Science.gov

Sample records for initial response rates

  1. Recombinant HBV vaccine enhances the rate of sustained virological response when early initiated after anti-HCV combination therapy.

    PubMed

    Hanafy, Amr Shaaban; Farag, Alaa Ahmad; Hassanin, Hassan Mahmoud; Hassaneen, Ahmad Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    The overall SVR rate for chronic hepatitis C genotype 4 using the Standard of care is 54.3%. HBV infection can be prevented by the administration of effective and safe vaccine. Evaluation of the vaccination-induced anti-HBs response rates in a cohort of HCV Egyptian patients after being exposed to antiviral combination therapy and the magnitude of its effect on the rate of SVR through its putative role in induction of crossed immunity. (A) 500 HCV patients who had completed the course of antiviral therapy and achieved ETR were retrospectively analyzed and received 20 μg of recombinant DNA vaccine for hepatitis B at time intervals (0, 1, and 4 months). The first dose of the vaccine was initiated one month post treatment. (B) Laboratory analysis: Included routine preliminary investigations to anti viral therapy and specific investigations as determination of anti-HBs antibodies 2 months following the third dose of vaccine. 433 patients showed protective response (86.6%), 67 patients were non-responders (13.4%) (P = 0.003). Adding HBV vaccine 1 month post-treatment increased SVR (400 patients, 80%) (χ(2)  = 40.3, P = 0.000). Diabetes affect response to HBV vaccine (P = 0.0001). Adding HBV vaccine to the post treatment care of patients with HCV after termination of antiviral therapy gain two benefits; protection from HBV and significant increase in rates of SVR. PMID:26147509

  2. Transcriptional Response in Mouse Thyroid Tissue after 211At Administration: Effects of Absorbed Dose, Initial Dose-Rate and Time after Administration

    PubMed Central

    Rudqvist, Nils; Spetz, Johan; Schüler, Emil; Parris, Toshima Z.; Langen, Britta; Helou, Khalil; Forssell-Aronsson, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background 211At-labeled radiopharmaceuticals are potentially useful for tumor therapy. However, a limitation has been the preferential accumulation of released 211At in the thyroid gland, which is a critical organ for such therapy. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of absorbed dose, dose-rate, and time after 211At exposure on genome-wide transcriptional expression in mouse thyroid gland. Methods BALB/c mice were i.v. injected with 1.7, 7.5 or 100 kBq 211At. Animals injected with 1.7 kBq were killed after 1, 6, or 168 h with mean thyroid absorbed doses of 0.023, 0.32, and 1.8 Gy, respectively. Animals injected with 7.5 and 100 kBq were killed after 6 and 1 h, respectively; mean thyroid absorbed dose was 1.4 Gy. Total RNA was extracted from pooled thyroids and the Illumina RNA microarray platform was used to determine mRNA levels. Differentially expressed transcripts and enriched GO terms were determined with adjusted p-value <0.01 and fold change >1.5, and p-value <0.05, respectively. Results In total, 1232 differentially expressed transcripts were detected after 211At administration, demonstrating a profound effect on gene regulation. The number of regulated transcripts increased with higher initial dose-rate/absorbed dose at 1 or 6 h. However, the number of regulated transcripts decreased with mean absorbed dose/time after 1.7 kBq 211At administration. Furthermore, similar regulation profiles were seen for groups administered 1.7 kBq. Interestingly, few previously proposed radiation responsive genes were detected in the present study. Regulation of immunological processes were prevalent at 1, 6, and 168 h after 1.7 kBq administration (0.023, 0.32, 1.8 Gy). PMID:26177204

  3. Sensor response rate accelerator

    DOEpatents

    Vogt, Michael C.

    2002-01-01

    An apparatus and method for sensor signal prediction and for improving sensor signal response time, is disclosed. An adaptive filter or an artificial neural network is utilized to provide predictive sensor signal output and is further used to reduce sensor response time delay.

  4. Evaluation of Spatially Fractionated Radiotherapy (GRID) and Definitive Chemoradiotherapy With Curative Intent for Locally Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck: Initial Response Rates and Toxicity

    SciTech Connect

    Penagaricano, Jose A.; Moros, Eduardo G.; Ratanatharathorn, Vaneerat; Yan Yulong; Corry, Peter

    2010-04-15

    Purpose: To present results and acute toxicity in 14 patients with bulky (>=6 cm) tumors from locally advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck who received spatially fractionated radiotherapy (GRID) therapy to the bulky mass followed by concomitant chemoradiotherapy using simultaneous integrated boost intensity-modulated radiotherapy (SIB-IMRT). Methods and Materials: GRID therapy to the GTV was delivered by creating one treatment field with a checkerboard pattern composed of open-closed areas using a multileaf collimator. The GRID prescription was 20 Gy in one fraction. Chemotherapy started the day of GRID therapy and continued throughout the course of SIB-IMRT. The SIB-IMRT prescription was 66, 60, and 54 Gy to the planning target volume (PTV), intermediate-risk PTV, and low-risk PTV, respectively, in 30 fractions. Results: With a median follow-up of 19.5 months (range, 2-38 months), the overall control rate of the GRID gross tumor volume was 79% (11 of 14). The most common acute skin and mucosal toxicities were Grade 3 and 2, respectively. Conclusion: For the treatment of locally advanced neck squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, GRID followed by chemotherapy and SIB-IMRT is well tolerated and yields encouraging clinical and pathologic responses, with similar acute toxicity profiles as in patients receiving chemoradiotherapy without GRID.

  5. Modified Cisplatin/Interferon α-2b/Doxorubicin/Fluorouracil (PIAF) chemotherapy in patients with no hepatitis or cirrhosis is associated with improved response rate, resectability and survival of initially unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Kaseb, Ahmed O.; Shindoh, Junichi; Patt, Yehuda Z.; Roses, Robert E.; Zimmitti, Giuseppe; Lozano, Richard D.; Hassan, Manal M.; Hassabo, Hesham M.; Curley, Steven A.; Aloia, Thomas A.; Abbruzzese, James L.; Vauthey, Jean-Nicolas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purposes of this study was to evaluate the factors associated with response rate, resectability, and survival after cisplatin/interferon α-2b/doxorubicin/5-flurouracil (PIAF) combination therapy in patients with initially unresectable hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Patients and Methods The study included two groups of patients treated with conventional high-dose PIAF (n=84) between 1994 and 2003 and those without hepatitis or cirrhosis treated with modified PIAF (n=33) between 2003 and 2012. Tolerance of chemotherapy, best radiographic response, rate of conversion to curative surgery, and overall survival were analyzed and compared between the two groups, and multivariate and logistic regression analyses were applied to identify predictors of response and survival. Results The modified PIAF group had a higher median number of PIAF cycles (4 vs. 2, P = .049), higher objective response rate (36% vs. 15%, P = .013), higher rate of conversion to curative surgery (33% vs. 10%, P = .004), and longer median overall survival (21.3 vs. 10.6 months, P = .002). Multivariate analyses confirmed that positive hepatitis B serology (hazard ratio [HR], 1.68; 95% CI, 1.08 to 2.59) and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status ≥2 (HR, 1.75; 95% CI 1.04 to 2.93) were associated with worse survival while curative surgical resection after PIAF treatment (HR, 0.15; 95% CI, 0.07 to 0.35) was associated with improved survival. Conclusions In patients with initially unresectable HCC, the modified PIAF regimen in patients with no hepatitis or cirrhosis is associated with improved response, resectability, and survival. PMID:23821538

  6. Online Course Evaluations Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guder, Faruk; Malliaris, Mary

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the reasons for low response rates in online evaluations. Survey data are collected from the students to understand factors that might affect student participation in the course evaluation process. When course evaluations were opened to the student body, an email announcement was sent to all students, and a reminder email was…

  7. 40 CFR 280.61 - Initial response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial response. 280.61 Section 280.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE TANKS (UST) Release Response and Corrective...

  8. 18 CFR 342.2 - Establishing initial rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE RATE METHODOLOGIES AND PROCEDURES § 342.2 Establishing initial rates. A carrier must justify an initial rate for new... filed, the carrier must comply with paragraph (a) of this section....

  9. 18 CFR 342.2 - Establishing initial rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE RATE METHODOLOGIES AND PROCEDURES § 342.2 Establishing initial rates. A carrier must justify an initial rate for new... filed, the carrier must comply with paragraph (a) of this section....

  10. 18 CFR 342.2 - Establishing initial rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE RATE METHODOLOGIES AND PROCEDURES § 342.2 Establishing initial rates. A carrier must justify an initial rate for new... filed, the carrier must comply with paragraph (a) of this section....

  11. 18 CFR 342.2 - Establishing initial rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE RATE METHODOLOGIES AND PROCEDURES § 342.2 Establishing initial rates. A carrier must justify an initial rate for new... filed, the carrier must comply with paragraph (a) of this section....

  12. 18 CFR 342.2 - Establishing initial rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT OIL PIPELINE RATE METHODOLOGIES AND PROCEDURES § 342.2 Establishing initial rates. A carrier must justify an initial rate for new... filed, the carrier must comply with paragraph (a) of this section....

  13. 40 CFR 280.61 - Initial response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial response. 280.61 Section 280.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  14. 40 CFR 280.61 - Initial response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Initial response. 280.61 Section 280.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  15. 40 CFR 280.61 - Initial response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 28 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Initial response. 280.61 Section 280.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  16. 40 CFR 280.61 - Initial response.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 27 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Initial response. 280.61 Section 280.61 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) TECHNICAL STANDARDS AND CORRECTIVE ACTION REQUIREMENTS FOR OWNERS AND OPERATORS OF UNDERGROUND STORAGE...

  17. Effects of optical attenuation and consumption of a photobleaching initiator on local initiation rates in photopolymerizations.

    SciTech Connect

    Terrones, Guillermo ); Pearlstein, Arne J.

    2000-11-01

    Optical attenuation is important in many photopolymerization applications. For a photobleaching initiator, we develop an unsteady one-dimensional model accounting for initiator consumption and light intensity variation, and derive relationships for the spatial and temporal variation of the local initiator concentration and initiation rate.

  18. Initial Climate Response to a Termination Shock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irvine, Peter

    2015-04-01

    The risk of the termination of a deployment of solar radiation management (SRM) geoengineering has been raised as one of the key concerns about these ideas. Early studies demonstrated that a rapid warming of the climate would follow such a termination with global mean temperatures rapidly rising towards the levels that would have been expected in the absence of SRM geoengineering. Further work has noted the contrasting timescale of the adjustment of global mean temperature and sea-level rise, with sea-levels responding much slower and not reaching the same levels as would have been the case in the absence of SRM geoengineering. Whilst these previous studies have shown the basics of the response to a termination of SRM, a detailed analysis of the climate response in the first months or years of a termination has not been investigated. To conduct such an analysis tens of simulations with a termination of SRM are conducted, starting from the end of a G1 simulation with the HadCM3 model. The termination is initiated in Spring, Summer, Autumn and Winter to investigate whether the response depends on the season. Analyzing these results I find some novel dynamic responses in the initial months and years following a termination of SRM which have not been seen in previous studies which employed decadal-scale averages. These include: A reduction in the global-scale hydrological cycle's intensity in the first weeks following termination, counter to the longer-term increase; An almost instantaneous adjustment of land-mean precipitation to the equilibrium value; And substantial shifts in the pattern of precipitation in the initial years that are distinct from those seen in the equilibrium response and which are characterized by large increases in terrestrial precipitation and runoff in many regions.

  19. Predicting Translation Initiation Rates for Designing Synthetic Biology

    PubMed Central

    Reeve, Benjamin; Hargest, Thomas; Gilbert, Charlie; Ellis, Tom

    2013-01-01

    In synthetic biology, precise control over protein expression is required in order to construct functional biological systems. A core principle of the synthetic biology approach is a model-guided design and based on the biological understanding of the process, models of prokaryotic protein production have been described. Translation initiation rate is a rate-limiting step in protein production from mRNA and is dependent on the sequence of the 5′-untranslated region and the start of the coding sequence. Translation rate calculators are programs that estimate protein translation rates based on the sequence of these regions of an mRNA, and as protein expression is proportional to the rate of translation initiation, such calculators have been shown to give good approximations of protein expression levels. In this review, three currently available translation rate calculators developed for synthetic biology are considered, with limitations and possible future progress discussed. PMID:25152877

  20. Improving Beta Test Evaluation Response Rates: A Meta-Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russ-Eft, Darlene; Preskill, Hallie

    2005-01-01

    This study presents a meta-evaluation of a beta-test of a customer service training program. The initial evaluation showed a low response rate. Therefore, the meta-evaluation focused on issues related to the conduct of the initial evaluation and reasons for nonresponse. The meta-evaluation identified solutions to the nonresponse problem as related…

  1. Optimal response rates in humans and rats

    PubMed Central

    Freestone, David M.; Balcı, Fuat; Simen, Patrick; Church, Russell M.

    2015-01-01

    The analysis of response rates has been highly influential in psychology, giving rise to many prominent theories of learning. There is, however, growing interest in explaining response rates, not as a global response to associations or value, but as a decision about how to space responses in time. Recently, researchers have shown that humans and mice can time a single response optimally, i.e., in a way that maximizes reward. Here, we use the well-established DRL timing task to show that humans and rats come close to optimizing reinforcement rate, but respond systematically faster than they should. PMID:25706545

  2. Physical initialization using SSM/I rain rates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krishnamurti, T. N.; Bedi, H. S.; Ingles, Kevin

    1993-01-01

    Following our recent study on physical initialization for tropical prediction using rain rates based on outgoing long-wave radiation, the present study demonstrates a major improvement from the use of microwave radiance-based rain rates. A rain rate algorithm is used on the data from a special sensor microwave instrument (SSM/I). The initialization, as before, uses a reverse surface similarity theory, a reverse cumulus parameterization algorithm, and a bisection method to minimize the difference between satellite-based and the model-based outgoing long-wave radiation. These are invoked within a preforecast Newtonian relaxation phase of the initialization. These tests are carried out with a high-resolution global spectral model. The impact of the initialization on forecast is tested for a complex triple typhoon scenario over the Western Pacific Ocean during September 1987. A major impact from the inclusion of the SSM/I is demonstrated. Also addressed are the spin-up issues related to the typhoon structure and the improved water budget from the physical initialization.

  3. Increasing response rates in physicians' mail surveys: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Maheux, B; Legault, C; Lambert, J

    1989-05-01

    It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain high response rates in physicians' mail surveys. In 1983-84, we tested the effectiveness of two techniques among 604 Quebec physicians who had not responded to an initial letter. A handwritten thank you note at the bottom of the letter accompanying the questionnaire and a more personalized mailout package increased response rates by 40.7 per cent and 53.1 per cent, respectively, compared to control groups. PMID:2705601

  4. Lack of Response after Initial Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Georgiades, Christos; Geschwind, Jean-François; Harrison, Neil; Hines-Peralta, Andrew; Liapi, Eleni; Hong, Kelvin; Wu, Zhenke; Kamel, Ihab; Frangakis, Constantine

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To (a) evaluate the response of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) to chemoembolization after initial nonresponse, as determined with European Association for the Study of the Liver (EASL) criteria and modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (mRECIST), and (b) compare posttreatment survival of initial nonresponders versus that of initial responders. Materials and Methods The institutional review board approved this retrospective study, which was compliant with HIPAA. A total of 116 consecutive patients (96 men, 20 women; mean age, 63 years) with unresectable HCC who underwent at least two chemoembolization procedures were included. The chemoembolization mixture consisted of 100 mg of cisplatin, 50 mg of doxorubicin, and 10 mg of mitomycin C mixed 1:1 with iodized oil. Tumor response at magnetic resonance imaging was evaluated after each chemoembolization procedure according to EASL criteria and mRECIST. The survival rate in each subgroup was calculated and correlated with response. The Wilcoxon test was used to test group comparability. Kaplan-Meier estimators were used to generate survival curves and compared by using the log-rank test. Results No response to initial chemoembolization was seen in 43% and 50% of patients according to EASL criteria and mRECIST, respectively. After a second chemoembolization procedure, 44% (EASL) and 47% (mRECIST) of initial nonresponders showed a significant response. With EASL criteria, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates (±standard error of the mean) after two chemoembolization procedures were 39% ± 10, 14% ± 7, and 0%, respectively, for non-responders and 68% ± 10, 50% ± 11, and 37% ± 11 for responders (P = .036, P = .006, and P < .005 at 1, 2, and 3 years). With mRECIST, the 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rates after two chemoembolization procedures were 49% ± 9, 20% ± 8, and 7% ± 6 for nonresponders and 67% ± 9, 44% ± 10, and 36% ± 9 for responders (P = .174, P = .046, and P = .011 at 1, 2, and 3

  5. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Direct Testimony

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this testimony is to provide the context and background to the financial and risk policy objectives for BPA's WP-07 Initial Proposal. The testimony contains eight sections. The first is this introduction. Section 2 provides background regarding BPA's Subscription Strategy and the Subscription contracts to which the WP-07 rates will apply. Section 3 describes the financial policy objectives considered when establishing the WP-07 rates. Section 4 describes BPA's risk profile, the risk mitigation tools used in prior rate periods, those proposed here, and additional tools under consideration for the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Section 5 describes financial policy directives and decisions that have shaped the WP-07 Initial Proposal. Section 6 describes the uncertainties of the current litigation regarding the National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) Biological Opinion and how it is addressed in this proposal. Section 7 briefly discusses the risk mitigation package in the WP-07 Initial Proposal. Finally, Section 8 describes some liquidity tools that may be incorporated into final studies if circumstances allow.

  6. Acute sensitivity of landslide rates to initial soil porosity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.; Reid, M.E.; Iverson, N.R.; LaHusen, R.G.; Logan, M.; Mann, J.E.; Brien, D.L.

    2000-01-01

    Some landslides move imperceptibly downslope, whereas others accelerate catastrophically. Experimental landslides triggered by rising pore water pressure moved at sharply contrasting rates due to small differences in initial porosity. Wet sandy soil with porosity of about 0.5 contracted during slope failure, partially liquefied, and accelerated within 1 second to speeds over I meter per second. The same soil with porosity of about 0.4 dilated during failure and supped episodically at rates averaging 0.002 meter per second. Repeated slip episodes were induced by gradually rising pore water pressure and were arrested by pore dilation and attendant pore pressure decline.

  7. Recent Research on Mailed Questionnaire Response Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baumgartner, Robert M.; Heberlein, Thomas A.

    1984-01-01

    Forty studies of mailed surveys are reviewed in terms of 11 variables which affect response rates: sponsorship, respondents, salience, follow-up contacts, incentives, length, anonymity, personalization, deadline, types of appeals, and postage. (BW)

  8. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Material in support of initial rates or change in rates. 346.2 Section 346.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT...

  9. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Material in support of initial rates or change in rates. 346.2 Section 346.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT...

  10. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Material in support of initial rates or change in rates. 346.2 Section 346.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT...

  11. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Material in support of initial rates or change in rates. 346.2 Section 346.2 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE INTERSTATE COMMERCE ACT...

  12. Initial Studies Toward Real-Time Transmission Path Rating

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Ruchi; Diao, Ruisheng; Cai, Niannian; Huang, Zhenyu; Tuck, Brian; Guo, Xinxin

    2012-07-26

    Demand continues to increase while transmission line construction is being constrained by multiple factors— economic, environmental, and political. Effective and efficient utilization of transmission lines is thus of great importance in an open access environment. Large blocks of power are transferred from areas with inexpensive generation to heavy load demand areas or areas with high generation costs. This results in some transmission paths being loaded closer to their path ratings, which limits further power transfer between areas. Traditionally, rating of important paths was determined off line by assuming the worst-case study scenario; once determined, it could be used for years. With increasing uncertainty arising from rapid growth of renewable energy and smart technologies, path rating studies are needed in near-real time to account for the latest system status and support a reliable and economic power grid. This paper adopts a simplified procedure based on standards of the North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) to determine total transfer capability (TTC) or transfer limit for the purpose of demonstrating the benefits and necessity of real-time path rating. Initial studies are conducted to compute TTC of a two-area test system and a 39-bus test system. Results indicate that path rating can be significantly affected by loading conditions, generator schedules, system topology and other factors.

  13. Response rate viewed as engagement bouts: resistance to extinction.

    PubMed Central

    Shull, Richard L; Gaynor, Scott T; Grimes, Julie A

    2002-01-01

    Rats obtained food pellets by nose poking a lighted key, the illumination of which alternated every 50 s during a session between blinking and steady, signaling either a relatively rich (60 per hour) or relatively lean (15 per hour) rate of reinforcement. During one training condition, all the reinforcers in the presence of the rich-reinforcement signal were response dependent (i.e., a variable-interval schedule); during another condition only 25% were response dependent (i.e., a variable-time schedule operated concurrently with a variable-interval schedule). An extinction session followed each training block. For both kinds of training schedule, and consistent with prior results, response rate was more resistant to extinction in the presence of the rich-reinforcement signal than in the presence of the lean-reinforcement signal. Analysis of interresponse-time distributions from baseline showed that differential resistance to extinction was not related to baseline differences in the rate of initiating response bouts or in the length of bouts. Also, bout-initiation rate (like response rate) was most resistant to extinction in the presence of the rich-reinforcement signal. These results support the proposal of behavioral momentum theory (e.g., Nevin & Grace, 2000) that resistance to extinction in the presence of a discriminative stimulus is determined more by the stimulus-reinforcer (Pavlovian) than by the stimulus-response-reinforcer (operant) contingency. PMID:12083677

  14. Play Initiating Behaviors and Responses in Red Colobus Monkeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worch, Eric A.

