uranium in air samples using the improved thermal ionization techniques are presented. The design of a closed system static mass spectrometer for isotopic analyses is discussed. A summary of instrumental aspects of a four-stage mass spectrometer comprising two electrostatic and two 90 deg. magnetic lenses with a 122-cm radius used to study the interaction of ions with solids is presented.
Optical diffraction by inhomogeneous volume objects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Forte, Gustavo; Lencina, Alberto; Tebaldi, Myrian; Bolognini, Nestor
2008-08-01
Electromagnetic waves propagation research in volume media increases considerably in the last years. The study evolved from thick hologram gratings, Bragg and Raman-Nath diffraction regimes up to current research in photonics materials. Usually differential methods are employed to account for the light transmitted for volume media. In our proposal, we develop a simple and versatile integral method to calculate the diffracted field provided the media refractive index has low variations in a wavelength scale. In fact, starting from first principles, we obtain a modified version of the Fresnel propagator of the scalar diffraction theory. Our method is valid for some kind of magnetic, dielectric and absorbent inhomogeneous media. In particular, for TE (TM) fields, we can study media where the permittivity (permeability) gradient is perpendicular to the electric (magnetic) field and its permeability (permittivity) is constant. To validate the approach, we applied it to (in) homogeneous media having well known diffraction properties.
Optimal stochastic transport in inhomogeneous thermal environments
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bo, Stefano; Aurell, Erik; Eichhorn, Ralf; Celani, Antonio
2013-07-01
We consider the optimization of the average entropy production in inhomogeneous temperature environments within the framework of stochastic thermodynamics. For systems modeled by Langevin equations (e.g. a colloidal particle in a heat bath) it has been recently shown that a space-dependent temperature breaks the time reversal symmetry of the fast velocity degrees of freedom resulting in an anomalous contribution to the entropy production of the overdamped dynamics. We show that optimization of entropy production is determined by an auxiliary deterministic problem formally analogous to motion on a curved manifold in a potential. The “anomalous contribution” to entropy plays the role of the potential and the inverse of the diffusion tensor is the metric. We also find that entropy production is not minimized by adiabatically slow, quasi-static protocols but there is a finite optimal duration for the transport process. As an example we discuss the case of a linearly space-dependent diffusion coefficient.
On Isospectral Deformations of an Inhomogeneous String
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Colville, Kale; Gomez, Daniel; Szmigielski, Jacek
2016-07-01
In this paper we consider a class of isospectral deformations of the inhomogeneous string boundary value problem. The deformations considered are generalizations of the isospectral deformation that has arisen in connection with the Camassa-Holm equation for the shallow water waves. It is proved that these new isospectral deformations result in evolution equations on the mass density whose form depends on how the string is tied at the endpoints. Moreover, it is shown that the evolution equations in this class linearize on the spectral side and hence can be solved by the inverse spectral method. In particular, the problem involving a mass density given by a discrete finite measure and arbitrary boundary conditions is shown to be solvable by Stieltjes' continued fractions.
Trapping and reaction on inhomogeneous structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cassi, Davide
2011-05-01
We consider the problem of two chemical species, A and B, undergoing an annihilation process A + B → B, on generic discrete inhomogeneous structures, such as disordered solids, glasses, fractals, polymer networks and gels. Two particular cases are analysed: in the fist one A is immobile and B is diffusing (target decay process); in the second one A is diffusing and B is immobile (trapping process). The survival probability of A is analytically calculated in the limit of large times, showing that, while for the target decay it is related to the spectral dimension ? of the structure, for the trapping problem it depends, in general, on a different anomalous dimension, which we call the exploration dimension.
Deformed bubbles in inhomogeneous ultrasonic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zaleski, Stéphane; Popinet, Stéphane
1998-11-01
We study numerically a bubble undergoing expansions and contractions under an ultrasonic acoustic field. The bubble deforms under the influence of intrinsic instabilities as well as inhomogeneities in the pressure field. Interface kinematics through connected marker chains, with cut-cell reconstructions are used to solve the Navier-Stokes equations in axisymmetric geometry. A series of embedded grids is used to follow large expansions and contractions. Test cases involve a bubble oscillating at a variable distance from a solid wall as well as a levitating bubble subject to a net force (the Bjerknes force). The numerical scheme is able to follow relatively small bubbles down to 3 μm, in the sonoluminescence regime. The Rayleigh-Taylor instability predicted in that regime is reproduced. Larger, millimeter size bubbles may also be followed. In that case the numerical results show a typical jet formation analogous to the experimental observations of Lauterborn. Preliminary observations of jet velocities are made and compared to experiment.
Lensing effects in inhomogeneous cosmological models
Ghassemi, Sima; Khoeini-Moghaddam, Salomeh; Mansouri, Reza
2009-05-15
Concepts developed in the gravitational lensing techniques such as shear, convergence, tangential, and radial arcs maybe used to see how tenable inhomogeneous models proposed to explain the acceleration of the universe models are. We study the widely discussed Lemaitre-Tolman-Bondi (LTB) cosmological models. It turns out that for the observer sitting at origin of a global LTB solution the shear vanishes as in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker models, while the value of convergence is different, which may lead to observable cosmological effects. We also consider Swiss-cheese models proposed recently based on LTB with an observer sitting in the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker part. It turns out that they have different behavior as far as the formation of radial and tangential arcs are concerned.
Sensor array processing for random inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ringelstein, Joerg; Gershman, Alex B.; Boehme, Johann F.
1999-11-01
The performances of high-resolution array processing methods are known to degrade in random inhomogeneous media because the amplitude and phase of each wavefront tend to fluctuate and to loose their coherence between array sensors. As a result, in the presence of such a multiplicative noise, the conventional coherent wavefront model becomes inapplicable. Such a type of degradation may be especially strong for large aperture arrays. Below, we develop new high-resolution covariance matching (CM) techniques with an improved robustness against multiplicative noise and related coherence losses. Using a few unrestrictive physics-based assumptions on the environment, we show that reliable algorithms can be developed which take into account possible coherence losses. Computer simulation results and real sonar data processing results are presented. These results demonstrate drastic improvements achieved by our approach as compared with conventional high- resolution array processing techniques.
Tilted Gaussian beam propagation in inhomogeneous media.
Hadad, Yakir; Melamed, Timor
2010-08-01
The present work is concerned with applying a ray-centered non-orthogonal coordinate system which is a priori matched to linearly-phased localized aperture field distributions. The resulting beam-waveobjects serve as the building blocks for beam-type spectral expansions of aperture fields in 2D inhomogeneous media that are characterized by a generic wave-velocity profile. By applying a rigorous paraxial-asymptotic analysis, a novel parabolic wave equation is obtained and termed "Non-orthogonal domain parabolic equation"--NoDope. Tilted Gaussian beams, which are exact solutions to this equation, match Gaussian aperture distributions over a plane that is tilted with respect to the beam-axes initial directions. A numerical example, which demonstrates the enhanced accuracy of the tilted Gaussian beams over the conventional ones, is presented as well. PMID:20686589
Inhomogeneous thermalization in strongly coupled field theories.
Balasubramanian, V; Bernamonti, A; de Boer, J; Craps, B; Franti, L; Galli, F; Keski-Vakkuri, E; Müller, B; Schäfer, A
2013-12-01
To describe theoretically the creation and evolution of the quark-gluon plasma, one typically employs three ingredients: a model for the initial state, nonhydrodynamic early time evolution, and hydrodynamics. In this Letter we study the nonhydrodynamic early time evolution using the AdS/CFT correspondence in the presence of inhomogeneities. We find that the AdS description of the early time evolution is well matched by free streaming. Near the end of the early time interval where our analytic computations are reliable, the stress tensor agrees with the second order hydrodynamic stress tensor computed from the local energy density and fluid velocity. Our techniques may also be useful for the study of far-from-equilibrium strongly coupled systems in other areas of physics. PMID:24476254
Dielectric elastomer membranes undergoing inhomogeneous deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Tianhu; Zhao, Xuanhe; Suo, Zhigang
2009-10-01
Dielectric elastomers are capable of large deformation subject to an electric voltage and are promising for use as actuators, sensors, and generators. Because of large deformation, nonlinear equations of states, and diverse modes of failure, modeling the process of electromechanical transduction has been challenging. This paper studies a membrane of a dielectric elastomer deformed into an out-of-plane axisymmetric shape, a configuration used in a family of commercial devices known as the universal muscle actuators. The kinematics of deformation and charging, together with thermodynamics, leads to equations that govern the state of equilibrium. Numerical results indicate that the field in the membrane can be very inhomogeneous, and that the membrane is susceptible to several modes of failure, including electrical breakdown, loss of tension, and rupture by stretch. Care is needed in the design to balance the requirements of averting various modes of failure while using the material efficiently.
Renormalization of curvature elastic constants for elastic and fluid membranes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ami, S.; Kleinert, H.
1987-02-01
We study the fluctuations of membranes with area and curvature elasticity and calculate the renormalization of the curvature elastic constants due to thermal fluctuations. For the mean curvature elastic constant the result is the same as obtained previously for “ideal membranes” which resist only to curvature deformations. The renormalization of the gaussian curvature, on the other hand, depends on the elastic contants. In an incompressible membrane, it is five times weaker than in an ideal membrane.
Effects of nanoscale density inhomogeneities on shearing fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dalton, Benjamin A.; Daivis, Peter J.; Hansen, J. S.; Todd, B. D.
2013-11-01
It is well known that density inhomogeneities at the solid-liquid interface can have a strong effect on the velocity profile of a nanoconfined fluid in planar Poiseuille flow. However, it is difficult to control the density inhomogeneities induced by solid walls, making this type of system unsuitable for a comprehensive study of the effect on density inhomogeneity on nanofluidic flow. In this paper, we employ an external force compatible with periodic boundary conditions to induce the density variation, which greatly simplifies the problem when compared to flow in nonperiodic nanoconfined systems. Using the sinusoidal transverse force method to produce shearing velocity profiles and the sinusoidal longitudinal force method to produce inhomogeneous density profiles, we are able to observe the interactions between the two property inhomogeneities at the level of individual Fourier components. This gives us a method for direct measurement of the coupling between the density and velocity fields and allows us to introduce various feedback control mechanisms which customize fluid behavior in individual Fourier components. We briefly discuss the role of temperature inhomogeneity and consider whether local thermal expansion due to nonuniform viscous heating is sufficient to account for shear-induced density inhomogeneities. We also consider the local Newtonian constitutive relation relating the shear stress to the velocity gradient and show that the local model breaks down for sufficiently large density inhomogeneities over atomic length scales.
Optical inhomogeneities in sol-gel derived ormosils and nanocomposites
Duarte, E.J.; Pope, E.J.A.
1995-12-31
Interferometric measurements are used to characterize and quantify optical inhomogeneities present in laser dye doped MPMMA, ORMOSILS, and silicate/PMMA nanocomposites. A brief history of the effect of optical inhomogeneities in high beam quality dye lasers is given and their importance to the solid-state dye laser program is discussed.
Structural relaxation driven increase in elastic modulus for a bulk metallic glass
Arora, Harpreet Singh; Aditya, Ayyagari V.; Mukherjee, Sundeep
2015-01-07
The change in elastic modulus as a function of temperature was investigated for a zirconium-based bulk metallic glass. High temperature nano-indentation was done over a wide temperature range from room temperature to the glass-transition. At higher temperature, there was a transition from inhomogeneous to homogeneous deformation, with a decrease in serrated flow and an increase in creep displacement. Hardness was found to decrease, whereas elastic modulus was found to increase with temperature. The increase in elastic modulus for metallic glass at higher temperature was explained by diffusive rearrangement of atoms resulting in free volume annihilation. This is in contrast to elastic modulus increase with temperature for silicate glasses due to compaction of its open three dimensional coordinated structure without any atomic diffusion.
Problem of time in slightly inhomogeneous cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anderson, Edward
2016-07-01
The problem of time (PoT) is a multi-faceted conceptual incompatibility between various areas of Theoretical Physics. While usually stated as between GR and QM, in fact 8/9ths of it is already present at the classical level. Thus we adopt a ‘top-down’ classical and then quantum approach. I consider a local resolution to the PoT that is Machian, which was previously realized for relational triangle and minisuperspace models. This resolution has three levels: classical, semiclassical and combined semiclassical-histories-records. This article’s specific model is a slightly inhomogeneous cosmology considered for now at the classical level. This is motivated by how the inhomogeneous fluctuations that underlie structure formation—galaxies and CMB hotspots—might have been seeded by quantum cosmological fluctuations, as magnified by some inflationary mechanism. In particular, I consider the perturbations about {{{S}}}3 case of this involving up to second order, which has a number of parallels with the Halliwell–Hawking model but has a number of conceptual differences and useful upgrades. The article’s main features are that the elimination part of the model’s thin sandwich is straightforward, but the modewise split of the constraints fail to be first-class constraints. Thus the elimination part only arises as an intermediate geometry between superspace and Riem. The reduced geometries have surprising singularities influenced by the matter content of the Universe, though the N-body problem anticipates these with its collinear singularities. I also give a ‘basis set’ of Kuchař beables for this model arena.
The Hyades open cluster is chemically inhomogeneous
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Liu, F.; Yong, D.; Asplund, M.; Ramírez, I.; Meléndez, J.
2016-04-01
We present a high-precision differential abundance analysis of 16 solar-type stars in the Hyades open cluster based on high-resolution, high signal-to-noise ratio (S/N ≈ 350-400) spectra obtained from the McDonald 2.7-m telescope. We derived stellar parameters and differential chemical abundances for 19 elements (C, O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, S, Ca, Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn and Ba) with uncertainties as low as ˜0.01-0.02 dex. Our main results include: (1) there is no clear chemical signature of planet formation detected among the sample stars, i.e. no correlations in abundances versus condensation temperature; (2) the observed abundance dispersions are a factor of ≈1.5-2 larger than the average measurement errors for most elements; (3) there are positive correlations, of high statistical significance, between the abundances of at least 90 per cent of pairs of elements. We demonstrate that none of these findings can be explained by errors due to the stellar parameters. Our results reveal that the Hyades is chemically inhomogeneous at the 0.02 dex level. Possible explanations for the abundance variations include (1) inhomogeneous chemical evolution in the proto-cluster environment, (2) supernova ejection in the proto-cluster cloud and (3) pollution of metal-poor gas before complete mixing of the proto-cluster cloud. Our results provide significant new constraints on the chemical composition of open clusters and a challenge to the current view of Galactic archaeology.
Frequency dependent elastic impedance inversion for interstratified dispersive elastic parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zong, Zhaoyun; Yin, Xingyao; Wu, Guochen
2016-08-01
The elastic impedance equation is extended to frequency dependent elastic impedance equation by taking partial derivative to frequency. With this equation as the forward solver, a practical frequency dependent elastic impedance inversion approach is presented to implement the estimation of the interstratified dispersive elastic parameters which makes full use of the frequency information of elastic impedances. Three main steps are included in this approach. Firstly, the elastic Bayesian inversion is implemented for the estimation of elastic impedances from different incident angle. Secondly, with those estimated elastic impedances, their variations are used to estimate P-wave velocity and S-wave velocity. Finally, with the prior elastic impedance and P-wave and S-wave velocity information, the frequency dependent elastic variation with incident angle inversion is presented for the estimation of the interstratified elastic parameters. With this approach, the interstratified elastic parameters rather than the interface information can be estimated, making easier the interpretation of frequency dependent seismic attributes. The model examples illustrate the feasibility and stability of the proposed method in P-wave velocity dispersion and S-wave velocity dispersion estimation. The field data example validates the possibility and efficiency in hydrocarbon indication of the estimated P-wave velocity dispersion and S-wave velocity dispersion.
Inhomogeneity of fluid flow in Stirling engine regenerators
Jones, J.D. )
1989-10-01
The literature relating to inhomogeneity of flow regenerators is briefly reviewed. It is noted that, in contrast to other applications of regenerators, relatively little attention has been paid to the consequences of flow inhomogeneity for thermal regeneration in Stirling cycle machines. The construction of regenerator capsules for a large stationary Stirling engine is described. A test rig is developed to measure the gas velocity profile across the face of the packed regenerator capsules under steady flow conditions. Measured flow profiles for a number of different matrix materials and construction techniques are presented, and it is noted that stacked-mesh regenerator matrices tend to display marked inhomogeneities of flow. The consequences of flow inhomogeneity for flow friction and regenerator effectiveness are analyzed theoretically, and approximate formulae deduced. One method for reducing flow inhomogeneity in stacked-screen matrice
Electromagnetic effects on the inhomogeneity of planar symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sharif, M.; Bhatti, M. Zaeem Ul Haq
2014-08-01
In this work, we aim to identify the effects of electromagnetic field on the energy density inhomogeneity in self-gravitating plane symmetric spacetime filled with imperfect matter in terms of dissipation and anisotropic pressure. We formulate the Einstein-Maxwell field equation, conservation laws, evolution equations for the Weyl tensor and the transport equation for diffusion approximation. Inhomogeneity factors are identified for some particular cases of non-dissipative and dissipative fluids. For non-dissipative case, we analyze the inhomogeneity factor for dust, isotropic and anisotropic matter distributions while dissipative matter distribution includes the inhomogeneity factor only for geodesic dust fluid. We conclude that electric charge increases the inhomogeneity in the energy density which is due to shear, anisotropy and dissipation.
Elastic analysis of exponential FGM disks subjected to internal and external pressure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nejad, Mohammad; Abedi, Majid; Lotfian, Mohammad; Ghannad, Mehdi
2013-09-01
Assuming exponential varying properties in the radial direction and constant Poisson's ratio, a closed-form analytical solution based on the elasticity theory is obtained to elastic analysis of disks made of functionally graded materials (FGMs) subjected to internal and external pressure. Following this, radial displacement, radial stress, and circumferential stress profiles are plotted for different values of material inhomogeneity constant, as a function of radial direction. The displacements and stresses distributions are compared with the solutions of the finite element method (FEM) and comparison with the corresponding numerical solution indicates that the proposed solution has excellent convergence and accuracy.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Oline, L.; Medaglia, J.
1972-01-01
The dynamic finite element method was used to investigate elastic stress waves in a plate. Strain displacement and stress strain relations are discussed along with the stiffness and mass matrix. The results of studying point load, and distributed load over small, intermediate, and large radii are reported. The derivation of finite element matrices, and the derivation of lumped and consistent matrices for one dimensional problems with Laplace transfer solutions are included. The computer program JMMSPALL is also included.
Elastic properties of hedenbergite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kandelin, John; Weidner, Donald J.
1988-02-01
The single-crystal elastic moduli of hedenbergite (CaFeSi2O6) hare been measured at 20°C and 1 bar using Brillouin spectroscopy. The moduli are (in gigapascals): C11 = 222, C22 = 176, C23 = 249, C44 = 55, C55 = 63, C66 = 60, C12 = 69, C13 = 79, C33, = 86, C15 = 12, C25 = 13, C35 = 26, C46 = -10. The comparison of elastic properties among Mg-Fe-Ca bearing pyroxenes, known as quadrilateral pyroxenes, reveals only weak variations with changes in composition. Of the four quadrilateral pyroxenes, orthoferrosilite has elastic properties distinctive from the others. The principal differences among these pyroxenes are due to subtle structural differences. In particular, the mechanical linkage between the M2 polyhedral chains in clinopyroxenes enhances the importance of the cation in this site. In contrast to the orthopyroxenes, the aggregate shear modulus μ of the calcium-bearing clinopyroxenes (diopside and hedenbergite) exhibits no dependence on the amount of iron (Fe2+) present in the structure, while the ratio K/μ does. As a result, the compressional and shear acoustic velocities of the calcium-bearing clinopyroxenes show a smaller dependency on iron content than do the orthopyroxenes.
Average luminosity distance in inhomogeneous universes
Kostov, Valentin
2010-04-01
Using numerical ray tracing, the paper studies how the average distance modulus in an inhomogeneous universe differs from its homogeneous counterpart. The averaging is over all directions from a fixed observer not over all possible observers (cosmic), thus is more directly applicable to our observations. In contrast to previous studies, the averaging is exact, non-perturbative, and includes all non-linear effects. The inhomogeneous universes are represented by Swiss-cheese models containing random and simple cubic lattices of mass-compensated voids. The Earth observer is in the homogeneous cheese which has an Einstein-de Sitter metric. For the first time, the averaging is widened to include the supernovas inside the voids by assuming the probability for supernova emission from any comoving volume is proportional to the rest mass in it. Voids aligned along a certain direction give rise to a distance modulus correction which increases with redshift and is caused by cumulative gravitational lensing. That correction is present even for small voids and depends on their density contrast, not on their radius. Averaging over all directions destroys the cumulative lensing correction even in a non-randomized simple cubic lattice of voids. At low redshifts, the average distance modulus correction does not vanish due to the peculiar velocities, despite the photon flux conservation argument. A formula for the maximal possible average correction as a function of redshift is derived and shown to be in excellent agreement with the numerical results. The formula applies to voids of any size that: (a)have approximately constant densities in their interior and walls; and (b)are not in a deep nonlinear regime. The average correction calculated in random and simple cubic void lattices is severely damped below the predicted maximal one after a single void diameter. That is traced to cancellations between the corrections from the fronts and backs of different voids. The results obtained
Modelling of hydraulic fracture propagation in inhomogeneous poroelastic medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Baykin, A. N.; Golovin, S. V.
2016-06-01
In the paper a model for description of a hydraulic fracture propagation in inhomogeneous poroelastic medium is proposed. Among advantages of the presented numerical algorithm, there are incorporation of the near-tip analysis into the general computational scheme, account for the rock failure criterion on the base of the cohesive zone model, possibility for analysis of fracture propagation in inhomogeneous reservoirs. The numerical convergence of the algorithm is verified and the agreement of our numerical results with known solutions is established. The influence of the inhomogeneity of the reservoir permeability to the fracture time evolution is also demonstrated.
Meissner response of superconductors with inhomogeneous penetration depths
Kogan, V. G.; Kirtley, J. R.
2011-03-24
We discuss the Meissner response to a known field source of superconductors having inhomogeneities in their penetration depth. We simplify the general problem by assuming that the perturbations of the fields by the penetration depth inhomogeneities are small. We present expressions for inhomogeneities in several geometries, but concentrate for comparison with experiment on planar defects, perpendicular to the sample surfaces, with superfluid densities different from the rest of the samples. These calculations are relevant for magnetic microscopies, such as Scanning Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) and Magnetic Force Microscope, which image the local diamagnetic susceptibility of a sample.
Computation of transient electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moghaddam, M.; Chew, W. C.; Anderson, B.; Yannakakis, E.; Liu, Q. H.
1991-02-01
A brief summary of the methods of solving transient EM wave problems in inhomogeneous media is given. The two distinct general techniques, the inverse Fourier transformation of time-harmonic solutions and the direct time-domain formulation, are illustrated by way of two examples. In the first, an efficient numerical mode-matching method to obtain the response of an EM source in a two-dimensional cylindrical inhomogeneity is described. In the second method, a finite-difference scheme is used to find the transient response of a point source in a two-dimensional inhomogeneity. Two different methods are proposed to treat the source-region singularity.
Reflection and interference of electromagnetic waves in inhomogeneous media
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geiger, F. E.; Kyle, H. L.
1973-01-01
Solutions were obtained of the wave equation for a plane horizontally polarized electro-magnetic wave incident on a semi infinite two dimensional inhomogeneous medium. Two problems were considered: An inhomogeneous half space, and an inhomogeneous layer of arbitrary thickness. Solutions of the wave equation were obtained in terms of Hankel functions with complex arguments. Numerical calculations were made of the reflection coefficient R at the interface of the homogeneous medium. The startling results show that the reflection coefficient for a complex dielectric constant with gradient, can be less than that of the same medium with zero gradient.
Local texture of microstructural inhomogeneities in rolled microalloyed steel
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zolotorevsky, N.; Panpurin, S.; Kazakov, A.; Pakhomova, O.; Petrov, S.
2015-04-01
Specific inhomogeneities consisting of coarse-grained bainite are observed in the microstructure of low carbon microalloyed steels after hot rolling. Earlier a special etching method has been developed allowing to reveal that these inhomogeneities markedly affect a fracture toughness of steels. In the present work their crystal geometry was studied using EBSD technique, and orientations of former austenite grains were reconstructed. The austenite, from which the coarse-grained bainite regions have been produced, is shown to have orientations concentrated predominantly within the brass component of austenite rolling texture. The inhomogeneities of steel microstructure are promoted by orientation dependency of the deformation substructure of heavily deformed austenite grains.
Cauchy problems of pseudo-parabolic equations with inhomogeneous terms
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Zhongping; Du, Wanjuan
2015-12-01
This paper deals with Cauchy problems of pseudo-parabolic equations with inhomogeneous terms. The aim of the paper is to study the influence of the inhomogeneous term on the asymptotic behavior of solutions. We at first determine the critical Fujita exponent and then give the secondary critical exponent on the decay asymptotic behavior of an initial value at infinity. Furthermore, the precise estimate of life span for the blow-up solution is obtained. Our results show that the asymptotic behavior of solutions is seriously affected by the inhomogeneous term.
Adaptive deformable image registration of inhomogeneous tissues
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ren, Jing
2015-03-01
Physics based deformable registration can provide physically consistent image match of deformable soft tissues. In order to help radiologist/surgeons to determine the status of malicious tumors, we often need to accurately align the regions with embedded tumors. This is a very challenging task since the tumor and the surrounding tissues have very different tissue properties such as stiffness and elasticity. In order to address this problem, based on minimum strain energy principle in elasticity theory, we propose to partition the whole region of interest into smaller sub-regions and dynamically adjust weights of vessel segments and bifurcation points in each sub-region in the registration objective function. Our previously proposed fast vessel registration is used as a component in the inner loop. We have validated the proposed method using liver MR images from human subjects. The results show that our method can detect the large registration errors and improve the registration accuracy in the neighborhood of the tumors and guarantee the registration errors to be within acceptable accuracy. The proposed technique has the potential to significantly improve the registration capability and the quality of clinical diagnosis and treatment planning.
Spin generation by strong inhomogeneous electric fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Finkler, Ilya; Engel, Hans-Andreas; Rashba, Emmanuel; Halperin, Bertrand
2007-03-01
Motivated by recent experiments [1], we propose a model with extrinsic spin-orbit interaction, where an inhomogeneous electric field E in the x-y plane can give rise, through nonlinear effects, to a spin polarization with non-zero sz, away from the sample boundaries. The field E induces a spin current js^z= z x(αjc+βE), where jc=σE is the charge current, and the two terms represent,respectively, the skew scattering and side-jump contributions. [2]. The coefficients α and β are assumed to be E- independent, but conductivity σ is field dependent. We find the spin density sz by solving the equation for spin diffusion and relaxation with a source term ∇.js^z. For sufficiently low fields, jc is linear in E, and the source term vanishes, implying that sz=0 away from the edges. However, for large fields, σ varies with E. Solving the diffusion equation in a T-shaped geometry, where the electric current propagates along the main channel, we find spin accumulation near the entrance of the side channel, similar to experimental findings [1]. Also, we present a toy model where spin accumulation away from the boundary results from a nonlinear and anisotropic conductivity. [1] V. Sih, et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 97, 096605 (2006). [2] H.-A. Engel, B.I. Halperin, E.I.Rashba, Phys. Rev. Lett. 95, 166605 (2005).
Inhomogeneous field theory inside the arctic circle
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Allegra, Nicolas; Dubail, Jérôme; Stéphan, Jean-Marie; Viti, Jacopo
2016-05-01
Motivated by quantum quenches in spin chains, a one-dimensional toy-model of fermionic particles evolving in imaginary-time from a domain-wall initial state is solved. The main interest of this toy-model is that it exhibits the arctic circle phenomenon, namely a spatial phase separation between a critically fluctuating region and a frozen region. Large-scale correlations inside the critical region are expressed in terms of correlators in a (euclidean) two-dimensional massless Dirac field theory. It is observed that this theory is inhomogenous: the metric is position-dependent, so it is in fact a Dirac theory in curved space. The technique used to solve the toy-model is then extended to deal with the transfer matrices of other models: dimers on the honeycomb and square lattice, and the six-vertex model at the free fermion point (Δ =0 ). In all cases, explicit expressions are given for the long-range correlations in the critical region, as well as for the underlying Dirac action. Although the setup developed here is heavily based on fermionic observables, the results can be translated into the language of height configurations and of the gaussian free field, via bosonization. Correlations close to the phase boundary and the generic appearance of Airy processes in all these models are also briefly revisited in the appendix.
Complex geometrical optics of nonlinear inhomogeneous fibres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, Pawel
2011-03-01
This paper analyses the Gaussian beam (GB) evolution in nonlinear fibres with special attention given to the influence of the initial curvature of the wavefront and to the fibres' permittivity profile. The analysis is performed in the framework of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO). This method reduces the problem of GB evolution in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the solution of ordinary differential equations, which can be easily solved either analytically or numerically. It is shown that the PCGO approach radically simplifies modelling of nonlinear phenomena in fibres as compared with standard methods of nonlinear optics such as the variational method approach and the method of moments. It is shown that the PCGO method readily supplies the solution of the nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLS) for a self-focusing fibre with a focusing permittivity profile and provides a number of new results. The discussion on the interplay between the nonlinear (self-focusing and self-defocusing) and linear (focusing and defocusing) components of the total permittivity demonstrates the new possibilities to limit the collapse phenomenon in nonlinear fibres of Kerr type taking into account the effect of initial beam divergence.
Stochastic modeling of inhomogeneous ocean waves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smit, P. B.; Janssen, T. T.; Herbers, T. H. C.
2015-12-01
Refraction of swell waves in coastal waters can result in fast-scale variations of wave statistics due to wave interference. These variations cannot be resolved by wave models based on the radiative transport equation. More advanced models based on quasi-coherent theory, a generalization of the radiative transfer equation, can be coupled or nested into larger-scale models to resolve such local inhomogeneous effects. However, source terms for quasi-coherent models to account for non-conservative and nonlinear effects are not available, which hampers their operational use. In the present work we revisit the derivation of quasi-coherent theory to consistently include a source term for dissipation associated with depth-induced wave breaking. We demonstrate how general source terms can be incorporated in this class of models and compare model simulations with the new dissipation term to laboratory observations of focusing and breaking waves over a submerged shoal. The results show that a consistent derivation of source terms is essential to accurately capture coherent effects in coastal areas. Specifically, our results show that if coherent effects are ignored in the dissipation term, interference effects are strongly exaggerated. With the development of source terms for quasi-coherent models they can be effectively nested inside or otherwise coupled to larger-scale wave models to efficiently improve operational predictive capability of wave models near the coast.
Inhomogeneous cloud measurements during bbc-2001
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venema, V.; Simmer, C.; Crewell, S.; 4D-Clouds Team
2003-04-01
The 4D-clouds project aims at capturing the radiative influence of inhomogeneous clouds and at implementing these influences in the modelling of transport and exchange processes in dynamical atmospheric models. The measurement component of this project was executed together with the EU-project CLIWA-NET in the Baltex Bridge Campaign (BBC), which was held in the Netherlands around Cabauw in August and September 2001. It encompassed satellite and diverse ground based remote sensing measurements and simultaneous in situ measurements of the microphysical and radiative properties with three airplanes. The airplanes complement one another very well: The Merlin IV (Meteo France, CAATER) carried microphysical probes, the Cessna (TU Berlin) imaging remote sensing instruments and the Partenavia (IfT Leipzig) mainly radiation equipment. In total seven remote sensing stations with a lidar ceilometer, an infrared-radiometer and a microwave radiometer, were scattered over a region of 100 by 100 km. Furthermore, 3D cloud fields have been measured at Cabauw by making scanning measurements with a microwave radiometer and a cloud radar. In total four radars were present, an UHF windprofiler/RASS, an S-band Radar (TARA), and two cloud radars (K and W band). The paper will describe the 4D-clouds project and the instrumentation of the BBC campaign. Furthermore, it will show some first results of the campaign.
Simulation of a spectral inhomogeneous broadening
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kozlov, V. V.; Rosanov, N. N.
2014-06-01
The standard approach that is used to simulate effects of inhomogeneous spectral broadening in a medium consisting of two- or multilevel systems is to calculate the microscopic polarization (the dipole moment of an individual system) as a function of the frequency detuning and further to average this quantity over detunings with corresponding weights. This just leads to the macroscopic polarization that appears in Maxwell's equations of electrodynamics of continuous media. Here, we study and develop an alternative method that has been recently proposed by N.V. Vysotina, N.N. Rozanov, and V.E. Semenov (Opt. Spectrosc. 106 (5), 713 (2009)) for calculation of the macroscopic polarization and that has been aimed at solving problems of computational quantum optics. In this approach, the frequency detuning is considered as a stochastic function of coordinates; in one-dimensional problems, of longitudinal coordinate z. At each step of evolution, the microscopic polarization is calculated for a randomly chosen fixed value of the detuning. Therefore, calculating the macroscopic polarization does not need an additional averaging over detunings; it is replaced by averaging over spatial coordinates, which is naturally performed when describing the radiation propagation through an ensemble of quantum systems. This radically reduces the amount of computations, especially in the context of the finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method.
Imaging the sensitivity inhomogeneities ofdiamond detectors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Barrett, R.; Tromson, D.; Hainaut, O.; Amosov, V. N.; Bergonzo, P.
2003-03-01
Diamond is a semiconducting material which can withstand high temperatures, a wide range of corrosive environments and exhibits high radiation hardness. This combination of properties makes it extremely attractive for use as photon and particle detectors. The ESRF ID21 SXM has been used to image the spatial variations of detector sensitivity over a range of both natural and Chemical Vapour Deposited (CVD) diamond devices. The measurements are performed by mapping the photon-induced current flow of the biased detectors. Evaluation of the sensitivity inhomogeneities are of dual interest; For detection applications involving relatively small beams it is important that the device response be as uniform as possible. Furthermore, from a fundamental aspect, the understanding of the origin of the sensitivity variations can be a route, for example in CVD materials, to modifying the growth and processing parameters in order to produce improved devices. This paper demonstrates an application of alternative detection modes in X-ray microscopy for a problem of technological interest. Moreover, it shows how the flexible control of the primary X-ray penetration depth by varying the probe energy permits an evaluation of the relative influence of the surface and bulk material.
First artificial periodic inhomogeneity experiments at HAARP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hysell, D. L.; McCarrick, M. J.; Fallen, C. T.; Vierinen, J.
2015-03-01
Experiments involving the generation and detection of artificial periodic inhomogeneities have been performed at the High Frequency Active Auroral Research Program (HAARP) facility. Irregularities were created using powerful X-mode HF emissions and then probed using short (10 μs) X- and O-mode pulses. Reception was performed using a portable software-defined receiver together with the crossed rhombic antenna from the local ionosonde. Echoes were observed reliably between about 85 and 140 km altitude with signal-to-noise ratios as high as about 30 dB. The Doppler shift of the echoes can be associated with the vertical neutral wind in this altitude range. Small but persistent Doppler shifts were observed. The decay time constant of the echoes is meanwhile indicative of the ambipolar diffusion coefficient which depends on the plasma temperature, composition, and neutral gas density. The measured time constants appear to be consistent with theoretical expectations and imply a methodology for measuring neutral density profiles. The significance of thermospheric vertical neutral wind and density measurements which are difficult to obtain using ground-based instruments by other means is discussed.
