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Sample records for injection moulded santoprene

  1. Mould temperature control during injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postawa, Przemyslaw; Stachowiak, Tomasz

    2015-05-01

    Mould temperature is one of the most important parameter in injection moulding process of thermoplastic polymers in particular semi crystalline polymers. There are a lots of methods of control mould temperature but it is not simple and easy to measure heat transfer precisely. Injection moulds have usually a large mass and this is equal also to large heat capacity of tools and its thermal inertia. Measuring temperature by using contact equipment causes a lot of mistakes, because that method is based on heat transfer between thermocouple and measured area of mould. Result of research of 3 different method of temperature control of mould surface were present in the publication. For this purpose a special experimental mould was made. Mould has eight independent cooling circuits which were connected to the thermo controller Wittmann with two circuits. The main aim of research was to determine the effect of normal process of injection moulding on temperature changing in different area of mould. Under the cavity 4 thermocouple were placed and connect to the recorder what gave a possibility of uploading data during injection process. For that research mould temperature was change in many different layouts. Data and sequences of changes in temperature collected during tests gave very interesting result for discussion. Furthermore use of differences in temperature profile of the mould causes different temperature profile recorded during injection moulding. Tests were made by using fallowing equipment: Krauss Maffei injection moulding machine KM65-C4 and thermo controller Wittmann TPplus2, Shini Rotameter, infrared camera TESTO-890 and thermocouple signal recorder with 4 thermocouples of diameter 1mm located in injection mould 3mm under cavity surface. Draft of experimental mould and thermocouple location were presented in the article, and results of research as a drafts and charts of temperature changing in different area of mould were included.

  2. Computational fluid dynamics of reaction injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateus, Artur; Mitchell, Geoffrey; Bártolo, Paulo

    2012-09-01

    The modern approach to the development of moulds for injection moulding (Reaction Injection Moulding - RIM, Thermoplastic Injection Moulding - TIM and others) differs from the conventional approach based exclusively on the designer's experience and hypotheses. The increasingly complexityof moulds and the requirement by the clients for the improvement of their quality, shorter delivery times, and lower prices, demand the development of novel approaches to developed optimal moulds and moulded parts. The development of more accurate computational tools is fundamental to optimize both, the injection mouldingprocesses and the design, quality and durability of the moulds. This paper focuses on the RIM process proposing a novel thermo-rheo-kinetic model. The proposed model was implemented in generalpurpose Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software. The model enables to accurately describe both flow and curing stages. Simulation results were validated against experimental results.

  3. Injection moulding of graphite composite bipolar plates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, A.; Kauranen, P.; von Ganski, A.; Hell, B.

    SGL Technologies GmbH has been developing different moulding technologies for graphite composite bipolar plates (BPP) for PEM fuel cells since 1997. Injection moulding of polypropylene (PP) and phenolic (PF) bonded graphite compounds have been identified as most promising and cost-effective production processes. SGL Technologies has invested in injection moulding machines for moulding both thermoplastic and thermoset materials. In addition, materials and processes have been developed in order to mould highly filled compounds with a graphite filler content above 80 wt.% needed for the BPP application. The PP bonded compound ®Sigracet PPG86 can be mould with complicated flow field structures and manifold through holes in a single process step. The material and process can be considered production ready for the low temperature (T ≤ 80 °C) PEMFC application. The PF bonded compound ®Sigracet BBP4 shows improved electrical conductivity and temperature stability over PPG86. It has been so far available as compression moulded plates only. However, our recent developments show that BBP4 can be injection moulded without major change of the attractive properties in comparison to the compression moulded plates. Anyhow, the injection moulded BBP4 will remain more expensive than PPG86 due to more complicated processing and a longer cycle time. The pros and cons of the two materials and processes will be discussed in detail.

  4. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    SciTech Connect

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C.; Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T.; Steger, M.

    2015-05-22

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  5. Injection moulding of optical functional micro structures using laser structured, PVD-coated mould inserts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Schöngart, M.; Schäfer, C.; Bobzin, K.; Bagcivan, N.; Brögelmann, T.; Theiß, S.; Münstermann, T.; Steger, M.

    2015-05-01

    Micro structured optical plastics components are intensively used i. e. in consumer electronics, for optical sensors in metrology, innovative LED-lighting or laser technology. Injection moulding has proven to be successful for the large-scale production of those parts. However, the production of those parts still causes difficulties due to challenges in the moulding and demoulding of plastics parts created with laser structured mould inserts. A complete moulding of the structures often leads to increased demoulding forces, which then cause a breaking of the structures and a clogging of the mould. An innovative approach is to combine PVD-coated (physical vapour deposition), laser structured inserts and a variothermal moulding process to create functional mic8iüro structures in a one-step process. Therefore, a PVD-coating is applied after the laser structuring process in order to improve the wear resistance and the anti-adhesive properties against the plastics melt. In a series of moulding trials with polycarbonate (PC) and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) using different coated moulds, the mould temperature during injection was varied in the range of the glass transition and the melt temperature of the polymers. Subsequently, the surface topography of the moulded parts is evaluated by digital 3D laser-scanning microscopy. The influence of the moulding parameters and the coating of the mould insert on the moulding accuracy and the demoulding behaviour are being analysed. It is shown that micro structures created by ultra-short pulse laser ablation can be successfully replicated in a variothermal moulding process. Due to the mould coating, significant improvements could be achieved in producing micro structured optical plastics components.

  6. Multilayer injection moulding of thick-walled optical plastics parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Neuss, A.; Weber, M.; Walach, P.

    2014-05-01

    Optical components are often thick-walled. The cycle time of precise polymer optics with a wall thickness of more than 20 mm exceeds several minutes. The multilayer injection moulding or compression moulding lowers the cycle time and increases the quality of the moulded parts. For the production of multilayer moulded lenses the mould design plays an important role. An innovative mould concept is presented with the possiblity to produce double or triple layer lenses. To ensure the quality and the endurance of multilayer moulded optical components in their applications, the cohesion in the interface is important. Tensile shear tests show the ability of multilayer moulded parts with high cohesion values for optical applications.

  7. Investigation on the Achievable Flow Length in Injection Moulding of Polymeric Materials with Dynamic Mould Tempering

    PubMed Central

    Drummer, Dietmar

    2013-01-01

    A variety of parts in microsystems technology are manufactured by injection moulding of polymeric materials. In Particular the high cooling velocity affects negatively the process and the resulting part properties. The scope of this paper is to investigate the influence on the reachable flow length in injection moulding of different polymeric materials. The results indicate that the mould temperature has less impact on the achievable flow length of the polymer melt as the injection pressure. A higher mould temperature leads only to a slight increase in flow length. In addition, a transcending of the glass or the crystallization temperature of polymeric materials with the mould temperature shows no effect on the achievable flow length of the material. PMID:23970840

  8. Injection Moulding of Wood Powder with Low Binder Content

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miki, Tsunehisa; Takakura, Norio; Iizuka, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Katsuhiko; Imanishi, Hiroshi; Kanayama, Kouzou

    This study is aimed at exploring possibilities to improve the injectability of wood powder and the mechanical properties of the injected product while keeping the amount of binder to its minimum. In the preliminary experiment, injection moulding of Japanese cedar wood powder was conducted. The effects of binder content (PE; pellet-size) and nozzle temperature on the tensile strength and strain at break of the product were investigated. Results showed that under such conditions, injection moulding of wood powder only was not possible due to insufficient fluidity. Increasing the binder content and the nozzle temperature resulted to a decrease in the maximum injection pressure and improvement in the fluidity of the powder. Using the same PE content, increasing the temperature resulted to an increase in tensile strength of the injected product. However, the strain at break was decreased. Moreover, at PE content below 50%, the strength and strain decreased considerably.

  9. Self-optimizing MPC of melt temperature in injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Dubay, R

    2002-01-01

    The parameters in plastic injection moulding are highly nonlinear and interacting. Good control of plastic melt temperature for injection moulding is very important in reducing operator setup time, assuring consistent product quality, and preventing thermal degradation of the melt. Step response testing was performed on the barrel heating zones on an industrial injection moulding machine (IMM). The open loop responses indicated a high degree of process coupling between the heating zones. From these experimental step responses, a multiple-input-multiple-output model predictive control strategy was developed and practically implemented. The requirement of negligible overshoot is important to the plastics industry for preventing material overheating and wastage, and reducing machine operator setup time. A generic learning and self-optimizing MPC methodology was developed and implemented on the IMM to control melt temperature for any polymer to be moulded on any machine having different electrical heater capacities. The control performance was tested for varying setpoint trajectories typical of normal machine operations. The results showed that the predictive controller provided good control of melt temperature for all zones with negligible oscillations, and, therefore, eliminated material degradation and extended machine setup time. PMID:12014805

  10. Rotational moulding.

    PubMed

    Crawford, R J; Kearns, M P

    2003-10-01

    Rotational moulding promises designers attractive economics and a low-pressure process. The benefits of rotational moulding are compared here with other manufacturing methods such as injection and blow moulding. PMID:14603714

  11. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    SciTech Connect

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  12. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures for Micro Powder Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-01

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of Fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding (μPIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components.

  13. TiB2 nanostructured coating for GFRP injection moulds.

    PubMed

    Martinho, R P; Silva, F J G; Alexandre, R J D; Baptista, A P M

    2011-06-01

    In the injection moulding of polypropylene reinforced with hard glass fibres, die materials are commonly subjected to severe abrasive wear. In order to improve its wear resistance, an unbalanced magnetron sputtering PVD compositional monolayered coating has been produced. The film was composed by a nanostructured TiB2 monolayer. Microstructure characterization and thickness evaluation were conducted by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Film topography and roughness were accessed by SEM and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM). The phase analyse was investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), using Cu Kalpha radiation. Scratch tests were conducted in order to study the film adhesion to the substrate. Load-Displacement curves (nanoindentation analysis) allowed measuring the film hardness and Young's modulus. A ball-cratering tribometer was used to determine the micro-abrasion laboratorial wear resistance, under different tests conditions, using SiC particles in distilled water slurry. At the end of these tests, the worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS) in order to compare these results with some other coatings already tested in the same conditions. To test the practical wear resistance, 135000 injection cycles were done in a plastic injection industrial mould. Coated samples were put on the plastic feed canal, after a turbulent zone. In these tests, a 30% (wt) glass fibres reinforced polypropylene was used. Worn sample surfaces were analyzed by SEM after 45.000 and 90.000 cycles. Image analyses were made in order to evaluate the damage increases and to observe the wear mechanisms involved. PMID:21770191

  14. Morphology and mechanical properties relationships in non-conventional melt manipulation injection moulding techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouyumdzhiev, Anton D.; Viana, Júlio C.

    2007-04-01

    Shear Controlled Orientation in Injection Moulding and Push-Pull Injection Moulding with abbreviations respectively SCORIM and PPIM, are two non-conventional injection moulding techniques based on the concept of in-mould shear manipulation of the melt during the solidification phase. In this work a diversity of microstructures were developed by SCORIM and PPIM by systematic variations of the processing conditions (total of 16 moulding conditions). The microstructures were observed by polarized light microscopy, being assessed the multi-laminated skin-to-core ratio. The level of molecular orientation of the skin and the relative degree of crystallinity of the core were evaluated by Wide-Angle X-ray scattering. The mechanical behaviour was assessed by flexural, tensile and fracture tests. The relationships between the morphology and the mechanical properties of the mouldings were established, regardless the processing technique, combining the results of both SCORIM and PPIM.

  15. Improved Processing of Titanium Alloys by Metal Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidambe, A. T.; Figueroa, I. A.; Hamilton, H.; Todd, I.

    2011-12-01

    The commercially pure (CP-Ti) and Ti6Al4V (Ti-64) powders with powder size of sub 45-micron were mixed with a water soluble binder consisting of a major fraction of Polyethylene Glycol (PEG), a minor fraction of Polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and some stearic acid as surfactant. The pelletised mix was injection-moulded into standard tensile bar specimens and then subjected solvent debinding by water leaching and thermal debinding in an argon atmosphere. The titanium compacts were then subjected to sintering studies using the Taguchi method. The results of the oxygen impurity levels of the sintered parts are presented in this paper. Titanium parts conforming to Grade 2 requirements were achieved for CP-Ti whilst those conforming to Grade 5 were achieved for Ti-64.

  16. Modeling of short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, A.; Aswini, N.; Dandekar, C. R.; Makhe, S.

    2012-09-01

    A micromechanics based finite element model (FEM) is developed to facilitate the design of a new production quality fiber reinforced plastic injection molded part. The composite part under study is composed of a polyetheretherketone (PEEK) matrix reinforced with 30% by volume fraction of short carbon fibers. The constitutive material models are obtained by using micromechanics based homogenization theories. The analysis is carried out by successfully coupling two commercial codes, Moldflow and ANSYS. Moldflow software is used to predict the fiber orientation by considering the flow kinetics and molding parameters. Material models are inputted into the commercial software ANSYS as per the predicted fiber orientation and the structural analysis is carried out. Thus in the present approach a coupling between two commercial codes namely Moldflow and ANSYS has been established to enable the analysis of the short fiber reinforced injection moulded composite parts. The load-deflection curve is obtained based on three constitutive material model namely an isotropy, transversely isotropy and orthotropy. Average values of the predicted quantities are compared to experimental results, obtaining a good correlation. In this manner, the coupled Moldflow-ANSYS model successfully predicts the load deflection curve of a composite injection molded part.

  17. Implementing a prototyping network for injection moulded imaging lenses in Finland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keränen, K.; Mäkinen, J.-T.; Pääkkönen, E. J.; Koponen, M.; Karttunen, M.; Hiltunen, J.; Karioja, P.

    2005-10-01

    A network for prototyping imaging lenses using injection moulding was established in Finland. The network consists of several academic and industrial partners capable of designing, processing and characterising imaging lenses produced by injection moulding technology. In order to validate the operation of the network a demonstrator lens was produced. The process steps included in the manufacturing were lens specification, designing and modelling, material selection, mould tooling, moulding process simulation, injection moulding and characterisation. A magnifying imaging singlet lens to be used as an add-on in a camera phone was selected as a demonstrator. The design of the add-on lens proved to be somewhat challenging, but a double aspheric singlet lens design fulfilling nearly the requirement specification was produced. In the material selection task the overall characteristics profile of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) material was seen to be the most fitting to the pilot case. It is a low cost material with good moulding properties and therefore it was selected as a material for the pilot lens. Lens mould design was performed using I-DEAS and tested by using MoldFlow 3D injection moulding simulation software. The simulations predicted the achievable lens quality in the processing, when using a two-cavity mould design. First cavity was tooled directly into the mould plate and the second cavity was made by tooling separate insert pieces for the mould. Mould material was steel and the inserts were made from Moldmax copper alloy. Parts were tooled with high speed milling machines. Insert pieces were hand polished after tooling. Prototype lenses were injection moulded using two PMMA grades, namely 6N and 7N. Different process parameters were also experimented in the injection moulding test runs. Prototypes were characterised by measuring mechanical dimensions, surface profile, roughness and MTF of the lenses. Characterisations showed that the lens surface RMS

  18. Electrical, Thermal, and Machining Behaviour of Injection Moulded Polymeric CNT Nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoodi, Mehdi

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are promising additives for thermoplastics, resulting from their superior electrical, thermal and mechanical properties. Due to the desirable properties of CNT/polymer composites and their wide application in technological devices, these materials have attracted a great deal of attention from both academia and industry. A considerable amount of research has been devoted to the processing of CNT-filled nanocomposites, but only a few investigations have focussed on the injection moulding of these nanocomposites. This research was aimed at the study of the flow-induced alignment of CNT/polymer nanocomposites through the injection moulding process. We focussed on the understanding of the alignment of multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a thermoplastic matrix and the investigation of the alignment's effect on the electrical, thermal and machining characteristics of the injection moulded nanocomposites. The nanocomposites were first prepared with a melt mixing technique (i.e. twin screw extrusion), and they were then injection moulded under various processing conditions and mould geometries. High aspect ratio nanotubes could be partially aligned in the parallel-to-flow direction, resulting from the in-plane shear flow exerted on the polymeric melt in the injection cavity. It can be concluded that the volume resistivity of the moulded samples could be varied up to 7 orders of magnitude by changing the processing conditions and gate type in the injection moulding process. The electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness (EMI SE) of the moulded composites was studied by considering the alignment of the MWCNTs. The EMI SE decreased with an increase in the alignment of the injection moulded MWCNTs in the polymer matrix. Anisotropic thermal conductivity was observed for the injection moulded nanocomposites. It was shown that thermal conductivity can be enhanced by aligning the nanotubes in the parallel-to-flow direction. The post

  19. Iso- and variothermal injection compression moulding of polymer micro- and nanostructures for optical and medical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytka, C.; Kristiansen, P. M.; Neyer, A.

    2015-06-01

    The surfaces of medical and optical polymer products are being increasingly functionalized with micro- and nanostructures using mass replication methods like injection moulding. We compared the filling behaviour and replication quality of such structures using four different moulding processes with two polymers of different viscosity and wetting behaviour. For this purpose, we replicated three representative 2D and 3D micro- and nanostructures into polymethylmethacrylate and amorphous polyamide by isothermal and variothermal injection moulding with and without compression, respectively, using the same mould. The parallel compression phase reduced the internal pressure in the cavity, leading to fewer demoulding issues but without significant influence on the replication fidelity. Variothermal heating of the mould in combination with a polymer of low viscosity and good wetting behaviour was favourable especially for filling of high aspect-ratio structures. For microstructure replication, melt viscosity and no-flow temperature were clearly more relevant than wetting as flow resistance and frozen layer formation are the main reasons for incomplete filling at this length scale. In nanostructures, the capillary effect becomes increasingly dominant depending on the surface energy of the polymer.

  20. Injection moulding of high aspect ratio micron-scale thickness polymeric microcantilevers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFarland, Andrew W.; Poggi, Mark A.; Bottomley, Lawrence A.; Colton, Jonathan S.

    2004-11-01

    Tipless thermoplastic microcantilevers suitable for chemical and biological sensing applications were fabricated by injection moulding. Their stiffnesses and resonant frequencies were each determined by two techniques. Polystyrene beams produced by this method exhibited stiffnesses ranging from 0.01 to 10 N m-1, making them feasible for biosensing applications. The approach proved repeatable with low standard deviations on the parameters measured on 22 microcantilever beams (stiffness and first-mode resonant frequency) made from the same mould. The variations were much lower than those of similar, commercially available, silicon-type beams. The polymeric microcantilevers were shown to be of at least equal calibre to commercially available microcantilevers.

  1. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures Dedicated to Macro and Micro powder Injection Moulding : Experiments and Simulations

    SciTech Connect

    Quinard, C.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J. P.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Liu, B. S.

    2007-05-17

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding ({mu}PIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components. These research tasks are completed with the simulations of injection and sintering for solid state diffusion for to validate the mumerical models.

  2. Development of Metal/Polymer Mixtures Dedicated to Macro and Micro powder Injection Moulding : Experiments and Simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinard, C.; Barrière, T.; Gelin, J. C.; Song, J. P.; Cheng, Z. Q.; Liu, B. S.

    2007-05-01

    Important research tasks at ENSMM/LMA are concerned for the development of mixtures of fine powders associated to polymer binders dedicated to the powder injection moulding (PIM) and to the powder injection micro-moulding (μPIM) in accordance with many works already carried out with different feedstock suppliers dedicated to the macro-components. These research tasks are completed with the simulations of injection and sintering for solid state diffusion for to validate the mumerical models.

  3. A concept for non-invasive temperature measurement during injection moulding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Christian; Spekowius, Marcel; Wipperfürth, Jens; Schöngart, Maximilian

    2016-03-01

    Current models of the injection moulding process insufficiently consider the thermal interactions between melt, solidified material and the mould. A detailed description requires a deep understanding of the underlying processes and a precise observation of the temperature. Because todays measurement concepts do not allow a non-invasive analysis it is necessary to find new measurement techniques for temperature measurements during the manufacturing process. In this work we present the idea of a set up for a tomographic ultrasound measurement of the temperature field inside a plastics melt. The goal is to identify a concept that can be installed on a specialized mould for the injection moulding process. The challenges are discussed and the design of a prototype is shown. Special attention is given to the spatial arrangement of the sensors. Besides the design of a measurement set up a reconstruction strategy for the ultrasound signals is required. We present an approach in which an image processing algorithm can be used to calculate a temperature distribution from the ultrasound scans. We discuss a reconstruction strategy in which the ultrasound signals are converted into a spartial temperature distribution by using pvT curves that are obtained by dilatometer measurements.

  4. Effect analysis for compensating viscosity fluctuations by means of a self-optimising injection moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Weber, M.; Reßmann, A.

    2015-05-01

    As the conventional control of the injection moulding process is based on machine variables which cannot compensate process fluctuations, a constant part quality cannot be guaranteed. The aim of the self-optimising processing method is to compensate the effects of process fluctuations, to ensure a repeatable forming of the moulded part and therefore achieve a constant part quality. The so called pvT-optimisation allows, in combination with a closed-loop cavity pressure control, a systematic consideration of variable boundary conditions of the process. In addition, the effort required for setting up the process can be significantly reduced. The pvT-optimised processing method enables the compensation of thermal disturbances and pressure fluctuations. Additionally, the influence of variations in material viscosity on the process variables, caused by the usage of recycled material, is addressed. Changing temperature and pressure of the material during the process compensates for the variations in material viscosity. An effect analyses of the influence of viscosity-relevant process parameters such as melt temperature, mould temperature and injection velocity on quality criteria such as part weight is conducted. The effect analysis shows a strong correlation between injection velocity and the weight. Thus, the part weight can be controlled by adapting the injection velocity.

  5. Ways of Comparation of the Fibre Orientation in Injection Moulding Parts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Likavčan, Lukáš; Martinkovič, Maroš; Bílik, Jozef; Košík, Miroslav

    2014-12-01

    The fibre orientation in short fibre reinforced thermoplastics depends on injection moulding technology parameters. The aim of this paper is to propose possibilities for comparing fibre orientation of the real sample and the result from simulation software. Fibre orientation of selected injection moulding part is simulated. In some selected points secondorder tensor of orientation was estimated. Stereological metallography was used for possibility of comparison these results with experimental ones. An experimental result of estimation of degree of fibre orientation is described. The use of stereological metallography allows very simple and effective experimental estimation of short glass fibre orientation, which can be used for experimental verification of numerical simulation model, which can be optimized to obtained coincidence with experiments.

  6. Numerical Predictions on the Final Properties of Metal Injection Moulded Components after Sintering Process

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-04-07

    A macroscopic model based on a viscoplastic constitutive law is presented to describe the sintering process of metallic powder components obtained by injection moulding. The model parameters are identified by the gravitational beam-bending tests in sintering and the sintering experiments in dilatometer. The finite element simulations are carried out to predict the shrinkage, density and strength after sintering. The simulation results have been compared to the experimental ones, and a good agreement has been obtained.

  7. Free flow isotachophoresis in an injection moulded miniaturised separation chamber with integrated electrodes.

    PubMed

    Stone, Victoria N; Baldock, Sara J; Croasdell, Laura A; Dillon, Leonard A; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nick J; Thomas, C L Paul; Treves Brown, Bernard J

    2007-07-01

    An injection moulded free flow isotachophoresis (FFITP) microdevice with integrated carbon fibre loaded electrodes with a separation chamber of 36.4mm wide, 28.7 mm long and 100 microm deep is presented. The microdevice was completely fabricated by injection moulding in carbon fibre loaded polystyrene for the electrodes and crystal polystyrene for the remainder of the chip and was bonded together using ultrasonic welding. Two injection moulded electrode designs were compared, one with the electrode surface level with the separation chamber and one with a recessed electrode. Separations of two anionic dyes, 0.2mM each of amaranth and acid green and separations of 0.2mM each of amaranth, bromophenol blue and glutamate were performed on the microdevice. Flow rates of 1.25 ml min(-1) for the leading and terminating electrolytes were used and a flow rate of 0.63 ml min(-1) for the sample. Electric fields of up to 370 V cm(-1) were applied across the separation chamber. Joule heating was not found to be significant although out-gassing was observed at drive currents greater than 3 mA. PMID:17229431

  8. 3D filling simulation of micro- and nanostructures in comparison to iso- and variothermal injection moulding trials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rytka, C.; Lungershausen, J.; Kristiansen, P. M.; Neyer, A.

    2016-06-01

    Flow simulations can cut down both costs and time for the development of injection moulded polymer parts with functional surfaces used in life science and optical applications. We simulated the polymer melt flow into 3D micro- and nanostructures with Moldflow and Comsol and compared the results to real iso- and variothermal injection moulding trials below, at and above the transition temperature of the polymer. By adjusting the heat transfer coefficient and the transition temperature in the simulation it was possible to achieve good correlation with experimental findings at different processing conditions (mould temperature, injection velocity) for two polymers, namely polymethylmethacrylate and amorphous polyamide. The macroscopic model can be scaled down in volume and number of elements to save computational time for microstructure simulation and to enable first and foremost the nanostructure simulation, as long as local boundary conditions such as flow front speed are transferred correctly. The heat transfer boundary condition used in Moldflow was further evaluated in Comsol. Results showed that the heat transfer coefficient needs to be increased compared to macroscopic moulding in order to represent interfacial polymer/mould effects correctly. The transition temperature is most important in the packing phase for variothermal injection moulding.

  9. Utilizing of inner porous structure in injection moulds for application of special cooling method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidl, M.; Bobek, J.; Šafka, J.; Habr, J.; Nováková, I.; Běhálek, L.

    2016-04-01

    The article is focused on impact evaluation of controlled inner structure of production tools and new cooling method on regulation of thermal processes for injection moulding technology. The mould inserts with porous structure were cooled by means of liquid CO2 which is very progressive cooling method and enables very fast and intensive heat transfer among the plastic product, the production tool and cooling medium. The inserts were created using rapid prototype technology (DLSM) and they had a bi-component structure consisting of thin compact surface layer and defined porous inner structure of open cell character where liquid CO2 was flowing through. This analyse includes the evaluation of cooling efficiency for different inner structures and different time profiles for dosing of liquid CO2 into the porous structure. The thermal processes were monitored using thermocouples and IR thermal analyse of product surface and experimental device. Intensive heat removal influenced also the final structure and the shape and dimensional accuracy of the moulded parts that were made of semi-crystalline polymer. The range of final impacts of using intensive cooling method on the plastic parts was defined by DSC and dimensional analyses.

  10. Numerical Simulation of Sintering Process in Ceramic Powder Injection Moulded Components

    SciTech Connect

    Song, J.; Barriere, T.; Gelin, J. C.

    2007-05-17

    A phenomenological model based on viscoplastic constitutive law is presented to describe the sintering process of ceramic components obtained by powder injection moulding. The parameters entering in the model are identified through sintering experiments in dilatometer with the proposed optimization method. The finite element simulations are carried out to predict the density variations and dimensional changes of the components during sintering. A simulation example on the sintering process of hip implant in alumina has been conducted. The simulation results have been compared with the experimental ones. A good agreement is obtained.

  11. Fabrication and modelling of injection moulded all-polymer capillary microvalves for passive microfluidic control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Esben Poulsen, Carl; Østergaard, Peter Friis; Haugshøj, Kenneth Brian; Taboryski, Rafael; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2014-12-01

    Rapid prototyping is desirable when developing products. One example of such a product is all-polymer, passive flow controlled lab-on-a-chip systems that are preferential when developing low-cost disposable chips for point-of-care use. In this paper we investigate the following aspects of going from rapid prototyping to pilot (mass) production. (1) Fabrication of an all-polymer microfluidic system using a rapid prototyped master insert for injection moulding and ultrasonic welding, including a systematic experimental characterisation of chip featured geometric capillary microvalve test structures. (2) Numerical modelling of the microvalve burst pressures. Numerical modelling of burst pressures is challenging due to its non-equilibrium nature. We have implemented and tested the level-set method modified with a damped driving term and show that the introduction of the damping term leads to numerically robust results with limited computational demands and a low number of iterations. Numerical and simplified analytical results are validated against the experimental results. We find that injection moulding and ultrasonic welding are effective for chip production and that the experimental burst pressures could be estimated with an average accuracy of 5% using the presented numerical model.

  12. Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery.

    PubMed

    Nair, Karthik; Whiteside, Benjamin; Grant, Colin; Patel, Rajnikant; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina; Norris, Keith; Paradkar, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA. PMID:26529005

  13. Investigation of Plasma Treatment on Micro-Injection Moulded Microneedle for Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Karthik; Whiteside, Benjamin; Grant, Colin; Patel, Rajnikant; Tuinea-Bobe, Cristina; Norris, Keith; Paradkar, Anant

    2015-01-01

    Plasma technology has been widely used to increase the surface energy of the polymer surfaces for many industrial applications; in particular to increase in wettability. The present work was carried out to investigate how surface modification using plasma treatment modifies the surface energy of micro-injection moulded microneedles and its influence on drug delivery. Microneedles of polyether ether ketone and polycarbonate and have been manufactured using micro-injection moulding and samples from each production batch have been subsequently subjected to a range of plasma treatment. These samples were coated with bovine serum albumin to study the protein adsorption on these treated polymer surfaces. Sample surfaces structures, before and after treatment, were studied using atomic force microscope and surface energies have been obtained using contact angle measurement and calculated using the Owens-Wendt theory. Adsorption performance of bovine serum albumin and release kinetics for each sample set was assessed using a Franz diffusion cell. Results indicate that plasma treatment significantly increases the surface energy and roughness of the microneedles resulting in better adsorption and release of BSA. PMID:26529005

  14. Selection of appropriate polyoxymethylene based binder for feedstock material used in powder injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez-Gutierrez, J.; Stringari, G. B.; Megen, Z. M.; Oblak, P.; von Bernstorff, B. S.; Emri, I.

    2015-04-01

    Polyoxymethylene (POM) has found applications as a binder material in Powder Injection Moulding (PIM) due to its ability to depolymerize rapidly under acidic conditions. Such ability represents an advantage during the binder removal step of PIM. However, currently available POM has high viscosity that can complicate the injection moulding process of parts with complex geometry. For this reason it is necessary to investigate methods of lowering the viscosity of POM-based binders, but without affecting their solid mechanical properties (i.e. creep compliance). In this investigation, the addition of a low molecular weight polymer, and the reduction of the average molecular weight of POM were investigated as possible ways of decreasing the viscosity of PIM binders. The addition of the low molecular weight additive (WAX) caused a small decrease in the viscosity of the POM-based binder and a small increase in its solid creep compliance. On the other hand, lowering the average molecular weight of POM caused a large decrease in viscosity, but also an acceptable increase in creep compliance. Therefore, by selecting an appropriate molecular weight of POM, it is possible to improve the performance of POM-based binders for PIM.

  15. Miniaturised free flow isotachophoresis of bacteria using an injection moulded separation device.

    PubMed

    Prest, Jeff E; Baldock, Sara J; Fielden, Peter R; Goddard, Nicholas J; Goodacre, Royston; O'Connor, Richard; Treves Brown, Bernard J

    2012-08-15

    A new design of miniaturised free flow electrophoresis device has been produced. The design contains a separation chamber that is 45 mm long by 31.7 mm wide with a depth of 50 μm and has nine inlet and nine outlet holes to allow for fraction collection. The devices were formed of polystyrene with carbon fibre loaded polystyrene drive electrodes and produced using injection moulding. This means that the devices are low cost and can potentially be mass produced. The devices were used for free flow isotachophoresis (FFITP), a technique that can be used for focussing and concentrating analytes contained within complex sample matrices. The operation of the devices was demonstrated by performing separations of dyes and bacterial samples. Analysis of the output from FFITP separations of samples containing the bacterium Erwinia herbicola, a biological pathogen, by cell culturing and counting showed that fractionation of the output was achieved. PMID:22819202

  16. Smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation of shear-induced powder migration in injection moulding.

    PubMed

    Kauzlarić, David; Pastewka, Lars; Meyer, Hagen; Heldele, Richard; Schulz, Michael; Weber, Oxana; Piotter, Volker; Hausselt, Jürgen; Greiner, Andreas; Korvink, Jan G

    2011-06-13

    We present the application of the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) discretization scheme to Phillips' model for shear-induced particle migration in concentrated suspensions. This model provides an evolution equation for the scalar mean volume fraction of idealized spherical solid particles of equal diameter which is discretized by the SPH formalism. In order to obtain a discrete evolution equation with exact conservation properties we treat in fact the occupied volume of the solid particles as the degree of freedom for the fluid particles. We present simulation results in two- and three-dimensional channel flow. The two-dimensional results serve as a verification by a comparison to analytic solutions. The three-dimensional results are used for a comparison with experimental measurements obtained from computer tomography of injection moulded ceramic microparts. We observe the best agreement of measurements with snapshots of the transient simulation for a ratio D(c)/D(η)=0.1 of the two model parameters. PMID:21536579

  17. Material- and feature-dependent effects on cell adhesion to micro injection moulded medical polymers.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seong Ying; Habimana, Olivier; Flood, Peter; Reynaud, Emmanuel G; Rodriguez, Brian J; Zhang, Nan; Casey, Eoin; Gilchrist, Michael D

    2016-09-01

    Two polymers, polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and cyclic olefin copolymer (COC), containing a range of nano- to micron- roughness surfaces (Ra 0.01, 0.1, 0.4, 1.0, 2.0, 3.2 and 5.0μm) were fabricated using electrical discharge machining (EDM) and replicated using micro injection moulding (μIM). Polymer samples were characterized using optical profilometry, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and water surface contact angle. Cell adhesion tests were carried out using bacterial Pseudomonas fluorescens and mammalian Madin-Darby Canine Kidney (MDCK) cells to determine the effect of surface hydrophobicity, surface roughness and stiffness. It is found that there are features which gave insignificant differences (feature-dependent effect) in cell adhesion, albeit a significant difference in the physicochemical properties (material-dependent effect) of substrata. In bacterial cell adhesion, the strongest feature-dependence is found at Ra 0.4μm surfaces, with material-dependent effects strongest at Ra 0.01μm. Ra 0.1μm surfaces exhibited strongest feature-dependent effects and Ra 5.0μm has strongest material-dependent effects on mammalian cell adhesion. Bacterial cell adhesion is found to be favourable to hydrophobic surfaces (COC), with the lowest adhesion at Ra 0.4μm for both materials. Mammalian cell adhesion is lowest in Ra 0.1μm and highest in Ra 1.0μm, and generally favours hydrophilic surfaces (PMMA). These findings can be used as a basis for developing medical implants or microfluidic devices using micro injection moulding for diagnostic purposes, by tuning the cell adhesion on different areas containing different surface roughnesses on the diagnostic microfluidic devices or medical implants. PMID:27137802

  18. Miniaturized fiber-coupled optical spectrometers with temperature compensation based on injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gindele, Frank; Novotny, Christian

    2003-04-01

    A miniaturized optical spectrometer module has been developed and realized in polymer by injection moulding. The spectrometer is designed for the visible (VIS, 380 nm-750 nm) and near infrared spectral (NIR, 680 nm-1100 nm) range. The assembled module has a size of a match box with a spectral resolution (Rayleigh criterion) of <7 nm /10 nm for the visible and <7 nm/8 nm for the near infrared spectrum depending on the pixel width of the used detectors. The stray light has been reduced well below 0.5 % for the VIS-module (VIS: filter OG550, measured at 500 nm) and NIR-module (NIR: filter RG850, measured at 790 nm). To avoid a wavelength shift caused by a thermal expansion of the system, a passive temperature compensation unit is designed. As a result of this the temperature shift between -40 °C and +70 °C can be reduced to <0.03 nm/K. To guarantee a flexible application of the spectrometer the measurement signal is coupled into the spectrometer by a fibre to free-space coupling unit with a 90° beam deflection. In order to use injection moulded components for optical sensors, mould inserts with a high optical quality are required. A toroidal optical mirror with an average surface roughness of Ra<20 nm and a radial shape accuracy as high as 0.2 % (0.1 mm) and optical gratings for the visible and near infrared spectral range with a planarity of 4 μm/cm and an absolute diffraction efficiency as high as 80 % can be fabricated. LIGA-technology, ultra-precision machining and electro-forming processes are applied. All optical elements have been replicated in polycarbonate (PC) with comparable characteristics. The spectrometer set up is based on a modular concept. This enables a high position accuracy of the elements to each other (few tens of μm) and a variation of specification (wavelength and resolution).

  19. Influence of wood species on properties of injection mould natural flour-HDPE composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ratanawilai, Thanate; Leeyoa, Massalan; Tiptong, Yoawanat

    2016-05-01

    Four combinations of wood flour, HDPE, and maleic anhydride (MA) include; (1) rubberwood:HDPE (30:70), (2) rubberwood: HDPE:MA (30:67:3), (3) palm oil:HDPE (30:70), and (4) palm oil:HDPE:MA (30:67:3) were studied. The injection moulding machine was used to produce wood plastic composites (WPCs). Maleic anhydride is an ingredient in bonding agents used to manufacture wood plastic composites. Extrusion molding process was conducted to prefabricate WPCs. Consequently, the effect of temperature and pressure ranging from 180, 190, 200°C and 2300, 2400, 2500 bar on injection molding was evaluated. Mechanical properties were tested including flexural testing and tensile testing according to ASTM D790 and D638, respectively. Hardness testing according to ASTM D2240 and scanning electron microscope (SEM) were also performed. Five replications were done on each test. The result showed that rubberwood:HDPE (30:70) gave a highest strength. The values of ultimate tensile strength, flexural strength, and hardness are 24.9 MPa, 33.3 MPa and 67.2 shore D, respectively. Finally, the uniform distribution of particle in WPCs, examined through SEM was achieved.

  20. Study of injection moulded long glass fibre-reinforced polypropylene and the effect on the fibre length and orientation distribution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parveeen, B.; Caton-Rose, P.; Costa, F.; Jin, X.; Hine, P.

    2014-05-01

    Long glass fibre (LGF) composites are extensively used in manufacturing to produce components with enhanced mechanical properties. Long fibres with length 12 to 25mm are added to a thermoplastic matrix. However severe fibre breakage can occur in the injection moulding process resulting in shorter fibre length distribution (FLD). The majority of this breakage occurs due to the melt experiencing extreme shear stress during the preparation and injection stage. Care should be taken to ensure that the longer fibres make it through the injection moulding process without their length being significantly degraded. This study is based on commercial 12 mm long glass-fibre reinforced polypropylene (PP) and short glass fibre Nylon. Due to the semi-flexiable behaviour of long glass fibres, the fibre orientation distribution (FOD) will differ from the orientation distribution of short glass fibre in an injection molded part. In order to investigate the effect the change in fibre length has on the fibre orientation distribution or vice versa, FOD data was measured using the 2D section image analyser. The overall purpose of the research is to show how the orientation distribution chnages in an injection moulded centre gated disc and end gated plaque geometry and to compare this data against fibre orientation predictions obtained from Autodesk Moldflow Simulation Insight.

  1. Hot melt extruded and injection moulded disulfiram-loaded PLGA millirods for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme via stereotactic injection.

    PubMed

    McConville, Christopher; Tawari, Patricia; Wang, Weiguang

    2015-10-15

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) has a poor prognosis and is one of the most common primary malignant brain tumours in adults. Stereotactic injections have been used to deliver chemotherapeutic drugs directly into brain tumours. This paper describes the development of disulfiram (DSF)-loaded biodegradable millirods manufactured using hot melt extrusion (HME) and injection moulding (IM). The paper demonstrates that the stability of the DSF within the millirods is dependent on the manufacturing technique used as well as the drug loading. The physical state of the DSF within the millirods was dependent on the fabrication process, with the DSF in the HME millirods being either completely amorphous within the PLGA, while the DSF within the IM millirods retained between 54 and 66% of its crystallinity. Release of DSF from the millirods was dependent on the degradation rate of the PLGA, the manufacturing technique used as well as the DSF loading. DSF in the 10% (w/w) DSF loaded HME millirods and the 20% (w/w) DSF-loaded HME and IM millirods had a similar cytotoxicity against a GBM cell line compared to the unprocessed DSF control. However, the 10% (w/w) DSF-loaded IM millirods had a significantly lower cytotoxicity when compared to the unprocessed control. PMID:26235918

  2. High Power Picosecond Laser Surface Micro-texturing of H13 Tool Steel and Pattern Replication onto ABS Plastics via Injection Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Otanocha, Omonigho B.; Li, Lin; Zhong, Shan; Liu, Zhu

    2016-03-01

    H13 tool steels are often used as dies and moulds for injection moulding of plastic components. Certain injection moulded components require micro-patterns on their surfaces in order to modify the physical properties of the components or for better mould release to reduce mould contamination. With these applications it is necessary to study micro-patterning to moulds and to ensure effective pattern transfer and replication onto the plastic component during moulding. In this paper, we report an investigation into high average powered (100 W) picosecond laser interactions with H13 tool steel during surface micro-patterning (texturing) and the subsequent pattern replication on ABS plastic material through injection moulding. Design of experiments and statistical modelling were used to understand the influences of laser pulse repetition rate, laser fluence, scanning velocity, and number of scans on the depth of cut, kerf width and heat affected zones (HAZ) size. The characteristics of the surface patterns are analysed. The process parameter interactions and significance of process parameters on the processing quality and efficiency are characterised. An optimum operating window is recommended. The transferred geometry is compared with the patterns generated on the dies. A discussion is made to explain the characteristics of laser texturing and pattern replication on plastics.

  3. Ultrasound based monitoring of the injection moulding process - Methods, applications and limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Praher, B. E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Straka, K. E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Usanovic, J. E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at; Steinbichler, G. E-mail: klaus.straka@jku.at E-mail: georg.steinbichler@jku.at

    2014-05-15

    We developed novel non-invasive ultrasound based systems for the measurement of temperature distributions in the screw-ante chamber, the detection of unmelted granules and for the monitoring of the plasticizing process along the screw channel. The temperature of the polymer melt stored in the screw ante-chamber after the plasticization should be homogeneous. However, in reality the polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber is not homogeneous. Due to the fact the sound velocity in a polymer melt is temperature depending, we developed a tomography system using the measured transit times of ultrasonic pulses along different sound paths for calculating the temperature distribution in radial direction of a polymer melt in the screw ante-chamber of an injection moulding machine. For the detection of unmelted granules in the polymer melt we implemented an ultrasound transmission measurement. By analyzing the attenuation of the received pulses it is possible to detect unwanted inclusions. For the monitoring of the plasticizing process in the channels of the screw an ultrasonic pulse is transmitted into the barrel. By analyzing the reflected pulses it is possible to estimate solid bed and melt regions in the screw channel. The proposed systems were tested for accuracy and validity by simulations and test measurements.

  4. Magnetic multipole cylinders from mould-injection Nd2Fe14B plastic bonded magnets (abstract)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolaides, G. K.; Niarchos, D.; Tsamakis, D.; Koubouros, I.; Mitsis, A.