    2012-01-01

    Red colobus monkeys are playful primates, making them an important species in which to study animal play. The author examines play behaviors and responses in the species for its play initiation events, age differences in initiating frequency and initiating behavior, and the types of social play that result from specific initiating behaviors. Out…

  15. The Montana Behavioral Initiative: A Statewide Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fishbaugh, Mary Susan E.; Furshong, Joe

    1998-01-01

    The Montana Behavioral Initiative (MBI) is a staff development program created to stem school violence. Program components include summer institutes, site teams, ongoing technical assistance, interagency cooperation, program evaluation, information dissemination, and governance by the MBI council. MBI has expanded to include nearly 100 Montana…

  16. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Risk Analysis Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS), operated on behalf of the ratepayers of the PNW by BPA and other Federal agencies, faces many uncertainties during the FY 2007-2009 rate period. Among these uncertainties, the largest revolve around hydro conditions, market prices and river operations for fish recovery. In order to provide a high probability of making its U.S. Treasury payments, BPA performs a Risk Analysis as part of its rate-making process. In this Risk Analysis, BPA identifies key risks, models their relationships, and then analyzes their impacts on net revenues (total revenues less expenses). BPA subsequently evaluates in the ToolKit Model the Treasury Payment Probability (TPP) resulting from the rates, risks, and risk mitigation measures described here and in the Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS). If the TPP falls short of BPA's standard, additional risk mitigation revenues, such as PNRR and CRAC revenues are incorporated in the modeling in ToolKit until the TPP standard is met. Increased wholesale market price volatility and six years of drought have significantly changed the profile of risk and uncertainty facing BPA and its stakeholders. These present new challenges for BPA in its effort to keep its power rates as low as possible while fully meeting its obligations to the U.S. Treasury. As a result, the risk BPA faces in not receiving the level of secondary revenues that have been credited to power rates before receiving those funds is greater. In addition to market price volatility, BPA also faces uncertainty around the financial impacts of operations for fish programs in FY 2006 and in the FY 2007-2009 rate period. A new Biological Opinion or possible court-ordered change to river operations in FY 2006 through FY 2009 may reduce BPA's net revenues included Initial Proposal. Finally, the FY 2007-2009 risk analysis includes new operational risks as well as a more comprehensive analysis of non-operating risks. Both the operational

  17. Strain-Rate-Free Diffusion Flames: Initiation, Properties, and Quenching

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, Francis; Rungaldier, Harald; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Schultz, Donald

    1997-01-01

    For about a half century, the stabilization of a steady planar deflagration on a heat-sink-type flat-flame burner has been of extraordinary service for the theoretical modeling and diagnostic probing of combusting gaseous mixtures. However, most engineering devices and most unwanted fire involve the burning of initially unmixed reactants. The most vigorous burning of initially separated gaseous fuel and oxidizer is the diffusion flame. In this useful idealization (limiting case), the reactants are converted to product at a mathematically thin interface, so no interpenetration of fuel and oxidizer occurs. This limit is of practical importance because it often characterizes the condition of optimal performance (and sometimes environmentally objectionable operation) of a combustor. A steady planar diffusion flame is most closely approached in the laboratory in the counterflow apparatus. The utility of this simple-strain-rate flow for the modeling and probing of diffusion flames was noted by Pandya and Weinberg 35 years ago, though only in the last decade or so has its use become internationally common place. However, typically, as the strain rate a is reduced below about 20 cm(exp -1), and the diffusion-flame limit (reaction rate much faster than the flow rate) is approached, the burning is observed to become unstable in earth gravity. The advantageous steady planar flow is not available in the diffusion-flame limit in earth gravity. This is unfortunate because the typical spatial scale in a counterflow is (k/a)(sup 1/2), where k denotes a characteristic diffusion coefficient; thus, the length scale becomes large, and the reacting flow is particularly amenable to diagnostic probing, as the diffusion-flame limit is approached. The disruption of planar symmetry is owing the fact that, as the strain rate a decreases, the residence time (l/a) of the throughput in the counterflow burner increases. Observationally, when the residence time exceeds about 50 msec, the

  18. 18 CFR 346.2 - Material in support of initial rates or change in rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PIPELINE COST-OF-SERVICE FILING REQUIREMENTS § 346.2 Material in support of initial rates or change in... service, the test period will be based on a 12-month projection of costs and revenues. (b) Cost-of-service summary schedule. This schedule must contain the following information: (1) Total carrier cost of...

  19. Study of High Strain Rate Response of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilat, Amos

    2003-01-01

    The objective of the research was to continue the experimental study of the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) of epoxy resins and carbon fibers/epoxy matrix composites, and to initiate a study of the effects of temperature by developing an elevated temperature test. The experimental data provide the information needed for NASA scientists for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength models for composites that can subsequently be used in design. This year effort was directed into testing the epoxy resin. Three types of epoxy resins were tested in tension and shear at various strain rates that ranges from 5 x 10(exp -5), to 1000 per second. Pilot shear experiments were done at high strain rate and an elevated temperature of 80 C. The results show that all, the strain rate, the mode of loading, and temperature significantly affect the response of epoxy.

  20. Confirmation of ETI: initial organizational response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Albert A.

    2003-08-01

    Perhaps the most crucial responses to the confirmation of extraterrestrial intelligence will come from organizations, rather than from individual people. Among the key organizations that will help shape humanity's response are political institutions such as the US Congress, administrative bodies such as the US Department of State, security agencies, the military, professional societies, and the media. Although popular culture and individual beliefs will affect organizational performance, organizational reactions will depend also on organizational cultures and traditions, administrative structures, communication patterns, decision-making processes, and the actions of other organizations. Prompt and effective responses may be blocked by sociopolitical constraints, jurisdictional disputes, cumbersome structures and procedures, stresses that frequently slow and distort information processing, and potentially counterproductive efforts to maintain positive organizational images. Efforts undertaken by governmental agencies will be hampered by public perceptions of low credibility. Foresight and advance preparation are among the steps that organizations may take to prepare for contact, but conservative values, skepticism towards SETI, and competing organizational priorities make serious preparation unlikely.

  1. Initial effects of vegetation on Hawaiian basalt weathering rates

    SciTech Connect

    Cochran, M.F.; Berner, R.A. )

    1992-01-01

    Weathering of Ca and Mg silicates on land and ensuing precipitation and burial of Ca and Mg carbonates in marine sediments is the principal sink for carbon dioxide from the atmosphere/ocean system on geologic time scales. Model calculations of ancient atmospheric CO[sub 2] partial pressure depend strongly on the authors assumptions about the enhancement of silicate weathering rates first by primitive terrestrial biota, then by the appearance and evolution of the vascular plants. Aa and pahoehoe basalts were collected from Mauna Loa and Kilauea volcanoes on the island of Hawaii. Flows ranged in age (one year to several thousand years) and in ambient climate. Where possible, each flow was sampled beneath a suite of current plant covers: none, lichens, and higher plants. Rocks were embedded in epoxy to preserve the plant-rock interface, then sectioned and subjected to electron probe microanalysis. During initial weathering, vascular plants appeared to promote congruent dissolution of minerals (particularly olivine and Ca-rich plagioclase) and glass near the surfaces of underlying basalts. In the neighborhood of roots, primary cracks widened with time into networks of open channels. This effect was observed prior to the formation of measurable leached zones in exterior grains and prior to the appearance of secondary minerals. As a result, initial mass loss from young, plant-covered basalts appeared to be up to one or more orders of magnitude greater than from bare-rock controls. Despite earlier reports of substantial enhancement of Hawaiian basalt weathering rates by the lichen Stereocaulon vulcani, weathering observed beneath this lichen was comparable to that of unvegetated rocks.

  2. Social Initiation and Responsiveness in Parent-Infant Interaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegland, Susan M.

    1983-01-01

    Thirty-eight infants were observed interacting separately with their mothers and fathers in the home at seven and twelve months of age. Social initiative measures and reciprocal parental response measures adopted from Clarke-Stewart were used. The infants distributed their social initiative equally to both parents but made fewer initiatives when…

  3. Initial targets and cellular responses to PDT

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, Myriam E.; Azizuddin, Kashif; Chiu, Song-mao; Delos Santos, Grace; Joseph, Sheeba; Xue, Liang-yan; Oleinick, Nancy L.

    2007-02-01

    Pc 4, a photosensitizer first synthesized at Case Western Reserve University and now in clinical trial at University Hospitals of Cleveland, has been shown to bind preferentially and with high affinity to mitochondrial and endoplasmic reticulum membranes. Upon photoirradiation of Pc 4-loaded cells, membrane components are photodamaged. In most cancer cells, apoptosis is triggered by the initial photodamage; however, in cells deficient in one of the critical intermediates of apoptosis, this process does not occur, although the cells remain as sensitive to the lethal effects of Pc 4-PDT as the apoptosis-competent cells, when cell death is determined by colony formation. Here we report that an alternative death process, autophagy, is induced in all cells tested and becomes the dominant pathway for elimination of lethally damaged cells when apoptosis is compromised. The anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, when overexpressed, protects only apoptosis-competent cells against loss of clonogenicity, while the autophagy inhibitor 3-methyladenine provides a markedly greater protection to apoptosis-deficient cells. The results suggest that the primary determinant of cell death is not the final pathway for elimination of the cells but the initial photodamage to critical membrane targets. In attempts to identify those targets, we have studied the role of different membrane phospholipids in the localization of Pc 4. Cardiolipin (CL) is a phospholipid found exclusively in the mitochondrial inner membrane and at the contact sites between the inner and outer membranes. Previous fluorescence resonance energy transfer studies revealed colocalization of Pc 4 and CL, which points to CL as a possible binding site and target for Pc 4. Unilamellar liposomes with different lipid compositions were used as membrane models to test the affinity of Pc 4. As revealed by the binding constants, Pc 4 does not display preferential binding to CL in these systems. Moreover, binding affinities appear to be

  4. Fetal Heart Rate Response to Maternal Exercise.

    PubMed

    Monga, Manju

    2016-09-01

    Current guidelines regarding recommended exercise in pregnancy appear consistent with reported research regarding fetal heart changes in response to maternal exercise. Fetal heart rate increases during pregnancy, but maternal exercise appears well tolerated if performed in uncomplicated pregnancies and not in the supine position. Maximal levels of exercise that are well tolerated by the fetus have not yet been well defined; however, recent literature suggests that sustained exercise during pregnancy may have beneficial effects on autonomic control of fetal heart rate and variability that may lead to long-term health benefits. PMID:27388963

  5. Dietary restriction of rodents decreases aging rate without affecting initial mortality rate -- a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Simons, Mirre J P; Koch, Wouter; Verhulst, Simon

    2013-06-01

    Dietary restriction (DR) extends lifespan in multiple species from various taxa. This effect can arise via two distinct but not mutually exclusive ways: a change in aging rate and/or vulnerability to the aging process (i.e. initial mortality rate). When DR affects vulnerability, this lowers mortality instantly, whereas a change in aging rate will gradually lower mortality risk over time. Unraveling how DR extends lifespan is of interest because it may guide toward understanding the mechanism(s) mediating lifespan extension and also has practical implications for the application of DR. We reanalyzed published survival data from 82 pairs of survival curves from DR experiments in rats and mice by fitting Gompertz and also Gompertz-Makeham models. The addition of the Makeham parameter has been reported to improve the estimation of Gompertz parameters. Both models separate initial mortality rate (vulnerability) from an age-dependent increase in mortality (aging rate). We subjected the obtained Gompertz parameters to a meta-analysis. We find that DR reduced aging rate without affecting vulnerability. The latter contrasts with the conclusion of a recent analysis of a largely overlapping data set, and we show how the earlier finding is due to a statistical artifact. Our analysis indicates that the biology underlying the life-extending effect of DR in rodents likely involves attenuated accumulation of damage, which contrasts with the acute effect of DR on mortality reported for Drosophila. Moreover, our findings show that the often-reported correlation between aging rate and vulnerability does not constrain changing aging rate without affecting vulnerability simultaneously. PMID:23438200

  6. Resistance To Change Of Forgetting Functions And Response Rates

    PubMed Central

    Odum, Amy L; Shahan, Timothy A; Nevin, John A

    2005-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of reinforcement probability on resistance to change of remembering and response rate. Pigeons responded on a two-component multiple schedule in which completion of a variable-interval 20-s schedule produced delayed matching-to-sample trials in both components. Each session included four delays (0.1 s, 2 s, 4 s, and 8 s) between sample termination and presentation of comparison stimuli in both components. The two components differed in the probability of reinforcement arranged for correct matches (i.e., rich, p  =  .9; lean, p  =  .1). Response rates during the variable-interval portion of the procedure were higher in the rich component during baseline and more resistant to the disruptive effects of intercomponent food and extinction. Forgetting functions were constructed by examining matching accuracy as a function of delay duration. Baseline accuracy was higher in the rich component than in the lean component as measured by differences in the y-intercept of the forgetting functions (i.e., initial discrimination), rather than from differences in the slope of the forgetting function (i.e., rate of forgetting). Intercomponent food increased the rate of forgetting relatively more in the lean component than in the rich component, but initial discrimination was not systematically affected. Extinction reduced initial discrimination relatively more in the lean component than in the rich component, but did not systematically affect rate of forgetting. These results are consistent with our previous data suggesting that, as for response rate, accuracy and resistance to change of discriminating are positively related to rate of reinforcement. These data also suggest that the disruptability of remembering depends on the conditions of reinforcement, but the way in which remembering is disrupted depends on the nature of the disruptor. PMID:16156137

  7. Building Fluent Performance: Measuring Response Rate and Multiplying Response Opportunities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binder, Carl

    2010-01-01

    Precision teaching emerged from O.R. Lindsley's pristine application of Skinner's natural science of behavior, with a focus on response rate measurement and free operant procedures. When applied with human learners in instructional settings, these first principles led to a series of developments framed in this paper as four kinds of ceilings that…

  8. Rates of soil forming processes - the RAISIN initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauer, Daniela

    2013-04-01

    Soil chronosequence studies are a valuable tool to assess soil development with time in different landscapes and climatic environments. Numerous soil chronosequences have been studied in the last decades in different parts of the world, so that it is the right time to analyze and summarize what has been achieved so far and to identify remaining challenges and research gaps. This is the main goal of the initiative RAISIN (Rates of soil forming processes obtained from soils and paleosols in well-defined settings) supported by the International Union for Quaternary Research (INQUA) as an INQUA project. This main goal of RAISIN can be subdivided into four objectives: 1. Reviewing and compiling existing studies The first objective is to provide thoroughly reviewed and checked knowledge on directions and rates of soil forming processes in different climates. In a first step, existing soil chronosequence data will be compiled within the International Soil Carbon Database (http://www.fluxdata.org/NSCN/SitePages/ISCN.aspx) which is currently modified to enable inclusion of the RAISIN data. These data will then be reviewed, discussed and combined to obtain a present state of the art in terms of rates of soil forming processes in different environments. 2. Defining soil properties indicative of progressive soil development and standardized methods Soil properties that are most closely linked to soil age are identified and are recommended to be used for estimating time-spans of soil development. Standardized field and laboratory methods that are useful for assessing the stage of soil development will be recommended as well. A standard and minimum set of field and laboratory analyses to be performed on soil chronosequences and paleosols will be defined in order to ensure that new studies will be carried out in a way that permits for comparison of the newly produced data with existing data to achieve the best possible overall scientific progress. 3. Identifying challenges and

  9. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating: Development and Initial Psychometrics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Michael; Newgent, Rebecca A.

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and psychometrics of the Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating. The Juvenile Addiction Risk Rating is a brief screening of addiction potential based on 10 risk factors predictive of youth alcohol and drug-related problems that assists examiners in more accurate treatment planning when self-report information is…

  10. Sublimation rates of explosive materials : method development and initial results.

    SciTech Connect

    Phelan, James M.; Patton, Robert Thomas

    2004-08-01

    Vapor detection of explosives continues to be a technological basis for security applications. This study began experimental work to measure the chemical emanation rates of pure explosive materials as a basis for determining emanation rates of security threats containing explosives. Sublimation rates for TNT were determined with thermo gravimetric analysis using two different techniques. Data were compared with other literature values to provide sublimation rates from 25 to 70 C. The enthalpy of sublimation for the combined data was found to be 115 kJ/mol, which corresponds well with previously reported data from vapor pressure determinations. A simple Gaussian atmospheric dispersion model was used to estimate downrange concentrations based on continuous, steady-state conditions at 20, 45 and 62 C for a nominal exposed block of TNT under low wind conditions. Recommendations are made for extension of the experimental vapor emanation rate determinations and development of turbulent flow computational fluid dynamics based atmospheric dispersion estimates of standoff vapor concentrations.

  11. Molecular mechanisms involved in initiation of the DNA damage response

    PubMed Central

    Barnum, Kevin J; O’Connell, Matthew J

    2015-01-01

    DNA is subject to a wide variety of damage. In order to maintain genomic integrity, cells must respond to this damage by activating repair and cell cycle checkpoint pathways. The initiating events in the DNA damage response entail recognition of the lesion and the assembly of DNA damage response complexes at the DNA. Here, we review what is known about these processes for various DNA damage pathways. PMID:27308403

  12. Asymptotic Spreading Rate of Initially Compressible Jets: Experiment and Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zaman, K. B. M. Q.

    1998-01-01

    Experimental results for the spreading and centerline velocity decay rates for round, compressible jets, from a convergent and a convergent-divergent nozzle, are presented. The spreading rate is determined from the variation of streamwise mass flux obtained from Pitot probe surveys. Results for the far asymptotic region show that both spreading and centerline velocity decay rates, when nondimensionalized by parameters at the nozzle exit, decrease with increasing "jet Mach number" M(sub J). Dimensional analysis with the assumption of momentum conservation, together with compressible flow calculations for the conditions at the nozzle exit, predict this Mach number dependence well. The analysis also demonstrates that an increase in the "potential core length" of the jet occurring with increasing M(sub J), a commonly observed trend, is largely accounted for simply by the variations in the density and static pressure at the nozzle exit. The effect of decreasing mixing efficiency with increasing compressibility is inferred to contribute only partially to the latter trend.

  13. Pediatric defibrillation after cardiac arrest: initial response and outcome

    PubMed Central

    Rodríguez-Núñez, Antonio; López-Herce, Jesús; García, Cristina; Domínguez, Pedro; Carrillo, Angel; Bellón, Jose María

    2006-01-01

    Introduction Shockable rhythms are rare in pediatric cardiac arrest and the results of defibrillation are uncertain. The objective of this study was to analyze the results of cardiopulmonary resuscitation that included defibrillation in children. Methods Forty-four out of 241 children (18.2%) who were resuscitated from inhospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest had been treated with manual defibrillation. Data were recorded according to the Utstein style. Outcome variables were a sustained return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC) and one-year survival. Characteristics of patients and of resuscitation were evaluated. Results Cardiac disease was the major cause of arrest in this group. Ventricular fibrillation (VF) or pulseless ventricular tachycardia (PVT) was the first documented electrocardiogram rhythm in 19 patients (43.2%). A shockable rhythm developed during resuscitation in 25 patients (56.8%). The first shock (dose, 2 J/kg) terminated VF or PVT in eight patients (18.1%). Seventeen children (38.6%) needed more than three shocks to solve VF or PVT. ROSC was achieved in 28 cases (63.6%) and it was sustained in 19 patients (43.2%). Only three patients (6.8%), however, survived at 1-year follow-up. Children with VF or PVT as the first documented rhythm had better ROSC, better initial survival and better final survival than children with subsequent VF or PVT. Children who survived were older than the finally dead patients. No significant differences in response rate were observed when first and second shocks were compared. The survival rate was higher in patients treated with a second shock dose of 2 J/kg than in those who received higher doses. Outcome was not related to the cause or the location of arrest. The survival rate was inversely related to the duration of cardiopulmonary resuscitation. Conclusion Defibrillation is necessary in 18% of children who suffer cardiac arrest. Termination of VF or PVT after the first defibrillation dose is achieved in a low

  14. Feedback Functions, Optimization, and the Relation of Response Rate to Reinforcer Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soto, Paul L.; McDowell, Jack J.; Dallery, Jesse

    2006-01-01

    The present experiment arranged a series of inverted U-shaped feedback functions relating reinforcer rate to response rate to test whether responding was consistent with an optimization account or with a one-to-one relation of response rate to reinforcer rate such as linear system theory's rate equation or Herrnstein's hyperbola. Reinforcer rate…

  15. Item Response Models for Local Dependence among Multiple Ratings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Wen-Chung; Su, Chi-Ming; Qiu, Xue-Lan

    2014-01-01

    Ratings given to the same item response may have a stronger correlation than those given to different item responses, especially when raters interact with one another before giving ratings. The rater bundle model was developed to account for such local dependence by forming multiple ratings given to an item response as a bundle and assigning…

  16. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Revenue Requirement Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    The purpose of this Study is to establish the level of revenues from wholesale power rates necessary to recover, in accordance with sound business principles, the Federal Columbia River Power System (FCRPS) costs associated with the production, acquisition, marketing, and conservation of electric power. The generation revenue requirement includes: recovery of the Federal investment in hydro generation, fish and wildlife and conservation costs; Federal agencies' operations and maintenance (O&M) expenses allocated to power; capitalized contract expenses associated with non-Federal power suppliers such as Energy Northwest (EN); other power purchase expenses, such as short-term power purchases; power marketing expenses; cost of transmission services necessary for the sale and delivery of FCRPS power; and all other generation-related costs incurred by the Administrator pursuant to law.

  17. 18 CFR 35.12 - Filing of initial rate schedules and tariffs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Filing of initial rate... REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT FILING OF RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Documents To Be Submitted With a Filing § 35.12 Filing of initial rate schedules...

  18. Initiation of DNA damage responses through XPG-related nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Karen; O'Connell, Matthew J

    2013-01-23

    Lesion-specific enzymes repair different forms of DNA damage, yet all lesions elicit the same checkpoint response. The common intermediate required to mount a checkpoint response is thought to be single-stranded DNA (ssDNA), coated by replication protein A (RPA) and containing a primer-template junction. To identify factors important for initiating the checkpoint response, we screened for genes that, when overexpressed, could amplify a checkpoint signal to a weak allele of chk1 in fission yeast. We identified Ast1, a novel member of the XPG-related family of endo/exonucleases. Ast1 promotes checkpoint activation caused by the absence of the other XPG-related nucleases, Exo1 and Rad2, the homologue of Fen1. Each nuclease is recruited to DSBs, and promotes the formation of ssDNA for checkpoint activation and recombinational repair. For Rad2 and Exo1, this is independent of their S-phase role in Okazaki fragment processing. This XPG-related pathway is distinct from MRN-dependent responses, and each enzyme is critical for damage resistance in MRN mutants. Thus, multiple nucleases collaborate to initiate DNA damage responses, highlighting the importance of these responses to cellular fitness. PMID:23211746

  19. Free and forced diving in ducks: habituation of the initial dive response.

    PubMed

    Gabrielsen, G W

    1985-01-01

    Response habituation in pekin ducks was observed during a study of the early phase of the dive response. This is interpreted as the orienting response and strongly suggests higher CNS influence in the initial phase of the forced immersion heart rate response. Repeated forced dives (20-30 s) of restrained ducks were performed with 40 s recovery period between dives. During the first dives, the ducks' heart rates fell 69% (272 +/- 8 to 83 +/- 32 beats X min-1, means +/- SE) of pre-dive values. The extent of this bradycardia decreased progressively as the dives were repeated. After 60 dives, the heart rates dropped by only 29% (248 +/- 3 to 177 +/- 25 beats X min-1 for pre-dive value). Voluntary diving of the ducks, lasting 5-20 s, caused no diving bradycardia. They showed breathing tachycardia which caused a 25% increase in heart rates above diving level (160 +/- 5 to 200 +/- 12 beats X min-1). PMID:3969834

  20. PowerChoice Residential Customer Response to TOU Rates

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, Jane S.; Moezzi, Mithra; Lutzenhiser, Susan; Woods, James; Dethman, Linda; Kunkle, Rick

    2009-10-01

    Research Into Action, Inc. and the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD) worked together to conduct research on the behaviors and energy use patterns of SMUD residential customers who voluntarily signed on to a Time-of-Use rate pilot launched under the PowerChoice label. The project was designed to consider the how and why of residential customers ability and willingness to engage in demand reduction behaviors, and to link social and behavioral factors to observed changes in demand. The research drew on a combination of load interval data and three successive surveys of participating households. Two experimental treatments were applied to test the effects of increased information on households ability to respond to the Time-of-Use rates. Survey results indicated that participants understood the purpose of the Time-of-Use rate and undertook substantial appropriate actions to shift load and conserve. Statistical tests revealed minor initial price effects and more marked, but still modest, adjustments to seasonal rate changes. Tests of the two information interventions indicated that neither made much difference to consumption patterns. Despite the lackluster statistical evidence for load shifting, the analysis points to key issues for critical analysis and development of residential Time-of-Use rates, especially pertinent as California sets the stage for demand response in more California residences.