Mathematical Modeling of Extinction of Inhomogeneous Populations.
Karev, G P; Kareva, I
2016-04-01
Mathematical models of population extinction have a variety of applications in such areas as ecology, paleontology and conservation biology. Here we propose and investigate two types of sub-exponential models of population extinction. Unlike the more traditional exponential models, the life duration of sub-exponential models is finite. In the first model, the population is assumed to be composed of clones that are independent from each other. In the second model, we assume that the size of the population as a whole decreases according to the sub-exponential equation. We then investigate the "unobserved heterogeneity," i.e., the underlying inhomogeneous population model, and calculate the distribution of frequencies of clones for both models. We show that the dynamics of frequencies in the first model is governed by the principle of minimum of Tsallis information loss. In the second model, the notion of "internal population time" is proposed; with respect to the internal time, the dynamics of frequencies is governed by the principle of minimum of Shannon information loss. The results of this analysis show that the principle of minimum of information loss is the underlying law for the evolution of a broad class of models of population extinction. Finally, we propose a possible application of this modeling framework to mechanisms underlying time perception. PMID:27090117
Optimality of Spatially Inhomogeneous Search Strategies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schwarz, Karsten; Schröder, Yannick; Qu, Bin; Hoth, Markus; Rieger, Heiko
2016-08-01
We consider random search processes alternating stochastically between diffusion and ballistic motion, in which the distribution function of ballistic motion directions varies from point to point in space. The specific space dependence of the directional distribution together with the switching rates between the two modes of motion establishes a spatially inhomogeneous search strategy. We show that the mean first passage times for several standard search problems—narrow escape, reaction partner finding, reaction escape—can be minimized with a directional distribution that is reminiscent of the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton filaments of cells with a centrosome: radial ballistic transport from the center to the periphery and back, and ballistic transport in random directions within a concentric shell of thickness Δopt along the domain boundary. The results suggest that living cells realize efficient search strategies for various intracellular transport problems economically through a spatial cytoskeleton organization that involves radial microtubules in the central region and only a narrow actin cortex rather than a cell body filled with randomly oriented actin filaments.
Microwaves Scattering by Underdense Inhomogeneous Plasma Column
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin; Ouyang, Jiting
2016-03-01
The scattering characteristics of microwaves (MWs) by an underdense inhomogeneous plasma column have been investigated. The plasma column is generated by hollow cathode discharge (HCD) in a glass tube filled with low pressure argon. The plasma density in the column can be varied by adjusting the discharge current. The scattering power of X-band MWs by the column is measured at different discharge currents and receiving angles. The results show that the column can affect the properties of scattering wave significantly regardless of its plasma frequency much lower than the incident wave frequency. The power peak of the scattering wave shifts away from 0° to about ±15° direction. The finite-different time-domain (FDTD) method is employed to analyze the wave scattering by plasma column with different electron density distributions. The reflected MW power from a metal plate located behind the column is also measured to investigate the scattering effect on reducing MW reflectivity of a metal target. This study is expected to deepen the understanding of plasma-electromagnetic wave interaction and expand the applications concerning plasma antenna and plasma stealth.
Optimality of Spatially Inhomogeneous Search Strategies.
Schwarz, Karsten; Schröder, Yannick; Qu, Bin; Hoth, Markus; Rieger, Heiko
2016-08-01
We consider random search processes alternating stochastically between diffusion and ballistic motion, in which the distribution function of ballistic motion directions varies from point to point in space. The specific space dependence of the directional distribution together with the switching rates between the two modes of motion establishes a spatially inhomogeneous search strategy. We show that the mean first passage times for several standard search problems-narrow escape, reaction partner finding, reaction escape-can be minimized with a directional distribution that is reminiscent of the spatial organization of the cytoskeleton filaments of cells with a centrosome: radial ballistic transport from the center to the periphery and back, and ballistic transport in random directions within a concentric shell of thickness Δ_{opt} along the domain boundary. The results suggest that living cells realize efficient search strategies for various intracellular transport problems economically through a spatial cytoskeleton organization that involves radial microtubules in the central region and only a narrow actin cortex rather than a cell body filled with randomly oriented actin filaments. PMID:27541477
Inhomogeneous chemical evolution of the Galactic disk
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Malinie, Guy; Hartmann, Dieter H.; Clayton, Donald D.; Mathews, Grant J.
1993-01-01
We present analytical models for inhomogeneous chemical evolution (ICE) of systems in which the star formation history resembles a series of bursts, localized in space and/or time, with intermittent periods of remixing. The additional parameter of this model is the metallicity increment of bursting subsystems, but this parameter is constrained by the spread in the age-metallicity relation. We apply this model to the solar annulus in the Galactic disk and show that ICE models yield an improved fit to the observed shape of the stellar abundance distribution function (ADF). The G-dwarf problem can be alleviated with ICE models, but infall of metal poor gas and/or some preenrichment of the disk during the epoch of protogalactic evolution is still required to explain the paucity of low-metallicity dwarfs. ICE models also suggest an explanation of the reduced frequency of metal-rich G-dwarfs relative to the predictions of the simple model. It does not seem likely that chemical evolution of the solar annulus proceeded in a medium that was well-mixed at all times.
Mathematical Modeling of Extinction of Inhomogeneous Populations
Karev, G.P.; Kareva, I.
2016-01-01
Mathematical models of population extinction have a variety of applications in such areas as ecology, paleontology and conservation biology. Here we propose and investigate two types of sub-exponential models of population extinction. Unlike the more traditional exponential models, the life duration of sub-exponential models is finite. In the first model, the population is assumed to be composed clones that are independent from each other. In the second model, we assume that the size of the population as a whole decreases according to the sub-exponential equation. We then investigate the “unobserved heterogeneity”, i.e. the underlying inhomogeneous population model, and calculate the distribution of frequencies of clones for both models. We show that the dynamics of frequencies in the first model is governed by the principle of minimum of Tsallis information loss. In the second model, the notion of “internal population time” is proposed; with respect to the internal time, the dynamics of frequencies is governed by the principle of minimum of Shannon information loss. The results of this analysis show that the principle of minimum of information loss is the underlying law for the evolution of a broad class of models of population extinction. Finally, we propose a possible application of this modeling framework to mechanisms underlying time perception. PMID:27090117
Inhomogeneous Fermi and quantum spin systems on lattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bru, J.-B.; de Siqueira Pedra, W.
2012-12-01
We study the thermodynamic properties of a certain type of space-inhomogeneous Fermi and quantum spin systems on lattices. We are particularly interested in the case where the space scale of the inhomogeneities stays macroscopic, but very small as compared to the side-length of the box containing fermions or spins. The present study is however not restricted to "macroscopic inhomogeneities" and also includes the (periodic) microscopic and mesoscopic cases. We prove that - as in the homogeneous case - the pressure is, up to a minus sign, the conservative value of a two-person zero-sum game, named here thermodynamic game. Because of the absence of space symmetries in such inhomogeneous systems, it is not clear from the beginning what kind of object equilibrium states should be in the thermodynamic limit. However, we give rigorous statements on correlations functions for large boxes.
Alternative field representations and integral equations for modeling inhomogeneous dielectrics
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Volakis, John L.
1992-01-01
New volume and volume-surface integral equations are presented for modeling inhomogeneous dielectric regions. The presented integral equations result in more efficient numerical implementations and should, therefore, be useful in a variety of electromagnetic applications.
D. Day
2007-03-01
The nucleon form factors are still the subject of active investigation even after an experimental effort spanning 50 years. This is because they are of critical importance to our understanding of the electromagnetic properties of nuclei and provide a unique testing ground for QCD motivated models of nucleon structure. Progress in polarized beams, polarized targets and recoil polarimetry have allowed an important and precise set of data to be collected over the last decade. I will review the experimental status of elastic electron scattering from the nucleon along with an outlook for future progress.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wisdom, Jack; Meyer, Jennifer
2016-04-01
This is an exploration of dynamic tides on elastic bodies. The body is thought of as a dynamical system described by its modes of oscillation. The dynamics of these modes are governed by differential equations that depend on the rheology. The modes are damped by dissipation. Tidal friction occurs as exterior bodies excite the modes and the modes act back on the tide raising body. The whole process is governed by a closed set of differential equations. Standard results from tidal theory are recovered in a two-timescale approximation to the solution of these differential equations.
Inhomogeneous distribution of organic molecules adsorbed in sol gel glasses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Meneses-Nava, M. A.; Chávez-Cerda, S.; Sánchez-Villicaña, V.; Sánchez-Mondragón, J. J.; King, T. A.
1999-09-01
The effects of the porous matrix upon the radiative characteristics of quinine sulphate doped sol-gel glasses are investigated. The broadenings of the absorption and fluorescence spectra are explained by the attachment of the molecules on distorted sites or in a non-planar fashion, creating an inhomogeneous distribution of adsorbed molecules. For this reason, each emitting center relaxes with its own characteristics. This inhomogeneous distribution is also supported by the non-exponential and the wavelength dependence of the fluorescence decay.
Torsional elasticity and energetics of F1-ATPase.
Czub, Jacek; Grubmüller, Helmut
2011-05-01
F(o)F(1)-ATPase is a rotary motor protein synthesizing ATP from ADP driven by a cross-membrane proton gradient. The proton flow through the membrane-embedded F(o) generates the rotary torque that drives the rotation of the asymmetric shaft of F(1). Mechanical energy of the rotating shaft is used by the F(1) catalytic subunit to synthesize ATP. It was suggested that elastic power transmission with transient storage of energy in some compliant part of the shaft is required for the observed high turnover rate. We used atomistic simulations to study the spatial distribution and structural determinants of the F(1) torsional elasticity at the molecular level and to comprehensively characterize the elastic properties of F(1)-ATPase. Our fluctuation analysis revealed an unexpected heterogeneity of the F(1) shaft elasticity. Further, we found that the measured overall torsional moduli of the shaft arise from two distinct contributions, the intrinsic elasticity and the effective potential imposed on the shaft by the catalytic subunit. Separation of these two contributions provided a quantitative description of the coupling between the rotor and the catalytic subunit. This description enabled us to propose a minimal quantitative model of the F(1) energetics along the rotary degrees of freedom near the resting state observed in the crystal structures. As opposed to the usually employed models where the motor mechanical progression is described by a single angular variable, our multidimensional treatment incorporates the spatially inhomogeneous nature of the shaft and its interactions with the stator and offers new insight into the mechanoenzymatics of F(1)-ATPase. PMID:21502534
Torsional elasticity and energetics of F1-ATPase
Czub, Jacek; Grubmüller, Helmut
2011-01-01
FoF1-ATPase is a rotary motor protein synthesizing ATP from ADP driven by a cross-membrane proton gradient. The proton flow through the membrane-embedded Fo generates the rotary torque that drives the rotation of the asymmetric shaft of F1. Mechanical energy of the rotating shaft is used by the F1 catalytic subunit to synthesize ATP. It was suggested that elastic power transmission with transient storage of energy in some compliant part of the shaft is required for the observed high turnover rate. We used atomistic simulations to study the spatial distribution and structural determinants of the F1 torsional elasticity at the molecular level and to comprehensively characterize the elastic properties of F1-ATPase. Our fluctuation analysis revealed an unexpected heterogeneity of the F1 shaft elasticity. Further, we found that the measured overall torsional moduli of the shaft arise from two distinct contributions, the intrinsic elasticity and the effective potential imposed on the shaft by the catalytic subunit. Separation of these two contributions provided a quantitative description of the coupling between the rotor and the catalytic subunit. This description enabled us to propose a minimal quantitative model of the F1 energetics along the rotary degrees of freedom near the resting state observed in the crystal structures. As opposed to the usually employed models where the motor mechanical progression is described by a single angular variable, our multidimensional treatment incorporates the spatially inhomogeneous nature of the shaft and its interactions with the stator and offers new insight into the mechanoenzymatics of F1-ATPase. PMID:21502534
Inhomogeneity-induced variance of cosmological parameters
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiegand, A.; Schwarz, D. J.
2012-02-01
Context. Modern cosmology relies on the assumption of large-scale isotropy and homogeneity of the Universe. However, locally the Universe is inhomogeneous and anisotropic. This raises the question of how local measurements (at the ~102 Mpc scale) can be used to determine the global cosmological parameters (defined at the ~104 Mpc scale)? Aims: We connect the questions of cosmological backreaction, cosmic averaging and the estimation of cosmological parameters and show how they relate to the problem of cosmic variance. Methods: We used Buchert's averaging formalism and determined a set of locally averaged cosmological parameters in the context of the flat Λ cold dark matter model. We calculated their ensemble means (i.e. their global value) and variances (i.e. their cosmic variance). We applied our results to typical survey geometries and focused on the study of the effects of local fluctuations of the curvature parameter. Results: We show that in the context of standard cosmology at large scales (larger than the homogeneity scale and in the linear regime), the question of cosmological backreaction and averaging can be reformulated as the question of cosmic variance. The cosmic variance is found to be highest in the curvature parameter. We propose to use the observed variance of cosmological parameters to measure the growth factor. Conclusions: Cosmological backreaction and averaging are real effects that have been measured already for a long time, e.g. by the fluctuations of the matter density contrast averaged over spheres of a certain radius. Backreaction and averaging effects from scales in the linear regime, as considered in this work, are shown to be important for the precise measurement of cosmological parameters.
A Gravitational Experiment Involving Inhomogeneous Electric Fields
Datta, T.; Yin Ming; Vargas, Jose
2004-02-04
Unification of gravitation with other forms of interactions, particularly with electromagnetism, will have tremendous impacts on technology and our understanding of nature. The economic impact of such an achievement will also be unprecedented and far more extensive than the impact experienced in the past century due to the unification of electricity with magnetism and optics. Theoretical unification of gravitation with electromagnetism using classical differential geometry has been pursued since the late nineteen twenties, when Einstein and Cartan used teleparallelism for the task. Recently, Vargas and Torr have followed the same line of research with more powerful mathematics in a more general geometric framework, which allows for the presence of other interactions. Their approach also uses Kaehler generalization of Cartan's exterior calculus, which constitutes a language appropriate for both classical and quantum physics. Given the compelling nature of teleparallelism (path-independent equality of vectors at a distance) and the problems still existing with energy-momentum in general relativity, it is important to seek experimental evidence for such expectations. Such experimental programs are likely to provide quantitative guidance to the further development of current and future theories. We too, have undertaken an experimental search for potential electrically induced gravitational (EIG) effects. This presentation describes some of the practical concerns that relates to our investigation of electrical influences on laboratory size test masses. Preliminary results, appear to indicate a correlation between the application of a spatially inhomogeneous electric field and the appearance of an additional force on the test mass. If confirmed, the presence of such a force will be consistent with the predictions of Vargas-Torr. More importantly, proven results will shed new light and clearer understanding of the interactions between gravitational and electromagnetic
Local nonlinear rf forces in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas
Chen, Jiale; Gao, Zhe
2014-06-15
The local nonlinear forces induced by radio frequency (rf) waves are derived in inhomogeneous magnetized plasmas, where the inhomogeneity exists in the rf fields, in the static magnetic field as well as in the equilibrium density and temperature. The local parallel force is completely resonant, but a novel component dependent on those inhomogeneities is obtained as the result of the inhomogeneous transport of parallel resonant-absorbed momentum by the nonlinear perpendicular drift flux. In the local poloidal force, the component induced by the inhomogeneity of rf power absorption is also confirmed and it can be recognized as the residual effect from the incomplete cancellation between the rate of the diamagnetic poloidal momentum gain and the Lorentz force due to the radial diffusion-like flux. The compact expression for radial force is also obtained for the first time, whose nonresonant component is expressed as the sum of the ponderomotive force on particles and the gradients of the nonresonant perpendicular pressure and of the nonresonant momentum flux due to the finite temperature effect. Numerical calculations in a 1-D slab model show that the resonant component dependent on the inhomogeneities may be significant when the ion absorption dominates the resonant wave-particle interaction. A quantitative estimation shows that the novel component in the parallel force is important to understand the experiments of the ion-cyclotron-frequency mode-conversion flow drive.
Elastic Anisotropy of Trabecular Bone in the Elderly Human Vertebra.
Unnikrishnan, Ginu U; Gallagher, John A; Hussein, Amira I; Barest, Glenn D; Morgan, Elise F
2015-11-01
FE-computed elastic moduli (R2 ≥ 0.337; p < 0.0001). These results indicate that when using a criterion of 5 mm for a representative volume element (RVE), transverse isotropy or orthotropy cannot be assumed for elderly human vertebral trabecular bone. Particularly at low values of BV/TV, this criterion does not ensure applicability of theories of continuous media. In light of the very sparse and inhomogeneous microstructure found in the specimens analyzed in this study, further work is needed to establish guidelines for selecting a RVE within the aged vertebral centrum. PMID:26300326
Theory of epithelial elasticity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krajnc, Matej; Ziherl, Primož
2015-11-01
We propose an elastic theory of epithelial monolayers based on a two-dimensional discrete model of dropletlike cells characterized by differential surface tensions of their apical, basal, and lateral sides. We show that the effective tissue bending modulus depends on the apicobasal differential tension and changes sign at the transition from the flat to the fold morphology. We discuss three mechanisms that stabilize the finite-wavelength fold structures: Physical constraint on cell geometry, hard-core interaction between non-neighboring cells, and bending elasticity of the basement membrane. We show that the thickness of the monolayer changes along the waveform and thus needs to be considered as a variable rather than a parameter. Next we show that the coupling between the curvature and the thickness is governed by the apicobasal polarity and that the amplitude of thickness modulation along the waveform is proportional to the apicobasal differential tension. This suggests that intracellular stresses can be measured indirectly by observing easily measurable morphometric parameters. We also study the mechanics of three-dimensional structures with cylindrical symmetry.
Loewenthal, M.; Loseke, K.; Dow, T.A.; Scattergood, R.O.
1988-12-01
Elastic emission polishing, also called elastic emission machining (EEM), is a process where a stream of abrasive slurry is used to remove material from a substrate and produce damage free surfaces with controlled surface form. It is a noncontacting method utilizing a thick elasto-hydrodynamic film formed between a soft rotating ball and the workpiece to control the flow of the abrasive. An apparatus was built in the Center, which consists of a stationary spindle, a two-axis table for the workpiece, and a pump to circulate the working fluid. The process is controlled by a programmable computer numerical controller (CNC), which presently can operate the spindle speed and movement of the workpiece in one axis only. This apparatus has been used to determine material removal rates on different material samples as a function of time, utilizing zirconium oxide (ZrO{sub 2}) particles suspended in distilled water as the working fluid. By continuing a study of removal rates the process should become predictable, and thus create a new, effective, yet simple tool for ultra-precision mechanical machining of surfaces.
Design guidance for elastic followup
Naugle, F.V.
1983-01-01
The basic mechanism of elastic followup is discussed in relation to piping design. It is shown how mechanistic insight gained from solutions for a two-bar problem can be used to identify dominant design parameters and to determine appropriate modifications where elastic followup is a potential problem. It is generally recognized that quantitative criteria are needed for elastic followup in the creep range where badly unbalanced lines can pose potential problems. Approaches for criteria development are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Wenfu; Liu, Zhengping
2015-12-01
In this paper, the dependence of Rayleigh wave particle motions excited by a point source on the lateral inhomogeneous Poisson's ratio of propagation half-spaces is studied based on the theoretical analysis and wave field numerical simulation method. First, two types of time signals named single frequency harmonic and broadband Ricker wavelet are used respectively as a point source in the simulation of homogenous half-spaces. The results show that in the far-field region absolutely dominated by Rayleigh waves, or where body waves are well removed either by muting or polarization filtering, the ellipticity of particle motion can be approximated to be a simple inverse linear and frequency-independent relation with Poisson's ratio of rocks and soils, which has a linear correlation coefficient of over 0.9775 with the exact analytic solutions derived from theoretical formula for a homogeneous half-space. Then, two types of lateral inhomogeneous models, a vertical rock interface and a local heterogeneous body with various Poisson's ratios, are simulated. The results show that a local inhomogeneity can cause a local and wavelength-dependent ellipticity anomaly. The ellipticity is still in inverse proportion of Poisson's ratio but distorted with a high nonlinearity for the lateral inhomogeneous. The interferences of converted body waves are also studied, and the results suggest that the ellipticity estimation of Rayleigh waves suffers little from the body waves converted by the scattering of lateral inhomogeneity. The study shows that the dependency of Rayleigh wave ellipticity on Poisson's ratio is potentially beneficial for Poisson's ratio estimation, which is based on the inverse linear approximation for a homogeneous region within several half-wavelengths, and in surveys for space geometry and elastic properties of the lateral inhomogeneity, which are based on the frequency-dependent and inverse proportional properties that are all of the main goals of geophysical
Squeezing Superfluid from a Stone: Coupling Superfluidity and Elasticity in a Supersolid
Dorsey, Alan T.; Goldbart, Paul M.; Toner, John
2006-02-10
Starting from the assumption that the normal solid to supersolid (NS-SS) phase transition is continuous, we develop a phenomenological Landau theory of the transition in which superfluidity is coupled to the elasticity of the crystalline {sup 4}He lattice. We find that the elasticity does not affect the universal properties of the superfluid transition, so that in an unstressed crystal the well-known {lambda} anomaly in the heat capacity of the superfluid transition should also appear at the NS-SS transition. We also find that the onset of supersolidity leads to anomalies in the elastic moduli and thermal expansion coefficients near the transition and, conversely, that inhomogeneous lattice strains can induce local variations of the superfluid transition temperature, leading to a broadened transition.
A model for compression-weakening materials and the elastic fields due to contractile cells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rosakis, Phoebus; Notbohm, Jacob; Ravichandran, Guruswami
2015-12-01
We construct a homogeneous, nonlinear elastic constitutive law that models aspects of the mechanical behavior of inhomogeneous fibrin networks. Fibers in such networks buckle when in compression. We model this as a loss of stiffness in compression in the stress-strain relations of the homogeneous constitutive model. Problems that model a contracting biological cell in a finite matrix are solved. It is found that matrix displacements and stresses induced by cell contraction decay slower (with distance from the cell) in a compression weakening material than linear elasticity would predict. This points toward a mechanism for long-range cell mechanosensing. In contrast, an expanding cell would induce displacements that decay faster than in a linear elastic matrix.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Brunelle, Eugene J.
1994-01-01
The first few viewgraphs describe the general solution properties of linear elasticity theory which are given by the following two statements: (1) for stress B.C. on S(sub sigma) and zero displacement B.C. on S(sub u) the altered displacements u(sub i)(*) and the actual stresses tau(sub ij) are elastically dependent on Poisson's ratio nu alone: thus the actual displacements are given by u(sub i) = mu(exp -1)u(sub i)(*); and (2) for zero stress B.C. on S(sub sigma) and displacement B.C. on S(sub u) the actual displacements u(sub i) and the altered stresses tau(sub ij)(*) are elastically dependent on Poisson's ratio nu alone: thus the actual stresses are given by tau(sub ij) = E tau(sub ij)(*). The remaining viewgraphs describe the minimum parameter formulation of the general classical laminate theory plate problem as follows: The general CLT plate problem is expressed as a 3 x 3 system of differential equations in the displacements u, v, and w. The eighteen (six each) A(sub ij), B(sub ij), and D(sub ij) system coefficients are ply-weighted sums of the transformed reduced stiffnesses (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k); the (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k) in turn depend on six reduced stiffnesses (Q(sub ij))(sub k) and the material and geometry properties of the k(sup th) layer. This paper develops a method for redefining the system coefficients, the displacement components (u,v,w), and the position components (x,y) such that a minimum parameter formulation is possible. The pivotal steps in this method are (1) the reduction of (bar-Q(sub ij))(sub k) dependencies to just two constants Q(*) = (Q(12) + 2Q(66))/(Q(11)Q(22))(exp 1/2) and F(*) - (Q(22)/Q(11))(exp 1/2) in terms of ply-independent reference values Q(sub ij); (2) the reduction of the remaining portions of the A, B, and D coefficients to nondimensional ply-weighted sums (with 0 to 1 ranges) that are independent of Q(*) and F(*); and (3) the introduction of simple coordinate stretchings for u, v, w and x,y such that the process is
Plasma waves in the inhomogeneous auroral ionosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kintner, Paul
1999-11-01
Detailed observations of plasma waves in the auroral ionosphere during the past decade have revealed the existence of modes which depend on inhomogeneities the order of or somewhat larger than the ion gyroradius. The auroral ionosphere is the most strongly driven region of space which is conveniently accessible to space probes. The region is filled with currents, electric fields, electron beams and transversely accelerated ions. During the past decade improved instrumentation has permitted investigation of the ionospheric plasma properties down to spatial scales including the ion gyroradius. These investigations have revealed at least two novel wave modes not previously anticipated. The first wave mode is associated with cylindrical density cavities aligned along the geomagnetic field. The cavities act like resonant structures near the lower hybrid frequency and admit two classes of waves near the lower hybrid frequency. Below the lower hybrid frequency the modes are trapped and rotate in a left-hand sense. Above the lower hybrid frequency waves the modes are not trapped but rotate in a right-hand sense. The symmetry in rotation is broken by the Hall current and the sense of rotation has been confirmed with sounding rocket interferometers. The cavity wave fields also accelerate ions transversely which maintain and expand the cavity dimensions. The second wave mode is less well understood and has the phenomenological name of broad band ELF (BBELF) electric fields. The bandwidth of this mode covers the ion cyclotron frequencies (O+ and H+) and it is also associated with transversely accelerated ions but not with ionospheric density structuring. Instead these modes are associated with electron flow in field-aligned currents although the flows are sub-critical for either the ion acoustic or electrostatic ion cyclotron modes. Furthermore the frequency spectrum shows no structure at the ion cyclotron frequencies. Limited evidence suggests that these modes are shear
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bik, W. M. A.; Habraken, F. H. P. M.
1993-07-01
In elastic recoil detection (ERD) one determines the yield and energy of particles ejected out of the surface region of samples under MeV ion bombardment. By application of this surface and thin film analysis technique one can obtain quantitative information concerning the depth distribution of light elements in a sample to be analysed. The quantitativity and the depth resolving power are based on knowledge of the recoil cross section and the stopping power of high-energy ions in matter. This paper reviews the fundamentals of this technique and the various experimental methods for recoil identification. Furthermore, important features for material analysis, such as detection limits, depth resolution and elemental range are discussed. Some emphasis is put on the conversion of the spectral contribution of the elements to atomic concentrations in the films for several representative cases. Throughout the review numerous examples are given to illustrate the features of ERD and to demonstrate empirically the accuracy of the quantification method.
Elastic instabilities in rubber
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gent, Alan
2009-03-01
Materials that undergo large elastic deformations can exhibit novel instabilities. Several examples are described: development of an aneurysm on inflating a rubber tube; non-uniform stretching on inflating a spherical balloon; formation of internal cracks in rubber blocks at a critical level of triaxial tension or when supersaturated with a dissolved gas; surface wrinkling of a block at a critical amount of compression; debonding or fracture of constrained films on swelling, and formation of ``knots'' on twisting stretched cylindrical rods. These various deformations are analyzed in terms of a simple strain energy function, using Rivlin's theory of large elastic deformations, and the results are compared with experimental measurements of the onset of unstable states. Such comparisons provide new tests of Rivlin's theory and, at least in principle, critical tests of proposed strain energy functions for rubber. Moreover the onset of highly non-uniform deformations has serious implications for the fatigue life and fracture resistance of rubber components. [4pt] References: [0pt] R. S. Rivlin, Philos. Trans. Roy. Soc. Lond. Ser. A241 (1948) 379--397. [0pt] A. Mallock, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. 49 (1890--1891) 458--463. [0pt] M. A. Biot, ``Mechanics of Incremental Deformations'', Wiley, New York, 1965. [0pt] A. N. Gent and P. B. Lindley, Proc. Roy. Soc. Lond. A 249 (1958) 195--205. [0pt] A. N. Gent, W. J. Hung and M. F. Tse, Rubb. Chem. Technol. 74 (2001) 89--99. [0pt] A. N. Gent, Internatl. J. Non-Linear Mech. 40 (2005) 165--175.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Girill, T. R.
1972-01-01
The Boyle-Mariotte gas law was formulated in terms of pneumatic springs," subsumed by Hooke under his own stress-strain relation, and generally regarded as a law of elasticity. The subsequent development of Boyle's principle and elasticity provide thought-provoking test cases for Kuhn's notations of paradigm and puzzle solving in physics.…
Windowed and Wavelet Analysis of Marine Stratocumulus Cloud Inhomogeneity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Gollmer, Steven M.; Harshvardhan; Cahalan, Robert F.; Snider, Jack B.
1995-01-01
To improve radiative transfer calculations for inhomogeneous clouds, a consistent means of modeling inhomogeneity is needed. One current method of modeling cloud inhomogeneity is through the use of fractal parameters. This method is based on the supposition that cloud inhomogeneity over a large range of scales is related. An analysis technique named wavelet analysis provides a means of studying the multiscale nature of cloud inhomogeneity. In this paper, the authors discuss the analysis and modeling of cloud inhomogeneity through the use of wavelet analysis. Wavelet analysis as well as other windowed analysis techniques are used to study liquid water path (LWP) measurements obtained during the marine stratocumulus phase of the First ISCCP (International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project) Regional Experiment. Statistics obtained using analysis windows, which are translated to span the LWP dataset, are used to study the local (small scale) properties of the cloud field as well as their time dependence. The LWP data are transformed onto an orthogonal wavelet basis that represents the data as a number of times series. Each of these time series lies within a frequency band and has a mean frequency that is half the frequency of the previous band. Wavelet analysis combined with translated analysis windows reveals that the local standard deviation of each frequency band is correlated with the local standard deviation of the other frequency bands. The ratio between the standard deviation of adjacent frequency bands is 0.9 and remains constant with respect to time. This ratio defined as the variance coupling parameter is applicable to all of the frequency bands studied and appears to be related to the slope of the data's power spectrum. Similar analyses are performed on two cloud inhomogeneity models, which use fractal-based concepts to introduce inhomogeneity into a uniform cloud field. The bounded cascade model does this by iteratively redistributing LWP at each scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kevorkyants, S. S.
2012-11-01
The system of Biot vector equations in the frequency space includes two elliptic-type vector partial differential equations with unknown displacement vectors in the solid and liquid phases. Considering the Biot equations, alongside with Pride's equations, the key approaches to the theoretical study of the elastic waves in the two-phase fluid-saturated media, the author suggests an analytical solution for the inhomogeneous Biot equations in the frequency space, which is reduced to finding its fundamental solution (Green's function). The solution of this problem consists of solutions for two systems of Biot equations. In the first system, only the first equation is inhomogeneous, while in the second system, only the second equation is inhomogeneous and, as it is shown, its right-hand side is exclusively a potential function. The fundamental solution of the full system of inhomogeneous Biot equations (in which both equations are inhomogeneous) is represented in the form of Green's matrix-tensor, for the scalar elements of which the analytical relations are presented. The obtained formulas describing the elastic displacements of both the solid and liquid phases reflect three wave types, namely, compressional waves of the first and the second kind (the fast and the slow waves, respectively) and shear waves. Similar terms (those describing the same type of the elastic waves in the solid and liquid phases) in the expressions for Green's functions are linked with each other through the coefficient that links the components of the displacement vectors of the solid and liquid phases corresponding to the given wave type.
Evolution of inhomogeneous condensates: Self-consistent variational approach
Boyanovsky, D.; Cooper, F.; de Vega, H.J.; Sodano, P.
1998-07-01
We establish a self-consistent variational framework that allows us to study numerically the non-equilibrium evolution of non-perturbative inhomogeneous field configurations including quantum back reaction effects. After discussing the practical merits and disadvantages of different approaches we provide a closed set of local and renormalizable update equations that determine the dynamical evolution of inhomogeneous condensates and can be implemented numerically. These incorporate self-consistently the back reaction of quantum fluctuations and particle production. This program requires the solution of a self-consistent inhomogeneous problem to provide initial Cauchy data for the inhomogeneous condensates and Green`s functions. We provide a simple solvable ansatz for such an initial value problem for the sine-Gordon and {phi}{sup 4} quantum field theories in one spatial dimension. We compare exact known results of the sine-Gordon model to this simple ansatz. We also study the linear sigma model in the large N limit in three spatial dimensions as a microscopic model for pion production in ultrarelativistic collisions. We provide a solvable self-consistent ansatz for the initial value problem with cylindrical symmetry. For this case we also obtain a closed set of local and renormalized update equations that can be numerically implemented. A novel phenomenon of spinodal instabilities and pion production arises as a result of a Klein paradox for large amplitude inhomogeneous condensate configurations. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Interaction between noise suppression and inhomogeneity correction in MRI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Montillo, Albert; Udupa, Jayaram K.; Axel, Leon; Metaxas, Dimitri N.
2003-05-01
While cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in most developed countries, SPAMM-MRI can reduce morbidity by facilitating patient diagnosis. An image analysis method with a high degree of automation is essential for clinical adoption of SPAMM-MRI. The degree of this automation is dependent on the amount of thermal noise and surface coil-induced intensity inhomogeneity that can be removed from the images. An ideal noise suppression algorithm removes thermal noise yet retains or enhances the strength of the edges of salient structures. In this paper, we quantitatively compare and rank several noise suppression algorithms in images from both normal and diseased subjects using measures of the residual noise and edge strength and the statistical significance levels and confidence intervals of these measures. We also investigate the interrelationship between inhomogeneity correction and noise suppression algorithms and compare the effect of the ordering of these algorithms. The variance of thermal noise does not tend to change with position, however, inhomogeneity correction increases noise variance in deep thoracic regions. We quantify the degree to which an inhomogeneity estimate can improve noise suppression and how well noise suppression can facilitate the identification of homogeneous tissue regions and thereby, assist in inhomogeneity correction.
Elasticity of adherent active cells on a compliant substrate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Shiladitya; Mertz, Aaron F.; Dufresne, Eric R.; Marchetti, M. Cristina
2012-02-01
We present a continuum mechanical model of rigidity sensing by livings cells adhering to a compliant substrate. The cell or cell colony is modeled as an elastic active gel, adapting recently developed continuum theories of active viscoelastic fluids. The coupling to the substrate enters as a boundary condition that relates the cell's deformation field to local stress gradients. In the presence of activity, the substrate induces spatially inhomogeneous contractile stresses and deformations, with a power law dependence of the total traction forces on cell or colony size. This is in agreement with recent experiments on keratinocyte colonies adhered to fibronectin coated surfaces. In the presence of acto-myosin activity, the substrate also enhances the cell polarization, breaking the cell's front-rear symmetry. Maximal polarization is observed when the substrate stiffness matches that of the cell, in agreement with experiments on stem cells.
Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous and logarithmically saturable nonlinear media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, Pawel
2012-08-01
The method of paraxial complex geometrical optics (PCGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media of cylindrical symmetry. PCGO reduces the problem of Gaussian beam diffraction in nonlinear and inhomogeneous media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, PCGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media as compared to the numerical and analytical methods of nonlinear optics. The power of PCGO method is presented on the example of Gaussian beam evolution in logarithmically saturable medium with either focusing and defocusing refractive profile. Besides, the influence of initial curvature of the wave front on GB evolution in nonlinear saturable medium is discussed in this paper.
Trapping of interacting propelled colloidal particles in inhomogeneous media.
Magiera, Martin P; Brendel, Lothar
2015-07-01
A trapping mechanism for propelled colloidal particles based on an inhomogeneous drive is presented and studied by means of computer simulations. In experiments this method can be realized using photophoretic Janus particles driven by a light source, which is partially blocked by a shading mask. This leads to an accumulation of particles in the passive part. An equation for an accumulation parameter is derived using the effective inhomogeneous diffusion constant generated by the inhomogeneous drive. The impact of particle interaction on the trapping mechanism is studied, as well as the interplay between passivity-induced trapping and the emergent self-clustering of systems containing a high density of active particles. The combination of both effects makes the clusters more controllable for applications. PMID:26274159
Trapping of interacting propelled colloidal particles in inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Magiera, Martin P.; Brendel, Lothar
2015-07-01
A trapping mechanism for propelled colloidal particles based on an inhomogeneous drive is presented and studied by means of computer simulations. In experiments this method can be realized using photophoretic Janus particles driven by a light source, which is partially blocked by a shading mask. This leads to an accumulation of particles in the passive part. An equation for an accumulation parameter is derived using the effective inhomogeneous diffusion constant generated by the inhomogeneous drive. The impact of particle interaction on the trapping mechanism is studied, as well as the interplay between passivity-induced trapping and the emergent self-clustering of systems containing a high density of active particles. The combination of both effects makes the clusters more controllable for applications.
Inhomogeneous models of the Venus clouds containing sulfur
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, S. M.; Pollack, J. B.; Giver, L. P.; Cuzzi, J. N.; Podolak, M.
1979-01-01
Based on the suggestion that elemental sulfur is responsible for the yellow color of Venus, calculations are compared at 3.4 microns of the reflectivity phase function of two sulfur containing inhomogeneous cloud models with that of a homogeneous model. Assuming reflectivity observations with 25% or less total error, comparison of the model calculations leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur equal to 7% of the mass of sulfuric acid for the inhomogeneous drop model. For the inhomogeneous cloud model the comparison leads to a minimum detectable mass of sulfur between 17% and 38% of the mass of the acid drops, depending upon the actual size of the large particles. It is concluded that moderately accurate 3.4 microns reflectivity observations are capable of detecting quite small amounts of elemental sulfur at the top of the Venus clouds.
Solutions of the chemical kinetic equations for initially inhomogeneous mixtures.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Hilst, G. R.
1973-01-01
Following the recent discussions by O'Brien (1971) and Donaldson and Hilst (1972) of the effects of inhomogeneous mixing and turbulent diffusion on simple chemical reaction rates, the present report provides a more extensive analysis of when inhomogeneous mixing has a significant effect on chemical reaction rates. The analysis is then extended to the development of an approximate chemical sub-model which provides much improved predictions of chemical reaction rates over a wide range of inhomogeneities and pathological distributions of the concentrations of the reacting chemical species. In particular, the development of an approximate representation of the third-order correlations of the joint concentration fluctuations permits closure of the chemical sub-model at the level of the second-order moments of these fluctuations and the mean concentrations.
Radiation from accelerated Alfven solitons in inhomogeneous plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Lakhina, G. S.; Buti, B.; Tsintsadze, N. L.
1990-01-01
In a weakly inhomogeneous plasma, the large-amplitude Alfven waves propagating parallel to the ambient magnetic field are shown to evolve into accelerated Alfven solitons. Nonlinear interaction of the accelerated Alfven solitons with the Langmuir waves results in the emission of coherent radiations. Analytical expression for the power radiated per unit solid angle from a soliton is derived for two inhomogeneity profiles, namely the linear profile and the parabolic profile. For the case of uniform plasmas, the emission occurs via a decay-type process or resonant modes. In the presence of inhomogeneity, nonresonant modes provide a new channel for the emission of radiation. The power radiated per unit solid angle is computed for the parameters relevant to Comet Halley's plasma environment. For the nonresonant modes it is found to be several orders of magnitude higher than that for the case of resonant modes.
A tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator
Shen, H; Wang, G
2010-01-01
Optical imaging has been widely applied in preclinical and clinical applications. Fifteen years ago, an efficient Monte Carlo program ‘MCML’ was developed for use with multi-layered turbid media and has gained popularity in the field of biophotonics. Currently, there is an increasingly pressing need for simulating tools more powerful than MCML in order to study light propagation phenomena in complex inhomogeneous objects, such as the mouse. Here we report a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous Monte Carlo optical simulator (TIM-OS) to address this issue. By modeling an object as a tetrahedron-based inhomogeneous finite-element mesh, TIM-OS can determine the photon– triangle interaction recursively and rapidly. In numerical simulation, we have demonstrated the correctness and efficiency of TIM-OS. PMID:20090182
Stokes-vector evolution in a weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous medium.
Kravtsov, Yu A; Bieg, B; Bliokh, K Yu
2007-10-01
The equation for evolution of the four-component Stokes vector in weakly anisotropic and smoothly inhomogeneous media is derived on the basis of a quasi-isotropic approximation of the geometrical optics method, which provides the consequent asymptotic solution of Maxwell's equations. Our equation generalizes previous results obtained for the normal propagation of electromagnetic waves in stratified media. It is valid for curvilinear rays with torsion and is capable of describing normal mode conversion in inhomogeneous media. Remarkably, evolution of the four-component Stokes vector is described by the Bargmann-Michel-Telegdi equation for relativistic spin precession, whereas the equation for the three-component Stokes vector resembles the Landau-Lifshitz equation describing spin precession in ferromagnetic systems. The general theory is applied for analysis of polarization evolution in a magnetized plasma. We also emphasize fundamental features of the non-Abelian polarization evolution in anisotropic inhomogeneous media and illustrate them by simple examples. PMID:17912336
Weigmann, H-J; Schanzer, S; Vergou, T; Antoniou, C; Sterry, W; Lademann, J
2012-01-01
The inhomogeneous distribution of topically applied substances due to decisive differences in the skin structure (furrows and wrinkles) affects the efficacy of cosmetic products, in particular sunscreens. The combination of tape stripping and optical spectroscopy results in absorption data, which reflect ex vivo the inhomogeneity of the in vivo distribution of topically applied substances. Based on these data, a factor of inhomogeneity is defined describing the individual distribution of formulations on the skin surface of volunteers. Thus, the influence of different skin surface structures and the influence of different formulations on the distribution of the topically applied substances can be determined. Analyzing the inhomogeneity data on 6 volunteers (5 sunscreens per volunteer), it was found that the influence on the distribution of sunscreens caused by the formulation was higher than the inhomogeneity originating from the differences in the skin surface structure of the volunteers. The method is well suited to characterize, for example, sunscreens and antiaging creams in the process of development, as well as for the evaluation of the final products. PMID:22343548
Reconstruction of spatially inhomogeneous dielectric tensors through optical tomography.
Hammer, Hanno; Lionheart, William R B
2005-02-01
A method to reconstruct weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous dielectric tensors inside a transparent medium is proposed. The mathematical theory of integral geometry is cast into a workable framework that allows the full determination of dielectric tensor fields by scalar Radon inversions of the polarization transformation data obtained from six planar tomographic scanning cycles. Furthermore, a careful derivation of the usual equations of integrated photoelasticity in terms of heuristic length scales of the material inhomogeneity and anisotropy is provided, resulting in a self-contained account about the reconstruction of arbitrary three-dimensional, weakly anisotropic dielectric tensor fields. PMID:15717553
Deep and Clear Optical Imaging of Thick Inhomogeneous Samples
Andilla, Jordi; Maandhui, Amina; Frongia, Céline; Lobjois, Valérie; Ducommun, Bernard; Lorenzo, Corinne
2012-01-01
Inhomogeneity in thick biological specimens results in poor imaging by light microscopy, which deteriorates as the focal plane moves deeper into the specimen. Here, we have combined selective plane illumination microscopy (SPIM) with wavefront sensor adaptive optics (wao). Our waoSPIM is based on a direct wavefront measure using a Hartmann-Shack wavefront sensor and fluorescent beads as point source emitters. We demonstrate the use of this waoSPIM method to correct distortions in three-dimensional biological imaging and to improve the quality of images from deep within thick inhomogeneous samples. PMID:22558226
Chemical substructure and inhomogeneous mixing in Local Group dwarf galaxies
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Venn, K. A.
Evidence for inhomogeneous mixing in the Carina, Draco, and Sculptor dwarf galaxies is examined from chemical abundance patterns. Inhomogeneous mixing at early times is indicated in the classical dwarf galaxies, though cannot be ascertained in ultra faint dwarfs. Mixing efficiencies can affect the early metallicity distribution function, the pre-enrichment levels in globular clusters, and also have an impact on the structure of dwarf systems at early times. Numerical models that include chemical evolution explicitly do a better job in reproducing the observations, and make interesting predictions for the nature of dwarf galaxies and their first stars at the earliest times.
Transdimensional imaging of random velocity inhomogeneities in Nankai subduction zone
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Takahashi, T.; Obana, K.; Yamamoto, Y.; Kaiho, Y.; Nakanishi, A.; Kodaira, S.; Kaneda, Y.
2014-12-01
The Nankai trough in southwestern Japan is a convergent margin where the Philippine Sea plate is subducting beneath the Eurasian plate. We have conducted five seismic observations with ocean bottom seismograms (OBSs) from 2008 to 2012 to elucidate detailed seismic structures and its relations with fault segments of large earthquakes. These observations covered the entire area of the Nankai trough, but quantity and quality of data are not spatially uniform because of different observing lengths and various noises. Waveform data of OBSs suggests variously-sized anomalies of random velocity inhomogeneity (i.e., scattering strength) in this subduction zone. To clarify details of random inhomogeneity structures, we conducted a transdimensional imaging of random inhomogeneities by means of the reversible jump Markov Chain Monte Carlo (rjMCMC) without assuming smooth spatial distributions of unknown parameters. We applied the rjMCMC for the inversion of peak delay times of S-wave envelopes at 4-8, 8-16, and 16-32 Hz, where the peak delay time is defined as the time lag from the S-wave onset to its maximal amplitude arrival. This delay time mainly reflects the accumulated multiple forward scattering effect due to random inhomogeneities. We assumed the von Karman type power spectral density function (PSDF) for random velocity fluctuation, and estimated two parameters related with the PSDF at large wavenumber. Study area is partitioned by discrete Voronoi cells of which number and spatial sizes are variable. Estimated random inhomogeneities show clear lateral variations along the Nankai trough. The strongest inhomogeneity on the Nankai trough was found near the subducted Kyushu-Palau ridge that is located at the western margin of the fault segments. We also find a horizontal variation of inhomogeneity along the non-volcanic tremor zone. Relatively strong inhomogeneities in this tremor zone were imaged beneath west Shikoku and Kii-Peninsula. These anomalies were not clearly
Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nam, Youngwoo; Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong; Woo Park, Yung; Yurgens, August
2014-01-01
We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.
A model of the emergent Universe in inhomogeneous spacetime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bhattacharya, Subhra; Chakraborty, S.
2016-02-01
The scenario of an emergent Universe is constructed in the background of an inhomogeneous spacetime model with an asymptotically (at spatial infinity) FRW spacetime. The cosmic substratum consists of two non-interacting components, namely (a) homogeneous and isotropic fluid that is dissipative in nature and (b) an inhomogeneous and anisotropic barotropic fluid. In the non-equilibrium thermodynamic prescription (second order deviations), the particle creation mechanism is considered the cause for the dissipative phenomena. It is found that for a constant value of the particle creation rate parameter there exists a scenario of an emergent Universe.
Dendritic signal transmission induced by intracellular charge inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lazarevich, Ivan A.; Kazantsev, Victor B.
2013-12-01
Signal propagation in neuronal dendrites represents the basis for interneuron communication and information processing in the brain. Here we take into account charge inhomogeneities arising in the vicinity of ion channels in cytoplasm and obtain a modified cable equation. We show that charge inhomogeneities acting on a millisecond time scale can lead to the appearance of propagating waves with wavelengths of hundreds of micrometers. They correspond to a certain frequency band predicting the appearance of resonant properties in brain neuron signaling. We also show that membrane potential in spiny dendrites obeys the modified cable equation suggesting a crucial role of the spines in dendritic subthreshold resonance.
Bending of solitons in weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous plasma
Mukherjee, Abhik Janaki, M. S. Kundu, Anjan
2015-12-15
The bending of solitons in two dimensional plane is presented in the presence of weak and slowly varying inhomogeneous ion density for the propagation of ion acoustic soliton in unmagnetized cold plasma with isothermal electrons. Using reductive perturbation technique, a modified Kadomtsev-Petviashvili equation is obtained with a chosen unperturbed ion density profile. The exact solution of the equation shows that the phase of the solitary wave gets modified by a function related to the unperturbed inhomogeneous ion density causing the soliton to bend in the two dimensional plane, while the amplitude of the soliton remains constant.
Possible effect of subsurface inhomogeneities on the lunar microwave spectrum
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Fisher, A. D.; Staelin, D. H.
1977-01-01
Inhomogeneities beneath the lunar surface could alter the average microwave emission spectrum of the moon in a fashion generally consistent with observations, even in the absence of an average heat flux or density gradients with depth. The lunar subsurface was modeled as an inhomogeneous lossy dielectric with three-dimensional refractive-index fluctuations characterized by independent horizontal and vertical correlation lengths. The model suggests that attempts to infer the physical properties of the moon from the lunar microwave spectrum could be significantly inaccurate if subsurface scattering were neglected.
Unusual thermopower of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition
Nam, Youngwoo; Sun, Jie; Lindvall, Niclas; Yurgens, August; Jae Yang, Seung; Rae Park, Chong; Woo Park, Yung
2014-01-13
We report on thermopower (TEP) and resistance measurements of inhomogeneous graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Unlike the conventional resistance of pristine graphene, the gate-dependent TEP shows a large electron-hole asymmetry. This can be accounted for by inhomogeneity of the CVD-graphene where individual graphene regions contribute with different TEPs. At the high magnetic field and low temperature, the TEP has large fluctuations near the Dirac point associated with the disorder in the CVD-graphene. TEP measurements reveal additional characteristics of CVD-graphene, which are difficult to obtain from the measurement of resistance alone.
Heteronuclear J-coupling measurements in grossly inhomogeneous magnetic fields.
Mandal, S; Song, Y-Q
2015-06-01
It is difficult to measure chemical shifts in the small and inhomogeneous magnetic fields found in ex situ and single-sided NMR systems, such as those used for well-logging. However, it is still possible to obtain chemical information from J-coupling constants, which are independent of static field strength and temperature. We describe and analyze (1)H-(13)C double-resonance pulse sequences that are suitable for measuring heteronuclear J-coupling in grossly inhomogeneous fields. We also present preliminary experimental results from a low-frequency fringe-field system. PMID:25898398
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koumi, Koffi Espoir; Chaise, Thibaut; Nelias, Daniel
2015-07-01
In this paper, the frictionless rolling contact problem between a rigid sphere and a viscoelastic half-space containing one elastic inhomogeneity is solved. The problem is equivalent to the frictionless sliding of a spherical tip over a viscoelastic body. The inhomogeneity may be of spherical or ellipsoidal shape, the later being of any orientation relatively to the contact surface. The model presented here is three dimensional and based on semi-analytical methods. In order to take into account the viscoelastic aspect of the problem, contact equations are discretized in the spatial and temporal dimensions. The frictionless rolling of the sphere, assumed rigid here for the sake of simplicity, is taken into account by translating the subsurface viscoelastic fields related to the contact problem. Eshelby's formalism is applied at each step of the temporal discretization to account for the effect of the inhomogeneity on the contact pressure distribution, subsurface stresses, rolling friction and the resulting torque. A Conjugate Gradient Method and the Fast Fourier Transforms are used to reduce the computation cost. The model is validated by a finite element model of a rigid sphere rolling upon a homogeneous vciscoelastic half-space, as well as through comparison with reference solutions from the literature. A parametric analysis of the effect of elastic properties and geometrical features of the inhomogeneity is performed. Transient and steady-state solutions are obtained. Numerical results about the contact pressure distribution, the deformed surface geometry, the apparent friction coefficient as well as subsurface stresses are presented, with or without heterogeneous inclusion.
Katsamenis, Orestis L; Jenkins, Thomas; Thurner, Philipp J
2015-07-01
damage around the crack-tip. In contrast, shorter and more direct crack paths as well as less-distributed damage were evidenced during failure of the weaker specimens. Overall, this multi-scale study highlights the importance of elasticity inhomogeneity within the osteon to the damage susceptibility and consequently to the fracture resistance of the tissue. PMID:25863123
Measuring How Elastic Arteries Function.
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
DeMont, M. Edwin; MacGillivray, Patrick S.; Davison, Ian G.; McConnell, Colin J.
1997-01-01
Describes a procedure used to measure force and pressure in elastic arteries. Discusses the physics of the procedure and recommends the use of bovine arteries. Explains the preparation of the arteries for the procedure. (DDR)
Fingering in Confined Elastic Layers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Biggins, John; Mahadevan, L.; Wei, Z.; Saintyves, Baudouin; Bouchaud, Elizabeth
2015-03-01
Fingering has recently been observed in soft highly elastic layers that are confined between and bonded to two rigid bodies. In one case an injected fluid invades the layer in finger-like protrusions at the layer's perimeter, a solid analogue of Saffman-Taylor viscous fingering. In a second case, separation of the rigid bodies (with maintained adhesion to the layer) leads air to the formation of similar fingers at the layer's perimeter. In both cases the finger formation is reversible: if the fluid is removed or the separation reduced, the fingers vanish. In this talk I will discuss a theoretical model for such elastic fingers that shows that the origin of the fingers is large-strain geometric non-linearity in the elasticity of soft solids. Our simplified elastic model unifies the two types of fingering and accurately estimates the thresholds and wavelengths of the fingers.
Elastic protectors for ultrasound injection
Barkhatov, V.A.; Nesterova, L.A.
1995-07-01
A new material has been developed for elastic protectors on ultrasonic probes: sonar rubber. This combines low ultrasonic absorption, high strength, and wear resistance, and so the rubber can be used in sensor designs.
Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives
Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.
2015-04-14
Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, andmore » an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.« less
Elasticity of crystalline molecular explosives
Hooks, Daniel E.; Ramos, Kyle J.; Bolme, C. A.; Cawkwell, Marc J.
2015-04-14
Crystalline molecular explosives are key components of engineered explosive formulations. In precision applications a high degree of consistency and predictability is desired under a range of conditions to a variety of stimuli. Prediction of behaviors from mechanical response and failure to detonation initiation and detonation performance of the material is linked to accurate knowledge of the material structure and first stage of deformation: elasticity. The elastic response of pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), and cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), including aspects of material and measurement variability, and computational methods are described in detail. Experimental determinations of elastic tensors are compared, and an evaluation of sources of error is presented. Furthermore, computed elastic constants are also compared for these materials and for triaminotrinitrobenzene (TATB), for which there are no measurements.
Flame resistant elastic elastomeric fibers
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Howarth, J. T.; Massucco, A. A.
1972-01-01
Development of materials to improve flame resistance of elastic elastomeric fibers is discussed. Two approaches, synthesis of polyether based urethanes and modification of synthesized urethanes with flame ratardant additives, are described. Specific applications of both techniques are presented.
Elastic Properties of Mantle Minerals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Duffy, T. S.; Stan, C. V.
2012-12-01
The most direct information about the interior structure of the Earth comes from seismic wave velocities. Interpretation of seismic data requires an understanding of how sound velocities and elastic properties of minerals vary with pressure, temperature, crystal structure, and composition as well as the role of anelasticity, melts, etc. More generally, elastic moduli are important for understanding many solid-state phenomena including mechanical stability, interatomic interactions, material strength, compressibility, and phase transition mechanisms. The database of mineral elasticity measurements has been growing rapidly in recent years. In this work, we report initial results of an ongoing survey of our current knowledge of mineral elasticity at both ambient conditions and high pressures and temperatures. The analysis is selective, emphasizing single crystal measurements but also incorporating polycrystalline measurements and volume compression data as appropriate. The goal is to synthesize our current understanding of mineral elasticity in terms of structure and composition, and to identify the major remaining needs for experimental and theoretical work. Clinopyroxenes (Cpx) provide an example of our approach. A wide range of clinopyroxene compositions are found geologically and Mg-, Ca-, and Na-rich clinopyroxenes are expected to be important components in the upper mantle. The single-crystal elastic properties of a number of endmember Cpx compositions have been measured and these exhibit a range of ~25% in shear velocity. Those with monovalent cations (spodumene, jadeite) in the M2 site exhibit the highest velocities while Fe-rich (hendenbergit, acmite) compositions have the lowest velocities. The effects on velocity due to a wide range of chemical substitutions can be defined, but there are important discrepancies and omissions in the database. New measurements of omphacites, intermediate diopside-hedenbergite compositions, aegerine/acmite, augite, etc. are
Improvement of Thermoelectric Cooling with Inhomogeneous Thermal Conductivity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhou, Jun; Lu, Tingyu; Li, Baowen; CenterPhononics and Thermal Energy Science Team
2014-03-01
Thermal rectifier with inhomogeneous thermal conductivity has been theoretically proposed [ Li, Wang, and Casati, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 184301 (2004); Segal and Nitzan, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 034301 (2005); Terraneo, Peyrard, and Casati, Phys. Rev. Lett. 88, 094302 (2002)] and been experimentally observed in carbon and boron-nitride nanotubes which are mass-loaded externally and inhomogeneously with heavy molecules [Chang et al., Science 314, 1121 (2006)]. We theoretically investigate the thermal rectification effect on the thermoelectric cooling process with linearly changed spatial dependent thermal conductivity. We find that the dissipation of Joule heat generated in such thermoelectric devices could be inhomogeneous that is very different from the convention thermoelectric devices. Such inhomogeneity of heat dissipation could enhance the heat absorption at the cold end in cooling and therefore enhance the cooling power. The energy conversion efficiency can also be modified with a redefined thermoelectric figure-of-merit ZT. Our finding is believed to be useful for high performance of thermoelectric devices in the future.
Phase Diagram of Inhomogeneous Percolation with a Defect Plane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iliev, G. K.; Janse van Rensburg, E. J.; Madras, N.
2015-01-01
Let be the -dimensional hypercubic lattice and let be an -dimensional sublattice, with . We consider a model of inhomogeneous bond percolation on at densities and , in which edges in are open with probability , and edges in open with probability . We generalize several classical results of (homogeneous) bond percolation to this inhomogeneous model. The phase diagram of the model is presented, and it is shown that there is a subcritical regime for and (where is the critical probability for homogeneous percolation in ), a bulk supercritical regime for , and a surface supercritical regime for and . We show that is a strictly decreasing function for , with a jump discontinuity at . We extend the Aizenman-Barsky differential inequalities for homogeneous percolation to the inhomogeneous model and use them to prove that the susceptibility is finite inside the subcritical phase. We prove that the cluster size distribution decays exponentially in the subcritical phase, and sub-exponentially in the supercritical phases. For a model of lattice animals with a defect plane, the free energy is related to functions of the inhomogeneous percolation model, and we show how the percolation transition implies a non-analyticity in the free energy of the animal model. Finally, we present simulation estimates of the critical curve.
Fluorescence of pyrene in inhomogeneous media containing silver nanoparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romanovskaya, G. I.
2014-05-01
Pyrene fluorescence in inhomogeneous media based on ionic detergents containing silver nanoparticles with different morphologies is investigated. An increase in pyrene monomer emissions in the spectral range of 400-500 nm is observed, due to the resonance between electronic transitions in pyrene molecules in that region and the plasmonic oscillations of silver nanoparticles.
The local value of H0 in an inhomogeneous universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Odderskov, I.; Koksbang, S. M.; Hannestad, S.
2016-02-01
The effects of local inhomogeneities on low redshift H0 determinations are studied by estimating the redshift-distance relation of mock sources in N-body simulations. The results are compared to those obtained using the standard approach based on Hubble's law. The comparison shows a clear tendency for the standard approach to yield lower values of H0 than the approach based on the scheme using light rays. The difference is, however, small. More precisely, it is found that the overall effect of inhomogeneities on the determination of H0 is a small increase in the local estimates of about 0.3% compared to the results obtained with Hubble's law, when based on a typical distribution of supernovae in the redshift range 0.01 < z < 0.1. The overall conclusion of the study is a verification of the results that have earlier been obtained by using Hubble's law: the effects of inhomogeneities on local H0 estimates are not significant enough to make it plausible that differences in high- and low-redshift estimates of H0 are due to small inhomogeneities within the setting of standard cosmology.
Achieving illusion and invisibility of inhomogeneous cylinders and spheres
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Lin; Shi, Yan; Liang, Chang-Hong
2016-08-01
This paper has developed a scattering cancellation technique to achieve illusion and invisibility of inhomogeneous cylinders and spheres. The inhomogeneous cylinders and spheres are modelled as many thin layers of piecewise homogeneous layers. For the two-layer cylindrical and spherical objects with the isotropic coatings, Mie series solutions to the resulting scattered fields are analyzed in the quasistatic limit, and thus geometric and electromagnetic parameters of the coatings are derived to realize the illusion and invisibility of the two-layer cylindrical and spherical objects. Following a further generalization step, the coating parameters are determined for the illusion and invisibility of the inhomogeneous cylinders and spheres composed of N piecewise homogeneous layers. With the proposed method, the electrically small inhomogeneous cylindrical and spherical objects with arbitrary media and conductor core can be hidden, and have illusion images generated by the objects with similar shapes but different electromagnetic parameters and geometric sizes. Numerical results are given to verify correctness and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Tracking inhomogeneity in high-capacity lithium iron phosphate batteries
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paxton, William A.; Zhong, Zhong; Tsakalakos, Thomas
2015-02-01
Energy-dispersive x-ray diffraction (EDXRD) is one of the few techniques that can internally probe a sealed battery under operating conditions. In this paper, we use EDXRD with ultrahigh energy synchrotron radiation to track inhomogeneity in a cycled high-capacity lithium iron phosphate cell under in-situ and operando conditions. A sequence of depth-profile x-ray diffraction spectra are collected with 40 μm resolution as the cell is discharged. Additionally, nine different locations of the cell are tracked independently throughout a second discharge process. In each case, a two-peak reference intensity ratio analysis (RIR) was used on the LiFePO4 311 and the FePO4 020 reflections to estimate the relative phase abundance of the lithiated and non-lithiated phases. The data provide a first-time look at the dynamics of electrochemical inhomogeneity in a real-world battery. We observe a strong correlation between inhomogeneity and overpotential in the galvanic response of the cell. Additionally, the data closely follow the behavior that is predicted by the resistive-reactant model originally proposed by Thomas-Alyea. Despite a non-linear response in the independently measured locations, the behavior of the ensemble is strikingly linear. This suggests that effects of inhomogeneity can be elusive and highlights the power of the EDXRD technique.
Inhomogeneous generalizations of Bianchi type VIh models with perfect fluid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roy, S. R.; Prasad, A.
1991-07-01
Inhomogeneous universes admitting an Abelian G2 of isometry and filled with perfect fluid have been derived. These contain as special cases exact homogeneous universes of Bianchi type VIh. Many of these universes asymptotically tend to homogeneous Bianchi VIh universes. The models have been discussed for their physical and kinematical behaviors.
Matrix algorithms for solving (in)homogeneous bound state equations
Blank, M.; Krassnigg, A.
2011-01-01
In the functional approach to quantum chromodynamics, the properties of hadronic bound states are accessible via covariant integral equations, e.g. the Bethe–Salpeter equation for mesons. In particular, one has to deal with linear, homogeneous integral equations which, in sophisticated model setups, use numerical representations of the solutions of other integral equations as part of their input. Analogously, inhomogeneous equations can be constructed to obtain off-shell information in addition to bound-state masses and other properties obtained from the covariant analogue to a wave function of the bound state. These can be solved very efficiently using well-known matrix algorithms for eigenvalues (in the homogeneous case) and the solution of linear systems (in the inhomogeneous case). We demonstrate this by solving the homogeneous and inhomogeneous Bethe–Salpeter equations and find, e.g. that for the calculation of the mass spectrum it is as efficient or even advantageous to use the inhomogeneous equation as compared to the homogeneous. This is valuable insight, in particular for the study of baryons in a three-quark setup and more involved systems. PMID:21760640
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gliko, A. O.; Molodenskii, S. M.
2015-01-01
In the first part of the paper, we obtained the analytical relationships determining the changes in the topography of the geoid and the component of horizontal displacements of the Earth's surface, which appear under the action of the point heat source located at the arbitrary depth in the mantle. For the real model of radially heterogeneous Earth with hydrostatic distribution of the initial stresses, the solution of the problem on thermoelastic deformations is represented in the form of spherical expansions with the coefficients determined by the corresponding coefficients of spherical expansions of the product of temperature, bulk modulus, and bulk compression modulus with the same indices. As mentioned in part I, the variation in the external potential is contributed by three effects: the reduction in density in the heated area, the increase in density in the external (not heated) area due to its elastic compression, and the attraction of the near-surface simple layer that is formed due to the change in the shape of the external surface under its elastic deformation. The total effect of these three factors is represented in the form of a spherical series expansion. It is shown that in the limiting case of the high-order spherical functions, the ratios of the radial displacements of the geoid to the radial displacements of the external surface tend to zero. Since at high orders of the spherical functions, the effects of sphericity are negligible, this statement means that at any thermoelastic deformations of the uniform elastic halfspace, the three effects listed above exactly compensate each other. Due to this compensation, the question of the interpretation of the observed relationships between the coefficients of series expansions of the temperature and geoid can only be solved after the detailed numerical calculations, since the arbitrarily small radial inhomogeneities of the medium (e.g., those associated with the depth changes of its rheological properties
Measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity using optical fiber DTS
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jaros, Jakub; Papes, Martin; Liner, Andrej; Vašinek, Vladimir; Smira, Pavel; Nasswettrova, Andrea; Cubik, Jakub; Kepak, Stanislav
2014-06-01
Researcher's teams were dealing with the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity problem since the microwaves were used. One possible way, how to measure electromagnetic field is the measurement on inhomogeneous temperature distribution on the irradiated sample, which can cause problems as in other material processing, so in the undesirable change of properties and even security. Inhomogeneity of electromagnetic field is specific by creating spots with higher or lower temperature called "hot spots". This inhomogeneity strongly affects the temperature distribution in the cross section of the material and its resultant heating. Given the impossibility of using classical electronic devices with metal temperature sensors were various indirect methods used in the past. This paper deals with experimental measurement of the microwave emitter's inhomogeneity (2.45 GHz) using the optical fiber DTS. The greatest advantage of this sensor system is just in using of the optical fiber (electromagnetic resistance, small size, safety using in inflammable and explosive area, easy installation). Due to these properties of the optical fiber sensor it's possible to measure the temperature of the sample in real time. These sensor are able to measure the temperature along the fiber, in some cases they use nonlinear effect in optical fiber (Raman nonlinear effect). The verification of non-homogeneity consists in experimental measuring of the temperature distribution within the wooden sample. The method is based on heat exchange in an isolated system where wooden sample serves as an absorber of the irradiated energy. To identify locations with different power density was used DTS system, based on nonlinear phenomena in optical fibers.
Astrocyte signaling in the presence of spatial inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stamatakis, Michail; Mantzaris, Nikos V.
2007-09-01
Astrocytes, a special type of glial cells, were considered to have just a supporting role in information processing in the brain. However, several recent studies have shown that they can be chemically stimulated by various neurotransmitters, such as ATP, and can generate Ca2+ and ATP waves, which can propagate over many cell lengths before being blocked. Although pathological conditions, such as spreading depression and epilepsy, have been linked to abnormal wave propagation in astrocytic cellular networks, a quantitative understanding of the underlying characteristics is still lacking. Astrocytic cellular networks are inhomogeneous, in the sense that the domain they occupy contains passive regions or gaps, which are unable to support wave propagation. Thus, this work focuses on understanding the complex interplay between single-cell signal transduction, domain inhomogeneity, and the characteristics of wave propagation and blocking in astrocytic cellular networks. The single-cell signal transduction model that was employed accounts for ATP-mediated IP3 production, the subsequent Ca2+ release from the ER, and ATP release into the extracellular space. The model is excitable and thus an infinite range of wave propagation is observed if the domain of propagation is homogeneous. This is not always the case for inhomogeneous domains. To model wave propagation in inhomogeneous astrocytic networks, a reaction-diffusion framework was developed and one-gap as well as multiple-gap cases were simulated using an efficient finite-element algorithm. The minimum gap length that blocks the wave was computed as a function of excitability levels and geometric characteristics of the inhomogeneous network, such as the length of the active regions (cells). Complex transient patterns, such as wave reflection, wave trapping, and generation of echo waves, were also predicted by the model, and their relationship to the geometric characteristics of the network was evaluated. Therefore, the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hoffmeister, Brentley Keith
1995-01-01
This thesis seeks to contribute to a better understanding of the physics of interaction of ultrasonic waves with inhomogeneous and anisotropic media, one example of which is the human heart. The clinical success of echocardiography has generated a considerable interest in the development of ultrasonic techniques to measure the elastic properties of heart tissue. It is hypothesized that the elastic properties of myocardium are influenced by the interstitial content and organization of collagen. Collagen, which is the main component of tendon, interconnects the muscle cells of the heart to form locally unidirectional myofibers. This thesis therefore employs ultrasonic techniques to characterize the linear elastic properties of both heart and tendon. The linear elastic properties of tissues possessing a unidirectional arrangement of fibers may be described in terms of five independent elastic stiffness coefficients. Three of these coefficients were determined for formalin fixed specimens of bovine Achilles tendon and human myocardium by measuring the velocity of longitudinal mode ultrasonic pulses as a function of angle of propagation relative to the fiber axis of the tissue. The remaining two coefficients were determined by measuring the velocity of transverse mode ultrasonic waves through these tissues. To overcome technical difficulties associated with the extremely high attenuation of transverse mode waves at low megahertz frequencies, a novel measurement system was developed based on the sampled continuous wave technique. Results of these measurements were used to assess the influence of interstitial collagen, and to model the mechanical properties of heart wall.
Scaling Laws for the Response of Nonlinear Elastic Media with Implications for Cell Mechanics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shokef, Yair; Safran, Samuel A.