    1996-04-01

    Mould injection Nd2Fe14B magnetic material of density ρ˜4 g/cc and of an energy product (BH)max˜4 MGOe, has been pressed into the form of cylindrical segments in order to investigate the possibility of preparing cylindrical magnetic multipoles which could be used as magnetic gears. The obtained cylindrical bonded magnet segments have a length of 3 cm and an angle width of φ=90° or φ=45°. These segments are easily magnetized along a radial direction at the angle φ/2, using a conventional electromagnet at a magnetic field of 2 T. Subsequently, the opposite magnetized segments are combined and bonded together with ultrasonic technique. The final result of the above procedure is the formation of a magnetic multipole cylinder which could be used as a magnetic gear. Here, except the preparation technique, we report the maximum torque applied versus the magnetization M of the poles and the distance between the gears. The dependence of the applied torque on the rotational frequency is also examined.

  5. Investigation of the influence of packing pressure on crystallization kinetics of a semi-crystalline polymer using in situ temperature measurement during injection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, M.-C.; Belhabib, S.; Nicolazo, C.; Sarda, A.; Deterre, R.; Vachot, P.

    2011-01-01

    Accurate prediction of plastic parts behaviour during injection process depends in a great deal on the knowledge of the evolution of the material properties during the forming process. In the case of semi-crystalline polymers, the evolution of these properties is closely related to the evolution of crystallinity. Several reference in literature have reported the influence of pressure on thermodynamic melt temperature (Tm) and hence on crystallization kinetics. The aim of this work is to assess this influence in real processing conditions using instrumented injection mould. This mould uses a thermocouple probe that permits in situ measurement of temperature in an injected part from the filling phase to complete freeze outside the mould. The measurements performed in the core of the part show the arising of a crystallization plateau. Finite element analysis (FEA) performed taking into account heat transfer between the part and its surrounding as well as crystallization kinetics, shows a strong sensitivity of the crystallization plateau to the melt temperature (Tm). An inverse method based on FEA and the measured temperature allows identifying Tm value. The obtained results are in good agreement with those reported in literature. The identification did not show, however, noticeable sensitivity of Tm to the pressure. Indeed, this is due to the fact that the sealing of the mould cavity gate takes place before the occurrence of the crystallization plateau. In other words, the crystallization plateau occurs when the packing pressure drops down to the atmospheric pressure. To overcome this limitation, some modifications on the mould are performed in order to delay the freeze-off time of the gate. Hopefully, this will permit one to the study the influence of the pressure on crystallization kinetics.

  6. Foam injection moulding of a TPO/TPC-blend and the effect of different nucleating agents on the resulting foam structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, J.; Spoerrer, A.; Altstaedt, V.

    2014-05-01

    The manufacturing of car interior parts with a soft touch surface is possible in a one-step injection moulding process, in which an injection moulded carrier is overmoulded with a compatible foamed thermoplastic elastomer (TPE). In contrast to the complex conventional process the structural foaming of the TPE component allows a saving of one material component as it combines a compact skin and a foamed core. Furthermore the manufacturing process can be achieved on a two component injection moulding machine which offers a much higher economic efficiency. One approach to reach an adhesion between a reinforced PP carrier and the foamed TPE component including good surface resistance is the use of an olefinic-/polyester-based TPE blend (TPO/TPC-blend). This paper is going to show the possibility to process a TPO/TPC-blend system by foam injection moulding with MuCell® and how the resulting foam structure can be influenced by various nucleating agents. For this purpose particles which differ in type, form and size were added in various concentrations to the TPE-blend. Before the structure elucidation of the foamed samples the particle dispersion and their effects on the polymers rheological properties were investigated. Finally abrasion tests were performed to investigate the influence of the particles on the performance characteristics of the foamed blend system. The results showed that the foam structure as well as the surface quality of the foamed TPO/TPC-blend can be improved with the use of suitable nucleating agents. Furthermore the abrasion properties can be advanced with appropriate additives in the right dosage.

  7. Evolution of unique nano-cylindrical structure in poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) prepared under "dynamic packing injection moulding".

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yongsheng; Su, Bin; Chen, Feng; Fu, Qiang

    2015-03-21

    This work reports the evolution of ordered nano-cylindrical structures in a thermoplastic elastomer, poly(styrene-b-isoprene-b-styrene) (SIS), utilizing a newly designed processing technique, so-called "dynamic-packing injection moulding". In this injection moulding technique, controlled oscillating shears with different shear cessation times under constant pressure were applied on the moulded samples during cooling. It was found that these additional controlled oscillating shears resulted in a change of orientation in skin-core structures in these samples, compared with corresponding "reference" samples processed via traditional injection moulding (without controlled oscillating shears). For the "reference" samples, a highly oriented PS cylindrical structure combined with relatively weak lateral ordering was observed in their skin layers, whereas the lateral ordering of the PS nano-cylinders gradually disappeared when entering the core region. On the other hand, for the SIS samples obtained via "dynamic-packing injection moulding", the orientation of the PS nano-cylinders in the skin layers was similar to the case of the "reference" sample due to their extremely fast cooling rate. However, the lateral ordering of these cylinders had been extended to the core region. With an increase in the cessation time, the lateral ordering of the PS nano-cylinders was further improved and finally resulted in hexagonal lateral packing along the flow direction in the mould. Furthermore, a mixture of parallel/perpendicular orientation of the cylinders relative to the flow direction was found, particularly when the cessation time was short (such as 3 s). We speculated that this specific perpendicular orientation was a transient state for development of a final parallel orientation aligned with the flow direction with increasing cessation time, accompanied by a further enhancement of the nano-cylindrical parallel orientation. This study could provide a better understanding of the

  8. Influence of Mold Surface Treatments on Flow of Polymer in Injection Moulding. Application to Weldlines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chailly, M.; Charmeau, J.-Y.; Bereaux, Y.; Monasse, B.

    2007-04-01

    Due to increasing expectations from the market, the aspect of molded parts has to be improved constantly. Some of the defects observed on these parts such as weldlines are related to the filling stage. To limit this, we investigated the influence on weldlines using various surface deposits on the mold surface, mainly PVD and PACVD deposits : Chromium nitride (CrN), Titanium nitride (TiN), Diamond like Carbon (DLC), Chromium and polished steel (PG) on an instrumented plate mold. Injection campaign was led on three polymers which differ in terms of nature (amorphous, semi-crystalline, copolymers). We studied the evolution of the dimensions of weldlines appearing on the plate using the same injection parameters for a given polymer, but with various deposits and thicknesses. Another aspect that had been investigated is the morphology of the weldline through the thickness of the part, depending on polymer nature. Adhesion of polymer at the flow front with the mold surface proved to change. The modification of the initial contact in the filling stage and thus the thermal resistance at the mold implied a change in the process, increasing or reducing the pressure loss in the flow and differential shrinkage in the final part. The induced impact on dimensions of the weldlines allowed to distinguish which surface treatments were able to reduce the defect. A complementary study was led on both polymers in molten state and deposits in terms of wetting using a sessile drop method to confirm the adhesion at the polymer/mold interface. This study proved the influence of the use of surface treatments has clearly an impact on the filling stage of the injection molding process, and it is necessary to get a better knowledge of the interactions between physical adhesion, tribology of polymer/mold contact, and thermal properties of the coatings and their impact on solidification of the polymer.

  9. Effect of Biaxial Stretching at Temperatures and Strain Histories Comparable to Injection Stretch Blow Moulding on Tensile Modulus for Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, C. W.; Menary, G. H.; Harkin-Jones, E. M. A.; Armstrong, C. G.; Martin, P. J.

    2007-04-01

    This study is particularly relevant to the injection stretch blow moulding (ISBM) process where PET material is typically biaxially stretched to form bottles for the water and carbonated soft drinks industry. The aim of this paper is to investigate the effect of biaxial stretching on the mechanical properties of Polyethylene Terephthalate (PET) using a custom built biaxial testing machine. An initially amorphous PET sample was prepared via injection moulding to form a square sample (76mm × 76mm) suitable for stretching on the machine. This sample was then subjected to a series of biaxial tests (simultaneous and sequential) within a temperature range between 85°C and 110 °C, strain rates in the range of 1s-1 to 32s-1 and stretch ratios in the range of 1.5 to 3. Specimens were subsequently cut from the biaxial stretched sheets and used to measure the tensile modulus. Results showed that there is almost no effect found for strain rate and temperature on modulus development whilst stretch ratio and mode of deformation played the most important role on modulus development on PET under biaxial deformation.

  10. Artificial neural networks to model formulation-property correlations in the process of inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moritzer, Elmar; Müller, Ellen; Martin, Yannick; Kleeschulte, Rainer

    2015-05-01

    Today the global market poses great challenges for industrial product development. Complexity, diversity of variants, flexibility and individuality are just some of the features that products have to offer today. In addition, the product series have shorter lifetimes. Because of their high capacity for adaption, polymers are increasingly able to displace traditional materials such as wood, glass and metals from various fields of application. Polymers can only be used to substitute other materials, however, if they are optimally suited to the applications in question. Hence, product-specific material development is becoming increasingly important. Integrating the compounding step in the injection moulding process permits a more efficient and faster development process for a new polymer formulation, making it possible to create new product-specific materials. This process is called inline-compounding on an injection moulding machine. The entire process sequence is supported by software from Bayer Technology called Product Design Workbench (PDWB), which provides assistance in all the individual steps from data management, via analysis and model compilation, right through to the optimization of the formulation and the design of experiments. The software is based on artificial neural networks and can model the formulation-property correlations and thus enable different formulations to be optimized. In the study presented, the workflow and the modelling with the software are presented.

  11. Liquid carry-over in an injection moulded all-polymer chip system for immiscible phase magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kistrup, Kasper; Skotte Sørensen, Karen; Wolff, Anders; Fougt Hansen, Mikkel

    2015-04-01

    We present an all-polymer, single-use microfluidic chip system produced by injection moulding and bonded by ultrasonic welding. Both techniques are compatible with low-cost industrial mass-production. The chip is produced for magnetic bead-based solid-phase extraction facilitated by immiscible phase filtration and features passive liquid filling and magnetic bead manipulation using an external magnet. In this work, we determine the system compatibility with various surfactants. Moreover, we quantify the volume of liquid co-transported with magnetic bead clusters from Milli-Q water or a lysis-binding buffer for nucleic acid extraction (0.1 (v/v)% Triton X-100 in 5 M guanidine hydrochloride). A linear relationship was found between the liquid carry-over and mass of magnetic beads used. Interestingly, similar average carry-overs of 1.74(8) nL/μg and 1.72(14) nL/μg were found for Milli-Q water and lysis-binding buffer, respectively.

  12. Manufacture of Mould with a High Energy Efficiency Using Rapid Manufacturing Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahn, Dong-Gyu; Kim, Hyun-Woo; Park, Seung-Hwa; Kim, Hyong-Soo

    2010-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to investigate into the manufacturing technology of injection mould with a high energy efficiency using rapid manufacturing (RM) process. Two types of injection moulds, including thermally conductive mould with volumetric heat sink and uniform cooling mould with conformal cooling channels, were manufactured from hybrid RM process combining direct metal rapid tooling process with machining process to reduce the cooling time and the used energy in moulding of the plastic parts as well as to improve the product quality. Through the injection moulding experiments using the manufactured moulds, it was shown that the designed moulds can highly reduce the cycle and cooling times in comparison to conventional moulds with only injection tool steel and linear cooling channels. In addition, it was noted that the designed moulds can improve the qualities of the moulded product induced by uniform heat transfer from the mould surface to cooling channels. From these results, it was considered that the two types of injection mould can remarkably improve the energy efficiency and the environmental impact of the injection moulding process.

  13. Slime mould biotechnology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayne, Richard

    2015-03-01

    Slime mould computing is an inherently multi-disciplinary subfield of unconventional computing that draws upon aspects of not only theoretical computer science and electronics, but also the natural sciences. This chapter focuses on the biology of slime moulds and expounds the viewpoint that a deep, intuitive understanding of slime mould life processes is a fundamental requirement for understanding -- and, hence, harnessing -- the incredible behaviour patterns we may characterise as "computation"...

  14. On creativity of slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew; Armstrong, Rachel; Jones, Jeff; Gunji, Yukio-Pegio

    2013-07-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is large single cell with intriguingly smart behaviour. The slime mould shows outstanding abilities to adapt its protoplasmic network to varying environmental conditions. The slime mould can solve tasks of computational geometry, image processing, logics and arithmetics when data are represented by configurations of attractants and repellents. We attempt to map behavioural patterns of slime onto the cognitive control vs. schizotypy spectrum phase space and thus interpret slime mould's activity in terms of creativity.

  15. Stochastic Flow Modeling for Resin Transfer Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desplentere, Frederik; Verpoest, Ignaas; Lomov, Stepan

    2009-07-01

    Liquid moulding processes suffer from inherently present scatter in the textile reinforcement properties. This variability can lead to unwanted filling patterns within the mould resulting in bad parts. If thermoplastic resins are used with the in-situ polymerisation technique, an additional difficulty appears. The time window to inject the material is small if industrial processing parameters are used (<5 minutes). To model the stochastic nature of RTM, Darcy's description of the mould filling process has been used with the permeability distribution of the preform given as a random field. The random field of the permeability is constructed as a correlated field with an exponential correlation function. Optical microscopy and X-ray micro-CT have been used to study the stochastic parameters of the geometry for 2D and 3D woven textile preforms. The parameters describing the random permeability field (average, standard deviation and correlation length) are identified based on the stochastic parameters of the geometry for the preforms, analytical estimations and CFD modelling of the permeability. In order to implement the random field for the permeability and the variability for the resin viscosity, an add-on to the mould filling simulation software PAM-RTM™ has been developed. This analysis has been validated on case studies.

  16. Silicone moulding for pressure sore debridement.

    PubMed

    Erba, P; Wettstein, R; Schumacher, R; Schwenzer-Zimmerer, K; Pierer, G; Kalbermatten, D F

    2010-03-01

    The radicality of wound debridement is an important feature of the surgical treatment of pressure sores. Several methods such as injection of methylene blue or hydrogen peroxide have been proposed to facilitate and optimise the surgical debridement technique, but none of them proved to be sufficient. We present an innovative modification of the pseudo-tumour technique consisting in the injection of fluid silicone. Vulcanization of the silicone leads to pressure-sore moulding, permitting a more radical and sterile excision. In a series of 10 paraplegic patients presenting with ischial pressure sores, silicone moulding was used to facilitate debridement. Radical en bloc debridement was achieved in all patients. After a minimal follow-up of 2 years, no complications and recurrences occurred. A three-dimensional (3D) analysis of the silicone prints objectified the pyramidal shape of ischial pressure sores. Our study showed that complete resection without capsular lesion can be easily achieved. Further, it allows the surgeon to analyse the shape and size of the resected defect, which might be helpful to select the appropriate defect coverage technique. PMID:19167279

  17. A bio-inspired microstructure induced by slow injection moulding of cylindrical block copolymers† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Azimuthal intensity profiles for X-axis scans (a, b and c) and Y-axis scans (d, e and f) and various sample thicknesses: 0.95 mm (a and d), 0.45 mm (b and e), 0.23 mm (c and f). The injection point was at X = 0 and Y = 0 and the injection rate was 7 × 10–8 m3 s–1. See DOI: 10.1039/c4sm00884g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Stasiak, Joanna; Brubert, Jacob; Serrani, Marta; Nair, Sukumaran; de Gaetano, Francesco; Costantino, Maria Laura

    2014-01-01

    It is well known that block copolymers with cylindrical morphology show alignment with shear, resulting in anisotropic mechanical properties. Here we show that well-ordered bi-directional orientation can be achieved in such materials by slow injection moulding. This results in a microstructure, and anisotropic mechanical properties, similar to many natural tissues, making this method attractive for engineering prosthetic fibrous tissues. An application of particular interest to us is prosthetic polymeric heart valve leaflets, mimicking the shape, microstructure and hence performance of the native valve. Anisotropic layers have been observed for cylinder-forming block copolymers centrally injected into thin circular discs. The skin layers exhibit orientation parallel to the flow direction, whilst the core layer shows perpendicularly oriented domains; the balance of skin to core layers can be controlled by processing parameters such as temperature and injection rate. Heart valve leaflets with a similar layered structure have been prepared by injection moulding. Numerical modelling demonstrates that such complex orientation can be explained and predicted by the balance of shear and extensional flow. PMID:25005426

  18. Efficient machining of ultra precise steel moulds with freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulla, B.; Robertson, D. J.; Dambon, O.; Klocke, F.

    2013-09-01

    Ultra precision diamond turning of hardened steel to produce optical quality surfaces can be realized by applying an ultrasonic assisted process. With this technology optical moulds used typically for injection moulding can be machined directly from steel without the requirement to overcoat the mould with a diamond machinable material such as Nickel Phosphor. This has both the advantage of increasing the mould tool lifetime and also reducing manufacture costs by dispensing with the relatively expensive plating process. This publication will present results we have obtained for generating free form moulds in hardened steel by means of ultrasonic assisted diamond turning with a vibration frequency of 80 kHz. To provide a baseline with which to characterize the system performance we perform plane cutting experiments on different steel alloys with different compositions. The baseline machining results provides us information on the surface roughness and on tool wear caused during machining and we relate these to material composition. Moving on to freeform surfaces, we will present a theoretical background to define the machine program parameters for generating free forms by applying slow slide servo machining techniques. A solution for optimal part generation is introduced which forms the basis for the freeform machining experiments. The entire process chain, from the raw material through to ultra precision machining is presented, with emphasis on maintaining surface alignment when moving a component from CNC pre-machining to final machining using ultrasonic assisted diamond turning. The free form moulds are qualified on the basis of the surface roughness measurements and a form error map comparing the machined surface with the originally defined surface. These experiments demonstrate the feasibility of efficient free form machining applying ultrasonic assisted diamond turning of hardened steel.

  19. Mould exposure in museum personnel.

    PubMed

    Kolmodin-Hedman, B; Blomquist, G; Sikström, E

    1986-01-01

    In the basement archives of a local arts and crafts museum where the books and bookkeeping registers were handled, a woman on the museum staff had had ten attacks of fever, chill, nausea and cough during one year. The symptoms appeared at the end of the working day and disappeared after one to three days at home. No symptoms could be detected during the summer holidays. The books stored in the basement archives had earlier been stored in a small house with a leaky roof, which had led to the growth of mould on the books. When the books were handled at the museum, they were still covered with mould. The exposure measurements showed 10(6) CFU/m3 and a total of 10(8) microorganisms/m3. PMID:3710604

  20. On chirality of slime mould.

    PubMed

    Dimonte, Alice; Adamatzky, Andrew; Erokhin, Victor; Levin, Michael

    2016-02-01

    Left-right patterning and lateralised behaviour is an ubiquitous aspect of plants and animals. The mechanisms linking cellular chirality to the large-scale asymmetry of multicellular structures are incompletely understood, and it has been suggested that the chirality of living cells is hardwired in their cytoskeleton. We examined the question of biased asymmetry in a unique organism: the slime mould Physarum polycephalum, which is unicellular yet possesses macroscopic, complex structure and behaviour. In laboratory experiment using a T-shape, we found that Physarum turns right in more than 74% of trials. The results are in agreement with previously published studies on asymmetric movement of muscle cells, neutrophils, liver cells and growing neural filaments, and for the first time reveal the presence of consistently-biased laterality in the fungi kingdom. Exact mechanisms of the slime mould's direction preference remain unknown. PMID:26747637

  1. Diversity of slime mould circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grube, Martin

    2015-03-01

    Once fused from single amoebae to form an initial plasmodium, P. polycephalum and related species in the order Physarales continue growth via synchronous cell division and extension of the megacells by a contractile plasmodial vein network. These display the phenomenon of shuttle streaming, a rhythmic back-and-forth flow of the protoplasm within a tubular system at a period of approximately 1 to 2 min, with the frequency depending on the nutritional benefits. With time, this develops as a microfluidic circuitry that adapts patterns of contraction to size to optimise the transport throughout an organism. This control of fluid also creates dynamic changes in network architecture seen over time in an individual. Food quality is of considerable importance for slime mould growth dynamics...

  2. Melt spun aluminium alloys for moulding optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubbels, G.; Tegelaers, L.; Senden, R.

    2013-09-01

    Melt spinning is a rapid quenching process that makes it possible to create materials with a very fine microstructure. Due to this very fine microstructure the melt spinning process is an enabler for diamond turning optics and moulds without the need of post-polishing. Using diamond turning of melt spun aluminium one can achieve <=2 nm Rq surface roughness. Application areas are imaging and projection optics, mirrors, moulds for contact lenses and spectacles. One of the alloys that RSP produces is RSA-905. This alloy has a solid track record as a better and cheaper concept in the application of moulds for optical components such as contact lenses. The RSA-905 is a dispersion hardened amorphous-like alloy that keeps its properties when exposed to elevated temperatures (up to 380°C). This gives the material unique features for optics moulding applications. RSA-905 moulds are cheaper and better than traditional mould concepts such as copper or brass with or without NiP plating. In addition logistics can be simplified significantly: from typical weeks-months into days-week. Lifetime is typically in the range of 100.000 - 200.000 shots. For high volume production typically ranging from several 100.000 - several 1.000.000 shots, NiP plated steel moulds are typically used. By using an appropriate optical coating concept RSA-905 can be upgraded to a competitive alternative to steel in terms of price, performance and logistics. This paper presents some recent developments for improved mould performance of such concept. Hardness, wear resistance and adhesion are topics of interest and they can be applied by special coatings such as diamond-like carbon (DLC) and chromium nitride (CrN). These coatings make the aluminium alloy suitable for moulding mass production of small as well as larger optics, such as spectacle lenses.

  3. Investigations on the processing of solid silicon rubber in blow moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, Ch.; Funk, A.; Windeck, C.

    2015-05-01

    Complex hollow parts made of thermoplastics are often produced in the extrusion blow moulding process. This cost-efficient production technique with a high reproducibility, a high degree of automation and short cycle times has not been adapted for rubber processing until now. Current research activities at IKV focus on the processing of silicone rubber in extrusion blow moulding with an adapted processing and rapid cross-linking systems. The blow moulding process allows an automated and effective production of complex hollow parts made of solid silicone rubber in one step. The use of expensive core techniques, which lead to comparatively high reject rates in injection moulding, is not necessary. Expensive and time-consuming assembly steps can be reduced. This substantially increases the efficiency of the process. A systematic material selection of different solid silicone rubber compounds and cross-linking systems for the extrusion blow moulding process is a major focus of investigation. In this context, the term blow mouldability of polymers is defined and the suitability of solid silicone rubbers in combination with cross-linking systems for the blow moulding process is analysed. Characteristic mechanical and physical properties allow the identification of suitable material systems and give advice for the implementation of the new process. Extrusion blow moulding of solid silicone rubber is a new and innovative manufacturing concept to produce elastomeric hollow parts. Influences on the forming process are not known for silicone rubber yet. Therefore, to obtain a detailed process description is another focus of the research project. This includes the forming process, the processing and the influences of the material and the curing reaction on the processing. In the first instance, the investigation and description of the forming process as well as the detailed analysis of the processing parameters, such as curing time, mould temperature, wall thickness of the

  4. Slime mould processors, logic gates and sensors.

    PubMed

    Adamatzky, A

    2015-07-28

    A heterotic, or hybrid, computation implies that two or more substrates of different physical nature are merged into a single device with indistinguishable parts. These hybrid devices then undertake coherent acts on programmable and sensible processing of information. We study the potential of heterotic computers using slime mould acting under the guidance of chemical, mechanical and optical stimuli. Plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a gigantic single cell visible to the unaided eye. The cell shows a rich spectrum of behavioural morphological patterns in response to changing environmental conditions. Given data represented by chemical or physical stimuli, we can employ and modify the behaviour of the slime mould to make it solve a range of computing and sensing tasks. We overview results of laboratory experimental studies on prototyping of the slime mould morphological processors for approximation of Voronoi diagrams, planar shapes and solving mazes, and discuss logic gates implemented via collision of active growing zones and tactile responses of P. polycephalum. We also overview a range of electronic components--memristor, chemical, tactile and colour sensors-made of the slime mould. PMID:26078344

  5. Mould insert fabrication of a single-mode fibre connector alignment structure optimized by justified partial metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wissmann, Markus; Barié, Nicole; Guttmann, Markus; Schneider, Marc; Kolew, Alexander; Besser, Heino; Pfleging, Wilhelm; Hofmann, Andreas; Van Erps, Jürgen; Beri, Stefano; Watté, Jan

    2015-03-01

    For mass production of multiscale-optical components, microstructured moulding tools are needed. Metal tools are used for hot embossing or injection moulding of microcomponents made of a thermoplastic polymer. Microstructures with extremely tight specifications, e.g. low side wall roughness and high aspect ratios are generally made by lithographic procedures such as x-ray lithography or deep proton writing. However, these processes are unsuitable for low-cost mass production. An alternative manufacturing method of moulding tools has been developed at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). This article describes a mould insert fabrication and a new replication process for self-centring fibre alignment structures for low loss field installable single-mode fibre connectors, developed and fabricated by the Vrije Universiteit Brussel (VUB) in collaboration with TE Connectivity. These components are to be used in fibre-to-the-home networks and support the deployment and maintenance of fibre optic links. The special feature of this particular fibre connector is a self-centring fibre alignment, achieved by means of a through hole with deflectable cantilevers acting as micro-springs. The particular challenge is the electroforming of through holes with a centre hole diameter smaller than 125 µm. The fibre connector structure is prototyped by deep proton writing in polymethylmethacrylate and used as a sacrificial part. Using joining, physical vapour deposition and electroforming technology, a negative copy of the prototyped connector is transferred into nickel to be used as a moulding tool. The benefits of this replication technique are a rapid and economical fabrication of moulding tools with high-precision microstructures and a long tool life. With these moulding tools low-cost mass production is possible. We present the manufacturing chain we have established. Each individual manufacturing step of the mould insert fabrication will be shown in this report. The

  6. Slime mould gates, roads and sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, Andrew

    2015-03-01

    The photographs present a wide range of problems solved by the slime mould P. polycephalum: imitation of human-made transport pathways, realisation of Boolean logical gates, fabrication of self-repairing routable biowires, implementation of delay elements in computing circuits, computational geometry, sensors and a would-be nervous system...

  7. Process simulation for the compression moulding of fiber reinforced materials

    SciTech Connect

    Michaeli, W.; Goedel, M.; Heber, M.

    1994-12-31

    This paper will give a short overview about the activities of the compression moulding simulation for GMTs and SMCs. The simulation of the compression moulding process avoids the prototyping of new moulds for optimizing the process itself. That helps saving time and money. In compression moulding, a distinction is drawn between the more widespread ``Sheet Moulding Compound`` (SMC) and ``Glass Mat reinforced Thermoplastics`` (GMT). SMC is a glass fiber reinforced thermoset, while GMT has a thermoplastic matrix which is generally polypropylene. Both materials contain fibers with a fiber length of 12 to 25 mm. The fibers are not joined together in form of a fabric.

  8. A Process for Semi-Solid Moulding of High Viscosity Thermoplastic Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frick, Achim; Rochman, Arif; Martin, Peter

    2011-05-01

    A new moulding process for manufacturing micro parts made from high viscosity polymers has been developed as a result of a feasibility study. The process basically involves compression moulding of a polymeric preform by heating it up to its semi-solid state, i.e. between its glass transition temperature and melting temperature. The apparatus is made up of three main parts: a forming device, a single cavity micro mould and an induction heating system. The processing technique was successfully tested in the manufacturing of 10 mm round discs with a flange and inner bore using high viscosity polymers such as polyphenylene sulfide (PPS), polyetheretherketone (PEEK), ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMW PE) and polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE). In a further miniaturization study, U-shaped micro seals with an outer diameter up to 2.5 mm were also successfully manufactured from non-injection mouldable PTFE. Thus, the new process is a realistic alternative technique to the existing micro moulding processes with respect to its capability to process a huge variety of polymers, even ultra high viscosity materials and the possibility to create micro parts with non-uniform wall thickness distributions.

  9. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynek, Jaroslav Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-11-30

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  10. Mathematical model of the metal mould surface temperature optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mlynek, Jaroslav; Knobloch, Roman; Srb, Radek

    2015-11-01

    The article is focused on the problem of generating a uniform temperature field on the inner surface of shell metal moulds. Such moulds are used e.g. in the automotive industry for artificial leather production. To produce artificial leather with uniform surface structure and colour shade the temperature on the inner surface of the mould has to be as homogeneous as possible. The heating of the mould is realized by infrared heaters located above the outer mould surface. The conceived mathematical model allows us to optimize the locations of infrared heaters over the mould, so that approximately uniform heat radiation intensity is generated. A version of differential evolution algorithm programmed in Matlab development environment was created by the authors for the optimization process. For temperate calculations software system ANSYS was used. A practical example of optimization of heaters locations and calculation of the temperature of the mould is included at the end of the article.

  11. [Invasive mould disease in haematological patients].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Camps, Isabel; Jarque, Isidro

    2014-01-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are a persistent problem with high morbidity and mortality rates among patients receiving chemotherapy for hematological malignancies and hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients. Management of IMI in this setting has become increasingly complex with the advent of new antifungal agents and diagnostic tests, which have resulted in different therapeutic strategies (prophylactic, empirical, pre-emptive, and directed). A proper assessment of the individual risk for IMI appears to be critical in order to use the best prophylactic and therapeutic approach and increase the survival rates. Among the available antifungal drugs, the most frequently used in the hematologic patient are fluconazole, mould-active azoles (itraconazole, posaconazole and voriconazole), candins (anidulafungin, caspofungin and micafungin), and lipid formulations of amphotericin B. Specific recommendations for their use, and criteria for selecting the antifungal agents are discussed in this paper. PMID:25434346

  12. Influence Of The Microinjection Moulding Process On The Crystalline Orientation And Morphology Of Semicrystalline Polymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malhab, Nada Bou; Régnier, Gilles

    2011-05-01

    Microinjection moulding (μIM) seems to be a key for the large scale production of polymer microparts. For semicrystalline polymers, the crystallisation under high shear and cooling rates induces specific morphologies and properties and thus takes tremendous importance in microinjection process compared to classical injection moulding (IM) process where wall thicknesses are generally larger than 1mm. Two semicrystalline polymers were microinjected, a high density polyethylene and a polyamide 12 in plaque cavities having thicknesses of 0.3 and 0.5mm. Analyses obtained by optical microscopy show that the crystalline morphologies vary between micro- and macro- parts. While a `skin-core' morphology is present for the macropart, the μpart exhibits a specific morphology. The X-ray scattering at small angles (SAXS) studies show an orientation of HDPE lamellae whatever the conditions of microinjection whereas the orientation of PA12 lamellae is either isotropic or anisotropic depending on the thickness of molded parts.

  13. Moulding techniques in lipstick manufacture: a comparative evaluation.

    PubMed

    Dweck, A C; Burnham, C A

    1980-06-01

    Synopsis This paper examines two methods of lipstick bulk manufacture: one via a direct method and the other via stock concentrates. The paper continues with a comparison of two manufactured bulks moulded in three different ways - first by split moulding, secondly by Rotamoulding, and finally by Ejectoret moulding. Full consideration is paid to time, labour and cost standards of each approach and the resultant moulding examined using some novel physical testing methods. The results of these tests are statistically analysed. Finally, on the basis of the gathered data and photomicrographical work a theoretical lipstick structure is proposed by which the results may be explained. PMID:19467086

  14. Sooty Mould Disease Caused by Leptoxyphium kurandae on Kenaf.

    PubMed

    Choi, In-Young; Kang, Chan-Ho; Lee, Geon-Hwi; Park, Ji-Hyun; Shin, Hyeon-Dong

    2015-09-01

    In September 2013, we discovered sooty mould growing on kenaf with the extrafloral nectaries in Iksan, Korea and identified the causative fungus as Leptoxyphium kurandae based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of sooty mould caused by L. kurandae on kenaf in Korea and globally. PMID:26539054

  15. Sooty Mould Disease Caused by Leptoxyphium kurandae on Kenaf

    PubMed Central

    Choi, In-Young; Kang, Chan-Ho; Lee, Geon-Hwi; Park, Ji-Hyun

    2015-01-01

    In September 2013, we discovered sooty mould growing on kenaf with the extrafloral nectaries in Iksan, Korea and identified the causative fungus as Leptoxyphium kurandae based on morphological characteristics and phylogenetic analyses. This is the first report of sooty mould caused by L. kurandae on kenaf in Korea and globally. PMID:26539054

  16. CAE applications in a thermoforming mould design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjuki, AR; Mohd Ghazali, FA; Ismail, N. M.; Sulaiman, S.; Mohd Khairuddin, I.; Majeed, Anwar P. P. A.; Jaafar, AA; Mustapha, F.; Basri, S.

    2016-02-01

    Preparation of honeycomb layer is a critical step for successful fabrications of thermoformed based sandwiched structures. This paper deals with an initial investigation on the rapid manufacturing process of corrugated sheet with 120° dihedral angles. Time history of local displacements and thickness, assuming viscous dominated material model for a 1mm thick thermoformable material, was computed by using ANSYS® Polyflow solver. The quality of formed surfaces was evaluated for selection of mould geometry and assessment of two common variants of thermoforming process. Inadequate mesh refinement of a membrane elements produces satisfactorily detailing and incomplete forming. A perfectly uniform material distribution was predicted using drape forming process. However, the geometrical properties of vacuum formed part are poorly distributed and difficult to control with increasing inflation volumes. Details of the discrepancies and the contributions of the CAE tool to complement traditional trial and error methodology in the process and design development are discussed.

  17. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  18. Mould counts and exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis.

    PubMed

    Radin, R C; Greenberger, P A; Patterson, R; Ghory, A

    1983-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether exacerbations of allergic bronchopulmonary aspergillosis (ABPA) were associated with the total outdoor mould counts in the Chicago area. From 1976-1980, forty-nine flares of ABPA (new pulmonary infiltrate with elevation in total serum IgE) occurred in nineteen patients. Thirty-eight (77.5%) of flares occurred during months June through November in association with increased outdoor mould counts in Chicago. This association confirms earlier observations from the U.K. where during the peak mould season which occurs in winter months, there was an increased number of pulmonary infiltrates and average prednisone doses required in ABPA. PMID:6342846

  19. Hybrid slime mould-based system for unconventional computing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berzina, T.; Dimonte, A.; Cifarelli, A.; Erokhin, V.

    2015-04-01

    Physarum polycephalum is considered to be promising for the realization of unconventional computational systems. In this work, we present results of three slime mould-based systems. We have demonstrated the possibility of transporting biocompatible microparticles using attractors, repellents and a DEFLECTOR. The latter is an external tool that enables to conduct Physarum motion. We also present interactions between slime mould and conducting polymers, resulting in a variation of their colour and conductivity. Finally, incorporation of the Physarum into the organic memristive device resulted in a variation of its electrical characteristics due to the slime mould internal activity.

  20. Slime mould foraging behaviour as optically coupled logical operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayne, R.; Adamatzky, A.

    2015-04-01

    Physarum polycephalum is a macroscopic plasmodial slime mould whose apparently 'intelligent' behaviour patterns may be interpreted as computation. We employ plasmodial phototactic responses to construct laboratory prototypes of NOT and NAND logical gates with electrical inputs/outputs and optical coupling in which the slime mould plays dual roles of computing device and electrical conductor. Slime mould logical gates are fault tolerant and resettable. The results presented here demonstrate the malleability and resilience of biological systems and highlight how the innate behaviour patterns of living substrates may be used to implement useful computation.

  1. Effect of casting/mould interfacial heat transfer during solidification of aluminium alloys cast in CO2-sand mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulkarni, S. N.; Radhakrishna, D. K.

    2011-06-01

    The ability of heat to flow across the casting and through the interface from the casting to the mold directly affects the evolution of solidification and plays a notable role in determining the freezing conditions within the casting, mainly in foundry systems of high thermal diffusivity such as chill castings. An experimental procedure has been utilized to measure the formation process of an interfacial gap and metal-mould interfacial movement during solidification of hollow cylindrical castings of Al-4.5 % Cu alloy cast in CO2-sand mould. Heat flow between the casting and the mould during solidification of Al-4.5 % Cu alloy in CO2-sand mould was assessed using an inverse modeling technique. The analysis yielded the interfacial heat flux ( q), heat transfer coefficient ( h) and the surface temperatures of the casting and the mould during solidification of the casting. The peak heat flux was incorporated as a dimensionless number and modeled as a function of the thermal diffusivities of the casting and the mould materials. Heat flux transients were normalized with respect to the peak heat flux and modeled as a function of time. The heat flux model proposed was to estimate the heat flux transients during solidification of Al-4.5 % Cu alloy cast in CO2-sand moulds.

  2. 10. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES OF GOLD LEAF AND BURNISHED GOLD LEAF WERE USED FOR THE INTERIOR FINISHES - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  3. DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF CORNICE MOULDING WITH RAM'S HEAD MOTIF. EIGHT SHADES OF GOLD LEAF AND BURNISHED GOLD LEAF WERE USED FOR THE INTERIOR FINISHES. - Anaconda Historic District, Washoe Theater, 305 Main Street, Anaconda, Deer Lodge County, MT

  4. Slime Mould Analogue Models of Space Exploration and Planet Colonisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adamatzky, A.; Armstrong, R.; De Lacy Costello, B.; Deng, Y.; Jones, J.; Mayne, R.; Schubert, T.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Zhang, X.

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell that is visible by the unaided eye. When spanning sources of nutrients the slime mould builds a network of protoplasmic tubes which is sometimes considered to be optimal in terms of the minimization of metabolite transportation time and distance away from repellents. Previously we have shown that the slime mould is efficient in imitating the formation of man-made road networks in major countries, where major urban areas are sources of nutrients. We used a similar approach to grow slime mould on a three-dimensional template of the Moon to speculate on potential colonisation scenarios. The slime mould imitated the propagation of colonisation in an exploratory mode, i.e. without any definite targets. Additional transportation hubs/targets were added after the initial network was formed, to imitate the development of colonies in parallel with slime mould growth. We provide analyses of proximity graphs representing colonisation networks and support the findings with Physarum-inspired algorithms to inform supply chain design. We speculate on how living Physarum, or its incorporation into a polymer hybrid material, can be used as a wearable smart wetware based on laboratory experiments interacting with chemical components.

  5. Thermally induced atomic diffusion at the interface between release agent coating and mould substrate in a glass moulding press

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masuda, Jun; Yan, Jiwang; Zhou, Tianfeng; Kuriyagawa, Tsunemoto; Fukase, Yasushi

    2011-06-01

    In a glass moulding press (GMP) for refractive/diffractive hybrid lenses, to improve the service life of nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) plated moulds, it is necessary to control the diffusion of constituent elements from the mould into the release agent coating. In this study, diffusion phenomena of constituents of Ni-P plating are investigated for two types of release agent coatings, iridium-platinum (Ir-Pt) and iridium-rhenium (Ir-Re), by cross-sectional observation, compositional analysis and stress measurements. The results show that Ni atoms in the plating layer flow from regions of compressive stress to regions of tensile stress. In the case of the Ir-Pt coated mould, the diffusion of Ni is promoted from the grain boundaries between the Ni and Ni3P phases in the plating towards the surface of the Ir-Pt coating. However, in the Ir-Re coated mould, the diffusion of Ni is suppressed because the diffusion coefficient of Ni in the Ir-Re alloy is smaller than that in the Ir-Pt alloy, although the stress state is similar in both cases. By controlling the diffusion of Ni atoms, the use of Ir-Re alloy as a release agent coating for Ni-P plated moulds is expected to lead to a high degree of durability.

  6. On hybrid circuits exploiting thermistive properties of slime mould

    PubMed Central

    Walter, Xavier Alexis; Horsfield, Ian; Mayne, Richard; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by the unaided eye. Let the slime mould span two electrodes with a single protoplasmic tube: if the tube is heated to approximately ≈40 °C, the electrical resistance of the protoplasmic tube increases from ≈3 MΩ to ≈10,000 MΩ. The organism’s resistance is not proportional nor correlated to the temperature of its environment. Slime mould can therefore not be considered as a thermistor but rather as a thermic switch. We employ the P. polycephalum thermic switch to prototype hybrid electrical analog summator, NAND gates, and cascade the gates into Flip-Flop latch. Computing operations performed on this bio-hybrid computing circuitry feature high repeatability, reproducibility and comparably low propagation delays. PMID:27048713

  7. Multilayered Glass Fibre-reinforced Composites In Rotational Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, W. C.; Harkin-Jones, E.; Kearns, M.; McCourt, M.

    2011-05-01

    The potential of multiple layer fibre-reinforced mouldings is of growing interest to the rotational moulding industry because of their cost/performance ratio. The particular problem that arises when using reinforcements in this process relate to the fact that the process is low shear and good mixing of resin and reinforcement is not optimum under those conditions. There is also a problem of the larger/heavier reinforcing agents segregating out of the powder to lay up on the inner part surface. In this study, short glass fibres were incorporated and distributed into a polymer matrix to produce fibre-reinforced polymer composites using the rotational moulding process and characterised in terms of morphology and mechanical properties.

  8. On hybrid circuits exploiting thermistive properties of slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Xavier Alexis; Horsfield, Ian; Mayne, Richard; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A.; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-04-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by the unaided eye. Let the slime mould span two electrodes with a single protoplasmic tube: if the tube is heated to approximately ≈40 °C, the electrical resistance of the protoplasmic tube increases from ≈3 MΩ to ≈10,000 MΩ. The organism’s resistance is not proportional nor correlated to the temperature of its environment. Slime mould can therefore not be considered as a thermistor but rather as a thermic switch. We employ the P. polycephalum thermic switch to prototype hybrid electrical analog summator, NAND gates, and cascade the gates into Flip-Flop latch. Computing operations performed on this bio-hybrid computing circuitry feature high repeatability, reproducibility and comparably low propagation delays.