  1. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  2. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  3. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  4. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  5. 5 CFR 591.104 - Higher initial maximum uniform allowance rate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... rate. 591.104 Section 591.104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... rate. (a) The head of an agency may establish one or more initial maximum uniform allowance rates greater than the Governmentwide maximum uniform allowance rate established under § 591.103. (b) A...

  6. 47 CFR 76.930 - Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Initiation of review of basic cable service and...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.930 Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates. A cable operator shall file its schedule...

  7. 47 CFR 76.930 - Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Initiation of review of basic cable service and...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.930 Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates. A cable operator shall file its schedule...

  8. 47 CFR 76.930 - Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiation of review of basic cable service and...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.930 Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates. A cable operator shall file its schedule...

  9. 47 CFR 76.930 - Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Initiation of review of basic cable service and...) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES MULTICHANNEL VIDEO AND CABLE TELEVISION SERVICE Cable Rate Regulation § 76.930 Initiation of review of basic cable service and equipment rates. A cable operator shall file its schedule...

  10. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed...

  11. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed...

  12. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed...

  13. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed...

  14. 49 CFR 236.503 - Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... predetermined rate of speed exceeded. 236.503 Section 236.503 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to... § 236.503 Automatic brake application; initiation when predetermined rate of speed exceeded. An automatic train control system shall operate to initiate an automatic brake application when the speed...

  15. Corporate social responsibility initiatives addressing social exclusion in Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Werner, Wendy J

    2009-08-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships- collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives-may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  16. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : Wholesale Power Rate Development Study.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2007-11-01

    The Wholesale Power Rate Development Study (WPRDS) calculates BPA proposed rates based on information either developed in the WPRDS or supplied by the other studies that comprise the BPA rate proposal. All of these studies, and accompanying documentation, provide the details of computations and assumptions. In general, information about loads and resources is provided by the Load Resource Study (LRS), WP-07-E-BPA-01, and the LRS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-01A. Revenue requirements information, as well as the Planned Net Revenues for Risk (PNNR), is provided in the Revenue Requirement Study, WP-07-E-BPA-02, and its accompanying Revenue Requirement Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-02A and WP-07-E-BPA-02B. The Market Price Forecast Study (MPFS), WP-07-E-BPA-03, and the MPFS Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-03A, provide the WPRDS with information regarding seasonal and diurnal differentiation of energy rates, as well information regarding monthly market prices for Demand Rates. In addition, this study provides information for the pricing of unbundled power products. The Risk Analysis Study, WP-07-E-BPA-04, and the Risk Analysis Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-04A, provide short-term balancing purchases as well as secondary energy sales and revenue. The Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study, WP-07-E-BPA-06, and the Section 7(b)(2) Rate Test Study Documentation, WP-07-E-BPA-06A, implement Section 7(b)(2) of the Northwest Power Act to ensure that BPA preference customers firm power rates applied to their general requirements are no higher than rates calculated using specific assumptions in the Northwest Power Act.

  17. Western Mountain Initiative: predicting ecosystem responses to climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Baron, Jill S.; Peterson, David L.; Wilson, J.T.

    2008-01-01

    Mountain ecosystems of the western United States provide irreplaceable goods and services such as water, timber, biodiversity, and recreational opportunities, but their responses to climatic changes are complex and not well understood. The Western Mountain Initiative (WMI), a collaboration between USGS and U.S. Forest Service scientists, catalyzes assessment and synthesis of the effects of disturbance and climate change across western mountain areas, focusing on national parks and surrounding national forests. The WMI takes an ecosystem approach to science, integrating research across science disciplines at scales ranging from field studies to global trends.

  18. Procedural pain heart rate responses in massaged preterm infants.

    PubMed

    Diego, Miguel A; Field, Tiffany; Hernandez-Reif, Maria

    2009-04-01

    Heart rate (HR) responses to the removal of a monitoring lead were assessed in 56 preterm infants who received moderate pressure, light pressure or no massage therapy. The infants who received moderate pressure massage therapy exhibited lower increases in HR suggesting an attenuated pain response. The heart rate of infants who received moderate pressure massage also returned to baseline faster than the heart rate of the other two groups, suggesting a faster recovery rate. PMID:19185352

  19. 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Case Initial Proposal : 2007 Wholesale Power Rate Schedule and General Rate Schedule Provisions.

    SciTech Connect

    United States. Bonneville Power Administration.

    2005-11-01

    This schedule is available for the contract purchase of Firm Power to be used within the Pacific Northwest (PNW). Priority Firm (PF) Power may be purchased by public bodies, cooperatives, and Federal agencies for resale to ultimate consumers, for direct consumption, and for Construction, Test and Start-Up, and Station Service. Rates in this schedule are in effect beginning October 1, 2006, and apply to purchases under requirements Firm Power sales contracts for a three-year period. The Slice Product is only available for public bodies and cooperatives who have signed Slice contracts for the FY 2002-2011 period. Utilities participating in the Residential Exchange Program (REP) under Section 5(c) of the Northwest Power Act may purchase Priority Firm Power pursuant to the Residential Exchange Program. Rates under contracts that contain charges that escalate based on BPA's Priority Firm Power rates shall be based on the three-year rates listed in this rate schedule in addition to applicable transmission charges. This rate schedule supersedes the PF-02 rate schedule, which went into effect October 1, 2001. Sales under the PF-07 rate schedule are subject to BPA's 2007 General Rate Schedule Provisions (2007 GRSPs). Products available under this rate schedule are defined in the 2007 GRSPs. For sales under this rate schedule, bills shall be rendered and payments due pursuant to BPA's 2007 GRSPs and billing process.

  20. 18 CFR 154.202 - Filings to initiate a new rate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... new rate schedule. 154.202 Section 154.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.202 Filings to initiate a new rate schedule. (a) When the filing is...

  1. 18 CFR 154.202 - Filings to initiate a new rate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... new rate schedule. 154.202 Section 154.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.202 Filings to initiate a new rate schedule. (a) When the filing is...

  2. 18 CFR 154.202 - Filings to initiate a new rate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... new rate schedule. 154.202 Section 154.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.202 Filings to initiate a new rate schedule. (a) When the filing is...

  3. 18 CFR 154.202 - Filings to initiate a new rate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... new rate schedule. 154.202 Section 154.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.202 Filings to initiate a new rate schedule. (a) When the filing is...

  4. 18 CFR 154.202 - Filings to initiate a new rate schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... new rate schedule. 154.202 Section 154.202 Conservation of Power and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER NATURAL GAS ACT RATE SCHEDULES AND TARIFFS Procedures for Changing Tariffs § 154.202 Filings to initiate a new rate schedule. (a) When the filing is...

  5. Corporate Social Responsibility Initiatives Addressing Social Exclusion in Bangladesh

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    The private sector is often seen as a driver of exclusionary processes rather than a partner in improving the health and welfare of socially-excluded populations. However, private-sector initiatives and partnerships—collectively labelled corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives—may be able to positively impact social status, earning potential, and access to services and resources for socially-excluded populations. This paper presents case studies of CSR projects in Bangladesh that are designed to reduce social exclusion among marginalized populations and explores whether CSR initiatives can increase economic and social capabilities to reduce exclusion. The examples provide snapshots of projects that (a) increase job-skills and employment opportunities for women, disabled women, and rehabilitated drug-users and (b) provide healthcare services to female workers and their communities. The CSR case studies cover a limited number of people but characteristics and practices replicable and scaleable across different industries, countries, and populations are identified. Common success factors from the case studies form the basis for recommendations to design and implement more CSR initiatives targeting socially-excluded groups. The analysis found that CSR has potential for positive and lasting impact on developing countries, especifically on socially-excluded populations. However, there is a need for additional monitoring and critical evaluation. PMID:19761088

  6. The Wallops Flight Facility Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, Bruce E.; Kremer, Steven E.

    2004-01-01

    becomes how can a launch site provide acceptably responsive mission services to a particular customer without dedicating extensive resources and while continuing to serve other projects? NASA's Wallops Flight Facility (WFF) is pursuing solutions to exactly this challenge. NASA, in partnership with the Virginia Commercial Space Flight Authority, has initiated the Rapid Response Range Operations Initiative (R3Ops). R3Ops is a multi-phased effort to incrementally establish and demonstrate increasingly responsive launch operations, with an ultimate goal of providing ELV-class services in a maximum of 7-10 days from initial notification routinely, and shorter schedules possible with committed resources. This target will be pursued within the reality of simultaneous concurrent programs, and ideally, largely independent of specialized flight system configurations. WFF has recently completed Phase 1 of R3Ops, an in-depth collection (through extensive expert interviews) and software modeling of individual steps by various range disciplines. This modeling is now being used to identify existing inefficiencies in current procedures, to identify bottlenecks, and show interdependencies. Existing practices are being tracked to provide a baseline to benchmark against as new procedures are implemented. This paper will describe in detail the philosophies behind WFF's R3Ops, the data collected and modeled in Phase 1, and strategies for meeting responsive launch requirements in a multi-user range environment planned for subsequent phases of this initiative.

  7. Polymerization rate and mechanism of ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization of n-butyl acrylate.

    PubMed

    Xia, Hesheng; Wang, Qi; Liao, Yongqin; Xu, Xi; Baxter, Steven M; Slone, Robert V; Wu, Shuguang; Swift, Graham; Westmoreland, David G

    2002-07-01

    The factors affecting the induction period and polymerization rate in ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization of n-butyl acrylate (BA) were investigated. The induction period takes only an instant in ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization of BA without any added initiator by enhancing the N2 flow rate. Increasing temperature, power output and SDS concentration, decreasing the monomer concentration results in further decreasing induction period and enhanced polymerization rate. Under optimized reaction conditions the conversion of BA reaches 92% in 11 min. The polymerization rate can be controlled by varying reaction parameters. The apparatus of ultrasonically initiated semi-continuous and continuous emulsion polymerization were set up and the feasibility was first studied. Based on the experimental results, a free radical polymerization mechanism for ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization was proposed, including the sources of the radicals, the process of radical formation, the locus of polymerization and the polymerization process. Compared with conventional emulsion polymerization, where the radicals come from thermal decomposition of a chemical initiator, ultrasonically initiated emulsion polymerization has attractive features such as no need for a chemical initiator, lower reaction temperature, faster polymerization rate, and higher molecular weight of the polymer prepared. PMID:12154689

  8. Spinning Reserve From Hotel Load Response: Initial Progress

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, John D; Kirby, Brendan J

    2008-11-01

    This project was motivated by the fundamental match between hotel space conditioning load response capability and power system contingency response needs. As power system costs rise and capacity is strained demand response can provide a significant system reliability benefit at a potentially attractive cost. At ORNL s suggestion, Digital Solutions Inc. adapted its hotel air conditioning control technology to supply power system spinning reserve. This energy saving technology is primarily designed to provide the hotel operator with the ability to control individual room temperature set-points based upon occupancy (25% to 50% energy savings based on an earlier study [Kirby and Ally, 2002]). DSI added instantaneous local load shedding capability in response to power system frequency and centrally dispatched load shedding capability in response to power system operator command. The 162 room Music Road Hotel in Pigeon Forge Tennessee agreed to host the spinning reserve test. The Tennessee Valley Authority supplied real-time metering equipment in the form of an internet connected Dranetz-BMI power quality meter and monitoring expertise to record total hotel load during both normal operations and test results. The Sevier County Electric System installed the metering. Preliminary testing showed that hotel load can be curtailed by 22% to 37% depending on the outdoor temperature and the time of day. These results are prior to implementing control over the common area air conditioning loads. Testing was also not at times of highest system or hotel loading. Full response occurred in 12 to 60 seconds from when the system operator s command to shed load was issued. The load drop was very rapid, essentially as fast as the 2 second metering could detect, with all units responding essentially simultaneously. Load restoration was ramped back in over several minutes. The restoration ramp can be adjusted to the power system needs. Frequency response testing was not completed. Initial

  9. Effect of Mailing Address Style on Survey Response Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cookingham, Frank G.

    This study determined the effect of using mailing labels prepared by a letter-quality computer printer on survey response rate. D. A. Dillman's personalization approach to conducting mail surveys suggests that envelopes with addresses typed directly on them may produce a higher response rate than envelopes with addresses typed on self-adhesive…

  10. Diet History Questionnaire: Response Rates/Length of Questionnaire

    Cancer.gov

    Based on pilot study research from about 400 individuals in one study and about 1000 in another, the response rates for the DHQ varied from 70-85%. In both these studies, the DHQ response rates were not statistically different than those from shorter FFQs.

  11. Duration of oral contraceptive use predicts women's initial and subsequent subjective responses to sexual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Renfro, Kaytlin J; Rupp, Heather; Wallen, Kim

    2015-09-01

    Recent work suggests that a woman's hormonal state when first exposed to visual sexual stimuli (VSS) modulates her initial and subsequent responses to VSS. The present study investigated whether women's initial hormonal state was related to their subjective ratings of VSS, and whether this relationship differed with VSS content. We reanalyzed previously collected data from 14 naturally cycling (NC) women and 14 women taking oral contraceptives (OCs), who subjectively rated VSS at three hormonal time-points. NC women's ratings of 216 unique sexual images were collected during the menstrual, periovulatory, and luteal phases of their menstrual cycles, and OC women's ratings were collected at comparable time-points across their pill-cycles. NC women's initial hormonal state was not related to their ratings of VSS. OC women's initial hormonal state predicted their ratings of VSS with minimal contextual information and of images depicting female-to-male oral sex. Specifically, women who entered the study in the third week of their pill-cycle (OC-3 women) rated such images as less attractive at all testing sessions than did all other women. OC-3 women were also the only women to rate decontextualized VSS as unattractive at all testing sessions. These results corroborate previous studies in which women's initial hormonal state was found to predict subsequent interest in sexual stimuli. Future work, with larger samples, should more directly investigate whether OC-3 women's negative assessment of specific types of VSS reflects a reaction to the laboratory environment or a broader mechanism, wherein OC women's sexual interests decrease late in their pill-cycle. PMID:26204805

  12. Fracture initiates systemic inflammatory response syndrome through recruiting polymorphonuclear leucocytes.

    PubMed

    Li, Haipeng; Liu, Jia; Yao, Jianhua; Zhong, Jianfeng; Guo, Lei; Sun, Tiansheng

    2016-08-01

    Fracture, a common type injury in trauma patients, often results in the development of the systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS). Though the mechanism of the fracture-initiated SIRS still remains not well characterized, it is well documented that the polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMN) play an important role in the inflammatory process. We hypothesize that fractures recruit PMN to the local tissue, which is followed by an increase in the number of peripheral PMN and initiation of SIRS. In the current study, we established a closed femoral fracture rat model. We evaluated the levels of MPO, IL-1β and CINC-1 in fractured tissue homogenate, and we measured the levels of IL-6 and IL-10, the biomarkers for systemic inflammatory response, in the rat sera. In clinical part of the study, we collected blood from patients with isolated closed femoral fractures and evaluated PMN-related chemoattractants (IL-8, IL-1β and G-CSF) and the number of peripheral PMN. We further evaluated the level of mitochondrial DNA in the local haematoma of fracture and the circulating plasma of the patients with fracture. In the animal model of closed femoral fracture, we found a significant recruitment of PMN to the local tissue after fracture, which correlates with the elevated MPO level. We also showed that the concentration of IL-1β and CINC-1 in local tissue is significantly increased and might be responsible for the PMN recruitment. Recruitment of PMN to the local tissue was accompanied with a significant increase in the systemic levels of IL-6 and IL-10 in serum. In the patients with closed femoral fracture, we observed an increase in the number of peripheral PMN and PMN-related chemoattractants, including IL-8, IL-1β and G-CSF. The level of mitochondrial DNA in the local haematoma of fracture and the circulating plasma of patients were significantly higher compared to the healthy volunteers. Our data suggest that fracture released mitochondrial DNA into the local haematoma of

  13. Initial Atom Loss Rate after the Sudden Ramp of a BEC to Unitarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braaten, Eric; Mohaptra, Abhishek; Smith, D. Hudson

    2016-05-01

    The quantum-degenerate unitary Bose gas has been studied in an experiment at JILA in which a Bose-Einstein condensate was quickly ramped to infinite scattering length. The sudden approximation can be used to calculate the probability for creating Efimov trimers. A trimer that is created in a region of the BEC where its decay rate is faster than its reaction rate from atom-trimer scattering can contribute to the initial atom loss rate. We use universal 3-body and 4-body results to estimate the initial atom loss rate. This work was supported in part by the National Science Foundation.

  14. Effects of Population Type on Mail Survey Response Rates and on the Efficacy of Response Enhancers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Kathy E.; And Others

    Experimental studies of response rates to mail surveys were reviewed and differences in response by population type were described. Cases were selected for review if they were experimental studies that manipulated a response enhancement factor. Results suggest significant differences in typical response rates for different populations. Higher…

  15. Assessing recognition memory using confidence ratings and response times.

    PubMed

    Weidemann, Christoph T; Kahana, Michael J

    2016-04-01

    Classification of stimuli into categories (such as 'old' and 'new' in tests of recognition memory or 'present' versus 'absent' in signal detection tasks) requires the mapping of internal signals to discrete responses. Introspective judgements about a given choice response are regularly employed in research, legal and clinical settings in an effort to measure the signal that is thought to be the basis of the classification decision. Correlations between introspective judgements and task performance suggest that such ratings often do convey information about internal states that are relevant for a given task, but well-known limitations of introspection call the fidelity of this information into question. We investigated to what extent response times can reveal information usually assessed with explicit confidence ratings. We quantitatively compared response times to confidence ratings in their ability to qualify recognition memory decisions and found convergent results suggesting that much of the information from confidence ratings can be obtained from response times. PMID:27152209

  16. 77 FR 42722 - Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Berry Petroleum Company; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Berry Petroleum Company's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  17. 47 CFR 65.101 - Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings. 65.101 Section 65.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND...

  18. 47 CFR 65.101 - Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Initiation of unitary rate of return prescription proceedings. 65.101 Section 65.101 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) INTERSTATE RATE OF RETURN PRESCRIPTION PROCEDURES AND...

  19. 77 FR 35374 - Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Independence Electricity; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Independence Electricity's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  20. 78 FR 75560 - Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Biofuels Washington LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Biofuels Washington LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  1. Virginia Star Quality Initiative: QRS Profile. The Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Child Trends, 2010

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a profile of Virginia's Star Quality Initiative prepared as part of the Child Care Quality Rating System (QRS) Assessment Study. The profile consists of several sections and their corresponding descriptions including: (1) Program Information; (2) Rating Details; (3) Quality Indicators for Center-Based Programs; (4) Indicators…

  2. 78 FR 56690 - Seneca Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Seneca Generation, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Seneca Generation, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  3. 75 FR 35017 - Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-21

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Brookfield Energy Marketing LP; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Brookfield Energy Marketing LP's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate tariff, noting that such application includes...

  4. Rate of environmental change determines stress response specificity

    PubMed Central

    Young, Jonathan W.; Locke, James C. W.; Elowitz, Michael B.

    2013-01-01

    Cells use general stress response pathways to activate diverse target genes in response to a variety of stresses. However, general stress responses coexist with more specific pathways that are activated by individual stresses, provoking the fundamental question of whether and how cells control the generality or specificity of their response to a particular stress. Here we address this issue using quantitative time-lapse microscopy of the Bacillus subtilis environmental stress response, mediated by σB. We analyzed σB activation in response to stresses such as salt and ethanol imposed at varying rates of increase. Dynamically, σB responded to these stresses with a single adaptive activity pulse, whose amplitude depended on the rate at which the stress increased. This rate-responsive behavior can be understood from mathematical modeling of a key negative feedback loop in the underlying regulatory circuit. Using RNAseq we analyzed the effects of both rapid and gradual increases of ethanol and salt stress across the genome. Because of the rate responsiveness of σB activation, salt and ethanol regulons overlap under rapid, but not gradual, increases in stress. Thus, the cell responds specifically to individual stresses that appear gradually, while using σB to broaden the cellular response under more rapidly deteriorating conditions. Such dynamic control of specificity could be a critical function of other general stress response pathways. PMID:23407164

  5. Characterization of Composites Response at High Rates of Loading

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilat, Amos

    2002-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to experimentally study the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites. The experimental data provide the information needed for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength models that can subsequently be used in design. This year effort was directed into testing the epoxy resin. Two types of epoxy were tested each in tension and shear at various strain rate that ranges from 5x10(exp -5), to 700/s. The results show that both the strain rate and the mode of loading affect the epoxy response.

  6. Does obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging decrease the reamputation rates in the diabetic foot?