2012-04-01
We show how strain stiffening affects the elastic response to internal forces, caused either by material defects and inhomogeneities or by active forces that molecular motors generate in living cells. For a spherical force dipole in a material with a strongly nonlinear strain energy density, strains change sign with distance, indicating that, even around a contractile inclusion or molecular motor, there is radial compression; it is only at a long distance that one recovers the linear response in which the medium is radially stretched. Scaling laws with irrational exponents relate the far-field renormalized strain to the near-field strain applied by the inclusion or active force.
Effective medium theory for elastic metamaterials in thin elastic plates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torrent, Daniel; Pennec, Yan; Djafari-Rouhani, Bahram
2014-09-01
An effective medium theory for resonant and nonresonant metamaterials for flexural waves in thin plates is presented. The theory provides closed-form expressions for the effective mass density, rigidity, and Poisson's ratio of arrangements of isotropic scatterers in thin plates, valid for low frequencies and moderate filling fractions. It is found that the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are induced by a combination of the monopolar and quadrupolar scattering coefficient, as it happens for bulk elastic waves, while the effective mass density is induced by the monopolar coefficient, contrarily as it happens for bulk elastic waves, where the effective mass density is induced by the dipolar coefficient. It is shown that resonant positive or negative effective elastic parameters are possible, being therefore the monopolar resonance responsible for creating an effective medium with negative mass density. Several examples are given for both nonresonant and resonant effective parameters and the results are numerically verified by multiple scattering theory and finite element analysis.
Prolongation Structure of a Generalised Inhomogeneous Gardner Equation in Plasmas and Fluids
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xi-Yang; Tian, Bo; Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Yun-Po
2016-04-01
In this article, the prolongation structure technique is applied to a generalised inhomogeneous Gardner equation, which can be used to describe certain physical situations, such as the stratified shear flows in ocean and atmosphere, ion acoustic waves in plasmas with a negative ion, interfacial solitary waves over slowly varying topographies, and wave motion in a non-linear elastic structural element with large deflection. The Lax pairs, which are derived via the prolongation structure, are more general than the Lax pairs published before. Under the Painlevé conditions, the linear-damping coefficient equals to zero, the quadratic non-linear coefficient is proportional to the dispersive coefficient c(t), the cubic non-linear coefficient is proportional to c(t), leaving no constraints on c(t) and the dissipative coefficient d(t). We establish the prolongation structure through constructing the exterior differential system. We introduce two methods to obtain the Lax pairs: (a) based on the prolongation structure, the Lax pairs are obtained, and (b) via the Lie algebra, we can derive the Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs when certain parameters are chosen. We set d(t) as a constant to discuss the influence of c(t) on the Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs, and to discuss the influence of d(t) on the Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs, we set c(t) as another constant. Then, we get different prolongation structure, Pfaffian forms and Lax pairs.
Hydrodynamic repulsion of elastic dumbbells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ekiel-Jezewska, Maria L.; Bukowicki, Marek; Gruca, Marta
2015-11-01
Dynamics of two identical elastic dumbbells, settling under gravity in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number are analyzed within the point-particle model. Initially, the dumbbells are vertical, their centers are aligned horizontally, and the springs which connect the dumbbell's beads are at the equilibrium. The motion of the beads is determined numerically with the use of the Runge-Kutta method. After an initial relaxation phase, the system converges to a universal time-dependent solution. The elastic dumbbells tumble while falling, but their relative motion is not periodic (as in case of rigid dumbbells or pairs of separated beads). The elastic constraints break the time-reversal symmetry of the motion. As the result, the horizontal distance between the dumbbells slowly increases - they are hydrodynamically repelled from each other. This effect can be very large even though the elastic forces are always much smaller than gravity. The dynamics described above are equivalent to the motion of a single elastic dumbbell under a constant external force which is parallel to a flat free surface. The dumbbell migrates away from the interface and its tumbling time increases.
Turbulence in inhomogeneous flows: Applications to the solar wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hunana, Peter
This work is devoted to the dynamics of fluids in a regime that can be described as being in a state of near incompressibility. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for analytical and sometimes computational studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as "nearly incompressible hydrodynamics/magnetohydrodynamics" is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory developed by Zank and Matthaeus found excellent applicability to the solar wind flow, which typically possesses density fluctuations that are of the order of 10% from mean density values. However, the theory was derived only for homogeneous flows, and large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature and magnetic field are very common in the solar wind. So far it has been unclear how large-scale inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. The work presented here addresses these deficiencies of nearly incompressible theory and generalizes it to include a large-scale inhomogeneous background which is time-stationary and spherically symmetric. The thesis is organized as follows. Chapter 1 introduces the solar wind concept and discusses the theoretical development of theories traditionally used to describe solar wind turbulence. Chapter 2 elaborates the nearly incompressible theory of hydrodynamics in the presence of a large-scale inhomogeneous background and is based on the work of Hunana et al. 2006 (Phys. Rev. E 74, 026302). Chapter 3 presents two-dimensional direct numerical simulations of the lowest-order inhomogeneous system derived in Chapter 2 and focuses on the evolution of solar wind density fluctuations. Preliminary results were published by Hunana et al. 2007 (AIP Conf. Proc. 932, 45) and the most recent results by
Elastic moduli and vibrational modes in jammed particulate packings
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mizuno, Hideyuki; Saitoh, Kuniyasu; Silbert, Leonardo E.
2016-06-01
When we elastically impose a homogeneous, affine deformation on amorphous solids, they also undergo an inhomogeneous, nonaffine deformation, which can have a crucial impact on the overall elastic response. To correctly understand the elastic modulus M , it is therefore necessary to take into account not only the affine modulus MA, but also the nonaffine modulus MN that arises from the nonaffine deformation. In the present work, we study the bulk (M =K ) and shear (M =G ) moduli in static jammed particulate packings over a range of packing fractions φ . The affine MA is determined essentially by the static structural arrangement of particles, whereas the nonaffine MN is related to the vibrational eigenmodes. We elucidate the contribution of each vibrational mode to the nonaffine MN through a modal decomposition of the displacement and force fields. In the vicinity of the (un)jamming transition φc, the vibrational density of states g (ω ) shows a plateau in the intermediate-frequency regime above a characteristic frequency ω*. We illustrate that this unusual feature apparent in g (ω ) is reflected in the behavior of MN: As φ →φc , where ω*→0 , those modes for ω <ω* contribute less and less, while contributions from those for ω >ω* approach a constant value which results in MN to approach a critical value MN c, as MN-MN c˜ω* . At φc itself, the bulk modulus attains a finite value Kc=KA c-KN c>0 , such that KN c has a value that remains below KA c. In contrast, for the critical shear modulus Gc, GN c and GA c approach the same value so that the total value becomes exactly zero, Gc=GA c-GN c=0 . We explore what features of the configurational and vibrational properties cause such a distinction between K and G , allowing us to validate analytical expressions for their critical values.
Hopf solitons and elastic rods
Harland, Derek; Sutcliffe, Paul; Speight, Martin
2011-03-15
Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model are stringlike topological solitons classified by the integer-valued Hopf charge. In this paper we introduce an approximate description of Hopf solitons in terms of elastic rods. The general form of the elastic rod energy is derived from the field theory energy and is found to be an extension of the classical Kirchhoff rod energy. Using a minimal extension of the Kirchhoff energy, it is shown that a simple elastic rod model can reproduce many of the qualitative features of Hopf solitons in the Skyrme-Faddeev model. Features that are captured by the model include the buckling of the charge three solution, the formation of links at charges five and six, and the minimal energy trefoil knot at charge seven.
Mapping Elasticity at the Nanoscale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Stan, Gheorghe; Price, William
2006-03-01
In the last few years Atomic Force Acoustic Microscopy has been developed to investigate the elastic response of materials at the nanoscale ^[1],[2]. We have extended this technique to the real-time mapping of nanomechanical properties of material surfaces. This mapping allows us to investigate the local variation of elastic properties with nanometer resolution and to reduce the uncertainties that arise from single measurements. Quantitative measurements are acquired by first performing an accurate calibration of the elastic properties of the Atomic Force Microscope’s probes with respect to single crystal reference materials. A wide variety of surfaces with different mechanical properties have been investigated to illustrate the applicability of this technique. ^[1] U. Rabe et al., Surf. Interface Anal. 33 , 65 (2002)^[2] D.C. Hurley et al., J. Appl. Phys. 94, 2347 (2003)
First-principles elastic stiffness of LaPO4 monazite
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jingyang; Zhou, Yanchun; Lin, Zhijun
2005-08-01
In this letter, the full set of elastic coefficients of LaPO4 monazite is presented based on the first-principles plane-wave pseudopotential total energy method. Mechanical parameters (bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's moduli, and Poisson's ratio) are also presented and compared with experimental results for polycrystalline monazite. The responses of electronic structure and chemical bonds to a series of {010}⟨001⟩ shear strains are examined in order to study the mechanism of low shear strain resistance. The results show that small shear moduli originate from the inhomogeneous strengths of atomic bonds. For example, the weak La-O bonds accommodate the shear strain locally, while the PO4 tetrahedra are almost rigid. The theoretical elastic stiffness may be useful to understand the deformation mechanisms of LaPO4 monazite.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kluge, M. D.; Wolf, D.; Lutsko, J. F.; Phillpot, S. R.
1990-03-01
A new formalism for use in atomistic simulations to calculate the full local elastic-constant tensor in terms of local stresses and strains is presented. Results of simulations on a high-angle (001) twist grain boundary are illustrated, using both a Lennard-Jones potential for Cu and an embedded-atom potential for Au. The two conceptionally rather different potentials show similar anomalies in all elastic constants, confined to within a few lattice planes of the grain boundary, with an especially dramatic reduction in the resistance to shear parallel to the grain-boundary plane. It is found that the primary cause of the anomalies is the atomic disorder near the grain boundary, as evidenced by the slice-by-slice radial distribution functions for the inhomogeneous interface system.
The Effect of Habitat Inhomogeneities and Fragmentation on Population Density and Time to Extinction
Kostova, T; Carlsen, T
2003-12-22
We present a study, based on simulations with SERDYCA, a spatially-explicit individual based model of rodent dynamics, on the connection between population persistence and the presence of inhomogeneities in the habitat. We are specifically interested on the effect that inhomogeneities that do not fragment the environment, have on population persistence. Our results suggest that a certain percentage of inhomogeneities can increase the average time to extinction of the population. Inhomogeneities decrease the population density and can increase the ratio of juveniles in the population thus providing a better chance for the population to restore itself after a severe period with critically low population density. We call this the ''inhomogeneity localization effect''.
Complex geometrical optics of inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berczynski, Pawel
2013-05-01
The method of complex geometrical optics (CGO) is presented, which describes Gaussian beam (GB) diffraction and self-focusing along curvilinear trajectory in smoothly inhomogeneous and nonlinear saturable media. CGO method reduces the problem of Gaussian beam propagation in inhomogeneous and nonlinear media to the system of the first order ordinary differential equations for the complex curvature of the wave front and for GB amplitude, which can be readily solved both analytically and numerically. As a result, CGO radically simplifies the description of Gaussian beam diffraction and self-focusing effects as compared to the other methods of nonlinear optics such as: variational method approach, method of moments and beam propagation method. The power of CGO method is presented on the example of the evolution of beam intensity and wave front cross-section along curvilinear central ray with torsion in weakly absorptive and nonlinear saturable graded-index fiber, where the effect of initial beam ellipticity is included into our description.
Localization of collisionally inhomogeneous condensates in a bichromatic optical lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Yongshan; Adhikari, S. K.
2011-02-01
By direct numerical simulation and variational solution of the Gross-Pitaevskii equation, we studied the stationary and dynamic characteristics of a cigar-shaped, localized, collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate trapped in a one-dimensional bichromatic quasiperiodic optical-lattice potential, as used in a recent experiment on the localization of a Bose-Einstein condensate [Roati , Nature (London)NATUAS0028-083610.1038/nature07071 453, 895 (2008)]. The effective potential characterizing the spatially modulated nonlinearity is obtained. It is found that the collisional inhomogeneity has influence not only on the central region but also on the tail of the Bose-Einstein condensate. The influence depends on the sign and value of the spatially modulated nonlinearity coefficient. We also demonstrate the stability of the stationary localized state by performing a standard linear stability analysis. Where possible, the numerical results are shown to be in good agreement with the variational results.
Critical role of inhomogeneities in pacing termination of cardiac reentry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sinha, Sitabhra; Stein, Kenneth M.; Christini, David J.
2002-09-01
Reentry around nonconducting ventricular scar tissue, a cause of lethal arrhythmias, is typically treated by rapid electrical stimulation from an implantable cardioverter defibrillator. However, the dynamical mechanisms of termination (success and failure) are poorly understood. To elucidate such mechanisms, we study the dynamics of pacing in one- and two-dimensional models of anatomical reentry. In a crucial realistic difference from previous studies of such systems, we have placed the pacing site away from the reentry circuit. Our model-independent results suggest that with such off-circuit pacing, the existence of inhomogeneity in the reentry circuit is essential for successful termination of tachycardia under certain conditions. Considering the critical role of such inhomogeneities may lead to more effective pacing algorithms.
Photon merging and splitting in electromagnetic field inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gies, Holger; Karbstein, Felix; Seegert, Nico
2016-04-01
We investigate photon merging and splitting processes in inhomogeneous, slowly varying electromagnetic fields. Our study is based on the three-photon polarization tensor following from the Heisenberg-Euler effective action. We put special emphasis on deviations from the well-known constant field results, also revisiting the selection rules for these processes. In the context of high-intensity laser facilities, we analytically determine compact expressions for the number of merged/split photons as obtained in the focal spots of intense laser beams. For the parameter range of typical petawatt class laser systems as pump and probe, we provide estimates for the numbers of signal photons attainable in an actual experiment. The combination of frequency upshifting, polarization dependence and scattering off the inhomogeneities renders photon merging an ideal signature for the experimental exploration of nonlinear quantum vacuum properties.
The influence of boron micro-inhomogeneities on neutron transmission
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dyrnjaja, Eva; Zawisky, Michael
2015-03-01
Boron alloyed steels and boron-polyethylene have been investigated by applying neutron transmission analysis. A high degree of boron homogeneity has been confirmed in these materials. However, the neutron transmission through thick and strong absorbing steel sheets is slightly enhanced due to boron micro-inhomogeneities. Although such micro-structure remains invisible in neutron images they reveal themselves by the enhanced neutron transmission, especially in the low transmission probability rates of 10-2 and below. The transmission data have been analyzed by applying different models of micro-inhomogeneities in MCNPX, (in the range of 20 μm) all of them yielding an elevated transmission compared to the homogeneous case. It will be shown that, including the micro-structure in the analysis, provides a more suitable modeling of neutron transmission through strong absorbing materials.
Trace element evidence for a laterally inhomogeneous moon
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jovanovic, S.; Reed, G. W., Jr.
1978-01-01
A number of trace element interrelationships support the concept of a laterally inhomogeneous moon based originally on Clr/P2O5 ratios. The correspondence between Clr/P2O3 and Rb/Sr ratios in basalts are of special interest since the isotropic evolution of the latter pair of elements relates to the earliest history of the moon. This implies the times when the Clr/P2O5 relationships were established. The early magma ocean is conjectured to have been made up of non-intermixing seas resulting either from large convection cells or large body accretion. These mutually exclusive regions could be lunar geological provinces. It is proposed that the diversity of basalts from the Apollo 17 site is related to the lateral inhomogeneity of the moon. Ca/Na ratios in basalts show a trend which parallels that of Ru/Os and in a corresponding fashion may serve as a depth indicator.
Cloaking by shells with radially inhomogeneous anisotropic permittivity.
Reshetnyak, V Yu; Pinkevych, I P; Sluckin, T J; Evans, D R
2016-01-25
We model electromagnetic cloaking of a spherical or cylindrical nanoparticle enclosed by an optically anisotropic and optically inhomogeneous symmetric shell, by examining its electric response in a quasi-static uniform electric field. When the components of the shell permittivity are radially anisotropic and power-law dependent (ε~r(m)) whereris distance to the shell center, and m a positive or negative exponent which can be varied), the problem is analytically tractable. Formulas are calculated for the degree of cloaking in the general case, allowing the determination of a dielectric condition for the shells to be used as an invisibility cloak. Ideal cloaking is known to require that homogeneous shells exhibit an infinite ratio of tangential and radial components of the shell permittivity, but for radially inhomogeneous shells ideal cloaking can occur even for finite values of this ratio. PMID:26832575
Gilbert damping of ferromagnetic metals incorporating inhomogeneous spin dynamics
Umetsu, Nobuyuki Miura, Daisuke; Sakuma, Akimasa
2015-05-07
The effects of inhomogeneous spin dynamics on magnetic damping in ferromagnetic metals are studied. On the basis of linear response theory, we derive the microscopic expression for the Gilbert damping term in a two-dimensional electron gas interacting with the magnetization via exchange coupling in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling (SOC). In the spin wave propagating with the wave vector, q, the behavior of q-dependent damping can be explained in terms of both inter- and intra-band spin excitations. The spatially dependent damping torques originating from Rashba SOC that cancel out in a uniform precession system distort the circular orbit of a magnetization-precession trajectory in the presence of inhomogeneous spin dynamics.
Multi-echo imaging in highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields.
Casanova, F; Perlo, J; Blümich, B; Kremer, K
2004-01-01
A new pulsed field gradient multi-echo imaging technique to encode position in the phase of every echo generated by a CPMG sequence in the presence of a strongly inhomogeneous static magnetic field is presented. It was applied to improve the sensitivity in an imaging experiment by adding the echo train acquired during the CPMG sequence and to spatially resolve relaxation times of inhomogeneous specimens using single-sided probes. The sequence was implemented in a new bar-magnet MOUSE equipped with a gradient coil system to apply a pulsed magnetic field with a constant gradient along one spatial coordinate. An important reduction by a factor larger than two orders of magnitude in the acquisition time was obtained compared to the previously published single-point imaging technique. PMID:14675822
Exact sum rules for inhomogeneous systems containing a zero mode
Amore, Paolo
2014-10-15
We show that the formulas for the sum rules for the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous systems that we have obtained in two recent papers are incomplete when the system contains a zero mode. We prove that there are finite contributions of the zero mode to the sum rules and we explicitly calculate the expressions for the sum rules of order one and two. The previous results for systems that do not contain a zero mode are unaffected. - Highlights: • We discuss the sum rules of the eigenvalues of inhomogeneous systems containing a zero mode. • We derive the explicit expressions for sum rules of order one and two. • We perform accurate numerical tests of these results for three examples.
Spontaneous inhomogeneous phases in ultracold dipolar Fermi gases
Sun Kai; Das Sarma, S.; Wu Congjun
2010-08-15
We study the collapse of ultracold fermionic gases into inhomogeneous states due to strong dipolar interaction in both two-dimensions (2D) and three-dimensions (3D). Depending on the dimensionality, we find that two different types of inhomogeneous states are stabilized once the dipole moment reaches a critical value d>d{sub c}: the stripe phase and phase separation between high and low densities. In 2D, we prove that the stripe phase is always favored for d > or approx. d{sub c}, regardless of the microscopic details of the system. In 3D, the one-loop perturbative calculation suggests that the same type of instability leads to phase separation. Experimental detection and finite-temperature effects are discussed.
Duration of an elastic collision
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Izarra, Charles
2012-07-01
With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding with the planar surface allows us to determine the duration of the elastic collision. In order to check the theoretical model, an experiment is proposed to measure the duration of the collision. A more refined model built with masses and springs gives good agreement between theoretical and experimental values.
Price and Income Elasticities of Iranian Exports
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Atrkar Roshan, Sedigheh
This study investigates the export demand elasticities at the aggregate and disaggregated levels over the period 1977 to 2001 for Iran. By utilizing an export demand model and using time series techniques that account for the nonstationarity in the data, the price and income elasticities of demand are estimated by commodity class. As the elasticities of demand for various categories of exports are different, while they are crucial for policy determination. Based upon the estimated results, price and income elasticities are almost similar to those obtained in earlier studies in the case of developing countries. The main findings of this paper demonstrate that, price elasticities are smaller than -1 for all exports categories, whereas the income elasticities are found to be greater than one. The results also suggested, the income elasticities of industrial goods are higher compared to other export categories, while the lower elasticities are found in primary exports. The price and income elasticity estimates have also good statistical properties.
Comment on 'Heavy element production in inhomogeneous big bang nucleosynthesis'
Rauscher, Thomas
2007-03-15
The work of Matsuura et al. [Phys. Rev. D 72, 123505 (2005)] claims that heavy nuclei could have been produced in a combined p- and r-process in very high baryon density regions of an inhomogeneous big bang. However, they do not account for observational constraints and previous studies which show that such high baryon density regions did not significantly contribute to big bang abundances.
Phase conjugation by four-wave mixing in inhomogeneous plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Williams, Edward A.; Lininger, Diana M.; Goldman, Martin V.
1989-01-01
The effects of density, temperature, and velocity gradients on four-wave mixing (FWM) in a plasma are investigated. A fluid model is used in which the stimulated Brillouin terms are included, but pump depletion is neglected. The steady state phase conjugate reflectivity and signal transmission coefficients are calculated and discussed for both degenerate and resonant FWM. The substantial effects of inhomogeneity on the use of FWM as a plasma diagnostic are discussed.
Inhomogeneities in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Moorjani, K.; Bohandy, J.; Kim, B. F.; Adrian, F. J.
1991-01-01
The next stage in the evolution of experimental research on the high temperature superconductors will require high quality single crystals and epitaxially grown crystalline films. However, inhomogeneities and other defects are not uncommon in single crystals of cuprate oxide superconductors, so a corollary requirement will be a reliable method for judging the quality of these materials. The application of magnetically modulated resistance methods in this task is briefly described and illustrated.
Matrix product solution of an inhomogeneous multi-species TASEP
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arita, Chikashi; Mallick, Kirone
2013-03-01
We study a multi-species exclusion process with inhomogeneous hopping rates and find a matrix product representation for the stationary state of this model. The matrices belong to the tensor algebra of the fundamental quadratic algebra associated with the exclusion process. We show that our matrix product representation is equivalent to a graphical construction proposed by Ayyer and Linusson (2012 arXiv:1206.0316), which generalizes an earlier probabilistic construction due to Ferrari and Martin (2007 Ann. Prob. 35 807).
Integration of inhomogeneous cosmological spacetimes in the BSSN formalism
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mertens, James B.; Giblin, John T.; Starkman, Glenn D.
2016-06-01
We present cosmological-scale numerical simulations of an evolving universe in full general relativity and introduce a new numerical tool, cosmograph, which employs the Baumgarte-Shapiro-Shibata-Nakamura formalism on a three-dimensional grid. Using cosmograph, we calculate the effect of an inhomogeneous matter distribution on the evolution of a spacetime. We also present the results of a set of standard stability tests to demonstrate the robustness of our simulations.
Detection of detachments and inhomogeneities in frescos by Compton scattering
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Castellano, A.; Cesareo, R.; Buccolieri, G.; Donativi, M.; Palamà, F.; Quarta, S.; De Nunzio, G.; Brunetti, A.; Marabelli, M.; Santamaria, U.
2005-07-01
A mobile instrument has been developed for the detection and mapping of detachments in frescos by using Compton back scattered photons. The instrument is mainly composed of a high energy X-ray tube, an X-ray detection system and a translation table. The instrument was first applied to samples simulating various detachment situations, and then transferred to the Vatican Museum to detect detachments and inhomogeneities in the stanza di Eliodoro, one of the "Raphael's stanze".
Inhomogeneous critical nonlinear Schroedinger equations with a harmonic potential
Cao Daomin; Han Pigong
2010-04-15
In this paper, we study the Cauchy problem of the inhomogeneous nonlinear Schroedinger equation with a harmonic potential: i{partial_derivative}{sub t}u=-div(f(x){nabla}u)+|x|{sup 2}u-k(x)|u|{sup 4/N}u, x is an element of R{sup N}, N{>=}1, which models the remarkable Bose-Einstein condensation. We discuss the existence and nonexistence results and investigate the limiting profile of blow-up solutions with critical mass.
Imaging Inhomogeneities From Dry-Coupled Ultrasonic Scans
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Roth, Don J.
1995-01-01
Method of imaging spatial distribution of selected physical properties and microstructure of specimen of material based on dry-coupled contact ultrasonic pulse/echo scanning. Ultrasonic transducer scanned across top surface of specimen. At each of many positions on two-dimensional grid on top surface, ultrasonic pulse/echo measurements taken and processed. Offers rapid, nondestructive alternative to destructive metallographic sectioning to obtain picture of inhomogeneity of specimen.
SOLITONS: Nonreciprocal dynamics of pulses in a nonlinear inhomogeneous fibre
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Adamova, M. S.; Zolotovskii, Igor'O.; Sementsov, Dmitrii I.
2007-08-01
The conditions, under which the nonreciprocity of the frequency modulation rate and pulse duration as well as the spectral nonreciprocity in fibres with different types of inhomogeneity of nonlinearity and group-velocity dispersion appear, are studied for the Gaussian and hyperbolic secant frequency-modulated pulses. Strong compression nonreciprocity is found in fibres with an alternating group-velocity dispersion periodically changing over its length.
Nonlinear dynamics of inhomogeneous mismatched charged particle beams
Nunes, R. P.; Rizzato, F. B.
2012-08-13
This work analyzes the transversal dynamics of an inhomogeneous and mismatched charged particle beam. The beam is azimuthally symmetric, initially cold, and evolves in a linear channel permeated by an external constant magnetic field. Based on a Lagrangian approach, a low-dimensional model for the description of the beam dynamics has been obtained. The small set of nonlinear dynamical equations provided results that are in reasonable agreement with that ones observed in full self-consistent N-particle beam numerical simulations.
Lammers, W J; Schalij, M J; Kirchhof, C J; Allessie, M A
1990-10-01
In isolated superfused left atria of the rabbit, inhomogeneity in conduction was quantified using the activation times measured with a high-density mapping system. At each recording site, the maximal difference with neighboring activation times (i.e., phase difference) was calculated. Local phase differences were plotted in a phase map, revealing the spatial distribution of inhomogeneities in conduction, and from each map a total index of inhomogeneity was calculated. During slow pacing (2 Hz) local differences in conduction velocity, depending on the direction of propagation, were found already. Inhomogeneity in conduction increased significantly during single early premature beats (inhomogeneity index increased from 2.3 to 3.1; P less than 0.001). The application of multiple premature beats further increased inhomogeneity in conduction, whereas rapid pacing induced the highest level of inhomogeneity (inhomogeneity index 5.3; P less than 0.001). An analysis of the spatial distribution of maximal phase differences revealed that during premature beats inhomogeneities in conduction were limited to an area of 6 mm around the point of origin of the premature impulse, whereas during rapid pacing inhomogeneities in conduction were found throughout the whole preparation. Phase maps constructed during the initiation of reentrant tachyarrhythmias showed that reentry occurred at sites with the highest phase differences. Quantification of spatial inhomogeneities in conduction is a useful tool to evaluate the vulnerability of the myocardial substrate for reentrant arrhythmias. PMID:1699438
Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity on SLS-1.
Prisk, G K; Guy, H J; Elliott, A R; West, J B
1994-04-01
We studied the effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in humans by performing hyperventilation-breath-hold single-breath measurements before, during, and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity during the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase IV, were markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60% of their preflight standing size, and the height of phase IV was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of the preflight standing value. The terminal change in expired CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity, indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close and those that remain open at the end of expiration. A possible explanation of this observation is the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographic inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity, probably in lung regions that are not within the same acinus. PMID:8045853
Inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion during sustained microgravity on SLS-1
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Prisk, G. Kim; Guy, Harold J. B.; Elliott, Ann R.; West, John B.
1994-01-01
We studied the effects of gravity on the inhomogeneity of pulmonary perfusion in humans by performing hyperventilation-breath-hold single-breath measurements before, during, and after 9 days of continuous exposure to microgravity during the Spacelab Life Sciences-1 (SLS-1) mission. In microgravity the indicators of inhomogeneity of perfusion, especially the size of cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 and the height of phase IV, were markedly reduced. Cardiogenic oscillations were reduced to approximately 60% of their preflight standing size, and the height of phase IV was between 0 and -8% (a terminal fall became a small terminal rise) of the preflight standing value. The terminal change in expired CO2 was nearly abolished in microgravity, indicating more uniformity of blood flow between lung units that close and those that remain open at the end of expiration. A possible explanation of this observation is the disappearance of gravity-dependent topographic inequality of blood flow. The residual cardiogenic oscillations in expired CO2 imply a persisting inhomogeneity of perfusion in the absence of gravity, probably in lung regions that are not within the same acinus.
Density functional theory for systems with mesoscopic inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciach, A.; Gozdz, W. T.
2016-06-01
We study the effects of fluctuations on the mesoscopic length scale on systems with mesoscopic inhomogeneities. Equations for the correlation function and for the average volume fraction are derived in the self-consistent Gaussian approximation. The equations are further simplified by postulating the expression for the structure factor consistent with scattering experiments for self-assembling systems. Predictions of the approximate theory are verified by a comparison with the exact results obtained earlier for the one-dimensional lattice model with first-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion. We find qualitative agreement for the correlation function, the equation of state and the dependence of the chemical potential μ on the volume fraction ζ. Our results confirm also that strong inhomogeneities in the disordered phase are found only in the case of strong repulsion. The inhomogeneities are reflected in an oscillatory decay of the correlation function with a very large correlation length, three inflection points in the μ ≤ft(\\zeta \\right) curve and a compressibility that for increasing ζ takes very large, very small and again very large values.
Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arias, Rodrigo
2015-03-01
Magnetostatic modes in ferromagnetic samples are very well characterized and understood in samples with uniform internal magnetic fields. More recently interest has shifted to the study of magnetization modes in ferromagnetic samples with inhomogeneous internal fields. The present work shows that under the magnetostatic approximation and for samples of arbitrary shape and/or arbitrary inhomogeneous internal magnetic fields the modes can be classified as elliptic or hyperbolic, and their associated frequency spectrum can be delimited. This results from the analysis of the character of the second order partial differential equation for the magnetostatic potential under these general conditions. In general, a sample with an inhomogeneous internal field and at a given frequency, may have regions of elliptic and hyperbolic character separated by a boundary. In the elliptic regions the magnetostatic modes have a smooth monotonic character (generally decaying form the surfaces (a ``tunneling'' behavior)) and in hyperbolic regions an oscillatory wave-like character. A simple local criterion distinguishes hyperbolic from elliptic regions: the sign of a susceptibility parameter. This study shows that one may control to some extent magnetostatic modes via external fields or geometry. R.E.A. acknowledges Financiamiento Basal para Centros Cientificos y Tecnologicos de Excelencia under Project No. FB 0807 (Chile), Grant No. ICM P10-061-F by Fondo de Innovacion para la Competitividad-MINECON, and Proyecto Fondecyt 1130192.
Density functional theory for systems with mesoscopic inhomogeneities.
Ciach, A; Gozdz, W T
2016-06-22
We study the effects of fluctuations on the mesoscopic length scale on systems with mesoscopic inhomogeneities. Equations for the correlation function and for the average volume fraction are derived in the self-consistent Gaussian approximation. The equations are further simplified by postulating the expression for the structure factor consistent with scattering experiments for self-assembling systems. Predictions of the approximate theory are verified by a comparison with the exact results obtained earlier for the one-dimensional lattice model with first-neighbor attraction and third-neighbor repulsion. We find qualitative agreement for the correlation function, the equation of state and the dependence of the chemical potential μ on the volume fraction ζ. Our results confirm also that strong inhomogeneities in the disordered phase are found only in the case of strong repulsion. The inhomogeneities are reflected in an oscillatory decay of the correlation function with a very large correlation length, three inflection points in the [Formula: see text] curve and a compressibility that for increasing ζ takes very large, very small and again very large values. PMID:27116121
Large-scale flow generation by inhomogeneous helicity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yokoi, N.; Brandenburg, A.
2016-03-01
The effect of kinetic helicity (velocity-vorticity correlation) on turbulent momentum transport is investigated. The turbulent kinetic helicity (pseudoscalar) enters the Reynolds stress (mirror-symmetric tensor) expression in the form of a helicity gradient as the coupling coefficient for the mean vorticity and/or the angular velocity (axial vector), which suggests the possibility of mean-flow generation in the presence of inhomogeneous helicity. This inhomogeneous helicity effect, which was previously confirmed at the level of a turbulence- or closure-model simulation, is examined with the aid of direct numerical simulations of rotating turbulence with nonuniform helicity sustained by an external forcing. The numerical simulations show that the spatial distribution of the Reynolds stress is in agreement with the helicity-related term coupled with the angular velocity, and that a large-scale flow is generated in the direction of angular velocity. Such a large-scale flow is not induced in the case of homogeneous turbulent helicity. This result confirms the validity of the inhomogeneous helicity effect in large-scale flow generation and suggests that a vortex dynamo is possible even in incompressible turbulence where there is no baroclinicity effect.
Segmentation of intensity inhomogeneous brain MR images using active contours.
Akram, Farhan; Kim, Jeong Heon; Lim, Han Ul; Choi, Kwang Nam
2014-01-01
Segmentation of intensity inhomogeneous regions is a well-known problem in image analysis applications. This paper presents a region-based active contour method for image segmentation, which properly works in the context of intensity inhomogeneity problem. The proposed region-based active contour method embeds both region and gradient information unlike traditional methods. It contains mainly two terms, area and length, in which the area term practices a new region-based signed pressure force (SPF) function, which utilizes mean values from a certain neighborhood using the local binary fitted (LBF) energy model. In turn, the length term uses gradient information. The novelty of our method is to locally compute new SPF function, which uses local mean values and is able to detect boundaries of the homogenous regions. Finally, a truncated Gaussian kernel is used to regularize the level set function, which not only regularizes it but also removes the need of computationally expensive reinitialization. The proposed method targets the segmentation problem of intensity inhomogeneous images and reduces the time complexity among locally computed active contour methods. The experimental results show that the proposed method yields better segmentation result as well as less time complexity compared with the state-of-the-art active contour methods. PMID:25143780
Laser pulse propagation in inhomogeneous magnetoplasma channels and wakefield acceleration
Sharma, B. S. Jain, Archana; Jaiman, N. K.; Gupta, D. N.; Jang, D. G.; Suk, H.; Kulagin, V. V.
2014-02-15
Wakefield excitation in a preformed inhomogeneous parabolic plasma channel by an intense relativistic (≃10{sup 19} W/cm{sup 2}) circularly polarized Gaussian laser pulse is investigated analytically and numerically in the presence of an external longitudinal magnetic field. A three dimensional envelope equation for the evolution of the laser pulse is derived, which includes the effect of the nonparaxial and applied external magnetic field. A relation for the channel radius with the laser spot size is derived and examines numerically to see the external magnetic field effect. It is observed that the channel radius depends on the applied external magnetic field. An analytical expression for the wakefield is derived and validated with the help of a two dimensional particle in cell (2D PIC) simulation code. It is shown that the electromagnetic nature of the wakes in an inhomogeneous plasma channel makes their excitation nonlocal, which results in change of fields with time and external magnetic field due to phase mixing of the plasma oscillations with spatially varying frequencies. The magnetic field effect on perturbation of the plasma density and decreasing length is also analyzed numerically. In addition, it has been shown that the electron energy gain in the inhomogeneous parabolic magnetoplasma channel can be increased significantly compared with the homogeneous plasma channel.