  9. On hybrid circuits exploiting thermistive properties of slime mould.

    PubMed

    Walter, Xavier Alexis; Horsfield, Ian; Mayne, Richard; Ieropoulos, Ioannis A; Adamatzky, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Slime mould Physarum polycephalum is a single cell visible by the unaided eye. Let the slime mould span two electrodes with a single protoplasmic tube: if the tube is heated to approximately ≈40 °C, the electrical resistance of the protoplasmic tube increases from ≈3 MΩ to ≈10,000 MΩ. The organism's resistance is not proportional nor correlated to the temperature of its environment. Slime mould can therefore not be considered as a thermistor but rather as a thermic switch. We employ the P. polycephalum thermic switch to prototype hybrid electrical analog summator, NAND gates, and cascade the gates into Flip-Flop latch. Computing operations performed on this bio-hybrid computing circuitry feature high repeatability, reproducibility and comparably low propagation delays. PMID:27048713

  10. Moulds and mycotoxins in rice from the Swedish retail market.

    PubMed

    Fredlund, E; Thim, A-M; Gidlund, A; Brostedt, S; Nyberg, M; Olsen, M

    2009-04-01

    A survey of moulds and mycotoxins was performed on 99 rice samples taken from the Swedish retail market. The main objective was to study the mould and mycotoxin content in basmati rice and rice with a high content of fibre. Samples of jasmine rice as well as long-grain rice were also included. The samples were analysed for their content of ochratoxin A (high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)), aflatoxin B(1), B(2), G(1), and G(2) (HPLC, RIDA(R)QUICK), and mould (traditional cultivation methods in combination with morphological analysis). The majority of samples were sampled according to European Commission Regulation 401/2006. Subsamples were pooled and mixed before milling and both mould and mycotoxin analyses were performed on milled rice. The results showed that the majority of basmati rice (71%) and many jasmine rice samples (20%) contained detectable levels of aflatoxin B(1) (level of quantification = 0.1 microg aflatoxin kg(-1) rice). Two samples of jasmine rice and ten basmati rice samples contained levels over the regulated European maximum limits of 2 microg kg(-1) for aflatoxin B(1) or 4 microg kg(-1) for total aflatoxins. Aspergillus was the most common mould genus isolated, but also Penicillium, Eurotium, Wallemia, Cladosporium, Epicoccum, Alternaria, and Trichotecium were found. The presence of Aspergillus flavus in 21% of the samples indicates that incorrect management of rice during production and storage implies a risk of mould growth and subsequent production of aflatoxin. Rough estimates showed that high rice consumers may have an intake of 2-3 ng aflatoxin kg(-1) bodyweight and day(-1) from rice alone. This survey shows that aflatoxin is a common contaminant in rice imported to Europe. PMID:19680928

  11. Energy reduction in the pultrusion and the rotational moulding processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, W. A.

    This work embraces two different manufacturing processes: pultrusion and rotational moulding. One (pultrusion) is concerned with manufacture with a thermosetting composite while the other is concerned with manufacture of an unfilled thermoplastic. The connecting theme is one of energy usage in manufacture with these processes. While a large number of comprehensive computer models of pultrusion have been generated, most are focused on the prediction of the temperature and conversion distributions within the profile; by contrast, the analysis presented here is directed towards the prediction of the duty cycle of the mould heaters as a first step in recognising the significance of the energy consumed in the process. The results of the model are compared with experimental measurements of the duty cycle of an industrial machine. The nature of this particular investigation was predominantly applied and in particular directed towards industrial use. It is shown that the line speed could be increased significantly by preheating the profile before it enter the die. For example, line speed for one particular profile was increased from 0.4m/min to 0.5 m/min by using a pre-heater set at 80oC. This work also showed that the specific energy consumption of the process was 0.2 kWh/kg to 0.3 kWh/kg; under different line speeds and operating conditions. This was achieved by measuring the duty cycle of the heaters on the die. This increase in line speed means a saving of up to 30 % of the specific energy consumption in the pultrusion. The energy theme continues through the work on rotational moulding. It is shown that the specific energy consumption in rotational moulding can be reduced by up to 70% by direct heating of the mould by using electrical resistance heaters instead of current method of using hot air to heat the mould.

  12. Milling of Sand Blocks to Make Casting Moulds

    SciTech Connect

    Lopez de Lacalle, L. N.; Rodriguez, A.; Lamikiz, A.; Penafiel, F. J.

    2011-01-17

    In this paper a full procedure to make moulds in sand for direct casting of metallic parts is presented. The technology aims at unique pieces or art pieces, where only one prototype or components is required, but lead times are much reduced. The key of the procedure is to achieve enough tool life when milling with carbide tools, avoiding the risk of sand destruction or damage.The use of inverse techniques is a common input due to the industrial sectors where the direct milling is interesting. Two examples of moulds are presented, evaluating times and costs. A special study of tool wear is also presented.

  13. Presurgical nasal moulding in a neonate with cleft lip

    PubMed Central

    Deshpande, Anshula; Shah, Dixit; Macwan, Chirag S

    2014-01-01

    The concept of presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNM) was developed to improve the aesthetic result of surgically corrected cleft lip. This paper presents the method of fabrication of PNM appliance and the case of a 30-day-old neonate with unilateral cleft lip in whom nasal moulding was performed. Treatment was initiated at 30 days and continued for 60 days after which the surgical correction of cleft lip was performed. Significant improvement in aesthetics and symmetry of the nose was achieved at the end of the treatment. PMID:24928928

  14. Replication of microchannel structures in WC-Co feedstock using elastomeric replica moulds by hot embossing process.

    PubMed

    Sahli, M; Gelin, J-C; Barrière, T

    2015-10-01

    Hot embossing is a net shaping process that is able to produce the micro-components of polymers with intrinsic and complex shapes at lower cost compared with machining and injection moulding. However, the emboss of hard metals, such as WC-Co, is more challenging due to their high thermal conductivity and ease of agglomeration. Thus, a WC-Co alloy mixed with a wax-based binder feedstock was selected. The formed feedstock exhibited pseudo-plastic flow and was successfully embossed (green part). Here, we developed a novel process that is used to replicate polymer microfluidic chips while simultaneously reducing the channel surface roughness of the mould insert, yielding optical-grade (less than 100 nm surface roughness) channels and reservoirs. This paper concerns the replication of metallic microfluidic mould inserts in WC-Co and the parameters associated with feedstock formation via a hot embossing process. A suitable formulation for micro-powder hot embossing has been established and characterised by thermogravimetric analyses and measurements of mixing torques to verify and quantify the homogeneity of the proposed feedstocks. The relative density of the samples increased with processing temperature, and almost fully dense materials were obtained. In this work, the effects of the sintering temperature on the physical properties were systematically analysed. The evolution of the metal surface morphology during the hot embossing process was also investigated. The results indicate that the feedstock can be used to manufacture micro-fluidic die mould cavities with a low roughness, proper dimensions and good shape retention. The shrinkage of the sintered part was approximately 19-24% compared with that of the brown part. PMID:26117760

  15. In Vitro Antifungal Activities against Moulds Isolated from Dermatological Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Nizam, Tzar; Binting, Rabiatul Adawiyah AG.; Mohd Saari, Shafika; Kumar, Thivyananthini Vijaya; Muhammad, Marianayati; Satim, Hartini; Yusoff, Hamidah; Santhanam, Jacinta

    2016-01-01

    Background This study aimed to determine the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of various antifungal agents against moulds isolated from dermatological specimens. Methods We identified 29 moulds from dermatological specimens between October 2012 and March 2013 by conventional methods. We performed antifungal susceptibility testing on six antifungal agents, amphotericin B, clotrimazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole and terbinafine, according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines contained in the M38-A2 document. Results Most antifungal agents were active against the dermatophytes, except for terbinafine against Trichophyton rubrum (geometric mean MIC, MICGM 3.17 μg/mL). The dematiaceous moulds were relatively susceptible to amphotericin B and azoles (MICGM 0.17–0.34 μg/mL), but not to terbinafine (MICGM 3.62 μg/mL). Septate hyaline moulds showed variable results between the relatively more susceptible Aspergillus spp. (MICGM 0.25–4 μg/mL) and the more resistant Fusarium spp. (MICGM 5.66–32 μg/mL). The zygomycetes were susceptible to amphotericin B (MICGM 0.5 μg/mL) and clotrimazole (MICGM 0.08 μg/mL), but not to other azoles (MICGM 2.52–4 μg/mL). Conclusion Amphotericin B and clotrimazole were the most effective antifungal agents against all moulds excepting Fusarium spp., while terbinafine was useful against dermatophytes (except T. rubrum) and Aspergillus spp. However, a larger study is required to draw more solid conclusions. PMID:27418867

  16. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  17. The Technology of Mould Steel for Online Pre-hardening

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Dongmei; Liu, Guoyong; Li, Mouwei; Zhang, Shaojun; Bian, Xinxiao; Wanglin; Quan, Wang; Dai, Jinguo; Xubin; Wei, Chaocheng; Cai, Lijuan; Liu, Zuofeng; Gong, Shichuang; An, Zhengang

    This article describes a production method of mould steel pre-hardening, and focus on the advantage of this method, The technical core of method is the variable frequency and variable amplitude pulse uniform high-precision temperature control, which achieved by using strong-medium-weak water cooling, gas-water cooling and gas mist cooling composite cooling control technology. Optimizing the cooling rate path is a good method of optimizing quenched organization and structure.

  18. Two underestimated threats in food transportation: mould and acceleration

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, S.; Pankoke, I.; Klus, K.; Schmitt, K.; Stephan, U.; Wöllenstein, J.

    2014-01-01

    Two important parameters are often neglected in the monitoring of perishable goods during transport: mould contamination of fresh food and the influence of acceleration or vibration on the quality of a product. We assert the claim that it is necessary to focus research on these two topics in the context of intelligent logistics in this opinion paper. Further, the technical possibilities for future measurement systems are discussed. By measuring taste deviations, we verified the effect on the quality of beer at different vibration frequencies. The practical importance is shown by examining transport routes and market shares. The general feasibility of a mobile mould detection system is established by examining the measurement resolution of semiconductor sensors for mould-related gases. Furthermore, as an alternative solution, we present a concept for a miniaturized and automated culture-medium-based system. Although there is a lack of related research to date, new efforts can make a vital contribution to the reduction of losses in the logistic chains for several products. PMID:24797139

  19. Modeling the Constitutive Behaviour of PET for Stretch Blow Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, S. Y.; Menary, G.

    2011-05-01

    There are a substantial amount of constitutive models that have been developed to capture the finite deformation behavior of polymers for forming simulations. Most of these models have been used to capture the behavior in uniaxial and simultaneous biaxial modes of deformation. However, very few have attempted to model the sequential biaxial deformation behavior which is more appropriate for the stretch blow moulding process. The aim of this work is to develop a model for PET to successfully capture the sequential stress-strain behavior as a function of temperature and strain rate, thus making it suitable for use in simulations of stretch blow moulding. Biaxial test data has been generated at temperatures and strain rates appropriate for stretch blow moulding and a model developed by Buckley et al. has been implemented within the commercial finite element package Abaqus/Explicit. In parallel, an efficient automatic curve fitting procedure has been developed to enable the material parameters to be easily found from biaxial test data. The results show that the Buckley model can predict the stress response of equibiaxial deformation well, but cannot predict the sequential biaxial deformation.

  20. Two underestimated threats in food transportation: mould and acceleration.

    PubMed

    Janssen, S; Pankoke, I; Klus, K; Schmitt, K; Stephan, U; Wöllenstein, J

    2014-06-13

    Two important parameters are often neglected in the monitoring of perishable goods during transport: mould contamination of fresh food and the influence of acceleration or vibration on the quality of a product. We assert the claim that it is necessary to focus research on these two topics in the context of intelligent logistics in this opinion paper. Further, the technical possibilities for future measurement systems are discussed. By measuring taste deviations, we verified the effect on the quality of beer at different vibration frequencies. The practical importance is shown by examining transport routes and market shares. The general feasibility of a mobile mould detection system is established by examining the measurement resolution of semiconductor sensors for mould-related gases. Furthermore, as an alternative solution, we present a concept for a miniaturized and automated culture-medium-based system. Although there is a lack of related research to date, new efforts can make a vital contribution to the reduction of losses in the logistic chains for several products. PMID:24797139

  1. Mechanical properties of micro-injected HDPE composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bongiorno, A.; Pagano, C.; Agnelli, S.; Baldi, F.; Fassi, I.

    2016-03-01

    Micro-injection moulding is one of the key manufacturing technologies for the mass production of high value polymeric miniaturized-components. However, this process is not just a straightforward down scaling of the conventional injection moulding technique. Indeed, during the micro-injection the polymer melt is forced to flow at high strain rates through very small channels in non-isothermal conditions, and this can lead to complex microstructures and to parts with unexpected performances. In this work, the relationships among the processing conditions, the mechanical properties and the microstructural characteristics of miniaturized specimens obtained by injection moulding were investigated. Two model systems were considered with the same filler content of 15% wt. (HDPE-talc and HDPE-glass beads), representative of two different types of micro-composites: containing lamellar and spherical micro-particles, respectively. The attention was focused on the influence of the filler type and the process conditions on the mechanical behaviour, examined by uniaxial tensile tests and dynamic-mechanical analyses, and on the morphological characteristics of the specimens, examined by microscopy analyses. The results highlight that mechanical response of the miniaturized specimens is significantly affected by both the filler and the process conditions that can have an influence on the polymer microstructure. Lamellar composites showed the best performance due to the orientation of the talc particles during the micro-injection process, while, different morphologies of the skin/core transition region in dependence on the process temperatures were observable.

  2. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  3. 3D-printed surface mould applicator for high-dose-rate brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, Mark; Lasso, Andras; Cumming, Ian; Rankin, Adam; Falkson, Conrad B.; Schreiner, L. John; Joshi, Chandra; Fichtinger, Gabor

    2015-03-01

    In contemporary high-dose-rate brachytherapy treatment of superficial tumors, catheters are placed in a wax mould. The creation of current wax models is a difficult and time consuming proces.The irradiation plan can only be computed post-construction and requires a second CT scan. In case no satisfactory dose plan can be created, the mould is discarded and the process is repeated. The objective of this work was to develop an automated method to replace suboptimal wax moulding. We developed a method to design and manufacture moulds that guarantee to yield satisfactory dosimetry. A 3D-printed mould with channels for the catheters designed from the patient's CT and mounted on a patient-specific thermoplastic mesh mask. The mould planner was implemented as an open-source module in the 3D Slicer platform. Series of test moulds were created to accommodate standard brachytherapy catheters of 1.70mm diameter. A calibration object was used to conclude that tunnels with a diameter of 2.25mm, minimum 12mm radius of curvature, and 1.0mm open channel gave the best fit for this printer/catheter combination. Moulds were created from the CT scan of thermoplastic mesh masks of actual patients. The patient-specific moulds have been visually verified to fit on the thermoplastic meshes. The masks were visually shown to fit onto the thermoplastic meshes, next the resulting dosimetry will have to be compared with treatment plans and dosimetry achieved with conventional wax moulds in order to validate our 3D printed moulds.

  4. Reliability of sheet moulding composites (SMC) for the automotive industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamanna, Giuseppe; Ceparano, Angelo; Sartore, Luciana

    2014-05-01

    The reliability of Sheet Moulding Composite (SMC) has been analysed by means of mechanical static and fatigue tests. SMCs showed substantial in-plane anisotropy either in terms of stiffness or strength reflecting the preferential orientation of the short fibres along the direction of the conveyor belt during the processing operations. The static data were modelled on a statistical basis assuming that the monotonic tensile strength follows a two-parameter Weibull distribution, while for the fatigue test we adopted a two parameters model already validated for Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastics (GFRP). Overall, the procedure indicated that he material reliability and its applicability limits can be achieved with a minimum of experimental tests.

  5. Using special additions to preparation of the moulding mixture for casting steel parts of drive wheel type

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Josan, A.; Pinca Bretotean, C.

    2015-06-01

    The paper presents the possibility of using special additions to the execution of moulding mixtures for steel castings, drive wheel type. Critical analysis of moulding technology leads to the idea that most defects appear due to using improper moulding mixture. Using a improper moulding mixture leads to penetration of steel in moulding mixture, resulting in the formation of adherences, due to inadequate refractarity of the mould and core mixtures. Using only the unique mixture to the moulding leads to increasing consumption of new sand, respectively to the increase of price of piece. Acording to the dates registered in the industrial practice is necessary to use the special additions to obtain the moulding mixtures, carbonaceous materials respectively.

  6. Multi-agent model of slime mould for computing and robotics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeff

    2015-03-01

    This chapter features results from a multi-agent model of slime mould. Slime mould is a remarkable organism because it possesses no nervous system, no skeleton, no organised musculature and no special senses. Despite these limitations, slime mould is capable of remarkable biological and computational feats by dynamically adapting its body plan in response to environmental stimuli. Because slime mould consists of simple component parts, its behaviour requires no specialised or critical components and the mechanisms which govern its behaviour are distributed throughout -- and embedded within -- the organism itself. This multi-agent approach to modelling slime mould is a bottom-up model and attempts to specifically use the same -- apparently limiting -- properties found in the organism itself: simple component parts, local interactions and self-organised collective emergent behaviour. The aim of the model is to show how the complexity of slime mould can emerge from these very simple local interactions. The model has successfully been applied to reproducing the biological behaviour of slime mould (growth patterns, network adaptation, oscillatory phenomena) and also the computational and robotic behaviour of slime mould. The images in this chapter give a flavour of the model with topics relating to the complex pattern formation phenomena, amoeboid movement and collective transport phenomena, and its utilisation as a spatially represented unconventional computing substrate...

  7. UV-assisted rotational moulding of microstructures using a conventional flexographic printing machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindvold, Lars R.; Stensborg, Jan; Rasmussen, Torben P.

    2003-01-01

    This paper pertains to the development of a system for micro replication that has been successfully implemented on a conventional flexographic printing machine. The core technology in the system is UV assisted rotational moulding using an elastomer as the micro mould and UV curable polymers as the casting material.

  8. Case-control study of statin prevention of mould infections.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Jessica N; Huycke, Mark M; Greenfield, Ronald A; Kurdgelashvili, George; Gentry, Chris A

    2011-09-01

    Invasive mould infections (IMI) are associated with significant morbidity and mortality. In vitro studies have demonstrated that hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA (HMG-CoA) reductase inhibitors (statins) have activity against several pathogenic moulds including Zygomycetes and Aspergillus spp. The aim of our study was to determine if statin use is a preventive factor for the development of IMI. This was a retrospective case-control study of 10 United States Veterans Affairs Medical Centers that comprise the Veterans Integrated Service Network (VISN) 16. Cases with IMI and controls were identified from 2001 to 2008. Controls were matched by age, facility, history of transplantation, presence of chronic steroid use and presence of human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV). Two hundred and thirty-eight patients were included. Independent variables associated with the development of IMI were history of solid malignant tumours (OR 2.63, 1.41-4.87) and hypertension (OR 2.29, 1.13-4.68). Statin use within 3 months of index date was not an independent variable for prevention or development of IMI. No level of exposure to a statin drug appeared to influence the development of infection. This retrospective case-control study suggests that despite evidence of in vitro activity, statins may not decrease risk of IMI. Prospective, controlled trials may be necessary to investigate any potential clinical benefit. PMID:21554419

  9. Mucoraceous moulds involved in the commercial fermentation of Sufu Pehtze.

    PubMed

    Han, Bei-Zhong; Kuijpers, Angelina F A; Thanh, Nguyen V; Nout, M J Robert

    2004-04-01

    Sufu is a fermented cheese-like soybean product in China and Vietnam, obtained by fungal solid-state fermentation of soybean curd (tofu), which results in moulded tofu or 'pehtze'. The final product sufu is obtained by maturing pehtze in a brine containing alcohol and salt during a period of several months. The present report deals with the identity and phylogenetic relationships of mould starter cultures used for the preparation ofpehtze. Starter cultures used in commercial pehtze fermentation were obtained from factories located in several provinces of China and Vietnam, isolated from their pehtze and some were obtained from culture collections. They were identified as Actinomucor repens, Actinomucor taiwanensis, Mucor circinelloides, Mocur hiemalis, Mocur racemosus, and Rhizopus microsporus var. microsporus. Phylogenetic relations based on sequencing of genomic DNA of these starters and of relevant control strains from collections indicate that the genera Mucor, Actinomucor and Rhizopus form distinct and homogenous clusters, with Mucor and Actinomucor showing a slightly closer relationship with each other than with Rhizopus. PMID:15028872

  10. Effects of essential oil combinations on pathogenic yeasts and moulds.

    PubMed

    Horváth, Györgyi; Jenei, Julianna Török; Vágvölgyi, Csaba; Böszörményi, Andrea; Krisch, Judit

    2016-06-01

    Essential oils (EOs) can be used as alternative or complementary antifungal agents against human pathogenic moulds and yeasts. To reduce the effective dose of antimicrobial agents, EOs are combined which can lead to synergistic or additive effect. In this study the anti-yeast and anti-mould activities of selected EOs were investigated, alone and in combinations, against clinical isolates of Candida albicans, C. parapsilosis, Aspergillus fumigatus, A. terreus, Rhizopus microsporus, Fusarium solani and Lichtheimia corymbifera. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined for the EOs of cinnamon, citronella, clove, spearmint and thyme. To investigate the combination effect of the EOs, fractional inhibitory concentrations (FICs) were defined by the checkerboard method and the type of interaction was determined by the FIC index (FICI). FIC index below 0.5 was considered as synergism and between 0.5 and 1 as additive effect. Strongest antifungal activity was showed by thyme EO with MIC values below 1.0 mg/ml. Combination of EOs resulted in additive or indifferent effect, with occasional "borderline synergism". The best combination was cinnamon with clove leading to additive effect in all cases. PMID:27165531

  11. Electroplating moulds using dry film thick negative photoresist

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukharenka, E.; Farooqui, M. M.; Grigore, L.; Kraft, M.; Hollinshead, N.

    2003-07-01

    This paper reports on progress on the feasibility of fabricating moulds for electroplating using Ordyl P-50100 (negative) acrylate polymer based dry film photoresist, commercially available from Elga Europe (http://www.elgaeurope.it). We used this photoresist as an alternative to SU8 negative epoxy based photoresist, which is very difficult to process and remove after electroplating (Lorenz et al 1998 Microelectron. Eng. 41/42 371-4, Eyre et al 1998 Proc. MEMS'98 (Heidelberg) (Piscataway, NJ: IEEE) pp 218-22). Ordyl P-50100 is easy to work with and can be easily removed after processing. A single layer of Ordyl P-50100 was deposited by lamination up to 20 µm thickness. Thicker layers (200 µm and more) can be achieved with multilayer lamination using a manual laminator. For our applications we found that Ordyl P-50100 dry film photoresist is a very good alternative to SU8 for the realization of 100 µm high moulds. The results presented will open up new possibilities for low-cost LIGA-type processes for MEMS applications.

  12. Habituation in non-neural organisms: evidence from slime moulds.

    PubMed

    Boisseau, Romain P; Vogel, David; Dussutour, Audrey

    2016-04-27

    Learning, defined as a change in behaviour evoked by experience, has hitherto been investigated almost exclusively in multicellular neural organisms. Evidence for learning in non-neural multicellular organisms is scant, and only a few unequivocal reports of learning have been described in single-celled organisms. Here we demonstrate habituation, an unmistakable form of learning, in the non-neural organism Physarum polycephalum In our experiment, using chemotaxis as the behavioural output and quinine or caffeine as the stimulus, we showed that P. polycephalum learnt to ignore quinine or caffeine when the stimuli were repeated, but responded again when the stimulus was withheld for a certain time. Our results meet the principle criteria that have been used to demonstrate habituation: responsiveness decline and spontaneous recovery. To distinguish habituation from sensory adaptation or motor fatigue, we also show stimulus specificity. Our results point to the diversity of organisms lacking neurons, which likely display a hitherto unrecognized capacity for learning, and suggest that slime moulds may be an ideal model system in which to investigate fundamental mechanisms underlying learning processes. Besides, documenting learning in non-neural organisms such as slime moulds is centrally important to a comprehensive, phylogenetic understanding of when and where in the tree of life the earliest manifestations of learning evolved. PMID:27122563

  13. Laser welding process in PP moulding parts: Evaluation of seam performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliveira, N.; Pontes, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    The Polypropylene is one of the most versatile polymer materials used in the industry. Due to this versatility, it is possible to use it in different products. This material can also be mixed with several additives namely glass fiber, carbon nanotubes, etc. This compatibility with different additives allows also obtaining products with characteristics that goes from an impact absorber to an electricity conductor. When is necessary to join components in PP they could be welded through hot plate, ultrasonic weld and also by laser. This study had the objective of study the influence of several variables, capable of influence the final quality of the seam. In this case were studied variables of the injection molding process as mold temperature and cooling time. Was also studied laser welding variables and different materials. The results showed that the variables that have the most influence were mould temperature, laser velocity and laser diameter. The seams were analyzed using Optical Microscopy technique. The seams showed perfect contact between the materials analyzed, despite the high standard variation presented in the mechanical testes.

  14. Moulded infrared optics making night vision for cars within reach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourget, Antoine; Guimond, Yann; Franks, John; Van Den Bergh, Marleen

    2005-02-01

    Sustainable mobility is a major public concern, making increased safety one of the major challenges for the car of the future. About half of all serious traffic accidents occur at night, while only a minority of journeys is at night. Reduced visibility is one of the main reasons for these striking statistics and this explains the interest of the automobile industry in Enhanced Night Vision Systems. As an answer to the need for high volume, low cost optics for these applications, Umicore has developed GASIR. This material is transparent in the NEAR and FAR infrared, and is mouldable into high quality finished spherical, aspherical and diffractive lenses. Umicore's GASIR moulded lenses are an ideal solution for thermal imaging for cars (Night Vision) and for sensing systems like pedestrian detection, collision avoidance, occupation detection, intelligent airbag systems etc.

  15. Studies on a toxic metabolite from the mould Wallemia.

    PubMed

    Wood, G M; Mann, P J; Lewis, D F; Reid, W J; Moss, M O

    1990-01-01

    While monitoring the occurrence of toxigenic moulds in foods, using a bioassay screen, it was shown that an isolate of Wallemia sebi produced toxic effects in several of the bioassays. The toxic metabolite was isolated and purified using solvent extraction, TLC and HPLC coupled with the brine shrimp assay to monitor the toxic fractions. The purified toxin, which we propose to call walleminol A, has been partially characterized by mass spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance, ultraviolet and infrared spectroscopy. It can be provisionally interpreted as a tricyclic dihydroxy compound, C15H24O2, with structural features characteristic of a sesquiterpene with an isolated double bond, but further work is required to characterize this compound unequivocally. The minimum inhibitory dose of walleminol A in the bioassays is approximately 50 micrograms/ml, which is comparable with a number of mycotoxins such as citrinin and penicillic acid. PMID:2106458

  16. Electric moulding of dispersed lipid nanotubes into a nanofluidic device

    PubMed Central

    Frusawa, Hiroshi; Manabe, Tatsuhiko; Kagiyama, Eri; Hirano, Ken; Kameta, Naohiro; Masuda, Mitsutoshi; Shimizu, Toshimi

    2013-01-01

    Hydrophilic nanotubes formed by lipid molecules have potential applications as platforms for chemical or biological events occurring in an attolitre volume inside a hollow cylinder. Here, we have integrated the lipid nanotubes (LNTs) by applying an AC electric field via plug-in electrode needles placed above a substrate. The off-chip assembly method has the on-demand adjustability of an electrode configuration, enabling the dispersed LNT to be electrically moulded into a separate film of parallel LNT arrays in one-step. The fluorescence resonance energy transfer technique as well as the digital microscopy visualised the overall filling of gold nanoparticles up to the inner capacity of an LNT film by capillary action, thereby showing the potential of this flexible film for use as a high-throughput nanofluidic device where not only is the endo-signalling and product in each LNT multiplied but also the encapsulated objects are efficiently transported and reacted. PMID:23835525

  17. Cellular automaton model of crowd evacuation inspired by slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalogeiton, V. S.; Papadopoulos, D. P.; Georgilas, I. P.; Sirakoulis, G. Ch.; Adamatzky, A. I.

    2015-04-01

    In all the living organisms, the self-preservation behaviour is almost universal. Even the most simple of living organisms, like slime mould, is typically under intense selective pressure to evolve a response to ensure their evolution and safety in the best possible way. On the other hand, evacuation of a place can be easily characterized as one of the most stressful situations for the individuals taking part on it. Taking inspiration from the slime mould behaviour, we are introducing a computational bio-inspired model crowd evacuation model. Cellular Automata (CA) were selected as a fully parallel advanced computation tool able to mimic the Physarum's behaviour. In particular, the proposed CA model takes into account while mimicking the Physarum foraging process, the food diffusion, the organism's growth, the creation of tubes for each organism, the selection of optimum tube for each human in correspondence to the crowd evacuation under study and finally, the movement of all humans at each time step towards near exit. To test the model's efficiency and robustness, several simulation scenarios were proposed both in virtual and real-life indoor environments (namely, the first floor of office building B of the Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering of Democritus University of Thrace). The proposed model is further evaluated in a purely quantitative way by comparing the simulation results with the corresponding ones from the bibliography taken by real data. The examined fundamental diagrams of velocity-density and flow-density are found in full agreement with many of the already published corresponding results proving the adequacy, the fitness and the resulting dynamics of the model. Finally, several real Physarum experiments were conducted in an archetype of the aforementioned real-life environment proving at last that the proposed model succeeded in reproducing sufficiently the Physarum's recorded behaviour derived from observation of the aforementioned

  18. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  19. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... become pregnant during your treatment, stop using mipomersen injection and call your doctor immediately. ... Mipomersen injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... and tiredness that are most likely to occur during the first 2 days ...

  20. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  1. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  2. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a ... antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); ...

  3. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  4. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  5. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  6. Daratumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ... a blood transfusion, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ...

  7. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with pralatrexate injection to help ... that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your ...

  8. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  9. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  10. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  11. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  12. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  13. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  14. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  15. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  16. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  17. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal number of red blood cells) caused by uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus). Leuprolide injection is ... Your doctor will tell you how long your treatment with leuprolide injection will last. When used in ...

  19. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  20. Posaconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Posaconazole injection is used to prevent fungal infections in people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Posaconazole injection is in a class of medications called azole antifungals. It works ...

  1. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenalin® Chloride Solution ... a pre-filled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin or into ... device when this date passes. Look at the solution in the device from time to time. If ...

  2. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  3. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... using fondaparinux injection while you are in the hospital at least 6 to 8 hours after your ... you will continue to use fondaparinux after your hospital stay, you can inject fondaparinux yourself or have ...

  4. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  5. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  6. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  8. Rapid fabrication of microdevices using laser direct writing and replica moulding technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antończak, A. J.; Stepak, B. D.; Abramski, K. M.

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a method that enables fast and low-cost fabrication of microchannels with oval cross-section. The procedure is based on formation of a concave meniscus at the interface between an initially cured PDMS and a polymeric mould fabricated using excimer laser. The replica is formed by expanding gas trapped within the structures of the mould during thermal curing. A second shaping factor is connected with surface phenomena at the interface between the mould, gas and partially cured PDMS. The final shape of the meniscus is determined when the PDMS reaches the high cure extent.

  9. Particle Filled Polyethylene Composites Used in the Technology of Rotational Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bútora, Peter; Náplava, Antonín; Ridzoň, Martin; Bílik, Jozef; Tittel, Viktor

    2011-01-01

    The submitted article discusses rotational moulding technology and filled plastics. For testing, linear low density polyethylene filled with talc was used. The materials tested varied way of mixing the filler into the polymer. For the prepared samples were evaluated by tensile, elongation, melt flow index, density, Shore hardness and Vicat softening temperature. Experiments showed that, in principle, it is possible to produce rotational moulding technology filled thermoplastics.

  10. Manuscript title: antifungal proteins from moulds: analytical tools and potential application to dry-ripened foods.

    PubMed

    Delgado, Josué; Owens, Rebecca A; Doyle, Sean; Asensio, Miguel A; Núñez, Félix

    2016-08-01

    Moulds growing on the surface of dry-ripened foods contribute to their sensory qualities, but some of them are able to produce mycotoxins that pose a hazard to consumers. Small cysteine-rich antifungal proteins (AFPs) from moulds are highly stable to pH and proteolysis and exhibit a broad inhibition spectrum against filamentous fungi, providing new chances to control hazardous moulds in fermented foods. The analytical tools for characterizing the cellular targets and affected pathways are reviewed. Strategies currently employed to study these mechanisms of action include 'omics' approaches that have come to the forefront in recent years, developing in tandem with genome sequencing of relevant organisms. These techniques contribute to a better understanding of the response of moulds against AFPs, allowing the design of complementary strategies to maximize or overcome the limitations of using AFPs on foods. AFPs alter chitin biosynthesis, and some fungi react inducing cell wall integrity (CWI) pathway. However, moulds able to increase chitin content at the cell wall by increasing proteins in either CWI or calmodulin-calcineurin signalling pathways will resist AFPs. Similarly, AFPs increase the intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and moulds increasing G-protein complex β subunit CpcB and/or enzymes to efficiently produce glutathione may evade apoptosis. Unknown aspects that need to be addressed include the interaction with mycotoxin production by less sensitive toxigenic moulds. However, significant steps have been taken to encourage the use of AFPs in intermediate-moisture foods, particularly for mould-ripened cheese and meat products. PMID:27394712

  11. Effectiveness of phenolic compounds against citrus green mould.

    PubMed

    Sanzani, Simona M; Schena, Leonardo; Ippolito, Antonio

    2014-01-01

    Stored citrus fruit suffer huge losses because of the development of green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum. Usually synthetic fungicides are employed to control this disease, but their use is facing some obstacles, such public concern about possible adverse effects on human and environmental health and the development of resistant pathogen populations. In the present study quercetin, scopoletin and scoparone--phenolic compounds present in several agricultural commodities and associated with response to stresses--were firstly tested in vitro against P. digitatum and then applied in vivo on oranges cv. Navelina. Fruits were wound-treated (100 µg), pathogen-inoculated, stored and surveyed for disease incidence and severity. Although only a minor (≤13%) control effect on P. digitatum growth was recorded in vitro, the in vivo trial results were encouraging. In fact, on phenolic-treated oranges, symptoms appeared at 6 days post-inoculation (DPI), i.e., with a 2 day-delay as compared to the untreated control. Moreover, at 8 DPI, quercetin, scopoletin, and scoparone significantly reduced disease incidence and severity by 69%-40% and 85%-70%, respectively, as compared to the control. At 14 DPI, scoparone was the most active molecule. Based on the results, these compounds might represent an interesting alternative to synthetic fungicides. PMID:25153867

  12. Birefringence in heat-mechanical modified freshly moulded polyester fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Velev, V.; Dimov, T.; Popov, A.; Denev, Y.; Hristov, H.; Angelov, T.; Markova, K.; Zagortcheva, M.; Arhangelova, N.; Uzunov, N.

    2010-11-01

    The article submits new experimental data concerning to the role of combined thermo-mechanical treatments on the structural development of freshly moulded uncrystallized but crystallizable poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibers. The object of the present work is PET as a thermoplastic polymer with a large practical application. The report is devoted to the influence of the heat-mechanical modification temperature on the structure rearrangement in uniaxially orientated amorphous PET. The heat-mechanical modification of the investigated yarns and the optical measurements were realized by specialized gears constructed and built in the author's laboratories. The fibers heat-mechanical modification includes samples annealing at constant temperature above their glass transition temperature (Tg) without strain stress. The yarn annealing has been followed from well defined uniaxially strain-loading with values from 0 MPa up to 30 MPa during two minutes. The optical measurements were carried out by an optical system using a polarization microscope and a CCD camera. The obtained experimental data has been analyzed by Mocha-1.2 (Jandel Scientific) software. There are established dependences between the heat-mechanical modification mode and the structural rearrangements running in the studied PET samples.

  13. NONDERMATOPHYTIC MOULDS AS A CAUSATIVE AGENT OF ONYCHOMYCOSIS IN TEHRAN

    PubMed Central

    Bassiri-Jahromi, Shahindokht; Khaksar, Ali Asgar

    2010-01-01

    Background: In the last few years the number of cases of nondermatophytic onychomycosis has greatly increased. Aim: To evaluate the incidence, the clinic characteristics, and predisposing factors of nondermatophytic onychomycosis. Materials and Methods: All collected specimens were analyzed by direct microscopy and culture. Microscopic examination of these specimens was carried out in potassium hydroxide solution (20%) with dimethyl sulfoxide (4%). These specimens were cultured on sabouraud's glucose agar with chloramphenicol and sabouraud's glucose agar with chloramphenicol and cycloheximide. Cultures were incubated at 25°C for up to 28 days and checked twice weekly for growth. Results: Nondermatophytic onychomycosis were 11.5% of all onychomycosis. We found that Aspergillus spp. were the more responsible etiologic agents of nondermatophytic onychomycosis, resulting in a total of 28 patients (59.6%). In our study other causative agents were Acremonium spp. (17%), Fusarium spp. (12.7%), Geotrichum spp. (4.2%), Trichosporun spp., (4.2%) and Scopulariopsis spp (2.1%). In our patients moulds onychomycosis developed mainly in toenails (74.5%). Conclusion: Knowing the exact pathogen is important and has implications in therapy and prognosis. PMID:20606881

  14. Fire Retardancy of Natural Fibre Reinforced Sheet Moulding Compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hapuarachchi, T. D.; Ren, G.; Fan, M.; Hogg, P. J.; Peijs, T.

    2007-07-01

    Due to environmental awareness and economical considerations, natural fibre reinforced polymer composites seem to present a viable alternative to synthetic fibre reinforced polymer composites such as glass fibres. This is a feasibility study to asses the potential application of natural fibre reinforced sheet moulding compound materials (NF-SMC) for the use in building applications, with particular emphases to their reaction to fire. The reinforcing fibres in this study were industrial hemp fibres. The cone calorimeter which asses the fire hazard of materials by Heat Release Rate (HRR) was used, radiant heat fluxes of 25 and 50 kW/m2 were utilised to simulate an ignition source and fully developed room fire conditions respectively. The results acquired here demonstrate that the NF-SMC can compete with current building materials in terms of their fire behaviour. The peak heat release value for the fire retardant (FR) NF-SMC was 176 kW/m2 conversely for a non-FR NF-SMC was 361 kW/m2.

  15. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before using lacosamide injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lacosamide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lacosamide injection. Ask your pharmacist for a ...

  16. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  17. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... you that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your first ... tests to check your body's response to pralatrexate injection.Ask your ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  18. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of vitamin B12 or inability to absorb vitamin B12. Your doctor will not prescribe leucovorin injection to treat this type of anemia.tell your ... tests to check your body's response to leucovorin injection.It is ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  19. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and colorless. The liquid may contain small white particles, but should not contain large or colored particles. Do not use a syringe or dosing pen ... liquid is cloudy or contains large or colored particles.The best place to inject etanercept injection is ...

  20. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  1. A framework of cloud supported collaborative design in glass lens moulds based on aspheric measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Yongjian; Wang, Yu; Na, Jingxin; Zhi, Yanan; Fan, Yufeng

    2013-09-01

    Aspheric mould design includes the top-down design and reversal design. In this paper, a new framework of reversal design is proposed combining with cloud supported collaborative design (CSCD) based on aspheric measurement. The framework is a kind of collaborative platform, which is composed of eight modules, including the computerized aspheric precision measurement module (CAPM), computer-aided optical design of aspheric lens system (CAOD), computer-aided design of lens mould (CADLM), FEM(finite element method) simulation of lens molding module (FEMLM), computer-aided manufacture of lens and moulds (CAMLM), measurement data analysis module (MDAM), optical product lifecycle management module (OPLM) and cloud computing network module (CCNM). In this framework, the remote clients send an improved requirement or fabrication demand about optical lens system through CCNM, which transfers this signal to OPLM. In OPLM, one main server is in charge of the task distribution and collaborative work of other six modules. The first measurement data of aspheric lens are produced by clients or our proposed platform CAPM, then are sent to CAOD for optimization and the electronic drawings of lens moulds are generated in CADLM module. According the design drawings, the FEMLM could give the lens-molding simulation parameters through FEM software. The simulation data are used for the second design of moulds in CADLM module. In this case, the moulds could be fabricated in CAMLM by ultra-precision machine, and the aspheric lens could be also produced by lens-molding machine in CAMLM. At last, the final shape of aspheric lens could be measured in CAPM and the data analysis could be conducted in MDAM module. Through the proposed framework, all the work described above could be performed coordinately. And the optimum design data of lens mould could be realized and saved, then shared by all the work team.

  2. Development of Rapid Pipe Moulding Process for Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics by Direct Resistance Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanaka, Kazuto; Harada, Ryuki; Uemura, Toshiki; Katayama, Tsutao; Kuwahara, Hideyuki

    To deal with environmental issues, the gasoline mileage of passenger cars can be improved by reduction of the car weight. The use of car components made of Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastics (CFRP) is increasing because of its superior mechanical properties and relatively low density. Many vehicle structural parts are pipe-shaped, such as suspension arms, torsion beams, door guard bars and impact beams. A reduction of the car weight is expected by using CFRP for these parts. Especially, when considering the recyclability and ease of production, Carbon Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastics are a prime candidate. On the other hand, the moulding process of CFRTP pipes for mass production has not been well established yet. For this pipe moulding process an induction heating method has been investigated already, however, this method requires a complicated coil system. To reduce the production cost, another system without such complicated equipment is to be developed. In this study, the pipe moulding process of CFRTP using direct resistance heating was developed. This heating method heats up the mould by Joule heating using skin effect of high-frequency current. The direct resistance heating method is desirable from a cost perspective, because this method can heat the mould directly without using any coils. Formerly developed Non-woven Stitched Multi-axial Cloth (NSMC) was used as semi-product material. NSMC is very suitable for the lamination process due to the fact that non-crimp stitched carbon fiber of [0°/+45°/90°/-45°] and polyamide 6 non-woven fabric are stitched to one sheet, resulting in a short production cycle time. The use of the pipe moulding process with the direct resistance heating method in combination with the NSMC, has resulted in the successful moulding of a CFRTP pipe of 300 mm in length, 40 mm in diameter and 2 mm in thickness.

  3. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  4. Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding in unilateral cleft lip and palate

    PubMed Central

    Zuhaib, Mohammed; Bonanthaya, Krishnamurthy; Parmar, Renu; Shetty, Pritham N.; Sharma, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Context: Presurgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) is a non-surgical method of reshaping the cleft lip, alveolus, palate and the nose to minimize the severity of the cleft deformity, before primary cheiloplastyand palatoplasty. In this context, PNAM proves to be an invaluable asset in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate. Aims: The study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of PNAM in the management of unilateral cleft lip and palate with the following objectives: (1) To assess and compare the degree of reduction in the size of cleft palate and alveolus (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (2) To evaluate and compare the improvement in columellar length and correction of columellar deviation (pre-PNAM and post-PNAM). (3) To assess the changes in the position of the alar base and the alar cartilages. Settings and Design: Prospective study. Subjects and Methods: A prospective study consisting of, which included 20 patients with complete unilateral cleft lip and palate was conducted. The age at the start of PNAM treatment of the infants ranged from 2 to 44 days of age reporting to our institute between December 2011 and August 2013. All the patients underwent PNAM therapy before primary cheiloplasty at 6 months of age; clinical parameters were assessed pre- and post-therapy using photographs and dental study models of the maxilla. Statistical Analysis Used: Student's t-test for paired comparisons. Results: Results of the study showed a promising reduction in the cleft size before the surgery, significant improvement in nasal symmetry, including the columellar length on the cleft side. Conclusions: PNAM is a valuable adjunct to our surgical armamentarium in dealing with the challenges of primary closure of unilateral cleft lip and palate thereby enhancing the overall surgical outcome. The advantages of this method include the simplicity of the procedure and improving the quality of surgical repair, particularly in obtaining tension free muscle closure in unilateral

  5. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  6. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  7. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  8. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotic, to help treat your infection. The drug will be either injected directly into a vein through ... catheter or added to an intravenous fluid that will drip through a needle or catheter into a ...