    PubMed Central

    Jbara, Marlena; Gokli, Ami; Beshai, Sally; Lesser, Martin L.; Hanna, Shirley; Lin, Cheryl; Zeb, Annie

    2016-01-01

    Objective Diabetes mellitus (DM) through its over glycosylation of neurovascular structures and resultant peripheral neuropathy continues to be the major risk factor for pedal amputation. Repetitive trauma to the insensate foot results in diabetic foot ulcers, which are at high risk to develop osteomyelitis. Many patients who present with diabetic foot complications will undergo one or more pedal amputations during the course of their disease. The purpose of this study was to determine if obtaining an initial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), prior to the first amputation, is associated with a decreased rate of reamputation in the diabetic foot. Our hypothesis was that the rate of reamputation may be associated with underutilization of obtaining an initial MRI, useful in presurgical planning. This study was designed to determine whether there was an association between the reamputation rate in diabetic patients and utilization of MRI in the presurgical planning and prior to initial forefoot amputations. Methods Following approval by our institutional review board, our study design consisted of a retrospective cohort analysis of 413 patients at Staten Island University Hospital, a 700-bed tertiary referral center between 2008 and 2013 who underwent an initial great toe (hallux) amputation. Of the 413 patients with a hallux amputation, there were 368 eligible patients who had a history of DM with documented hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) within 3 months of the initial first ray (hallux and first metatarsal) amputation and available radiographic data. Statistical analysis compared the incidence rates of reamputation between patients who underwent initial MRI and those who did not obtain an initial MRI prior to their first amputation. The reamputation rate was compared after adjustment for age, gender, ethnicity, HbA1c, cardiovascular disease, hypoalbuminemia, smoking, body mass index, and prior antibiotic treatment. Results The results of our statistical analysis failed to

  7. Heart Rate Response and Lactic Acid Concentration in Squash Players.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaudin, Paula; And Others

    1978-01-01

    It was concluded that playing squash is an activity that results in heart rate responses of sufficient intensity to elicit aerobic training effects without producing high lactic acid concentration in the blood. (MM)

  8. Creep Strain and Strain Rate Response of 2219 Al Alloy at High Stress Levels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Wagner, John A.; Lisagor, W. Barry

    1998-01-01

    As a result of high localized plastic deformation experienced during proof testing in an International Space Station connecting module, a study was undertaken to determine the deformation response of a 2219-T851 roll forging. After prestraining 2219-T851 Al specimens to simulate strains observed during the proof testing, creep tests were conducted in the temperature range from ambient temperature to 107 C (225 F) at stress levels approaching the ultimate tensile strength of 2219-T851 Al. Strain-time histories and strain rate responses were examined. The strain rate response was extremely high initially, but decayed rapidly, spanning as much as five orders of magnitude during primary creep. Select specimens were subjected to incremental step loading and exhibited initial creep rates of similar magnitude for each load step. Although the creep rates decreased quickly at all loads, the creep rates dropped faster and reached lower strain rate levels for lower applied loads. The initial creep rate and creep rate decay associated with primary creep were similar for specimens with and without prestrain; however, prestraining (strain hardening) the specimens, as in the aforementioned proof test, resulted in significantly longer creep life.

  9. Component duration and relative response rates in multiple schedules.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Todorov, J. C.

    1972-01-01

    Pigeons were trained on a multiple variable-interval 30-sec, variable interval 90-sec schedule with each component presented alternately for an equal duration. This duration of exposure was varied from 5 to 300 sec. The rate of response in the variable-interval 30-sec component relative to the rate of response in the variable-interval 90-sec component was studied. Results are plotted and discussed.

  10. Conditions for Circumstellar Disc Formation II: Effects of Initial Cloud Stability and Mass Accretion Rate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machida, Masahiro N.; Matsumoto, Tomoaki; Inutsuka, Shu-ichiro

    2016-09-01

    Disc formation in strongly magnetized cloud cores is investigated using a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation with a focus on the effects of the initial cloud stability and the mass accretion rate. The initial cloud stability greatly alters the disc formation process even for prestellar clouds with the same mass-to-flux ratio. A high mass accretion rate onto the disc-forming region is realized in initially unstable clouds, and a large angular momentum is introduced into the circumstellar region in a short time. The region around the protostar has both a thin infalling envelope and a weak magnetic field, which both weaken the effect of magnetic braking. The growth of the rotation-supported disc is promoted in such unstable clouds. Conversely, clouds in an initially near-equilibrium state show lower accretion rates of mass and angular momentum. The angular momentum is transported to the outer envelope before protostar formation. After protostar formation, the circumstellar region has a thick infalling envelope and a strong magnetic field that effectively brake the disc. As a result, disc formation is suppressed when the initial cloud is in a nearly stable state. The density distribution of the initial cloud also affects the disc formation process. Disc growth strongly depends on the initial conditions when the prestellar cloud has a uniform density, whereas there is no significant difference in the disc formation process in prestellar clouds with nonuniform densities.

  11. Temperature dependence of habituation of the initial responses to cold-water immersion.

    PubMed

    Tipton, M J; Golden, F S; Higenbottam, C; Mekjavic, I B; Eglin, C M

    1998-08-01

    The initial responses to cold-water immersion, evoked by stimulation of peripheral cold receptors, include tachycardia, a reflex inspiratory gasp and uncontrollable hyperventilation. When immersed naked, the maximum responses are initiated in water at 10 degrees C, with smaller responses being observed following immersion in water at 15 degrees C. Habituation of the initial responses can be achieved following repeated immersions, but the specificity of this response with regard to water temperature is not known. Thirteen healthy male volunteers were divided into a control (C) group (n = 5) and a habituation (H) group (n = 8). Each subject undertook two 3-min head-out immersions in water at 10 degrees C wearing swimming trunks. These immersions took place at a corresponding time of day with 4 days separating the two immersions. In the intervening period the C group were not exposed to cold water, while the H group undertook another six, 3-min, head-out immersions in water at 15 degrees C. Respiratory rate (fR), inspiratory minute volume (VI) and heart rate (fH) were measured continuously throughout each immersion. Following repeated immersions in water at 15 degrees C, the fR, VI and fH responses of the H group over the first 30 s of immersion were reduced (P < 0.01) from 33.3 breaths x min(-1), 50.5 l x min(-1) and 114 beats x min(-1) respectively, to 19.8 breaths x min(-1) 26.41 x min(-1) and 98 beats x min(-1), respectively. In water at 10 degrees C these responses were reduced (P < 0.01) from 47.3 breaths x min(-1), 67.61 x min(-1) and 128 beats x min(-1) to 24.0 breaths x min(-1), 29.5 l x min(-1) and 109 beats x min(-1), respectively over a corresponding period of immersion. Similar reductions were observed during the last 2.5 min of immersions. The initial responses of the C group were unchanged. It is concluded that habituation of the cold shock response can be achieved by immersion in warmer water than that for which protection is required. This suggests

  12. Role of vestibular information in initiation of rapid postural responses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runge, C. F.; Shupert, C. L.; Horak, F. B.; Zajac, F. E.; Peterson, B. W. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Patients with bilateral vestibular loss have difficulty maintaining balance without stepping when standing in tandem, on compliant surfaces, across narrow beams, or on one foot, especially with eyes closed. Normal individuals (with no sensory impairment) maintain balance in these tasks by employing quick, active hip rotation (a "hip strategy"). The absence of a hip strategy in vestibular patients responding to translations of a short support surface has previously been taken as evidence that the use of hip strategy requires an intact vestibular system. However, many tasks requiring hip strategy alter one or a combination of important system characteristics, such as initial state of the body (tandem stance), dynamics (compliant surfaces), or biomechanical limits of stability (narrow beams). Therefore, the balance deficit in these tasks may result from a failure to account for these support surface alterations when planning and executing sensorimotor responses. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that vestibular information is critical to trigger a hip strategy even on an unaltered support surface, which imposes no changes on the system characteristics. We recorded the postural responses of vestibular patients and control subjects with eyes closed to rearward support surface translations of varying velocity, in erect stance on a firm, flat surface. Subjects were instructed to maintain balance without stepping, if possible. Faster translation velocities (25 cm/s or more) produced a consistent pattern of early hip torque (first 400 ms) in control subjects (i.e., a hip strategy). Most of the patients with bilateral vestibular loss responded to the same translation velocities with similar torques. Contrary to our hypothesis, we conclude that vestibular function is not necessary to trigger a hip strategy. We postulate, therefore, that the balance deficit previously observed in vestibular patients during postural tasks that elicit a hip strategy may have been due to

  13. An Item Response Unfolding Model for Graphic Rating Scales

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Ying

    2009-01-01

    The graphic rating scale, a measurement tool used in many areas of psychology, usually takes a form of a fixed-length line segment, with both ends bounded and labeled as extreme responses. The raters mark somewhere on the line, and the length of the line segment from one endpoint to the mark is taken as the measure. An item response unfolding…

  14. Teacher-Education Graduate Surveys: Variables Related to Response Rate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boser, Judith

    1988-01-01

    Data on survey methodology employed in follow-up surveys of graduates was collected, via questionnaire, from 226 teacher education programs. Response rates correlated significantly with number of attempts to reach graduates. Other variables included questionnaire length, postage provisions, use of incentives, response deadline, and personalization…

  15. Influence of Initial Leaf Pack Size on Estimates of Breakdown Rates in Streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, M. L.; Whiles, M. R.; McTammany, M. E.; Gallo, T. M.

    2005-05-01

    Experiments to determine the influence of leaf pack size on estimates of breakdown rates were conducted in Stony Run, a moderately hardwater stream in central Pennsylvania draining mature second-growth forest. We deployed 5-mm mesh bags containing different initial amounts (2, 5, 10, 20, and 50 g) of white oak leaves at 3 sites in Stony Run during October 2004. Bags have been retrieved monthly and were processed to determine ash-free dry mass remaining and abundance of shredder-detritivores in the bags. Breakdown rates varied from 0.018 d-1 in 50 g bags to 0.015 d-1 in 2 g bags and were strongly correlated with initial weight of leaf litter (log10 initial leaf mass vs. breakdown rate r = 0.99). Total invertebrate abundance was initially higher in heavier leaf bags, and proportion of shredders increased as leaf mass declined throughout the study. Shredder abundance was positively correlated with leaf pack size (r = 0.76) and breakdown rate (r = 0.82), which indicates that shredders were more important in determining breakdown rates than mechanical fragmentation or microbial activity. These results suggest that models of stream organic matter dynamics should incorporate distribution of natural leaf packs and higher breakdown rates associated with densely packed leaves.

  16. Characterization of Composites Response at High Rates of Deformation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilat, Amos

    2001-01-01

    The objective of the proposed research is to experimentally study the effect of strain rate on mechanical response (deformation and failure) of IM-7/977-2 carbon fiber/epoxy matrix composites. The experimental data will provide the information needed for the development of a nonlinear, rate dependent deformation and strength model for this material that can subsequently be used in design.

  17. Habituation of the initial responses to cold water immersion in humans: a central or peripheral mechanism?

    PubMed Central

    Tipton, Michael J; Eglin, Clare M; Golden, Frank St C

    1998-01-01

    The initial respiratory and cardiac responses to cold water immersion are thought to be responsible for a significant number of open water deaths each year. Previous research has demonstrated that the magnitude of these responses can be reduced by repeated immersions in cold waterwhether the site of habituation is central or peripheral.Two groups of subjects undertook two 3 min head-out immersions in stirred water at 10 °C of the right-hand side of the body (R). Between these two immersions (3 whole days) the control group (n = 7) were not exposed to cold water, but the habituation group (n = 8) undertook a further six 3 min head-out immersions in stirred water at 10 °C of the left-hand side of the body (L).Repeated L immersions reduced (P < 0.01) the heart rate, respiratory frequency and volume responses. During the second R immersion a reduction (P < 0.05) in the magnitude of the responses evoked was seen in the habituation group but not in the control group, despite both groups having identical skin temperature profiles.It is concluded that the mechanisms involved in producing habituation of the initial responses are located more centrally than the peripheral receptors. PMID:9763650

  18. Initial cooperative decay rate and cooperative Lamb shift of resonant atoms in an infinite cylindrical geometry

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2011-08-15

    We obtain in both the scalar and vector photon models the analytical expressions for the initial cooperative decay rate and the cooperative Lamb shift for an ensemble of resonant atoms distributed uniformly in an infinite cylindrical geometry for the case that the initial state of the system is prepared in a phased state modulated in the direction of the cylindrical axis. We find that qualitatively the scalar and vector theories give different results.

  19. Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Rating Initiative (SRI)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crenshaw, Harrel

    2003-01-01

    The viewgraph presentation presents an overview of NASA's Supplier Outreach and Process Control (SOPC) and Supplier Risk Initiatives. The discussion of the SOPC examines its importance, current groups who are involved, provides a mission statement, and describes outreach activities and how suppliers are selected. The discussion of the Supplier Risk Initiative examines the variety of ways that integrity, availability, and assurance factor in to supplier risk and describes a new supplier rating program.

  20. Initiating Event Rates at U.S. Nuclear Power Plants. 1988 - 2013

    SciTech Connect

    Schroeder, John A.; Bower, Gordon R.

    2014-02-01

    Analyzing initiating event rates is important because it indicates performance among plants and also provides inputs to several U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) risk-informed regulatory activities. This report presents an analysis of initiating event frequencies at U.S. commercial nuclear power plants since each plant’s low-power license date. The evaluation is based on the operating experience from fiscal year 1988 through 2013 as reported in licensee event reports. Engineers with nuclear power plant experience staff reviewed each event report since the last update to this report for the presence of valid scrams or reactor trips at power. To be included in the study, an event had to meet all of the following criteria: includes an unplanned reactor trip (not a scheduled reactor trip on the daily operations schedule), sequence of events starts when reactor is critical and at or above the point of adding heat, occurs at a U.S. commercial nuclear power plant (excluding Fort St. Vrain and LaCrosse), and is reported by a licensee event report. This report displays occurrence rates (baseline frequencies) for the categories of initiating events that contribute to the NRC’s Industry Trends Program. Sixteen initiating event groupings are trended and displayed. Initiators are plotted separately for initiating events with different occurrence rates for boiling water reactors and pressurized water reactors. p-values are given for the possible presence of a trend over the most recent 10 years.

  1. On the cutting edge: ethical responsiveness to cesarean rates.

    PubMed

    Burrow, Sylvia

    2012-01-01

    Cesarean delivery rates have been steadily increasing worldwide. In response, many countries have introduced target goals to reduce rates. But a focus on target goals fails to address practices embedded in standards of care that encourage, rather than discourage, cesarean sections. Obstetrical standards of care normalize use of technology, creating an imperative to use technology during labor and birth. A technological imperative is implicated in rising cesarean rates if physicians or patients fear refusing use of technology. Reproductive autonomy is at stake since a technological imperative undermines patients' ability to choose cesareans or refuse use of technology increasing the likelihood of cesareans. To address practices driven by a technological imperative I outline three physician obligations that are attached to respecting patient autonomy. These moral obligations show that a focus on respect for autonomy may prove not only an ideal ethical response but also an achievable practical response to lowering cesarean rates. PMID:22694036

  2. The Effect of a College Pen Incentive on Survey Response Rate among Recent College Graduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stange, Jonathan P.; Zyzanski, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    Incentives have shown a variable effect in improving survey response rates, but the effect of a pen from an organization to which the respondent has loyalty has not been studied. Recent college graduates were randomized to receive or not receive a college logo pen accompanying an initial survey mailing. Among 119 total respondents, there were no…

  3. Survey Platform: A Factor Influencing Online Survey Delivery and Response Rate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nair, Chenicheri Sid; Adams, Phillip

    2009-01-01

    Online surveys in general are advantageous because of the ease of administration, collection and storing of data resulting in monetary and time savings. Though research in general shows the advantages to be beneficial, the down-side to such online surveys has been the response rate. The aim of this paper is to initiate a discussion where one…

  4. Simultaneous effect of initial moisture content and airflow rate on biodrying of sewage sludge.

    PubMed

    Huiliñir, Cesar; Villegas, Manuel

    2015-10-01

    The simultaneous effect of initial moisture content (initial Mc) and air-flow rate (AFR) on biodrying performance was evaluated. For the study, a 3(2) factorial design, whose factors were AFR (1, 2 and 3 L/min kg(TS)) and initial Mc (59, 68 and 78% w.b.), was used. Using energy and water mass balance the main routes of water removal, energy use and efficiencies were determined. The results show that initial Mc has a stronger effect on the biodrying than the AFR, affecting the air outlet temperature and improving the water removal, with higher maximum temperatures obtained around 68% and the lowest maximum matrix temperature obtained at initial Mc = 78%.Through the water mass balance it was found that the main mechanism for water removal was the aeration, with higher water removal at intermediate initial Mc (68%) and high AFR (3 L/min kg(TS)). The energy balance indicated that bioreaction is the main energy source for water evaporation, with higher energy produced at intermediate initial Mc (68%). Finally, it was found that low values of initial Mc (59%) improve biodrying efficiency. PMID:26054696

  5. Nucleoside diphosphate regulation of overall rates of protein biosynthesis acting at the level of initiation.

    PubMed

    Hucul, J A; Henshaw, E C; Young, D A

    1985-12-15

    A sensitive assay method developed to examine the effects of subtle, physiologically relevant, changes in the levels of adenine and guanine mono-, di-, and triphosphorylated nucleotides specifically on the initiation of protein synthesis is described. Initiation rates are quantified by measuring the amount of protein synthesis resulting from the run-off of ribosomes which have initiated during defined intervals in a modified in vitro protein-synthesizing system developed from Ehrlich ascites tumor cell lysates (Henshaw, E.C., and Panniers, R. (1983) Methods Enzymol. 101, 616-629). The modifications include the attenuation of the ATP-regenerating system so that the relative nucleotide levels more nearly reflect actual intracellular conditions. With this system the rate of initiation is highly sensitive to changes in the ADP:ATP and GDP:GTP ratios, but indifferent to the absolute levels of either diphosphate. While the tight coupling of these two ratios by endogenous nucleoside diphosphate kinase activity prevents the independent manipulation of either ratio, the data do eliminate both AMP and GMP per se as inhibitory species. The close agreement of our data calculated in terms of energy charge to previously published results on overall rates of protein synthesis in rat thymocytes (Mendelsohn, S.K., Nordeen, S.K., and Young, D.A. (1977) Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 79, 53-60) continues to suggest a physiologically relevant regulatory influence of subtle changes in nucleotides acting at the level of the initiation reaction. PMID:2999123

  6. Reinforcer magnitude and resistance to disruption of forgetting functions and response rates.

    PubMed

    Berry, Meredith S; Odum, Amy L

    2014-05-01

    The present experiment investigated the effects of reinforcer magnitude on resistance to disruption of remembering and response rates. Pigeons were exposed to a variable-interval (VI), delayed-matching-to-sample (DMTS) procedure with two components (rich and lean, distinguished by differing discriminative stimuli and hopper presentation duration). Completion of a VI 20 s schedule resulted in DMTS trials. In a DMTS trial, a choice of one of two comparison stimuli resulted in food if the choice matched the color of the previously presented sample stimulus. Separable aspects of the forgetting functions (initial discrimination and rate of forgetting) were examined by determining accuracy across a range of delays. Response rates and accuracy were higher in the rich relative to the lean component during baseline, and were more persistent during disruptors (extinction and prefeeding). During DMTS trials, extinction decreased initial discrimination more in the lean than the rich component, but had no systematic effect on rate of forgetting. During prefeeding, the rate of forgetting increased more in the lean than the rich component, but initial discrimination was not systematically affected. These results show persistence of response rates and remembering are positively related to reinforcer magnitude. The type of disruptor also influences the way in which remembering is disrupted. PMID:24723340

  7. Accurate label-free reaction kinetics determination using initial rate heat measurements

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Kourosh Honarmand; Hagedoorn, Peter-Leon; Jacobs, Denise; Hagen, Wilfred R.

    2015-01-01

    Accurate label-free methods or assays to obtain the initial reaction rates have significant importance in fundamental studies of enzymes and in application-oriented high throughput screening of enzyme activity. Here we introduce a label-free approach for obtaining initial rates of enzyme activity from heat measurements, which we name initial rate calorimetry (IrCal). This approach is based on our new finding that the data recorded by isothermal titration calorimetry for the early stages of a reaction, which have been widely ignored, are correlated to the initial rates. Application of the IrCal approach to various enzymes led to accurate enzyme kinetics parameters as compared to spectroscopic methods and enabled enzyme kinetic studies with natural substrate, e.g. proteases with protein substrates. Because heat is a label-free property of almost all reactions, the IrCal approach holds promise in fundamental studies of various enzymes and in use of calorimetry for high throughput screening of enzyme activity. PMID:26574737

  8. 78 FR 40473 - Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Plainfield Renewable Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding,...

  9. 77 FR 64980 - Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Chesapeake Renewable Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization October 18, 2012. This is a supplemental notice in the...

  10. 78 FR 52913 - Allegany Generating Station LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Allegany Generating Station LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding...

  11. 75 FR 61747 - Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Union Leader Corporation; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Union Leader Corporation's application for market-based...

  12. 78 FR 38026 - Nextenergy Services LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-25

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Nextenergy Services LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of...

  13. 77 FR 30521 - Community Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Community Energy, Inc.; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of...

  14. 77 FR 60984 - World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission World Digital Innovations; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based... above-referenced proceeding, of World Digital Innovations' application for market-based rate...

  15. 78 FR 49508 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application...

  16. 78 FR 16262 - Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-14

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for Blanket Section 204 Authorization This is a supplemental notice in the above-referenced proceeding, of Tesoro Refining & Marketing Company LLC's application...

  17. Initial hydrologic and geomorphic response following a wildfire in the Colorado front range

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Martin, D.A.

    2001-01-01

    A wildfire in May 1996 burned 4690 hectares in two watersheds forested by ponderosa pine and Douglas fir in a steep, mountainous landscape with a summer, convective thunderstorm precipitation regime. The wildfire lowered the erosion threshold in the watersheds, and consequently amplified the subsequent erosional response to shorter time interval episodic rainfall and created both erosional and depositional features in a complex pattern throughout the watersheds. The initial response during the first four years was an increase in runoff and erosion rates followed by decreases toward pre-fire rates. The maximum unit-area peak discharge was 24 m3 s-1 km-2 for a rainstorm in 1996 with a rain intensity of 90 mm h-1. Recovery to pre-fire conditions seems to have occured by 2000 because for a maximum 30-min rainfall intensity of 50 mm h-1, the unit-area peak discharge in 1997 was 6.6 m3 s-1 km-2, while in 2000 a similar intensity produced only 0.11 m3 s-1 km-2. Rill erosion accounted for 6 per cent, interrill erosion for 14 per cent, and drainage erosion for 80 per cent of the initial erosion in 1996. This represents about a 200-fold increase in erosion rates on hillslopes which had a recovery or relaxation time of about three years. About 67 per cent of the initially eroded sediment is still stored in the watersheds after four years with an estimated residence time greater than 300 years. This residence time is much greater than the fire recurrence interval so erosional and depositional features may become legacies from the wildfire and may affect landscape evolution by acting as a new set of initial conditions for subsequent wildfire and flood sequences. Published in 2001 by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd.

  18. Calculation of Decompression Rates for the Initial Explosive Phase of the 2010 Merapi Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matthews, E.; Genareau, K. D.