Selective NMR excitation in strongly inhomogeneous magnetic fields.
Todica, M; Fechete, R; Blümich, B
2003-10-01
The NMR-MOUSE is a unilateral and mobile NMR sensor which operates with highly inhomogeneous magnetic fields. To produce a mobile NMR unit, RF excitation is sought, which can be produced with the most simple equipment, in particular nonlinear, low-power amplifiers, and to observe a free induction decay in strongly inhomogeneous fields, the excitation needs to be selective. The possibility to produce selective excitation by sequences of hard low-power radiofrequency pulses in the strongly inhomogeneous magnetic fields of the NMR-MOUSE is explored. The use of the DANTE sequence for selection of magnetization from parts of the sensitive volume was investigated for longitudinal and transverse magnetization by computer simulations and experiments. The spectra of the recorded FIDs and echo signals are in good agreement with those simulated for the excitation, which verifies the concept of the DANTE excitation. The results obtained are an important step towards a low-power operation of the NMR-MOUSE to improve its mobility. PMID:14511590
Nonlinear waves on a string with inhomogeneous properties
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arredondo, Robert
Nonlinear waves on an infinite string with a rapid change in properties at one location are treated. The string is an idealized version of more complex configurations in both fluids and solids. This idealized version treats the property change as an interface with a discontinuity in properties. Packets of waves are then considered with a reduced model, here a set of nonlinear Schrodinger (NLS) equations. The stress and the displacement must both be matched at the interface, resulting in dynamic and kinematic interfacial conditions. The dynamic condition produces an inhomogeneous effect that cannot be treated successfully with separation-of-variables. This inhomogeneity is treated here with a time-evolution approach using Laplace transforms. The results show that this inhomogeneity creates a mean longitudinal displacement on both sides of the interface and a shift in the position of the interface as the waves transit the interface. This mean longitudinal displacement corresponds to a sustained strain in the string. The mean longitudinal displacement develops three distinct features. One feature has a length scale that is half the wave-length of the incident waves, while the lengths of the other two features have the same order as the length of the wave packet. The position of maximum strain as a result of this mean is often at the interface, depending on parameter values. These results apply to a variety of applications, such as waves in ocean ice, Rayleigh waves caused by earthquakes, internal waves in the oceans and atmosphere, as well as waves in stretched cables.
A theory of MHD instability of an inhomogeneous plasma jet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Leonovich, Anatoly S.
2011-06-01
A problem of the stability of an inhomogeneous axisymmetric plasma jet in a parallel magnetic field is solved. The jet boundary becomes, under certain conditions, unstable relative to magnetosonic oscillations (Kelvin-Helmholtz instability) in the presence of a shear flow at the jet boundary. Because of its internal inhomogeneity the plasma jet has resonance surfaces, where conversion takes place between various modes of plasma magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) oscillations. Propagating in inhomogeneous plasma, fast magnetosonic waves drive the Alfven and slow magnetosonic (SMS) oscillations, tightly localized across the magnetic shells, on the resonance surfaces. MHD oscillation energy is absorbed in the neighbourhood of these resonance surfaces. The resonance surfaces disappear for the eigenmodes of SMS waves propagating in the jet waveguide. The stability of the plasma MHD flow is determined by competition between the mechanisms of shear flow instability on the boundary and wave energy dissipation because of resonant MHD-mode coupling. The problem is solved analytically, in the Wentzel, Kramers, Brillouin (WKB) approximation, for the plasma jet with a boundary in the form of a tangential discontinuity over the radial coordinate. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability develops if plasma flow velocity in the jet exceeds the maximum Alfven speed at the boundary. The stability of the plasma jet with a smooth boundary layer is investigated numerically for the basic modes of MHD oscillations, to which the WKB approximation is inapplicable. A new 'unstable mode of MHD oscillations has been discovered which, unlike the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, exists for any, however weak, plasma flow velocities.
Large-scale electromagnetic modeling for multiple inhomogeneous domains
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhdanov, M. S.; Endo, M.; Cuma, M.
2008-12-01
We develop a new formulation of the integral equation (IE) method for three-dimensional (3D) electromagnetic (EM) field computation in large-scale models with multiple inhomogeneous domains. This problem arises in many practical applications including modeling the EM fields within the complex geoelectrical structures in geophysical exploration. In geophysical applications, it is difficult to describe an earth structure using a horizontally layered background conductivity model, which is required for the efficient implementation of the conventional IE approach. As a result, a large domain of interest with anomalous conductivity distribution needs to be discretized, which complicates the computations. The new method allows us to consider multiple inhomogeneous domains, where the conductivity distribution is different from that of the background, and to use independent discretizations for different domains. This reduces dramatically the computational resources required for large-scale modeling. In addition, by using this method, we can analyze the response of each domain separately without an inappropriate use of the superposition principle for the EM field calculations. The method was carefully tested for modeling the marine controlled-source electromagnetic (MCSEM) fields for complex geoelectrical structures with multiple inhomogeneous domains, such as a seafloor with rough bathymetry, salt domes, and reservoirs. We have also used this technique to investigate the return induction effects from regional geoelectrical structures, e.g., seafloor bathymetry and salt domes, which can distort the EM response from the geophysical exploration target.
The magnitude-redshift relation in a realistic inhomogeneous universe
Hada, Ryuichiro; Futamase, Toshifumi E-mail: tof@astr.tohoku.ac.jp
2014-12-01
The light rays from a source are subject to a local inhomogeneous geometry generated by inhomogeneous matter distribution as well as the existence of collapsed objects. In this paper we investigate the effect of inhomogeneities and the existence of collapsed objects on the propagation of light rays and evaluate changes in the magnitude-redshift relation from the standard relationship found in a homogeneous FRW universe. We give the expression of the correlation function and the variance for the perturbation of apparent magnitude, and calculate it numerically by using the non-linear matter power spectrum. We use the lognormal probability distribution function for the density contrast and spherical collapse model to truncate the power spectrum in order to estimate the blocking effect by collapsed objects. We find that the uncertainties in Ω{sub m} is ∼ 0.02, and that of w is ∼ 0.04 . We also discuss a possible method to extract these effects from real data which contains intrinsic ambiguities associated with the absolute magnitude.
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Inhomogeneous dephasing masks coherence lifetimes in ensemble measurements
Pelzer, Kenley M.; Griffin, Graham B.; Engel, Gregory S.; Gray, Stephen K.
2012-04-28
An open question at the forefront of modern physical sciences is what role, if any, quantum effects may play in biological sensing and energy transport mechanisms. One area of such research concerns the possibility of coherent energy transport in photosynthetic systems. Spectroscopic evidence of long-lived quantum coherence in photosynthetic light-harvesting pigment protein complexes (PPCs), along with theoretical modeling of PPCs, has indicated that coherent energy transport might boost efficiency of energy transport in photosynthesis. Accurate assessment of coherence lifetimes is crucial for modeling the extent to which quantum effects participate in this energy transfer, because such quantum effects can only contribute to mechanisms proceeding on timescales over which the coherences persist. While spectroscopy is a useful way to measure coherence lifetimes, inhomogeneity in the transition energies across the measured ensemble may lead to underestimation of coherence lifetimes from spectroscopic experiments. Theoretical models of antenna complexes generally model a single system, and direct comparison of single system models to ensemble averaged experimental data may lead to systematic underestimation of coherence lifetimes, distorting much of the current discussion. In this study, we use simulations of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex to model single complexes as well as averaged ensembles to demonstrate and roughly quantify the effect of averaging over an inhomogeneous ensemble on measured coherence lifetimes. We choose to model the Fenna-Matthews-Olson complex because that system has been a focus for much of the recent discussion of quantum effects in biology, and use an early version of the well known environment-assisted quantum transport model to facilitate straightforward comparison between the current model and past work. Although ensemble inhomogeneity is known to lead to shorter lifetimes of observed oscillations (simply inhomogeneous spectral
Robustness Elasticity in Complex Networks
Matisziw, Timothy C.; Grubesic, Tony H.; Guo, Junyu
2012-01-01
Network robustness refers to a network’s resilience to stress or damage. Given that most networks are inherently dynamic, with changing topology, loads, and operational states, their robustness is also likely subject to change. However, in most analyses of network structure, it is assumed that interaction among nodes has no effect on robustness. To investigate the hypothesis that network robustness is not sensitive or elastic to the level of interaction (or flow) among network nodes, this paper explores the impacts of network disruption, namely arc deletion, over a temporal sequence of observed nodal interactions for a large Internet backbone system. In particular, a mathematical programming approach is used to identify exact bounds on robustness to arc deletion for each epoch of nodal interaction. Elasticity of the identified bounds relative to the magnitude of arc deletion is assessed. Results indicate that system robustness can be highly elastic to spatial and temporal variations in nodal interactions within complex systems. Further, the presence of this elasticity provides evidence that a failure to account for nodal interaction can confound characterizations of complex networked systems. PMID:22808060
Kinematic support using elastic elements
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Geirsson, Arni; Debra, Daniel B.
1988-01-01
The design of kinematic supports using elastic elements is reviewed. The two standard methods (cone, Vee and flat and three Vees) are presented and a design example involving a machine tool metrology bench is given. Design goals included thousandfold strain attenuation in the bench relative to the base when the base strains due to temperature variations and shifting loads. Space applications are also considered.
A problem in micropolar elasticity.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Srinivas, S.
1973-01-01
In this paper a three-dimensional analysis for statics and dynamics of a class of simply supported rectangular plates made up of micropolar elastic material is presented. The solution is in the form of series, in which each term is explicitly determined. For free vibrations, the frequencies are obtained by the solution of a closed form characteristic equation.
Pilot Study of Debt Elasticity
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
Greiner, Keith; Girardi, Tony
2006-01-01
This report examines the relationship between student loan debt and the manner in which that debt is described. It focuses on three forms of description: (1) monthly payments, (2) total debt, and (3) income after graduation. The authors used the term elasticity to describe the relationship between consumers' college choices and the retention…
Duration of an Elastic Collision
ERIC Educational Resources Information Center
de Izarra, Charles
2012-01-01
With a pedagogical goal, this paper deals with a study of the duration of an elastic collision of an inflatable spherical ball on a planar surface suitable for undergraduate studies. First, the force generated by the deformed spherical ball is obtained under assumptions that are discussed. The study of the motion of the spherical ball colliding…
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Xujun; Bordas, Stéphane P. A.; Qu, Jianmin
2013-12-01
Interfacial energy plays an important role in equilibrium morphologies of nanosized microstructures of solid materials due to the high interface-to-volume ratio, and can no longer be neglected as it does in conventional mechanics analysis. When designing nanodevices and to understand the behavior of materials at the nano-scale, this interfacial energy must therefore be taken into account. The present work develops an effective numerical approach by means of a hybrid smoothed extended finite element/level set method to model nanoscale inhomogeneities with interfacial energy effect, in which the finite element mesh can be completely independent of the interface geometry. The Gurtin-Murdoch surface elasticity model is used to account for the interface stress effect and the Wachspress interpolants are used for the first time to construct the shape functions in the smoothed extended finite element method. Selected numerical results are presented to study the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed method as well as the equilibrium shapes of misfit particles in elastic solids. The presented results compare very well with those obtained from theoretical solutions and experimental observations, and the computational efficiency of the method is shown to be superior to that of its most advanced competitor.
A solid-shell Cosserat point element (SSCPE) for elastic thin structures at finite deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jabareen, Mahmood; Mtanes, Eli
2016-04-01
The objective of this study is to develop a new solid-shell element using the Cosserat point theory for modeling thin elastic structures at finite deformations. The point-wise Green-Lagrange strain tensor is additively decomposed into homogeneous and inhomogeneous parts. Only the latter part of the strain tensor is modified by the assumed natural strain ANS concept to avoid both curvature-thickness locking and transverse shear locking. To the authors' knowledge, such modification has not been applied yet in the literature, and here it is referred to as the assumed natural inhomogeneous strain ANIS concept. Moreover, a new methodology for determining the constitutive coefficients of the strain energy function, which controls the inhomogeneous deformations, is proposed. The resulting coefficients ensure both accuracy, robustness, and elimination of all locking pathologies in the solid-shell Cosserat point element (SSCPE). The performance of the developed SSCPE is verified and tested via various benchmark problems and compared to other solid, shell, and solid-shell elements. These examples demonstrate that the SSCPE is accurate, robust, stable, free of locking, and can be used for modeling thin structures at both small and finite deformations.
A solid-shell Cosserat point element ( SSCPE) for elastic thin structures at finite deformation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jabareen, Mahmood; Mtanes, Eli
2016-07-01
The objective of this study is to develop a new solid-shell element using the Cosserat point theory for modeling thin elastic structures at finite deformations. The point-wise Green-Lagrange strain tensor is additively decomposed into homogeneous and inhomogeneous parts. Only the latter part of the strain tensor is modified by the assumed natural strain ANS concept to avoid both curvature-thickness locking and transverse shear locking. To the authors' knowledge, such modification has not been applied yet in the literature, and here it is referred to as the assumed natural inhomogeneous strain ANIS concept. Moreover, a new methodology for determining the constitutive coefficients of the strain energy function, which controls the inhomogeneous deformations, is proposed. The resulting coefficients ensure both accuracy, robustness, and elimination of all locking pathologies in the solid-shell Cosserat point element ( SSCPE). The performance of the developed SSCPE is verified and tested via various benchmark problems and compared to other solid, shell, and solid-shell elements. These examples demonstrate that the SSCPE is accurate, robust, stable, free of locking, and can be used for modeling thin structures at both small and finite deformations.
Groger, Roman1; Lockman, Turab; Saxena, Avadh
2008-01-01
In dislocation-free martensites the components of the elastic strain tensor are constrained by the Saint-Venant compatibility condition which guarantees continuity of the body during external loading. However, in dislocated materials the plastic part of the distortion tensor introduces a displacement mismatch that is removed by elastic relaxation. The elastic strains are then no longer compatible in the sense of the Saint-Venant law and the ensuing incompatibility tensor is shown to be proportional to the gradients of the Nye dislocation density tensor. We demonstrate that the presence of this incompatibility gives rise to an additional long-range contribution in the inhomogeneous part of the Landau energy functional and to the corresponding stress fields. Competition among the local and long-range interactions results in frustration in the evolving order parameter (elastic) texture. We show how the Peach-Koehler forces and stress fields for any distribution of dislocations in arbitrarily anisotropic media can be calculated and employed in a Fokker-Planck dynamics for the dislocation density. This approach represents a self-consistent scheme that yields the evolutions of both the order parameter field and the continuous dislocation density. We illustrate our method by studying the effects of dislocations on microstructure, particularly twinned domain walls, in an Fe-Pd alloy undergoing a martensitic transformation.
Residual-stress characterization by use of elastic-wave-scattering measurements
Domany, E.; Gubernatis, J.E.
1982-01-01
The presence of a state of residual stress in a material can impair its structural quality by adversely affecting its elastic limit, yield point, etc. In this paper we derive the appropriate equations for the use of elastic waves to probe an inhomogeneous state of residual stress. As in other treatments of ultrasonic residual stress measurement, we start with nonlinear effects and require knowledge of third order elastic constants. Unlike other treatments, which relate these nonlinear effects to small relative changes in propagation speed of an incident wave, we identify these effects as a source of scattering of the incident wave. Like other treatments, one difficulty with ultrasonic residual stress measurements is separating small residual stress effects from other effects. However, we will give an example of at least one class of problems where this separation appears possible using our approach. It is demonstrated that elastic wave propagation in the presence of non-uniform residual stress can be viewed as a scattering problem. One should note that in various limits, such as that of short wavelength, this scattering problem (as well as any other) can be treated by optical methods (ray bendings, diffraction, etc.). The special features of a scattering situation are expected to be important for smaller wavelengths, and therefore their experimental observability is questionable, and can be resolved only by careful and thorough measurements.
Elastic And Plastic Deformations In Butt Welds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Verderaime, V.
1992-01-01
Report presents study of mathematical modeling of stresses and strains, reaching beyond limits of elasticity, in bars and plates. Study oriented toward development of capability to predict stresses and resulting elastic and plastic strains in butt welds.
Wave-induced fluid flow in random porous media: attenuation and dispersion of elastic waves.
Müller, Tobias M; Gurevich, Boris
2005-05-01
A detailed analysis of the relationship between elastic waves in inhomogeneous, porous media and the effect of wave-induced fluid flow is presented. Based on the results of the poroelastic first-order statistical smoothing approximation applied to Biot's equations of poroelasticity, a model for elastic wave attenuation and dispersion due to wave-induced fluid flow in 3-D randomly inhomogeneous poroelastic media is developed. Attenuation and dispersion depend on linear combinations of the spatial correlations of the fluctuating poroelastic parameters. The observed frequency dependence is typical for a relaxation phenomenon. Further, the analytic properties of attenuation and dispersion are analyzed. It is shown that the low-frequency asymptote of the attenuation coefficient of a plane compressional wave is proportional to the square of frequency. At high frequencies the attenuation coefficient becomes proportional to the square root of frequency. A comparison with the 1-D theory shows that attenuation is of the same order but slightly larger in 3-D random media. Several modeling choices of the approach including the effect of cross correlations between fluid and solid phase properties are demonstrated. The potential application of the results to real porous materials is discussed. PMID:15957744
On the anisotropic elastic properties of hydroxyapatite.
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Katz, J. L.; Ukraincik, K.
1971-01-01
Experimental measurements of the isotropic elastic moduli on polycrystalline specimens of hydroxyapatite and fluorapatite are compared with elastic constants measured directly from single crystals of fluorapatite in order to derive a set of pseudo single crystal elastic constants for hydroxyapatite. The stiffness coefficients thus derived are given. The anisotropic and isotropic elastic properties are then computed and compared with similar properties derived from experimental observations of the anisotropic behavior of bone.
Zhang, Yanni; Huang, Hai; Zheng, Jing; Pan, Jie
2015-11-01
This paper extends previous work of Zhang and Pan [J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 133(4), 2082-2096 (2013)] on sound scattering and absorption by an underwater coated plate with a single attached distributed-inhomogeneity to that with periodically located distributed-inhomogeneities. A comparison is made among cases of a plate without inhomogeneities, a plate with inhomogeneities, and one with inhomogeneities ignoring the mutual coupling. Results show that coupling of the structural waves scattered by the inhomogeneities plays an important role in modifying the sound absorption and scattering of surface sound pressure, especially at low frequencies and/or the resonance frequencies of the trapped modes of the plate. The sound absorption of the plate is dependent on the distance between the adjacent inhomogeneities, the length of the inhomogeneity, and the angle of the incident sound. On the surface of the inhomogeneities, the scattered/total sound pressure is generally enhanced. On the surface in between the inhomogeneities, the pressure is also enhanced at low frequencies but is nearly unchanged at higher frequencies. Results also show that the coupling-induced variation of scattered/total pressure is significant only at the resonance frequencies of the global modes and trapped modes. The surface normal velocity is presented to explain the coupling-induced variations in the vibration and pressure fields. PMID:26627747
Nearly incompressible fluids: hydrodynamics and large scale inhomogeneity.
Hunana, P; Zank, G P; Shaikh, D
2006-08-01
A system of hydrodynamic equations in the presence of large-scale inhomogeneities for a high plasma beta solar wind is derived. The theory is derived under the assumption of low turbulent Mach number and is developed for the flows where the usual incompressible description is not satisfactory and a full compressible treatment is too complex for any analytical studies. When the effects of compressibility are incorporated only weakly, a new description, referred to as "nearly incompressible hydrodynamics," is obtained. The nearly incompressible theory, was originally applied to homogeneous flows. However, large-scale gradients in density, pressure, temperature, etc., are typical in the solar wind and it was unclear how inhomogeneities would affect the usual incompressible and nearly incompressible descriptions. In the homogeneous case, the lowest order expansion of the fully compressible equations leads to the usual incompressible equations, followed at higher orders by the nearly incompressible equations, as introduced by Zank and Matthaeus. With this work we show that the inclusion of large-scale inhomogeneities (in this case time-independent and radially symmetric background solar wind) modifies the leading-order incompressible description of solar wind flow. We find, for example, that the divergence of velocity fluctuations is nonsolenoidal and that density fluctuations can be described to leading order as a passive scalar. Locally (for small lengthscales), this system of equations converges to the usual incompressible equations and we therefore use the term "locally incompressible" to describe the equations. This term should be distinguished from the term "nearly incompressible," which is reserved for higher-order corrections. Furthermore, we find that density fluctuations scale with Mach number linearly, in contrast to the original homogeneous nearly incompressible theory, in which density fluctuations scale with the square of Mach number. Inhomogeneous nearly
Kinetic theory of spatially inhomogeneous stellar systems without collective effects
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chavanis, P.-H.
2013-08-01
We review and complete the kinetic theory of spatially inhomogeneous stellar systems when collective effects (dressing of the stars by their polarization cloud) are neglected. We start from the BBGKY hierarchy issued from the Liouville equation and consider an expansion in powers of 1/N in a proper thermodynamic limit. For N → +∞, we obtain the Vlasov equation describing the evolution of collisionless stellar systems like elliptical galaxies. This corresponds to the mean field approximation. At the order 1/N, we obtain a kinetic equation describing the evolution of collisional stellar systems like globular clusters. This corresponds to the weak coupling approximation. This equation coincides with the generalized Landau equation derived from a more abstract projection operator formalism. This equation does not suffer logarithmic divergences at large scales since spatial inhomogeneity is explicitly taken into account. Making a local approximation, and introducing an upper cut-off at the Jeans length, it reduces to the Vlasov-Landau equation which is the standard kinetic equation of stellar systems. Our approach provides a simple and pedagogical derivation of these important equations from the BBGKY hierarchy which is more rigorous for systems with long-range interactions than the two-body encounters theory. Making an adiabatic approximation, we write the generalized Landau equation in angle-action variables and obtain a Landau-type kinetic equation that is valid for fully inhomogeneous stellar systems and is free of divergences at large scales. This equation is less general than the recently derived Lenard-Balescu-type kinetic equation since it neglects collective effects, but it is substantially simpler and could be useful as a first step. We discuss the evolution of the system as a whole and the relaxation of a test star in a bath of field stars. We derive the corresponding Fokker-Planck equation in angle-action variables and provide expressions for the
NMR, MRI, and spectroscopic MRI in inhomogeneous fields
Demas, Vasiliki; Pines, Alexander; Martin, Rachel W; Franck, John; Reimer, Jeffrey A
2013-12-24
A method for locally creating effectively homogeneous or "clean" magnetic field gradients (of high uniformity) for imaging (with NMR, MRI, or spectroscopic MRI) both in in-situ and ex-situ systems with high degrees of inhomogeneous field strength. THe method of imaging comprises: a) providing a functional approximation of an inhomogeneous static magnetic field strength B.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}) at a spatial position {right arrow over (r)}; b) providing a temporal functional approximation of {right arrow over (G)}.sub.shim(t) with i basis functions and j variables for each basis function, resulting in v.sub.ij variables; c) providing a measured value .OMEGA., which is an temporally accumulated dephasing due to the inhomogeneities of B.sub.0({right arrow over(r)}); and d) minimizing a difference in the local dephasing angle .phi.({right arrow over (r)},t)=.gamma..intg..sub.0.sup.t{square root over (|{right arrow over (B)}.sub.1({right arrow over (r)},t')|.sup.2+({right arrow over (r)}{right arrow over (G)}.sub.shimG.sub.shim(t')+.parallel.{right arrow over (B)}.sub.0({right arrow over (r)}).parallel..DELTA..omega.({right arrow over (r)},t'/.gamma/).sup.2)}dt'-.OMEGA. by varying the v.sub.ij variables to form a set of minimized v.sub.ij variables. The method requires calibration of the static fields prior to minimization, but may thereafter be implemented without such calibration, may be used in open or closed systems, and potentially portable systems.
Spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity
Golubkov, A A; Makarov, Vladimir A
2011-11-30
We present a brief review of the results of fifty years of development efforts in spectroscopy of one-dimensionally inhomogeneous media with quadratic nonlinearity. The recent original results obtained by the authors show the fundamental possibility of determining, from experimental data, the coordinate dependences of complex quadratic susceptibility tensor components of a onedimensionally inhomogeneous (along the z axis) medium with an arbitrary frequency dispersion, if the linear dielectric properties of the medium also vary along the z axis and are described by a diagonal tensor of the linear dielectric constant. It is assumed that the medium in question has the form of a plane-parallel plate, whose surfaces are perpendicular to the direction of the inhomogeneity. Using the example of several components of the tensors X{sup (2)}(z, {omega}{sub 1} {+-} {omega}{sub 2}; {omega}{sub 1}, {+-} {omega}{sub 2}), we describe two methods for finding their spatial profiles, which differ in the interaction geometry of plane monochromatic fundamental waves with frequencies {omega}{sub 1} and {omega}{sub 2}. The both methods are based on assessing the intensity of the waves propagating from the plate at the sum or difference frequency and require measurements over a range of angles of incidence of the fundamental waves. Such measurements include two series of additional estimates of the intensities of the waves generated under special conditions by using the test and additional reference plates, which eliminates the need for complicated phase measurements of the complex amplitudes of the waves at the sum (difference) frequency.
Critical assessment of some inhomogeneous pressure Stephani models
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Balcerzak, Adam; Dąbrowski, Mariusz P.; Denkiewicz, Tomasz; Polarski, David; Puy, Denis
2015-04-01
We consider spherically symmetric inhomogeneous pressure Stephani universes, with the center of symmetry being our location. The main feature of these models is that comoving observers do not follow geodesics. In particular, comoving perfect fluids necessarily have a radially dependent pressure. We consider a subclass of these models characterized by some inhomogeneity parameter β . We show also that the velocity of sound of comoving perfect fluids, like the (effective) equation of state parameter, acquires away from the origin a time- and radial-dependent change proportional to β . In order to produce a realistic universe accelerating at late times without a dark energy component, one must take β <0 . The redshift acquires a modified dependence on the scale factor a (t ) with a relative modification of -9 %, peaking at z ˜4 and vanishing at the big bang and today on our past light cone. The equation of state parameter and the speed of sound of dustlike matter (corresponding to a vanishing pressure at the center of symmetry r =0 ) behave in a similar way, and away from the center of symmetry they become negative—a property usually encountered in the dark energy component only. In order to mimic the observed late-time accelerated expansion, the matter component must significantly depart from standard dust, presumably ruling this subclass of Stephani models out as a realistic cosmology. The only way to accept these models is to keep all standard matter components of the universe, including dark energy, and take an inhomogeneity parameter β that is sufficiently small.
Confinement of superconducting fluctuations due to emergent electronic inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carbillet, C.; Caprara, S.; Grilli, M.; Brun, C.; Cren, T.; Debontridder, F.; Vignolle, B.; Tabis, W.; Demaille, D.; Largeau, L.; Ilin, K.; Siegel, M.; Roditchev, D.; Leridon, B.
2016-04-01
The microscopic nature of an insulating state in the vicinity of a superconducting state in the presence of disorder is a hotly debated question. While the simplest scenario proposes that Coulomb interactions destroy the Cooper pairs at the transition, leading to localization of single electrons, an alternate possibility supported by experimental observations suggests that Cooper pairs instead directly localize. The question of the homogeneity, granularity, or possibly glassiness of the material on the verge of this transition is intimately related to this fundamental issue. Here, by combining macroscopic and nanoscale studies of superconducting ultrathin NbN films, we reveal nanoscopic inhomogeneities that emerge when the film thickness is reduced. For the thinnest films, scanning tunneling spectroscopy at low temperature unveils inhomogeneities in the superconducting properties, of typical size Li, that are not correlated to any structural inhomogeneity and that are found to persist above the critical temperature in the form of a pseudogap. Remarkably enough, while the thickest films display a purely two-dimensional behavior in the superconducting fluctuations above the critical temperature, paraconductivity in the pseudogap regime of the thinnest samples demonstrates fluctuations of the amplitude of the order parameter, corresponding to zero-dimensional fluctuating regions of size precisely Li. We propose that an anomalous diffusion slowing-down process is at play at long wave vectors, leading to some "confinement" of the superconducting fluctuations, which allows us to explain the simultaneous paradoxical presence of a pseudogap and zero-dimensional amplitude fluctuations of the order parameter. These findings call for further theoretical investigation to understand this intermediate state where Cooper pairs continuously evolve from a bound state of fermionic objects into localized bosonic entities.
Elastic cone for Chinese calligraphy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Fenglei; Li, Haisheng
2014-01-01
The brush plays an important role in creating Chinese calligraphy. We regard a single bristle of a writing brush as an elastic rod and the brush tuft absorbing ink as an elastic cone, which naturally deforms according to the force exerted on it when painting on a paper, and the brush footprint is formed by the intersection region between the deformed tuft and the paper plane. To efficiently generate brush strokes, this paper introduces interpolation and texture mapping approach between two adjacent footprints, and automatically applies bristle-splitting texture to the stroke after long-time painting. Experimental results demonstrate that our method is effective and reliable. Users can create realistic calligraphy in real time.
Elastic modulus of viral nanotubes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhao, Yue; Ge, Zhibin; Fang, Jiyu
2008-09-01
We report an experimental and theoretical study of the radial elasticity of tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) nanotubes. An atomic force microscope tip is used to apply small radial indentations to deform TMV nanotubes. The initial elastic response of TMV nanotubes can be described by finite-element analysis in 5nm indentation depths and Hertz theory in 1.5nm indentation depths. The derived radial Young’s modulus of TMV nanotubes is 0.92±0.15GPa from finite-element analysis and 1.0±0.2GPa from the Hertz model, which are comparable with the reported axial Young’s modulus of 1.1GPa [Falvo , Biophys. J. 72, 1396 (1997)].
Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wilson, Christopher D.
1992-07-01
This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.
Elastic Flows Of Ellipsoidal Particles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Campbell, Charles S.
2009-06-01
Granular flow rheology can be divided into two global regimes, the Elastic, which is dominated by force chains and the inertial which are nearly free of force chains. The propensity of a material to form force chains is strongly influenced by particle shape. This paper is an attempt to assess the effect of particle shape on flow regime transitions, through computer simulations of shear flow of ellipsoidal particles. On one hand, the results show that at a given concentration, ellipsoidal particles generate smaller quasistatic stress than spheres, likely a result of their ability to form denser static packings. But at the same time, large aspect ratio ellipsoids more readily form force chains and demonstrate Elastic behavior at smaller concentrations than spheres.
Linear elastic fracture mechanics primer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Wilson, Christopher D.
1992-01-01
This primer is intended to remove the blackbox perception of fracture mechanics computer software by structural engineers. The fundamental concepts of linear elastic fracture mechanics are presented with emphasis on the practical application of fracture mechanics to real problems. Numerous rules of thumb are provided. Recommended texts for additional reading, and a discussion of the significance of fracture mechanics in structural design are given. Griffith's criterion for crack extension, Irwin's elastic stress field near the crack tip, and the influence of small-scale plasticity are discussed. Common stress intensities factor solutions and methods for determining them are included. Fracture toughness and subcritical crack growth are discussed. The application of fracture mechanics to damage tolerance and fracture control is discussed. Several example problems and a practice set of problems are given.
Gaussian beam diffraction in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kravtsov, Yu. A.; Berczynski, P.; Bieg, B.
2009-08-01
Combination of quasi-isotropic approximation (QIA) of geometric optics with paraxial complex geometric optics (PCGO) is suggested, which allows describing both diffraction and polarization evolution of Gaussian electromagnetic beams in weakly anisotropic inhomogeneous media. Combination QIA/PCGO reduces Maxwell equations to the system of the ordinary differential equations of the first order and radically simplifies solution of various problems, related to microwave plasma diagnostics, including plasma polarimetry, interferometry and refractometry in thermonuclear reactors. Efficiency of the method is demonstrated by the example of electromagnetic beam diffraction in a linear layer of magnetized plasma with parameters, modeling tokamak plasma in the project ITER.
Soliton oscillations in collisionally inhomogeneous attractive Bose-Einstein condensates
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Niarchou, P.; Theocharis, G.; Kevrekidis, P. G.; Schmelcher, P.; Frantzeskakis, D. J.
2007-08-01
We investigate bright matter-wave solitons in the presence of a spatially varying nonlinearity. It is demonstrated that a translation mode is excited due to the spatial inhomogeneity and its frequency is derived analytically and also studied numerically. Both cases of purely one-dimensional and “cigar-shaped” condensates are studied by means of different mean-field models, and the oscillation frequencies of the pertinent solitons are found and compared with the results obtained by the linear stability analysis. Numerical results are shown to be in very good agreement with the corresponding analytical predictions.
Theory of Electric Polarization Induced by Inhomogeneity in Crystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Di; Shi, Junren; Clougherty, Dennis; Niu, Qian
2008-03-01
We develop a general theory of electric polarization induced by inhomogeneity in crystals. We show that contributions to polarization can be classified in powers of the gradient of the order parameter. The zeroth order contribution reduces to the well-known result obtained by King-Smith and Vanderbilt for uniform systems. The first order contribution, when expressed in a two- point formula, takes the Chern-Simons 3-form of the vector potentials derived from the Bloch wave functions. Using the relation between polarization and charge density, we demonstrate our formula by studying charge fractionalization in a two-dimensional dimer model recently proposed.
Inhomogeneous phase shifting: an algorithm for nonconstant phase displacements
Tellez-Quinones, Alejandro; Malacara-Doblado, Daniel
2010-11-10
In this work, we have developed a different algorithm than the classical one on phase-shifting interferometry. These algorithms typically use constant or homogeneous phase displacements and they can be quite accurate and insensitive to detuning, taking appropriate weight factors in the formula to recover the wrapped phase. However, these algorithms have not been considered with variable or inhomogeneous displacements. We have generalized these formulas and obtained some expressions for an implementation with variable displacements and ways to get partially insensitive algorithms with respect to these arbitrary error shifts.
Linearized theory of inhomogeneous multiple 'water-bag' plasmas
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bloomberg, H. W.; Berk, H. L.
1973-01-01
Equations are derived for describing the inhomogeneous equilibrium and small deviations from the equilibrium, giving particular attention to systems with trapped particles. An investigation is conducted of periodic systems with a single trapped-particle water bag, taking into account the behavior of the perturbation equations at the turning points. An outline is provided concerning a procedure for obtaining the eigenvalues. The results of stability calculations connected with the sideband effects are considered along with questions regarding the general applicability of the multiple water-bag approach in stability calculations.
Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses in the inhomogeneous media
Liu, Wen-Jun; Huang, Long-Gang; Pan, Nan; Lei, Ming
2014-10-15
Pulse interactions affect pulse qualities during the propagation. Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated to improve pulse qualities in the inhomogeneous media. In order to describe the interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses, analytic two-soliton solutions are derived. Based on those solutions, influences of corresponding parameters on pulse interactions are discussed. Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. - Highlights: • Interactions between butterfly-shaped pulses are investigated. • Methods to control the pulse interactions are suggested. • Analytic two-soliton solutions for butterfly-shaped pulses are derived.