  9. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  10. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this medicine each month during RSV season. Your health care provider will let you know when the monthly injections are no longer needed.Your child's health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure ...

  11. Terbutaline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Terbutaline injection is used to treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Terbutaline is in a class of medications called beta ...

  12. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). Leuprolide injection (Lupron ... mention any of the following: certain medications for irregular heartbeat such as amiodarone (Cordarone), disopyramide (Norpace), procainamide ( ...

  13. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  14. Insulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, injections, or implants); niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, Slo-Niacin); octreotide (Sandostatin);oral ... cramps abnormal heartbeat large weight gain in a short period of time swelling of the arms, hands, ...

  15. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... had a serious allergic reaction (difficulty breathing or swallowing or swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, ... the face, throat, tongue, lips, or eyes difficulty swallowing or breathing Fondaparinux injection may cause other side ...

  16. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  17. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor tics (uncontrollable need to repeat certain body movements) ... people who have Tourette's disorder (condition characterized by motor or verbal tics). Haloperidol is in a class ...

  18. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... home. When certolizumab injection is used to treat Crohn's disease, it is usually given every two weeks for ...

  19. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent episodes of symptoms in people who have Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... If you are receiving natalizumab injection to treat Crohn's disease, your symptoms should improve during the first few ...

  20. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  1. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin injection is also used to prevent or ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for ...

  2. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  3. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  4. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  5. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  6. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria. Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work against ...

  7. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  8. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...

  9. Cefazolin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including skin, bone, joint, genital, blood, heart valve, ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefazolin injection will not work ...

  10. Cefotaxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefotaxime injection will not work ...

  11. Amikacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as amikacin injection will not work ...

  12. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ampicillin injection will not work ...

  13. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefuroxime injection will not work ...

  14. Vancomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called glycopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as vancomycin injection ... infection may not be completely treated and the bacteria may become resistant to antibiotics.

  15. Ceftazidime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftazidime injection will not work ...

  16. Telavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... serious skin infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Telavancin injection is in a class of medications ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for colds, flu, or ...

  17. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection, prefilled syringes containing diluent (liquid to be mixed with teduglutide powder), needles to attach to the diluent syringe, dosing syringes with needles attached, and alcohol swab pads. Throw away needles, syringes, and vials ...

  18. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  19. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  20. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Using antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  1. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking antibiotics when they are not needed increases your risk ...

  2. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  3. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  4. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  5. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and trouble breathing) in people with allergic asthma ( ... receiving a dose of omalizumab injection shortness of breath coughing up blood skin sores severe pain, numbness ...

  6. Necitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest pain; shortness of breath; dizziness; loss of consciousness; or fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat.Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving necitumumab injection.

  7. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. Dolasetron is in a class of medications called serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. ... stiff or twitching muscles seizures coma (loss of consciousness) Dolasetron injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  8. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... also used together with other medications to treat cervical cancer (cancer that begins in the opening of the ... days. When topotecan injection is used to treat cervical cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  9. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ertapenem injection is used to treat certain serious infections, including pneumonia and urinary tract, skin, diabetic foot, ... for the prevention of infections following colorectal surgery. Ertapenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  10. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediate-release injection is also used to control diarrhea and flushing caused by carcinoid tumors (slow-growing ... symptoms are severe or do not go away: diarrhea constipation pale, bulky, foul-smelling stools constantly feeling ...

  11. Infliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for 2 hours afterward. A doctor or ... the following symptoms during or shortly after your infusion: hives; rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, ...

  12. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  13. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  14. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive tositumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  15. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  16. Temozolomide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called ... injected once a day. For some types of brain tumors, temozolomide is given daily for 42 to 49 ...

  17. Tigecycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat certain serious infections including community acquired pneumonia (a lung infection that developed in a person ... Tigecycline injection should not be used to treat pneumonia that developed in people who were in a ...

  18. Acetaminophen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used in combination with opioid (narcotic) medications to relieve moderate to severe pain. Acetaminophen is in a class of medications called analgesics (pain relievers) and antipyretics (fever reducers). It works by changing ...

  19. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... certain side effects that may be caused by chemotherapy medications. Dexrazoxane injection (Zinecard) is used to prevent ... tissues that may be caused when an anthracycline chemotherapy medication such as daunorubicin (Daunoxome, Cerubidine), doxorubicin (Doxil), ...

  20. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... menstrual periods), who have an increased risk for fractures (broken bones) or who cannot take or did ... receiving certain treatments that increase their risk for fractures. Denosumab injection (Xgeva) is used to reduce fractures ...

  1. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of disability in patients with certain forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). Mitoxantrone injection is also used together with steroid ... a class of medications called anthracenediones. Mitoxantrone treats MS by stopping certain cells of the immune system ...

  2. Dexrazoxane Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist if you are allergic to dexrazoxane injection or any other medications.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  3. Oritavancin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for at least 5 days after receiving oritavancin injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  4. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in adults with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  5. Exenatide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... month. Exenatide extended-release solution is injected once weekly at any time of day without regard to ... you remember it and then continue your regular weekly schedule. However, if there are less than 3 ...

  6. Fluconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat fungal infections, including yeast infections of the mouth, throat, esophagus (tube leading from ... by fungus. Fluconazole is also used to prevent yeast infections in patients who are likely to become infected ...

  7. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Mipomersen injection is used to decrease levels of cholesterol and other fatty substances in the blood in people who have homozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (HoFH; a rare inherited condition that ...

  8. Cefuroxime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) infections; meningitis (infection of the membranes that surround the brain ... hearing loss, if you are being treated for meningitis Cefuroxime injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  9. Busulfan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... cancer cells in preparation for a bone marrow transplant. Busulfan is in a class of medications called ... a total of 16 doses) before bone marrow transplant.Busulfan injection may cause seizures during therapy with ...

  10. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat constipation caused by opioid (narcotic) pain medications in patients with advanced illnesses ... a class of medications called peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists. It works by protecting the bowel ...

  11. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treatment.You may receive methylprednisolone injection in a hospital or medical facility, or you may be given ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  12. Ampicillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have.You may receive ampicillin injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  13. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... bleeding fever, cough, flu-like symptoms, muscle aches, burning on urination, worsening skin problems, and other signs of infection rash blistering or peeling skin Romidepsin injection may cause other side effects. Call your doctor if you have any unusual ...

  14. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a ... your doctor and the laboratory. Your doctor may order certain lab tests to check your body's response ...

  15. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is for intravenous (into a vein) use only. Giving ganciclovir through intramuscular (into a muscle) or ... the storage of ganciclovir solution. Store your medication only as directed. Make sure you understand what you ...

  16. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  17. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  18. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  19. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injections (Abilify Maintena, Aristada) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  20. Secukinumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to see if you need to receive any vaccinations. It is important to have all vaccines appropriate ... treatment with secukinumab injection. Do not have any vaccinations during your treatment without talking to your doctor. ...

  1. Tesamorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... fat in the stomach area in adults with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) who have lipodystrophy (increased body ... injection is in a class of medications called human growth hormone-releasing factor (GRF) analogs. It works ...

  2. Naloxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emergency medical treatment to reverse the life-threatening effects of a known or suspected opiate (narcotic) overdose. ... is also used after surgery to reverse the effects of opiates given during surgery. Naloxone injection is ...

  3. Methotrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Methotrexate injection is also used to treat severe psoriasis (a skin disease in which red, scaly patches ... slowing the growth of cancer cells. Methotrexate treats psoriasis by slowing the growth of skin cells to ...

  4. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... sometimes are accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to ... stomach pain sudden weight loss paleness or blue color of the fingers and toes shortness of breath ...

  5. Denosumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called RANK ligand inhibitors. It works by decreasing bone breakdown ... medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. ...

  6. Omacetaxine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... for CML and can no longer benefit from these medications or cannot take these medications due to side effects. Omacetaxine injection is ... side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these symptoms are severe or do not go away: ...

  7. Basiliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used with other medications to prevent immediate transplant rejection (attack of the transplanted organ by the immune system of the person receiving the organ) in people who are receiving kidney transplants. Basiliximab injection is in a class of medications ...

  8. Metoclopramide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to relieve symptoms caused by slow stomach emptying in people who have diabetes. These symptoms include ... When metoclopramide injection is used to treat slowed stomach emptying due to diabetes, it may be given up ...

  9. Fungi associated with black mould on baobab trees in southern Africa.

    PubMed

    Cruywagen, Elsie M; Crous, Pedro W; Roux, Jolanda; Slippers, Bernard; Wingfield, Michael J

    2015-07-01

    There have been numerous reports in the scientific and popular literature suggesting that African baobab (Adansonia digitata) trees are dying, with symptoms including a black mould on their bark. The aim of this study was to determine the identity of the fungi causing this black mould and to consider whether they might be affecting the health of trees. The fungi were identified by sequencing directly from mycelium on the infected tissue as well as from cultures on agar. Sequence data for the ITS region of the rDNA resulted in the identification of four fungi including Aureobasidium pullulans, Toxicocladosporium irritans and a new species of Rachicladosporium described here as Rachicladosporium africanum. A single isolate of an unknown Cladosporium sp. was also found. These fungi, referred to here as black mould, are not true sooty mould fungi and they were shown to penetrate below the bark of infected tissue, causing a distinct host reaction. Although infections can lead to dieback of small twigs on severely infected branches, the mould was not found to kill trees. PMID:25935334

  10. Using imprinting technology to fabricate three-dimensional devices from moulds of thermosetting polymer patterns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jem-Kun; Ko, Fu-Hsiang; Chan, Chia-Hao; Huang, Chih-Feng; Chang, Feng-Chih

    2006-09-01

    The fabrication of moulds for imprinting can be simplified significantly by using specialized cross-linking polymers to define the pattern on a silicon wafer. Thermosetting polymers (SU-8) can be used to pattern silicon moulds for imprinting technologies because (1) silicon oxide moulds bearing a thermosetting polymer pattern can be obtained using conventional semiconductor technologies and (2) thermosetting polymers have no obvious glass transition temperature (Tg) because of their cross-linked structure, but the hardness decreases significantly when the temperature is above the Tg. In this study, we used Su-8 resist as the thermosetting polymer pattern to obtain moulds on a silicon wafer. We have tested the thermal properties of thermosetting (SU-8) and thermoplastic polymers (22A4) for use as imprinting patterns and imprinted resists. We fabricated a hill-like structure by applying an electron beam strategy and used this thick film to increase the adhesion between the pattern and the silicon wafer. We used scanning electron microscopy to investigate the resolution of the thermoplastic polymer resist (22A4) pattern that we imprinted using the thermosetting polymer (SU-8) pattern. To define the feature size after imprinting, we determined the feature size shrink factor after separation of the thermosetting polymer pattern (SU-8) from the thermoplastic polymer (22A4) resist. In addition, we have fabricated a microlens of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) through replication using the thermoplastic polymer resist (22A4) obtained after imprinting the mould with the microlens structure of the thermosetting polymer (SU-8).

  11. Intrathymic Injection.

    PubMed

    Manna, Sugata; Bhandoola, Avinash

    2016-01-01

    Intrathymic injection is used in several T cell-associated immunological studies to deliver cells or other substances directly into the thymus. Here, we describe the intrathymic injection procedure involving surgical incision of the mouse with or without a thoracotomy. Though this procedure can result in poor recovery, postsurgical complications, and distress to the animal, it is actually a simple procedure that can be carried out relatively easily and quickly with experience. PMID:26294410

  12. Can the grey mould disease of the grape-vine be controlled by yeast?

    PubMed

    Masih, E I; Alie, I; Paul, B

    2000-08-15

    Botrytis cinerea has been found to be highly pathogenic to 'Chardonnay' and 'Pinot noir' cultivars of the grape-vine producing the characteristic grey mould symptoms within 7 days of inoculation to the vitro-plants. The yeast Pichia anomala (strain FY-102), isolated from apple skin, was found to be antagonistic to B. cinerea as it completely inhibited the appearance of the grey mould symptoms when grown together. The yeast was responsible for morphological changes such as coagulation and leakage of the cytoplasm of B. cinerea. The pathogen, when applied together with P. anomala, failed to bring about the grey mould symptoms on the grape-vine, suggesting that the yeast could control the expression of this disease. An account of the interaction between B. cinerea and P. anomala, as well as the sequences of the complete ITS region of the ribosomal DNA of the yeast are described here. PMID:10930744

  13. COMPARISON OF POPULATIONS OF MOULD SPECIES IN HOMES IN THE UK AND US USING MOLD-SPECIFIC QUANTITATIVE PCR (MSQPCR)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The goal of this research was to compare the populations of 81 mold species in homes in USA and UK using mould specific quantitative polymerase chain reaction (MSQPCR) technology. Dust samples were obtained from randomly selected homes in Great Britain (n=11). The mould populat...

  14. Spatial characteristics of white mould epidemics and the development of sequential sampling plans in Australian bean fields

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    White mould, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, causes losses to bean through reducing the marketable yield of pods by flower infections and stem rot. In Australia, entire fields may be rejected due to high disease incidence. The spatial characteristics of white mould epidemics were characterised...

  15. [Non-dermatophytic moulds: onychomycosis in four patients infected with the human immunodeficiency virus].

    PubMed

    de Magalhães Lima, Kedma; Machado Barbosa de Castro, Célia Maria; Fonsêca Nogueira Cambuim, Idalina Inês; Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Jeferson; Delgado, Marília; Sette de Melo Rego, Rossana

    2008-03-01

    Patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) are a risk group for onychomycosis, fungal infections caused mainly by dermatophytes and yeast. However, non-dermatohytic moulds are becoming common agents for nail infections in this population of patients. We report four cases of onychomycosis caused by non-dermatophytic moulds (Aspergillus niger, Scytalidium hyalinum, Scytalidium dimidiatum and Fusarium solani) in patients infected with HIV from Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Onychomicosis by non-dermatophytic species in HIV-positive patients requires special attention in the clinical and the laboratory. A proper diagnosis is necessary to establish the specific and adequate treatment, preventing fungal invasion. PMID:18338928

  16. SU-E-T-04: 3D Printed Patient-Specific Surface Mould Applicators for Brachytherapy Treatment of Superficial Lesions

    SciTech Connect

    Cumming, I; Lasso, A; Rankin, A; Fichtinger, G; Joshi, C P; Falkson, C; Schreiner, L John

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: Evaluate the feasibility of constructing 3D-printed patient-specific surface mould applicators for HDR brachytherapy treatment of superficial lesions. Methods: We propose using computer-aided design software to create 3D printed surface mould applicators for brachytherapy. A mould generation module was developed in the open-source 3D Slicer ( http://www.slicer.org ) medical image analysis platform. The system extracts the skin surface from CT images, and generates smooth catheter paths over the region of interest based on user-defined start and end points at a specified stand-off distance from the skin surface. The catheter paths are radially extended to create catheter channels that are sufficiently wide to ensure smooth insertion of catheters for a safe source travel. An outer mould surface is generated to encompass the channels. The mould is also equipped with fiducial markers to ensure its reproducible placement. A surface mould applicator with eight parallel catheter channels of 4mm diameters was fabricated for the nose region of a head phantom; flexible plastic catheters of 2mm diameter were threaded through these channels maintaining 10mm catheter separations and a 5mm stand-off distance from the skin surface. The apparatus yielded 3mm thickness of mould material between channels and the skin. The mould design was exported as a stereolithography file to a Dimension SST1200es 3D printer and printed using ABS Plus plastic material. Results: The applicator closely matched its design and was found to be sufficiently rigid without deformation during repeated application on the head phantom. Catheters were easily threaded into channels carved along catheter paths. Further tests are required to evaluate feasibility of channel diameters smaller than 4mm. Conclusion: Construction of 3D-printed mould applicators show promise for use in patient specific brachytherapy of superficial lesions. Further evaluation of 3D printing techniques and materials is required

  17. Aflibercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD; an ongoing disease of the eye that causes loss of the ability to see straight ahead and may make it more ... used to treat macular edema after retinal vein occlusion (an eye disease ...

  18. Cabazitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prednisone to treat prostate cancer (cancer of a male reproductive organ) that has already been treated with other medications. Cabazitaxel injection is in a class of medications called microtubule inhibitors. It works by slowing or stopping the growth of cancer cells.

  19. Hydrocortisone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... purple blotches or lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep inappropriate happiness extreme ... increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain dizziness irregular ...

  20. Methylprednisolone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... purple blotches or lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep inappropriate happiness extreme ... increased sweating muscle weakness joint pain dizziness irregular ...

  1. Triptorelin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a sudden wave of mild or intense body heat) decreased sexual ability or desire leg or joint pain breast pain pain, itching, swelling, or redness at the place where injection was given difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep Some side effects can be serious. If you experience any of ...

  2. Eribulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tests to check your body's response to eribulin injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  3. Pegaptanib Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 7 days after you receive each pegaptanib injection.It is important for you to keep a written list of all of the prescription and nonprescription (over-the-counter) medicines you are taking, as well as any products such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  4. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and pharmacist what other prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking or plan to take. Be sure to mention any of the following: allergy shots (a series of injections given regularly to prevent the body from developing ...

  5. Famotidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Famotidine injection is in a class of ...

  6. Ranitidine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat ulcers (sores in the lining of the stomach or intestine) that were not successfully treated with other medications. ... Ellison syndrome (tumors in the pancreas and small intestine that caused increased production of stomach acid). Ranitidine injection is in a class of ...

  7. Oxytocin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... provider immediately: chest pain or difficulty breathing confusion fast or irregular heartbeat severe headache irritation at the injection site If you experience a serious side effect, you or your doctor may send a report to the Food and Drug Administration's (FDA) MedWatch Adverse Event Reporting ...

  8. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will be given to you two times a day for 2 to 3 weeks, and then once a day, 5 to 7 days of each week.Your dose of ganciclovir will ... may give you several doses (enough for a day's supply) of premixed ganciclovir injection solution at one ...

  9. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have received ibritumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... cells) and myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  10. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... have received tositumomab injection.do not have any vaccinations without talking to your doctor.you should know ... blood cells), myelodysplastic syndrome (condition in which blood cells do not ... online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  11. Dulaglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Dulaglutide injection also works by slowing the movement ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  12. Liraglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Liraglutide injection also slows the emptying of the ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  13. Albiglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other body tissues where it is used for energy. Albiglutide injection also works by slowing the movement ... In case of overdose, call your local poison control center at 1-800-222-1222. If the victim has collapsed or is not breathing, call local emergency services at ...

  14. Imazil residue loading and green mould control in south african citrus pack-houses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Imazalil (IMZ) is commonly applied in South African citrus pack-houses for the control of green mould, caused by Penicillium digitatum, yet the disease still causes significant postharvest losses. Maximum residue limit (MRL) for IMZ on citrus fruit is 5 µg.g-1, whereas 2-3 µg.g-1 is regarded as a b...

  15. Mold, Mould, Mole-d: The Three M's of Career Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Norman E.

    2008-01-01

    The author explores a creative idea development process wherein one begins by applying the image of "breaking the mold" to career development and then extending the process further by considering other related images. In this article, the related images include synonyms for mold such as mould and mole-d (the mole is a small burrowing animal with…

  16. Site-specific risk factors of white mould epidemics in bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) in Tasmania

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In Tasmania, Australia, if more than 5% of bean pods are found to be affected by white mould (caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum) entire crops can be rejected by contracting processors. This strict quality standard is one of the main reasons for prophylactic application of fungicides over flowering...

  17. Transient thermal behavior of multilayer media: Modeling and application to stratified moulds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lazard, M.

    2006-07-01

    Transient and steady-state heat transfer in multilayer media is investigated by the thermal quadrupole method. A semi-analytical solution is proposed for the cases of layers parallel or orthogonal to the main heat-flux direction. The principal application is the study of the effect of the brazing metal used in stratified steel moulds.

  18. Moulds and ochratoxin A on surfaces of artisanal and industrial dry sausages.

    PubMed

    Iacumin, Lucilla; Chiesa, Luca; Boscolo, Daria; Manzano, Marisa; Cantoni, Carlo; Orlic, Sandi; Comi, Giuseppe

    2009-02-01

    The use of moulds as a seasoning for sausage can have both desirable and undesirable consequences. The desirable consequences are the creation of a successful product that appeals to consumers. The undesirable consequences are due to the growth of undesirable moulds that produce highly toxic secondary metabolites referred to as mycotoxins. The aim of the paper was to investigate the presence of moulds producing ochratoxin A (OTA) on the surface of sausages from northern Italy. A total of 757 mould strains were isolated from sausage casings. The most frequently identified species were Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium oxalicum, Eurotium amstelodami, Penicillium olsonii, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium verrucosum, Penicillium viridicatum, and Eupenicillium crustaceum. Aspergillus ochraceus was detected in only one production lot. Approximately 45% of these samples were positive for the presence of OTA. On the casings of the investigated sausages, the lowest and highest OTA values were 3 and 18 microg/kg, respectively. The OTA concentration was reduced to below the limit of detection (LOD) by brushing and washing the sausages prior to sale. From these data it appears that the presence of OTA on the surface of sausage (on the casings) is not indicative of any health risk for human consumption of sausage, since OTA was not identified inside the dry meat. PMID:19028307

  19. Imprinted and injection-molded nano-structured optical surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christiansen, Alexander B.; Højlund-Nielsen, Emil; Clausen, Jeppe; Caringal, Gideon P.; Mortensen, N. Asger; Kristensen, Anders

    2013-09-01

    Inspired by nature, nano-textured surfaces have attracted much attention as a method to realize optical surface functionality. The moth-eye antireflective structure and the structural colors of Morpho butterflies are well- known examples used for inspiration for such biomimetic research. In this paper, nanostructured polymer surfaces suitable for up-scalable polymer replication methods, such as imprinting/embossing and injection-molding, are discussed. The limiting case of injection-moulding compatible designs is investigated. Anti-reflective polymer surfaces are realized by replication of Black Silicon (BSi) random nanostructure surfaces. The optical transmission at normal incidence is measured for wavelengths from 400 nm to 900 nm. For samples with optimized nanostructures, the reflectance is reduced by 50 % compared to samples with planar surfaces. The specular and diffusive reflection of light from polymer surfaces and their implication for creating structural colors is discussed. In the case of injection-moulding compatible designs, the maximum reflection of nano-scale textured surfaces cannot exceed the Fresnel reflection of a corresponding flat polymer surface, which is approx. 4 % for normal incidence. Diffraction gratings provide strong color reflection defined by the diffraction orders. However, the apperance varies strongly with viewing angles. Three different methods to address the strong angular-dependence of diffraction grating based structural color are discussed.

  20. Evolving Transport Networks With Cellular Automata Models Inspired by Slime Mould.

    PubMed

    Tsompanas, Michail-Antisthenis I; Sirakoulis, Georgios Ch; Adamatzky, Andrew I

    2015-09-01

    Man-made transport networks and their design are closely related to the shortest path problem and considered amongst the most debated problems of computational intelligence. Apart from using conventional or bio-inspired computer algorithms, many researchers tried to solve this kind of problem using biological computing substrates, gas-discharge solvers, prototypes of a mobile droplet, and hot ice computers. In this aspect, another example of biological computer is the plasmodium of acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum (P. polycephalum), which is a large single cell visible by an unaided eye and has been proven as a reliable living substrate for implementing biological computing devices for computational geometry, graph-theoretical problems, and optimization and imitation of transport networks. Although P. polycephalum is easy to experiment with, computing devices built with the living slime mould are extremely slow; it takes slime mould days to execute a computation. Consequently, mapping key computing mechanisms of the slime mould onto silicon would allow us to produce efficient bio-inspired computing devices to tackle with hard to solve computational intelligence problems like the aforementioned. Toward this direction, a cellular automaton (CA)-based, Physarum-inspired, network designing model is proposed. This novel CA-based model is inspired by the propagating strategy, the formation of tubular networks, and the computing abilities of the plasmodium of P. polycephalum. The results delivered by the CA model demonstrate a good match with several previously published results of experimental laboratory studies on imitation of man-made transport networks with P. polycephalum. Consequently, the proposed CA model can be used as a virtual, easy-to-access, and biomimicking laboratory emulator that will economize large time periods needed for biological experiments while producing networks almost identical to the tubular networks of the real-slime mould. PMID

  1. Shear Strength of Remoulding Clay Samples Using Different Methods of Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norhaliza, W.; Ismail, B.; Azhar, A. T. S.; Nurul, N. J.

    2016-07-01

    Shear strength for clay soil was required to determine the soil stability. Clay was known as a soil with complex natural formations and very difficult to obtain undisturbed samples at the site. The aim of this paper was to determine the unconfined shear strength of remoulded clay on different methods in moulding samples which were proctor compaction, hand operated soil compacter and miniature mould methods. All the samples were remoulded with the same optimum moisture content (OMC) and density that were 18% and 1880 kg/m3 respectively. The unconfined shear strength results of remoulding clay soils for proctor compaction method was 289.56kPa with the strain 4.8%, hand operated method was 261.66kPa with the strain 4.4% and miniature mould method was 247.52kPa with the strain 3.9%. Based on the proctor compaction method, the reduction percentage of unconfined shear strength of remoulded clay soil of hand operated method was 9.66%, and for miniature mould method was 14.52%. Thus, because there was no significant difference of reduction percentage of unconfined shear strength between three different methods, so it can be concluded that remoulding clay by hand operated method and miniature mould method were accepted and suggested to perform remoulding clay samples by other future researcher. However for comparison, the hand operated method was more suitable to form remoulded clay sample in term of easiness, saving time and less energy for unconfined shear strength determination purposes.

  2. Association between Maternal Pelvis Height and Intrapartum Foetal Head Moulding in Ugandan Mothers with Spontaneous Vertex Deliveries

    PubMed Central

    Luboga, Samuel Abilemech; Luboobi, Livingstone; Mirembe, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. In Sub-Saharan Africa, excessive foetal head moulding is commonly associated with cephalopelvic disproportion and obstructed labour. This study set out to determine the associations of maternal pelvis height and maternal height with intrapartum foetal head moulding. Methods. This was a multisite secondary analysis of maternal birth records of mothers with singleton pregnancies ending in a spontaneous vertex delivery. A summary of the details of the pregnancy and delivery records were reviewed and analysed using multilevel logistic regression respect to foetal head moulding. The alpha level was set at P < 0.05. Results. 412 records were obtained, of which 108/385 (28%) observed foetal head moulding. There was a significant reduction in risk of foetal head moulding with increasing maternal height (Adj. IRR 0.97, P = 0.05), maternal pelvis height (Adj. IRR 0.88, P < 0.01), and raptured membranes (Adj. IRR 0.10, P < 0.01). There was a significant increased risk of foetal head moulding with increasing birth weight (Adj. IRR 1.90, P < 0.01) and duration of monitored active labour (Adj. IRR 1.21, P < 0.01) in the final model. Conclusion. This study showed that increasing maternal height and maternal pelvis height were associated with a significant reduction in intrapartum foetal head moulding. PMID:27034678

  3. Fibre laser machining for glassy carbon master mould and soft lithography based two-step printing for Ag nanoparticle structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Qin; Chopra, Pranav

    2011-04-01

    Traditional manufacturing techniques widely used in semiconductor industries involve many processing steps that consume both time and material and lead to high cost. Soft Lithography (SL) offers a new way to print micro/nano structures, which is a fast and low cost alternative to the conventional route, although the high processing temperature of metals, semiconductors and ceramics limits the application SL techniques. In this paper we report the use of Ag nanoparticles as building blocks to make structures by combing the merits of SL, nanotechnology and laser engineering, which provide a simple additive route with low capital investment. Glassy carbon (GC) was chosen as the material for the rigid master mould, as no release coating is needed for replicating the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mould. GC moulds were machined by a nanosecond-pulsed Yb fibre laser. The machined GC moulds were further cleaned by PDMS and the same fibre laser system to remove the process debris. The master mould was further replicated by PDMS. PDMS replicas with either positive or negative features from the master mould were attainable. A two-step strategy was used to print patterns using PDMS mould and Ag nanoparticle paste. Metal patterns were formed on various substrates, and the PDMS mould was left clean and ready for reuse. The resultant printed patterns were found to be uniform over millimetre range, with negligible residual layer, and the thickness of up to several micrometres. The thermal responses of Ag nanoparticles at various sintering temperatures were investigated. The factors affecting the resolution of printed structures were discussed.

  4. Epidural Steroid Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... Assessment Tools Injection Treatments for Spinal Pain Epidural Steroid Injections Lumbar Zygapophysial (Facet) Joint Injections Surgical Options Nonsurgical Treatments Alternative Medicine Epidural Steroid Injections General Information Why Get an Epidural Steroid ...

  5. The Fabrication of PDMS mould for Microelectrode Array Biochip using NIL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beh, Khi Khim; Samsuri, Fahmi; Lee, Tze Pin; Mohamed, Khairudin

    2016-02-01

    In recent years, low-cost micro and nano fabrication process have gain intention from the manufacturing industry. Biochip is a platform of miniaturized microarrays arranged on a solid substrate that allows various biological tests to achieve immediate results. The development of biochip has established a new platform in biomedical industry. However, to fulfill the demands and availability in the market with affordable cost requires high volume manufacturing techniques for the fabrication of the biochips. In this article we will discuss the fabrication of PDMS mould for replicating microelectrode array of biochip. The fabrication of the microelectrodes utilizes the Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique. Finally, the fabrication of PDMS mould has been demonstrated successfully for using Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) technique and achieved 13% of size difference in overall.

  6. Simulation on the Effect of Bottle Wall Thickness Distribution using Blow Moulding Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suraya, S.; Azman, M. D.; Fatchurrohman, N.; Jaafar, A. A.; Yusoff, A. R.

    2016-02-01

    The aims of this study are to assess the deformation behavior of a polymeric material during a blow moulding process. Transient computations of two dimensional model of a PP bottle were performed using ANSYS Polyflow computer code to predict the wall thickness distribution at four different parison's diameter; 8mm, 10mm, 18mm, and 20mm. Effects on the final wall thickness diameter and time step are studied. The simulated data shows that the inflation performance degrades with increasing parison diameter. It is concluded that the blow moulding process using 10mm parison successfully meet the product processing requirements. Factors that contribute to the variation in deformation behaviour of the plastic during the manufacturing process are discussed.

  7. Foundry waste recycling in moulding operations and in the ceramic industry.

    PubMed

    Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Fiore, Silvia

    2003-06-01

    An industrial treatment was performed by the Sasil plant of Brusnengo (Biella, Northern Italy), which is part of the Gruppo Minerali S.p.A. (Novara, Northern Italy), to consider the reclamation of bentonite bonded moulding sands obtained from the Teksid Italia S.p.A. cast iron foundry plant in Crescentino (Vercelli, Northern Italy). An evaluation of the fine particles produced by the wet-mechanical regeneration treatment was made with the purpose of proposing their recycling as binding agents in moulding operations in the cast iron foundry and for the production of tiles in the ceramic industry. The pre-mixed product sold by bentonite suppliers (35% coal dust and 65% bentonite, 0.15 Euro/kg) could be made from the recovered fine fraction below 0.025 mm with the addition of active clay and coal dust, thus obtaining a product that will have physico-chemical properties similar to those of calcic bentonite. The improvements due to the addition of the fine particles to the usually employed clay for tile production were also underlined from the results of several baking tests. The recovery and recycling of sands and fine particles obtained from the reclamation of bentonite moulding sands will lead to a saving of raw materials and landfill space, with economic and environmental advantages. PMID:12870643

  8. Brainless but Multi-Headed: Decision Making by the Acellular Slime Mould Physarum polycephalum.

    PubMed

    Beekman, Madeleine; Latty, Tanya

    2015-11-20

    Because of its peculiar biology and the ease with which it can be cultured, the acellular slime mould Physarum polycephalum has long been a model organism in a range of disciplines. Due to its macroscopic, syncytial nature, it is no surprise that it has been a favourite amongst cell biologists. Its inclusion in the experimental tool kit of behavioural ecologists is much more recent. These recent studies have certainly paid off. They have shown that, for an organism that lacks a brain or central nervous system, P. polycephalum shows rather complex behaviour. For example, it is capable of finding the shortest path through a maze, it can construct networks as efficient as those designed by humans, it can solve computationally difficult puzzles, it makes multi-objective foraging decisions, it balances its nutrient intake and it even behaves irrationally. Are the slime mould's achievements simply "cute", worthy of mentioning in passing but nothing to take too seriously? Or do they hint at the fundamental processes underlying all decision making? We will address this question after reviewing the decision-making abilities of the slime mould. PMID:26189159

  9. The radiation crosslinking of moulded plastic parts of different shape and size

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiesner, L.

    The crosslinking of moulded plastic parts extends the range of application of thermoplastic polymers by the improvement of their thermal and chemical stability. Radiation processing is unique for many of these products because the application of other crosslinking methods is not possible or has at least large drawbacks. Some technical aspects of the radiation treatment of moulded plastic parts on a production scale are discussed. Accelerators, supplying electron beams with energies above 2 MeV, are generally the preferred radiation source in this field. The temperature rise within the irradiated product has to be taken into account when higher doses must be applied. Examples of areas of application are given in which the improvement of the thermal stability and the resistance against stress corrosion of moulded plastic parts by radiation crosslinking are of importance. The reduction of the premeation rate through polymers resulting from crosslinking, is of interest for the gas tanks of passenger cars. The production of plastic parts with different properties in fractions of one single item by using shielding masks opens the designer new possibilities. In the case of elastomers a radiation treatment can supplement the heat vulcanization process and improve the uniformity of the product quality.

  10. A hybrid mask mould lithography scheme and its application in nanoscale organic thin film transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xing; Li, Dawen; Guo, L. Jay

    2006-02-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) has stimulated great interest in both academic research and industrial development due to its high resolution, high throughput and low cost advantages. Though NIL has been demonstrated to be very successful in replicating nanoscale features, it also has its limitations as a general lithography technique. Its fundamental moulding characteristics (i.e. physically displacing polymer materials) frequently lead to pattern defects when replicating arbitrary patterns, especially patterns with broad size distribution. To solve this problem, we have developed a combined nanoimprint and photolithography technique that uses a hybrid mould to achieve good pattern definitions. In this work, we applied this technique to fabricate finger-shaped nanoelectrodes, and demonstrated nanoscale pentacene organic thin film transistors (OTFTs). Methods of the hybrid mask-mould (HMM) fabrication and results on the device electrical characteristics are provided. With combined advantages of both photolithography and NIL, and the applicability to general nanoscale device and system fabrication, this method can become a valuable choice for low cost mass production of micro- and nanoscale structures, devices and systems.

  11. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-07-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods.

  12. Comprehensive model for a slag bath in electroslag remelting process with a current-conductive mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Fu-bin; Zang, Xi-min; Jiang, Zhou-hua; Geng, Xin; Yao, Man

    2012-04-01

    A mathematical model was developed to describe the interaction of multiple physical fields in a slag bath during electroslag remelting (ESR) process with a current-conductive mould. The distributions of current density, magnetic induction intensity, electromagnetic force, Joule heating, fluid flow and temperature were simulated. The model was verified by temperature measurements during remelting 12CrMoVG steel with a slag of 50wt%-70wt% CaF2, 20wt%-30wt% CaO, 10wt%-20wt% Al2O3, and ≤10wt% SiO2 in a 600 mm diameter current-conductive mould. There is a good agreement between the calculated temperature results and the measured data in the slag bath. The calculated results show that the maximum values of current density, electromagnetic force and Joule heating are in the region between the corner electrodes and the conductivity element. The characteristics of current density distribution, magnetic induction intensity, electromagnetic force, Joule heating, velocity patterns and temperature profiles in the slag bath during ESR process with current-conductive mould were analyzed.

  13. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet.

    PubMed

    Hoskins, Jessica L; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L; Duffy, Grant A

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the 'suctorial' mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  14. Growth and reproduction of laboratory-reared neanurid Collembola using a novel slime mould diet

    PubMed Central

    Hoskins, Jessica L.; Janion-Scheepers, Charlene; Chown, Steven L.; Duffy, Grant A.

    2015-01-01

    Although significant progress has been made using insect taxa as model organisms, non-tracheated terrestrial arthropods, such as Collembola, are underrepresented as model species. This underrepresentation reflects the difficulty in maintaining populations of specialist Collembola species in the laboratory. Until now, no species from the family Neanuridae have been successfully reared. Here we use controlled growth experiments to provide explicit evidence that the species Neanura muscorum can be raised under laboratory conditions when its diet is supplemented with slime mould. Significant gains in growth were observed in Collembola given slime mould rather than a standard diet of algae-covered bark. These benefits are further highlighted by the reproductive success of the experimental group and persistence of laboratory breeding stocks of this species and others in the family. The necessity for slime mould in the diet is attributed to the ‘suctorial’ mouthpart morphology characteristic of the Neanuridae. Maintaining laboratory populations of neanurid Collembola species will facilitate their use as model organisms, paving the way for studies that will broaden the current understanding of the environmental physiology of arthropods. PMID:26153104

  15. FE-Analysis of Stretch-Blow Moulded Bottles Using an Integrative Process Simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopmann, C.; Michaeli, W.; Rasche, S.

    2011-05-01

    The two-stage stretch-blow moulding process has been established for the large scale production of high quality PET containers with excellent mechanical and optical properties. The total production costs of a bottle are significantly caused by the material costs. Due to this dominant share of the bottle material, the PET industry is interested in reducing the total production costs by an optimised material efficiency. However, a reduced material inventory means decreasing wall thicknesses and therewith a reduction of the bottle properties (e.g. mechanical properties, barrier properties). Therefore, there is often a trade-off between a minimal bottle weight and adequate properties of the bottle. In order to achieve the objectives Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) techniques can assist the designer of new stretch-blow moulded containers. Hence, tools such as the process simulation and the structural analysis have become important in the blow moulding sector. The Institute of Plastics Processing (IKV) at RWTH Aachen University, Germany, has developed an integrative three-dimensional process simulation which models the complete path of a preform through a stretch-blow moulding machine. At first, the reheating of the preform is calculated by a thermal simulation. Afterwards, the inflation of the preform to a bottle is calculated by finite element analysis (FEA). The results of this step are e.g. the local wall thickness distribution and the local biaxial stretch ratios. Not only the material distribution but also the material properties that result from the deformation history of the polymer have significant influence on the bottle properties. Therefore, a correlation between the material properties and stretch ratios is considered in an integrative simulation approach developed at IKV. The results of the process simulation (wall thickness, stretch ratios) are transferred to a further simulation program and mapped on the bottles FE mesh. This approach allows a local

  16. New species of Simona Moulds, 2012 and Chelapsalta Moulds, 2012 cicadas (Cicadidae: Cicadettinae: Cicadettini) from Australia: comparative morphology, songs, behaviour and distributions.

    PubMed

    Ewart, A; Popple, L W; Marshall, D C

    2015-01-01

    In 2012, Moulds established the morphologically similar cicada genera Simona and Chelapsalta, each with one Australian species (sancta Distant and puer Walker, respectively). In this paper, two new species are described within the genus Simona Moulds 2012, S. erema sp. nov. and S. retracta sp. nov., and one within the genus Chelapsalta Moulds 2012, C. myoporae sp. nov. The type species of Simona (female holotype), S. sancta (Distant, 1913), is redescribed based on a contemporary male, nominated a plesiotype, held in the Australian National Insect Collection. Melampsalta subgulosa Ashton 1914 is supported as a junior synonym of S. sancta. The species within the two genera of Simona and Chelapsalta are morphologically very similar. S. erema occurs widely through the arid regions of inland Australia, extending west from western Queensland through the Northern Territory, to central-western Western Australia, a linear distance of approximately 2200 km. S. retracta is known from a single semi-arid locality in southern inland Queensland. C. myoporae occurs widely through southeast, central and southwest Queensland, extending southwards into inland and western N.S.W. and southeastern South Australia. It tends to occur most commonly within vegetation associated with seasonal riverine floodplains, and in some areas of poorly drained and clay-rich soils. The calling songs of these three species, together with those of S. sancta and C. puer, are described. Detailed comparisons made of the songs of S. erema and C. myoporae, each from three widely separated locations, clearly exhibit structural consistency in their calling songs across their distributions. The Simona songs are complex and contain multiple elements; the species are very mobile and wary, and inhabit low dense shrubland. The songs of the two Chelapsalta species, both relatively sedentary in behaviour, in contrast consist of relatively uniform chirping and buzzing elements. It is suggested that, although the two

  17. Aspergillus fumigatus and mesophilic moulds in air in the surrounding environment downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites.

    PubMed

    Schlosser, Olivier; Robert, Samuel; Debeaupuis, Catherine

    2016-05-01

    Non-hazardous waste landfilling has the potential to release biological agents into the air, notably mould spores. Some species, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, may be a cause of concern for at-risk nearby residents. However, air concentration in the surrounding environment of non-hazardous waste landfill sites is poorly documented. An extensive sampling programme was designed to investigate the relationship between culturable mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus concentrations in air and distance downwind of non-hazardous waste landfill sites. On-site and off-site repeated measurements were performed at four landfill sites during cold and warm seasons. A high-flow air-sampler device was selected so as to allow peak concentration measurement. Linear mixed-effects models were used to explain variability in the concentrations in air over time and across sites, seasons, instantaneous meteorological conditions and discharged waste tonnage. Concentrations of mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus at off-site upwind sampling locations were compared with concentrations at each of the downwind sampling locations. At the tipping face location, peak concentration reached 480,000CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and 9300CFUm(-3) for A. fumigatus. Compared with upwind background levels, these concentrations were, on average, approximately 20 and 40 times higher respectively. A steep decline in the concentration of both mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus was observed between the tipping face location and the downwind property boundary (reduction by 77% and 84% respectively), followed by a low decline leading to a 90% and 94% reduction in concentration at 200m from the property boundary and beyond. With the 200m and 500m downwind sampling point values added together, the 97.5th percentile of concentration was 6013CFUm(-3) and 87CFUm(-3) for mesophilic moulds and A. fumigatus, respectively. Other determining factors were the discharged waste tonnage, the season, instantaneous temperature

  18. Disseminated Scopulariopsis-culture is required to distinguish from other disseminated mould infections.

    PubMed

    Swick, Brian L; Reddy, Sindhura C; Friedrichs, Amanda; Stone, Mary Seabury

    2010-06-01

    Disseminated fungal infections are a major cause of mortality in severely immunocompromised bone marrow transplant (BMT) patients. Scopulariopsis is a soil saprophytic mould that is typically associated with onychomycosis and only rarely associated with disseminated infection with cutaneous findings. We describe a case of fatal disseminated Scopulariopsis infection in a 56-year-old neutropenic male with chronic myelogenous leukemia status post peripheral blood stem cell transplant that was clinically and histologically indistinguishable from disseminated Aspergillus, Fusarium or zygomycosis infection. Distinguishing the above listed fungi by tissue culture is crucial because disseminated Scopulariopsis is difficult to eradicate and associated with a high mortality rate in the immunocompromised BMT patient population. PMID:19615008

  19. Slime mould fluids and networks from an artist's point of view

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schubert, Theresa

    2015-03-01

    Slime mould is a fascinating creature. It is the largest acellular organism known on this planet and a primordial being that had no need to undergo evolution. In nature, this proves it to be a very successful creature. As a biological curiosity, the species P. polycephalum serves as a model for network optimisation and cell motility in scientific experiments. It can be interpreted as an "agent" which distributively solves geometrical problems. The starting points for the experiments displayed here are sophisticated setups or growing environments that allow the organism to propagate and grow, yet under conditions that the artist has predefined, sometimes with interaction between human organisms...