    2015-12-01

    The 2010 eruption of Merapi (Java, Indonesia) initiated with an uncharacteristic explosion, followed by rapid lava dome growth and collapse, all of which generated deadly pyroclastic density currents (PDCs). PDC samples from the initial explosion on October 26th were collected from several locations surrounding the edifice. Plagioclase phenocrysts represent the primary component of the dominant ash mode due to the elutriation of the finer ash fraction during PDC transport. Secondary electron images of 45 phenocrysts were taken using the scanning electron microscope (SEM) to examine preserved glass coatings on phenocrysts, which represent the interstitial melt within the magma at the point of fragmentation. Using these images, the bubble number densities (BNDs) were determined, and the decompression rate meter of Toramaru (2006) was used to calculate the decompression rate during the initial explosion of the 2010 Merapi eruption. Calculated decompression rates range from 6.08x10^7 Pa/s to 1.4x10^8 Pa/s. Decompression rates have shown to correlate with eruption column height; therefore Merapi's rates should be similar to those of other Vulcanian explosions, because the eruption column was 8-9 km in height. The decompression rates acquired for Merapi using Toramaru's BND meter are higher than the rates calculated with other methods such as microlite number density and extension cracks in crystals. Sakurajima volcano (Japan) experienced decompression rates from 7.0 × 10^3 to 7.8 × 10^4 Pa/s during the later phase of the fall 2011 Vulcanian explosions. Plinian explosions, such as at the 1991 eruption of Mt. Pinatubo and the 1980 eruption of St. Helens had much higher column heights compared to the initial 2010 Merapi explosion; 35 km, 19 km, and 8-9 km, respectively, but decompression rates in a comparative range (10^8 Pa/s). Higher decompression rates during the 2010 initial explosion at Merapi likely resulted from increased overpressure in the shallow conduit, the

  19. Linear and cubic response to the initial eccentricity in heavy-ion collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noronha-Hostler, Jacquelyn; Yan, Li; Gardim, Fernando G.; Ollitrault, Jean-Yves

    2016-01-01

    We study the relation between elliptic flow, v2, and the initial eccentricity, ɛ2, in heavy-ion collisions, using hydrodynamic simulations. Significant deviations from linear eccentricity scaling are seen in more peripheral collisions. We identify the mechanism responsible for these deviations as a cubic response, which we argue is a generic property of the hydrodynamic response to the initial density profile. The cubic response increases elliptic flow fluctuations, thereby improving agreement of initial condition models with experimental data.

  20. Deconvolution of evoked responses obtained at high stimulus rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delgado, Rafael E.; Ozdamar, Ozcan

    2004-03-01

    Continuous loop averaging deconvolution (CLAD) is a new general mathematical theory and method developed to deconvolve overlapping auditory evoked responses obtained at high stimulation rates. Using CLAD, arbitrary stimulus sequences are generated and averaged responses deconvolved. Until now, only a few special stimulus series such as maximum length sequences (MLS) and Legendre sequences (LGS) were capable of performing this task. A CLAD computer algorithm is developed and implemented in an evoked potential averaging system. Computer simulations are used to verify the theory and methodology. Auditory brainstem responses (ABR) and middle latency responses (MLR) are acquired from subjects with normal hearing at high stimulation rates to validate and show the feasibility of the CLAD technique.

  1. Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2002-07-21

    Demand response programs are often quickly and poorly crafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisis subsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared when the next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate the event-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demand responsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such, demand response can be required as a condition of service, and the offering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities as an element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore the costs and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response system capable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operator controlled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customer controlled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Any demand response program based on this system could consist of either or both of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled, providing automatic load management through customer-programmed price response, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability in California. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers to implementation of such a program in California.

  2. Initial colonization, community assembly and ecosystem function: fungal colonist traits and litter biochemistry mediate decay rate.

    PubMed

    Cline, Lauren C; Zak, Donald R

    2015-10-01

    Priority effects are an important ecological force shaping biotic communities and ecosystem processes, in which the establishment of early colonists alters the colonization success of later-arriving organisms via competitive exclusion and habitat modification. However, we do not understand which biotic and abiotic conditions lead to strong priority effects and lasting historical contingencies. Using saprotrophic fungi in a model leaf decomposition system, we investigated whether compositional and functional consequences of initial colonization were dependent on initial colonizer traits, resource availability or a combination thereof. To test these ideas, we factorially manipulated leaf litter biochemistry and initial fungal colonist identity, quantifying subsequent community composition, using neutral genetic markers, and community functional characteristics, including enzyme potential and leaf decay rates. During the first 3 months, initial colonist respiration rate and physiological capacity to degrade plant detritus were significant determinants of fungal community composition and leaf decay, indicating that rapid growth and lignolytic potential of early colonists contributed to altered trajectories of community assembly. Further, initial colonization on oak leaves generated increasingly divergent trajectories of fungal community composition and enzyme potential, indicating stronger initial colonizer effects on energy-poor substrates. Together, these observations provide evidence that initial colonization effects, and subsequent consequences on litter decay, are dependent upon substrate biochemistry and physiological traits within a regional species pool. Because microbial decay of plant detritus is important to global C storage, our results demonstrate that understanding the mechanisms by which initial conditions alter priority effects during community assembly may be key to understanding the drivers of ecosystem-level processes. PMID:26331892

  3. Assessing recognition memory using confidence ratings and response times

    PubMed Central

    Kahana, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Classification of stimuli into categories (such as ‘old’ and ‘new’ in tests of recognition memory or ‘present’ versus ‘absent’ in signal detection tasks) requires the mapping of internal signals to discrete responses. Introspective judgements about a given choice response are regularly employed in research, legal and clinical settings in an effort to measure the signal that is thought to be the basis of the classification decision. Correlations between introspective judgements and task performance suggest that such ratings often do convey information about internal states that are relevant for a given task, but well-known limitations of introspection call the fidelity of this information into question. We investigated to what extent response times can reveal information usually assessed with explicit confidence ratings. We quantitatively compared response times to confidence ratings in their ability to qualify recognition memory decisions and found convergent results suggesting that much of the information from confidence ratings can be obtained from response times. PMID:27152209

  4. Loading rate increases during barefoot running in habitually shod runners: Individual responses to an unfamiliar condition.

    PubMed

    Tam, Nicholas; Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Coetzee, Devon R; van Pletsen, Leanri; Tucker, Ross

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of barefoot running on initial loading rate (LR), lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics, and neuromuscular control in habitually shod runners with an emphasis on the individual response to this unfamiliar condition. Kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from 51 habitually shod runners during overground running in a barefoot and shod condition. Joint kinetics and stiffness were calculated with inverse dynamics. Inter-individual initial LR variability was explored by separating individuals by a barefoot/shod ratio to determine acute responders/non-responders. Mean initial LR was 54.1% greater in the barefoot when compared to the shod condition. Differences between acute responders/non-responders were found at peak and initial contact sagittal ankle angle and at initial ground contact. Correlations were found between barefoot sagittal ankle angle at initial ground contact and barefoot initial LR. A large variability in biomechanical responses to an acute exposure to barefoot running was found. A large intra-individual variability was found in initial LR but not ankle plantar-dorsiflexion between footwear conditions. A majority of habitually shod runners do not exhibit previously reported benefits in terms of reduced initial LRs when barefoot. Lastly, runners who increased LR when barefoot reduced LRs when wearing shoes to levels similar seen in habitually barefoot runners who do adopt a forefoot-landing pattern, despite increased dorsiflexion. PMID:27131176

  5. Spall Response of Tantalum at Extreme Strain-Rates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Eric; Germann, Tim; Meyers, Marc

    Strain-rate and microstructure play a significant role in the ultimate mechanical response of materials. Using non-equilibrium molecular dynamics simulations, we characterize the ductile tensile failure of single and nanocrystalline tantalum over multiple orders of magnitude of strain-rate. This comparison is extended to over nine orders of magnitude including experimental results from resent laser shock campaigns. Spall strength primarily follows a power law dependence with strain-rate over this extensive range. In all cases, voids nucleate heterogeneously at pre-existing defects. Predictions based on traditional theory suggest that, as strain-rate increases, tensile strength should increase. Alternatively, as grain size decreases, tensile strength may decrease due to an increased propensity to fail at a growing volume fraction of grain boundaries. Strain-rate and grain size dictate void nucleation sites by changing the type and density of available defects: vacancies, dislocations, twins, and grain boundaries.

  6. Dissociation between verbal response initiation and suppression after prefrontal lesions.

    PubMed

    Volle, Emmanuelle; de Lacy Costello, Angela; Coates, Laure M; McGuire, Catrin; Towgood, Karren; Gilbert, Sam; Kinkingnehun, Serge; McNeil, Jane E; Greenwood, Richard; Papps, Ben; van den Broeck, Martin; Burgess, Paul W

    2012-10-01

    Some of the most striking symptoms after prefrontal damage are reduction of behavioral initiation and inability to suppress automatic behaviors. However, the relation between these 2 symptoms and the location of the lesions that cause them are not well understood. This study investigates the cerebral correlates of initiation and suppression abilities assessed by the Hayling Sentence Completion Test, using the human lesion approach. Forty-five patients with focal brain lesions and 110 healthy matched controls were examined. We combined a classical group approach with 2 voxel-based lesion methods. The results show several critical prefrontal regions to Hayling Test performance, associated with either common or differential impairment in "initiation" and "suppression" conditions. A crucial role for medial rostral prefrontal cortex (BA 10) in the initiation condition was shown by both group and lesion-mapping methods. A posterior inferolateral lesion provoked both initiation and suppression slowness, although to different degrees. An orbitoventral region was associated with errors in the suppression condition. These findings are important for clinical practice since they indicate that the brain regions required to perform a widely used and sensitive neuropsychological test but also shed light on the regions crucial for distinct components of adaptative behaviors, in particular, rostral prefrontal cortex. PMID:22095216

  7. Response to Intervention: Initiating a School's Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Rhonda

    2012-01-01

    Change in schools is ever present. This study looks at change in regard to the implementation of Response to Intervention. Response to Intervention is being implemented in schools around the country. With this implementation come many changes to a school--in the administration, the faculty, and the students. Very little research exists concerning…

  8. Increasing Response Rates to Web-Based Surveys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Martha C.; Adams, Damian C.

    2012-01-01

    We review a popular method for collecing data--Web-based surveys. Although Web surveys are popular, one major concern is their typically low response rates. Using the Dillman et al. (2009) approach, we designed, pre-tested, and implemented a survey on climate change with Extension professionals in the Southeast. The Dillman approach worked well,…

  9. Heart Rate Variability: Effect of Exercise Intensity on Postexercise Response

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, David V. B.; Munson, Steven C.; Maldonado-Martin, Sara; De Ste Croix, Mark B. A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the influence of two exercise intensities (moderate and severe) on heart rate variability (HRV) response in 16 runners 1 hr prior to (-1 hr) and at +1 hr, +24 hr, +48 hr, and +72 hr following each exercise session. Time domain indexes and a high frequency component showed a significant decrease…

  10. Resistance to Change of Forgetting Functions and Response Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odum, Amy L.; Shahan, Timothy A.; Nevin, John A.

    2005-01-01

    This experiment examined the effects of reinforcement probability on resistance to change of remembering and response rate. Pigeons responded on a two- component multiple schedule in which completion of a variable-interval 20-s schedule produced delayed matching-to-sample trials in both components. Each session included four delays (0.1 s, 2 s, 4…

  11. Using Web Surveys to Reach Community College Students: An Analysis of Response Rates and Response Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sax, Linda J.; Gilmartin, Shannon K.; Lee, Jenny J.; Hagedorn, Linda Serra

    2008-01-01

    This study was designed to examine response rates and bias among a sample of community college students who received a district-wide survey by standard mail or e-mail. Findings suggest that predictors of response and types of responses are not appreciably different across paper and online mail-out samples when these samples are "matched" in terms…

  12. Lower Response Rates on Alumni Surveys Might Not Mean Lower Response Representativeness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambert, Amber D.; Miller, Angie L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to explore some possible issues with response representativeness in alumni surveys. While alumni surveys can provide important information, they often have lower response rates due to bad contact information and other reasons. In this study we investigate potential differences between responses on the National…

  13. 76 FR 25328 - New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market... in the above-referenced proceeding of New Mexico Green Initiatives, LLC's application for market...Library system by clicking on the appropriate link in the above list. They are also available for...

  14. Taking the Initiative: A Green Light for Contraceptive Responsibility?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillis, Diane E.; Allgeier, Elizabeth Rice

    One explanation for the lack of contraception use among adolescents is that young women may feel embarrassment or rejection by their partners if they initiate the use of contraception. To explore young adults' reactions to contraceptive use, 160 college students evaluated a description of an unmarried young couple which varied the length of time…

  15. Dissociation between Verbal Response Initiation and Suppression after Prefrontal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    de Lacy Costello, Angela; Coates, Laure M.; McGuire, Catrin; Towgood, Karren; Gilbert, Sam; Kinkingnehun, Serge; McNeil, Jane E.; Greenwood, Richard; Papps, Ben; van den Broeck, Martin; Burgess, Paul W.

    2012-01-01

    Some of the most striking symptoms after prefrontal damage are reduction of behavioral initiation and inability to suppress automatic behaviors. However, the relation between these 2 symptoms and the location of the lesions that cause them are not well understood. This study investigates the cerebral correlates of initiation and suppression abilities assessed by the Hayling Sentence Completion Test, using the human lesion approach. Forty-five patients with focal brain lesions and 110 healthy matched controls were examined. We combined a classical group approach with 2 voxel-based lesion methods. The results show several critical prefrontal regions to Hayling Test performance, associated with either common or differential impairment in “initiation” and “suppression” conditions. A crucial role for medial rostral prefrontal cortex (BA 10) in the initiation condition was shown by both group and lesion-mapping methods. A posterior inferolateral lesion provoked both initiation and suppression slowness, although to different degrees. An orbitoventral region was associated with errors in the suppression condition. These findings are important for clinical practice since they indicate that the brain regions required to perform a widely used and sensitive neuropsychological test but also shed light on the regions crucial for distinct components of adaptative behaviors, in particular, rostral prefrontal cortex. PMID:22095216

  16. Rates and technologies for mass-market demand response

    SciTech Connect

    Herter, Karen; Levy, Roger; Wilson, John; Rosenfeld, Arthur

    2002-07-21

    Demand response programs are often quickly and poorlycrafted in reaction to an energy crisis and disappear once the crisissubsides, ensuring that the electricity system will be unprepared whenthe next crisis hits. In this paper, we propose to eliminate theevent-driven nature of demand response programs by considering demandresponsiveness a component of the utility obligation to serve. As such,demand response can be required as a condition of service, and theoffering of demand response rates becomes a requirement of utilities asan element of customer service. Using this foundation, we explore thecosts and benefits of a smart thermostat-based demand response systemcapable of two types of programs: (1) a mandatory, system-operatorcontrolled, contingency program, and (2) a voluntary, customercontrolled, bill management program with rate-based incentives. Anydemand response program based on this system could consist of either orboth of these components. Ideally, these programs would be bundled,providing automatic load management through customer-programmed priceresponse, plus up to 10 GW of emergency load shedding capability inCalifornia. Finally, we discuss options for and barriers toimplementation of such a program in California.

  17. A mesoscopic reaction rate model for shock initiation of multi-component PBX explosives.

    PubMed

    Liu, Y R; Duan, Z P; Zhang, Z Y; Ou, Z C; Huang, F L

    2016-11-01

    The primary goal of this research is to develop a three-term mesoscopic reaction rate model that consists of a hot-spot ignition, a low-pressure slow burning and a high-pressure fast reaction terms for shock initiation of multi-component Plastic Bonded Explosives (PBX). Thereinto, based on the DZK hot-spot model for a single-component PBX explosive, the hot-spot ignition term as well as its reaction rate is obtained through a "mixing rule" of the explosive components; new expressions for both the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term are also obtained by establishing the relationships between the reaction rate of the multi-component PBX explosive and that of its explosive components, based on the low-pressure slow burning term and the high-pressure fast reaction term of a mesoscopic reaction rate model. Furthermore, for verification, the new reaction rate model is incorporated into the DYNA2D code to simulate numerically the shock initiation process of the PBXC03 and the PBXC10 multi-component PBX explosives, and the numerical results of the pressure histories at different Lagrange locations in explosive are found to be in good agreements with previous experimental data. PMID:27258213

  18. Fast two-position initial alignment for SINS using velocity plus angular rate measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Guobin

    2015-10-01

    An improved two-position initial alignment model for strapdown inertial navigation system is proposed. In addition to the velocity, angular rates are incorporated as measurements. The measurement equations in full three channels are derived in both navigation and body frames and the latter of which is found to be preferred. The cross-correlation between the process and the measurement noises is analyzed and addressed in the Kalman filter. The incorporation of the angular rates, without introducing additional device or external signal, speeds up the convergence of estimating the attitudes, especially the heading. In the simulation study, different algorithms are tested with different initial errors, and the advantages of the proposed method compared to the conventional one are validated by the simulation results.

  19. Cooperative Lamb shift and the cooperative decay rate for an initially detuned phased state

    SciTech Connect

    Friedberg, Richard; Manassah, Jamal T.

    2010-04-15

    The cooperative Lamb shift (CLS) is hard to measure because in samples much larger than a resonant wavelength it is much smaller, for an initially prepared resonantly phased state, than the cooperative decay rate (CDR). We show, however, that if the phasing of the initial state is detuned so that the spatial wave vector is k{sub 1} congruent with k{sub 0{+-}}O((1/R)) (where k{sub 0}={omega}{sub 0}/c is the resonant frequency), the CLS grows to 'giant' magnitudes making it comparable to the CDR. Moreover, for certain controlled values of detuning, the initial CDR becomes small so that the dynamical Lamb shift (DLS) can be measured over a considerable period of time.

  20. Improving response rate and quality of survey data with a scratch lottery ticket incentive

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The quality of data collected in survey research is usually indicated by the response rate; the representativeness of the sample, and; the rate of completed questions (item-response). In attempting to improve a generally declining response rate in surveys considerable efforts are being made through follow-up mailings and various types of incentives. This study examines effects of including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter to a survey. Method Questionnaires concerning oral health were mailed to a random sample of 2,400 adults. A systematically selected half of the sample (1,200 adults) received a questionnaire including a scratch lottery ticket. One reminder without the incentive was sent. Results The incentive increased the response rate and improved representativeness by reaching more respondents with lower education. Furthermore, it reduced item nonresponse. The initial incentive had no effect on the propensity to respond after the reminder. Conclusion When attempting to improve survey data, three issues become important: response rate, representativeness, and item-response. This study shows that including a scratch lottery ticket in the invitation letter performs well on all the three. PMID:22515335

  1. Opioid activity in behavioral and heart rate responses of tethered pigs to acute stress.

    PubMed

    Loijens, L W S; Janssens, C J J G; Schouten, W G P; Wiegant, V M

    2002-04-15

    In a longitudinal experiment, effects of long-term tether housing on heart rate and behavioral responses to an acute stressor (a 15-min challenge with a nosesling) were investigated in pigs. The animals were challenged during loose housing and again after 10-11 weeks of tether housing. To detect possible changes in endogenous opioid systems modifying these responses, the pigs were pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone (0.5 mg/kg body weight, iv). In response to the nosesling challenge, the animals showed pronounced resistance behavior and a sharp rise in heart rate. Following this initial phase of resistance, the heart rate dropped to prechallenge levels or below this line, and the pigs seemed to become sedated. Pretreatment with naloxone increased the heart rate response in animals that were long-term tether housed (n=12). No such effect was found in the control group (n=5) that was loose-housed during the entire experiment, indicating that the impact of endogenous opioid systems mitigating heart rate responses to acute stress had increased as a result of long-term tether housing. Changes in the effect of naloxone on the behavioral response were not found. Adaptive changes in opioid systems may prevent excessive physiological reactions to acute stress and, thus, may serve as a coping mechanism. PMID:12020727

  2. Effect of initial acceleration on the development of the flow field of an airfoil pitching at constant rate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koochesfahani, M. M.; Smiljanovski, V.; Brown, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    We present results from a series of experiments where an airfoil is pitched at constant rate from 0 to 60 degrees angle of attack. It is well documented that the dynamic stall behavior of such an airfoil strongly depends on the nondimensional pitch rate K = dot-alpha C/(2U(sub infinity)), where C is the chord, dot-alpha the constant pitch rate, and U(sub infinity) the free stream speed. In reality, the actual motion of the airfoil deviates from the ideal ramp due to the finite acceleration and deceleration periods imposed by the damping of drive system and response characteristics of the airfoil. It is possible that the pitch rate alone may not suffice in describing the flow and that the details of the motion trajectory before achieving a desired constant pitch rate may also affect the processes involved in the dynamic stall phenomenon. The effects of acceleration and deceleration periods are investigated by systematically varing the acceleration magnitude and its duration through the initial acceleration phase to constant pitch rate. The magnitude and duration of deceleration needed to bring the airfoil motion to rest is similarly controlled.

  3. Relationship between the initial rate of protein aggregation and the lag period for amorphous aggregation.

    PubMed

    Borzova, Vera A; Markossian, Kira A; Kurganov, Boris I

    2014-07-01

    Lag period is an inherent characteristic of the kinetic curves registered for protein aggregation. The appearance of a lag period is connected with the nucleation stage and the stages of the formation of folding or unfolding intermediates prone to aggregation (for example, the stage of protein unfolding under stress conditions). Discovering the kinetic regularities essential for elucidation of the protein aggregation mechanism comprises deducing the relationship between the lag period and aggregation rate. Fändrich proposed the following equation connecting the duration of the lag phase (tlag) and the aggregate growth rate (kg) in the amyloid fibrillation: kg=const/tlag. To establish the relationship between the initial rate of protein aggregation (v) and the lag period (t0) in the case of amorphous aggregation, the kinetics of dithithreitol-induced aggregation of holo-α-lactalbumin from bovine milk was studied (0.1M Na-phosphate buffer, pH 6.8; 37°C). The order of aggregation with respect to protein (n) was calculated from the dependence of the initial rate of protein aggregation on the α-lactalbumin concentration (n=5.3). The following equation connecting v and t0 has been proposed: v(1/n)=const/(t0-t0,lim), where t0,lim is the limiting value of t0 at high concentrations of the protein. PMID:24794200

  4. Qigong Effects on Heart Rate Variability and Peripheral Vasomotor Responses.

    PubMed

    Chang, Mei-Ying

    2015-11-01

    Population aging is occurring worldwide, and preventing cardiovascular event in older people is a unique challenge. The aim of this study was to examine the effects of a 12-week qigong (eight-form moving meditation) training program on the heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor response of middle-aged and elderly people in the community. This was a quasi-experimental study that included the pre-test, post-test, and nonequivalent control group designs. Seventy-seven participants (experimental group = 47; control group = 30) were recruited. The experimental group performed 30 min of eight-form moving meditation 3 times per week for 12 weeks, and the control group continued their normal daily activities. After 12 weeks, the interaction effects indicated that compared with the control group, the experimental group exhibited significantly improved heart rate variability and peripheral vasomotor responses. PMID:24869492

  5. Community Colleges Maintain Modest Response Rates to Prospective Student Inquiry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadinger, David; Sherry, Kristin M.; Smith, Hollie L.; Clark, Emilie C.