Symmetry breaking and multipeaked solitons in inhomogeneous gain landscapes
Kartashov, Yaroslav V.; Vysloukh, Victor A.; Konotop, Vladimir V.
2011-04-15
We address one-dimensional soliton formation in a cubic nonlinear medium with two-photon absorption and transversally inhomogeneous gain landscape consisting of a single or several amplifying channels. Existence of the solitons requires certain threshold gain while the properties of solitons strongly depend on whether the number of the amplifying channels is odd or even. In the former case, an increase of the gain leads to symmetry breaking, which occurs through the pitchfork bifurcation, and to emergence of a single or several coexisting stable asymmetric modes. In the case of an even number of amplifying channels, we have found only asymmetric stable states.
Population extinction in an inhomogeneous host-pathogen model
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bagarti, Trilochan
2016-01-01
We study inhomogeneous host-pathogen dynamics to model the global amphibian population extinction in a lake basin system. The lake basin system is modeled as quenched disorder. In this model we show that once the pathogen arrives at the lake basin it spreads from one lake to another, eventually spreading to the entire lake basin system in a wave like pattern. The extinction time has been found to depend on the steady state host population and pathogen growth rate. Linear estimate of the extinction time is computed. The steady state host population shows a threshold behavior in the interaction strength for a given growth rate.
Neutrino Heat Conduction and Inhomogeneities in the Early Universe
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Heckler, A.; Hogan, C. J.
1993-01-01
Constraints on parameters of inhomogeneous nucteosynthesis, namely, the overdensity and size of baryon lumps, are found by calculatig the blackbody neutrino heat conduction into the lumps, which tends to inflate them away. The scale size for efficient heat conduction is determined by the mean free path lambda of the neutrino, and so we compute lambda in our case of a high-temperature plasma with low chemical potential, and find a general result that many-body effects are unimportant, simplifying the calculation. We find that in the region of interest for nucleosynthesis, neutrino inflation is important for overdensities greater than 10(exp 4).
Tailoring diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing microplatelets
Slovick, Brian A. Baker, John M.; Flom, Zachary; Krishnamurthy, Srini
2015-10-05
We develop an analytical model for calculating the diffuse reflectance of inhomogeneous films containing aligned microplatelets with diameters much greater than the wavelength. The scattering parameters are derived by modeling the platelets as one-dimensional thin films, and the overall diffuse reflectance of the slab is calculated using the Kubelka-Munk model. Our model predicts that reflection minima and maxima arising from coherent interference within the platelets are preserved in the diffuse reflectance of the disordered slab. Experimental validation of the model is provided by reflectance measurements (0.3–15 μm) of a solid aerosol film of aligned hexagonal boron nitride platelets.
Investigating inhomogeneous Szekeres models and their applications to precision cosmology
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peel, Austin Chandler
Exact solutions of Einstein's field equations that can describe the evolution of complex structures in the universe provide complementary frameworks to standard perturbation theory in which to analyze cosmological and astrophysical phenomena. The flexibility and generality of the inhomogeneous and anisotropic Szekeres metric make it the best known exact solution to explore nonlinearities in the universe. We study applications of Szekeres models to precision cosmology, focusing on the influence of inhomogeneities in two primary contexts---the growth rate of cosmic structures and biases in distance determinations to remote sources. We first define and derive evolution equations for a Szekeres density contrast, which quantifies exact deviations from a smooth background cosmology. Solving these equations and comparing to the usual perturbative approach, we find that for models with the same matter content, the Szekeres growth rate is larger through the matter-dominated cosmic era. Including a cosmological constant, we consider exact global perturbations, as well as the evolution of a single extended structure surrounded by an almost homogeneous background. For the former, we use growth data to obtain a best fit Szekeres model and find that it can fit the data as well as the standard Lambda-Cold Dark Matter (LCDM) cosmological model but with different cosmological parameters. Next, to study effects of inhomogeneities on distance measures, we build an exact relativistic Swiss-cheese model of the universe, where a large number of non-symmetric and randomly placed Szekeres structures are embedded within a LCDM background. Solving the full relativistic propagation equations, light beams are traced through the model, where they traverse the inhomogeneous structures in a way that mimics the paths of real light beams in the universe. For beams crossing a single structure, their magnification or demagnification reflects primarily the net density encountered along the path
Inhomogeneous atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in cubic lattices.
Cramer, M; Eisert, J; Illuminati, F
2004-11-01
We determine the ground state properties of inhomogeneous mixtures of bosons and fermions in cubic lattices and parabolic confining potentials. For finite hopping we determine the domain boundaries between Mott-insulator plateaux and hopping-dominated regions for lattices of arbitrary dimension within mean-field and perturbation theory. The results are compared with a new numerical method that is based on a Gutzwiller variational approach for the bosons and an exact treatment for the fermions. The findings can be applied as a guideline for future experiments with trapped atomic Bose-Fermi mixtures in optical lattices. PMID:15600816
Tight coupling expansion and fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields
Giovannini, Massimo
2006-09-15
The tight coupling expansion, appropriately generalized to include large-scale magnetic fields, allows the estimate of the brightness perturbations of CMB anisotropies for typical wavelengths that are larger than the Hubble radius after matter-radiation equality. After discussing the basic features of the predecoupling initial conditions in the presence of fully inhomogeneous magnetic fields, the tight coupling expansion is studied both analytically and numerically. From the requirement that the amplitudes and phases of Sakharov oscillations are (predominantly) adiabatic and from the inferred value of the plateau in the temperature autocorrelation, the effects of the magnetized contribution can be systematically investigated and constrained.
Effects of inhomogeneity on the causal entropic prediction of Λ
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Phillips, Daniel; Albrecht, Andreas
2011-12-01
The causal entropic principle aims to predict the unexpectedly small value of the cosmological constant Λ using a weighting by entropy increase on causal diamonds. The original work assumed a purely isotropic and homogeneous cosmology. But even the level of inhomogeneity observed in our universe forces reconsideration of certain arguments about entropy production. In particular, we must consider an ensemble of causal diamonds associated with each background cosmology and we can no longer immediately discard entropy production in the far future of the universe. Depending on our choices for a probability measure and our treatment of black hole evaporation, the prediction for Λ may be left intact or dramatically altered.
Trajectories of radio waves in linear layer with isometric inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golynskiy, S. M.; Khlybov, G. N.
1984-05-01
The trajectories of radio waves in a statistically nonhomogeneous medium such as a linear ionospheric layer are estimated, taking into account their perturbation by local inhomogeneities. Assuming that the trajectories do remain in the plane of incidence, the deviation of the most probable trajectory from its unperturbed path in accordance with Snell's law is calculated for three models of wave diffusion as a Markov process (D- diffusion). The results are useful for design and operation of radio communication lines, calculation of the maximum usable frequency, and other applications.
Inhomogeneous Generalization of a Multispecies Totally Asymmetric Zero Range Process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kuniba, Atsuo; Maruyama, Shouya; Okado, Masato
2016-06-01
The n-species totally asymmetric zero range process (n-TAZRP) on a one-dimensional periodic chain studied recently by the authors is a continuous time Markov process where arbitrary number of particles can occupy the same sites and hop to the adjacent sites only in one direction with a priority constraint according to their species. In this paper we introduce an n-parameter generalization of the n-TAZRP having inhomogeneous transition rate. The steady state probability is obtained in a matrix product form and also by an algorithm related to combinatorial R.
Source parameter estimation in inhomogeneous volume conductors of arbitrary shape.
Oostendorp, T F; van Oosterom, A
1989-03-01
In this paper it is demonstrated that the use of a direct matrix inverse in the solution of the forward problem in volume conduction problems greatly facilitates the application of standard, nonlinear parameter estimation procedures for finding the strength as well as the location of current sources inside an inhomogeneous volume conductor of arbitrary shape from potential measurements at the outer surface (inverse procedure). This, in turn, facilitates the inclusion of a priori constraints. Where possible, the performance of the method is compared to that of the Gabor-Nelson method. Applications are in the fields of bioelectricity (e.g., electrocardiography and electroencephalography). PMID:2921073
Accelerating Airy beams in the presence of inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Besieris, Ioannis M.; Shaarawi, Amr M.; Zamboni-Rached, Michel
2016-06-01
Studies have already been made of accelerating Airy beams in the presence of deterministic inhomogeneities, illustrating, in particular, that the inherent self-healing properties of such beams are preserved. The cases of a range-dependent linear transverse potential and a converging GRIN structure (harmonic oscillator) have been examined thoroughly. Examples will be given in this article of novel accelerating Airy beams in the presence of five other types of potential functions. Three of the resulting exact analytical solutions have a common salient characteristic property: they are constructed using the free-space accelerating Airy beam solution as a seed.
Inhomogeneous chemical evolution of r-process elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wehmeyer, B.; Pignatari, M.; Thielemann, F.-K.
2016-06-01
We report the results of a galactic chemical evolution (GCE) study for r-process- and alpha elements. For this work, we used the inhomogeneous GCE model "ICE", which allows to keep track of the galactic abundances of elements produced by different astrophysical sites. The main input parameters for this study were: a) The Neutron Star Merger (NSM) coalescence time scale, the probability of NSMs, and for the sub-class of "magneto-rotationally driven Supernovae" ("Jet-SNe"), their occurence rate in comparison to "standard" Supernovae (SNe).
Modelling bedload transport events using an inhomogeneous gamma process
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hurley, M. A.
1992-10-01
Monitored sequences of bedload transport events in two small gravel-bedded trout streams are described. To model the event timings, the inhomogeneous gamma process, with the special case of the Poisson process, are introduced, in which the baseline intensity is related to a linear regression combination of covariates. These may be time-varying covariates, such as seasonal cycles, covariates specific to an individual process or covariates common to more than one process. It is shown that the maximum likelihood estimates of the regression parameters may be obtained by an iterative least-squares procedure. The procedure is demonstrated by application to the bedload transport event sequences.
Drift solitons and shocks in inhomogeneous quantum magnetoplasmas
Haque, Q.; Mahmood, S.
2008-03-15
Linear and nonlinear drift waves are studied in inhomogeneous electron-ion quantum magnetoplasma with neutrals in the background. The Korteweg-de Vries-Burgers equation is derived by using the quantum hydrodynamic model for nonlinear drift waves with quantum corrections. Both soliton and shock solutions are obtained in different limits. It is noticed that the width of the solitary hump is decreased with the increase in the quantum parameter. However this effect is reversed for the solitary dip case. It is also found that oscillatory shock wave is dependent on the quantum parameter. However, the monotonic shock formation is independent of the quantum parameter.
Hydraulic jumps in inhomogeneous strongly coupled toroidal dust flows
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Piel, Alexander; Wilms, Jochen
2016-07-01
The inhomogeneous flow of strongly coupled dust particles in a toroidal particle trap with harmonic radial confinement is analyzed in the incompressible fluid limit. It is shown that the flow can spontaneously generate shock-like events, which are similar to the hydraulic jump in open channel flows. A definition of the Froude number for this model is given and the critical speed is recovered as the group velocity of surface waves. This hydraulic model is compared with molecular-dynamics simulations, which show that a sudden bifurcation of the flow lines and a localized temperature peak appear just at the point where the critical condition for the hydraulic jump is located.
Cauchy Problem and Exponential Stability for the Inhomogeneous Landau Equation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Carrapatoso, Kleber; Tristani, Isabelle; Wu, Kung-Chien
2016-07-01
This work deals with the inhomogeneous Landau equation on the torus in the cases of hard, Maxwellian and moderately soft potentials. We first investigate the linearized equation and we prove exponential decay estimates for the associated semigroup. We then turn to the nonlinear equation and we use the linearized semigroup decay in order to construct solutions in a close-to-equilibrium setting. Finally, we prove an exponential stability for such a solution, with a rate as close as we want to the optimal rate given by the semigroup decay.
Inhomogeneous critical current in nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors
Gaudio, R. Hoog, K. P. M. op 't; Zhou, Z.; Sahin, D.; Fiore, A.
2014-12-01
A superconducting thin film with uniform properties is the key to realize nanowire superconducting single-photon detectors (SSPDs) with high performance and high yield. To investigate the uniformity of NbN films, we introduce and characterize simple detectors consisting of short nanowires with length ranging from 100 nm to 15 μm. Our nanowires, contrary to meander SSPDs, allow probing the homogeneity of NbN at the nanoscale. Experimental results, endorsed by a microscopic model, show the strongly inhomogeneous nature of NbN films on the sub-100 nm scale.
Estimation of geometrically undistorted B0 inhomogeneity maps
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matakos, A.; Balter, J.; Cao, Y.
2014-09-01
Geometric accuracy of MRI is one of the main concerns for its use as a sole image modality in precision radiation therapy (RT) planning. In a state-of-the-art scanner, system level geometric distortions are within acceptable levels for precision RT. However, subject-induced B0 inhomogeneity may vary substantially, especially in air-tissue interfaces. Recent studies have shown distortion levels of more than 2 mm near the sinus and ear canal are possible due to subject-induced field inhomogeneity. These distortions can be corrected with the use of accurate B0 inhomogeneity field maps. Most existing methods estimate these field maps from dual gradient-echo (GRE) images acquired at two different echo-times under the assumption that the GRE images are practically undistorted. However distortion that may exist in the GRE images can result in estimated field maps that are distorted in both geometry and intensity, leading to inaccurate correction of clinical images. This work proposes a method for estimating undistorted field maps from GRE acquisitions using an iterative joint estimation technique. The proposed method yields geometrically corrected GRE images and undistorted field maps that can also be used for the correction of images acquired by other sequences. The proposed method is validated through simulation, phantom experiments and applied to patient data. Our simulation results show that our method reduces the root-mean-squared error of the estimated field map from the ground truth by ten-fold compared to the distorted field map. Both the geometric distortion and the intensity corruption (artifact) in the images caused by the B0 field inhomogeneity are corrected almost completely. Our phantom experiment showed improvement in the geometric correction of approximately 1 mm at an air-water interface using the undistorted field map compared to using a distorted field map. The proposed method for undistorted field map estimation can lead to improved geometric
Stability of elastically supported columns
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Niles, Alfred S; Viscovich, Steven J
1942-01-01
A criterion is developed for the stiffness required of elastic lateral supports at the ends of a compression member to provide stability. A method based on this criterion is then developed for checking the stability of a continuous beam-column. A related method is also developed for checking the stability of a member of a pin-jointed truss against rotation in the plane of the truss.
Wei, Zhiliang; Lin, Liangjie; Lin, Yanqin E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Zhong E-mail: chenz@xmu.edu.cn; Chen, Youhe
2014-09-29
In nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) technique, it is of great necessity and importance to obtain high-resolution spectra, especially under inhomogeneous magnetic fields. In this study, a method based on partial homogeneity is proposed for retrieving high-resolution one-dimensional NMR spectra under inhomogeneous fields. Signals from series of small voxels, which characterize high resolution due to small sizes, are recorded simultaneously. Then, an inhomogeneity correction algorithm is developed based on pattern recognition to correct the influence brought by field inhomogeneity automatically, thus yielding high-resolution information. Experiments on chemical solutions and fish spawn were carried out to demonstrate the performance of the proposed method. The proposed method serves as a single radiofrequency pulse high-resolution NMR spectroscopy under inhomogeneous fields and may provide an alternative of obtaining high-resolution spectra of in vivo living systems or chemical-reaction systems, where performances of conventional techniques are usually degenerated by field inhomogeneity.
Improved Indentation Test for Measuring Nonlinear Elasticity
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Eldridge, Jeffrey I.
2004-01-01
A cylindrical-punch indentation technique has been developed as a means of measuring the nonlinear elastic responses of materials -- more specifically, for measuring the moduli of elasticity of materials in cases in which these moduli vary with applied loads. This technique offers no advantage for characterizing materials that exhibit purely linear elastic responses (constant moduli of elasticity, independent of applied loads). However, the technique offers a significant advantage for characterizing such important materials as plasma-sprayed thermal-barrier coatings, which, in cyclic loading, exhibit nonlinear elasticity with hysteresis related to compaction and sliding within their microstructures.
Lie Algebraic Discussions for Time-Inhomogeneous Linear Birth-Death Processes with Immigration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ohkubo, Jun
2014-10-01
Analytical solutions for time-inhomogeneous linear birth-death processes with immigration are derived. While time-inhomogeneous linear birth-death processes without immigration have been studied by using a generating function approach, the processes with immigration are here analyzed by Lie algebraic discussions. As a result, a restriction for time-inhomogeneity of the birth-death process is understood from the viewpoint of the finiteness of the dimensionality of the Lie algebra.
Avalanche dynamics of elastic interfaces.
Le Doussal, Pierre; Wiese, Kay Jörg
2013-08-01
Slowly driven elastic interfaces, such as domain walls in dirty magnets, contact lines wetting a nonhomogeneous substrate, or cracks in brittle disordered material proceed via intermittent motion, called avalanches. Here we develop a field-theoretic treatment to calculate, from first principles, the space-time statistics of instantaneous velocities within an avalanche. For elastic interfaces at (or above) their (internal) upper critical dimension d≥d(uc) (d(uc)=2,4 respectively for long-ranged and short-ranged elasticity) we show that the field theory for the center of mass reduces to the motion of a point particle in a random-force landscape, which is itself a random walk [Alessandro, Beatrice, Bertotti, and Montorsi (ABBM) model]. Furthermore, the full spatial dependence of the velocity correlations is described by the Brownian-force model (BFM) where each point of the interface sees an independent Brownian-force landscape. Both ABBM and BFM can be solved exactly in any dimension d (for monotonous driving) by summing tree graphs, equivalent to solving a (nonlinear) instanton equation. We focus on the limit of slow uniform driving. This tree approximation is the mean-field theory (MFT) for realistic interfaces in short-ranged disorder, up to the renormalization of two parameters at d=d(uc). We calculate a number of observables of direct experimental interest: Both for the center of mass, and for a given Fourier mode q, we obtain various correlations and probability distribution functions (PDF's) of the velocity inside an avalanche, as well as the avalanche shape and its fluctuations (second shape). Within MFT we find that velocity correlations at nonzero q are asymmetric under time reversal. Next we calculate, beyond MFT, i.e., including loop corrections, the one-time PDF of the center-of-mass velocity u[over ·] for dimension d
Dynamic Models of Robots with Elastic Hinges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Krakhmalev, O. N.
2016-04-01
Two dynamic models of robots with elastic hinges are considered. Dynamic models are the implementation of the method based on the Lagrange equation using the transformation matrices of elastic coordinates. Dynamic models make it possible to determine the elastic deviations from programmed motion trajectories caused by elastic deformations in hinges, which are taken into account in directions of change of the corresponding generalized coordinates. One model is the exact implementation of the Lagrange method and makes it possible to determine the total elastic deviation of the robot from the programmed motion trajectory. Another dynamic model is approximated and makes it possible to determine small elastic quasi-static deviations and elastic vibrations. The results of modeling the dynamics by two models are compared to the example of a two-link manipulator system. The considered models can be used when performing investigations of the mathematical accuracy of the robots.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gliko, A. O.; Molodenskii, S. M.
2015-01-01
Green's functions determining the radial displacements of the geoid and the external surface caused by the action of the arbitrarily distributed sources are calculated for a real model of a radially heterogeneous viscoelastic gravitating Earth. The variations in the external potential are contributed by three factors: the reduction in density in the heated area; the increase in density in the external (not heated) area due to its elastic compression, and the attraction of the subsurface simple layer, which is formed due to the changes in the shape of the external surface under its elastic deformation. The total effect of these factors is represented in the form of a series expansion in the spherical functions. The asymptotic analysis of the solutions shows that in the case of the spherical functions of sufficiently high orders, the ratios between the radial displacements of the geoid and the radial displacements of the external surface tend to zero. Since at the high orders of spherical functions the effects of sphericity and radial heterogeneity of the Earth are negligible, this statement is reduced to the fact that at any thermoelastic deformation of the uniform viscoelastic halfspace with arbitrary rheology, the three mentioned effects compensate each other. This compensation results in an interesting effect: even the weak radial inhomogeneities of the medium (e.g., those associated with the depth variations of the rheology) are not only capable of significantly changing the magnitude of radial displacements of the geoid but can even change their sign. Thus, the cross-correlation analysis of the data on the topography and shape of the geoid opens the possibility in principle to obtain new and quite strict constraints on the depth dependence of the rheological parameters of the medium (e.g., effective viscosity). For practical application of this method, it is necessary to quite reliably separate the effects associated with the horizontal heterogeneity of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dudorov, V. V.; Kolosov, V. V.; Kolosova, O. A.
2001-09-01
Based on the equation for the second-order coherence function, the propagation of partially coherent radiation is studied under the combined action of diffraction and refraction caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of the real and imaginary parts of the perturbation of the permittivity of a medium in the case of inhomogeneous absorption (amplification). The limits of application of the method of geometrical optics for inhomogeneously absorbing (amplifying) media are studied, as well as of the methods that neglect refraction caused by the inhomogeneous distribution of the imaginary part of the permittivity of the medium.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Xu; Schiavone, Peter
2016-07-01
Using complex variable methods and conformal mapping techniques, we demonstrate rigorously that two inhomogeneities of irregular shape interacting with a screw dislocation can indeed maintain uniform internal stress distributions. Our analysis indicates that while the internal uniform stresses are independent of the existence of the screw dislocation, the shapes of the two inhomogeneities required to achieve this uniformity depend on the Burgers vector, the location of the screw dislocation, and the size of the inhomogeneities. In addition, we find that this uniformity of the internal stress field is achievable also when the two inhomogeneities interact with an arbitrary number of discrete screw dislocations in the matrix.
Statistical energy conservation principle for inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems.
Majda, Andrew J
2015-07-21
Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales in engineering shear turbulence as well as climate atmosphere ocean science is a grand challenge of contemporary science with important societal impact. In such inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems there is a large dimensional phase space with a large dimension of unstable directions where a large-scale ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations exchange energy and strongly influence each other. These complex features strongly impact practical prediction and uncertainty quantification. A systematic energy conservation principle is developed here in a Theorem that precisely accounts for the statistical energy exchange between the mean flow and the related turbulent fluctuations. This statistical energy is a sum of the energy in the mean and the trace of the covariance of the fluctuating turbulence. This result applies to general inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems including the above applications. The Theorem involves an assessment of statistical symmetries for the nonlinear interactions and a self-contained treatment is presented below. Corollary 1 and Corollary 2 illustrate the power of the method with general closed differential equalities for the statistical energy in time either exactly or with upper and lower bounds, provided that the negative symmetric dissipation matrix is diagonal in a suitable basis. Implications of the energy principle for low-order closure modeling and automatic estimates for the single point variance are discussed below. PMID:26150510
The Prediction of Wave Competitions in Inhomogeneous Brusselator Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cui, Xiao-Hua; Dong, Yun-Xia; Huang, Xiao-Qing; Li, Ning
2015-03-01
The competition of waves has remained a hot topic in physics over the past few decades, especially the area of pattern control. Because of improved understanding of various dynamic behaviors, many practical applications have sprung up recently. The prediction of wave competitions is also very important and quite useful in these fields. This paper considers the behaviors of wave competitions in simple, inhomogeneous media which is modeled by Brusselator equations. We present a simple rule to judge the results of wave competitions utilizing the dispersion relation curves and the waves coming from different wave sources. Moreover, this rule can also be used to predict the results of wave propagation. It provides methods of obtaining the desired waves with given frequencies in inhomogeneous media. All our results are concluded and verified by computer simulations. Supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China under Grant Nos. 11105051, 11104071, 11247272, Fundamental Research Funds for Central Universities, Beijing Higher Education Elite Young Teacher Project, and Youth Scholars Program of Beijing Normal University
Plasmons in inhomogeneously doped neutral and charged graphene nanodisks
Silveiro, Iván; Javier García de Abajo, F.
2014-03-31
We study plasmons in graphene nanodisks including the effect of inhomogeneity in the distribution of the doping charge. Specifically, we discuss the following two configurations: charged disks containing a fixed amount of additional carriers, which are self-consistently distributed along the surface to produce a uniform DC potential; and neutral disks exposed to a neighboring external point charge. A suitable finite-element method is elaborated to compute the charge density associated with the plasmons in the electrostatic limit. For charged disks, we find dipolar plasmons similar to those of uniformly doped graphene structures, in which the plasmon induced charge piles up near the edges. In contrast, in neutral disks placed near an external point charge, plasmons are strongly localized away from the edges. Surprisingly, a single external electron is enough to trap plasmons. The disks also display axially symmetric dark-plasmons, which can be excited through external illumination by coupling them to a neighboring metallic element. Our results have practical relevance for graphene nanophotonics under inhomogeneous doping conditions.
2-D Inhomogeneous Modeling of the Solar CO Bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ayres, T. R.
1996-05-01
The recent discovery of off-limb emissions in the mid-IR ( ~ 5 mu m) vibration-rotation bands of solar carbon monoxide (CO) has sparked new interest in the formation of the molecular lines, and their ability to diagnose thermal conditions at high altitudes. The off-limb extensions of the strong CO lines indicate the penetration of cool material (T ~ 3500 K) several hundred kilometers into the otherwise hot (T ~ 6000 K) chromosphere. The origin of the cool gas, and its role in the thermal energy balance, remain controversial. The interpretation of the CO observations must rely heavily upon numerical modeling, in particular highly-inhomogeneous thermal structures arrayed in a 2-D scheme that can properly treat the geometry of the grazing rays at the solar limb. The radiation transport, itself, is especially simple for the CO off-limb emissions, because the fundamental bands form quite close to LTE (high collision rates; low spontaneous decay rates) and the background continuum is purely thermal as well (f--f transitions in H(-) and H). Thus, the geometrical aspects of the problem can be treated in considerably more detail than would be practical for typical NLTE scattering lines. I describe the recent modeling efforts, and the diagnostic potential of the CO bands for future observational studies of inhomogeneous surface structure on the Sun, and on other stars of late spectral type. This work was supported by NSF grant AST-9218063 to the University of Colorado.
Dynamic Inhomogeneity in the Photodynamics of Cyanobacterial Phytochrome Cph1
2015-01-01
Phytochromes are widespread red/far-red photosensory proteins well known as critical regulators of photomorphogenesis in plants. It is often assumed that natural selection would have optimized the light sensing efficiency of phytochromes to minimize nonproductive photochemical deexcitation pathways. Surprisingly, the quantum efficiency for the forward Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion of phytochromes seldom exceeds 15%, a value very much lower than that of animal rhodopsins. Exploiting ultrafast excitation wavelength- and temperature-dependent transient absorption spectroscopy, we resolve multiple pathways within the ultrafast photodynamics of the N-terminal PAS-GAF-PHY photosensory core module of cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 (termed Cph1Δ) that are primarily responsible for the overall low quantum efficiency. This inhomogeneity primarily reflects a long-lived fluorescent subpopulation that exists in equilibrium with a spectrally distinct, photoactive subpopulation. The fluorescent subpopulation is favored at elevated temperatures, resulting in anomalous excited-state dynamics (slower kinetics at higher temperatures). The spectral and kinetic behavior of the fluorescent subpopulation strongly resembles that of the photochemically compromised and highly fluorescent Y176H variant of Cph1Δ. We present an integrated, heterogeneous model for Cph1Δ that is based on the observed transient and static spectroscopic signals. Understanding the molecular basis for this dynamic inhomogeneity holds potential for rational design of efficient phytochrome-based fluorescent and photoswitchable probes. PMID:24742290
Azimuthal inhomogeneity in the MHD waveguide in the outer magnetosphere
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mazur, V. A.; Chuiko, D. A.
2015-06-01
Geomagnetic field and plasma inhomogeneities in the outer equatorial part of the magnetosphere create a channel with low Alfvén speeds which spans from the nose to the far flanks of the magnetosphere, in both the morning and the evening sectors. This channel plays the role of a waveguide for fast magnetosonic waves. The waveguide eigenmodes and corresponding Alfvén resonance (field line resonance) regions are directly related to geomagnetic pulsations Pc3 and Pc5. U-shaped model of the waveguide allows for full analytical investigation of waveguide eigenmodes. Quantities such as mode wave numbers, group velocities, and their energy density distribution are found as functions of coordinate along the waveguide. The linkage of the waveguide magnetosonic oscillation energy to the Alfvén waves in the vicinity of the field line resonance deeper inside the magnetosphere is investigated, and corresponding energy leakage coefficient is found. Thus, the influence of longitudinal (i.e., azimuthal) waveguide inhomogeneity on wave propagation is analytically investigated. Obtained results can be used for interpretation of the observed wave power distribution in the frequency bands of geomagnetic pulsations Pc3 and Pc5, as well as for explanation of their spectral properties in the outer magnetosphere.
Spin Hall effect of light in inhomogeneous nonlinear medium
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Hehe; Li, Xinzhong
2016-01-01
In this paper, we investigate the spin Hall effect of a polarized Gaussian beam (GB) in a smoothly inhomogeneous isotropic and nonlinear medium using the method of the eikonal-based complex geometrical optics which describes the phase front and cross-section of a light beam using the quadratic expansion of a complex-valued eikonal. The linear complex-valued eikonal terms are introduced to describe the polarization-dependent transverse shifts of the beam in inhomogeneous nonlinear medium which is called the spin Hall effect of beam. We know that the spin Hall effect of beam is affected by the nonlinearity of medium and include two parts, one originates from the coupling between the spin angular momentum and the extrinsic orbital angular momentum due to the curve trajectory of the center of gravity of the polarized GB and the other from the coupling between the spin angular momentum and the intrinsic orbital angular momentum due to the rotation of the beam with respect to the central ray.
Improved inhomogeneous finite elements for fabric reinforced composite mechanics analysis
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Foye, R. L.
1992-01-01
There is a need to do routine stress/failure analysis of fabric reinforced composite microstructures to provide additional confidence in critical applications and guide materials development. Conventional methods of 3-D stress analysis are time consuming to set up, run and interpret. A need exists for simpler methods of modeling these structures and analyzing the models. The principal difficulty is the discrete element mesh generation problem. Inhomogeneous finite elements are worth investigating for application to these problems because they eliminate the mesh generation problem. However, there are penalties associated with these elements. Their convergence rates can be slow compared to homogeneous elements. Also, there is no accepted method for obtaining detailed stresses in the constituent materials of each element. This paper shows that the convergence rate can be significantly improved by a simple device which substitutes homogeneous elements for the inhomogeneous ones. The device is shown to work well in simple one and two dimensional problems. However, demonstration of the application to more complex two and three dimensional problems remains to be done. Work is also progressing toward more realistic fabric microstructural geometries.
A Simple Model of Cirrus Horizontal Inhomogeneity and Cloud Fraction
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Smith, Samantha A.; DelGenio, Anthony D.
1998-01-01
A simple model of horizontal inhomogeneity and cloud fraction in cirrus clouds has been formulated on the basis that all internal horizontal inhomogeneity in the ice mixing ratio is due to variations in the cloud depth, which are assumed to be Gaussian. The use of such a model was justified by the observed relationship between the normalized variability of the ice water mixing ratio (and extinction) and the normalized variability of cloud depth. Using radar cloud depth data as input, the model reproduced well the in-cloud ice water mixing ratio histograms obtained from horizontal runs during the FIRE2 cirrus campaign. For totally overcast cases the histograms were almost Gaussian, but changed as cloud fraction decreased to exponential distributions which peaked at the lowest nonzero ice value for cloud fractions below 90%. Cloud fractions predicted by the model were always within 28% of the observed value. The predicted average ice water mixing ratios were within 34% of the observed values. This model could be used in a GCM to produce the ice mixing ratio probability distribution function and to estimate cloud fraction. It only requires basic meteorological parameters, the depth of the saturated layer and the standard deviation of cloud depth as input.
Light Scattering and Intermediate Range Order in Glasses: Nanoscale Inhomogeneities.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schroeder, John; Kratzer, Joseph H.; Moynihan, Cornelius T.; Hwa, Luu-Gen
2002-03-01
Light scattering from oxide and halide glasses at temperatures up to the glass transition region exhibits anomalous Rayleigh scattering. In all glasses a hysteresis effect is seen in the Rayleigh scattering intensity behavior when heating and cooling experiments are compared. This hysteresis effect in the Rayleigh scattering is an indication that an intermediate range order exists in these glasses. Measurements of the Boson peak, a low lying Raman line that is intrinsic to all glass systems, located about 20/cm to 110/cm from the exciting line frequency are identified with the existence of intermediate range order in glass. Large pressure induced changes in the Boson peak frequency location are observed and predicted from existing theory. The non-coincidence effect, a comparison of the Boson peak maximum location for isotropic versus anisotropic spectra, gives additional evidence that glasses have tendencies to form intermediate range order. This intermediate range order or nanoscale inhomogeneities extend from about two to five nanometers in size for the glasses under consideration. These nanoscale inhomogeneities will be identified as a possible source for non-exponential structural relaxation kinetics in all glasses. The nature of the Boson peak, the anomalous Rayleigh scattering and non-coincidence effect in glasses, is discussed with respect to their interrelationships in terms of existing theories.
Nanodomain structures with hierarchical inhomogeneities in PMN-PT.
Kurushima, Kosuke; Kobayashi, Keisuke; Mori, Shigeo
2012-09-01
The nanometric domain configuration of (1 - x) Pb(Mg(1/3)Nb(2/3))O(3-x)PbTiO(3) [(1 - x)PMN-xPT] single crystals in the monoclinic phase around a morphotropic phase boundary (MPB) has been examined thoroughly by means of transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Domain structures with hierarchically inhomogeneous configuration were found in the monoclinic phase near the MPB region around x ~ 0.32, which are characterized as nanoscaled lamella-type domain structures with ~10 nm width inside macroscopic-sized banded domains with 100 to 200 nm width. To elucidate formation processes of the domain structures with hierarchically inhomogeneous configuration, an in situ TEM observation of changes of the domain structures in the temperature window between 298K and 500K was carried out. It is revealed that these nanoscaled lamella-type domain structures with ~10 nm width appear inside the banded domains as a result of the tetragonal structure and are inherent to the monoclinic phase. PMID:23007758
Nanoscale inhomogeneities in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBCO) superconductors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Islam, Zahirul; Sinha, S. K.; Lang, J. C.; Liu, X.; Haskel, D.; Moss, S. C.; Srajer, G.; Veal, B. W.; Wermeille, D.; Lee, D. R.; Haeffner, D. R.; Welp, U.; Wochner, P.