  20. Elastomeric inverse moulding and vacuum casting process characterization for the fabrication of arrays of concave refractive microlenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmet, L.; Van Overmeire, S.; Van Erps, J.; Ottevaere, H.; Debaes, C.; Thienpont, H.

    2007-01-01

    We present a complete and precise quantitative characterization of the different process steps used in an elastomeric inverse moulding and vacuum casting technique. We use the latter replication technique to fabricate concave replicas from an array of convex thermal reflow microlenses. During the inverse elastomeric moulding we obtain a secondary silicone mould of the original silicone mould in which the master component is embedded. Using vacuum casting, we are then able to cast out of the second mould several optical transparent poly-urethane arrays of concave refractive microlenses. We select ten particular representative microlenses on the original, the silicone moulds and replica sample and quantitatively characterize and statistically compare them during the various fabrication steps. For this purpose, we use several state-of-the-art and ultra-precise characterization tools such as a stereo microscope, a stylus surface profilometer, a non-contact optical profilometer, a Mach-Zehnder interferometer, a Twyman-Green interferometer and an atomic force microscope to compare various microlens parameters such as the lens height, the diameter, the paraxial focal length, the radius of curvature, the Strehl ratio, the peak-to-valley and the root-mean-square wave aberrations and the surface roughness. When appropriate, the microlens parameter under test is measured with several different measuring tools to check for consistency in the measurement data. Although none of the lens samples shows diffraction-limited performance, we prove that the obtained replicated arrays of concave microlenses exhibit sufficiently low surface roughness and sufficiently high lens quality for various imaging applications.

  1. Fungal growth pattern, sources and factors of mould contamination in a dry-cured meat production facility.

    PubMed

    Asefa, Dereje T; Kure, Cathrine F; Gjerde, Ragnhild O; Omer, Mohamed K; Langsrud, Solveig; Nesbakken, Truls; Skaar, Ida

    2010-06-15

    The aims of this study were to investigate the patterns of fungal growth on dry-cured meat products, identify the important sources and factors of contamination and recommend intervention measures. The production processes of two smoked dry-cured hams and one unsmoked dry-cured leg of lamb were studied. A longitudinal observational study was performed to collect 642 samples from the meat, production materials, room installations and indoor and outdoor air of the production facility. Standard mycological isolation and identification procedures were followed. Totally, 901 fungal isolates were obtained; of which 57% were moulds while 43% were yeast. Yeasts were dominant on meat surfaces by covering 64% of the isolates. Mould growth was not observed until late in the dry-ripening stage. Yeasts and moulds were isolated from half of the environmental samples, of which moulds contributed by 80%. More than 39 mould species were isolated from the entire production process with a 77% contribution by the species of Penicillium. Penicillium nalgiovense dominated the species composition of moulds isolated from the products and the production environment. A preliminary bioassay analysis on bacterial colonies indicated that most of the P. nalgiovense isolates have the ability to produce penicillin. Such isolates might produce penicillin on the products and can become potential food safety hazards. Improper pressing at the salting process, the air quality in salting, brining and smoking rooms and activities in the sorting room were identified as important factors and sources of fungal contamination. Technical solutions and organized production activities that reduce crack formation, airborne spore concentration and improve air circulation in the facility are recommended as intervention measures. PMID:20442004

  2. Beam Injection into RHIC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; Mackay, W. W.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. We describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks, the application program to steer the beam and the injection kickers. We report on the commissioning of the injection systems and on measurements of the kickers.

  3. Fabrication of scalable and structured tissue engineering scaffolds using water dissolvable sacrificial 3D printed moulds.

    PubMed

    Mohanty, Soumyaranjan; Larsen, Layla Bashir; Trifol, Jon; Szabo, Peter; Burri, Harsha Vardhan Reddy; Canali, Chiara; Dufva, Marin; Emnéus, Jenny; Wolff, Anders

    2015-10-01

    One of the major challenges in producing large scale engineered tissue is the lack of ability to create large highly perfused scaffolds in which cells can grow at a high cell density and viability. Here, we explore 3D printed polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a sacrificial mould in a polymer casting process. The PVA mould network defines the channels and is dissolved after curing the polymer casted around it. The printing parameters determined the PVA filament density in the sacrificial structure and this density resulted in different stiffness of the corresponding elastomer replica. It was possible to achieve 80% porosity corresponding to about 150 cm(2)/cm(3) surface to volume ratio. The process is easily scalable as demonstrated by fabricating a 75 cm(3) scaffold with about 16,000 interconnected channels (about 1m(2) surface area) and with a channel to channel distance of only 78 μm. To our knowledge this is the largest scaffold ever to be produced with such small feature sizes and with so many structured channels. The fabricated scaffolds were applied for in-vitro culturing of hepatocytes over a 12-day culture period. Smaller scaffolds (6×4 mm) were tested for cell culturing and could support homogeneous cell growth throughout the scaffold. Presumably, the diffusion of oxygen and nutrient throughout the channel network is rapid enough to support cell growth. In conclusion, the described process is scalable, compatible with cell culture, rapid, and inexpensive. PMID:26117791

  4. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould.

    PubMed

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar 'Fagerlin' based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  5. Crosslinking of a polyester resin in the heated plain sheet copper mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosar, Vanja; Gomzi, Zoran

    2008-04-01

    The crosslinking of the unsaturated polyester was studied by using experiments and a model of the process. The kinetic parameters were calculated from the heat flux time curves obtained by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Netzsch Simultaneous Thermal Analyser DSC 200), working in DSC (dynamic) mode. The temperature time histories were studied in plain sheet copper mould. The mathematical model was constructed by taking into account the heat transferred by conduction through the resin, as well as the kinetics of heat generated by the crosslinking reaction. The contributions to the rise in temperature from heat conduction and chemical reaction are different in different parts of the composite, and can explain the temperature-, or degree of crosslinking (DOC) time histories. By considering temperature time histories developed within the sample, more extensive knowledge of the process can be obtained. The effect of the heat transfer by conduction through the composite as well as the internal heat generated by the cure reaction is clearly shown, despite the complexity of the process. Finally, good agreement between experimental data and predicted mathematical model of the crosslinking process in plane sheet mould was shown.

  6. Natural occurrence of moulds and aflatoxin B1 in melon seeds from markets in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Bankole, S A; Ogunsanwo, B M; Mabekoje, O O

    2004-08-01

    Shelled melon seeds (Colocynthis citrullus L.) were purchased from markets in randomly selected villages and towns in three states in each of the rain forest (Ogun, Oyo and Osun) and Northern guinea savanna (Kaduna, Niger and Bauchi) zones of Nigeria. The seed samples were analysed for incidence of visibly diseased seeds, moisture content, moulds and aflatoxin B1 contamination. The incidence of diseased seeds ranged from 6.4% to 50.4% in the forest, and 4.3% to 34.3% in the savanna, and the moisture content was 5.6% to 12.6% and 4.5% to 10.3%, respectively. Mould evaluation revealed that Aspergillus was the most frequent genus, followed by Penicillium, Botryodiplodia, Cladosporium and Rhizopus in decreasing sequential order. Aspergillus flavus had the highest individual count in melon seed from both zones. Aflatoxin B1 was detected at levels above 5 microg/kg in 32.2% of samples, while only 3.5% of the samples contained the toxin above the 20 microg/kg Nigerian tolerance level in food. The percentage of samples contaminated with aflatoxin B1 was statistically comparable for the pooled data of villages and towns. The median level of aflatoxin B1 was less than 5 microg/kg in the seed samples, while the mean aflatoxin B1 levels was 14.1 microg/kg in the forest and 13.0 microg/kg in the savanna samples. PMID:15207382

  7. Global transcriptome changes in perennial ryegrass during early infection by pink snow mould

    PubMed Central

    Kovi, Mallikarjuna Rao; Abdelhalim, Mohamed; Kunapareddy, Anil; Ergon, Åshild; Tronsmo, Anne Marte; Brurberg, May Bente; Hofgaard, Ingerd Skow; Asp, Torben; Rognli, Odd Arne

    2016-01-01

    Lack of resistance to pink snow mould (Microdochium nivale) is a major constraint for adaptation of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) to continental regions with long-lasting snow cover at higher latitudes. Almost all investigations of genetic variation in resistance have been performed using cold acclimated plants. However, there may be variation in resistance mechanisms that are functioning independently of cold acclimation. In this study our aim was to identify candidate genes involved in such resistance mechanisms. We first characterized variation in resistance to M. nivale among non-acclimated genotypes from the Norwegian cultivar ‘Fagerlin’ based on relative regrowth and fungal quantification by real-time qPCR. One resistant and one susceptible genotype were selected for transcriptome analysis using paired-end sequencing by Illumina Hiseq 2000. Transcriptome profiles, GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis indicate that defense response related genes are differentially expressed between the resistant and the susceptible genotype. A significant up-regulation of defense related genes, as well as genes involved in cell wall cellulose metabolic processes and aryl-alcohol dehydrogenase (NADP+) activity, was observed in the resistant genotype. The candidate genes identified in this study might be potential molecular marker resources for breeding perennial ryegrass cultivars with improved resistance to pink snow mould. PMID:27346054

  8. Optical measurement and modelling of parison sag and swell in blow moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Béreaux, Yves; Charmeau, Jean-Yves; Balcaen, Jean

    2011-05-01

    Blow moulding is a process whereby a cylindrical parison is extruded first, then pinched between the two halves of a mould and, finally, blown into the product. Parison size and shape result from complex interactions between mandrel and die geometries, processing parameters and viscoelastic properties of the polymeric material. Moreover, parison size changes with time due to sag. An innovative, contactless and online measurement technique of the parison is shown to be an effective tool to measure precisely parison diameter and thickness and to capture dimensional changes with time. This technique employs laser lighting of the parison and hinges on the refractive properties of molten polymer. Images taken with a digital camera are processed to give a precise measurement of diameter and thickness, at different time step during extrusion. Thus, parison swell and sag have been recorded for a commercial HDPE. Influence of processing parameters such as the rotational screw speed or die gap width can be brought forward. Thickness swell is found to possess a different behaviour from diameter swell. Swell is a purely viscoelastic phenomenon, therefore requiring a numerical modelling with an integral viscoelastic constitutive equation. On the other hand, sag has been measured and could be modelled from a Newtonian perspective using one dimensional convected coordinates. A sagging susceptibility coefficient of the polymer is deduced.

  9. Research on impact behaviour and silicon insert fracture phenomenon in microinjection moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Zheng; Lv, Zhi-bin; Wang, Lin-gang; Jiang, Kai-yu; Ji, Zhi; Liu, Chong; Liu, Jun-shan

    2015-04-01

    Silicon insert is a promising tool for microinjection moulding (MIM). However, its fracture problem induced by impact in MIM creates a bottleneck for application. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the impact behaviour in MIM and the effect on the fracture of silicon inserts. The finite element method is utilised to calculate the crack propagation of silicon inserts with pressure load and thermal load in the MIM process. The simulation result shows that the crack propagation is more easily induced by the increase of pressure load, while the temperature change has little effect on the crack propagation. An experimental platform, including a novel rotatable insert mould, is developed to investigate the dynamic pressure in the MIM process. The result shows that both the maximum pressure and the maximum loading rate occur in the initial period of MIM process. It indicates that the silicon insert is more prone to fracture at the beginning of the MIM process, and spatial pressure peaks are observed in the cavity as well. The nearly consistent distribution between the peak positions and the insert fracture zones shows that the pressure distribution is quite relevant to the fracture of the silicon insert. The result is helpful because it reveals the fracture phenomenon of silicon inserts.

  10. Design and fabrication of tungsten carbide mould with micro patterns imprinted by micro lithography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Woojae; Lee, Jayong; Kim, Wook-Bae; Min, Byung-Kwon; Kang, Shinill; Lee, Sang-Jo

    2004-11-01

    Core fabrication is one of the key technologies of glass moulding process used in micro optical component manufacturing. However, when the cavity size is very small and an array-type cavity is needed, a conventional diamond turning process cannot be employed. In this study, a novel core fabrication method that can be used for glass micro optical components has been developed. First, microlens array (with individual lens diameters of 36-300 µm) mould masters were produced with silicon using a photoresist reflow and a reactive ion etching process. Then, the shape of the silicon lens masters was transferred to tungsten carbide cores using a powder pressure forming and a sintering process. To further improve the surface qualities, magnetic abrasive finishing was carried out. The details of the fabrication process are presented in this paper. The characteristics of the proposed method, such as the shrinkage in the sintering process and the effects of grain size of the tungsten carbide powder and abrasive finishing process on the surface qualities, were also discussed.

  11. A morphological adaptation approach to path planning inspired by slime mould

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jeff

    2015-04-01

    Path planning is a classic problem in computer science and robotics which has recently been implemented in unconventional computing substrates such as chemical reaction-diffusion computers. These novel computing schemes utilise the parallel spatial propagation of information and often use a two-stage method involving diffusive propagation to discover all paths and a second stage to highlight or visualise the path between two particular points in the arena. The true slime mould Physarum polycephalum is known to construct efficient transport networks between nutrients in its environment. These networks are continuously remodelled as the organism adapts its body plan to changing spatial stimuli. It can be guided towards attractant stimuli (nutrients, warm regions) and it avoids locations containing hazardous stimuli (light irradiation, repellents, or regions occupied by predatory threats). Using a particle model of slime mould we demonstrate scoping experiments which explore how path planning may be performed by morphological adaptation. We initially demonstrate simple path planning by a shrinking blob of virtual plasmodium between two attractant sources within a polygonal arena. We examine the case where multiple paths are required and the subsequent selection of a single path from multiple options. Collision-free paths are implemented via repulsion from the borders of the arena. Finally, obstacle avoidance is implemented by repulsion from obstacles as they are uncovered by the shrinking blob. These examples show proof-of-concept results of path planning by morphological adaptation which complement existing research on path planning in novel computing substrates.

  12. Study of mould design and forming process on advanced polymer-matrix composite complex structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S. J.; Zhan, L. H.; Bai, H. M.; Chen, X. P.; Zhou, Y. Q.

    2015-07-01

    Advanced carbon fibre-reinforced polymer-matrix composites are widely applied to aviation manufacturing field due to their outstanding performance. In this paper, the mould design and forming process of the complex composite structure were discussed in detail using the hat stiffened structure as an example. The key issues of the moulddesign were analyzed, and the corresponding solutions were also presented. The crucial control points of the forming process such as the determination of materials and stacking sequence, the temperature and pressure route of the co-curing process were introduced. In order to guarantee the forming quality of the composite hat stiffened structure, a mathematical model about the aperture of rubber mandrel was introduced. The study presented in this paper may provide some actual references for the design and manufacture of the important complex composite structures.

  13. Control of mould level fluctuation through the modification of steel composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiao-huan; Lan, Peng; Zhang, Jia-quan

    2013-02-01

    Periodic mould level fluctuation (MLF) during slab casting is a bottleneck for upgrading the surface quality and casting speed especially for hypoperitectic (HP) or ultralow carbon steels. The uneven growth of the initially solidified shell is verified to be one of the important inducements to MLF due to related unsteady bulging in the secondary cooling zone. It is shown that the solidification mode of steels and the contraction behavior can be modified through chemical composition optimization within given composition limits. For high strength low alloy (HSLA) steels, the actual peritectic points calculated by Thermo-Calc software may change remarkably with the slight variations of alloying element contents. Accordingly, the narrow limit of chemical composition of HP steels through optimization is proven to be one of the effective factors to control the popular MLF phenomenon during slab casting.

  14. Sooty moulds from European tertiary amber, with notes on the systematic position of Rosaria ('Cyanobacteria').

    PubMed

    Rikkinen, Jouko; Dörfelt, Heinrich; Schmidt, Alexander R; Wunderlich, Jörg

    2003-02-01

    Sooty moulds are described and illustrated from European amber dating back to 22-54 Myr. All the fossils are fragments of superficial subicula composed of brown moniliform hyphae with markedly tapering distal ends. The subglobose cells are identical to those of extant Metacapnodium (Metacapnodiaceae, Capnodiales) species. Also other preserved features, like the type of apical growth, wide-angled branching and the production of two distinctive conidial states, supports a placement in this genus. The fossils demonstrate that Metacapnodium hyphae have remained unchanged for tens of millions of years. This confirms that hyphal morphology and conidial states should be accorded considerable classificatory significance in this group of fungi. The following nomenclatural change is made: Metacapnodium succinum comb. nov. (syn. Rosaria succina). The type specimen was initially described as a filamentous cyanobacterium, due to similarities with Rosaria ramosa. Also the systematic position of this attribute is shortly discussed. PMID:12747338

  15. Clinical studies in workers engaged in maintenance of watermark moulds in a paper mill.

    PubMed

    Srivastava, A K; Gupta, B N; Bihari, V; Mathur, N; Gaur, J S; Mahendra, P N; Kumar, P; Bharti, R S

    1992-01-01

    Thirty subjects engaged in maintenance and repair of moulds used for producing watermarks on paper were studied, along with 27 control subjects from the same paper mill. The workers were simultaneously exposed to copper, chromium, zinc, xylol, and fumes of sulphuric acid in the course of their work. The study subjects were investigated for clinical, occupational, radiological haematological and psychological details. The aforementioned combined exposure was found to be responsible for a high prevalence of symptoms pertaining to the respiratory system and higher nervous functions. Breathlessness (26.7%), expectoration (10.0%) and emphysema (10.0%) were significantly higher among the exposed subjects. The exposed subjects also showed lowered visuomotor coordination and delayed reaction to light and sound stimuli. PMID:1399024

  16. Corticotropin, Repository Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... age; episodes of symptoms in people who have multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which the nerves do ... When corticotropin repository injection is used to treat multiple sclerosis, it is usually injected once a day for ...

  17. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    Injectable implants are injections of material into the urethra to help control urine leakage ( urinary incontinence ) caused by a ... into the tissue next to the sphincter. The implant procedure is usually done in the hospital. Or ...

  18. Calcitonin Salmon Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Calcitonin salmon injection is used to treat osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. Osteoporosis is a disease that causes bones to weaken and break more easily. Calcitonin salmon injection is also used to treat Paget's disease ...

  19. OnabotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Botox® Cosmetic ... OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox, Botox Cosmetic) is used to treat a number of conditions.OnabotulinumtoxinA injection (Botox) is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia ( ...

  20. Hip joint injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/007633.htm Hip joint injection To use the sharing features on this ... injection is a shot of medicine into the hip joint. The medicine helps relieve pain and inflammation. It ...

  1. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a ... as a liquid to be injected subcutaneously (just under the skin) by a doctor. Your doctor will ...

  2. RimabotulinumtoxinB Injection

    MedlinePlus

    (rim a bott' you lye num bee)RimabotulinumtoxinB injection may spread from the area of injection and ... Event Reporting program online (http://www.fda.gov/Safety/MedWatch) or by phone (1-800-332-1088).

  3. Aminocaproic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Aminocaproic acid injection is used to control bleeding that occurs when blood clots are broken down too quickly. This ... the baby is ready to be born). Aminocaproic acid injection is also used to control bleeding in ...

  4. Deoxycholic Acid Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Deoxycholic acid injection is used to improve the appearance and profile of moderate to severe submental fat ('double chin'; fatty tissue located under the chin). Deoxycholic acid injection is in a class of medications called ...

  5. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Sodium ferric gluconate injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of ... are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, Procrit). Sodium ferric gluconate injection is in a class of ...

  6. Iron Dextran Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron dextran injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells ... treated with iron supplements taken by mouth. Iron dextran injection is in a class of medications called ...

  7. IncobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to relieve the symptoms of cervical dystonia (spasmodic torticollis; uncontrollable tightening of the neck ... is injected into a muscle, it blocks the nerve signals that cause uncontrollable tightening and movements of ...

  8. Beam injection into RHIC

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, W.; Hahn, H.; MacKay, W.W.; Satogata, T.; Tsoupas, N.; Zhang, W.

    1997-07-01

    During the RHIC sextant test in January 1997 beam was injected into a sixth of one of the rings for the first time. The authors describe the injection zone and its bottlenecks. They report on the commissioning of the injection system, on beam based measurements of the kickers and the application program to steer the beam.

  9. Mould filling of Ag-Pd-Cu-Au and Ag-Zn-Sn-In alloy castings made using a rapidly prepared gypsum-bonded investment material.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Hiroshi; Inoue, Shoko; Miyauchi, Hideaki; Watanabe, Kouichi; Takahashi, Yutaka

    2008-12-01

    Mandibular premolar-shaped wax patterns of full crowns with a marginal angle of 300 were prepared. Two semiprecious alloys were cast using a rapidly prepared gypsum-bonded investment material or a conventional gypsum-bonded investment. A precise impression was taken and cut into four segments. Scanning electron microscopy was used to evaluate the mould filling of each segment. The mould filling of the silver-palladium-copper-gold alloy was worse than that of the silver-zinc-tin-indium alloy. The mould filling of both alloys cast with the rapidly prepared gypsum-bonded investment material was superior to that using the conventional investment. PMID:19177729

  10. Strategies for safe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Battersby, A.; Feilden, R.; Stoeckel, P.; Da Silva, A.; Nelson, C.; Bass, A.

    1999-01-01

    In 1998, faced with growing international concern, WHO set out an approach for achieving injection safety that encompassed all elements from patients' expectations and doctors' prescribing habits to waste disposal. This article follows that lead and describes the implications of the approach for two injection technologies: sterilizable and disposable. It argues that focusing on any single technology diverts attention from the more fundamental need for health services to develop their own comprehensive strategies for safe injections. National health authorities will only be able to ensure that injections are administered safely if they take an approach that encompasses the whole system, and choose injection technologies that fit their circumstances. PMID:10680247

  11. Fungi and bacteria in mould-damaged and non-damaged office environments in a subarctic climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salonen, Heidi; Lappalainen, Sanna; Lindroos, Outi; Harju, Riitta; Reijula, Kari

    The fungi and bacterial levels of the indoor air environments of 77 office buildings were measured in winter and a comparison was made between the buildings with microbe sources in their structures and those without such sources. Penicillium, yeasts, Cladosporium and non-sporing isolates were the commonest fungi detected in the indoor air and in settled dust, in both the mould-damaged and control buildings. Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus glaucus and Stachybotrys chartarium were found only in environmental samples from the mould-damaged buildings. Some other fungi, with growth requiring of water activity, aw, above 0.85, occurred in both the reference and mould-damaged buildings, but such fungi were commoner in the latter type of buildings. The airborne concentrations of Penicillium, Aspergillus versicolor and yeasts were the best indicators of mould damage in the buildings studied. Penicillium species and A. versicolor were also the most abundant fungi in the material samples. This study showed that the fungi concentrations were very low (2-45 cfu m -3 90% of the concentrations being <15 cfu m -3) in the indoor air of the normal office buildings. Although the concentration range of airborne fungi was wider for the mould-damaged buildings (2-2470 cfu m -3), only about 20% of the samples exceeded 100 cfu m -3. The concentrations of airborne bacteria ranged from 12 to 540 cfu m -3 in the control buildings and from 14 to 1550 cfu m -3 in the mould-damaged buildings. A statistical analysis of the results indicated that bacteria levels are generally <600 cfu m -3 in office buildings in winter and fungi levels are <50 cfu m -3. These normal levels are applicable to subarctic climates for urban, modern office buildings when measurements are made using a six-stage impactor. These levels should not be used in evaluations of health risks, but elevated levels may indicate the presence of abnormal microbe sources in indoor air and a need for additional environmental

  12. Mould Routine Identification in the Clinical Laboratory by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Cassagne, Carole; Ranque, Stéphane; Normand, Anne-Cécile; Fourquet, Patrick; Thiebault, Sandrine; Planard, Chantal; Hendrickx, Marijke; Piarroux, Renaud

    2011-01-01

    Background MALDI-TOF MS recently emerged as a valuable identification tool for bacteria and yeasts and revolutionized the daily clinical laboratory routine. But it has not been established for routine mould identification. This study aimed to validate a standardized procedure for MALDI-TOF MS-based mould identification in clinical laboratory. Materials and Methods First, pre-extraction and extraction procedures were optimized. With this standardized procedure, a 143 mould strains reference spectra library was built. Then, the mould isolates cultured from sequential clinical samples were prospectively subjected to this MALDI-TOF MS based-identification assay. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was considered correct if it was concordant with the phenotypic identification; otherwise, the gold standard was DNA sequence comparison-based identification. Results The optimized procedure comprised a culture on sabouraud-gentamicin-chloramphenicol agar followed by a chemical extraction of the fungal colonies with formic acid and acetonitril. The identification was done using a reference database built with references from at least four culture replicates. For five months, 197 clinical isolates were analyzed; 20 were excluded because they were not identified at the species level. MALDI-TOF MS-based approach correctly identified 87% (154/177) of the isolates analyzed in a routine clinical laboratory activity. It failed in 12% (21/177), whose species were not represented in the reference library. MALDI-TOF MS-based identification was correct in 154 out of the remaining 156 isolates. One Beauveria bassiana was not identified and one Rhizopus oryzae was misidentified as Mucor circinelloides. Conclusions This work's seminal finding is that a standardized procedure can also be used for MALDI-TOF MS-based identification of a wide array of clinically relevant mould species. It thus makes it possible to identify moulds in the routine clinical laboratory setting and opens new avenues

  13. Some Investigations on Effect of Cooling Rate on Al2O3 Reinforced Al-MMC Prepared by Vacuum Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rupinder; Sahni, Kanwalpreet

    2016-07-01

    In the present research work effort has been made to study the effect of cooling rate of Al2O3 reinforced; aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) on hardness of component prepared by vacuum moulding (VM) process. The study started with selection of the component for industrial application. This study also highlights the effect of reinforcement in form of double particle size and triple particle size on hardness of Al-Al2O3 MMC. The input parameters of process are composition of MMC, vacuum moulding silica sand AFS No., vacuum pressure and component volume. The results of study supported by microstructure analysis suggest the geometric model for MMC hardness prepared by VM process.

  14. [Effects of 33% grapefruit extract on the growth of the yeast--like fungi, dermatopytes and moulds].

    PubMed

    Krajewska-Kułak, E; Lukaszuk, C; Niczyporuk, W

    2001-01-01

    Grapefruit seed extract was discovered by Jacob Harich an american immunologist in 1980. Assessment of the influence of grapefruit extract on the yeast-like fungi strains--Candida albicans growth. Material used in this investigation was ATCC test Candida albicans strains no 10231, 200 of Candida albicans strains, 5 of Candida sp. strains isolated from patients with candidiasis symptoms from different ontocenosis and 12 of dermatophytes and moulds isolated from patients. The susceptibility of the Candida was determined by serial dilution method. It seems that 33% grapefruit extract exert a potent antifungal activity against the yeast like fungi strains and had low activity against dermatophytes and moulds. Further studies in vitro and in vivo on greater number of the yeast-like fungi strains and other fungi species are needed. PMID:16886437

  15. Some Investigations on Effect of Cooling Rate on Al2O3 Reinforced Al-MMC Prepared by Vacuum Moulding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rupinder; Sahni, Kanwalpreet

    2016-06-01

    In the present research work effort has been made to study the effect of cooling rate of Al2O3 reinforced; aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMC) on hardness of component prepared by vacuum moulding (VM) process. The study started with selection of the component for industrial application. This study also highlights the effect of reinforcement in form of double particle size and triple particle size on hardness of Al-Al2O3 MMC. The input parameters of process are composition of MMC, vacuum moulding silica sand AFS No., vacuum pressure and component volume. The results of study supported by microstructure analysis suggest the geometric model for MMC hardness prepared by VM process.

  16. Some Investigations on Hardness of Investment Casting Process After Advancements in Shell Moulding for Reduction in Cycle Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R.; Mahajan, V.

    2014-07-01

    In the present work surface hardness investigations have been made on acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) pattern based investment castings after advancements in shell moulding for replication of biomedical implants. For the present study, a hip joint, made of ABS material, was fabricated as a master pattern by fused deposition modelling (FDM). After preparation of master pattern, mold was prepared by deposition of primary (1°), secondary (2°) and tertiary (3°) coatings with the addition of nylon fibre (1-2 cm in length of 1.5D). This study outlines the surface hardness mechanism for cast component prepared from ABS master pattern after advancement in shell moulding. The results of study highlight that during shell production, fibre modified shells have a much reduced drain time. Further the results are supported by cooling rate and micro structure analysis of casting.

  17. Yeasts from native Brazilian Cerrado plants: Occurrence, diversity and use in the biocontrol of citrus green mould.

    PubMed

    Sperandio, Eugenio Miranda; do Vale, Helson Mario Martins; Moreira, Geisianny Augusta Monteiro

    2015-11-01

    Yeasts are some of the most important postharvest biocontrol agents. Postharvest oranges frequently deteriorate due to green mould (Penicillium digitatum), which causes significant losses. The aims of this study were to determine the composition and diversity of yeasts on plants of the Brazilian Cerrado and to explore their potential for inhibiting citrus green mould. Leaves and fruit of Byrsonima crassifolia and Eugenia dysenterica were collected from Cerrado conservation areas, and thirty-five yeasts were isolated and identified by sequencing the D1-D2 domain of the rDNA large subunit (26S). The isolates represented the Aureobasidium, Meyerozyma, Candida, and Pichia genera. Three isolates identified as Aureobasidium pullulans exhibited potential for the control of P. digitatum in both in vitro and in vivo tests; these isolates reduced the incidence of disease and increased the storage time of fruit. Aureobasidium. pullulans has immense potential for the biological control of filamentous fungi. PMID:26466874

  18. An unfortunate injection.

    PubMed

    Shah, Bhavik Sandip; Yarbrough, Chase; Price, Amy; Biswas, Rakesh

    2016-01-01

    Intramuscular injection has been used to administer medications for more than a hundred years. However, despite our profession's long experience with intramuscular administration, preventable complications such as injection nerve palsies are still prevalent in developing countries. Injections account for one-fifth of all traumatic nerve injuries. These injuries largely occur due to indiscriminate use of intramuscular injections for treating common illnesses, frequently by unlicensed or undertrained practitioners administering unnecessary treatment to impoverished patients. The sciatic nerve is the most commonly injured, and frequently the resulting muscle weakness and associated disability are irreversible. This case report includes a video of a patient with foot drop 6 weeks after gluteal intramuscular injection. Such injuries can be prevented by proper awareness and training, the implementation of safer injection techniques, and quality assurance methods. PMID:26931130

  19. Sciatic nerve injection injury.

    PubMed

    Jung Kim, Hyun; Hyun Park, Sang

    2014-06-11

    Nerve injury is a common complication following intramuscular injection and the sciatic nerve is the most frequently affected nerve, especially in children, the elderly and underweight patients. The neurological presentation may range from minor transient pain to severe sensory disturbance and motor loss with poor recovery. Management of nerve injection injury includes drug treatment of pain, physiotherapy, use of assistive devices and surgical exploration. Early recognition of nerve injection injury and appropriate management are crucial in order to reduce neurological deficit and to maximize recovery. Sciatic nerve injection injury is a preventable event. Total avoidance of intramuscular injection is recommended if other administration routes can be used. If the injection has to be administered into the gluteal muscle, the ventrogluteal region (gluteal triangle) has a more favourable safety profile than the dorsogluteal region (the upper outer quadrant of the buttock). PMID:24920643

  20. [Effect of alcoholic extracts of wild plants on the inhibition of growth of Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium moniliforme and Fusarium poae moulds].

    PubMed

    Tequida-Meneses, Martín; Cortez-Rocha, Mario; Rosas-Burgos, Ema Carina; López-Sandoval, Susana; Corrales-Maldonado, Consuelo

    2002-06-01

    Fungicidal activity of wild plants Larrea tridentata, Karwinskia humboldtiana, Ricinus communis, Eucalyptus globulus, Ambrosia ambrosioides, Nicotiana glauca, Ambrosia confertiflora, Datura discolor, Baccharis glutinosa, Proboscidea parviflora, Solanum rostratum, Jatropha cinerea, Salpianthus macrodonthus y Sarcostemma cynanchoides was evaluated against the moulds species Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium chrysogenum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium poae y Fusarium moniliforme moulds species. Alcoholic extracts 6% (w/v) were prepared using six grams of dried plant powders (leaves and stems) and alcohol (70% ethanol or 70% methanol). A spore suspension (1x10(6); ufc/ml) of each mould was prepared by adding saline solution (0.85%) and 0.1% tween 80. The extracts were mixed with Czapeck yeast agar (CYA) at 45-50 degrees C in 1:10 relation on Petri dishes. Triplicate Petri dishes of each treatment and for each mould were centrally inoculated and three Petri dishes were used without treatment as controls. The inoculated dishes and controls were incubated at 25 +/- 2 degrees C for eight days. The incubated dishes were examined each 48 h and after the colony diameter (radial growth) was measured. Two mould species were controlled by L. tridentata, B. glutinosa and P. parviflora. Extracts of L. tridentata in methanol or ethanol at 41.5-100% inhibited all six species of moulds. PMID:12828509

  1. Chronic mould exposure as a risk factor for severe community acquired pneumonia in a patient requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Stephanie; Hassan, Ibrahim; Barker, Julian; Ashworth, Alan; Barnes, Anita; Fedor, Igor; Feddy, Lee; Hayes, Tim; Malagon, Ignacio; Stirling, Sarah; Szentgyorgyi, Lajos; Mutton, Ken; Richardson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    A previously fit and well man developed acute respiratory failure due to environmental mould exposure from living in damp rental accommodation. Despite aggressive intensive care management he rapidly deteriorated and required respiratory and cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. We hypothesize that poor domiciliary conditions may make an underestimated contribution to community respiratory disease. These conditions may present as acute and severe illness with non-typical pathogens identified. PMID:26236598

  2. Chronic mould exposure as a risk factor for severe community acquired pneumonia in a patient requiring extra corporeal membrane oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Stephanie; Hassan, Ibrahim; Barker, Julian; Ashworth, Alan; Barnes, Anita; Fedor, Igor; Feddy, Lee; Hayes, Tim; Malagon, Ignacio; Stirling, Sarah; Szentgyorgyi, Lajos; Mutton, Ken; Richardson, Malcolm

    2015-01-01

    A previously fit and well man developed acute respiratory failure due to environmental mould exposure from living in damp rental accommodation. Despite aggressive intensive care management he rapidly deteriorated and required respiratory and cardiac Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation. We hypothesize that poor domiciliary conditions may make an underestimated contribution to community respiratory disease. These conditions may present as acute and severe illness with non-typical pathogens identified. PMID:26236598

  3. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy- ...

  4. Urinary incontinence - injectable implant

    MedlinePlus

    ... repair; ISD repair; Injectable bulking agents for stress urinary incontinence ... Blaivas JM, Gormley EA, et al. Female Stress Urinary Incontinence Update Panel of the American Urological Association Education ...

  5. Formation of vitamins by pure cultures of tempe moulds and bacteria during the tempe solid substrate fermentation.

    PubMed

    Keuth, S; Bisping, B

    1993-11-01

    The formation of water soluble vitamins (vitamin B12, vitamin B6, riboflavin, thiamine, nicotinic acid and nicotinamide) during the tempe solid substrate fermentation was investigated. The role of several strains of Rhizopus oligosporus, R. arrhizus, and R. stolonifer and the role of several bacteria in the vitamin formation process were checked. All fungal and bacterial strains were isolated from Indonesian tempe and soaking water samples. The Rhizopus strains formed riboflavin, nicotinic acid, nicotinamide and vitamin B6. The final concentrations of these substances depended on the different strains involved and on the fermentation time. Isolates of R. oligosporus were generally the best vitamin formers. The moulds did not produce physiologically active vitamin B12. The thiamine content decreased during fermentation. The addition of bacteria, which had been selected in a screening for vitamin B12 production, resulted in an increase of physiologically active vitamin B12. Citrobacter freundii and Klebsiella pneumoniae showed the best formation capabilities. Furthermore, the bacteria produced riboflavin and vitamin B6 in addition to the moulds. The influence of Rhizopus on the vitamin B12 formation of Cit. freundii was also investigated. The vitamin content of tempe that was fermented with the mould and the bacterium was three times as high as a control fermentation with Cit. freundii only. PMID:8300444

  6. Determination of moulds and mycotoxins in dry dog and cat food using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry and fluorescence detection.

    PubMed

    Błajet-Kosicka, A; Kosicki, R; Twarużek, M; Grajewski, J

    2014-01-01

    In this study moulds and 12 mycotoxins in dry pet food samples (25 for dogs and 24 for cats) were determined. Primary moulds identified were Aspergillus, Mucor and Penicillium, found in 55% of the samples. Deoxynivalenol and zearalenone (ZEN) were detected in all samples with mean respective concentrations being 97.3 and 38.3 µg kg(-1) in cat food and 114 and 20.1 µg kg(-1) in dog food. T-2 and HT-2 toxins were present in 88% and 84% of the samples, respectively. Two samples contained fumonisins, with a maximum concentration of 108 µg kg(-1). Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A were detected in 8% and 45% of the samples, respectively. The measured mould and mycotoxin levels were consistent with results obtained by other studies. However, potential exposure to relatively high concentrations of an oestrogen mycotoxin as is ZEN, especially when in combination with other mycotoxins, needs attention. PMID:24919718

  7. Application of glass-nonmetals of waste printed circuit boards to produce phenolic moulding compound.

    PubMed

    Guo, Jie; Rao, Qunli; Xu, Zhenming

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using glass-nonmetals, a byproduct of recycling waste printed circuit boards (PCBs), to replace wood flour in production of phenolic moulding compound (PMC). Glass-nonmetals were attained by two-step crushing and corona electrostatic separating processes. Glass-nonmetals with particle size shorter than 0.07 mm were in the form of single fibers and resin powder, with the biggest portion (up to 34.6 wt%). Properties of PMC with glass-nonmetals (PMCGN) were compared with reference PMC and the national standard of PMC (PF2C3). When the adding content of glass-nonmetals was 40 wt%, PMCGN exhibited flexural strength of 82 MPa, notched impact strength of 2.4 kJ/m(2), heat deflection temperature of 175 degrees C, and dielectric strength of 4.8 MV/m, all of which met the national standard. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed strong interfacial bonding between glass fibers and the phenolic resin. All the results showed that the use of glass-nonmetals as filler in PMC represented a promising method for resolving the environmental pollutions and reducing the cost of PMC, thus attaining both environmental and economic benefits. PMID:17949900

  8. Application of waste bulk moulded composite (BMC) as a filler for isotactic polypropylene composites

    PubMed Central

    Barczewski, Mateusz; Matykiewicz, Danuta; Andrzejewski, Jacek; Skórczewska, Katarzyna

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to produce isotactic polypropylene based composites filled with waste thermosetting bulk moulded composite (BMC). The influence of BMC waste addition (5, 10, 20 wt%) on composites structure and properties was investigated. Moreover, additional studies of chemical treatment of the filler were prepared. Modification of BMC waste by calcium stearate (CaSt) powder allows to assess the possibility of the production of composites with better dispersion of the filler and more uniform properties. The mechanical, processing, and thermal properties, as well as structural investigations were examined by means of static tensile test, Dynstat impact strength test, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), wide angle X-ray scattering (WAXS), melt flow index (MFI) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Developed composites with different amounts of non-reactive filler exhibited satisfactory thermal and mechanical properties. Moreover, application of the low cost modifier (CaSt) allows to obtain composites with better dispersion of the filler and improved processability. PMID:27222742

  9. Pollen, mite and mould samplings by a personal collector at high altitude in Nepal.

    PubMed

    Fiorina, A; Legnani, D; Fasano, V; Cogo, A; Basnyat, B; Passalacqua, G; Scordamaglia, A

    1998-01-01

    The new personal portable sampler for detection of environmental biologic particles (Partrap FA52, Coppa, Biella, Italy) was used to evaluate both atmospheric and indoor biologic particles in bedding at high altitudes during two Italian scientific expeditions in Nepal, in 1994 and 1996 respectively. The sampling was performed outdoors and indoors at the following altitudes: Katmandu 1,330 meters (m), LuKla 2,800 m, Namche 3,500 m, Pericle 4,200 m and Piramide 5,050 m. In both expeditions each sample of outdoor and indoor air was obtained by sucking air into the sampler either against the wind during a 6-h period, from 9 am to 3 pm, or from bedding of inhabitants resident at the different altitudes for 5 min. The number of pollens, moulds and mites trapped in each sample were assessed. The statistical analysis of the results by Spearman correlation test revealed a significant inverse correlation (p < 0.02) between altitude and the number of the considered biologic particles for sampling carried out during both the 1994 and 1996 expeditions. Moreover, Wilcoxon paired test showed no significant difference between the biologic sampling obtained in the two expeditions. These results confirm the decrease of the environmental biologic charge in relation to the increase of altitude and prove the efficacy of Partrap FA52 in obtaining reproducible quantitative data. PMID:9615300

  10. Two-Gene Phylogeny of Bright-Spored Myxomycetes (Slime Moulds, Superorder Lucisporidia)

    PubMed Central

    Fiore-Donno, Anna Maria; Clissmann, Fionn; Meyer, Marianne; Schnittler, Martin; Cavalier-Smith, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Myxomycetes, or plasmodial slime-moulds, are one of the largest groups in phylum Amoebozoa. Nonetheless, only ∼10% are in the database for the small subunit (SSU) ribosomal RNA gene, the most widely used gene for phylogenetics and barcoding. Most sequences belong to dark-spored Myxomycetes (order Fuscisporida); the 318 species of superorder Lucisporidia (bright-spored) are represented by only eleven genuine sequences. To compensate for this, we provide 66 new sequences, 37 SSU rRNA and 29 elongation factor 1-alpha (EF-1α), for 82% of the genera of Lucisporidia. Phylogenetic analyses of single- and two-gene alignments produce congruent topologies and reveal both morphological characters that have been overemphasised and those that have been overlooked in past classifications. Both classical orders, Liceida and Trichiida, and several families and genera are para/polyphyletic; some previously unrecognised clades emerge. We discuss possible evolutionary pathways. Our study fills a gap in the phylogeny of Amoebozoa and provides an extensive SSU rRNA sequence reference database for environmental sampling and barcoding. We report a new group I intron insertion site for Myxomycetes in one Licea. PMID:23667494

  11. Origanum dictamnus Oil Vapour Suppresses the Development of Grey Mould in Eggplant Fruit In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Loulakakis, Kostas; Magan, Naresh; Tzortzakis, Nikos

    2014-01-01

    Grey mould rot (Botrytis cinerea) development in vitro or in eggplant (Solanum melongena L.) fruit was evaluated after treatment with dittany (Origanum dictamnus L.) oil (DIT) and storage at 12°C and 95% relative humidity during or following exposure to the volatiles. DIT volatiles used in different concentration (0-50-100-250 μL/L) and times of exposure (up to 120 h) examined the effects on pathogen development as well as fruit quality parameters. In vitro, fungal colony growth was inhibited with the application of DIT oil (during or after exposure) and/or time of application. Continuous exposure to oils reduced conidial germination and production with fungistatic effects observed in 250 μL/L. In vivo, fungal lesion growth and conidial production reduced in DIT-treated fruits. Interesting, in fruits preexposed to volatiles before fungal inoculation, DIT application induced fruit resistance against the pathogen, by reduced lesion growth and conidial production. Conidial viability reduced in >100 μL/L DIT oil. Fruits exposed to essential oil did not affect fruit quality related attributes in general, while skin lightness (L value) increased in 50 and 100 μL/L DIT oil. The results of the current study indicated that dittany volatiles may be considered as an alternative food preservative, eliminating disease spread in the storage/transit atmospheres. PMID:25254209

  12. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Duracillin A-S ® ... Pfizerpen A-S® ... injection should not be used to treat gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease) or early in the treatment ... serious infections. Penicillin G procaine injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by ...