    2016-01-01

    None of the community colleges in this study responded with a text message, as requested in the prospective student's inquiry. Only 1.38% (n = 3) of the institutions responded to the inquiry with a telephone call. This research realized a slightly higher rate of e-mail response within five working days; 54.98% (n = 116) as opposed to the 2009…

  6. Enrollment and response rates in a longitudinal birth cohort.

    PubMed

    Golding, Jean; Birmingham, Karen

    2009-07-01

    For the scientific credibility of study results, longitudinal cohort studies need to invest time, money and creative thought in establishing and maintaining the maximum number of study participants. Although success depends to a large extent on the resources available, much can be achieved by establishing a culture of integrity and enthusiasm among study staff that is conveyed to participants at all times. In this paper we outline various strategies that can be included in order to maximise the response rates. PMID:19490447

  7. The role of wall confinement on the decay rate of an initially isotropic turbulent field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowling, David R.; Movahed, Pooya; Johnsen, Eric

    2014-11-01

    The problem of freely decaying isotropic turbulence has been the subject of intensive research during the past few decades due to its importance for modeling purposes. While isotropy and periodic boundary conditions assumptions simplify the analysis, large-scale anisotropy (e.g., caused by rotation, shear, acceleration or walls) is in practice present in most turbulent flows and affects flow dynamics across different scales, as well as the kinetic energy decay. We investigate the role of wall confinement and viscous dissipation on the decay rate of an initially isotropic field for confining volumes of different aspect ratios. We first generate an isotropic velocity field in a cube with periodic boundary conditions. Next, using this field, we change the boundary conditions to no-slip walls on all sides. These walls restrict the initial field to a confined geometry and also provide an additional viscous dissipation mechanism. The problem is considered for confining volumes of different aspect ratios by adjusting the initial field. The change in confining volume introduces an additional length scale to the problem. Direct numerical simulation of the proposed set-up is used to verify the scaling arguments for the decay rate of kinetic energy. This work used the Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment (XSEDE), which is supported by National Science Foundation Grant Number ACI-1053575.

  8. The Sensitivity of Response Rate to the Rate of Variable-Interval Reinforcement for Pigeons and Rats: A Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shull, Richard L.

    2005-01-01

    The relation between the rate of a response ("B") and the rate of its reinforcement ("R") is well known to be approximately hyperbolic: B = kR/(R + R[subscript o]), where k represents the maximum response rate, and R[subscript o] indicates the rate of reinforcers that will engender a response rate equal to half its maximum value. A review of data…

  9. Comparison of heart rate responses. Water walking versus treadmill walking.

    PubMed

    Whitley, J D; Schoene, L L

    1987-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare heart rate responses to water walking versus treadmill walking to determine whether the responses were of sufficient magnitude to elicit cardiorespiratory training effects. The heart rates of 12 healthy, female college students were measured immediately after walking in waist-deep water and on a treadmill at the same distance, durations, and speeds (2.55, 2.77, 3.02, and 3.31 km/hr). A significant increase in heart rate with increased speeds resulted from water walking (p less than .05); from rest to the fastest speed, it was 135% (96 bpm). For treadmill walking, the increase of 19% (13 bpm) was not significant. The heart rates for the water condition were significantly higher (p less than .05) at each speed. These findings indicate that water walking could serve as an effective exercise mode, for example, for cardiorespiratory fitness for individuals who are unable to perform such weight-bearing activities as jogging, fast walking, cycling, and dancing. PMID:3659133

  10. The Sepsis Early Recognition and Response Initiative (SERRI)

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephen L.; Ashton, Carol M.; Kiehne, Lisa; Gigliotti, Elizabeth; Bell-Gordon, Charyl; Pinn, Teresa T.; Tran, Shirley K.; Nicolas, Juan C.; Rose, Alexis L.; Shirkey, Beverly A.; Disbot, Maureen; Masud, Faisal; Wray, Nelda P.

    2016-01-01

    Duration of Initiative 48 months and currently ongoing. Setting The Houston Methodist Hospital System and affiliated hospitals (3 facilities with 2 hospital-run skilled nursing facilities in and around Houston), St. Joseph’s Regional Health Center (1 acute care hospital and 2 skilled nursing facilities in Bryan, Texas), Hospital Corporation of America (2 acute care facilities in Houston, 1 acute care facility in McAllen, Texas [Rio Grande Valley]), Kindred Healthcare (2 long term acute care facilities in Houston), Select Medical Specialty Hospitals (2 long term acute care facilities in Houston). Whom This Should Concern Hospital administrators, quality and safety officers, performance improvement and patient safety professionals, clinic managers, infection control and prevention staff, and other physicians, nurses, and clinical staff. PMID:26892701

  11. On the Firing Rate Dependency of the Phase Response Curve of Rat Purkinje Neurons In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Couto, João; Linaro, Daniele; De Schutter, E; Giugliano, Michele

    2015-01-01

    Synchronous spiking during cerebellar tasks has been observed across Purkinje cells: however, little is known about the intrinsic cellular mechanisms responsible for its initiation, cessation and stability. The Phase Response Curve (PRC), a simple input-output characterization of single cells, can provide insights into individual and collective properties of neurons and networks, by quantifying the impact of an infinitesimal depolarizing current pulse on the time of occurrence of subsequent action potentials, while a neuron is firing tonically. Recently, the PRC theory applied to cerebellar Purkinje cells revealed that these behave as phase-independent integrators at low firing rates, and switch to a phase-dependent mode at high rates. Given the implications for computation and information processing in the cerebellum and the possible role of synchrony in the communication with its post-synaptic targets, we further explored the firing rate dependency of the PRC in Purkinje cells. We isolated key factors for the experimental estimation of the PRC and developed a closed-loop approach to reliably compute the PRC across diverse firing rates in the same cell. Our results show unambiguously that the PRC of individual Purkinje cells is firing rate dependent and that it smoothly transitions from phase independent integrator to a phase dependent mode. Using computational models we show that neither channel noise nor a realistic cell morphology are responsible for the rate dependent shift in the phase response curve. PMID:25775448

  12. The National Aerospace Initiative (NAI): Technologies For Responsive Space Access

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culbertson, Andrew; Bhat, Biliyar N.

    2003-01-01

    The Secretary of Defense has set new goals for the Department of Defense (DOD) to transform our nation's military forces. The Director for Defense Research and Engineering (DDR&E) has responded to this challenge by defining and sponsoring a transformational initiative in Science and Technology (S&T) - the National Aerospace Initiative (NAI) - which will have a fundamental impact on our nation's military capabilities and on the aerospace industry in general. The NAI is planned as a joint effort among the tri-services, DOD agencies and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). It is comprised of three major focus areas or pillars: 1) High Speed Hypersonics (HSH), 2) Space Access (SA), and 3) Space Technology (ST). This paper addresses the Space Access pillar. The NAI-SA team has employed a unique approach to identifying critical technologies and demonstrations for satisfying both military and civilian space access capabilities needed in the future. For planning and implementation purposes the NAI-SA is divided into five technology subsystem areas: Airframe, Propulsion, Flight Subsystems, Operations and Payloads. Detailed technology roadmaps were developed under each subsystem area using a time-phased, goal oriented approach that provides critical space access capabilities in a timely manner and involves subsystem ground and flight demonstrations. This S&T plan addresses near-term (2009), mid-term (2016), and long-term (2025) goals and objectives for space access. In addition, system engineering and integration approach was used to make sure that the plan addresses the requirements of the end users. This paper describes in some detail the technologies in NAI-Space Access pillar. Some areas of emphasis are: high temperature materials, thermal protection systems, long life, lightweight, highly efficient airframes, metallic and composite cryotanks, advanced liquid rocket engines, integrated vehicle health monitoring and management, highly operable systems and

  13. Parallel Track Initiation for Optical Space Surveillance Using Range and Range Rate Bounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, P.; Roscoe, C.; Wilkins, M.

    2013-09-01

    As new optical sensors come online and more optical observations become available for space objects previously too small or too far away to detect, the space surveillance community is presented with the computationally challenging problem of generating initial orbit solutions (data association hypotheses) for a large number of short-arc line-of-sight observations. Traditional methods of angles-only orbit determination do not scale well to large problems because of the large number of combinations of observations that must be evaluated, since these methods require at least 3 observations for each initial orbit determination (IOD). On the other hand, if unique ranges are known (or assumed) then IOD can be performed with 2 observations using a Lambert-based approach. Furthermore, if angles and angle rates are available and range and range rate are both known (or assumed) then a complete orbit solution can be obtained for a single observation and the IOD computational load is only O(N). One possible method to deal with line-of-sight data is to assign a number of range hypotheses to each angles-only observation and develop data association hypotheses to be either confirmed or eliminated for each one. This approach would allow the use of the already proven Search and Determine (SAD) algorithm and software that was designed for generating and testing data association hypotheses for position-type observations typical of radar sensors. If the number of range hypotheses can be limited then this method will be more computationally efficient than performing pure angles-only IOD. If angle rates are available or can be derived from the observation data then another possible approach is to assign range and range rate hypotheses to each angle-angle rate pair and develop data association hypotheses based on their corresponding orbit solutions, which will be extremely efficient if the range-range rate hypothesis set can be limited. For both of these methods, once range and range

  14. 40 CFR 24.05 - Response to the initial order; request for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Response to the initial order; request for hearing. 24.05 Section 24.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL RULES GOVERNING ISSUANCE OF AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS ON INTERIM STATUS CORRECTIVE ACTION ORDERS General § 24.05 Response to the initial...

  15. 40 CFR 24.05 - Response to the initial order; request for hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Response to the initial order; request for hearing. 24.05 Section 24.05 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL RULES GOVERNING ISSUANCE OF AND ADMINISTRATIVE HEARINGS ON INTERIM STATUS CORRECTIVE ACTION ORDERS General § 24.05 Response to the initial...

  16. 40 CFR 142.11 - Initial determination of primary enforcement responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Initial determination of primary... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary Enforcement Responsibility § 142.11 Initial determination of primary enforcement responsibility. (a) A...

  17. 40 CFR 142.11 - Initial determination of primary enforcement responsibility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Initial determination of primary... (CONTINUED) WATER PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NATIONAL PRIMARY DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS IMPLEMENTATION Primary Enforcement Responsibility § 142.11 Initial determination of primary enforcement responsibility. (a) A...

  18. Burning Rate Measurement of Solid Propellant Using Ultrasound — Approach and Initial Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sung-Jin; Jeon, Jin Hong; Kim, Hak-Joon; Kim, In-Chul; Yoo, Ji-Chang; Jung, Jung Yong

    2006-03-01

    To measure the burning rate of a solid propellant as a function of pressure using ultrasound, in the present study, a burning camber and an ultrasonic measurement system are specially designed and fabricated. In addition, data acquisition and analysis programs are also developed to determine the burning rate vs. pressure curve from the measured ultrasonic signals and pressures during the tests. Using the developed system, the wave speeds of the propellant are measured in the pre-test and the interface and burning surface echoes are acquired during the burning test together with the pressure inside the bomb. Based on these measurements, the burning rates of two kinds of propellants are successfully determined and compared to those measured by a strand burner method for the verification of the developed system and the proposed data analysis approach. For a propellant with high burning rate, the result obtained by the ultrasonic measurement shows a very good agreement to that measured by the strand burner method. Unfortunately, however, for a propellant with slow burning rate the result shows fairly large discrepancy in the initial experiments carried out in the present study.

  19. Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative - Projected Linear Heat Generation Rate and Burnup Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Richard G. Ambrosek; Gray S. Chang; Debbie J. Utterbeck

    2005-02-01

    This report provides documentation of the physics analysis performed to determine the linear heat generation rate (LHGR) and burnup calculations for the Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) tests, AFC-1D, AFC-1H, and AFC-1G. The AFC-1D and AFC-1H tests consists of low-fertile metallic fuel compositions and the AFC-1G test consists of non-fertile and low-fertile nitride compositions. These tests will be irradiated in the East Flux Trap (EFT) positions E1, E2, and E3, respectively, during Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Cycle 135B.

  20. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock

    PubMed Central

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A.; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-01-01

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless “stored” growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan. PMID:24821776

  1. Response of Escherichia coli growth rate to osmotic shock.

    PubMed

    Rojas, Enrique; Theriot, Julie A; Huang, Kerwyn Casey

    2014-05-27

    It has long been proposed that turgor pressure plays an essential role during bacterial growth by driving mechanical expansion of the cell wall. This hypothesis is based on analogy to plant cells, for which this mechanism has been established, and on experiments in which the growth rate of bacterial cultures was observed to decrease as the osmolarity of the growth medium was increased. To distinguish the effect of turgor pressure from pressure-independent effects that osmolarity might have on cell growth, we monitored the elongation of single Escherichia coli cells while rapidly changing the osmolarity of their media. By plasmolyzing cells, we found that cell-wall elastic strain did not scale with growth rate, suggesting that pressure does not drive cell-wall expansion. Furthermore, in response to hyper- and hypoosmotic shock, E. coli cells resumed their preshock growth rate and relaxed to their steady-state rate after several minutes, demonstrating that osmolarity modulates growth rate slowly, independently of pressure. Oscillatory hyperosmotic shock revealed that although plasmolysis slowed cell elongation, the cells nevertheless "stored" growth such that once turgor was reestablished the cells elongated to the length that they would have attained had they never been plasmolyzed. Finally, MreB dynamics were unaffected by osmotic shock. These results reveal the simple nature of E. coli cell-wall expansion: that the rate of expansion is determined by the rate of peptidoglycan insertion and insertion is not directly dependent on turgor pressure, but that pressure does play a basic role whereby it enables full extension of recently inserted peptidoglycan. PMID:24821776

  2. Planar Strain-Rate-Free Diffusion Flames: Initiation, Properties, and Extinction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fendell, Francis; Gokoglu, Suleyman; Rungaldier, Harald; Schultz, Donald

    1999-01-01

    An effectively strain-rate-free diffusion flame constitutes the most vigorous laminar combustion of initially unmixed reactive gases. Such a diffusion flame is characterized by a relatively long residence time and by a relatively large characteristic length scale. If such a flame were also planar, providing high symmetry, it would be particularly suitable for experimental and theoretical investigations of key combustion phenomena, such as multicomponent diffusion, chemical kinetics, and soot inception, growth, and oxidation. Unfortunately, a planar strain-rate-free diffusion flame is highly disrupted in earth-gravity (e.g., in a counterflow-diffusion-flame apparatus) because of the very rapid onset (approx. 100 ms) of gravity-induced instability. Accordingly, a specially dedicated apparatus was designed, fabricated, and initially checked out for the examination of a planar strain-rate-free diffusion flame in microgravity. Such a diffusion flame may be formed within a hollowed-out squat container (initially configured as 25 cm x 25 cm x 9 cm), with isothermal, noncatalytic, impervious walls. At test initiation, a thin metallic sheet (approx. 1 mm in thickness) that separates the internal volume into two equal portions, each of dimensions 25 cm x 25 cm x 4.5 cm, is withdrawn, by uniform translation (approx. 50 cm/s) in its own plane, through a tightly fitting slit in one side wall. Thereupon, diluted fuel vapor (initially confined to one half-volume of the container) gains access to diluted oxygen (initially with the same pressure, density, and temperature as the fuel, but initially confined to the other half-volume). After a brief delay (approx. 10 ms), to permit limited but sufficient-for-flammability diffusional interpenetration of fuel vapor and oxidizer, burning is initiated by discharge of a line igniter, located along that side wall from which the trailing edge of the separator withdraws. The ignition spawns a triple-flame propagation across the 25 cm x 25 cm

  3. The initial response of Limulus ventral photoreceptors to bright flashes. Released calcium as a synergist to excitation

    PubMed Central

    Payne, R; Fein, A

    1986-01-01

    The leading edge of the response of Limulus ventral photoreceptors to brief flashes was investigated using a voltage clamp. The leading edge of responses increases linearly with flash intensity when dim flashes produce less than one photoisomerization per square micron of cell surface. Brighter flashes accelerate the initial portion of the response, resulting in a fourth-power relationship between the magnitude of the response at brief times after the flash and the flash intensity. The onset of this nonlinearity with increasing flash intensity is determined by the local density of photoisomerizations within the receptor. Responses to bright 10-15-mum-diam spots therefore rise faster than responses to diffuse flashes producing the same number of photoisomerizations within the receptor. Background illumination shortens the response latency and suppresses the initial nonlinearity. These phenomena can be explained by a model of transduction in which light activates two parallel cascades of reactions. Particles released by the first of these cascades open ionic channels, while the second produces an agent that accelerates the rate of production of particles by the first. Injection of the calcium buffer EGTA slows the initial portion of the response to bright flashes and suppresses its nonlinearity, which suggests that the accelerating agent released by the second cascade is calcium. PMID:3081681

  4. Permanence of the habituation of the initial responses to cold-water immersion in humans.

    PubMed

    Tipton, M J; Mekjavic, I B; Eglin, C M

    2000-09-01

    Sudden immersion in cold water initiates an inspiratory gasp response followed by uncontrollable hyperventilation and tachycardia. It is known that this response, termed the "cold shock" response, can be attenuated following repeated immersion. In the present investigation we examined how long this habituation lasts. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in the experiment, they were divided into a control (C) group (n = 4), and a habituation (H) group (n = 8). In October, each subject undertook two 3-min head-out seated immersions into stirred water at 10 degrees C wearing swimming trunks. These immersions took place at the same time of day, with 4 days separating the two immersions. In the intervening period, the C group were not exposed to cold water, while the H group undertook six, 3-min head-out immersions in water at 15 degrees C. Two months (December), 4 months (February), 7 months (May) and 14 months (January) after their first immersion, all subjects undertook another 3-min head-out immersion in water at 10 degrees C. The H group showed a reduction in respiratory frequency (47 to 24 breaths x min(-1)), inspiratory minute volume (72.2 to 31.3 1 x min(-1)) and heart rate (128 to 109 beats x min(-1)) during the first 30 s of immersion on day 5 compared to day 1. Seven months later these responses were still significantly reduced compared to day 1. After 14 months, heart rate remained attenuated but respiratory frequency and inspiratory minute volume had returned towards pre-habituation levels. The responses of the C group during the first 30 s of immersion were not altered. Both groups showed an attenuation in the responses during the remaining 150 s of immersion following repeated immersions. It is concluded that repeated immersions in cold water result in a longlasting (7-14 months) reduction in the magnitude of the cold shock response. Less frequent immersions produced a decrease in the duration, but not the magnitude of the response. PMID:11072768

  5. Survival rate of initial azimuthal anisotropy in a multiphase transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Liang; Liu, Feng; Wang, Fuqiang

    2015-11-01

    We investigate the survival rate of an initial momentum anisotropy (v2ini), not spatial anisotropy, to the final state in a multiphase transport (AMPT) model in Au+Au collisions at √{sN N}=200 GeV. It is found that both the final-state parton and charged hadron v2 show a linear dependence versus v2ini{PP } with respect to the participant plane (PP). It is found that the slope of this linear dependence (referred to as the survival rate) increases with transverse momentum pT, reaching ˜100 % at pT˜2.5 GeV/c for both parton and charged hadron. The survival rate decreases with collision centrality and energy, indicating decreasing survival rate with increasing interactions. It is further found that a v2ini{Rnd } with respect to a random direction does not survive in v2{PP } but in the two-particle cumulant v2{2 } . The dependence of v2{2 } on v2ini{Rnd } is quadratic rather than linear.

  6. Keratinocytes can modulate and directly initiate nociceptive responses

    PubMed Central

    Baumbauer, Kyle M; DeBerry, Jennifer J; Adelman, Peter C; Miller, Richard H; Hachisuka, Junichi; Lee, Kuan Hsien; Ross, Sarah E; Koerber, H Richard; Davis, Brian M; Albers, Kathryn M

    2015-01-01

    How thermal, mechanical and chemical stimuli applied to the skin are transduced into signals transmitted by peripheral neurons to the CNS is an area of intense study. Several studies indicate that transduction mechanisms are intrinsic to cutaneous neurons and that epidermal keratinocytes only modulate this transduction. Using mice expressing channelrhodopsin (ChR2) in keratinocytes we show that blue light activation of the epidermis alone can produce action potentials (APs) in multiple types of cutaneous sensory neurons including SA1, A-HTMR, CM, CH, CMC, CMH and CMHC fiber types. In loss of function studies, yellow light stimulation of keratinocytes that express halorhodopsin reduced AP generation in response to naturalistic stimuli. These findings support the idea that intrinsic sensory transduction mechanisms in epidermal keratinocytes can directly elicit AP firing in nociceptive as well as tactile sensory afferents and suggest a significantly expanded role for the epidermis in sensory processing. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09674.001 PMID:26329459

  7. Extinction under a Behavioral Microscope: Isolating the Sources of Decline in Operant Response Rate

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Timothy H C; Neisewander, Janet L; Sanabria, Federico

    2012-01-01

    Extinction performance is often used to assess underlying psychological processes without the interference of reinforcement. For example, in the extinction/reinstatement paradigm, motivation to seek drug is assessed by measuring responding elicited by drug-associated cues without drug reinforcement. Nonetheless, extinction performance is governed by several psychological processes that involve motivation, memory, learning, and motoric functions. These processes are confounded when overall response rate is used to measure performance. Based on evidence that operant responding occurs in bouts, this paper proposes an analytic procedure that separates extinction performance into several behavioral components: 1) the baseline bout initiation rate, within-bout response rate, and bout length at the onset of extinction; 2) their rates of decay during extinction; 3) the time between extinction onset and the decline of responding; 4) the asymptotic response rate at the end of extinction; 5) the refractory period after each response. Data that illustrate the goodness of fit of this analytic model are presented. This paper also describes procedures to 1) isolate behavioral components contributing to extinction performance; 2) make inferences about experimental effects on these components. This microscopic behavioral analysis allows the mapping of different psychological processes to distinct behavioral components implicated in extinction performance, which may further our understanding of the psychological effects of neurobiological treatments. PMID:22425782

  8. In Situ Rates of Sulfate Reduction in Response to Geochemical Perturbations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kneeshaw, T.A.; McGuire, J.T.; Cozzarelli, I.M.; Smith, E.W.