2004-03-01
X-ray diffraction studies at the Advanced Photon Source reveal that nanoscale inhomogeneities, electronic or structural in origin, form in yttrium-barium-copper-oxide (YBa_2Cu_3O_6+x) superconductors and coexist with the superconducting (SC) state. Diffuse scattering from these inhomogeneous superstructures is due to atomic displacements with respect to equilibrium lattice sites (Z. Islam et al. Phys. Rev. B 66, 92501 (2002)), that are characterized by a wavevector of the form q=(q_x,0,0), where qx varies with hole doping from 2 unit cells (along shorter Cu-O-Cu direction) for very low doping to 4 unit cells at optimal doping. Interestingly, while these superstructures are 3-dimensionally ordered when the SC state is weakened (e.g., at x=0.4), as the doping increases, they become quasi 1D with correlation lengths comparable to SC coherence lengths in these cuprates. Recent first-principles calculations (D. de Fontaine et al., to be published) for the x=0.63 compound show that atomic displacements consistent with experimental data can be the result of ordering of O vacancies in YBCO. Models for various superstructures and their role in the phase diagram will be discussed.
Electrohydrodynamic flow and colloidal patterning near inhomogeneities on electrodes.
Ristenpart, W D; Jiang, P; Slowik, M A; Punckt, C; Saville, D A; Aksay, I A
2008-11-01
Current density inhomogeneities on electrodes (of physical, chemical, or optical origin) induce long-range electrohydrodynamic fluid motion directed toward the regions of higher current density. Here, we analyze the flow and its implications for the orderly arrangement of colloidal particles as effected by this flow on patterned electrodes. A scaling analysis indicates that the flow velocity is proportional to the product of the applied voltage and the difference in current density between adjacent regions on the electrode. Exact analytical solutions for the streamlines are derived for the case of a spatially periodic perturbation in current density along the electrode. Particularly simple asymptotic expressions are obtained in the limits of thin double layers and either large or small perturbation wavelengths. Calculations of the streamlines are in good agreement with particle velocimetry experiments near a mechanically generated inhomogeneity (a "scratch") that generates a current density larger than that of the unmodified electrode. We demonstrate that proper placement of scratches on an electrode yields desired patterns of colloidal particles. PMID:18828610
Inhomogeneity-induced bifurcation of stationary and oscillatory pulses
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Prat, Alain; Li, Yue-Xian; Bressloff, Paul
2005-03-01
An excitable medium generally refers to a medium that is capable of generating traveling waves. It has been widely encountered in biology, chemistry and physics. Many excitable media have been modeled by systems of PDEs of the reaction-diffusion type. Excitable neural media are often modeled by integro-differential equations (IDEs). In both PDE and IDE models of excitable media, stationary spatial patterns of Turing’s type can occur under certain conditions. Such patterns have been used to explain a variety of biological pattern formation processes including morphogenesis and hallucination. Here we study a pattern formation mechanism that is different from Turing’s, called inhomogeneity-induced pattern formation. Such patterns can occur in an excitable medium either with an inhomogeneous but stationary forcing or a spatial variation in a model parameter. The interesting thing we found is: introducing a stationary bump into such a medium does not always produce just a simple bump-shaped output pattern. A complex bifurcation scenario can occur giving rise to the co-existence of multiple patterns. A stability analysis shows that the instability of such patterns often occurs through a Hopf bifurcation, giving rise to oscillatory pulse solutions. Such oscillatory pulses can behave like a pulse generator that emits traveling pulses periodically into the medium. Possible areas in biology where this theory can be applied will be discussed.
Triangulated loop quantum cosmology: Bianchi IX universe and inhomogeneous perturbations
Battisti, Marco Valerio; Marciano, Antonino; Rovelli, Carlo
2010-03-15
We develop the triangulated version of loop quantum cosmology, recently introduced in the literature. We focus on the dipole cosmology, where space is a three-sphere and the triangulation is formed by two tetrahedra. We show that the discrete fiducial connection has a simple and appealing geometrical interpretation and we correct the ansatz on the relation between the model variables and the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker scale factor. The modified ansatz leads to the convergence of the Hamiltonian constraint to the continuum one. We then ask which degrees of freedom are captured by this model. We show that the model is rich enough to describe the (anisotropic) Bianchi IX universe, and give the explicit relation between the Bianchi IX variables and the variables of the model. We discuss the possibility of using this path in order to define the quantization of the Bianchi IX universe. The model contains more degrees of freedom than Bianchi IX, and therefore captures some inhomogeneous degrees of freedom as well. Inhomogeneous degrees of freedom can be expanded in representations of the SU(2) Bianchi IX isometry group, and the dipole model captures the lowest integer representation of these, connected to hyperspherical harmonic of angular momentum j=1.
Role of structural inhomogeneities in resting-state brain dynamics.
Vuksanović, Vesna; Hövel, Philipp
2016-08-01
Brain imaging methods allow a non-invasive assessment of both structural and functional connectivity. However, the mechanism of how functional connectivity arises in a structured network of interacting neural populations is as yet poorly understood. Here we use a modeling approach to explore the way in which functional correlations arise from underlying structural connections taking into account inhomogeneities in the interactions between the brain regions of interest. The local dynamics of a neural population is assumed to be of phase-oscillator type. The considered structural connectivity patterns describe long-range anatomical connections between interacting neural elements. We find a dependence of the simulated functional connectivity patterns on the parameters governing the dynamics. We calculate graph-theoretic measures of the functional network topology obtained from numerical simulations. The effect of structural inhomogeneities in the coupling term on the observed network state is quantified by examining the relation between simulated and empirical functional connectivity. Importantly, we show that simulated and empirical functional connectivity agree for a narrow range of coupling strengths. We conclude that identification of functional connectivity during rest requires an analysis of the network dynamics. PMID:27468323
Dynamic inhomogeneity in the photodynamics of cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1.
Kim, Peter W; Rockwell, Nathan C; Martin, Shelley S; Lagarias, J Clark; Larsen, Delmar S
2014-05-01
Phytochromes are widespread red/far-red photosensory proteins well known as critical regulators of photomorphogenesis in plants. It is often assumed that natural selection would have optimized the light sensing efficiency of phytochromes to minimize nonproductive photochemical deexcitation pathways. Surprisingly, the quantum efficiency for the forward Pr-to-Pfr photoconversion of phytochromes seldom exceeds 15%, a value very much lower than that of animal rhodopsins. Exploiting ultrafast excitation wavelength- and temperature-dependent transient absorption spectroscopy, we resolve multiple pathways within the ultrafast photodynamics of the N-terminal PAS-GAF-PHY photosensory core module of cyanobacterial phytochrome Cph1 (termed Cph1Δ) that are primarily responsible for the overall low quantum efficiency. This inhomogeneity primarily reflects a long-lived fluorescent subpopulation that exists in equilibrium with a spectrally distinct, photoactive subpopulation. The fluorescent subpopulation is favored at elevated temperatures, resulting in anomalous excited-state dynamics (slower kinetics at higher temperatures). The spectral and kinetic behavior of the fluorescent subpopulation strongly resembles that of the photochemically compromised and highly fluorescent Y176H variant of Cph1Δ. We present an integrated, heterogeneous model for Cph1Δ that is based on the observed transient and static spectroscopic signals. Understanding the molecular basis for this dynamic inhomogeneity holds potential for rational design of efficient phytochrome-based fluorescent and photoswitchable probes. PMID:24742290
Statistical energy conservation principle for inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems
Majda, Andrew J.
2015-01-01
Understanding the complexity of anisotropic turbulent processes over a wide range of spatiotemporal scales in engineering shear turbulence as well as climate atmosphere ocean science is a grand challenge of contemporary science with important societal impact. In such inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems there is a large dimensional phase space with a large dimension of unstable directions where a large-scale ensemble mean and the turbulent fluctuations exchange energy and strongly influence each other. These complex features strongly impact practical prediction and uncertainty quantification. A systematic energy conservation principle is developed here in a Theorem that precisely accounts for the statistical energy exchange between the mean flow and the related turbulent fluctuations. This statistical energy is a sum of the energy in the mean and the trace of the covariance of the fluctuating turbulence. This result applies to general inhomogeneous turbulent dynamical systems including the above applications. The Theorem involves an assessment of statistical symmetries for the nonlinear interactions and a self-contained treatment is presented below. Corollary 1 and Corollary 2 illustrate the power of the method with general closed differential equalities for the statistical energy in time either exactly or with upper and lower bounds, provided that the negative symmetric dissipation matrix is diagonal in a suitable basis. Implications of the energy principle for low-order closure modeling and automatic estimates for the single point variance are discussed below. PMID:26150510
Time scale algorithms for an inhomogeneous group of atomic clocks
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Jacques, C.; Boulanger, J.-S.; Douglas, R. J.; Morris, D.; Cundy, S.; Lam, H. F.
1993-01-01
Through the past 17 years, the time scale requirements at the National Research Council (NRC) have been met by the unsteered output of its primary laboratory cesium clocks, supplemented by hydrogen masers when short-term stability better than 2 x 10(exp -12)tau(sup -1/2) has been required. NRC now operates three primary laboratory cesium clocks, three hydrogen masers, and two commercial cesium clocks. NRC has been using ensemble averages for internal purposes for the past several years, and has a realtime algorithm operating on the outputs of its high-resolution (2 x 10(exp -13) s at 1 s) phase comparators. The slow frequency drift of the hydrogen masers has presented difficulties in incorporating their short-term stability into the ensemble average, while retaining the long-term stability of the laboratory cesium frequency standards. We report on this work on algorithms for an inhomogeneous ensemble of atomic clocks, and on our initial work on time scale algorithms that could incorporate frequency calibrations at NRC from the next generation of Zacharias fountain cesium frequency standards having frequency accuracies that might surpass 10(exp -15), or from single-trapped-ion frequency standards (Ba+, Sr+,...) with even higher potential accuracies. The requirements for redundancy in all the elements (including the algorithms) of an inhomogeneous ensemble that would give a robust real-time output of the algorithms are presented and discussed.
Charge inhomogeneity determines oxidative reactivity of graphene on substrates.
Yamamoto, Mahito; Einstein, Theodore L; Fuhrer, Michael S; Cullen, William G
2012-09-25
Single-layer graphene (SLG) supported on SiO(2) shows anomalously large chemical reactivity compared to thicker graphene, with charge inhomogeneity-induced potential fluctuations or topographic corrugations proposed as the cause. Here we systematically probe the oxidative reactivity of graphene supported on substrates with different surface roughnesses and charged impurity densities: hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), mica, thermally grown SiO(2) on Si, and SiO(2) nanoparticle thin films. SLG on low charge trap density hBN is not etched and shows little doping after oxygen treatment at temperatures up to 550 °C, in sharp contrast with oxidative etching under similar conditions of graphene on high charge trap density SiO(2) and mica. Furthermore, bilayer graphene shows reduced reactivity compared to SLG regardless of its substrate-induced roughness. Together the observations indicate that graphene's reactivity is predominantly controlled by charge inhomogeneity-induced potential fluctuations rather than surface roughness. PMID:22917254
Inhomogeneous feed gas processing in industrial ozone generation.
Krogh, Fabio; Merz, Reto; Gisler, Rudolf; Müller, Marco; Paolini, Bernhard; Lopez, Jose L; Freilich, Alfred
2008-01-01
The synthesis of ozone by means of dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is extensively used in industry. Ozone generators available on the market differ in ozone production capacities, electrode arrangements and working parameters, but operate with a uniformly distributed filamentary discharge plasma pattern.In the presented work the benefits of inhomogeneous feed gas processing are explored. Causality between power induction, production efficiency and working parameters are investigated. Different electrode arrangements, evenly distributed within a given space parameter, were designed, simulated, manufactured and tested on a representative scale. A finite element model was utilized to simulate an inhomogeneous power induction pattern along the ozone generator tube. The simulation yielded the local power density, the local gas temperature gradient and the relative DBD packing density.Results show that the degree of filamentation turns out to be decisive, indicating a new potential by means of plasma tailoring. An arrangement with a pronounced power induction at the inlet of the ozone generator revealed several advantages over homogeneous plasma processing arrangements, for which an increase in robustness and a reduction in electrical power consumption are achieved. PMID:19092182
Himwas, C.; Hertog, M. den; Dang, Le Si; Songmuang, R.; Monroy, E.
2014-12-15
We present structural and optical studies of AlGaN sections and AlGaN/AlN nanodisks (NDs) in nanowires grown by plasma-assisted molecular beam epitaxy. The Al-Ga intermixing at Al(Ga)N/GaN interfaces and the chemical inhomogeneity in AlGaN NDs evidenced by scanning transmission electron microscopy are attributed to the strain relaxation process. This interpretation is supported by the three-dimensional strain distribution calculated by minimizing the elastic energy in the structure. The alloy inhomogeneity increases with the Al content, leading to enhanced carrier localization signatures in the luminescence characteristics, i.e., red shift of the emission, s-shaped temperature dependence, and linewidth broadening. Despite these effects, the emission energy of AlGaN/AlN NDs can be tuned in the 240–350 nm range with internal quantum efficiencies around 30%.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xi-Yang; Tian, Bo; Jiang, Yan; Sun, Wen-Rong; Sun, Ya; Gao, Yi-Tian
2016-07-01
Under investigation in this paper is an inhomogeneous nonlinear system, which describes the marginally-unstable baroclinic wave packets in a geophysical fluid or ultra-short pulses in nonlinear optics with certain inhomogeneous medium existing. By virtue of a kind of the Darboux transformation, under the Painlevé integrable condition, the first- and second-order bright and dark rogue-wave solutions are derived. Properties of the first- and second-order bright and dark rogue waves with α(t), which measures the state of the basic flow, and β(t), representing the interaction of the wave packet and mean flow, are graphically presented and analyzed: α(t) and β(t) have no influence on the wave packet, but affect the correction of the basic flow. When we choose α(t) as a constant and linear function, respectively, the shapes of the first- and second-order dark rogue waves change, and the peak heights and widths of them alter with the value of β(t) changing.
Elasticity Imaging of Polymeric Media
Sridhar, Mallika; Liu, Jie; Insana, Michael F.
2009-01-01
Viscoelastic properties of soft tissues and hydropolymers depend on the strength of molecular bonding forces connecting the polymer matrix and surrounding fluids. The basis for diagnostic imaging is that disease processes alter molecular-scale bonding in ways that vary the measurable stiffness and viscosity of the tissues. This paper reviews linear viscoelastic theory as applied to gelatin hydrogels for the purpose of formulating approaches to molecular-scale interpretation of elasticity imaging in soft biological tissues. Comparing measurements acquired under different geometries, we investigate the limitations of viscoelastic parameters acquired under various imaging conditions. Quasistatic (step-and-hold and low-frequency harmonic) stimuli applied to gels during creep and stress relaxation experiments in confined and unconfined geometries reveal continuous, bimodal distributions of respondance times. Within the linear range of responses, gelatin will behave more like a solid or fluid depending on the stimulus magnitude. Gelatin can be described statistically from a few parameters of low-order rheological models that form the basis of viscoelastic imaging. Unbiased estimates of imaging parameters are obtained only if creep data are acquired for greater than twice the highest retardance time constant and any steady-state viscous response has been eliminated. Elastic strain and retardance time images are found to provide the best combination of contrast and signal strength in gelatin. Retardance times indicate average behavior of fast (1–10 s) fluid flows and slow (50–400 s) matrix restructuring in response to the mechanical stimulus. Insofar as gelatin mimics other polymers, such as soft biological tissues, elasticity imaging can provide unique insights into complex structural and biochemical features of connectives tissues affected by disease. PMID:17408331
Elastic mismatch enhances cell motility
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bresler, Yony; Palmieri, Benoit; Grant, Martin
In recent years, the study of physics phenomena in cancer has drawn considerable attention. In cancer metastasis, a soft cancer cell leaves the tumor, and must pass through the endothelium before reaching the bloodstream. Using a phase-field model we have shown that the elasticity mismatch between cells alone is sufficient to enhance the motility of thesofter cancer cell by means of bursty migration, in agreement with experiment. We will present further characterization of these behaviour, as well as new possible applications for this model.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chai, Jun; Tian, Bo; Wang, Yu-Feng; Sun, Wen-Rong; Wang, Yun-Po
2016-06-01
In this article, the propagation and collision of vector solitons are investigated from the 3-coupled variable-coefficient nonlinear Schrödinger equations, which describe the amplification or attenuation of the picosecond pulses in the inhomogeneous multicomponent optical fibre with different frequencies or polarizations. On the basis of the Lax pair, infinitely-many conservation laws are obtained. Under an integrability constraint among the variable coefficients for the group velocity dispersion (GVD), nonlinearity and fibre gain/loss, and two mixed-type (2-bright-1-dark and 1-bright-2-dark) vector one- and two-soliton solutions are derived via the Hirota method and symbolic computation. Influence of the variable coefficients for the GVD and nonlinearity on the vector soliton amplitudes and velocities is analysed. Through the asymptotic and graphic analysis, bound states and elastic and inelastic collisions between the vector two solitons are investigated: Not only the elastic but also inelastic collision between the 2-bright-1-dark vector two solitons can occur, whereas the collision between the 1-bright-2-dark vector two solitons is always elastic; for the bound states, the GVD and nonlinearity affect their types; with the GVD and nonlinearity being the constants, collision period decreases as the GVD increases but is independent of the nonlinearity.
Flux and polarization signals of spatially inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Karalidi, T.; Stam, D. M.; Guirado, D.
2013-07-01
Aims: We present numerically calculated, disk-integrated, spectropolarimetric signals of starlight that is reflected by vertically and horizontally inhomogeneous gaseous exoplanets. We include various spatial features that are present on Solar System's gaseous planets: belts and zones, cyclonic spots, and polar hazes, to test whether such features leave traces in the disk-integrated fux and polarization signals. Methods: Broadband flux and polarization signals of starlight that is reflected by gaseous exoplanets are calculated using an efficient, adding-doubling radiative transfer code, that fully includes single and multiple scattering and polarization. The planetary model atmospheres are vertically inhomogeneous and can be horizontally inhomogeneous, and contain gas molecules and/or cloud and/or aerosol particles. Results: The broadband flux and polarization signals are sensitive to cloud top pressures, although in the presence of local pressure differences, such as in belts and clouds, the flux and polarization phase functions have similar shapes as those of horizontally homogeneous planets. Fitting flux phase functions of a planet with belts and zones using a horizontally homogeneous planet could theoretically yield cloud top pressures that differ by a few hundred mbar from those derived from fitting polarization phase functions. In practice, however, observational errors and uncertainties in cloud properties would make such a fit unreliable. A cyclonic spot like Jupiter's Great Red Spot, covering a few percent of the disk, located in equatorial regions, and rotating in and out of the observer's view yields a temporal variation of a few percent in the broadband flux and a few percent in the degree of polarization. Polar hazes leave strong traces in the polarization of reflected starlight in spatially resolved observations, especially seen at phase angles near 90°. Integrated across the planetary disk, polar hazes that cover only part of the planetary disk
Study of the Radiative Properties of Inhomogeneous Stratocumulus Clouds
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Batey, Michael
1996-01-01
Clouds play an important role in the radiation budget of the atmosphere. A good understanding of how clouds interact with solar radiation is necessary when considering their effects in both general circulation models and climate models. This study examined the radiative properties of clouds in both an inhomogeneous cloud system, and a simplified cloud system through the use of a Monte Carlo model. The purpose was to become more familiar with the radiative properties of clouds, especially absorption, and to investigate the excess absorption of solar radiation from observations over that calculated from theory. The first cloud system indicated that the absorptance actually decreased as the cloud's inhomogeneity increased, and that cloud forcing does not indicate any changes. The simplified cloud system looked at two different cases of absorption of solar radiation in the cloud. The absorptances calculated from the Monte Carlo is compared to a correction method for calculating absorptances and found that the method can over or underestimate absorptances at cloud edges. Also the cloud edge effects due to solar radiation points to a possibility of overestimating the retrieved optical depth at the edge, and indicates a possible way to correct for it. The effective cloud fraction (Ne) for a long time has been calculated from a cloud's reflectance. From the reflectance it has been observed that the N, for most cloud geometries is greater than the actual cloud fraction (Nc) making a cloud appear wider than it is optically. Recent studies we have performed used a Monte Carlo model to calculate the N, of a cloud using not only the reflectance but also the absorptance. The derived Ne's from the absorptance in some of the Monte Carlo runs did not give the same results as derived from the reflectance. This study also examined the inhomogeneity of clouds to find a relationship between larger and smaller scales, or wavelengths, of the cloud. Both Fourier transforms and wavelet
Elastic moduli and vibrational modes in jammed particulate packings.
Mizuno, Hideyuki; Saitoh, Kuniyasu; Silbert, Leonardo E
2016-06-01
When we elastically impose a homogeneous, affine deformation on amorphous solids, they also undergo an inhomogeneous, nonaffine deformation, which can have a crucial impact on the overall elastic response. To correctly understand the elastic modulus M, it is therefore necessary to take into account not only the affine modulus M_{A}, but also the nonaffine modulus M_{N} that arises from the nonaffine deformation. In the present work, we study the bulk (M=K) and shear (M=G) moduli in static jammed particulate packings over a range of packing fractions φ. The affine M_{A} is determined essentially by the static structural arrangement of particles, whereas the nonaffine M_{N} is related to the vibrational eigenmodes. We elucidate the contribution of each vibrational mode to the nonaffine M_{N} through a modal decomposition of the displacement and force fields. In the vicinity of the (un)jamming transition φ_{c}, the vibrational density of states g(ω) shows a plateau in the intermediate-frequency regime above a characteristic frequency ω^{*}. We illustrate that this unusual feature apparent in g(ω) is reflected in the behavior of M_{N}: As φ→φ_{c}, where ω^{*}→0, those modes for ω<ω^{*} contribute less and less, while contributions from those for ω>ω^{*} approach a constant value which results in M_{N} to approach a critical value M_{Nc}, as M_{N}-M_{Nc}∼ω^{*}. At φ_{c} itself, the bulk modulus attains a finite value K_{c}=K_{Ac}-K_{Nc}>0, such that K_{Nc} has a value that remains below K_{Ac}. In contrast, for the critical shear modulus G_{c}, G_{Nc} and G_{Ac} approach the same value so that the total value becomes exactly zero, G_{c}=G_{Ac}-G_{Nc}=0. We explore what features of the configurational and vibrational properties cause such a distinction between K and G, allowing us to validate analytical expressions for their critical values. PMID:27415345
Visco elasticity in 2D materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cortijo, Alberto; Ferreirós, Yago; Landsteiner, Karl; Vozmediano, María A. H.
2016-03-01
The combination of Dirac physics and elasticity has been explored at length in graphene where the so-called ‘elastic gauge fields’ have given rise to an entire new field of research and applications: straintronics. The fact that these elastic fields couple to fermions as the electromagnetic field, implies that many electromagnetic responses will have elastic counterparts not yet explored. In this work we will first show that the presence of elastic gauge fields is the rule rather than the exception in most of the topologically non-trivial materials in two- and three-dimensions. We will show that, associated to the physics of the anomalies, and as a counterpart of the Hall conductivity, elastic two-dimension materials will have a Hall viscosity with a coefficient orders of magnitude bigger than the previously studied response. The magnitude and generality of the new effect will greatly improve the chances for the experimental observation of this topological response.
Elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wei, En-Bo; Gu, Guo-Qing; Poon, Ying-Ming
2010-09-01
Effective elastic properties of spherically anisotropic piezoelectric composites, whose spherically anisotropic piezoelectric inclusions are embedded in an infinite non-piezoelectric matrix, are theoretically investigated. Analytical solutions for the elastic displacements and the electric potentials under a uniform external strain are derived exactly. Taking into account of the coupling effects of elasticity, permittivity and piezoelectricity, the formula is derived for estimating the effective elastic properties based on the average field theory in the dilute limit. An elastic response mechanism is revealed, in which the effective elastic properties increase as inclusion piezoelectric properties increase and inclusion dielectric properties decrease. Moreover, a piezoelectric response mechanism, of which the effective piezoelectric response vanishes due to the symmetry of spherically anisotropic composite, is also disclosed.
Elastic, Conductive, Polymeric Hydrogels and Sponges
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, Yun; He, Weina; Cao, Tai; Guo, Haitao; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen; Shao, Ziqiang; Cui, Yulin; Zhang, Xuetong
2014-07-01
As a result of inherent rigidity of the conjugated macromolecular chains resulted from the delocalized π-electron system along the polymer backbone, it has been a huge challenge to make conducting polymer hydrogels elastic by far. Herein elastic and conductive polypyrrole hydrogels with only conducting polymer as the continuous phase have been simply synthesized in the indispensable conditions of 1) mixed solvent, 2) deficient oxidant, and 3) monthly secondary growth. The elastic mechanism and oxidative polymerization mechanism on the resulting PPy hydrogels have been discussed. The resulting hydrogels show some novel properties, e.g., shape memory elasticity, fast functionalization with various guest objects, and fast removal of organic infectants from aqueous solutions, all of which cannot be observed from traditional non-elastic conducting polymer counterparts. What's more, light-weight, elastic, and conductive organic sponges with excellent stress-sensing behavior have been successfully achieved via using the resulting polypyrrole hydrogels as precursors.
Evaluation of a Hybrid Elastic EVA Glove
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Korona, F. Adam; Akin, David
2002-01-01
The hybrid elastic design is based upon an American Society for Engineering Education (ASEE) glove designed by at the Space Systems Laboratory (SSL) in 1985. This design uses an elastic restraint layer instead of convolute joints to achieve greater dexterity and mobility during EVA (extravehicular activity). Two pilot studies and a main study were conducted using the hybrid elastic glove and 4000-series EMU (extravehicular activity unit) glove. Data on dexterity performance, joint range of motion, grip strength and perceived exertion was assessed for the EMU and hybrid elastic gloves with correlations to a barehanded condition. During this study, 30 test subjects performed multiple test sessions using a hybrid elastic glove and a 4000- series shuttle glove in a 4.3psid pressure environment. Test results to date indicate that the hybrid elastic glove performance is approximately similar to the performance of the 4000-series glove.
Elastic, Conductive, Polymeric Hydrogels and Sponges
Lu, Yun; He, Weina; Cao, Tai; Guo, Haitao; Zhang, Yongyi; Li, Qingwen; Shao, Ziqiang; Cui, Yulin; Zhang, Xuetong
2014-01-01
As a result of inherent rigidity of the conjugated macromolecular chains resulted from the delocalized π-electron system along the polymer backbone, it has been a huge challenge to make conducting polymer hydrogels elastic by far. Herein elastic and conductive polypyrrole hydrogels with only conducting polymer as the continuous phase have been simply synthesized in the indispensable conditions of 1) mixed solvent, 2) deficient oxidant, and 3) monthly secondary growth. The elastic mechanism and oxidative polymerization mechanism on the resulting PPy hydrogels have been discussed. The resulting hydrogels show some novel properties, e.g., shape memory elasticity, fast functionalization with various guest objects, and fast removal of organic infectants from aqueous solutions, all of which cannot be observed from traditional non-elastic conducting polymer counterparts. What's more, light-weight, elastic, and conductive organic sponges with excellent stress-sensing behavior have been successfully achieved via using the resulting polypyrrole hydrogels as precursors. PMID:25052015
Elastic constants of layers in isotropic laminates.
Heyliger, Paul R; Ledbetter, Hassel; Kim, Sudook; Reimanis, Ivar
2003-11-01
The individual laminae elastic constants in multilayer laminates composed of dissimilar isotropic layers were determined using ultrasonic-resonance spectroscopy and the linear theory of elasticity. Ultrasonic resonance allows one to measure the free-vibration response spectrum of a traction-free solid under periodic vibration. These frequencies depend on pointwise density, laminate dimensions, layer thickness, and layer elastic constants. Given a material with known mass but unknown constitution, this method allows one to extract the elastic constants and density of the constituent layers. This is accomplished by measuring the frequencies and then minimizing the differences between these and those calculated using the theory of elasticity for layered media to select the constants that best replicate the frequency-response spectrum. This approach is applied to a three-layer, unsymmetric laminate of WpCu, and very good agreement is found with the elastic constants of the two constituent materials. PMID:14649998
Elastic deformations of bolalipid membranes.
Galimzyanov, Timur R; Kuzmin, Peter I; Pohl, Peter; Akimov, Sergey A
2016-02-17
Archaeal membranes have unique mechanical properties that enable these organisms to survive under extremely aggressive environmental conditions. The so-called bolalipids contribute to this exceptional stability. They have two polar heads joined by two hydrocarbon chains. The two headgroups can face different sides of the membrane (O-shape conformation) or the same side (U-shape conformation). We have developed an elasticity theory for bolalipid membranes and show that the energetic contributions of (i) tilt deformations, (ii) area compression/stretching deformations, (iii) as well as those of Gaussian splay from the two membrane surfaces are additive, while splay deformations yield a cross-term. The presence of a small fraction of U-shaped molecules resulted in spontaneous membrane curvature. We estimated the tilt modulus to be approximately equal to that of membranes in eukaryotic cells. In contrast to conventional lipids, the bolalipid membrane possesses two splay moduli, one of which is estimated to be an order of magnitude larger than that of conventional lipids. The projected values of elastic moduli act to hamper pore formation and to decelerate membrane fusion and fission. PMID:26791255
Electron-Hydrogen Elastic Scattering
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bhatia, A. K.
2004-01-01
Scattering by single-electron systems is always of interest because the wave function of the target is known exactly. Various approximations have been employed to take into account distortion produced in the target. Among them are the method of polarized orbitals and the close coupling approximation. Recently, e-H and e-He+ S-wave scattering in the elastic region has been studied using the Feshbach projection operator formalism. In this approach, the usual Hartree-Fock and exchange potentials are augmented by an optical potential and the resulting phase shifts have rigorous lower bounds. Now this method is being applied to the e-H P-wave scattering in the elastic region. The number of terms in the Hylleraas-type wave function for the 1,3 P phase shifts is 84 and the resulting phase shifts (preliminary) are given. The results have been given up to five digits because to that accuracy they are rigorous lower bounds. They are in general agreement with the variational (VAR) results of Armstead, and those obtained from the intermediate energy R-matrix method (RM) of Scholz et al., and the finite element method (FEM) of Botero and Shertzer. The later two methods do not provide any bounds on phase shifts.
Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps
Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A.
2015-01-01
Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue–fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074
Hummingbird tongues are elastic micropumps.
Rico-Guevara, Alejandro; Fan, Tai-Hsi; Rubega, Margaret A
2015-08-22
Pumping is a vital natural process, imitated by humans for thousands of years. We demonstrate that a hitherto undocumented mechanism of fluid transport pumps nectar onto the hummingbird tongue. Using high-speed cameras, we filmed the tongue-fluid interaction in 18 hummingbird species, from seven of the nine main hummingbird clades. During the offloading of the nectar inside the bill, hummingbirds compress their tongues upon extrusion; the compressed tongue remains flattened until it contacts the nectar. After contact with the nectar surface, the tongue reshapes filling entirely with nectar; we did not observe the formation of menisci required for the operation of capillarity during this process. We show that the tongue works as an elastic micropump; fluid at the tip is driven into the tongue's grooves by forces resulting from re-expansion of a collapsed section. This work falsifies the long-standing idea that capillarity is an important force filling hummingbird tongue grooves during nectar feeding. The expansive filling mechanism we report in this paper recruits elastic recovery properties of the groove walls to load nectar into the tongue an order of magnitude faster than capillarity could. Such fast filling allows hummingbirds to extract nectar at higher rates than predicted by capillarity-based foraging models, in agreement with their fast licking rates. PMID:26290074
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fitts, Charles R.
1991-05-01
Analytic functions are superimposed to model three-dimensional steady groundwater flow in regions containing one or more Inhomogeneities shaped like prolate or oblate ellipsoids of revolution. Each function and the sum of such functions are solutions of Laplace's equation, the governing differential equation for steady groundwater flow. The functions are implemented in a manner that provides exact continuity of flow across the entire boundary of each inhomogeneity. In general, continuity of head is provided at specified control points on the boundary and is approximated between control points. For the case of one inhomogeneity in a uniform flow field, it turns out that there is exact continuity of head across the entire surface of the inhomogeneity. The method is implemented in a computer program written by the author. Two applications are demonstrated: (1) flow to a gravel-packed well and (2) flow through a series of lens-shaped inhomogeneities. The examples demonstrate that the approximation of continuity of head can be made acceptable for many problems. A possible application of the technique would be testing various theories regarding contaminant migration and dispersion by simulating flow and chemical diffusion through large numbers of lens-shaped inhomogeneities.
Evolution of bulk strain solitons in cylindrical inhomogeneous shells
Shvartz, A. Samsonov, A.; Dreiden, G.; Semenova, I.
2015-10-28
Bulk strain solitary waves in nonlinearly elastic thin-walled cylindrical shells with variable geometrical and physical parameters are studied, and equation for the longitudinal strain component with the variable coefficients is derived. A conservative finite difference scheme is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the strain soliton evolution in a shell with the abrupt variations of cross section and physical properties of the material are presented.
Evolution of bulk strain solitons in cylindrical inhomogeneous shells
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shvartz, A.; Samsonov, A.; Dreiden, G.; Semenova, I.
2015-10-01
Bulk strain solitary waves in nonlinearly elastic thin-walled cylindrical shells with variable geometrical and physical parameters are studied, and equation for the longitudinal strain component with the variable coefficients is derived. A conservative finite difference scheme is proposed, and the results of numerical simulation of the strain soliton evolution in a shell with the abrupt variations of cross section and physical properties of the material are presented.
Inhomogeneous deformation in INCONEL 718 during monotonic and cyclic loadings
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Worthem, D. W.; Robertson, I. M.; Socie, D. F.; Altstetter, C. J.; Leckie, F. A.
1990-01-01
The paper concentrates on the relation between microstructural observations of the dislocation structures and the macroscopic deformation responses of both aged and homogenized precipitate-hardened alloys at room temperature. The deformation responses are compared to the cyclic deformation response of an aged precipitate-hardened alloy. Early in the deformation, one deformation band per grain and little evidence of work hardening are observed; with increased deformation, work hardening begins, more bands nucleate, and their spacing becomes similar to that in the aged material. It is pointed out that the degree of coarseness of inhomogeneous deformation is not a result of a softening process within the bands due to precipitate shearing, but it is a function of the amount of work hardening within the bands.
From empirical data to time-inhomogeneous continuous Markov processes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lencastre, Pedro; Raischel, Frank; Rogers, Tim; Lind, Pedro G.
2016-03-01
We present an approach for testing for the existence of continuous generators of discrete stochastic transition matrices. Typically, existing methods to ascertain the existence of continuous Markov processes are based on the assumption that only time-homogeneous generators exist. Here a systematic extension to time inhomogeneity is presented, based on new mathematical propositions incorporating necessary and sufficient conditions, which are then implemented computationally and applied to numerical data. A discussion concerning the bridging between rigorous mathematical results on the existence of generators to its computational implementation is presented. Our detection algorithm shows to be effective in more than 60 % of tested matrices, typically 80 % to 90 % , and for those an estimate of the (nonhomogeneous) generator matrix follows. We also solve the embedding problem analytically for the particular case of three-dimensional circulant matrices. Finally, a discussion of possible applications of our framework to problems in different fields is briefly addressed.