  13. Tolerability of hypertonic injectables.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei

    2015-07-25

    Injectable drug products are ideally developed as isotonic solutions. Often, hypertonic injectables may have to be marketed for a variety of reasons such as product solubilization and stabilization. A key concern during product formulation development is the local and systemic tolerability of hypertonic products upon injection. This report reviews and discusses the tolerability in terms of local discomfort, irritation, sensation of heat and pain, along with other observed side effects of hypertonicity in both in-vitro systems and in-vivo animal and human models. These side effects clearly depend on the degree of hypertonicity. The sensation of pain among different injection routes seems to follow this order: intramuscular>subcutaneous>intravenous or intravascular. It is recommended that the upper osmolality limit should be generally controlled under 600 mOsm/kg for drug products intended for intramuscular or subcutaneous injection. For drug products intended for intravenous or intravascular injection, the recommended upper limit should be generally controlled under 1,000 mOsm/kg for small-volume injections (≤ 100 mL) and 500 mOsm/kg for large-volume injections (>100mL). Several options are available for minimization of hypertonicity-induced pain upon product administration. PMID:26027488

  14. Tevatron reverse injection

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-25

    In the new injection scenario antiprotons are injected onto a helical orbit in the Tevatron in order to avoid the detrimental effects of the beam-beam interaction at 150 GeV. The new scenario required changes in the tuning procedure. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning, therefore the antiproton injection line has to be tuned with protons by reverse injecting them from the Tevatron into the Main Pang (MR). Previously, the reverse injection was performed in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS dock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus marking it possible to inject 6 proton batches and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR.

  15. Health Instruction Packages: Injections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunkleman, Ellie; And Others

    Text, illustrations, and exercises are utilized in this set of four learning modules designed to instruct nursing students in techniques and equipment utilized for intramuscular injections. The first module, "Equipment for Intramuscular Injections" by Ellie Dunkleman, presents guidelines for selecting needles of the proper length and gauge…

  16. Spin injection into semiconductors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oestreich, M.; Hübner, J.; Hägele, D.; Klar, P. J.; Heimbrodt, W.; Rühle, W. W.; Ashenford, D. E.; Lunn, B.

    1999-03-01

    The injection of spin-polarized electrons is presently one of the major challenges in semiconductor spin electronics. We propose and demonstrate a most efficient spin injection using diluted magnetic semiconductors as spin aligners. Time-resolved photoluminescence with a Cd0.98Mn0.02Te/CdTe structure proves the feasibility of the spin-alignment mechanism.

  17. Fiber orientation structures and mechanical properties of injection molded short glass fiber-reinforced nylon ribbed plates

    SciTech Connect

    Wire, S.L.; Hine, P.J.; Duckett, R.A.; O`Gara, J.G.

    1996-12-31

    The work presented in this paper, sponsored by General Motors, describes a study of injection moulded ribbed plates of short glass fibre-reinforced Nylon. Ribs have been placed both parallel and perpendicular to the injection direction in an attempt to simulate the likely geometry of an actual automotive part. The complex orientation structures developed within these ribbed samples during injection moulding have been determined within both the parallel and perpendicular ribs, and for the regions between these structures using an automated image analysis system developed in-house by our colleagues at the University of Leeds Instrumentation Group. This system allows the rapid measurement of accurate fibre orientation data over large sample areas (mm {times} mm) enabling thousands of fibre images to be sampled. Mechanical properties both between and underneath the rib structures have been measured using the ultrasonic immersion technique, and these have been compared with theoretical predictions, determined using the measured fibre orientation averages and simple composite models developed within this laboratory. In general the agreement between theory and experiment is excellent.

  18. The giant Madagascar hissing-cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa) as a source of antagonistic moulds: concerns arising from its use in a public setting.

    PubMed

    Yoder, Jay A; Glenn, Brian D; Benoit, Joshua B; Zettler, Lawrence W

    2008-03-01

    Cockroaches and their excreta have been linked to allergies and childhood asthma. The giant Madagascar hissing-cockroach (Gromphadorhina portentosa), heralded as an educational tool in classrooms, museums, zoos, is now available to the public as a children's pet raising health concerns. We provide a catalogue of potentially antagonistic moulds associated with this insect. Specimens were obtained from laboratories, classrooms, pet stores and private homes. Three different agar media were used to culture moulds from both internal and external cockroach surfaces. Pure cultures were obtained from hyphal tips excised by scalpel. A total of 14 mould taxa were obtained, mostly from external surfaces. The mycoflora was dominated by species of Rhizopus, Penicillium, Mucor, Trichoderma and Alternaria, and differed little among nymphs, adults, cast skins (exuviae) and faeces. A two-fold increase of Aspergillus niger isolates, however, was detected in exuviae and faeces. The mycoflora appeared to be equally distributed on the body regions in nymphs and adults alike. Most of the moulds recovered are common, well-known saprophytes with a prolific ability to produce asexual spores (e.g. conidia) when supplied with adequate moisture and an organic substrate (e.g. vegetable matter, pet food and exuviae). Cockroach rearing conditions thus serve as an ideal environment for mould growth and proliferation, and the subsequent use (handling) of these insects in a public forum increases the risk of inducing mould-related allergies in humans. Of special concern are moulds also capable of causing secondary infections (e.g. Rhizopus, Mucor, Aspergillus), gaining entry via open wounds and inhalation. This is mainly a point of public awareness aimed at individuals (especially children) prone to infections and allergies that might be exposed to this insect and/or its rearing conditions. PMID:18254744

  19. THE RHIC INJECTION SYSTEM.

    SciTech Connect

    FISCHER,W.; GLENN,J.W.; MACKAY,W.W.; PTITSIN,V.; ROBINSON,T.G.; TSOUPAS,N.

    1999-03-29

    The RHIC injection system has to transport beam from the AGS-to-RHIC transfer line onto the closed orbits of the RHIC Blue and Yellow rings. This task can be divided into three problems. First, the beam has to be injected into either ring. Second, once injected the beam needs to be transported around the ring for one turn. Third, the orbit must be closed and coherent beam oscillations around the closed orbit should be minimized. We describe our solutions for these problems and report on system tests conducted during the RHIC Sextant test performed in 1997. The system will be fully commissioned in 1999.

  20. Limitations of temperature measurement in the aural canal with an ear mould integrated sensor.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, L P J; de Haan, A; de Koning, J J; Clairbois, H E; Daanen, H A M

    2011-09-01

    Aural canal temperature measurement using an ear mould integrated sensor (T(ac)) might be a method suited for continuous non-invasive core temperature estimation in operational settings. We studied the effect of ambient temperature, wind and high intensity exercise on T(ac) and its ability to predict esophageal (T(es)) and rectal temperatures (T(re)). Seven subjects performed a protocol of rest at 21, 10 and 30 °C, followed by exercise and recovery at 30 °C. The subjects performed the protocol twice: with and without face-wind from halfway through the 30 °C rest period. Extra auricle insulation was applied at one side. Ambient temperature changes affected T(ac) significantly, while T(es) and T(re) remained stable. Insulating the auricle reduced but did not abolish this effect. Wind had an immediate cooling effect on T(ac) independent of auricle insulation. During exercise and recovery in 30 °C, T(ac) provided acceptable group predictions of T(re) in trials without wind (bias: -0.66 ± 0.21 °C covered, -1.20 ± 0.15 °C uncovered). Bias was considerably higher with wind, but variability was similar (-1.73 ± 0.11 °C covered, -2.49 ± 0.04 °C uncovered). Individual predictions of T(es) and T(re) showed more variation, especially with wind. We conclude that T(ac) may be used for core temperature assessment of groups in warm and stable conditions. PMID:21788686

  1. Interdroplet bilayer arrays in millifluidic droplet traps from 3D-printed moulds.

    PubMed

    King, Philip H; Jones, Gareth; Morgan, Hywel; de Planque, Maurits R R; Zauner, Klaus-Peter

    2014-02-21

    In droplet microfluidics, aqueous droplets are typically separated by an oil phase to ensure containment of molecules in individual droplets of nano-to-picoliter volume. An interesting variation of this method involves bringing two phospholipid-coated droplets into contact to form a lipid bilayer in-between the droplets. These interdroplet bilayers, created by manual pipetting of microliter droplets, have proved advantageous for the study of membrane transport phenomena, including ion channel electrophysiology. In this study, we adapted the droplet microfluidics methodology to achieve automated formation of interdroplet lipid bilayer arrays. We developed a 'millifluidic' chip for microliter droplet generation and droplet packing, which is cast from a 3D-printed mould. Droplets of 0.7-6.0 μL volume were packed as homogeneous or heterogeneous linear arrays of 2-9 droplets that were stable for at least six hours. The interdroplet bilayers had an area of up to 0.56 mm(2), or an equivalent diameter of up to 850 μm, as determined from capacitance measurements. We observed osmotic water transfer over the bilayers as well as sequential bilayer lysis by the pore-forming toxin melittin. These millifluidic interdroplet bilayer arrays combine the ease of electrical and optical access of manually pipetted microdroplets with the automation and reproducibility of microfluidic technologies. Moreover, the 3D-printing based fabrication strategy enables the rapid implementation of alternative channel geometries, e.g. branched arrays, with a design-to-device time of just 24-48 hours. PMID:24336841

  2. Simulation based flow distribution network optimization for vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Kuang-Ting; Devillard, Mathieu; Advani, Suresh G.

    2004-05-01

    In the vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) process, using a flow distribution network such as flow channels and high permeability fabrics can accelerate the resin infiltration of the fibre reinforcement during the manufacture of composite parts. The flow distribution network significantly influences the fill time and fill pattern and is essential for the process design. The current practice has been to cover the top surface of the fibre preform with the distribution media with the hope that the resin will flood the top surface immediately and penetrate through the thickness. However, this approach has some drawbacks. One is when the resin finds its way to the vent before it has penetrated the preform entirely, which results in a defective part or resin wastage. Also, if the composite structure contains ribs or inserts, this approach invariably results in dry spots. Instead of this intuitive approach, we propose a science-based approach to design the layout of the distribution network. Our approach uses flow simulation of the resin into the network and the preform and a genetic algorithm to optimize the flow distribution network. An experimental case study of a co-cured rib structure is conducted to demonstrate the design procedure and validate the optimized flow distribution network design. Good agreement between the flow simulations and the experimental results was observed. It was found that the proposed design algorithm effectively optimized the flow distribution network of the part considered in our case study and hence should prove to be a useful tool to extend the VARTM process to manufacture of complex structures with effective use of the distribution network layup.

  3. Penicillin G Benzathine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G benzathine injection is in a class of antibiotics called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  4. Penicillin G Procaine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G procaine injection should not be used ... of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  5. Botulinum toxin injection - larynx

    MedlinePlus

    Injection laryngoplasty; Botox-larynx: spasmodic dysphonia-BTX; Essential voice tremor (EVT)-btx; Glottic insufficiency; Percutaneous electromyography-guided botulinum toxin treatment; Percutaneous indirect laryngoscopy-guided botulinum toxin Treatment; ...

  6. Giving an insulin injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... One Type of Insulin Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ... syringe before injecting it. Wash your hands with soap and water. Dry them well. Check the insulin ...

  7. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... stop working). Iron sucrose injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works ... hands, feet, ankles, or lower legs; loss of consciousness; or seizures. If you experience a severe reaction, ...

  8. Ferric Carboxymaltose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... on dialysis. Ferric carboxymaltose injection is in a class of medications called iron replacement products. It works ... rapid, weak pulse; chest pain; or loss of consciousness. If you experience a severe reaction, your doctor ...

  9. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... surgery to decrease the chance that blood transfusions (transfer of one person's blood to another person's body) ... wheezing difficulty breathing or swallowing hoarseness lack of energy dizziness fainting Epoetin alfa injection may cause other ...

  10. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. It is usually given once every 2 ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for about 30 minutes afterwards. A doctor ...

  11. Quinupristin and Dalfopristin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a class of medications called streptogramin antibiotics. They work by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as quinupristin and dalfopristin injection will not work for colds, flu, or other viral infections. Taking ...

  12. Amphotericin B Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is in a class of medications called antifungals. It works by slowing the growth of fungi ... amikacin, gentamicin, or tobramycin (Bethkis, Kitabis Pak, Tobi); antifungals such as clotrimazole, fluconazole (Diflucan), itraconazole (Onmel, Sporanox), ...

  13. Epoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... types of surgery to decrease the chance that blood transfusions (transfer of one person's blood to another person's ... injection is used to decrease the risk that blood transfusions will be required due to surgery, it is ...

  14. Darbepoetin Alfa Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may tell you not to use darbepoetin alfa injection.tell your doctor and pharmacist what prescription and nonprescription medications, vitamins, nutritional supplements, and herbal products you are taking ...

  15. Iron Sucrose Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Iron sucrose injection is used treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood cells due to too little iron) in people with chronic kidney disease (damage to the kidneys which may worsen over ...

  16. Insulin Lispro Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... a solution (liquid) and a suspension (liquid with particles that will settle on standing) to inject subcutaneously ( ... if it is colored, cloudy, or contains solid particles. If you are using insulin lispro suspension, the ...

  17. Collagenase Clostridium Histolyticum Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... disease (a thickening of tissue [plaque] inside the penis that causes the penis to curve). Collagenase Clostridium histolyticum injection is in ... the plaque of thickened tissue and allows the penis to be straightened.

  18. Ceftazidime and Avibactam Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may receive ceftazidime and avibactam injection in a hospital or you may administer the medication at home. ... doctor or if you are admitted to a hospital. It is also important information to carry with ...

  19. Sipuleucel-T Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... be sure you are not having a serious reaction to the medication. You will be given other medications 30 minutes before your infusion to prevent reactions to sipuleucel-T injection. Tell your doctor or ...

  20. Supersonic Pulsed Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cutler, A. D.; Harding, G. C.; Diskin, G. S.

    2001-01-01

    An injector has been developed to provide high-speed high-frequency (order 10 kHz) pulsed a supersonic crossflow. The injector nozzle is formed between the fixed internal surface of the nozzle and a freely rotating three- or four-sided wheel embedded within the device. Flow-induced rotation of the wheel causes the nozzle throat to open and close at a frequency proportional to the speed of sound of the injected gas. Measurements of frequency and mass flow rate as a function of supply pressure are discussed for various injector designs. Preliminary results are presented for wall-normal injection of helium into a Mach-2 ducted airflow. The data include schlieren images in the injectant plume in a plane normal to the flow, downstream of injection.

  1. AbobotulinumtoxinA Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is also used to temporarily smooth frown lines (wrinkles between the eyebrows). AbobotulinumtoxinA injection is in a ... to treat excessive sweating, many types of facial wrinkles, anal fissures, and to prevent headaches in patients ...

  2. Sodium Ferric Gluconate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... the kidneys to stop working) who are on dialysis and are also receiving the medication epoetin (Epogen, ... gluconate injection is usually given during 8 consecutive dialysis sessions for a total of 8 doses. If ...

  3. Premixed direct injection disk

    SciTech Connect

    York, William David; Ziminsky, Willy Steve; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin; Zuo, Baifang; Uhm, Jong Ho

    2013-04-23

    A fuel/air mixing disk for use in a fuel/air mixing combustor assembly is provided. The disk includes a first face, a second face, and at least one fuel plenum disposed therebetween. A plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes extend through the pre-mixing disk, each mixing tube including an outer tube wall extending axially along a tube axis and in fluid communication with the at least one fuel plenum. At least a portion of the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes further includes at least one fuel injection hole have a fuel injection hole diameter extending through said outer tube wall, the fuel injection hole having an injection angle relative to the tube axis. The invention provides good fuel air mixing with low combustion generated NOx and low flow pressure loss translating to a high gas turbine efficiency, that is durable, and resistant to flame holding and flash back.

  4. Tevatron injection timing

    SciTech Connect

    Saritepe, S.; Annala, G.

    1993-06-01

    Bunched beam transfer from one accelerator to another requires coordination and synchronization of many ramped devices. During collider operation timing issues are more complicated since one has to switch from proton injection devices to antiproton injection devices. Proton and antiproton transfers are clearly distinct sequences since protons and antiprotons circulate in opposite directions in the Main Ring (MR) and in the Tevatron. The time bumps are different, the kicker firing delays are different, the kickers and lambertson magnets are different, etc. Antiprotons are too precious to be used for tuning purposes, therefore protons are transferred from the Tevatron back into the Main Ring, tracing the path of antiprotons backwards. This tuning operation is called ``reverse injection.`` Previously, the reverse injection was handled in one supercycle. One batch of uncoalesced bunches was injected into the Tevatron and ejected after 40 seconds. Then the orbit closure was performed in the MR. In the new scheme the lambertson magnets have to be moved and separator polarities have to be switched, activities that cannot be completed in one supercycle. Therefore, the reverse injection sequence was changed. This involved the redefinition of TVBS clock event $D8 as MRBS $D8 thus making it possible to inject 6 proton batches (or coalesced bunches) and eject them one at a time on command, performing orbit closure each time in the MR. Injection devices are clock event driven. The TCLK is used as the reference clock. Certain TCLK events are triggered by the MR beam synchronized clock (MRBS) events. Some delays are measured in terms of MRBS ticks and MR revolutions. See Appendix A for a brief description of the beam synchronized clocks.

  5. Injections--how safe.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Saurabh

    2005-04-01

    Injection, is a skin-piercing event performed by a syringe and needle with the purpose of introducing a curative substance or vaccine in a patient. According to WHO, safe injection is one which does not harm to the recepient, does not expose the health worker to any risk and does not result in waste that is dangerous for the community. To achieve this injection should be prepared on a clean workspace, provider should clean his hands appropriately, sterility of the syringe and needle to be maintained, skin of the recipient should be cleaned and above all sharps waste should be managed appropriately. Common danger of unsafe injection is infection. Most medication used in primary care can be administered orally. So firstly the behaviour of healthcare providers and patients must be changed so as to decrease overuse of injections, secondly provision of sufficient quantities of appropriate injection equipment and infection control supplies should be made available and thirdly a sharp waste management system should be set up. PMID:16173426

  6. Characterization of 430L porous supports obtained by powder extrusion moulding for their application in solid oxide fuel cells

    SciTech Connect

    Sotomayor, María Eugenia Ospina, Liliana María Levenfeld, Belén Várez, Alejandro

    2013-12-15

    The characterization of 430L stainless steel planar porous supports obtained by powder extrusion moulding was performed in this work. A thermoplastic multicomponent binder based on high density polyethylene and paraffin wax was selected for the process. Green supports were shaped by extrusion moulding, and subsequently the binder was removed by a thermal cycle previously optimized. Sintering was carried out at different temperatures in low vacuum. Density of sintered parts was measured by Archimedes' method and porosity was also evaluated through a microstructural analysis by optical microscopy. The porosity degree of samples sintered at low temperature was close to 35% which is a very suitable value for their application in SOFCs. Tensile tests were carried out in order to determine mechanical strength as a function of porosity degree. Based on these results, the best feedstock composition and processing parameters were selected. The oxidation behaviour in static air at high temperature was studied, and formed oxides were characterized in a scanning electron microscope equipped with energy dispersive analysis of X-rays. X-ray diffraction experiments were performed in order to identify the formed oxides based on formula Fe{sub 2−x}Cr{sub x}O{sub 3}. The results of these studies showed that this kind of ferritic stainless steel would be more suitable to be used as anodic supports where a rich hydrogen atmosphere is employed. Preliminary deposition tests allowed obtaining a homogeneous Ni–YSZ anode layer with a thickness of 10 μm on the porous metallic substrates. - Highlights: • 430L stainless steel porous supports were obtained by powder extrusion moulding. • Porosity degree was controlled sintering at different temperatures in low vacuum. • Tensile tests allowed determining mechanical strength of porous supports. • A study about its oxidation behaviour in static air at high temperature was realized. • After oxidation, formed oxides were

  7. The ultrahigh precision form measurement of small, steep-sided aspheric moulds, incorporating novel hardware and software developments; Technical Digest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mills, M. W.; Hutchinson, Matthew J.

    2005-05-01

    A variety of consumer applications, eg cellphone camera lenses, optical storage devices, digital cameras, etc, are driving the demand for small, high aspheric departure rotationally-symmetric moulded optics, manufactured both in polymer and glass materials. The mould tools for such components are manufactured by ultra-high precision techniques such as single point diamond turning and ultra-precision grinding, and must be accurate to <1/10μm levels for form, and exhibit nanometric surface finish quality. The aspheric forms of such components" optical surfaces exhibit high departure from best-fit sphere towards their outer edge, which renders this outer region especially critical for optical performance. The high slope of these components at the clear aperture has caused some restrictions on the use of profilometry in the measurement of form across their full diameter. Taylor Hobson designs and manufactures a range of ultra-precision profilometers for use in such industries as aspheric optics fabrication. In order to address the issues described, a new measurement system, Taylor Hobson Form Talysurf PGI 1250, has been developed, which contains new Aspheric Data Fusion Software, as well as Asphero-Diffractive Analysis Software, allowing the entire diametric profile to be analysed to the desired level of accuracy. This development removes the previous limitation of maximum slope for this type of measurement, thus enabling better quality control of high slope, high aspheric departure optics. Measurement data from the Form Talysurf PGI 1250 can be fed back directly to the machine tool, in order to optimize the form of the optical mould.

  8. Inverse problem for the solidification of binary alloy in the casting mould solved by using the bee optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmaniok, Edyta

    2015-08-01

    In this paper the procedure for solving the inverse problem for the binary alloy solidification in the casting mould is presented. Proposed approach is based on the mathematical model suitable for describing the investigated solidification process, the lever arm model describing the macrosegregation process, the finite element method for solving the direct problem and the artificial bee colony algorithm for minimizing the functional expressing the error of approximate solution. Goal of the discussed inverse problem is the reconstruction of heat transfer coefficient and distribution of temperature in investigated region on the basis of known measurements of temperature.

  9. Inverse problem for the solidification of binary alloy in the casting mould solved by using the bee optimization algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hetmaniok, Edyta

    2016-07-01

    In this paper the procedure for solving the inverse problem for the binary alloy solidification in the casting mould is presented. Proposed approach is based on the mathematical model suitable for describing the investigated solidification process, the lever arm model describing the macrosegregation process, the finite element method for solving the direct problem and the artificial bee colony algorithm for minimizing the functional expressing the error of approximate solution. Goal of the discussed inverse problem is the reconstruction of heat transfer coefficient and distribution of temperature in investigated region on the basis of known measurements of temperature.

  10. Injectable Multiple Sclerosis Medications

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Zung Vu

    2012-01-01

    Although injection-site reactions (ISRs) occur with US Food and Drug Administration–approved injectable disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for multiple sclerosis, there are currently few reports of real-world data on ISR management strategies or possible correlations between ISRs and patient demographics, disease characteristics, and missed injections. Patient-reported data on the use of DMTs, patient demographic and disease characteristics, missed injections, and ISR reduction strategies were collected via e-mail, a patient registry (www.ms-cam.org), and a Web-based survey. Of the 1380 respondents, 1201 (87%) indicated that they had used injectable DMTs, of whom 377 (31%) had used intramuscular (IM) interferon beta-1a (IFNβ-1a), 172 (14%) had used subcutaneous (SC) IFNβ-1a, 183 (15%) had used SC IFNβ-1b, and 469 (39%) had used glatiramer acetate (GA). The majority of respondents were older (73% were ≥40 years), female (79%), married or living with a partner (72%), white (94%), and nonsmoking (82%). Injection-site reaction incidence, grouped according to severity, varied among DMTs, with IM IFNβ-1a causing significantly (P < .001) fewer mild, moderate, or severe ISRs than the other therapies. Female sex and younger age were significantly (P < .05) associated with more moderate ISRs among users of IM IFNβ-1a, SC IFNβ-1b, and GA. Nonwhites reported severe ISRs more often than whites. For all DMTs injection-site massage and avoidance of sensitive sites were the most frequently used strategies to minimize ISRs. These data may help identify patients with characteristics associated with a higher risk for ISRs, allowing health-care professionals to provide anticipatory guidance to patients at risk for decreased adherence or discontinuation. PMID:24453732

  11. Syringe injectable electronics

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-01-01

    Seamless and minimally-invasive three-dimensional (3D) interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating syringe injection and subsequent unfolding of submicrometer-thick, centimeter-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 micrometers. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with > 90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with 3D structures, including (i) monitoring of internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (ii) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (iii) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, delivery of large volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics. PMID:26053995

  12. [The injectables in urogynecology].

    PubMed

    Pifarotti, P; Gattei, U; Meschia, M

    2003-04-01

    The purpose of this review is to summarize the results of reports of injectable agents for the treatment of female urinary stress incontinence. The real indication for injectables is intrinsic shincter deficiency (ISD) but urethral hypermobility is not a controindication. Six agents were reviewed: Teflon, autologous fat, collagen, silicone microparticles, silicone microballoons and pyrolytic carbon. Collagen was the most frequently reported agent and yielded 1 year cure/ improvement rate of 60-80%, but results de-creased significantly with longer term follow-up. Teflon has been used longer for the treatment of stress incontinence but both low long and short-term success rate and the reported complications such as particles migration have resulted in its lack of widespread acceptance. Autologous fat has been suggested as the natural injectable but yielded disappointing success rate. Injection of silicone microparticles was associated with a long-term success rate of about 70% in patients with ISD. Moreover, it is now injected without urethroscopy and this makes the procedure easier. Silicone microballoons and pyrolytic carbon have been recently introduced into clinical practice with a short-term success rate of about 70%. However, longer follow-up is needed. In conclusion, long-term durability, cost effectiveness and some safety issues still have to be addressed by further clinical trials. PMID:12711996

  13. Syringe-injectable electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Fu, Tian-Ming; Cheng, Zengguang; Hong, Guosong; Zhou, Tao; Jin, Lihua; Duvvuri, Madhavi; Jiang, Zhe; Kruskal, Peter; Xie, Chong; Suo, Zhigang; Fang, Ying; Lieber, Charles M.

    2015-07-01

    Seamless and minimally invasive three-dimensional interpenetration of electronics within artificial or natural structures could allow for continuous monitoring and manipulation of their properties. Flexible electronics provide a means for conforming electronics to non-planar surfaces, yet targeted delivery of flexible electronics to internal regions remains difficult. Here, we overcome this challenge by demonstrating the syringe injection (and subsequent unfolding) of sub-micrometre-thick, centimetre-scale macroporous mesh electronics through needles with a diameter as small as 100 μm. Our results show that electronic components can be injected into man-made and biological cavities, as well as dense gels and tissue, with >90% device yield. We demonstrate several applications of syringe-injectable electronics as a general approach for interpenetrating flexible electronics with three-dimensional structures, including (1) monitoring internal mechanical strains in polymer cavities, (2) tight integration and low chronic immunoreactivity with several distinct regions of the brain, and (3) in vivo multiplexed neural recording. Moreover, syringe injection enables the delivery of flexible electronics through a rigid shell, the delivery of large-volume flexible electronics that can fill internal cavities, and co-injection of electronics with other materials into host structures, opening up unique applications for flexible electronics.

  14. Water Injected Turbomachinery

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hendricks, R. C.; Shouse, D. T.; Roquemore, W. M.

    2005-01-01

    From antiquity, water has been a source of cooling, lubrication, and power for energy transfer devices. More recent applications in gas turbines demonstrate an added facet, emissions control. Fogging gas turbine inlets or direct injection of water into gas turbine combustors, decreases NOx and increases power. Herein we demonstrate that injection of water into the air upstream of the combustor reduces NOx by factors up to three in a natural gas fueled Trapped Vortex Combustor (TVC) and up to two in a liquid JP-8 fueled (TVC) for a range in water/fuel and fuel/air ratios.

  15. Exposure assessment of residential mould, fungi and microbial components in relation to children's health: achievements and challenges.

    PubMed

    Tischer, Christina G; Heinrich, Joachim

    2013-03-01

    Each day we are exposed to a complex mixture of microbial agents and components in indoor environments. A major part of this mixture derives from fungal and bacterial origin. The impact between those microbial agents in the home environment in relation to respiratory health in children is still a major issue in research. There is little known about the causal agents that provoke or arrest the development of allergic respiratory disorders in children. Identification is complicated by the biodiversity and variability of microbial components in indoor air as well as the lack of validated and standardized exposure assessment methods. In this review, we aim to consider all important aspects in terms of research which may encounter an epidemiological study. Apart from the need for standardized exposure assessment methods which consider cost, handling and effort, especially for the participants, we suggest that a combination of different analysis methods such as chemical and molecular methods may have the potential to best describe the microbial milieu in indoor environments at present. Further, the impact of mould and moisture remediation activities on health is still heavily under investigated, especially in larger prospective cohorts of children and should be a topic of future research. Moreover, the exposure to mould and microbial agents might be embedded in a broader spectrum of children's health such as behavior and cognitive development. PMID:22704485

  16. Combination of Pichia membranifaciens and ammonium molybdate for controlling blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum in peach fruit.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shifeng; Yuan, Yongjun; Hu, Zhichao; Zheng, Yonghua

    2010-07-15

    The potential enhancement of Pichia membranifaciens by ammonium molybdate (NH(4)Mo) to control blue mould caused by Penicillium expansum on peach fruit was investigated. Combining P. membranifaciens at 1x10(8) cell/ml with 1 mM NH(4)Mo provided a more effective control of blue mould rot than applying the yeast or NH(4)Mo alone. Addition of 1 mM NH(4)Mo significantly increased the growth of P. membranifaciens in peach wounds, but did not affect the population in nutrient yeast dextrose broth medium. The in vitro experiment showed that the combined treatment inhibited spore germination and germ tube elongation of P. expansum in comparison with the treatment of P. membranifaciens or NH(4)Mo alone. Moreover, P. membranifaciens, NH(4)Mo, and the combination of them did not impair the quality parameters including fruit firmness and content of total soluble solids, titratable acidity and vitamin C of peach fruit after 6 days of storage at 20 degrees C. These results suggested that the use of NH(4)Mo is a useful approach to improve the efficacy of P. membranifaciens for postharvest disease control in peach fruit. PMID:20605650

  17. Ink-jet printing technology enables self-aligned mould patterning for electroplating in a single step

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, M. V.; Spengler, N.; Mager, D.; Wang, N.; Kiss, S. Z.; Höfflin, J.; While, P. T.; Korvink, J. G.

    2015-06-01

    We present a new self-aligned, mask-free micro-fabrication method with which to form thick-layered conductive metal micro-structures inside electroplating moulds. Seed layer patterning for electroplating was performed by ink-jet printing using a silver nano-particle ink deposited on SU-8 or Ordyl SY permanent resist. The silver ink contact angle on SU-8 was adjusted by oxygen plasma followed by a hard bake. Besides functioning as a seed layer, the printed structures further served as a shadow mask during patterning of electroplating moulds into negative photoresist. The printed silver tracks remained in strong adhesion to the substrate when exposed to the acidic chemistry of the electroplating bath. To demonstrate the process, we manufactured rectangular, low-resistivity planar micro-coils for use in magnetic resonance microscopy. MRI images of a spring onion with an in-plane resolution down to 10 µm × 10 µm were acquired using a micro-coil on an 11.7 T MRI scanner.

  18. STEAM INJECTION TREATABILITY STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The approach used is to inject steam into 1- dimensional columns that have been packed with contaminated soil from the site. Temperatures in the system are monitored aliquots of the effluent collected for analysis. A sample of the initial soil, the final steamed soil, the effluen...

  19. Talimogene Laherparepvec Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... It is a weakened and changed form of Herpes Simplex Virus Type I (HSV-1 'cold sore virus') that ... injection sites or bandages. This can spread the virus in the talimogene ... signs of a herpes infection;: pain, burning, or tingling in a blister ...

  20. Magnetron injection gun scaling

    SciTech Connect

    Lawson, W.

    1988-04-01

    Existing analytic design equations for magnetron injection guns (MIG's) are approximated to obtain a set of scaling laws. The constraints are chosen to examine the maximum peak power capabilities of MIG's. The scaling laws are compared with exact solutions of the design equations and are supported by MIG simulations.

  1. Intracytoplasmic sperm injection

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... in which fertilization occurs outside of the body. First, egg cells are harvested and transferred to a special media in a laboratory dish. Within a few hours, a single sperm is injected through a fine needle into the center of an egg cell to aid in the process of fertilization. If successful, the ...

  2. Collagen and injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jacqueline T; Perkins, Stephen W; Hamilton, Mark M

    2002-02-01

    Soft tissue augmentation of facial rhytids, scars, and deformities is a frequently performed office procedure. This article reviews the available biologic (collagen, Dermalogen, Autologen, Isolagen, autologous fat, Fibrel, hyaluronic acid derivatives, particulate fascia lata, micronized Alloderm) and alloplastic (silicone, Bioplastique, and Artecoll) soft tissue injectable fillers. PMID:11781208

  3. Pellet injection technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combs, S. K.

    1993-07-01

    During the last 10 to 15 years, significant progress has been made worldwide in the area of pellet injection technology. This specialized field of research originated as a possible solution to the problem of depositing atoms of fuel deep within magnetically confined, hot plasmas for refueling of fusion power reactors. Using pellet injection systems, frozen macroscopic (millimeter-size) pellets composed of the isotopes of hydrogen are formed, accelerated, and transported to the plasma for fueling. The process and benefits of plasma fueling by this approach have been demonstrated conclusively on a number of toroidal magnetic confinement configurations; consequently, pellet injection is the leading technology for deep fueling of magnetically confined plasmas for controlled thermonuclear fusion research. Hydrogen pellet injection devices operate at very low temperatures (≂10 K) at which solid hydrogen ice can be formed and sustained. Most injectors use conventional pneumatic (light gas gun) or centrifuge (mechanical) acceleration concepts to inject hydrogen or deuterium pellets at speeds of ≂1-2 km/s. Pellet injectors that can operate at quasi-steady state (pellet delivery rates of 1-40 Hz) have been developed for long-pulse fueling. The design and operation of injectors with the heaviest hydrogen isotope, tritium, offer some special problems because of tritium's radioactivity. To address these problems, a proof-of-principle experiment was carried out in which tritium pellets were formed and accelerated to speeds of 1.4 km/s. Tritium pellet injection is scheduled on major fusion research devices within the next few years. Several advanced accelerator concepts are under development to increase the pellet velocity. One of these is the two-stage light gas gun, for which speeds of slightly over 4 km/s have already been reported in laboratory experiments with deuterium ice. A few two-stage pneumatic systems (single-shot) have recently been installed on tokamak

  4. Indigenous technique of fabricating vaginal mould for vaginal reconstruction and uterine drainage in McIndoe vaginoplasty using 10 ml syringe.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Brijesh; Janavar, Gaurav; Pradeep, Yashodhara; Singh, Arun K; Kumar, Vijay; Upadhyay, Divya N

    2016-01-01

    Absence of vagina poses multitude of physical and psychosocial problems in woman's life. 10% of Mayer- Rokitansky-üster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome patients with high vaginal septum and vaginal atreisa has additional issue of draining uterine cavity. MC Indoe vaginoplasty is universally acceptable and widely practiced procedure for neocolposis reconstruction. Simultaneous reconstruction of vagina with simultaneous continued uterine drainage presents surgical challenge. We offer a simple solution of creating a vaginal mould using a 10 ml disposable syringe, which enables graft application of neovaginal cavity with simultaneous protected uterine drainage per vaginum. Total 10 patients were included in this study of which 4 needed uterine drainage procedure in addition to neovaginal creation. All the patients fared well, there were no problems regarding graft loss or vaginal mould extrusion etc. Fabrication of mould for graft enables easy dressing changes with out disturbing the skin graft. This innovation offers a simple easily reproducible and cheap way of fabricating vaginal mould for McIndoe vaginoplasty. It is especially useful for neovaginal graft application and simultaneous uterine drainage. PMID:27274126

  5. Indigenous technique of fabricating vaginal mould for vaginal reconstruction and uterine drainage in McIndoe vaginoplasty using 10 ml syringe

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Brijesh; Janavar, Gaurav; Pradeep, Yashodhara; Singh, Arun K.; Kumar, Vijay; Upadhyay, Divya N.

    2016-01-01

    Absence of vagina poses multitude of physical and psychosocial problems in woman's life. 10% of Mayer- Rokitansky-üster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome patients with high vaginal septum and vaginal atreisa has additional issue of draining uterine cavity. MC Indoe vaginoplasty is universally acceptable and widely practiced procedure for neocolposis reconstruction. Simultaneous reconstruction of vagina with simultaneous continued uterine drainage presents surgical challenge. We offer a simple solution of creating a vaginal mould using a 10 ml disposable syringe, which enables graft application of neovaginal cavity with simultaneous protected uterine drainage per vaginum. Total 10 patients were included in this study of which 4 needed uterine drainage procedure in addition to neovaginal creation. All the patients fared well, there were no problems regarding graft loss or vaginal mould extrusion etc. Fabrication of mould for graft enables easy dressing changes with out disturbing the skin graft. This innovation offers a simple easily reproducible and cheap way of fabricating vaginal mould for McIndoe vaginoplasty. It is especially useful for neovaginal graft application and simultaneous uterine drainage. PMID:27274126

  6. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, J.J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality. 5 figs.

  7. Injection-controlled laser resonator

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.

    1995-07-18

    A new injection-controlled laser resonator incorporates self-filtering and self-imaging characteristics with an efficient injection scheme. A low-divergence laser signal is injected into the resonator, which enables the injection signal to be converted to the desired resonator modes before the main laser pulse starts. This injection technique and resonator design enable the laser cavity to improve the quality of the injection signal through self-filtering before the main laser pulse starts. The self-imaging property of the present resonator reduces the cavity induced diffraction effects and, in turn, improves the laser beam quality.

  8. Highly conformal CT based surface mould brachytherapy for non-melanoma skin cancers of earlobe and nose

    PubMed Central

    Kozłowski, Sławomir; Pietraszek, Andrzej; Pietrzykowska-Kuncman, Malwina; Danielska, Justyna; Sobotkowski, Janusz; Łuniewska-Bury, Jolanta; Fijuth, Jacek

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Brachytherapy (BT), due to rapid dose fall off and minor set-up errors, should be superior to external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) for treatment of lesions in difficult locations like nose and earlobe. Evidences in this field are scarce. We describe computed tomography (CT) based surface mould BT for non-melanoma skin cancers (NMSC), and compare its conformity, dose coverage, and tissue sparing ability to EBRT. Material and methods We describe procedure of preparation of surface mould applicator and dosimetry parameters of BT plans, which were implemented in 10 individuals with NMSC of nose and earlobe. We evaluated dose coverage by minimal dose to 90% of planning target volume (PTV) (D90), volumes of PTV receiving 90-150% of prescribed dose (PD) (VPTV90-150), conformal index for 90 and 100% of PD (COIN90, COIN100), dose homogeneity index (DHI), dose nonuniformity ratio (DNR), exposure of organs. Prospectively, we created CT-based photons and electrons plans. We compared conformity (COIN90, COIN100), dose coverage of PTV (D90, VPTV90, VPTV100), volumes of body receiving 10-90% of PD (V10-V90) of EBRT and BT plans. Results We obtained mean BT-DHI = 0.76, BT-DNR = 0.23, EBRT-DHI = 1.26. We observed no significant differences in VPTV90 and D90 between BT and EBRT. Mean BT-VPTV100 (89.4%) was higher than EBRT-VPTV100 (71.2%). Both COIN90 (BT-COIN90 = 0.46 vs. EBRT-COIN90 = 0.21) and COIN100 (BT-COIN100 = 0.52 vs. EBRT-COIN100 = 0.26) were superior for BT plans. We observed more exposure of normal tissues for small doses in BT plans (V10, V20), for high doses in EBRT plans (V70, V90). Conclusions Computed tmography-based surface mould brachytherapy for superficial lesions on irregular surfaces is a highly conformal method with good homogeneity. Brachytherapy is superior to EBRT in those locations in terms of conformity and normal tissue sparing ability in high doses. PMID:27504128

  9. Injection of deuterium pellets

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, H.; Andersen, P.; Andersen, S.A.; Andersen, V.; Nordskov-Nielsen, A.; Sass, B.; Weisberg, K.V.

    1984-09-01

    A discussion is given of the work done at Riso National Laboratory on the design and construction of deuterium pellet injectors. A pellet injection system made for the TFR tokamak at Fontenay-aux-Roses, Paris is described. 0.12-mg pellets are injected with velocities of around 600-700 m/s through a 5-m long guide tube. Next some of the details of a new light gas gun are given; with this gun, hydrogen pellets are accelerated to velocities above 1400 m/s, deuterium pellets to velocities above 1300 m/s and neon pellets to velocities above 550 m/s. Finally, a new acceleration method where a pellet should be accelerated by means of a magnetically stabilised electrical discharge is discussed, and a set up for measuring of the pellet size by means of a microwave cavity is outlined.

  10. Fuel injection valve connection

    SciTech Connect

    Eshleman, E.S.; Field, M.J.; Penwright, J.L.

    1987-09-15

    A fuel injection valve connection is described which consists of a fuel injection valve having a cylindrical inlet fitting. The fitting has a threaded internal surface and a cylindrical external surface. A fuel connector has a projection with a threaded external surface that mates with the threaded internal surface of the fitting. The connector also has a sleeve with a cylindrical internal surface surrounding the fitting and an O-ring sealingly engaging the internal surface of the sleeve and the external surface of the fitting, whereby the valve may be rotated relative to the connector without breaking the sealing engagement between the valve and the connector, and wherein the connector also has a tab engageable with the injector to prevent unthreading of the valve from the connector.