    2011-01-01

    Rates of in situ microbial sulfate reduction in response to geochemical perturbations were determined using Native Organism Geochemical Experimentation Enclosures (NOGEEs), a new in situ technique developed to facilitate evaluation of controls on microbial reaction rates. NOGEEs function by first trapping a native microbial community in situ and then subjecting it to geochemical perturbations through the introduction of various test solutions. On three occasions, NOGEEs were used at the Norman Landfill research site in Norman, Oklahoma, to evaluate sulfate-reduction rates in wetland sediments impacted by landfill leachate. The initial experiment, in May 2007, consisted of five introductions of a sulfate test solution over 11 d. Each test stimulated sulfate reduction with rates increasing until an apparent maximum was achieved. Two subsequent experiments, conducted in October 2007 and February 2008, evaluated the effects of concentration on sulfate-reduction rates. Results from these experiments showed that faster sulfate-reduction rates were associated with increased sulfate concentrations. Understanding variability in sulfate-reduction rates in response to perturbations may be an important factor in predicting rates of natural attenuation and bioremediation of contaminants in systems not at biogeochemical equilibrium. Copyright ?? 2011 The Author(s). Journal compilation ?? 2011 National Ground Water Association.

  9. On the response of rubbers at high strain rates.

    SciTech Connect

    Niemczura, Johnathan Greenberg

    2010-02-01

    In this report, we examine the propagation of tensile waves of finite deformation in rubbers through experiments and analysis. Attention is focused on the propagation of one-dimensional dispersive and shock waves in strips of latex and nitrile rubber. Tensile wave propagation experiments were conducted at high strain-rates by holding one end fixed and displacing the other end at a constant velocity. A high-speed video camera was used to monitor the motion and to determine the evolution of strain and particle velocity in the rubber strips. Analysis of the response through the theory of finite waves and quantitative matching between the experimental observations and analytical predictions was used to determine an appropriate instantaneous elastic response for the rubbers. This analysis also yields the tensile shock adiabat for rubber. Dispersive waves as well as shock waves are also observed in free-retraction experiments; these are used to quantify hysteretic effects in rubber.

  10. An Experimental study of the initial volumetric strain rate effect on the creep behaviour of reconstituted clays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bagheri, M.; Rezania, M.; Nezhad, M. M.

    2015-09-01

    Clayey soils tend to undergo continuous compression with time, even after excess pore pressures have substantially dissipated. The effect of time on deformation and mechanical response of these soft soils has been the subject of numerous studies. Based on these studies, the observed time-dependent behaviour of clays is mainly related to the evolution of soil volume and strength characteristics with time, which are classified as creep and/or relaxation properties of the soil. Apart from many empirical relationships that have been proposed in the literature to capture the rheological behaviour of clays, a number of viscid constitutive relationships have also been developed which have more attractive theoretical attributes. A particular feature of these viscid models is that their creep parameters often have clear physical meaning (e.g. coefficient of secondary compression, Cα). Sometimes with these models, a parameter referred to as initial/reference volumetric strain rate, has also been alluded as a model parameter. However, unlike Cα, the determination of and its variations with stress level is not properly documented in the literature. In an attempt to better understand , this paper presents an experimental investigation of the reference volumetric strain rate in reconstituted clay specimens. A long-term triaxial creep test, at different shear stress levels and different strain rates, was performed on clay specimen whereby the volumetric strain rate was measured. The obtained results indicated the stress-level dependency and non-linear variation of with time.

  11. Burning rate response of liquid monopropellants to imposed pressure oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Allison, C. B.

    1974-01-01

    The combustion characteristics of hydrazine strands were studied under both steady state and oscillatory conditions. A steady strand burner was used to measure steady strand burning rates, liquid temperature distributions and surface temperatures as a function of pressure in the pressure range of 0.32 to 42 atm. It was found that for subatmospheric pressures the burning rate varied as the square root of pressure; for pressures greater than atmospheric the burning rate varied linearly with pressure. A theoretical model of the strand combustion system was developed and matched to the steady burning rates by assuming a reaction order of one for subatmospheric pressures and a reaction order of two for pressures greater than atmospheric. The model was also found to be in good agreement with measurements of liquid temperature distributions and surface temperatures. The results show an increse in the response of the combustion process as interaction occurs with transient liquid phase effects, yielding a band of frequencies where the combustion process exerts sufficient amplifying power to provide a mechanism for driving combustion instability.

  12. The Development and Initial Validation of the Student Measure of Culturally Responsive Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickson, Ginger L.; Chun, Heejung; Fernandez, Ivelisse Torres

    2016-01-01

    This article describes the development and initial validation of a measure of middle school students' perspectives of culturally responsive teaching practices. The Student Measure of Culturally Responsive Teaching (SMCRT) was developed by modifying items on the Culturally Responsive Teaching Self-Efficacy (CRTSE), which measures teachers'…

  13. A strong response to selection on mass-independent maximal metabolic rate without a correlated response in basal metabolic rate

    PubMed Central

    Wone, B W M; Madsen, P; Donovan, E R; Labocha, M K; Sears, M W; Downs, C J; Sorensen, D A; Hayes, J P

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic rates are correlated with many aspects of ecology, but how selection on different aspects of metabolic rates affects their mutual evolution is poorly understood. Using laboratory mice, we artificially selected for high maximal mass-independent metabolic rate (MMR) without direct selection on mass-independent basal metabolic rate (BMR). Then we tested for responses to selection in MMR and correlated responses to selection in BMR. In other lines, we antagonistically selected for mice with a combination of high mass-independent MMR and low mass-independent BMR. All selection protocols and data analyses included body mass as a covariate, so effects of selection on the metabolic rates are mass adjusted (that is, independent of effects of body mass). The selection lasted eight generations. Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (11.2%) in lines selected for increased MMR, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, higher (2.5%). Compared with controls, MMR was significantly higher (5.3%) in antagonistically selected lines, and BMR was slightly, but not significantly, lower (4.2%). Analysis of breeding values revealed no positive genetic trend for elevated BMR in high-MMR lines. A weak positive genetic correlation was detected between MMR and BMR. That weak positive genetic correlation supports the aerobic capacity model for the evolution of endothermy in the sense that it fails to falsify a key model assumption. Overall, the results suggest that at least in these mice there is significant capacity for independent evolution of metabolic traits. Whether that is true in the ancestral animals that evolved endothermy remains an important but unanswered question. PMID:25604947

  14. Influences of Organic Carbon Supply Rate on Uranium Bioreduction in Initially Oxidizing, Contaminated Sediment

    SciTech Connect

    Tokunaga, Tetsu K.; Wan, Jiamin; Kim, Yongman; Daly, Rebecca A.; Brodie, Eoin L.; Hazen, Terry C.; Herman, Don; Firestone, Mary K.

    2008-06-10

    Remediation of uranium (U) contaminated sediments through in-situ stimulation of bioreduction to insoluble UO{sub 2} is a potential treatment strategy under active investigation. Previously, we found that newly reduced U(IV) can be reoxidized under reducing conditions sustained by a continuous supply of organic carbon (OC) because of residual reactive Fe(III) and enhanced U(VI) solubility through complexation with carbonate generated through OC oxidation. That finding motivated this investigation directed at identifying a range of OC supply rates that is optimal for establishing U bioreduction and immobilization in initially oxidizing sediments. The effects of OC supply rate, from 0 to 580 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1}, and OC form (lactate and acetate) on U bioreduction were tested in flow-through columns containing U-contaminated sediments. An intermediate supply rate on the order of 150 mmol OC (kg sediment){sup -1} year{sup -1} was determined to be most effective at immobilizing U. At lower OC supply rates, U bioreduction was not achieved, and U(VI) solubility was enhanced by complexation with carbonate (from OC oxidation). At the highest OC supply rate, resulting highly carbonate-enriched solutions also supported elevated levels of U(VI), even though strongly reducing conditions were established. Lactate and acetate were found to have very similar geochemical impacts on effluent U concentrations (and other measured chemical species), when compared at equivalent OC supply rates. While the catalysts of U(VI) reduction to U(IV) are presumably bacteria, the composition of the bacterial community, the Fe reducing community, and the sulfate reducing community had no direct relationship with effluent U concentrations. The OC supply rate has competing effects of driving reduction of U(VI) to low solubility U(IV) solids, as well as causing formation of highly soluble U(VI)-carbonato complexes. These offsetting influences will require careful control of OC

  15. Initiation age and incision rates of inner gorges: Do they record multiple glacial-interglacial cycles?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delunel, Romain; Casagrande, Jan; Schlunegger, Fritz; Akçar, Naki; Kubik, Peter W.

    2015-04-01

    Inner gorges represent some of the most conspicuous landforms in the European Alps. They form narrow and deep active-channel incisions that link hanging tributaries with trunk valleys in glacially-conditioned environments. Despite abundant research carried out on these objects, both their origin and evolution have remained unclear. In particular, the age of initiation, the rate of incision, and the respective contribution of fluvial and subglacial processes in the evolution of inner gorges have still been a matter of scientific debate. Indeed, answering these questions has been complicated by the lack of appropriate quantitative methods and/or suitable sampling strategies for studying inner gorges. Here, we report 10Be concentrations measured in alluvial sediments that have been collected along the main stream of a ~20-km2-catchment in the Swiss foreland (Central European Alps). This catchment hosts a ca. 100-m-deep and 2-km-long inner gorge that has been cut mainly in glacial till. Catchment wide denudation rates inferred from 10Be analyses (n = 15) vary from ~120 to 650 mm/ka and show a general downstream increasing trend. Additional field observations and GIS analyses reveal that the denudation rates within the catchment increase from the headwaters, characterized by relict glacial/periglacial landscapes, to the downstream end of the basin where the inner gorge has been formed. Using a 10Be-based sediment budget approach and the delineation of topographic domains from a 2-m-resolution LIDAR, we provide an estimate of erosion rates within the gorge that are higher than 2.5 m/ka and can reach up to ~ 7 m/ka. Combining these estimated erosion rates with the reconstruction of eroded volumes within the gorge, we obtain a rough initiation age in the early Holocene, in general agreement with previous studies reporting a postglacial origin for the inner gorges. Our results therefore appear contradictory with recent findings arguing for a gradual formation of inner

  16. Ribosome traffic on mRNAs maps to gene ontology: genome-wide quantification of translation initiation rates and polysome size regulation.

    PubMed

    Ciandrini, Luca; Stansfield, Ian; Romano, M Carmen

    2013-01-01

    To understand the complex relationship governing transcript abundance and the level of the encoded protein, we integrate genome-wide experimental data of ribosomal density on mRNAs with a novel stochastic model describing ribosome traffic dynamics during translation elongation. This analysis reveals that codon arrangement, rather than simply codon bias, has a key role in determining translational efficiency. It also reveals that translation output is governed both by initiation efficiency and elongation dynamics. By integrating genome-wide experimental data sets with simulation of ribosome traffic on all Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORFs, mRNA-specific translation initiation rates are for the first time estimated across the entire transcriptome. Our analysis identifies different classes of mRNAs characterised by their initiation rates, their ribosome traffic dynamics, and by their response to ribosome availability. Strikingly, this classification based on translational dynamics maps onto key gene ontological classifications, revealing evolutionary optimisation of translation responses to be strongly influenced by gene function. PMID:23382661

  17. Ribosome Traffic on mRNAs Maps to Gene Ontology: Genome-wide Quantification of Translation Initiation Rates and Polysome Size Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Ciandrini, Luca

    2013-01-01

    To understand the complex relationship governing transcript abundance and the level of the encoded protein, we integrate genome-wide experimental data of ribosomal density on mRNAs with a novel stochastic model describing ribosome traffic dynamics during translation elongation. This analysis reveals that codon arrangement, rather than simply codon bias, has a key role in determining translational efficiency. It also reveals that translation output is governed both by initiation efficiency and elongation dynamics. By integrating genome-wide experimental data sets with simulation of ribosome traffic on all Saccharomyces cerevisiae ORFs, mRNA-specific translation initiation rates are for the first time estimated across the entire transcriptome. Our analysis identifies different classes of mRNAs characterised by their initiation rates, their ribosome traffic dynamics, and by their response to ribosome availability. Strikingly, this classification based on translational dynamics maps onto key gene ontological classifications, revealing evolutionary optimisation of translation responses to be strongly influenced by gene function. PMID:23382661

  18. Ensemble Monte Carlo calculation of the hole initiated impact ionization rate in bulk GaAs and silicon using a k-dependent, numerical transition rate formulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oguzman, Ismail H.; Wang, Yang; Kolnik, Jan; Brennan, Kevin F.

    1995-01-01

    The hole initiated impact ionization rate in bulk silicon and GaAs is calculated using a numerical formulation of the impact ionization transition rate incorporated into an ensemble Monte Carlo simulation. The transition rate is calculated from Fermi's golden rule using a two-body screened Coulomb interaction including a wavevector dependent dielectric function. It is found that the effective threshold for hole initiated ionization is relatively soft in both materials, that the split-off band dominates the ionization process in GaAs. and that no clear dominance by any one band is observed in silicon, though the rate out of the light hole band is greatest.

  19. Pretreatment Growth Rate Predicts Radiation Response in Vestibular Schwannomas

    SciTech Connect

    Niu, Nina N.; Niemierko, Andrzej; Larvie, Mykol; Curtin, Hugh; Loeffler, Jay S.; McKenna, Michael J.; Shih, Helen A.

    2014-05-01

    Purpose: Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are often followed without initial therapeutic intervention because many tumors do not grow and radiation therapy is associated with potential adverse effects. In an effort to determine whether maximizing initial surveillance predicts for later treatment response, the predictive value of preirradiation growth rate of VS on response to radiation therapy was assessed. Methods and Materials: Sixty-four patients with 65 VS were treated with single-fraction stereotactic radiation surgery or fractionated stereotactic radiation therapy. Pre- and postirradiation linear expansion rates were estimated using volumetric measurements on sequential magnetic resonance images (MRIs). In addition, postirradiation tumor volume change was classified as demonstrating shrinkage (ratio of volume on last follow-up MRI to MRI immediately preceding irradiation <80%), stability (ratio 80%-120%), or expansion (ratio >120%). The median pre- and postirradiation follow-up was 20.0 and 27.5 months, respectively. Seven tumors from neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2) patients were excluded from statistical analyses. Results: In the 58 non-NF2 patients, there was a trend of correlation between pre- and postirradiation volume change rates (slope on linear regression, 0.29; P=.06). Tumors demonstrating postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 89%/year, and those without postirradiation expansion had a median preirradiation growth rate of 41%/year (P=.02). As the preirradiation growth rate increased, the probability of postirradiation expansion also increased. Overall, 24.1% of tumors were stable, 53.4% experienced shrinkage, and 22.5% experienced expansion. Predictors of no postirradiation tumor expansion included no prior surgery (P=.01) and slower tumor growth rate (P=.02). The control of tumors in NF2 patients was only 43%. Conclusions: Radiation therapy is an effective treatment for VS, but tumors that grow quickly preirradiation may be

  20. Heart rate and blood lactate responses during competitive Olympic boardsailing.

    PubMed

    Guével, A; Maïsetti, O; Prou, E; Dubois, J J; Marini, J F

    1999-02-01

    The rules of competitive boardsailing events were changed before the Atlanta Olympic Games. Pumping the sail (pulling repeatedly on the rig) is now allowed and the duration of races has been shortened. Eight members of the French national team (mean age 23+/-2.7 years) participated in this study. Their cardiac and metabolic responses were assessed by measuring heart rate and blood lactate concentration during various competitive events in two strengths of wind (light vs. moderate). Heart rate was higher in light (87.4+/-4.3% HRmax; mean racing time 37 min) than in moderate wind conditions (82.9+/-5.3% HRmax; mean racing time 33 min). The mean post-race blood lactate concentration (5.2+/-1.0 mmol x l(-1)) was not affected by the wind conditions. Mean heart rate was highest during downwind legs (88.0+/-3.1% HRmax; duration 7-10 min). The races consisted of two laps, the first of which induced significantly higher cardiac demands than the second. We conclude that the changes to the rules of competitive boardsailing have increased the cardiac and metabolic efforts involved. PMID:10069270

  1. Heart rate & blood lactate response in amateur competitive boxing.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, A K; Goswami, A; Ahuja, A

    1995-10-01

    The heart rate (HR) and blood lactate response were studied on 26 senior national level boxers in competitive bouts to explore the aerobic-anaerobic metabolism as well as the training status of the players. The aerobic capacity (VO2 max) of the players were determined using graded running protocol on a treadmill. Heart rate and blood lactate concentration were measured during warm up and boxing rounds. The mean relative VO2 max of the heavy weight category boxers was lower (P < 0.05) than the other two weight categories. No interweight category as well as inter-round differences were observed in the heart rate and blood lactate concentration of the boxers, excepting in the 48-57 kg category, the mean lactate levels in the second and third rounds were higher (P < 0.05) than in the first round. When all weight categories were pooled the mean HR and blood lactate levels were 178 beats/min and 8.24 mMol/l respectively. The study highlights that in amateur boxing, irrespective of the weight category and aerobic capacity, the anaerobic adaptability of the boxers was the same. The training requirements of the boxers demand that they should be also to tolerate a high blood lactate level (approx. 9.0 mMol/l) and a high HR (approx. 180 beats/min) over a total duration of one bout. PMID:8543363

  2. The Impact of Food Viscosity on Eating Rate, Subjective Appetite, Glycemic Response and Gastric Emptying Rate

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Yong; Hsu, Walter H.; Hollis, James H.

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the impact of rheological properties of food on postprandial appetite and glycemic response helps to design novel functional products. It has been shown that solid foods have a stronger satiating effect than their liquid equivalent. However, whether a subtle change in viscosity of a semi-solid food would have a similar effect on appetite is unknown. Fifteen healthy males participated in the randomized cross-over study. Each participant consumed a 1690 kJ portion of a standard viscosity (SV) and a high viscosity (HV) semi-solid meal with 1000 mg acetaminophen in two separate sessions. At regular intervals during the three hours following the meal, subjective appetite ratings were measured and blood samples collected. The plasma samples were assayed for insulin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide (GIP), glucose and acetaminophen. After three hours, the participants were provided with an ad libitum pasta meal. Compared with the SV meal, HV was consumed at a slower eating rate (P = 0.020), with postprandial hunger and desire to eat being lower (P = 0.019 and P<0.001 respectively) while fullness was higher (P<0.001). In addition, consuming the HV resulted in lower plasma concentration of GIP (P<0.001), higher plasma concentration of glucose (P<0.001) and delayed gastric emptying as revealed by the acetaminophen absorption test (P<0.001). However, there was no effect of food viscosity on insulin or food intake at the subsequent meal. In conclusion, increasing the viscosity of a semi-solid food modulates glycemic response and suppresses postprandial satiety, although the effect may be short-lived. A slower eating rate and a delayed gastric emptying rate can partly explain for the stronger satiating properties of high viscous semi-solid foods. PMID:23818981

  3. Initiation/Response/Follow-Up, and Response to Intervention: Combining Two Models to Improve Teacher and Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miao, Pei; Heining-Boynton, Audrey L.

    2011-01-01

    The communication pattern of Initiation/Response/Follow-Up (IRF) has long been an important instructional sequence in language classrooms. When language teachers combine IRF with the Response to Intervention (RTI) approach, they create a powerful model to evaluate student oral practice and self-assess effectiveness in creating language communities…

  4. The Initial Rate of C Substrate Utilization and Longer-Term Soil C Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jeff L.; Bell, Jennifer M.; Bolton, Harvey; Bailey, Vanessa L.

    2007-12-01

    Increasing soil C storage is viewed as a legitimate mechanism to offset current increases in atmospheric CO2 from anthropogenic sources. However, microbial transformation and turnover of soil carbon inputs will influence the magnitude of net soil C storage. The purpose of this study was to investigate several simple model C compounds to determine their decomposition rates in soil and the relationship between their initial decomposition rate and longer-term C sequestration. Pure 14C compounds of glucose, acetate, arginine, oxalate, phenylalanine and urea were incubated in soil for 125 days at 24 and 34oC. Respired 14CO2 and specific activity was quantitatively measured every day for 15 days and residual soil 14C after 125 days. At both temperatures, the percent 14C remaining in the soil after 125 days of incubation was positively and significantly correlated with the percent substrate utilized in the first day. For the two temperatures, the correlation of total 14CO2 and specific activity was significant (R2=.86,.78) as was the percent remaining after 125 days (C34oC = 0.75 x C24oC, R2 = 0.90). The 14C in the microbial biomass ranged from 4-15% after 15 days and declined through day 125 contributing significantly to the 14C evolved. Priming of 12C SOM was negative at day 3 but became positive, reaching a maximum on day 12, the total increase in soil C from substrates was greater than the primed C. The data support the concept that the more rapidly a substrate is initially mineralized the more persistent it will be in the soil.

  5. 77 FR 68766 - CPV Shore, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-16

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission CPV Shore, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding, of CPV Shore, LLC's application for market- ] based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that such application includes a request for blanket authorization, under...

  6. 77 FR 53197 - Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-31

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Brandon Shores LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding, of Brandon Shores LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate schedule, noting that such application includes a request for blanket authorization, under...

  7. 38 CFR 4.88c - Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis initially entitled after August 19, 1968.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Ratings for inactive nonpulmonary tuberculosis initially entitled after August 19, 1968. 4.88c Section 4.88c Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS SCHEDULE FOR RATING DISABILITIES Disability Ratings Infectious Diseases, Immune Disorders...

  8. 75 FR 25235 - Mint Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION Mint Energy LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for... proceeding of Mint Energy LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an accompanying rate...

  9. Improving Question-Asking Initiations in Young Children with Autism Using Pivotal Response Treatment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koegel, Robert L.; Bradshaw, Jessica L.; Ashbaugh, Kristen; Koegel, Lynn Kern

    2014-01-01

    Social initiations make up a core deficit for children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In particular, initiated questions during social interactions are often minimal or absent in this population. In the context of a multiple baseline design, the efficacy of using the motivational procedures of Pivotal Response Treatment to increase social…

  10. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chia-Ying; La Marca, Roberto; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-03-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  11. Update to Rociletinib Data with the RECIST Confirmed Response Rate.