GENERAL: Metric Expansion from Microscopic Dynamics in an Inhomogeneous Universe
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vongehr, Sascha
2010-09-01
Theories with ingredients like the Higgs mechanism, gravitons, and inflaton fields rejuvenate the idea that relativistic kinematics is dynamically emergent. Eternal infiation treats the Hubble constant H as depending on location. Microscopic dynamics implies that H is over much smaller lengths than pocket universes to be understood as a local space reproduction rate. We illustrate this via discussing that even exponential inflation in TeV-gravity is slow on the relevant time scale. In our on small scales inhomogeneous cosmos, a reproduction rate H depends on position. We therefore discuss Einstein-Strauss vacuoles and a Lindquist-Wheeler like lattice to connect the local rate properly with the scaling of an expanding cosmos. Consistency allows H to locally depend on Weyl curvature similar to vacuum polarization. We derive a proportionality constant known from Kepler's third law and discuss the implications for the finiteness of the cosmological constant.
Scanning Mode Sensor for Detection of Flow Inhomogeneities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor)
1998-01-01
A scanning mode sensor and method is provided for detection of flow inhomogeneities such as shock. The field of use of this invention is ground test control and engine control during supersonic flight. Prior art measuring techniques include interferometry. Schlieren, and shadowgraph techniques. These techniques. however, have problems with light dissipation. The present method and sensor utilizes a pencil beam of energy which is passed through a transparent aperture in a flow inlet in a time-sequential manner so as to alter the energy beam. The altered beam or its effects are processed and can be studied to reveal information about flow through the inlet which can in turn be used for engine control.
Scanning Mode Sensor for Detection of Flow Inhomogeneities
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Adamovsky, Grigory (Inventor)
1996-01-01
A scanning mode sensor and method is provided for detection of flow inhomogeneities such as shock. The field of use of this invention is ground test control and engine control during supersonic flight. Prior art measuring techniques include interferometry, Schlieren, and shadowgraph techniques. These techniques, however, have problems with light dissipation. The present method and sensor utilizes a pencil beam of energy which is passed through a transparent aperture in a flow inlet in a time-sequential manner so as to alter the energy beam. The altered beam or its effects are processed and can be studied to reveal information about flow through the inlet which can in turn be used for engine control.
Effects of mesoscale surface inhomogeneities on atmospheric boundary layer transfer
Shaw, W.J.; Doran, J.C.; Hubbe, J.M.
1992-09-01
Defining the nature of turbulent transfer over horizontally inhomogeneous surfaces remains one of the challenges in meteorology. Because the transfer of energy and momentum through the atmospheric boundary layer forms part of the lower boundary condition for global climate models (GCMs), the problem is important. Over the last two decades, advances in sensor and computer technology wave made good point measurements of turbulent fluxes fairly routine. A fundamental question with respect to climate models, however, is how such point measurements are related to average fluxes over the area of a GCM grid box. In this paper we will use data from the field program to depict the evolution of the boundary layer over adjacent, sharply contrasting surface types on two separate occasions. We will then use simple scaling based on the observations to argue that sub-gridscale motions would often be likely to significantly alter the estimates and resulting parameterizations of GCM-scale surface fluxes in the region.
Inhomogeneous electric field effects in a linear RF quadruple trap
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Melborne, R. K.
1990-01-01
The exact potential corresponding to confining fields inside a linear rf quadrupole particle trap of finite length is presented. The analytic expressions for the trapping potential is derived by introducing a linear trap employing a relatively simple cylindrical geometry and solving Laplace's equation for the trap electrodes. The finite length of linear traps results in field distortion near the trap ends. An exact analytic determination of the fields is useful because the profile of the trapped ion cloud is highly dependent on the fields confining it. It is shown that near the ends of the trap, the effective potential arising from the rf fields acts to propel particles out of the trap, and further, that the addition of a dc bias generates an inhomogeneous in the trap that influences the particles both perpendicularly to and along the trap's long axis.
A thermal quench induces spatial inhomogeneities in a holographic superconductor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
García-García, Antonio M.; Zeng, Hua Bi; Zhang, Hai-Qing
2014-07-01
Holographic duality is a powerful tool to investigate the far-from equilibrium dynamics of superfluids and other phases of quantum matter. For technical reasons it is usually assumed that, after a quench, the far-from equilibrium fields are still spatially uniform. Here we relax this assumption and study the time evolution of a holographic superconductor after a temperature quench but allowing spatial variations of the order parameter. Even though the initial state and the quench are spatially uniform we show the order parameter develops spatial oscillations with an amplitude that increases with time until it reaches a stationary value. The free energy of these inhomogeneous solutions is lower than that of the homogeneous ones. Therefore the former corresponds to the physical configuration that could be observed experimentally.
Acoustic solitons in inhomogeneous pair-ion plasmas
Shah, Asif; Mahmood, S.; Haque, Q.
2010-12-15
The acoustic solitons are investigated in inhomogeneous unmagnetized pair ion plasmas. The Korteweg-de Vries (KdV) like equation with an additional term due to density gradients is deduced by employing reductive perturbation technique. It is noticed that pair-ion plasma system is conducive for the propagation of compressive as well as rarefactive solitons. The increase in the temperature ratio causes the amplitude of the rarefactive soliton to decrease. However, the amplitude of the compressive solitons is found to be increased as the temperature ratio of ions is enhanced. The amplitude of both compressive and rarefactive solitons is found to be increased as the density gradient parameter is increased. The equlibrium density profile is assumed to be exponential. The numerical results are shown for illustration.
Inhomogeneous transport and derivative relations in the quantum Hall regime
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Simon, Steven H.
1998-12-01
Several derivative relations have been observed in the quantum Hall regime including a relation between elements of the macroscopic resistivity tensor Rxx= αB(d Rxy/d B), a relation between elements of the macroscopic thermopower tensor Syx= αB(d Sxx/d B), as well as a similar relation observed in acoustoelectric experiments (here B is the magnetic field and α is a constant). It has been proposed in a number of recent works by the author and collaborators that these relations can be explained with a model of classical transport in an inhomogeneous medium. We review these works and briefly discuss to what extent the models which predict these derivative relations are appropriate for describing the experimental systems.
A new low-frequency backward mode in inhomogeneous plasmas
Vranjes, J.
2014-07-15
When an electromagnetic transverse wave propagates through an inhomogeneous plasma so that its electric field has a component in the direction of the background density gradient, there appears a disbalance of charge in every plasma layer, caused by the density gradient. Due to this, some additional longitudinal electric field component appears in the direction of the wave vector. This longitudinal field may couple with the usual electrostatic longitudinal perturbations like the ion acoustic, electron Langmuir, and ion plasma waves. As a result, these standard electrostatic waves are modified and in addition to this a completely new low-frequency mode appears. Some basic features of the coupling and modification of the ion acoustic wave, and properties of the new mode are discussed here, in ordinary electron-ion and in pair plasmas.
Theory of spatially inhomogeneous Bloch oscillations in semiconductor superlattices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bonilla, L. L.; Álvaro, M.; Carretero, M.
2011-10-01
In a semiconductor superlattice with long scattering times, damping of Bloch oscillations due to scattering is so small that nonlinearities may compensate it and Bloch oscillations persist even in the hydrodynamic regime. To demonstrate this, a Boltzmann-Poisson transport model of miniband superlattices with inelastic collisions is proposed and hydrodynamic equations for electron density, electric field, and the complex amplitude of the Bloch oscillations are derived by singular perturbation methods. For appropriate parameter ranges, numerical solutions of these equations show stable Bloch oscillations with spatially inhomogeneous field, charge, current density, and energy density profiles. These Bloch oscillations disappear as scattering times become sufficiently short. For sufficiently low lattice temperatures, Bloch and Gunn type oscillations mediated by electric field, current, and energy domains coexist for a range of voltages. For larger lattice temperatures (300 K), there are only Bloch oscillations with stationary amplitude and electric field profiles.
Inhomogeneous field in cavities of zero index metamaterials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Yangyang; Xu, Yadong; Chen, Huangyang
2015-06-01
In common media, electromagnetic wave always possesses a fluctuant field variation, analogous to an undulant surface of sea. While electromagnetic wave in the media with zero index metamaterials (ZIMs), whose refractive indices are near zero, homogeneous or constant field distribution will emerge, resembling a tranquil surface of lake. Such impression almost could be found in all previous literatures related to ZIMs. However, in this letter, we theoretically and numerically find that, in a cavity structure with ZIMs, when higher order modes (e.g., dipole modes) are excited inside cavity, inhomogeneous field could take place in ZIMs. Such a finding challenges the common perception in ZIMs: It is generally considered that homogeneous or constant field is generated in ZIMs. In addition, the proposed cavity structure herein could be used to manipulate radiation of light, such as enhancing or suppressing radiation, controlling radiation pattern and achieving isotropic or directive radiation, thereby potential applications are expected. These effects are well confirmed by numerical simulations.
Unbreakable PT symmetry of solitons supported by inhomogeneous defocusing nonlinearity.
Kartashov, Yaroslav V; Malomed, Boris A; Torner, Lluis
2014-10-01
We consider bright solitons supported by a symmetric inhomogeneous defocusing nonlinearity growing rapidly enough toward the periphery of the medium, combined with an antisymmetric gain-loss profile. Despite the absence of any symmetric modulation of the linear refractive index, which is usually required to establish a parity-time (PT) symmetry in the form of a purely real spectrum of modes, we show that the PT symmetry is never broken in the present system, and that the system always supports stable bright solitons, i.e., fundamental and multi-pole ones. This fact is connected to the nonlinearizability of the underlying evolution equation. The increase of the gain-loss strength results, in lieu of the PT symmetry breaking, in merger of pairs of different soliton branches, such as fundamental and dipole, or tripole and quadrupole ones. The fundamental and dipole solitons remain stable at arbitrarily large values of the gain-loss coefficient. PMID:25360948
Curvatons and inhomogeneous scenarios with deviation from slow-roll
Matsuda, Tomohiro
2008-12-15
The spectral index is studied at the point where scalar fields deviate from slow-roll during inflation. Considering the deviation, which may cause a significant difference in the time derivative of the Hubble parameter and also in the terms in the evolution equation, we show how the deviation affects the spectral index of the curvature perturbations. Considering conventional inflation, curvatons and other inhomogeneous scenarios as mechanisms for generating the cosmological perturbation, we examine whether the spectral index induced by the deviation from the standard slow-roll can explain the spectral index n-1>0 at k = 0.002 Mpc{sup -1} while keeping n-1<0 at a smaller scale.
Patchy screening of the cosmic microwave background by inhomogeneous reionization
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gluscevic, Vera; Kamionkowski, Marc; Hanson, Duncan
2013-02-01
We derive a constraint on patchy screening of the cosmic microwave background from inhomogeneous reionization using off-diagonal TB and TT correlations in WMAP-7 temperature/polarization data. We interpret this as a constraint on the rms optical-depth fluctuation Δτ as a function of a coherence multipole LC. We relate these parameters to a comoving coherence scale, of bubble size RC, in a phenomenological model where reionization is instantaneous but occurs on a crinkly surface, and also to the bubble size in a model of “Swiss cheese” reionization where bubbles of fixed size are spread over some range of redshifts. The current WMAP data are still too weak, by several orders of magnitude, to constrain reasonable models, but forthcoming Planck and future EPIC data should begin to approach interesting regimes of parameter space. We also present constraints on the parameter space imposed by the recent results from the EDGES experiment.
Extended Magnetization of Superconducting Pellets in Highly Inhomogeneous Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Maynou, R.; López, J.; Granados, X.; Torres, R.; Bosch, R.
The magnetization of superconducting pellets is a worth point in the development of trapped flux superconducting motors. Experimental and simulated data have been reported extensively according to the framework of one or several pulses of a homogeneous magnetizing field applied to a pellet or a set of pellets. In case of cylindrical rotors of low power motors with radial excitation, however, the use of the copper coils to produce the starting magnetization of the pellets produces a highly inhomogeneous magnetic field which cannot be reduced to a 2D standard model. In this work we present an analysis of the magnetization of the superconducting cylindrical rotor of a small motor by using a commercial FEM program, being the rotor magnetized by the working copper coils of the motor. The aim of the study is a report of the magnetization obtained and theheat generated in the HTSC pellets.
From empirical data to time-inhomogeneous continuous Markov processes.
Lencastre, Pedro; Raischel, Frank; Rogers, Tim; Lind, Pedro G
2016-03-01
We present an approach for testing for the existence of continuous generators of discrete stochastic transition matrices. Typically, existing methods to ascertain the existence of continuous Markov processes are based on the assumption that only time-homogeneous generators exist. Here a systematic extension to time inhomogeneity is presented, based on new mathematical propositions incorporating necessary and sufficient conditions, which are then implemented computationally and applied to numerical data. A discussion concerning the bridging between rigorous mathematical results on the existence of generators to its computational implementation is presented. Our detection algorithm shows to be effective in more than 60% of tested matrices, typically 80% to 90%, and for those an estimate of the (nonhomogeneous) generator matrix follows. We also solve the embedding problem analytically for the particular case of three-dimensional circulant matrices. Finally, a discussion of possible applications of our framework to problems in different fields is briefly addressed. PMID:27078320
Diffuse spreading of inhomogeneities in the ionospheric dusty plasma
Shalimov, S. L.; Kozlovsky, A.
2015-08-15
According to results of sounding of the lower ionosphere at altitudes of about 100 km, the duration of radio reflections from sufficiently dense ionized meteor trails, which characterizes their lifetime, can reach a few tens of seconds to several tens of minutes. This is much longer than the characteristic spreading time (on the order of fractions of a second to several seconds) typical in meteor radar measurements. The presence of dust in the lower ionosphere is shown to affect the ambipolar diffusion coefficient, which determines the spreading of plasma inhomogeneities. It is found that the diffusion coefficient depends substantially on the charge and size of dust grains, which allows one to explain the results of ionospheric sounding.
Completely inverted hysteresis loops: Inhomogeneity effects or experimental artifacts
Song, C. Cui, B.; Pan, F.; Yu, H. Y.
2013-11-14
Completely inverted hysteresis loops (IHL) are obtained by the superconducting quantum interference device with large cooling fields (>10 kOe) in (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3} films with self-assembled LaSrMnO{sub 4}, an antiferromagnetic interface. Although the behaviours of measured loops show many features characteristic to the IHL, its origin, however, is not due to the exchange coupling between (La,Sr)MnO{sub 3}/LaSrMnO{sub 4}, an often accepted view on IHL. Instead, we demonstrate that the negative remanence arises from the hysteresis of superconducting coils, which drops abruptly when lower cooling fields are utilized. Hence the completely inverted hysteresis loops are experimental artifacts rather than previously proposed inhomogeneity effects in complicated materials.
Diamagnetic susceptibility of a confined donor in inhomogeneous quantum dots
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rahmani, K.; Zorkani, I.; Jorio, A.
2011-03-01
The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility χdia are estimated for a shallow donor confined to move in GaAs-GaAlAs inhomogeneous quantum dots. The calculation was performed within the effective mass approximation and using the variational method. The results show that the binding energy and the diamagnetic susceptibility χdia depend strongly on the core radius and the shell radius. We have demonstrated that there is a critical value of the ratio of the inner radius to the outer radius which may be important for nanofabrication techniques. The binding energy Eb shows a minimum for a critical value of this ratio depending on the value of the outer radius and shows a maximum when the donor is placed at the center of the spherical layer. The diamagnetic susceptibility is more sensitive to variations of the radius for a large spherical layer. The binding energy and diamagnetic susceptibility depend strongly on the donor position.
Sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koon, Daniel W.; Wang, Fei; Hjorth Petersen, Dirch; Hansen, Ole
2013-10-01
We derive exact, analytic expressions for the sensitivity of resistive and Hall measurements to local inhomogeneities in a specimen's material properties in the combined linear limit of a weak perturbation over an infinitesimal area in a small magnetic field. We apply these expressions both to four-point probe measurements on an infinite plane and to symmetric, circular van der Pauw discs, obtaining functions consistent with published results. These new expressions speed up calculation of the sensitivity for a specimen of arbitrary shape to little more than the solution of two Laplace equation boundary-value problems of the order of N3 calculations, rather than N2 problems of total order N5, and in a few cases produces an analytic expression for the sensitivity. These functions provide an intuitive, visual explanation of how, for example, measurements can predict the wrong carrier type in n-type ZnO.
A hybrid method with deviational particles for spatial inhomogeneous plasma
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yan, Bokai
2016-03-01
In this work we propose a Hybrid method with Deviational Particles (HDP) for a plasma modeled by the inhomogeneous Vlasov-Poisson-Landau system. We split the distribution into a Maxwellian part evolved by a grid based fluid solver and a deviation part simulated by numerical particles. These particles, named deviational particles, could be both positive and negative. We combine the Monte Carlo method proposed in [31], a Particle in Cell method and a Macro-Micro decomposition method [3] to design an efficient hybrid method. Furthermore, coarse particles are employed to accelerate the simulation. A particle resampling technique on both deviational particles and coarse particles is also investigated and improved. This method is applicable in all regimes and significantly more efficient compared to a PIC-DSMC method near the fluid regime.
Spatial structure of a collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate
Li, Fei; Zhang, Dongxia; Rong, Shiguang; Xu, Ying
2013-11-15
The spatial structure of a collisionally inhomogeneous Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) in an optical lattice is studied. A spatially dependent current with an explicit analytic expression is found in the case with a spatially dependent BEC phase. The oscillating amplitude of the current can be adjusted by a Feshbach resonance, and the intensity of the current depends heavily on the initial and boundary conditions. Increasing the oscillating amplitude of the current can force the system to pass from a single-periodic spatial structure into a very complex state. But in the case with a constant phase, the spatially dependent current disappears and the Melnikov chaotic criterion is obtained via a perturbative analysis in the presence of a weak optical lattice potential. Numerical simulations show that a strong optical lattice potential can lead BEC atoms to a state with a chaotic spatial distribution via a quasiperiodic route.
Unstable waves of jet flows with density inhomogeneity
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fung, Yee T.
1988-09-01
The problem to be considered concerns linear unstable waves of axisymmetric jet flows in the presence of density inhomogeneities. Such flow phenomena occur when a jet is discharged into a stratified medium, e.g., pollutants and industrial waste discharged into the environment, cooling water discharged from power plants into rivers and lakes, and flow patterns generated by vehicles moving in the ocean. Investigating the instability characteristics of the flow can mean controlling the flow-patterns, for example, produced by vehicles moving in the ocean. As in the case of two-dimensional shear flows, axisymmetric jet flows may possess amplified waves due to the Kelvin-Helmhholtz mechanism except that the formulation for jet flows is complicated by the absence of the Squire transformation and the consideration of cylindrical geometry.
Sustenance of inhomogeneous electron temperature in a magnetized plasma column
Karkari, S. K. Mishra, S. K.; Kaw, P. K.
2015-09-15
This paper presents the equilibrium properties of a magnetized plasma column sustained by direct-current (dc) operated hollow cathode discharge in conjunction with a conducting end-plate, acting as the anode. The survey of radial plasma characteristics, performed in argon plasma, shows hotter plasma in the periphery as compared to the central plasma region; whereas the plasma density peaks at the center. The off-centered peak in radial temperature is attributed due to inhomogeneous power deposition in the discharge volume in conjunction with short-circuiting effect by the conducting end plate. A theoretical model based on particle flux and energy balance is given to explain the observed characteristics of the plasma column.
Holographic measurements of inhomogeneous cloud mixing at the centimeter scale
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Beals, Matthew J.; Fugal, Jacob P.; Shaw, Raymond A.; Lu, Jiang; Spuler, Scott M.; Stith, Jeffrey L.
2015-10-01
Optical properties and precipitation efficiency of atmospheric clouds are largely determined by turbulent mixing with their environment. When cloud liquid water is reduced upon mixing, droplets may evaporate uniformly across the population or, in the other extreme, a subset of droplets may evaporate completely, leaving the remaining drops unaffected. Here, we use airborne holographic imaging to visualize the spatial structure and droplet size distribution at the smallest turbulent scales, thereby observing their response to entrainment and mixing with clear air. The measurements reveal that turbulent clouds are inhomogeneous, with sharp transitions between cloud and clear air properties persisting to dissipative scales (<1 centimeter). The local droplet size distribution fluctuates strongly in number density but with a nearly unchanging mean droplet diameter.
Modelling nanofluidic field amplified sample stacking with inhomogeneous surface charge
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McCallum, Christopher; Pennathur, Sumita
2015-11-01
Nanofluidic technology has exceptional applications as a platform for biological sample preconcentration, which will allow for an effective electronic detection method of low concentration analytes. One such preconcentration method is field amplified sample stacking, a capillary electrophoresis technique that utilizes large concentration differences to generate high electric field gradients, causing the sample of interest to form a narrow, concentrated band. Field amplified sample stacking has been shown to work well at the microscale, with models and experiments confirming expected behavior. However, nanofluidics allows for further concentration enhancement due to focusing of the sample ions toward the channel center by the electric double layer. We have developed a two-dimensional model that can be used for both micro- and nanofluidics, fully accounting for the electric double layer. This model has been used to investigate even more complex physics such as the role of inhomogeneous surface charge.
Turbulent exchange over a surface with chessboard-type inhomogeneities
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tsvang, L. R.; Fedorov, M. M.; Kader, B. A.; Zubkovskii, S. L.; Foken, T.; Richter, S. H.; Zeleny, Ya.
1991-04-01
The results of an experiment carried out in the summer of 1988 in the forest-steppe region of the USSR are given. The aim of the experiment was to study turbulent exchange between the atmosphere and a non-homogeneous underlying surface consisting of a “patchwork quilt” of agricultural lands sown with different crops (hereafter called chessboard-type inhomogeneities). Simultaneous measurements of turbulent fluxes of heat, momentum and humidity by the eddy-correlation methods and also the measurements of the mean wind velocity and temperature are described. The values of turbulent fluxes calculated from the profile measurements are in good agreement with those obtained from the eddy-correlation measurements. Thus it may be concluded that the universal functions of Monin-Obukhov similarity theory (determined from measurements over a flat and homogeneous underlying surface) pertain also to a non-homogeneous (chessboard-type) underlying surface.
On shallow water rogue wave formation in strongly inhomogeneous channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Didenkulova, Ira; Pelinovsky, Efim
2016-05-01
Rogue wave formation in shallow water is often governed by dispersive focusing and wave-bottom interaction. In this study we try to combine these mechanisms by considering dispersive nonreflecting wave propagation in shallow strongly inhomogeneous channels. Nonreflecting wave propagation provides extreme wave amplification and the transfer of wave energy over large distances, while dispersive effects allow formation of a short-lived wave of extreme height (rogue wave). We found several types of water channels, where this mechanism can be realized, including (i) channels with a monotonically decreasing cross-section (normal dispersion), (ii) an inland basin described by a half of elliptic paraboloid (abnormal dispersion) and (iii) an underwater hill described by a half of hyperbolic paraboloid (normal dispersion). Conditions for variations of local frequency in the wave train providing optimal focusing of the wave train are also found.
Light propagation in inhomogeneous universes - The ray-shooting method
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Schneider, Peter; Weiss, Achim
1988-01-01
The propagation of light in a clumpy universe is studied using the ray-shooting method. It is found that 'empty cones' in a clumpy universe are rare, which points out the limitation of frequently used distance measures in an inhomogeneous universe. The results show some qualitatively new features of multiple-gravitational-lens geometry, and a likely explanation for these features is presented. A statistical analysis of the simulations give amplification probability distributions for extended sources, as well as the distribution for the ratio of amplifications of compact sources to amplifications of more extended sources. Sample light curves of individual sources are obtained. Finally, the results support the validity of recent investigations on the influence of gravitational light deflection on source counts of compact extragalactic objects.
Inhomogeneous plane wave and the most energetic complex ray.
Deschamps, M; Poncelet, O
2002-05-01
This paper presents a study on the wave surfaces of anisotropic solids. In addition to the classical and real rays, which are defined by the normal to the slowness surfaces, it is obtained complex rays, which are associated to specific inhomogeneous plane waves. Referring to the complex Christoffel's equation and to the Fermat's principle, an intrinsic equation can be associated to these complex rays. Limiting the study to principal planes and plotting the associated complex wave surfaces, it can be shown that four energetic rays always exist in any directions for both quasi-isotropic and anisotropic media (even beyond the cusp). Consequently, it is always possible to define four closed wave surfaces (real or not). PMID:12159950
Rainbows from inhomogeneous transparent spheres: a ray-theoretic approach.
Adam, John A; Laven, Philip
2007-02-20
A ray-theoretic account of the passage of light through a radially inhomogeneous transparent sphere has been used to establish the existence of multiple primary rainbows for some refractive index profiles. The existence of such additional bows is a consequence of a sufficiently attractive potential in the interior of the drop, i.e., the refractive index gradient should be sufficiently negative there. The profiles for which this gradient is monotonically increasing do not result in this phenomenon, but nonmonotone profiles can do so, depending on the form of n. Sufficiently oscillatory profiles can lead to apparently singular behavior in the deviation angle (within the geometrical optics approximation) as well as multiple rainbows. These results also apply to systems with circular cylindrical cross sections, and may be of value in the field of rainbow refractometry. PMID:17279138
Inversion of elastic impedance for unconsolidated sediments
Lee, Myung W.
2006-01-01
Elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments are important for quantifying gas hydrate amounts as well as discriminating the gas hydrate effect on velocity from free gas or pore pressure. This paper presents an elastic inversion method for estimating elastic properties of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments from angle stacks using sequential inversion of P-wave impedance from the zero-offset stack and S-wave impedance from the far-offset stack without assuming velocity ratio.
Elastic scattering with weakly bound projectiles
Figueira, J. M.; Abriola, D.; Arazi, A.; Capurro, O. A.; Marti, G. V.; Martinez Heinmann, D.; Pacheco, A. J.; Testoni, J. E.; Barbara, E. de; Fernandez Niello, J. O.; Padron, I.; Gomes, P. R. S.; Lubian, J.
2007-02-12
Possible effects of the break-up channel on the elastic scattering threshold anomaly has been investigated. We used the weakly bound 6,7Li nuclei, which is known to undergo break-up, as projectiles in order to study the elastic scattering on a 27Al target. In this contribution we present preliminary results of these experiments, which were analyzed in terms of the Optical Model and compared with other elastic scattering data using weakly bound nuclei as projectile.
Change of pressure in wells opening up highly inhomogeneous porous collectors
Boroznyak, O.I.; Panfilov, M.B.
1995-12-01
We consider a generalized averaged model of the filtration of a weakly compressible liquid in a highly inhomogeneous medium. We construct an approximate analytical solution of the problem that describes the change in the pressure field around a well in a circular bed. We investigate the effect of the parameters of a highly inhomogeneous bed on the form of the well pressure stabilization curve.
Stirring and mixing effects on oscillations and inhomogeneities in the minimal bromate oscillator
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dutt, A. K.; Menzinger, M.
1999-04-01
Stirring and mixing effects on the oscillations and inhomogeneities in the bromate-bromide-cerous system (minimal bromate oscillator) have been investigated in a continuously fed stirred tank reactor (CSTR). A movable microelectrode is used to monitor the inhomogeneities inside the CSTR in an oscillating phase. The results are explained in terms of the theory of imperfect mixing.
The use of correlation interferometry for analysis of phase inhomogeneous environments and surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Derzhypolska, L.; Gnatovskiy, O.; Negriyko, A.
2015-12-01
In the paper investigated are optically inhomogeneous objects using holographic interferometry, speckle-interferometry and optical correlation. A non-interferometricshift of interference fringes is observed. Shown is that the shift is related to the statistical distribution that describes the optical inhomogeneity of the objects of study.
Initial conditions of inhomogeneous universe and the cosmological constant problem
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Totani, Tomonori
2016-06-01
Deriving the Einstein field equations (EFE) with matter fluid from the action principle is not straightforward, because mass conservation must be added as an additional constraint to make rest-frame mass density variable in reaction to metric variation. This can be avoided by introducing a constraint 0δ(√‑g) = to metric variations δ gμν, and then the cosmological constant Λ emerges as an integration constant. This is a removal of one of the four constraints on initial conditions forced by EFE at the birth of the universe, and it may imply that EFE are unnecessarily restrictive about initial conditions. I then adopt a principle that the theory of gravity should be able to solve time evolution starting from arbitrary inhomogeneous initial conditions about spacetime and matter. The equations of gravitational fields satisfying this principle are obtained, by setting four auxiliary constraints on δ gμν to extract six degrees of freedom for gravity. The cost of achieving this is a loss of general covariance, but these equations constitute a consistent theory if they hold in the special coordinate systems that can be uniquely specified with respect to the initial space-like hypersurface when the universe was born. This theory predicts that gravity is described by EFE with non-zero Λ in a homogeneous patch of the universe created by inflation, but Λ changes continuously across different patches. Then both the smallness and coincidence problems of the cosmological constant are solved by the anthropic argument. This is just a result of inhomogeneous initial conditions, not requiring any change of the fundamental physical laws in different patches.
Radar image sequence analysis of inhomogeneous water surfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Seemann, Joerg; Senet, Christian M.; Dankert, Heiko; Hatten, Helge; Ziemer, Friedwart
1999-10-01
The radar backscatter from the ocean surface, called sea clutter, is modulated by the surface wave field. A method was developed to estimate the near-surface current, the water depth and calibrated surface wave spectra from nautical radar image sequences. The algorithm is based on the three- dimensional Fast Fourier Transformation (FFT) of the spatio- temporal sea clutter pattern in the wavenumber-frequency domain. The dispersion relation is used to define a filter to separate the spectral signal of the imaged waves from the background noise component caused by speckle noise. The signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) contains information about the significant wave height. The method has been proved to be reliable for the analysis of homogeneous water surfaces in offshore installations. Radar images are inhomogeneous because of the dependency of the image transfer function (ITF) on the azimuth angle between the wave propagation and the antenna viewing direction. The inhomogeneity of radar imaging is analyzed using image sequences of a homogeneous deep-water surface sampled by a ship-borne radar. Changing water depths in shallow-water regions induce horizontal gradients of the tidal current. Wave refraction occurs due to the spatial variability of the current and water depth. These areas cannot be investigated with the standard method. A new method, based on local wavenumber estimation with the multiple-signal classification (MUSIC) algorithm, is outlined. The MUSIC algorithm provides superior wavenumber resolution on local spatial scales. First results, retrieved from a radar image sequence taken from an installation at a coastal site, are presented.
Spin-triplet supercurrent through inhomogeneous ferromagnetic trilayers
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alidoust, Mohammad; Linder, Jacob
2010-12-01
Motivated by a recent experiment [J. W. A. Robinson, J. D. S. Witt, and M. G. Blamire, Science 329, 5987 (2010)10.1126/science.1189246], we report here the possibility of establishing a long-range spin-triplet supercurrent through an inhomogeneous ferromagnetic region consisting of a Ho∣Co∣Ho trilayer sandwiched between conventional s -wave superconducting leads. We utilize a full numerical solution in the diffusive regime of transport and study the behavior of the supercurrent for various experimentally realistic configurations of the ferromagnetic trilayer. We obtain qualitatively very good agreement with experimental data regarding the behavior of the supercurrent as a function of the width of the Co layer, LCo . Moreover, we find a synthesis of 0-π oscillations with superimposed rapid oscillations when varying the width of the Ho layers symmetrically, which pertain specifically to the spiral magnetization texture in Ho. Although we are not able to reproduce the anomalous sharp peaks in the supercurrent vs Ho-layer thickness observed experimentally in this regime, the results obtained are quite sensitive to the exact magnetization profile in the Ho layers. This might be the reason for the discrepancy between our results and the experimental reported data for this particular aspect. We also investigate the supercurrent in a system where the intrinsically inhomogeneous Ho ferromagnets are replaced with domain-wall ferromagnets and find similar behavior as in the Ho∣Co∣Ho case. Furthermore, we propose magnetic Josephson junctions including only a domain-wall ferromagnet and a homogeneous ferromagnetic layer. The hybrid structure not only is simple regarding the magnetization profile but also offers a tunable long-range spin-triplet supercurrent. Finally, we discuss some experimental aspects of our findings.
Temperature Anisotropy Distribution and Evolution in Inhomogeneous Solar Wind
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yoon, P. H.; Seough, J.; Kim, S.
2015-12-01
The solar wind displays temperature anisotropy associated with the protons, which is often represented as a rhombic shape data distribution in (Tperp/Tll, βll) space. The upper-right and lower-right boundaries of such a data distribution appear to be limited by various kinetic plasma instabilities driven by the proton temperature anisotropy. To understand such boundaries, the present authors developed a quasi-linear model in inhomogeneous solar wind plasma in which the instability-driven dissipation terms appear on the right-hand sides of the equations for Tperp and Tll, while self-consistently computing for the wave intensities. Such a formalism successfully reproduced the upper-right and lower-right boundaries. However, in order to explain the vast majority of data points within the distribution that are found well away from the boundaries and possessing near isotropy, Tperp ≈ Tll, one must include effects other than the collisionless dissipations, i.e., other than dissipations due to instabilities. The present paper employs an improved quasi-linear theory that incorporates not only the instability-driven collisionless dissipation terms, but also the dissipations due to binary collisions (which is often called the collisional age) as well as the dissipations due to spontaneous thermal emissions. The set of equations for Tperp and Tll as well as for the waves are solved over inhomogeneous solar wind model, and the results will be discussed. The present approach may help in interpreting existing and future satellite data, including those from the near future Solar Probe Plus and Solar Orbiter Missions.
Degradation of the Bragg peak due to inhomogeneities.
Urie, M; Goitein, M; Holley, W R; Chen, G T
1986-01-01
The rapid fall-off of dose at the end of range of heavy charged particle beams has the potential in therapeutic applications of sparing critical structures just distal to the target volume. Here we explored the effects of highly inhomogeneous regions on this desirable depth-dose characteristic. The proton depth-dose distribution behind a lucite-air interface parallel to the beam was bimodal, indicating the presence of two groups of protons with different residual ranges, creating a step-like depth-dose distribution at the end of range. The residual ranges became more spread out as the interface was angled at 3 degrees, and still more at 6 degrees, to the direction of the beam. A second experiment showed little significant effect on the distal depth-dose of protons having passed through a mosaic of teflon and lucite. Anatomic studies demonstrated significant effects of complex fine inhomogeneities on the end of range characteristics. Monoenergetic protons passing through the petrous ridges and mastoid air cells in the base of skull showed a dramatic degradation of the distal Bragg peak. In beams with spread out Bragg peaks passing through regions of the base of skull, the distal fall-off from 90 to 20% dose was increased from its nominal 6 to well over 32 mm. Heavy ions showed a corresponding degradation in their ends of range. In the worst case in the base of skull region, a monoenergetic neon beam showed a broadening of the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak to over 15 mm (compared with 4 mm in a homogeneous unit density medium). A similar effect was found with carbon ions in the abdomen, where the full width at half maximum of the Bragg peak (nominally 5.5 mm) was found to be greater than 25 mm behind gas-soft-tissue interfaces. We address the implications of these data for dose computation with heavy charged particles. PMID:3952143