  11. INJECTION-MOLDING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Lobell, G.M.

    1958-02-11

    This patent is drawn to an injection molding apparatus for producing a tube closed at one end wherein the normally unsupported end of the core located in the cavity during the injection of the molten material to fill the space between the core and cavity wall, which supporting means is automatically removed from operation during the forming of the closed end of the tube. This support means is a plug extending through the end of the core into a recess in the bottom of the cavity where the closed end of the tube is to be formed. The plug is spring pressed into said recess and is forced out of the recess by a slidable bushing at the top of the cavity which is moved against the force of the spring by the molten material when it fills the uppormost open end portion of the cavity, thereby permitting the closed end of the tube to be formed.

  12. Injectable nanocarriers for biodetoxification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leroux, Jean-Christophe

    2007-11-01

    Hospitals routinely treat patients suffering from overdoses of drugs or other toxic chemicals as a result of illicit drug consumption, suicide attempts or accidental exposures. However, for many life-threatening situations, specific antidotes are not available and treatment is largely based on emptying the stomach, administering activated charcoal or other general measures of intoxication support. A promising strategy for managing such overdoses is to inject nanocarriers that can extract toxic agents from intoxicated tissues. To be effective, the nanocarriers must remain in the blood long enough to sequester the toxic components and/or their metabolites, and the toxin bound complex must also remain stable until it is removed from the bloodstream. Here, we discuss the principles that govern the use of injectable nanocarriers in biodetoxification and review the pharmacological performance of a number of different approaches.

  13. Snowplow Injection Front Effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Chandler, M. O.; Buzulukova, N.; Collinson, G. A.; Kepko, E. L.; Garcia-Sage, K. S.; Henderson, M. G.; Sitnov, M. I.

    2013-01-01

    As the Polar spacecraft apogee precessed through the magnetic equator in 2001, Polar encountered numerous substorm events in the region between geosynchronous orbit and 10 RE geocentric distance; most of them in the plasma sheet boundary layers. Of these, a small number was recorded near the neutral sheet in the evening sector. Polar/Thermal Ion Dynamics Experiment provides a unique perspective on the lowest-energy ion plasma, showing that these events exhibited a damped wavelike character, initiated by a burst of radially outward flow transverse to the local magnetic field at approximately 80 km/s. They then exhibit strongly damped cycles of inward/outward flow with a period of several minutes. After one or two cycles, they culminated in a hot plasma electron and ion injection, quite similar to those observed at geosynchronous orbit. Cold plasmaspheric plasmas comprise the outward flow cycles, while the inward flow cycles contain counterstreaming field-parallel polar wind-like flows. The observed wavelike structure, preceding the arrival of an earthward moving substorm injection front, suggests an outward displacement driven by the inward motion at local times closer to midnight, that is, a "snowplow" effect. The damped in/out flows are consistent with interchange oscillations driven by the arrival at the observed local time by an injection originating at greater radius and local time.

  14. Alkaline flooding injection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.

    1992-03-01

    The objective of this project is to improved alkali-surfactant flooding methods, and this includes determining the proper design of injection strategy. Several different injection strategies have been used or suggested for recovering heavy oils with surfactant-enhanced alkaline flooding methods. Oil recovery was compared for four different injection strategies: (1) surfactant followed by polymer, (2) surfactant followed by alkaline polymer, (3) alkaline surfactant followed by polymer, and (4) alkali, surfactant, and polymer mixed in a single formulation. The effect of alkaline preflush was also studied under two different conditions. All of the oil recovery experiments were conducted under optimal conditions with a viscous, non-acidic oil from Hepler (KS) oil field. The coreflood experiments were conducted with Berea sandstone cores since field core was not available in sufficient quantity for coreflood tests. The Tucker sand of Hepler field is a Class I fluvial dominated deltaic reservoir, as classified by the Department of Energy, which has been selected as the site of a DOE-sponsored field pilot test.

  15. Injection-induced earthquakes.

    PubMed

    Ellsworth, William L

    2013-07-12

    Earthquakes in unusual locations have become an important topic of discussion in both North America and Europe, owing to the concern that industrial activity could cause damaging earthquakes. It has long been understood that earthquakes can be induced by impoundment of reservoirs, surface and underground mining, withdrawal of fluids and gas from the subsurface, and injection of fluids into underground formations. Injection-induced earthquakes have, in particular, become a focus of discussion as the application of hydraulic fracturing to tight shale formations is enabling the production of oil and gas from previously unproductive formations. Earthquakes can be induced as part of the process to stimulate the production from tight shale formations, or by disposal of wastewater associated with stimulation and production. Here, I review recent seismic activity that may be associated with industrial activity, with a focus on the disposal of wastewater by injection in deep wells; assess the scientific understanding of induced earthquakes; and discuss the key scientific challenges to be met for assessing this hazard. PMID:23846903

  16. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond ... to tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications ...

  17. Interferon Beta-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... interferon beta-1b injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  18. Peginterferon Beta-1a Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS, a disease in which ... peginterferon beta-1a injection at around the same time of day each time you inject it. Follow ...

  19. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week. HBV, inject the medication either subcutaneously or intramuscularly three times a week usually for 16 weeks. hairy cell leukemia, inject ...

  20. Characterization of agar/soy protein biocomposite films: Effect of agar on the extruded pellets and compression moulded films.

    PubMed

    Garrido, T; Etxabide, A; Guerrero, P; de la Caba, K

    2016-10-20

    Agar/soy protein biocomposite films were successfully processed by extrusion and compression moulding, obtaining transparent and homogeneous films. The conformational changes occurred during the extrusion process and the effect of agar on the final properties were analyzed. As shown by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and specific mechanical energy (SME) values, during the extrusion process protein denatured and unfolded protein chains could interact with agar. These interactions were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the secondary structure was determined from the amide I band. Those interactions were supported by the decrease of film solubility. Furthermore, the good compatibility between agar and soy protein was confirmed by the images from scanning electron microscopy (SEM). PMID:27474583

  1. Combined effects of potassium sorbate, hot water and thiabendazole against green mould of citrus fruit and residue levels.

    PubMed

    D'Aquino, Salvatore; Fadda, Angela; Barberis, Antonio; Palma, Amedeo; Angioni, Alberto; Schirra, Mario

    2013-11-15

    Postharvest treatments of potassium sorbate only controlled recently established infections of Penicillium digitatum on Femminello siracusano lemons but did not confer any persistent protection. The loss of efficacy of potassium sorbate to control green mould decay was related to its irregular deposition on the fruit surface, as revealed by environmental scanning electron microscopy of oranges, and to the brief persistence of potassium sorbate residues. When treatment was done at 53°C, the co-application of potassium sorbate with thiabendazole reduced thiabendazole residues in Moro and Sanguinello oranges, compared to thiabendazole treatment alone. However, treatment efficacy against two isolates of P. digitatum (thiabendazole-sensitive and thiabendazole-resistant) notably improved, indicating that potassium sorbate and hot water potentiated thiabendazole activity. Potassium sorbate residues remarkably decreased during fruit storage and were not affected by the co-application of thiabendazole. PMID:23790859

  2. Cardiothoracic surgical site phaeohyphomycosis caused by Bipolaris mould, multiple US states, 2008-2013: a clinical description.

    PubMed

    Vallabhaneni, Snigdha; Purfield, Anne E; Benedict, Kaitlin; Luvsansharav, Ulzii; Lockhart, Shawn R; Pham, Cau D; Pascoe, Neil; Heseltine, Gary; Chung, Wendy; Hall, Emily; Brust, Karen B; Wheeler, Charlotte F; Halpin, Alison Laufer; Park, Benjamin J

    2016-03-01

    Bipolaris mould surgical site infections (SSIs) are exceedingly rare. We describe 21 cases of Bipolaris SSIs in pediatric and adult cardiothoracic surgery patients at ten hospitals in Texas, Arkansas, and Florida during 2008-2013. Median case-patient age was 55 years (range: 3 days-82 years), and 19 (90%) were male. Ten (48%) had coronary artery bypass or valve surgery, and seven (33%) had heart transplantation. Fifteen (71%) had more than one cardiothoracic procedure (median: 3, range: 1-11). Thirteen (62%) case-patients (all 5 pediatric patients, and 8 (50%) of 16 adult patients) had delayed sternal closure (chest closed >1 day [median = 8 days; range: 2-22] following the initial cardiothoracic procedure). Thirteen (62%) had mediastinitis. Median time from initial surgery to positive Bipolaris culture was 20 days (range: 6-497). Sixteen (76%) case-patients died. PMID:26705838

  3. Effects of dog rose and watercress extracts on control of green mould decay and postharvest quality of orange fruits.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Sajad; Hassandokht, Mohammadreza; Javan-Nikkhah, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and IC50 values and total phenolics of dog rose fruits were 72.5-80 μL mL(- 1), 130 μg mL(- 1) and 5.7 mg GA g(- 1), respectively. The Fashand watercress population and dog rose extracts exhibited mycelia growth inhibition values of 45.08% and 37.12%, respectively. The results of in vivo study indicated that the treatment of inoculated fruits with both methanol extracts especially the watercress plant extract considerably controls the citrus fruits decay (Penicillium digitatum) up to 73%. In conclusion, methanol extracts of dog rose fruits and especially watercress plant had the potential to be used against citrus green mould and even for the improvement of postharvest quality of orange fruits. PMID:24896635

  4. The use of mould-templated surface structures for high-quality uniform-lying-helix liquid-crystal alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Outram, B. I.; Elston, S. J.; Tuffin, R.; Siemianowski, S.; Snow, B.

    2013-06-01

    The chiral-flexoelectrooptic effect in a Uniform Lying Helix (ULH) configuration provides a sub-millisecond in-plane rotation of the optic axis with the application of a transverse field. This enables displays with a wide viewing angle without costly in-plane-type electrodes. The salient challenge is one of alignment of the ULH, which is not topologically compatible with uniform alignment surface treatments. Here, we create a micro-grooved surface structure with features on the micron scale by using a replica-moulding technique. When the cell is assembled, the micro-grooves create channels, and using surface-energy considerations, we explain how and show experimentally that the channels align a cholesteric material in the ULH geometry with the helicoidal axis oriented parallel to the channels. The resultant alignment provides a high level of contrast between crossed polarizers and exhibits an electrooptic response with a switching time of the order of tens of microseconds.

  5. The effect of storage time and agroecological zone on mould incidence and aflatoxin contamination of maize from traders in Uganda.

    PubMed

    Kaaya, Archileo Natigo; Kyamuhangire, William

    2006-08-01

    A study to determine mould incidence and aflatoxin contamination of maize kernels was carried out among dealers (traders) in the three agroecological zones of Uganda. The maize kernels were categorized into those stored for two to six months or for more than six months to one year. Results indicate that the mean moisture content of the kernels was within the recommended safe storage levels of < or =15% but was significantly lower in the Highland maize kernels followed by the Mid-Altitude (dry) kernels while the Mid-Altitude (moist) kernels had the highest levels. Across the agroecological zones, Aspergillus, Fusarium, Penicillium and Rhizopus were the most predominant fungal genera identified and, among their species, A. niger had the highest incidence, followed by A. flavus, F. verticillioides, A. wentii, A. penicillioides and Rhizopus stolonifer. There were more aflatoxin positive samples from the Mid-Altitude (moist) zone (88%) followed by those samples from the Mid-Altitude (dry) zone (78%) while samples from the Highland zone (69%) were least contaminated. Aflatoxin levels increased with storage time such that maize samples from the Mid-Altitude (dry and moist) stored for more than six months had mean levels greater than the 20 ppb FDA/WHO regulatory limits. Aflatoxin B1 was the most predominant type and was found to contaminate maize kernels from all the three agroecological zones. These results indicate that maize consumers in Uganda are exposed to the danger of aflatoxin poisoning. Thus, there is the need for policy makers to establish and enforce maize quality standards and regulations related to moulds and aflatoxins across the agroecological zones to minimize health hazards related to consumption of contaminated kernels. PMID:16822572

  6. Identifying risk factors for exposure to culturable allergenic moulds in energy efficient homes by using highly specific monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Richard A; Le Cocq, Kate; Nikolaou, Vasilis; Osborne, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the accuracy of monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in identifying culturable allergenic fungi present in visible mould growth in energy efficient homes, and to identify risk factors for exposure to these known allergenic fungi. Swabs were taken from fungal contaminated surfaces and culturable yeasts and moulds isolated by using mycological culture. Soluble antigens from cultures were tested by ELISA using mAbs specific to the culturable allergenic fungi Aspergillus and Penicillium spp., Ulocladium, Alternaria, and Epicoccum spp., Cladosporium spp., Fusarium spp., and Trichoderma spp. Diagnostic accuracies of the ELISA tests were determined by sequencing of the internally transcribed spacer 1 (ITS1)-5.8S-ITS2-encoding regions of recovered fungi following ELISA. There was 100% concordance between the two methods, with ELISAs providing genus-level identity and ITS sequencing providing species-level identities (210 out of 210 tested). Species of Aspergillus/Penicillium, Cladosporium, Ulocladium/Alternaria/Epicoccum, Fusarium and Trichoderma were detected in 82% of the samples. The presence of condensation was associated with an increased risk of surfaces being contaminated by Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. and Cladosporium spp., whereas moisture within the building fabric (water ingress/rising damp) was only associated with increased risk of Aspergillus/Penicillium spp. Property type and energy efficiency levels were found to moderate the risk of indoor surfaces becoming contaminated with Aspergillus/Penicillium and Cladosporium which in turn was modified by the presence of condensation, water ingress and rising damp, consistent with previous literature. PMID:26546982

  7. Fungicide-Driven Evolution and Molecular Basis of Multidrug Resistance in Field Populations of the Grey Mould Fungus Botrytis cinerea

    PubMed Central

    Mosbach, Andreas; Walker, Anne-Sophie; Fillinger, Sabine; Mernke, Dennis; Schoonbeek, Henk-Jan; Pradier, Jean-Marc; Leroux, Pierre; De Waard, Maarten A.; Hahn, Matthias

    2009-01-01

    The grey mould fungus Botrytis cinerea causes losses of commercially important fruits, vegetables and ornamentals worldwide. Fungicide treatments are effective for disease control, but bear the risk of resistance development. The major resistance mechanism in fungi is target protein modification resulting in reduced drug binding. Multiple drug resistance (MDR) caused by increased efflux activity is common in human pathogenic microbes, but rarely described for plant pathogens. Annual monitoring for fungicide resistance in field isolates from fungicide-treated vineyards in France and Germany revealed a rapidly increasing appearance of B. cinerea field populations with three distinct MDR phenotypes. All MDR strains showed increased fungicide efflux activity and overexpression of efflux transporter genes. Similar to clinical MDR isolates of Candida yeasts that are due to transcription factor mutations, all MDR1 strains were shown to harbor activating mutations in a transcription factor (Mrr1) that controls the gene encoding ABC transporter AtrB. MDR2 strains had undergone a unique rearrangement in the promoter region of the major facilitator superfamily transporter gene mfsM2, induced by insertion of a retrotransposon-derived sequence. MDR2 strains carrying the same rearranged mfsM2 allele have probably migrated from French to German wine-growing regions. The roles of atrB, mrr1 and mfsM2 were proven by the phenotypes of knock-out and overexpression mutants. As confirmed by sexual crosses, combinations of mrr1 and mfsM2 mutations lead to MDR3 strains with higher broad-spectrum resistance. An MDR3 strain was shown in field experiments to be selected against sensitive strains by fungicide treatments. Our data document for the first time the rising prevalence, spread and molecular basis of MDR populations in a major plant pathogen in agricultural environments. These populations will increase the risk of grey mould rot and hamper the effectiveness of current strategies for

  8. Gaseous Fuel Injection Modeling using a Gaseous Sphere Injection Methodology

    SciTech Connect

    Hessel, R P; Aceves, S M; Flowers, D L

    2006-03-06

    The growing interest in gaseous fuels (hydrogen and natural gas) for internal combustion engines calls for the development of computer models for simulation of gaseous fuel injection, air entrainment and the ensuing combustion. This paper introduces a new method for modeling the injection and air entrainment processes for gaseous fuels. The model uses a gaseous sphere injection methodology, similar to liquid droplet in injection techniques used for liquid fuel injection. In this paper, the model concept is introduced and model results are compared with correctly- and under-expanded experimental data.

  9. Reductant injection and mixing system

    DOEpatents

    Reeves, Matt; Henry, Cary A.; Ruth, Michael J.

    2016-02-16

    A gaseous reductant injection and mixing system is described herein. The system includes an injector for injecting a gaseous reductant into an exhaust gas stream, and a mixer attached to a surface of the injector. The injector includes a plurality of apertures through which the gaseous reductant is injected into an exhaust gas stream. The mixer includes a plurality of fluid deflecting elements.

  10. Supercritical fuel injection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marek, C. J.; Cooper, L. P. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    a fuel injection system for gas turbines is described including a pair of high pressure pumps. The pumps provide fuel and a carrier fluid such as air at pressures above the critical pressure of the fuel. A supercritical mixing chamber mixes the fuel and carrier fluid and the mixture is sprayed into a combustion chamber. The use of fuel and a carrier fluid at supercritical pressures promotes rapid mixing of the fuel in the combustion chamber so as to reduce the formation of pollutants and promote cleaner burning.

  11. Deformational injection rate measuring method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marčič, Milan

    2002-09-01

    After completing the diesel engine endurance testing, we detected various traces of thermal load on the walls of combustion chambers located in the engine pistons. The engines were fitted with ω combustion chambers. The thermal load of different intensity levels occurred where the spray of fuel, fuel vapor, and air interacted with the combustion chamber wall. The uneven thermal load distribution of the combustion chamber wall results from varying injection rates in each injection nozzle hole. The most widely applied controlling methods so far for injection rate measurement, such as the Zeuch and Bosch concepts, allow measurement of only the total injection rate in multihole nozzles, without providing any indication whatsoever of the injection rate differences in individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the article allows the injection rate to be measured in each hole of the multihole nozzle. The results of the measurements using this method showed that the differences occurred in injection rates of individual injection nozzle holes. These differences may be the cause of various thermal loads on the combustion chamber walls. The criterion for injection rate is the deformation of the membrane due to an increase in the fuel quantity in the measuring space and due to the pressure waves resulting from the fuel being injected into the measuring space. The membrane deformation is measured using strain gauges, glued to the membrane and forming the Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the temperature compensation of the Wheatstone's bridge and the membrane, heated up during the measurements.

  12. A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production

    SciTech Connect

    Bloß, P. E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jüttner, G. E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Jacob, S. E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Löser, C. E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Michaelis, J. E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de; Krajewsky, P. E-mail: juettner@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: loeser@kuz-leipzig.de E-mail: krajewsky@kuz-leipzig.de

    2014-05-15

    Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process 'all' thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

  13. A wide variety of injection molding technologies is now applicable to small series and mass production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bloß, P.; Jüttner, G.; Jacob, S.; Löser, C.; Michaelis, J.; Krajewsky, P.

    2014-05-01

    Micro plastic parts open new fields for application, e. g., to electronics, sensor technologies, optics, and medical engineering. Before micro parts can go to mass production, there is a strong need of having the possibility for testing different designs and materials including material combinations. Hence, flexible individual technical and technological solutions for processing are necessary. To manufacture high quality micro parts, a micro injection moulding machine named formicaPlast based on a two-step plunger injection technology was developed. Resulting from its design, the residence time and the accuracy problems for managing small shot volumes with reproducible high accuracy are uncompromisingly solved. Due to their simple geometry possessing smooth transitions and non adherent inner surfaces, the plunger units allow to process "all" thermoplastics from polyolefines to high performance polymers, optical clear polymers, thermally sensitive bioresorbables, highly filled systems (the so-called powder injection molding PIM), and liquid silicon rubber (LSR, here with a special kit). The applied platform strategy in the 1K and 2K version allows integrating automation for assembling, handling and packaging. A perpendicular arrangement allows encapsulation of inserts, also partially, and integration of this machine into process chains. Considering a wide variety of different parts consisting of different materials, the high potential of the technology is demonstrated. Based on challenging industrial parts from electronic applications (2K micro MID and bump mat, where both are highly structured parts), the technological solutions are presented in more detail.

  14. Numerical Simulation of the Flow Behavior and Breakthrough Phenomenon in Co-Injection Molding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilinca, Florin; Hétu, Jean-François

    2007-05-01

    A study of the flow behavior during sequential co-injection molding is shown using a three-dimensional finite element flow analysis code. Solutions of the non-Newtonian, non-isothermal melt flow are obtained by solving the momentum, continuity and energy equations. Two additional transport equations are solved for tracking polymer/air and skin/core polymers interfaces. The co-injection model is integrated into the NRC's 3D injection molding software. Solutions are shown for the filling of a spiral-flow mould for which experimental measurements are available. The numerical approach predicts the core advance stage during which the core flow front catches up on the skin flow front and the core expansion phase when the flow fronts of core and skin materials advance together without breakthrough. The breakthrough phenomenon is also predicted. The predicted flow front behavior is compared to the experimental observations for various skin/core melt temperature and skin/core viscosity ratio. Simulation results are in good agreement with experimental data and indicate correctly the trends in solution change when processing parameters are changing.

  15. Rain underscores need for injection

    SciTech Connect

    Stelling, K.F.

    1996-01-01

    Since 1987, steam production totals at The Geysers Geothermal field have fallen and water injection totals have remained quite stable, except for the unusually dry winter months of 1994 when injection fell by a record amount. The heavy rainfall in the first half of 1995 altered the long-term production and injection patterns and underscored the need to increase injection in the field. From January to June 1995, steam production at The Geysers was reduced by 37 percent form the amount produced during the same period in 1994--because the rain increased availability of hydroelectric power. At the same time, water injection in the field rose by 25 percent because more rainwater was available for injection. Consequently, both reservoir pressure and available steam reserves grew, and most power plants that returned on line in the second half of the year produced more megawatts with less steam. This confirmed findings form several injection studies at The Geyser`s.

  16. Precision diagnostic disc injections.

    PubMed

    Fortin, J D

    2000-07-01

    Spinal pain is an important public health problem affecting the population indiscriminately. The structures responsible for pain in the spine include the vertebrae, intervertebral discs, spinal cord, nerve roots, facet joints, ligaments, muscles, atlanto-occipital joints, atlanto-axial joints, and sacroiliac joints. Even though disc herniation, facet joints, strained muscles, and torn ligaments have been attributed to be the cause of most spinal pain, either in the neck and upper extremities, upper and mid back, or low back and lower extremities, disorders of the disc other than disc herniation have been implicated more frequently than any other disorders. Once stifled by misinformation, discography now has applications in a number of clinical settings. While cervical and lumbar discography is well studied and well known, thoracic discography is in its nascent stages of clinical application. The value of discography lies in its ability to produce pain and thereby identify a "pain generator." This allows treatment to be based on the specific cause of pain. The three primary components of diagnostic disc injection are: provocation/analgesia, discometry, and nucleography. Despite the recent exponential growth of noninvasive spinal technology, diagnostic disc injection remains the sole direct method for definitively determining whether a disc is a physiological pain generator. It is clear that discography is a safe and powerful complement to the overall clinical context. PMID:16906185

  17. Analysis of Inadvertent Intradiscal Injections during Lumbar Transforaminal Epidural Injection

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung Mun; Bae, Jin Hong

    2014-01-01

    Background Recently, there have been several case reports and retrospective studies about the incidence of intradiscal (ID) injection during transforaminal epidural steroid injection (TFESI). Inadvertent ID injection is not a rare complication, and it carries the risk of developing diskitis, although there has been no report of diskitis after TFESI. We prospectively evaluated the incidence of inadvertent ID injection during lumbar TFESI and analyzed the contributing factors. Methods Ten patients received 2-level TFESI, and the remaining 229 patients received 1-level TFESI. When successful TFESI was performed, 2 ml of contrast dye was injected under real-time fluoroscopy to check for any inadvertent ID spread. A musculoskeletal radiologist analyzed all magnetic resonance images (MRIs) of patients who demonstrated inadvertent ID injection. When reviewing MRIs, the intervertebral foramen level where ID injection occurred was carefully examined, and any anatomical structure which narrowing the foramen was identified. Results Among the 249 TFESI, we identified 6 ID injections; thus, there was an incidence of 2.4%. Four patients had isthmic spondylolisthesis, and the level of spondylolisthesis coincided with the level of ID injection. We further examined the right or left foramen of the spondylolisthesis level and identified the upward migrated disc material that was narrowing the foramen. Conclusions Inadvertent ID injection during TFESI is not infrequent, and pain physicians must pay close attention to the type and location of disc herniation. PMID:24748946

  18. Effect of electrical field strength applied by PEF processing and storage temperature on the outgrowth of yeasts and moulds naturally present in a fresh fruit smoothie.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, R A H; Nederhoff, A L; Nierop Groot, M N; van Boekel, M A J S; Mastwijk, H C

    2016-08-01

    Pulsed electrical field (PEF) technology offers an alternative to thermal pasteurisation of high-acid fruit juices, by extending the shelf life of food products, while retaining its fresh taste and nutritional value. Substantial research has been performed on the effect of electrical field strength on the inactivation kinetics of spoilage and pathogenic micro-organisms and on the outgrowth of spoilage micro-organisms during shelf life. However, studies on the effect of electrical field strength on the inactivation and outgrowth of surviving populations during shelf life are missing. In this study, we assessed the influence of electrical field strength applied by PEF processing and storage temperature on the outgrowth of surviving yeast and mould populations naturally present in fresh fruit smoothie in time. Therefore, an apple-strawberry-banana smoothie was treated in a continuous-flow PEF system (130L/h), using similar inlet and outlet conditions (preheating temperature 41°C, maximum temperature 58°C) to assure that the amount of energy across the different conditions was kept constant. Smoothies treated with variable electrical field strengths (13.5, 17.0, 20.0 and 24.0kV/cm) were compared to smoothies without treatment for outgrowth of yeasts and moulds. Outgrowth of yeasts and moulds stored at 4°C and 7°C was analysed by plating and visual observation and yeast growth was modelled using the modified logistic growth model (Zwietering model). Results showed that the intensity of the electrical field strength had an influence on the degree of inactivation of yeast cells, resulting in a faster outgrowth over time at lower electrical field strength. Outgrowth of moulds over time was not affected by the intensity of the electrical field strength used. Application of PEF introduces a trade-off between type of spoilage: in untreated smoothie yeasts lead to spoilage after 8days when stored at 4 or 7°C, whereas in PEF treated smoothie yeasts were (partly

  19. Assisted injection among people who inject drugs in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Assisted injection is common among people who inject drugs (IDU), and has been associated with elevated risk for HIV infection and overdose. However, this practice has not been explored in the Asian context, including in Thailand, where HIV prevalence among IDU remains high. Methods Using multivariate logistic regression, we examined the prevalence and correlates of assisted injecting among IDU participating in the Mitsampan Community Research Project in Bangkok. We also sought to identify reasons for engaging in assisted injecting and those who provide this form of assistance. Results In total, 430 IDU participated in this study, including 376 (87.5%) who reported having ever required assistance injecting, and 81 (18.8%) who reported assisted injecting in the previous six months. In multivariate analyses, assisted injecting in the previous six months was independently and positively associated with being female (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] = 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.40 – 4.18), being a weekly heroin injector (AOR = 1.78; 95% CI: 0.99 – 3.20), syringe sharing (AOR = 2.08; 95% CI: 1.18 – 3.68) and soft-tissue infection (AOR = 3.51; 95% CI: 1.43 – 2.53). Having a longer injecting career (AOR = 0.96; 95% CI: 0.94 – 0.99) was negatively associated with assisted injecting. Primary reasons given for engaging in assisted injecting included being new to injecting and lacking knowledge on how to inject. The most common providers of assistance with injecting were close friends. Conclusion We found a high prevalence of assisted injecting among IDU in Bangkok, with females, frequent heroin injectors, those with shorter injecting careers being more likely to engage in this practice. Those who require help with the injecting process are more likely to share syringes, and have skin infections. These findings indicate the need for interventions focused on promoting safer and self-administered injections. PMID:24020370

  20. Evaluation of the impact of viscosity, injection volume, and injection flow rate on subcutaneous injection tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Berteau, Cecile; Filipe-Santos, Orchidée; Wang, Tao; Rojas, Humberto E; Granger, Corinne; Schwarzenbach, Florence

    2015-01-01

    Aim The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of fluid injection viscosity in combination with different injection volumes and flow rates on subcutaneous (SC) injection pain tolerance. Methods The study was a single-center, comparative, randomized, crossover, Phase I study in 24 healthy adults. Each participant received six injections in the abdomen area of either a 2 or 3 mL placebo solution, with three different fluid viscosities (1, 8–10, and 15–20 cP) combined with two different injection flow rates (0.02 and 0.3 mL/s). All injections were performed with 50 mL syringes and 27G, 6 mm needles. Perceived injection pain was assessed using a 100 mm visual analog scale (VAS) (0 mm/no pain, 100 mm/extreme pain). The location and depth of the injected fluid was assessed through 2D ultrasound echography images. Results Viscosity levels had significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.0003). Specifically, less pain was associated with high viscosity (VAS =12.6 mm) than medium (VAS =16.6 mm) or low (VAS =22.1 mm) viscosities, with a significant difference between high and low viscosities (P=0.0002). Target injection volume of 2 or 3 mL was demonstrated to have no significant impact on perceived injection pain (P=0.89). Slow (0.02 mL/s) or fast (0.30 mL/s) injection rates also showed no significant impact on perceived pain during SC injection (P=0.79). In 92% of injections, the injected fluid was located exclusively in SC tissue whereas the remaining injected fluids were found located in SC and/or intradermal layers. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that solutions of up to 3 mL and up to 15–20 cP injected into the abdomen within 10 seconds are well tolerated without pain. High viscosity injections were shown to be the most tolerated, whereas injection volume and flow rates did not impact perceived pain. PMID:26635489

  1. Stability of revex, nalmefene hydrochloride injection, in injectable solutions.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S S; Brittain, H G

    1996-11-01

    The short-term stability of Revex, nalmefene hydrochloride injection, was determined in a number of diluents commonly employed for intravenous use. An HPLC method was used to follow the potency of the diluted solutions, and was fully validated for its intended concentration range prior to its use. Dilutions of Revex were prepared separately in 0.9% sodium chloride injection, 0.45% sodium chloride injection, 5% dextrose injection, 5% dextrose and 0.45% sodium chloride injection, lactated Ringer's injection, 5% dextrose and lactated Ringer's injection and 5% sodium hydrogencarbonate injection. Each admixture was stored at 4 degrees C, room temperature (21 degrees C) and 40 degrees C, with samples being tested after storage at each temperature for 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. Defining stability as the retention of at least 95% of the initial drug concentration at the end of the storage period, it was concluded that the diluted solutions of Revex were uniformly stable for up to 72 h in all of the injectable solutions maintained at either 4, 21 or 40 degrees C. PMID:8933423

  2. Statement on injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    1982-12-01

    Injectable hormonal contraception with 2 longacting steroidal preparations--norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA)--provides an effective means of fertility regulation and has become an important method of family planning. DMPA and NET-EN have several advantages which make them particularly appropriate for some women and acceptable in family planning programs. A single injection can provide highly effective contraception for 2 or more months, delivery is simple, independent of coitus, and ensures periodic contact with medical or other trained health personnel. Currently, DMPA is registered as a therapeutic agent in nearly all countries and as a contraceptive agent in over 80 developed and developing countries. NET-EN is registered as a contraceptive in 40 countries. Administered by intramuscular injection in an aqueous microcrystalline suspension, DMPA exerts its contraceptive effect primarily by suppression of ovulation, but its effects on the endometrium, the uterine tubes, and the production of cervical mucus may also play a role in reducing fertility. DMPA as a contraceptive agent is generally given at a dosage of 150 mg every 90 days. NET-EN when administered as an intramuscular injection of an oil preparation at a dose of 200 mg inhibits ovulation. It should be administered at 8 weekly intervals for the 1st 6 months of use, then at intervals of 8 or 12 weeks. Longterm animal studies with DMPA have been completed mainly on beagle bitches and rhesus monkeys, and similar studies with NET-EN are nearing completion. None of the findings in beagles is considered applicable to human populations because the beagle responds differently than humans to steroidal hormones. None of the deaths among rhesus monkeys was attributable to effects of the drug. Endometrial carcinoma was found in 2 of the replacement monkeys but the number of animals was too small for statistically significant studies, and it is not possible to conclude

  3. Particle beam injection system

    DOEpatents

    Jassby, Daniel L.; Kulsrud, Russell M.

    1977-01-01

    This invention provides a poloidal divertor for stacking counterstreaming ion beams to provide high intensity colliding beams. To this end, method and apparatus are provided that inject high energy, high velocity, ordered, atomic deuterium and tritium beams into a lower energy, toroidal, thermal equilibrium, neutral, target plasma column that is magnetically confined along an endless magnetic axis in a strong restoring force magnetic field having helical field lines to produce counterstreaming deuteron and triton beams that are received bent, stacked and transported along the endless axis, while a poloidal divertor removes thermal ions and electrons all along the axis to increase the density of the counterstreaming ion beams and the reaction products resulting therefrom. By balancing the stacking and removal, colliding, strong focused particle beams, reaction products and reactions are produced that convert one form of energy into another form of energy.

  4. Premixed direct injection nozzle

    DOEpatents

    Zuo, Baifang; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Lacy, Benjamin Paul; Ziminsky, Willy Steve

    2011-02-15

    An injection nozzle having a main body portion with an outer peripheral wall is disclosed. The nozzle includes a plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes disposed within the main body portion and a fuel flow passage fluidly connected to the plurality of fuel/air mixing tubes. Fuel and air are partially premixed inside the plurality of the tubes. A second body portion, having an outer peripheral wall extending between a first end and an opposite second end, is connected to the main body portion. The partially premixed fuel and air mixture from the first body portion gets further mixed inside the second body portion. The second body portion converges from the first end toward said second end. The second body portion also includes cooling passages that extend along all the walls around the second body to provide thermal damage resistance for occasional flame flash back into the second body.

  5. Injectors for Multipoint Injection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prociw, Lev Alexander (Inventor); Ryon, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An injector for a multipoint combustor system includes an inner air swirler which defines an interior flow passage and a plurality of swirler inlet ports in an upstream portion thereof. The inlet ports are configured and adapted to impart swirl on flow in the interior flow passage. An outer air cap is mounted outboard of the inner swirler. A fuel passage is defined between the inner air swirler and the outer air cap, and includes a discharge outlet between downstream portions of the inner air swirler and the outer air cap for issuing fuel for combustion. The outer air cap defines an outer air circuit configured for substantially unswirled injection of compressor discharge air outboard of the interior flow passage.

  6. Viscoelastic-injecting cystotome.

    PubMed

    Teus, M A; Fagúndez-Vargas, M A; Calvo, M A; Marcos, A

    1998-11-01

    This continuous curvilinear capsulorhexis (CCC) technique is for use in complicated surgical cases such as when the anterior chamber is shallow, the red reflex is not good, or eye movements are present. This technique is easier and safer in such cases because it uses a cystotome connected to a viscoelastic syringe. First, the anterior chamber is filled with viscoelastic material using a conventional cannula. The cannula is replaced with a bent needle (or cystotome), and the CCC is performed in the usual way. This instrument allows the surgeon to inject small amounts of viscoelastic material exactly where and when it is needed. The anterior chamber remains deep while the CCC is performed, and the anterior capsule tear is done in a more controlled fashion. PMID:9818330

  7. Propagating substorm injection fronts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, T. E.; Arnoldy, R. L.; Feynman, J.; Hardy, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    It is argued that a series of two-satellite observations leads to a clarification of substorm plasma injection, in which boundary motion plays a major role. Emphasis is put on a type of event characterized by abrupt, dispersionless changes in electron intensity and a coincident perturbation that consists of both a field magnitude increase and a small rotation toward more dipolar orientation. Comparing plasma observations at two points, it is found that in active, preinjection conditions the two most important features of the plasma sheet are: (1) the low-energy convection boundary for near-zero energy particles, determined by the magnitude of the large-scale convection electric field; and (2) the precipitation-flow boundary layer between the hot plasma sheet and the atmospherically contaminated inner plasma sheet.

  8. NIF injection laser system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisoff, Peter J.; Bowers, Mark W.; Erbert, Gaylen V.; Browning, Donald F.; Jedlovec, Donald R.

    2004-05-01

    The National Ignition Facility (NIF) is a high-power, 192-beam laser facility being built at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. The 192 laser beams that will converge on the target at the output of the NIF laser system originate from a low power fiber laser in the Master Oscillator Room (MOR). The MOR is responsible for generating the single pulse that seeds the entire NIF laser system. This single pulse is phase-modulated to add bandwidth, and then amplified and split into 48 separate beam lines all in single-mode polarizing fiber. Before leaving the MOR, each of the 48 output pulses are temporally sculpted into high contrast shapes using Arbitrary Waveform Generators (AWG). Each output pulse is then carried by optical fiber to the Preamplifier Module (PAM) where it is amplified to the multi-joule level using a diode-pumped regenerative amplifier and a multi-pass, flashlamp-pumped rod amplifier. Inside the PAM, the beam is spatially shaped to pre-compensate for the spatial gain profile in the main laser amplifiers. The output from the PAM is sampled by a diagnostic package called the Input Sensor Package (ISP) and then split into four beams in the Preamplifier Beam Transport System (PABTS). Each of these four beams is injected into one of NIF's 192 beam lines. The combination of the MOR, PAM, ISP and PABTS constitute the Injection Laser System (ILS) for NIF. This system has proven its flexibility of providing a wide variety of pulse shapes and energies during the first experiments utilizing four beam lines of NIF.

  9. The cost of unsafe injections.

    PubMed Central

    Miller, M. A.; Pisani, E.

    1999-01-01

    Unsafe injection practices are associated with substantial morbidity and mortality, particularly from hepatitis B and C and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections. These inadvertently transmitted bloodborne diseases become manifest some considerable time after infection and hence may not be appropriately accounted for. Annually more than 1.3 million deaths and US$ 535 million are estimated to be due to current unsafe injection practices. With the global increase in the number of injections for vaccination and medical services, safer injecting technologies such as auto-disable syringes must be budgeted for. Investment in health education and safer disposal will also reduce infections associated with unsafe injecting practices. Safer injecting practices are more expensive than current less safe practices, but the additional cost is more than offset by the reduction in disease that would result. PMID:10593028

  10. Effect of nanoparticles on the structure and properties of an aluminum alloy poured into a mould with the use of a magnetohydrodynamic disk pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katsnelson, S. S.; Pozdnyakov, G. A.; Cherepanov, A. N.

    2015-09-01

    The influence of two nanomodifiers with different compositions during their homogenization in the AL7 aluminum melt and moulding on the properties of the modified aluminum alloy is studied. Experiments are performed with the use of a centrifugal conductive magnetohydrodynamic pump. The melt is poured into a graphite mould with three cylindrical channels 38 mm in diameter and 160 mm long, which are designed for a metal mass of 500 g. Two compositions are used as modifying agents: nano-scale particles of the aluminum nitride powder 40-100 nm in size and metallized carbon nanotubes smaller than 25 nm, which are clad with aluminum to improve wetting of their surface. The analysis of the structure of the experimental and reference samples shows that the use of modifiers leads to refinement of the grain structure of the cast metal. According to the Hall-Petch theory, this effect may result in improvement of mechanical characteristics of the cast metal.

  11. Intraperitoneal Injection into Adult Zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Kinkel, Mary D.; Eames, Stefani C.; Philipson, Louis H.; Prince, Victoria E.

    2010-01-01

    A convenient method for chemically treating zebrafish is to introduce the reagent into the tank water, where it will be taken up by the fish. However, this method makes it difficult to know how much reagent is absorbed or taken up per fish. Some experimental questions, particularly those related to metabolic studies, may be better addressed by delivering a defined quantity to each fish, based on weight. Here we present a method for intraperitoneal (IP) injection into adult zebrafish. Injection is into the abdominal cavity, posterior to the pelvic girdle. This procedure is adapted from veterinary methods used for larger fish. It is safe, as we have observed zero mortality. Additionally, we have seen bleeding at the injection site in only 5 out of 127 injections, and in each of those cases the bleeding was brief, lasting several seconds, and the quantity of blood lost was small. Success with this procedure requires gentle handling of the fish through several steps including fasting, weighing, anesthetizing, injection, and recovery. Precautions are required to minimize stress throughout the procedure. Our precautions include using a small injection volume and a 35G needle. We use Cortland salt solution as the vehicle, which is osmotically balanced for freshwater fish. Aeration of the gills is maintained during the injection procedure by first bringing the fish into a surgical plane of anesthesia, which allows slow operculum movements, and second, by holding the fish in a trough within a water-saturated sponge during the injection itself. We demonstrate the utility of IP injection by injecting glucose and monitoring the rise in blood glucose level and its subsequent return to normal. As stress is known to increase blood glucose in teleost fish, we compare blood glucose levels in vehicle-injected and non-injected adults and show that the procedure does not cause a significant rise in blood glucose. PMID:20834219

  12. Intraperitoneal injection into adult zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Kinkel, Mary D; Eames, Stefani C; Philipson, Louis H; Prince, Victoria E

    2010-01-01

    A convenient method for chemically treating zebrafish is to introduce the reagent into the tank water, where it will be taken up by the fish. However, this method makes it difficult to know how much reagent is absorbed or taken up per fish. Some experimental questions, particularly those related to metabolic studies, may be better addressed by delivering a defined quantity to each fish, based on weight. Here we present a method for intraperitoneal (IP) injection into adult zebrafish. Injection is into the abdominal cavity, posterior to the pelvic girdle. This procedure is adapted from veterinary methods used for larger fish. It is safe, as we have observed zero mortality. Additionally, we have seen bleeding at the injection site in only 5 out of 127 injections, and in each of those cases the bleeding was brief, lasting several seconds, and the quantity of blood lost was small. Success with this procedure requires gentle handling of the fish through several steps including fasting, weighing, anesthetizing, injection, and recovery. Precautions are required to minimize stress throughout the procedure. Our precautions include using a small injection volume and a 35G needle. We use Cortland salt solution as the vehicle, which is osmotically balanced for freshwater fish. Aeration of the gills is maintained during the injection procedure by first bringing the fish into a surgical plane of anesthesia, which allows slow operculum movements, and second, by holding the fish in a trough within a water-saturated sponge during the injection itself. We demonstrate the utility of IP injection by injecting glucose and monitoring the rise in blood glucose level and its subsequent return to normal. As stress is known to increase blood glucose in teleost fish, we compare blood glucose levels in vehicle-injected and non-injected adults and show that the procedure does not cause a significant rise in blood glucose. PMID:20834219

  13. Apatitic connecting rings in moulds of Baculites sp. from the middle part of the Smoky Hill Member, Niobrara Chalk (Santonian), of western Kansas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hasenmueller, W.A.; Hattin, D.E.