    PubMed

    Sequist, Lecia V; Soria, Jean-Charles; Camidge, D Ross

    2016-06-01

    To the Editor: In our Journal article that was published on April 30, 2015,(1) we described the activity of rociletinib, an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) inhibitor with specificity for the T790M mutation, in patients with EGFR mutation-positive lung cancer in the phase 1 TIGER-X trial. The key finding was a response rate of 59% (95% confidence interval [CI], 45 to 73) among 46 patients with biopsy-proven T790M-mediated resistance to previously administered EGFR inhibitors. In November 2015, Clovis Oncology issued a press release that contained updated data from a pooled cohort of patients from TIGER-X and TIGER-2 (another phase 2 . . . PMID:27195670

  12. Heart rate, startle response, and intrusive trauma memories

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Chia-Ying; Marca, Roberto La; Steptoe, Andrew; Brewin, Chris R

    2014-01-01

    The current study adopted the trauma film paradigm to examine potential moderators affecting heart rate (HR) as an indicator of peritraumatic psychological states and as a predictor of intrusive memories. We replicated previous findings that perifilm HR decreases predicted the development of intrusive images and further showed this effect to be specific to images rather than thoughts, and to detail rather than gist recognition memory. Moreover, a group of individuals showing both an atypical sudden reduction in HR after a startle stimulus and higher trait dissociation was identified. Only among these individuals was lower perifilm HR found to indicate higher state dissociation, fear, and anxiety, along with reduced vividness of intrusions. The current findings emphasize how peritraumatic physiological responses relate to emotional reactions and intrusive memory. The moderating role of individual difference in stress defense style was highlighted. PMID:24397333

  13. Prenotification, Ink Color and Return Deadline: Effects on Response Rates and Sincerity of Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitiyanuwat, Somwung; Phattharayuttawat, Sucheera

    The effects of prenotification, ink color, and return deadline on sincerity and rates of response to mailed questionnaires concerning desirable characteristics of teachers were investigated in Thailand. Questionnaires were mailed to 800 public secondary school teachers in Bangkok. Some teachers received prenotification of the survey by mail, while…

  14. Initial psychological responses to Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu")

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The outbreak of the pandemic flu, Influenza A H1N1 (Swine Flu) in early 2009, provided a major challenge to health services around the world. Previous pandemics have led to stockpiling of goods, the victimisation of particular population groups, and the cancellation of travel and the boycotting of particular foods (e.g. pork). We examined initial behavioural and attitudinal responses towards Influenza A, H1N1 ("Swine flu") in the six days following the WHO pandemic alert level 5, and regional differences in these responses. Methods 328 respondents completed a cross-sectional Internet or paper-based questionnaire study in Malaysia (N = 180) or Europe (N = 148). Measures assessed changes in transport usage, purchase of preparatory goods for a pandemic, perceived risk groups, indicators of anxiety, assessed estimated mortality rates for seasonal flu, effectiveness of seasonal flu vaccination, and changes in pork consumption Results 26% of the respondents were 'very concerned' about being a flu victim (42% Malaysians, 5% Europeans, p < .001). 36% reported reduced public transport use (48% Malaysia, 22% Europe, p < .001), 39% flight cancellations (56% Malaysia, 17% Europe, p < .001). 8% had purchased preparatory materials (e.g. face masks: 8% Malaysia, 7% Europe), 41% Malaysia (15% Europe) intended to do so (p < .001). 63% of Europeans, 19% of Malaysians had discussed the pandemic with friends (p < .001). Groups seen as at 'high risk' of infection included the immune compromised (mentioned by 87% respondents), pig farmers (70%), elderly (57%), prostitutes/highly sexually active (53%), and the homeless (53%). In data collected only in Europe, 64% greatly underestimated the mortality rates of seasonal flu, 26% believed seasonal flu vaccination gave protection against swine flu. 7% had reduced/stopped eating pork. 3% had purchased anti-viral drugs for use at home, while 32% intended to do so if the pandemic worsened. Conclusion Initial responses to Influenza A

  15. The elongation factor Spt5 facilitates transcription initiation for rapid induction of inflammatory-response genes

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Gil; Bahat, Anat; Dikstein, Rivka

    2016-01-01

    A subset of inflammatory-response NF-κB target genes is activated immediately following pro-inflammatory signal. Here we followed the kinetics of primary transcript accumulation after NF-κB activation when the elongation factor Spt5 is knocked down. While elongation rate is unchanged, the transcript synthesis at the 5′-end and at the earliest time points is delayed and reduced, suggesting an unexpected role in early transcription. Investigating the underlying mechanism reveals that the induced TFIID–promoter association is practically abolished by Spt5 depletion. This effect is associated with a decrease in promoter-proximal H3K4me3 and H4K5Ac histone modifications that are differentially required for rapid transcriptional induction. In contrast, the displacement of TFIIE and Mediator, which occurs during promoter escape, is attenuated in the absence of Spt5. Our findings are consistent with a central role of Spt5 in maintenance of TFIID–promoter association and promoter escape to support rapid transcriptional induction and re-initiation of inflammatory-response genes. PMID:27180651

  16. The responsiveness of the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    Faries, D; Herrera, J; Rayamajhi, J; DeBrota, D; Demitrack, M; Potter, W Z

    2000-01-01

    In clinical studies of antidepressants, the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD) total score has been the gold standard instrument for establishing and comparing the efficacy of new treatments. However, the HAMD is a multidimensional measure, which may reduce its ability to detect differences between treatments, in particular, changes in core symptoms of depression. Two meta-analyses were conducted to compare the responsiveness of the HAMD total score with several published unidimensional subscale scores based upon core symptoms of depression. The first compared the above instrument's ability to detect differences between fluoxetine and placebo across eight studies involving over 1600 patients. The second analysis involved four studies and over 1200 patients randomized to tricyclic antidepressants and placebo. In both meta-analyses, the unidimensional core subscales outperformed the HAMD total score at detecting treatment differences. The implications of this on sample sizes and power for clinical studies will be discussed. In fact, studies based on the observed effect sizes from the core subscales would require approximately one-third less patients than studies based on the HAMD total score. Effect sizes from each individual HAMD item will also be presented to help explain the differences in responsiveness between the scales. PMID:10696827

  17. High strain-rate response of injectable PAA hydrogel.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hong-Ru; Wang, Shih-Han; Chiang, Chia-Chin; Juang, Yun-Ching; Yu, Fu-Ann; Tsai, Liren

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogel materials have been widely considered as potential soft tissue replacements because of their high permeability, hydrophilicity, and biocompatibility, as well as their low coefficient of friction. Injectable (thermo-responsive) hydrogels can provide support and cushioning at irregularly shaped disease sites, and are thus suitable for use in treating osteoarthritis or degenerative disc disease. However, while some injectable hydrogels have been proven to sustain human body weight during daily activities, their mechanical properties under harsh dynamic conditions have not been well documented. A specified injectable polyacrylic acid (PAA) hydrogel was prepared for this study. To simulate sudden impacts or unexpected shocks to the PAA hydrogel, the split Hopkinson pressure bar technique was utilized. The dynamic responses of various hydrogels at confined high strain rates (100-2590 s(-1)) were presented. Hydrogel specimens with 3.37, 6.75, and 13.5% acrylic acid (AAc) concentrations were tested in the following three different material conditions: raw, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) swollen, and PBS swollen with elevated temperature (37 °C). The dynamic bulk moduli of the hydrogels varied from 1.55 to 47.8 MPa depending on the given hydrogel's AAc concentration and swollen condition. PMID:25816201

  18. Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR): an item response theory analysis.

    PubMed

    Pilkonis, Paul A; Kim, Yookyung; Yu, Lan; Morse, Jennifer Q

    2014-01-01

    The Adult Attachment Ratings (AAR) include 3 scales for anxious, ambivalent attachment (excessive dependency, interpersonal ambivalence, and compulsive care-giving), 3 for avoidant attachment (rigid self-control, defensive separation, and emotional detachment), and 1 for secure attachment. The scales include items (ranging from 6-16 in their original form) scored by raters using a 3-point format (0 = absent, 1 = present, and 2 = strongly present) and summed to produce a total score. Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted with data from 414 participants recruited from psychiatric outpatient, medical, and community settings to identify the most informative items from each scale. The IRT results allowed us to shorten the scales to 5-item versions that are more precise and easier to rate because of their brevity. In general, the effective range of measurement for the scales was 0 to +2 SDs for each of the attachment constructs; that is, from average to high levels of attachment problems. Evidence for convergent and discriminant validity of the scales was investigated by comparing them with the Experiences of Close Relationships-Revised (ECR-R) scale and the Kobak Attachment Q-sort. The best consensus among self-reports on the ECR-R, informant ratings on the ECR-R, and expert judgments on the Q-sort and the AAR emerged for anxious, ambivalent attachment. Given the good psychometric characteristics of the scale for secure attachment, however, this measure alone might provide a simple alternative to more elaborate procedures for some measurement purposes. Conversion tables are provided for the 7 scales to facilitate transformation from raw scores to IRT-calibrated (theta) scores. PMID:24033268

  19. Mismatch Responses to Lexical Tone, Initial Consonant, and Vowel in Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Yen, Huei-ling; Yeh, Pei-wen; Lin, Wan-Hsuan; Cheng, Ying-Ying; Tzeng, Yu-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how age, phonological saliency, and deviance size affect the presence of mismatch negativity (MMN) and positive mismatch response (P-MMR). This work measured the auditory mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones, initial consonants, and vowels in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers using the multiple-deviant oddball…

  20. Rates of Bone Loss Among Women Initiating Antidepressant Medication Use in Midlife

    PubMed Central

    Ruppert, Kristine; Cauley, Jane A.; Lian, YinJuan; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Greendale, Gail A.; Solomon, Daniel H.

    2013-01-01

    Context: Concern has been raised that medications that block serotonin reuptake may affect bone metabolism, resulting in bone loss. Objective: The aim of the study was to compare annual bone mineral density (BMD) changes among new users of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs), new users of tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs), and nonusers of antidepressant medications. Design and Setting: We conducted a prospective cohort study at five clinical centers in the United States. Participants: The study included 1972 community-dwelling women, aged 42 years and older, enrolled in the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). Exposure: The use of antidepressant medications was assessed by interview and verified from medication containers at annual visits. Subjects were categorized as nonusers (no SSRI or TCA use at any examination), SSRI users (initiated SSRI use after the baseline SWAN visit), or TCA users (initiated TCA use after the baseline visit), using a computerized dictionary to categorize type of medication. Main Outcome Measures: BMD at the lumbar spine, total hip, and femoral neck was measured using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at annual visits. Results: BMD was compared among 311 new users of SSRIs, 71 new users of TCAs, and 1590 nonusers. After adjustment for potential confounders, including age, race, body mass index, menopausal status, and hormone therapy use, mean lumbar spine BMD decreased on average 0.68% per year in nonusers, 0.63% per year in SSRI users (P = .37 for comparison to nonusers), and 0.40% per year in TCA users (P = .16 for comparison to nonusers). At the total hip and femoral neck, there was also no evidence that SSRI or TCA users had an increased rate of bone loss compared with nonusers. Results were similar in subgroups of women stratified by the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (<16 vs ≥16). Conclusions: In this cohort of middle-aged women, use of SSRIs and TCAs was not associated with an increased

  1. Pulmonary langerhans cell histiocytosis: PET/CT for initial workup and treatment response evaluation.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Neil J; Hankins, Jordan H

    2015-02-01

    A 40-year-old man underwent pan-endoscopy owing to abdominal pain. Biopsies of the gastrointestinal tract demonstrated diffuse Langerhans cell histiocytosis. PET/CT was done, with CT demonstrating classic pulmonary manifestations of Langerhans cell histiocytosis that had association with intense FDG uptake on PET. Bowel appeared normal. Treatment was initiated with smoking cessation and 6 cycles of cytarabine. Follow-up PET/CT after initial treatment demonstrated improvement of parenchymal abnormalities seen on CT, with resolution of hypermetabolic activity. Maintenance chemotherapy was initiated. PET/CT is increasingly being used for initial staging and treatment response assessment in this rare disorder. PMID:24999688

  2. ANALYTICAL THEORY FOR THE INITIAL MASS FUNCTION. III. TIME DEPENDENCE AND STAR FORMATION RATE

    SciTech Connect

    Hennebelle, Patrick

    2013-06-20

    The present paper extends our previous theory of the stellar initial mass function (IMF) by including time dependence and by including the impact of the magnetic field. The predicted mass spectra are similar to the time-independent ones with slightly shallower slopes at large masses and peak locations shifted toward smaller masses by a factor of a few. Assuming that star-forming clumps follow Larson-type relations, we obtain core mass functions in good agreement with the observationally derived IMF, in particular, when taking into account the thermodynamics of the gas. The time-dependent theory directly yields an analytical expression for the star formation rate (SFR) at cloud scales. The SFR values agree well with the observational determinations of various Galactic molecular clouds. Furthermore, we show that the SFR does not simply depend linearly on density, as is sometimes claimed in the literature, but also depends strongly on the clump mass/size, which yields the observed scatter. We stress, however, that any SFR theory depends, explicitly or implicitly, on very uncertain assumptions like clump boundaries or the mass of the most massive stars that can form in a given clump, making the final determinations uncertain by a factor of a few. Finally, we derive a fully time dependent model for the IMF by considering a clump, or a distribution of clumps accreting at a constant rate and thus whose physical properties evolve with time. In spite of its simplicity, this model reproduces reasonably well various features observed in numerical simulations of converging flows. Based on this general theory, we present a paradigm for star formation and the IMF.

  3. Influence of Dose Rate on the Cellular Response to Low- and High-LET Radiations

    PubMed Central

    Wozny, Anne-Sophie; Alphonse, Gersende; Battiston-Montagne, Priscillia; Simonet, Stéphanie; Poncet, Delphine; Testa, Etienne; Guy, Jean-Baptiste; Rancoule, Chloé; Magné, Nicolas; Beuve, Michael; Rodriguez-Lafrasse, Claire

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) treatment failure is mostly explained by locoregional progression or intrinsic radioresistance. Radiotherapy (RT) has recently evolved with the emergence of heavy ion radiations or new fractionation schemes of photon therapy, which modify the dose rate of treatment delivery. The aim of the present study was then to evaluate the in vitro influence of a dose rate variation during conventional RT or carbon ion hadrontherapy treatment in order to improve the therapeutic care of patient. In this regard, two HNSCC cell lines were irradiated with photons or 72 MeV/n carbon ions at a dose rate of 0.5, 2, or 10 Gy/min. For both radiosensitive and radioresistant cells, the change in dose rate significantly affected cell survival in response to photon exposure. This variation of radiosensitivity was associated with the number of initial and residual DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs). By contrast, the dose rate change did not affect neither cell survival nor the residual DNA DSBs after carbon ion irradiation. As a result, the relative biological efficiency at 10% survival increased when the dose rate decreased. In conclusion, in the RT treatment of HNSCC, it is advised to remain very careful when modifying the classical schemes toward altered fractionation. At the opposite, as the dose rate does not seem to have any effects after carbon ion exposure, there is less need to adapt hadrontherapy treatment planning during active system irradiation. PMID:27014633

  4. Item Response Theory Analyses of the Parent and Teacher Ratings of the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gomez, Rapson

    2008-01-01

    The graded response model (GRM), which is based on item response theory (IRT), was used to evaluate the psychometric properties of the inattention and hyperactivity/impulsivity symptoms in an ADHD rating scale. To accomplish this, parents and teachers completed the DSM-IV ADHD Rating Scale (DARS; Gomez et al., "Journal of Child Psychology and…

  5. Overexpression of the yeast transcription activator Msn2 confers furfural resistance and increases the initial fermentation rate in ethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sasano, Yu; Watanabe, Daisuke; Ukibe, Ken; Inai, Tomomi; Ohtsu, Iwao; Shimoi, Hitoshi; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2012-04-01

    Lignocellulosic biomass is a promising source for bioethanol production, because it is abundant worldwide and has few competing uses. However, the treatment of lignocelllulosic biomass with weak acid to release cellulose and hemicellulose generates many kinds of byproducts including furfural and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural, which inhibit fermentation by yeast, because they generate reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells. In order to acquire high tolerance to oxidative stress in bioethanol yeast strains, we focused on the transcription activator Msn2 of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which regulates numerous genes involved in antioxidative stress responses, and constructed bioethanol yeast strains that overexpress Msn2 constitutively. The Msn2-overexpressing bioethanol strains showed tolerance to oxidative stress, probably due to the high-level expression of various antioxidant enzyme genes. Unexpectedly, these strains showed ethanol sensitivity compared with the control strain, probably due to imbalance of the expression level between Msn2 and Msn4. In the presence of furfural, the engineered strains exhibited reduced intracellular ROS levels, and showed rapid growth compared with the control strain. The fermentation test in the presence of furfural revealed that the Msn2-overexpressing strains showed improvement of the initial rate of fermentation. Our results indicate that overexpression of the transcription activator Msn2 in bioethanol yeast strains confers furfural tolerance by reducing the intracellular ROS levels and enhances the initial rate of fermentation in the presence of furfural, suggesting that these strains are capable of adapting rapidly to various compounds that inhibit fermentation by inducing ROS accumulation. Our results not only promise to improve bioethanol production from lignocellulosic biomass, but also provide novel insights for molecular breeding of industrial yeast strains. PMID:22178024

  6. Community-Based Participatory Initiatives to Increase Breastfeeding Rates in Indiana.

    PubMed

    Friesen, Carol A; Hormuth, Laura J; Cardarelli, Tina L

    2015-11-01

    In 2012, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention awarded the Indiana State Department of Health funding for breastfeeding activities. The grant, issued in part in response to the 2011 Surgeon General's Call to Action to Support Breastfeeding, focused on providing funding and technical support to small community-based organizations to address challenges encountered by breastfeeding mothers. Indiana used the funds to develop the Community Breastfeeding Support Initiative (CBSI). The goal was to provide funding and technical support to small community-based organizations to carry out self-selected projects in their communities. The 13 CBSI programs served 1345 individual clients (n = 3664 visits) during the 9-month period. This article provides valuable information about collaboration at the state level and the supporting infrastructure in place to carry out this project. Our findings about the number of clients served, number of visits, community-specific programs and activities, and lessons learned can be used by other organizations as they plan breastfeeding support programs for their community. PMID:26293654

  7. Initial rate and isotope exchange studies of rat skeletal muscle hexokinase

    SciTech Connect

    Ganson, N.J.; Fromm, H.J.

    1985-10-05

    The kinetic mechanism of rat skeletal muscle hexokinase (hexokinase II) was investigated in light of a proposal by Cornish-Bowden and his co-workers. The authors investigated the mechanism of action of hexokinase II by studying initial rate kinetics in the nonphysiological direction and by isotope exchange at chemical equilibrium. The former experiments were carried out in the absence of inhibitors and then with AMP, which is a competitive inhibitor of ADP, and with glucose 1,6-bisphosphate, a competitive inhibitor of glucose-6-P. The findings from these experiments suggest that the kinetic mechanism is rapid equilibrium Random Bi Bi. Isotope exchange at equilibrium studies also supports the random nature of the muscle hexokinase reaction; however, they also suggest that the mechanism is partially ordered, i.e. there is a preferred pathway associated with the branched mechanism. Approximately two-thirds of the flux through the hexokinase reaction involves the glucose on first glucose-6-P off last branch of the Random Bi Bi mechanism. These results imply that the kinetic mechanism is steady state Random Bi Bi. There is some evidence to suggest that glucose-6-P binds to an allosteric site on muscle hexokinase, but none to suppose that ATP binds allosterically.

  8. Impact of boron complexation by Tris buffer on the initial dissolution rate of borosilicate glasses.

    PubMed

    Tournié, A; Majérus, O; Lefèvre, G; Rager, M-N; Walmé, S; Caurant, D; Barboux, Ph

    2013-06-15

    Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane is a commonly used buffer for leaching studies on glasses. In this work, we demonstrate that it plays a role on the alteration kinetics of borosilicate glasses. Comparative dissolution experiments on a soda-lime silicate glass and a sodium borosilicate glass, in several solutions with or without Tris at neutral pH, are carried out in order to assess the specific effects of the ionic strength and of the Tris molecules on the initial dissolution kinetics. Tris has no effect on the dissolution of the soda-lime silicate glass, while it significantly enhances the dissolution of the borosilicate glass, by increasing the B, Na, and Si release rates. This specific effect on the borosilicate glass is attributed to the Tris-boron complexation and discussed. The bidentate complexation of boron by Tris(hydroxymethyl)aminomethane (Tris) with a 1:1 stoichiometry is directly demonstrated by infrared and NMR spectroscopies. Complexation constants are determined for the Tris-borate complex and its protonated form Tris-boric, from the (11)B and (1)H NMR spectra. This complexation should be taken into account when using the Tris/HCl buffer in alteration experiments of borosilicate glasses. PMID:23578519

  9. Effect of pedalling rates on physiological response during endurance cycling.

    PubMed

    Lepers, R; Millet, G Y; Maffiuletti, N A; Hausswirth, C; Brisswalter, J

    2001-08-01

    This study was undertaken to examine the effect of different pedalling cadences upon various physiological responses during endurance cycling exercise. Eight well-trained triathletes cycled three times for 30 min each at an intensity corresponding to 80% of their maximal aerobic power output. The first test was performed at a freely chosen cadence (FCC); two others at FCC - 20% and FCC + 20%, which corresponded approximately to the range of cadences habitually used by road racing cyclists. The mean (SD) FCC, FCC - 20% and FCC + 20% were equal to 86 (4), 69 (3) and 103 (5) rpm respectively. Heart rate (HR), oxygen uptake (VO2), minute ventilation (VE) and respiratory exchange ratio (R) were analysed during three periods: between the 4th and 5th, 14th and 15th, and 29th and 30th min. A significant effect of time (P < 0.01) was found at the three cadences for HR, VO2. The VE and R were significantly (P < 0.05) greater at FCC + 20% compared to FCC - 20% at the 5th and 15th min but not at the 30th min. Nevertheless, no significant effect of cadence was observed in HR and VO2. These results suggest that, during high intensity exercise such as that encountered during a time-trial race, well-trained triathletes can easily adapt to the changes in cadence allowed by the classical gear ratios used in practice. PMID:11560096

  10. 77 FR 53195 - C.P. Crane LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

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    2012-08-31

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  1. 78 FR 45521 - Desert Sunlight 250, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes...

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    2012-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of Pacific Wind Lessee, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  4. 75 FR 57015 - Alta Wind V, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind V, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Alta Wind V, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  5. 75 FR 57015 - Baldwin Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Baldwin Wind, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing... the above-referenced proceeding of Baldwin Wind, LLC's application for market-based rate...

  6. 76 FR 23806 - Alta Wind VI, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Alta Wind VI, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Alta Wind VI, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  7. 77 FR 67360 - EnergyMark, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission EnergyMark, LLC; Supplemental Notice that Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of EnergyMark, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...

  8. 75 FR 59259 - Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-27

    ... notice in the above-referenced proceeding of Turner Energy, LLC's application for market-based rate... Energy Regulatory Commission Turner Energy, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate... Street, NE., Washington, DC 20426, in accordance with Rules 211 and 214 of the Commission's Rules...

  9. 78 FR 62615 - RE Rosamond Two LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission RE Rosamond Two LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market- Based Rate...-referenced proceeding of RE Rosamond Two LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with...

  10. 78 FR 50409 - Merlin One, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing Includes Request for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Merlin One, LLC; Supplemental Notice That Initial Market-Based Rate Filing...-referenced proceeding of Merlin One, LLC's application for market-based rate authority, with an...