    1985-01-01

    Moulds of Baculites sp. are common in the Smoky Hill Member but only five known specimens contain connecting rings that have been preserved because of mineralisation by carbonate apatite. Analysis of four of these specimens suggests that the connecting rings were originally composed of organic material and were mineralised during early diagenesis. Thin sections and scanning electron microscopy demonstrate that the connecting rings had a two-layered structure consisting of a thick siphuncular wall and a thin pellicle. ?? 1985.

  14. One-step in-mould modification of PDMS surfaces and its application in the fabrication of self-driven microfluidic channels.

    PubMed

    Fatona, Ayodele; Chen, Yang; Reid, Michael; Brook, Michael A; Moran-Mirabal, Jose M

    2015-11-21

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) has become the material of choice for fabricating microfluidic channels for lab-on-a-chip applications. Key challenges that limit the use of PDMS in microfluidic applications are its hydrophobic nature, and the difficulty in obtaining stable surface modifications. Although a number of approaches exist to render PDMS hydrophilic, they suffer from reversion to hydrophobicity and, frequently, surface cracking or roughening. In this study, we describe a one-step in-mould method for the chemical modification of PDMS surfaces, and its use to assess the ability of different surfactants to render PDMS surfaces hydrophilic. Thin films of ionic and non-ionic surfactants were patterned into an array format, transferred onto silicone pre-polymer, and subsequently immobilized onto the PDMS surface during vulcanization. The hydrophilicity of the resulting surfaces was assessed by contact angle measurements. The wettability was observed to be dependent on the chemical structure of the surfactants, their concentration and interactions with PDMS. The morphology of modified PDMS surfaces and their change after wetting and drying cycles were visualized using atomic force microscopy. Our results show that while all surfactants tested can render PDMS surfaces hydrophilic through the in-mould modification, only those modified with PEG-PDMS-PEG copolymer surfactants were stable over wetting/dying cycles and heat treatments. Finally, the in-mould functionalization approach was used to fabricate self-driven microfluidic devices that exhibited steady flow rates, which could be tuned by the device geometry. It is anticipated that the in-mould method can be applied to a range of surface modifications for applications in analytical separations, biosensing, cell isolation and small molecule discovery. PMID:26400365

  15. Injectable barriers for waste isolation

    SciTech Connect

    Persoff, P.; Finsterle, S.; Moridis, G.J.; Apps, J.; Pruess, K.; Muller, S.J.

    1995-03-01

    In this paper the authors report laboratory work and numerical simulation done in support of development and demonstration of injectable barriers formed from either of two fluids: colloidal silica or polysiloxane. Two principal problems addressed here are control of gel time and control of plume emplacement in the vadose zone. Gel time must be controlled so that the viscosity of the barrier fluid remains low long enough to inject the barrier, but increases soon enough to gel the barrier in place. During injection, the viscosity must be low enough to avoid high injection pressures which could uplift or fracture the formation. To test the grout gel time in the soil, the injection pressure was monitored as grouts were injected into sandpacks. When grout is injected into the vadose zone, it slumps under the influence of gravity, and redistributes due to capillary forces as it gels. The authors have developed a new module for the reservoir simulator TOUGH2 to model grout injection into the vadose zone, taking into account the increase of liquid viscosity as a function of gel concentration and time. They have also developed a model to calculate soil properties after complete solidification of the grout. The numerical model has been used to design and analyze laboratory experiments and field pilot tests. The authors present the results of computer simulations of grout injection, redistribution, and solidification.

  16. New perspectives on substorm injections

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, G.D.

    1998-12-01

    There has been significant progress in understanding substorm injections since the Third International Conference on Substorms in 1996. Progress has come from a combination of new theories, quantitative modeling, and observations--particularly multi-satellite observations. There is now mounting evidence that fast convective flows are the mechanism that directly couples substorm processes in the mid tail, where reconnection occurs, with substorm processes the inner magnetosphere where Pi2 pulsations, auroral breakups, and substorm injections occur. This paper presents evidence that those flows combined with an earthward-propagating compressional wave are responsible for substorm injections and discusses how that model can account for various substorm injection signatures.

  17. Detection of volatile metabolites of moulds isolated from a contaminated library.

    PubMed

    Micheluz, Anna; Manente, Sabrina; Rovea, Manuela; Slanzi, Debora; Varese, Giovanna Cristina; Ravagnan, Giampietro; Formenton, Gianmaria

    2016-09-01

    The principal fungal species isolated from a contaminated library environment were tested for their microbial volatile organic compound (MVOC) production ability. Aspergillus creber, A. penicillioides, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium chevalieri, E. halophilicum, Penicillium brevicompactum and P. chrysogenum were cultivated on suitable culture media inside sample bottles specifically designed and created for direct MVOC injection to a GC-MS instrument. The fungal emissions were monitored over several weeks to detect changes with the aging of the colonies, monitored also by respirometric tests. A total of 55 different MVOCs were detected and isopropyl alcohol, 3-methyl-1-butanol and 2-butanone were the principal compounds in common between the selected fungal species. Moreover, 2,4-dimethylheptane, 1,4-pentadiene, styrene, ethanol, 2-methyl-1-butanol, acetone, furan and 2-methylfuran were the most detected compounds. For the first time, the MVOC production for particular fungal species was detected. The species A. creber, which belongs to the recently revised group Aspergillus section Versicolores, was characterized by the production of ethanol, furan and 1,4-pentadiene. For the xerophilic fungus E. halophilicum, specific production of acetone, 2-butanone and 1,4-pentadiene was detected, supported also by respirometric data. The results demonstrated the potential use of this method for the detection of fungal contamination phenomena inside Cultural Heritage's preservation environments. PMID:27392938

  18. Worldwide Injection Technique Questionnaire Study: Population Parameters and Injection Practices.

    PubMed

    Frid, Anders H; Hirsch, Laurence J; Menchior, Astrid R; Morel, Didier R; Strauss, Kenneth W

    2016-09-01

    From February 1, 2014, through June 30, 2015, 13,289 insulin-injecting patients from 423 centers in 42 countries took part in one of the largest surveys ever performed in diabetes. The goal was to assess patient characteristics, as well as historical and practical aspects of their injection technique. Results show that 4- and 8-mm needle lengths are each used by nearly 30% of patients and 5- and 6-mm needles each by approximately 20%. Higher consumption of insulin (as measured by total daily dose) is associated with having lipohypertrophy (LH), injecting into LH, leakage from the injection site, and failing to reconstitute cloudy insulin. Glycated hemoglobin values are, on average, 0.5% higher in patients with LH and are significantly higher with incorrect rotation of sites and with needle reuse. Glycated hemoglobin values are lower in patients who distribute their injections over larger injection areas and whose sites are inspected routinely. The frequencies of unexpected hypoglycemia and glucose variability are significantly higher in those with LH, those injecting into LH, those who incorrectly rotate sites, and those who reuse needles. Needles associated with diabetes treatment are the most commonly used medical sharps in the world. However, correct disposal of sharps after use is critically suboptimal. Many used sharps end up in public trash and constitute a major accidental needlestick risk. Use of these data should stimulate renewed interest in and commitment to optimizing injection practices in patients with diabetes. PMID:27594185

  19. Analysis of influence of measurement conditions on repeatable results of thermal diffusivity of ceramic moulds designed for manufacturing the superalloys castings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moskal, G.; Cwajna, J.

    2010-11-01

    The article presents the study results concerning development of methodology for measuring thermal diffusivity with the laser-flash method with special attention being paid to their repeatability. The first stage involved the literature review of the problem determining an influence of variable measurement parameters including presence of graphite coating, error correction methods and laser power. The main part of the study includes evaluation of the sample structure influence. A real ceramic mould of specific porosity and green compacts made after its grinding were examined. Influence of sample thickness and interval between individual laser shots were also determined. The analysis was performed by using the Netzsch LFA 427 instrument designed for direct measurement of thermal diffusivity with the laser-flash method. The material analysed included different types of ceramic moulds designed for manufacturing the elements made of nickel based superalloys. The preliminary study performed showed that the main factor that has an influence on obtaining correct and repeatable results of thermal diffusivity study is proper preparation of samples i.e. using them in a form of directly cut out from the mould, selection of data acquisition time and interval between individual shots. It is especially important in the case of measurements taken at high temperature when radiation mechanism of heat transfer is of basic significance.

  20. Common Rail Injection System Development

    SciTech Connect

    Electro-Motive,

    2005-12-30

    The collaborative research program between the Department of energy and Electro-Motive Diesels, Inc. on the development of common rail fuel injection system for locomotive diesel engines that can meet US EPA Tier 2 exhaust emissions has been completed. This final report summarizes the objectives of the program, work scope, key accomplishments and research findings. The major objectives of this project encompassed identification of appropriate injection strategies by using advanced analytical tools, development of required prototype hardware/controls, investigations of fuel spray characteristics including cavitation phenomena, and validation of hareware using a single-cylinder research locomotive diesel engine. Major milestones included: (1) a detailed modeling study using advanced mathematical models - several various injection profiles that show simultaneous reduction of NOx and particulates on a four stroke-cycle locomotive diesel engine were identified; (2) development of new common rail fuel injection hardware capable of providing these injection profiles while meeting EMD engine and injection performance specifications. This hardware was developed together with EMD's current fuel injection component supplier. (3) Analysis of fuel spray characteristics. Fuel spray numerical studies and high speed photographic imaging analyses were performed. (4) Validation of new hardware and fuel injection profiles. EMD's single-cylinder research diesel engine located at Argonne National Laboratory was used to confirm emissions and performacne predictions. These analytical ane experimental investigations resulted in optimized fuel injection profiles and engine operating conditions that yield reductions in NOx emissions from 7.8 g/bhp-hr to 5.0 g/bhp-hr at full (rated) load. Additionally, hydrocarbon and particulate emissions were reduced considerably when compared to baseline Tier I levels. The most significant finding from the injection optimization process was a 2% to 3

  1. Sensor for Injection Rate Measurements

    PubMed Central

    Marcic, Milan

    2006-01-01

    A vast majority of the medium and high speed Diesel engines are equipped with multi-hole injection nozzles nowadays. Inaccuracies in workmanship and changing hydraulic conditions in the nozzles result in differences in injection rates between individual injection nozzle holes. The new deformational measuring method described in the paper allows injection rate measurement in each injection nozzle hole. The differences in injection rates lead to uneven thermal loads of Diesel engine combustion chambers. All today known measuring method, such as Bosch and Zeuch give accurate results of the injection rate in diesel single-hole nozzles. With multihole nozzles they tell us nothing about possible differences in injection rates between individual holes of the nozzle. At deformational measuring method, the criterion of the injected fuel is expressed by the deformation of membrane occurring due to the collision of the pressure wave against the membrane. The pressure wave is generated by the injection of the fuel into the measuring space. For each hole of the nozzle the measuring device must have a measuring space of its own into which fuel is injected as well as its measuring membrane and its own fuel outlet. During measurements procedure the measuring space must be filled with fuel to maintain an overpressure of 5 kPa. Fuel escaping from the measuring device is conducted into the graduated cylinders for measuring the volumetric flow through each hole of the nozzle.The membrane deformation is assessed by strain gauges. They are glued to the membrane and forming the full Wheatstone's bridge. We devoted special attention to the membrane shape and temperature compensation of the strain gauges.

  2. The RHIC Injection Kicker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, H.; Tuozzolo, J. E.; Tsoupas, N.

    1997-05-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <95 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave solution. The required vertical kick of 0.186 T.m is provided by 4 units, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4× 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a ``C'' cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity ( ~ 100) dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 Ohm characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding >50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Tests indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 Ohm terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the four kicker units for the ``Sextant Test'' and the results from various single-unit tests and operation in beam are reported.

  3. The RHIC injection kicker

    SciTech Connect

    Hahn, H.; Tsoupas, N.; Tuozzolo, J.E.

    1997-07-01

    Beam transfer from the AGS to RHIC is performed in single-bunch mode. Close spacing of the bunches in the collider requires an injection kicker with a rise time of <90 nsec, suggesting adoption of a travelling wave structure. The required vertical kick of 0.186 t{center_dot}m is provided by 4 magnets, each 1.12 m long with a 48.4 x 48.4 mm aperture and operated at 1.6 kA. The kicker is constructed as a {open_quotes}C{close_quotes} cross section magnet, in which ferrite and high-permittivity dielectric sections alternate. The dielectric blocks provide the capacity necessary for the nominally 25 {Omega} characteristic impedance of the travelling wave structure, but impose the practical limit on the peak voltage, and thus current, achievable. Computer studies to minimize local electric field enhancements resulted in a configuration capable of holding {approximately} 50 kV, with adequate safety margin over the nominal 40 kV. Equivalent circuit analysis indicated the possibility of lowering the nominal voltage by operating mismatched into 20 {Omega} terminations without degrading the pulse shape. In this paper, the experience gained in the fabrication of the production units and the results from various single-unit tests and operation of four kickers with beam in the {open_quotes}Sextant Test{close_quotes} are reported.

  4. SNS Injection Foil Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Cousineau, Sarah M; Galambos, John D; Kim, Sang-Ho; Ladd, Peter; Luck, Chris; Peters, Charles C; Polsky, Yarom; Shaw, Robert W; Macek, Robert James; Raparia, Deepak; Plum, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source comprises a 1 GeV, 1.4 MW linear accelerator followed by an accumulator ring and a liquid mercury target. To manage the beam loss caused by the H0 excited states created during the H charge exchange injection into the accumulator ring, the stripper foil is located inside one of the chicane dipoles. This has some interesting consequences that were not fully appreciated until the beam power reached about 840 kW. One consequence was sudden failure of the stripper foil system due to convoy electrons stripped from the incoming H beam, which circled around to strike the foil bracket and cause bracket failure. Another consequence is that convoy electrons can reflect back up from the electron catcher and strike the foil and bracket. An additional contributor to foil system failure is vacuum breakdown due to the charge developed on the foil by secondary electron emission. In this paper we will detail these and other interesting failure mechanisms, and describe the improvements we have made to mitigate them.

  5. Injection nerve palsy

    PubMed Central

    Kakati, Arindhom; Bhat, Dhananjaya; Devi, Bhagavathula Indira; Shukla, Dhaval

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the clinical profile and outcome of surgery for injection nerve palsies. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study of patients with INP who were treated at our institute during May 2000 to May 2009. Clinical, electroneuromyography (ENMG), and operative findings were noted. Intraoperative nerve action potential monitoring was not used in any case. Outcome of patients who were followed was reviewed. Results: INP comprised 92 (11%) of 837 nerve injury patients. Seventy one patients were children less than 16 years. The nerves involved were sciatic in 80 patients, radial in 8, and others in four. Fifty seven patients had power, grade 0/5. ENMG studies revealed absent compound muscle action potential in 64 and absent sensory nerve action potential in 67 patients. Thirty nine (42.3%) of 92 patients underwent surgery. The mean duration since injury in these patients was 5.2 months (3 months to 11 months). All underwent neurolysis. Only 18 patients who underwent surgery had a follow up of more than 3 months. Ten (55.5%) patients had good or fair outcome after surgery. Except for grade of motor deficit prior to surgery, none of the variables were found to significantly affect the outcome. Conclusion: The outcome of INP is generally good and many patients recover spontaneously. The outcome of surgery is dependent on preoperative motor power. PMID:23546341

  6. The influence of the mould cooling temperature on the surface appearance and the internal quality of ESR ingots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubin, M.; Ofner, B.; Holzgruber, H.; Schneider, R.; Enzenhofer, D.; Filzwieser, A.; Konetschnik, S.

    2016-07-01

    One of the main benefits of the ESR process is to obtain an ingot surface which is smooth and allows a subsequent forging operation without any surface dressing. The main influencing factor on surface quality is the precise controlling of the process such as melt rate and electrode immersion depth. However, the relatively strong cooling effect of water as a cooling medium can result in the solidification of the meniscus of the liquid steel on the boundary liquid steel and slag which is most likely the origin of surface defects. The usage of different cooling media like ionic liquids, a salt solution which can be heated up to 250°C operating temperature might diminish the meniscus solidification phenomenon. This paper shows the first results of the usage of an ionic liquid as a mould cooling medium. In doing so, 210mm diameter ESR ingots were produced with the laboratory scale ESR furnace at the university of applied science using an ionic liquid cooling device developed by the company METTOP. For each trial melt different inlet and outlet temperatures of the ionic liquid were chosen and the impact on the surface appearance and internal quality were analyzed. Furthermore the influence on the energy balance is also briefly highlighted. Ultimately, an effect of the usage of ionic liquids as a cooling medium could be determined and these results will be described in detail within the scope of this paper.

  7. Amphotericin B Lipid Complex Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is used to treat serious, possibly life-threatening fungal infections in people who did not respond or are ... tolerate conventional amphotericin B therapy. Amphotericin B lipid complex injection is in a class of medications called ...

  8. Injectable Foams for Regenerative Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, Edna M.; Page, Jonathan M.; Harmata, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    The design of injectable biomaterials has attracted considerable attention in recent years. Many injectable biomaterials, such as hydrogels and calcium phosphate cements, have nanoscale pores that limit the rate of cellular migration and proliferation. While introduction of macroporosity has been suggested to increase cellular infiltration and tissue healing, many conventional methods for generating macropores often require harsh processing conditions that preclude their use in injectable foams. In recent years, processes such as porogen leaching, gas foaming, and emulsion-templating have been adapted to generate macroporosity in injectable calcium phosphate cements, hydrogels, and hydrophobic polymers. While some of the more mature injectable foam technologies have been evaluated in clinical trials, there are challenges remaining to be addressed, such as the biocompatibility and ultimate fate of the sacrificial phase used to generate pores within the foam after it sets in situ. Furthermore, while implantable scaffolds can be washed extensively to remove undesirable impurities, all of the components required to synthesize injectable foams must be injected into the defect. Thus, every compound in the foam must be biocompatible and non-cytotoxic at the concentrations utilized. As future research addresses these critical challenges, injectable macroporous foams are anticipated to have an increasingly significant impact on improving patient outcomes for a number of clinical procedures. PMID:24127230

  9. Urine Pretreat Injection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    A new method of introducing the OXONE (Registered Trademark) Monopersulfate Compound for urine pretreat into a two-phase urine/air flow stream has been successfully tested and evaluated. The feasibility of this innovative method has been established for purposes of providing a simple, convenient, and safe method of handling a chemical pretreat required for urine processing in a microgravity space environment. Also, the Oxone portion of the urine pretreat has demonstrated the following advantages during real time collection of 750 pounds of urine in a Space Station design two-phase urine Fan/Separator: Eliminated urine precipitate buildup on internal hardware and plumbing; Minimized odor from collected urine; and Virtually eliminated airborne bacteria. The urine pretreat, as presently defined for the Space Station program for proper downstream processing of urine, is a two-part chemical treatment of 5.0 grams of Oxone and 2.3 ml of H2SO4 per liter of urine. This study program and test demonstrated only the addition of the proper ratio of Oxone into the urine collection system upstream of the Fan/Separator. This program was divided into the following three major tasks: (1) A trade study, to define and recommend the type of Oxone injection method to pursue further; (2) The design and fabrication of the selected method; and (3) A test program using high fidelity hardware and fresh urine to demonstrate the method feasibility. The trade study was conducted which included defining several methods for injecting Oxone in different forms into a urine system. Oxone was considered in a liquid, solid, paste and powered form. The trade study and the resulting recommendation were presented at a trade study review held at Hamilton Standard on 24-25 October 94. An agreement was reached at the meeting to continue the solid tablet in a bag concept which included a series of tablets suspended in the urine/air flow stream. These Oxone tablets would slowly dissolve at a controlled rate

  10. Low-pressure injection molding

    SciTech Connect

    Mangels, J.A. )

    1994-05-01

    Ceramic injection molding experienced a revival in the 1970s and 1980s with the application of ceramics for gas turbine components. Concurrently, techniques were being developed for the injection molding of powdered metal compositions into complex shaped articles. The impetus for the development of injection molding as a ceramic fabrication process lay in the potential to produce complex-shaped components to near-net shape. In the ceramic injection molding process, ceramic powders are processed to obtain the desired particle size, distribution and morphology and blended to obtain a homogeneous distribution. These powders are then mixed with the organic binders, generally in a heated, highshear mixer at temperatures above the melting point of the organic binders. The injection molding mix is pelletized, cooled and fed into an injection molding machine. The molding mix is reheated to a fluid state and injected under high pressure (7--70 MPa) into a die cavity. The molded part is removed from the tooling after the molding mix has solidified in the die. The organic binders are then removed from the component at temperatures up to 400 C, generally by some combination of wicking and thermal decomposition. Finally, the component is sintered to obtain its final ceramic properties, using conventional ceramic processes.

  11. Computerized Dental Injection Fear Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Heaton, L.J.; Leroux, B.G.; Ruff, P.A.; Coldwell, S.E.

    2013-01-01

    One in four adults reports a clinically significant fear of dental injections, leading many to avoid dental care. While systematic desensitization is the most common therapeutic method for treating specific phobias such as fear of dental injections, lack of access to trained therapists, as well as dentists’ lack of training and time in providing such a therapy, means that most fearful individuals are not able to receive the therapy needed to be able to receive necessary dental treatment. Computer Assisted Relaxation Learning (CARL) is a self-paced computerized treatment based on systematic desensitization for dental injection fear. This multicenter, block-randomized, dentist-blind, parallel-group study conducted in 8 sites in the United States compared CARL with an informational pamphlet in reducing fear of dental injections. Participants completing CARL reported significantly greater reduction in self-reported general and injection-specific dental anxiety measures compared with control individuals (p < .001). Twice as many CARL participants (35.3%) as controls (17.6%) opted to receive a dental injection after the intervention, although this was not statistically significant. CARL, therefore, led to significant changes in self-reported fear in study participants, but no significant differences in the proportion of participants having a dental injection (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00609648). PMID:23690352

  12. Injecting Equipment Sharing in Russian Drug Injecting Dyads

    PubMed Central

    Gyarmathy, V. Anna; Li, Nan; Tobin, Karin E.; Hoffman, Irving F.; Sokolov, Nikolai; Levchenko, Julia; Batluk, Julia; Kozlov, Andrei A.; Kozlov, Andrei P.; Latkin, Carl A.

    2010-01-01

    In this study, we investigated how individual attributes, dyad characteristics and social network characteristics may influence engaging in receptive syringe sharing, distributive syringe sharing and sharing cookers in injecting partnerships of IDUs in St Petersburg, Russia. We found that all three levels were associated with injecting equipment sharing, and that dyad characteristics were modified by characteristics of the social network. Self-reported HIV discordance and male gender concordance played a role in the risk of equipment sharing. Dyad interventions may not be sufficient to reduce injecting risk in IDU partnerships, but a combination of dyad and network interventions that target both IDU partnerships and the entire IDU population may be more appropriate to address injecting risk among IDUs. PMID:19214731

  13. NEUTRAL-BEAM INJECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Kunkel, W.B.

    1980-06-01

    The emphasis in the preceding chapters has been on magnetic confinement of high temperature plasmas. The question of production and heating of such plasmas has been dealt with relatively more briefly. It should not be inferred, however, that these matters must therefore be either trivial or unimportant. A review of the history reveals that in the early days all these aspects of the controlled fusion problem were considered to be on a par, and were tackled simultaneously and with equal vigor. Only the confinement problem turned out to be much more complex than initially anticipated, and richer in challenge to the plasma physicist than the questions of plasma production and heating. On the other hand, the properties of high-temperature plasmas and plasma confinement can only be studied experimentally after the problems of production and of heating to adequate temperatures are solved. It is the purpose of this and the next chapter to supplement the preceding discussions with more detail on two important subjects: neutral-beam injection and radio-frequency heating. These are the major contenders for heating in present and future tokamak and mirror fusion experiments, and even in several proposed reactors. For neutral beams we emphasize here the technology involved, which has undergone a rather remarkable development. The physics of particle and energy deposition in the plasma, and the discussion of the resulting effects on the confined plasma, have been included in previous chapters, and some experimental results are quoted there. Other heating processes of relevance to fusion are mentioned elsewhere in this book, in connection with the experiments where they are used: i.e. ohmic heating, adiabatic compression heating, and alpha-particle heating in Chapter 3 by H.P. Furth; more ohmic heating in Chapter 7, and shock-implosion heating, laser heating, and relativistic-electron beam heating in Chapter 8, both by W. E. Quinn. These methods are relatively straightforward in

  14. Noise analysis of injection-locked semiconductor injection lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Schunk, N.; Peterman, K.

    1986-05-01

    The noise of injection-locked semiconductor lasers is analyzed by rate equations including the spontaneous emission noise. The side mode suppression and the relative intensity noise (RIN) of the locked laser (slave laser) are given for different wavelengths detuning between the master and slave laser and for different linewidth enhancement factors ..cap alpha... For large ..cap alpha.., locking is difficult to achieve, whereas extremely low noise may be obtained for injection-locked lasers with a low linewidth enhancement factor.

  15. Ceramic injection molding material analysis, modeling and injection molding simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, D.; Messingschlager, S.

    2014-05-01

    In comparison to unfilled polymers, a ceramic feedstocks has a very high viscosity, a very high heat conductivity and a different pvT-behavior. So far standard simulation tools for plastic injection molding are capable of simulating unfilled or fiber filled compounds with their typical low viscosity and heat conductivity etc. but not for very high ceramic powder filled polymers. This article shows an approach of preparing and adding ceramic feedstocks to standard injection molding tools. Two different feedstocks are used.

  16. The Case for Synthetic Injectables.

    PubMed

    Joseph, John H

    2015-11-01

    There are several different classes of synthetic dermal fillers and volume enhancers including semipermanent and permanent products available in the United States. Based on clinical and scientific evidence, this article reviews the chemical and polymeric properties, clinical data, patient selection, indications for use, injection technique, and adverse event profiles of permanent synthetic injectables currently used in clinical practice in the United States: medical-grade liquid injectable silicone and polymethyl methacrylate. Understanding the unique characteristics of these two products reinforces the advantages and disadvantages of each, including under what circumstances they should be used and why they perform the way they do. PMID:26505540

  17. Non-plugging injection valve

    DOEpatents

    Carey, Jr., Henry S.

    1985-01-01

    A valve for injecting fluid into a conduit carrying a slurry subject to separation to form deposits capable of plugging openings into the conduit. The valve comprises a valve body that is sealed to the conduit about an aperture formed through the wall of the conduit to receive the fluid to be injected and the valve member of the valve includes a punch portion that extends through the injection aperture to the flow passage, when the valve is closed, to provide a clear channel into the conduit, when the valve is opened, through deposits which might have formed on portions of the valve adjacent the conduit.

  18. Injection nozzle for a turbomachine

    DOEpatents

    Uhm, Jong Ho; Johnson, Thomas Edward; Kim, Kwanwoo

    2012-09-11

    A turbomachine includes a compressor, a combustor operatively connected to the compressor, an end cover mounted to the combustor, and an injection nozzle assembly operatively connected to the combustor. The injection nozzle assembly includes a first end portion that extends to a second end portion, and a plurality of tube elements provided at the second end portion. Each of the plurality of tube elements defining a fluid passage includes a body having a first end section that extends to a second end section. The second end section projects beyond the second end portion of the injection nozzle assembly.

  19. Particles in small volume injections.

    PubMed

    Taylor, S A; Spence, J

    1983-12-01

    The level of particulate contamination in small volume injections has been examined using the light blockage (HIAC) and electrical sensing zone (Coulter counter) techniques, the HIAC system being found to be the more suitable. Particle counts on the same batch of injection showed a large and variable difference between the HIAC and the Coulter counter results, especially below 5 micron. None of the injections examined complied with the British Pharmacopoeia limits for particulates in large volume parenterals, suggesting the unsuitability of the limits for small volume parenterals. PMID:6141237

  20. The Effects of Temperature Variation on the Sensitivity to Pesticides: a Study on the Slime Mould Dictyostelium discoideum (Protozoa).

    PubMed

    Amaroli, Andrea

    2015-07-01

    Slime moulds live in agricultural ecosystems, where they play an important role in the soil fertilization and in the battle against crop pathogens. In an agricultural soil, the amoebae are exposed to different stress factors such as pesticides and weather conditions. The use of pesticides increased up from 0.49 kg per hectare in 1961 to 2 kg in 2004, and the global greenhouse gas emission has grown 70% between 1970 and 2004 leading to a global fluctuation of average surface temperature. Therefore, the European Directive 2009/128/EC has led to a new approach to agriculture, with the transition from an old concept based on high use of pesticides and fossil fuels to an agriculture aware of biodiversity and health issues. We studied the effects of temperature variations and pesticides on Dictyostelium discoideum. We measured the fission rate, the ability to differentiate and the markers of stress such as the activity and presence of pseudocholinesterase and the presence of heat shock protein 70. Our results highlight how the sensitivity to zinc, aluminium, silver, copper, cadmium, mercury, diazinon and dicofol changes for a 2 °C variation from nothing/low to critical. Our work suggests considering, in future regulations, about the use of pesticides as their toxic effect on non-target organisms is strongly influenced by climate temperatures. In addition, there is a need for a new consideration of the protozoa, which takes into account recent researches about the presence in this microorganism of classical neurotransmitters that, similar to those in animals, make protozoa an innocent target of neurotoxic pesticides in the battle against the pest crops. PMID:25515424

  1. Fabrication of anti-adhesion surfaces on aluminium substrates of rubber plastic moulds using electrolysis plasma treatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Jianbing; Dong, Xiaojuan; Wei, Xiuting; Yin, Zhanmin

    2015-04-01

    An anti-adhesion surface with a water contact angle of 167° was fabricated on aluminium samples of rubber plastic moulds by electrolysis plasma treatment using mixed electrolytes of C6H5O7(NH4)3 and Na2SO4, followed by fluorination. To optimise the fabrication conditions, several important processing parameters such as the discharge voltage, discharge time, concentrations of supporting electrolyte and stearic acid ethanol solution were examined systematically. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse surfaces morphology, micrometer scale pits, and protrusions were found on the surface, with numerous nanometer mastoids contained in the protrusions. These binary micro/nano-scale structures, which are similar to the micro-structures of soil-burrowing animals, play a critical role in achieving low adhesion properties. Otherwise, the anti-adhesion behaviours of the resulting samples were analysed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), electrons probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), optical contact angle meter, digital Vickers microhardness (Hv) tester, and electronic universal testing. The results show that the electrolysis plasma treatment does not require complex processing parameters, using a simple device, and is an environment-friendly and effective method. Under the optimised conditions, the contact angle (CA) for the modified anti-adhesion surface is up to 167°, the sliding angle (SA) is less than 2°, roughness of the sample surface is only 0.409μm. Moreover, the adhesion force and Hv are 0. 9KN and 385, respectively.

  2. Fabrication of anti-adhesion surfaces on aluminium substrates of rubber plastic moulds using electrolysis plasma treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Jianbing Dong, Xiaojuan; Wei, Xiuting; Yin, Zhanmin

    2015-04-15

    An anti-adhesion surface with a water contact angle of 167° was fabricated on aluminium samples of rubber plastic moulds by electrolysis plasma treatment using mixed electrolytes of C{sub 6}H{sub 5}O{sub 7}(NH{sub 4}){sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, followed by fluorination. To optimise the fabrication conditions, several important processing parameters such as the discharge voltage, discharge time, concentrations of supporting electrolyte and stearic acid ethanol solution were examined systematically. Using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to analyse surfaces morphology, micrometer scale pits, and protrusions were found on the surface, with numerous nanometer mastoids contained in the protrusions. These binary micro/nano-scale structures, which are similar to the micro-structures of soil-burrowing animals, play a critical role in achieving low adhesion properties. Otherwise, the anti-adhesion behaviours of the resulting samples were analysed by the atomic force microscope (AFM), Fourier-transform infrared spectrophotometer (FTIR), electrons probe micro-analyzer (EPMA), optical contact angle meter, digital Vickers microhardness (Hv) tester, and electronic universal testing. The results show that the electrolysis plasma treatment does not require complex processing parameters, using a simple device, and is an environment-friendly and effective method. Under the optimised conditions, the contact angle (CA) for the modified anti-adhesion surface is up to 167°, the sliding angle (SA) is less than 2°, roughness of the sample surface is only 0.409μm. Moreover, the adhesion force and H{sub v} are 0. 9KN and 385, respectively.

  3. 3D evaluation of maxillary arches in unilateral cleft lip and palate patients treated with nasoalveolar moulding vs. Hotz's plate.

    PubMed

    Cerón-Zapata, A M; López-Palacio, A M; Rodriguez-Ardila, M J; Berrio-Gutiérrez, L M; De Menezes, M; Sforza, C

    2016-02-01

    To compare the three-dimensional changes occurring in the maxillary arch during the use of modified pre-surgical nasoalveolar moulding (PNAM) and Hotz's plate. A clinical trial including 32 children with unilateral cleft lip and palate (UCLP), 16 treated with Hotz's plate and 16 with PNAM, was performed. Impressions of the maxillary arches were taken: A. prior to pre-surgical orthopaedics, B. before cheiloplasty and C. after cheiloplasty. Models were digitised using a stereophotogrammetric instrument, and geodesic distances were calculated: anterior, canine and posterior widths of the arch, and lengths and cleft depths of the larger and shorter segments. The time and treatment effects were assessed by two-factor anova. A significant effect of treatment was found for cleft depth at the larger segment: children treated with Hotz's plate had significantly deeper cleft than children treated with PNAM. All distances significantly changed during time: the anterior and canine widths decreased, while the posterior width, the lengths and depths of the cleft segments increased. Significant treatment per time interactions was found. The anterior and canine widths reduced more with PNAM between time points A and B while Hotz's treatment was more effective between B and C. The shorter segment depth increased more between B and C with PNAM, and between A and B with Hotz's plate. During pre-surgical orthopaedics, therapy with PNAM obtained the best results in reducing the width at the anterior segment of the cleft. This treatment gave a lower increase in cleft depth than treatment with Hotz's plate. PMID:26404105

  4. Development of a HOG-based real-time PCR method to detect stress response changes in mycotoxigenic moulds.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2016-08-01

    There is a need to understand the mechanism of adaptation of toxigenic fungal species which are able to colonise highly specialised foods such as cured meats where there is a high osmotic stress due to the presence up to 20-22% NaCl during the ripening process. A new tool able to detect changes in stress related genes would be useful to understand the ecological reasons for the ability of these species to grow in specialised niches. In this work a real-time PCR (qPCR) using SYBR Green was developed. Primers were designed from the Hog1 gene involved in osmo-adaptation in fungi. For this, conserved regions resulting from the alignment of 26 published partial sequences of such gene were used. Specificity of primers HogF2/R2 was demonstrated when amplified, producing a unique 131-bp PCR product with a Tm value of 84 °C. The qPCR method showed an efficiency of 98%, R(2) value > 0.99 and a detection limit of 0.7 log Hog1 gene copies. The qPCR method to measure changes in the Hog1 gene expression in relation to growth in ionic and non-ionic stressed environments (using 10-40% NaCl and sorbitol concentrations) was found to be suitable for two mycotoxigenic species (Penicillium nordicum, P. expansum). This assay will be a valuable tool for generating relevant Hog1 expression data from different mould species in relation to different stresses in food habitats. It will also be a good tool for a better understanding of the ability of xerophilic and xerotolerant species to colonise extreme environments. PMID:27052709

  5. New aspects of injectable contraception.

    PubMed

    Phillips, O P

    2001-01-01

    Despite the availability of efficacious and safe contraceptive agents, not all women's contraceptive needs are being met. An injectable contraceptive method offers convenience and encourages compliance, both very important aspects for women seeking ideal contraception. Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) is a long-acting injectable, and is highly effective; one injection provides 3 months of contraception. Drawbacks of DMPA include irregular bleeding and a slow return to fertility. A new monthly injectable contraceptive agent is medroxyprogesterone acetate/estradiol cypionate suspension (Lunelle). It provides menstrual regulation and a rapid return to fertility. The estrogen ensures a withdrawal bleed monthly; however, women with contraindications to estrogen-containing contraception are not candidates for Lunelle. PMID:11294618

  6. Joint and Soft Tissue Injections

    MedlinePlus

    ... possible side effects include infection, tendon rupture and muscle damage. In order to reduce your risk of infection, follow your doctor's instructions carefully and keep the injection site clean. Call your doctor right away if ...

  7. NSLS-II INJECTION CONCEPT.

    SciTech Connect

    SHAFTAN, T.; PINAYEV, I.; ROSE, J.; WANG, X.J.; ET AL.

    2005-05-16

    Currently the facility upgrade project is in progress at the NSLS (at Brookhaven National Laboratory). The goal of the NSLS-II is a 3 GeV ultra-low-emittance storage ring that will increase radiation brightness by three orders of magnitude over that of the present NSLS X-ray ring. The low emittance of the high brightness ring's lattice results in a short lifetime, so that a top-off injection mode becomes an operational necessity. Therefore, the NSLS-II injection system must provide, and efficiently inject, an electron beam at a high repetition rate. In this paper, we present our concept of the NSLS-II injection system and discuss the conditions for, and constraints on, its design.

  8. Penicillin G (Potassium, Sodium) Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat and prevent certain infections caused by bacteria. Penicillin G injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections.Antibiotics such as penicillin G ...

  9. Interferon Alfa-2b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS), to treat malignant melanoma (a cancer that begins in certain skin cells) ... a week for up to 6 months. malignant melanoma, inject the medication intravenously for 5 consecutive days ...

  10. Epidural Injections for Spinal Pain

    MedlinePlus

    ... located outside the dural membrane. Steroids, anesthetics and anti-inflammatory medications are typically delivered in an epidural injection. ... create different effects for patients. Corticosteroids act as anti-inflammatory agents, reducing swelling and nerve irritation to allow ...

  11. Interferon Gamma-1b Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Interferon gamma-1b injection is used to reduce the frequency and severity of serious infections in people ... with severe, malignant osteopetrosis (an inherited bone disease). Interferon gamma-1b is in a class of medications ...

  12. Midface volumization with injectable fillers.

    PubMed

    Tan, Marietta; Kontis, Theda C

    2015-05-01

    The aging midface has long been overlooked in cosmetic surgery. Our understanding of facial aging in terms of 3 dimensions has placed increased importance on volume restoration. Although an "off-label" indication for most fillers in this facial region, volumization of the midface with injectable fillers is usually a safe and straightforward procedure technically. Injectors, nevertheless, need to have an excellent understanding of facial anatomy and the characteristics of the injected products should problems arise. PMID:25921573

  13. Hemodynamics of a hydrodynamic injection

    PubMed Central

    Kanefuji, Tsutomu; Yokoo, Takeshi; Suda, Takeshi; Abe, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Kenya; Liu, Dexi

    2014-01-01

    The hemodynamics during a hydrodynamic injection were evaluated using cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) and fluoroscopic imaging. The impacts of hydrodynamic (5 seconds) and slow (60 seconds) injections into the tail veins of mice were compared using 9% body weight of a phase-contrast medium. Hydrodynamically injected solution traveled to the heart and drew back to the hepatic veins (HV), which led to liver expansion and a trace amount of spillover into the portal vein (PV). The liver volumes peaked at 165.6 ± 13.3% and 165.5 ± 11.9% of the original liver volumes in the hydrodynamic and slow injections, respectively. Judging by the intensity of the CBCT images at the PV, HV, right atrium, liver parenchyma (LP), and the inferior vena cava (IVC) distal to the HV conjunction, the slow injection resulted in the higher intensity at PV than at LP. In contrast, a significantly higher intensity was observed in LP after hydrodynamic injection in comparison with that of PV, suggesting that the liver took up the iodine from the blood flow. These results suggest that the enlargement speed of the liver, rather than the expanded volume, primarily determines the efficiency of hydrodynamic delivery to the liver. PMID:26015971

  14. Adaptive engine injection for emissions reduction

    DOEpatents

    Reitz, Rolf D. : Sun, Yong

    2008-12-16

    NOx and soot emissions from internal combustion engines, and in particular compression ignition (diesel) engines, are reduced by varying fuel injection timing, fuel injection pressure, and injected fuel volume between low and greater engine loads. At low loads, fuel is injected during one or more low-pressure injections occurring at low injection pressures between the start of the intake stroke and approximately 40 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke. At higher loads, similar injections are used early in each combustion cycle, in addition to later injections which preferably occur between about 90 degrees before top dead center during the compression stroke, and about 90 degrees after top dead center during the expansion stroke (and which most preferably begin at or closely adjacent the end of the compression stroke). These later injections have higher injection pressure, and also lower injected fuel volume, than the earlier injections.

  15. Fluid injection and induced seismicity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kendall, Michael; Verdon, James

    2016-04-01

    The link between fluid injection, or extraction, and induced seismicity has been observed in reservoirs for many decades. In fact spatial mapping of low magnitude events is routinely used to estimate a stimulated reservoir volume. However, the link between subsurface fluid injection and larger felt seismicity is less clear and has attracted recent interest with a dramatic increase in earthquakes associated with the disposal of oilfield waste fluids. In a few cases, hydraulic fracturing has also been linked to induced seismicity. Much can be learned from past case-studies of induced seismicity so that we can better understand the risks posed. Here we examine 12 case examples and consider in particular controls on maximum event size, lateral event distributions, and event depths. Our results suggest that injection volume is a better control on maximum magnitude than past, natural seismicity in a region. This might, however, simply reflect the lack of baseline monitoring and/or long-term seismic records in certain regions. To address this in the UK, the British Geological Survey is leading the deployment of monitoring arrays in prospective shale gas areas in Lancashire and Yorkshire. In most cases, seismicity is generally located in close vicinity to the injection site. However, in some cases, the nearest events are up to 5km from the injection point. This gives an indication of the minimum radius of influence of such fluid injection projects. The most distant events are never more than 20km from the injection point, perhaps implying a maximum radius of influence. Some events are located in the target reservoir, but most occur below the injection depth. In fact, most events lie in the crystalline basement underlying the sedimentary rocks. This suggests that induced seismicity may not pose a leakage risk for fluid migration back to the surface, as it does not impact caprock integrity. A useful application for microseismic data is to try and forecast induced seismicity

  16. Characterization of phase development in non-isothermally annealed mould-cast and heat-treated Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Vlach, M. Stulikova, I.; Smola, B.; Zaludova, N.

    2010-12-15

    The effect of Mn addition on microstructure and mechanical properties during isochronal annealing in the temperature range of 20 deg. C - 570 deg. C of the mould-cast and heat-treated Al-Sc-Zr alloys with a various content of Mn and Zr was studied. The electrical resistometry together with the microhardness (HV0.3) measurements were compared to microstructure development. The microstructure development was examined by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy and electron diffraction. Relative resistivity changes and the microhardness of the mould-cast and heat-treated Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys exhibit similar dependence on annealing temperature. Precipitation of the Al{sub 3}Sc particles is responsible for the peak microhardness in all these alloys. The microhardness decrease is slightly delayed during the isochronal annealing and during the high temperature heat treatment in the mould-cast alloy with the higher Zr-content due to a higher oversaturation of Zr. The decomposition sequence of the oversaturated solid solution of the studied Al-Mn-Sc-Zr alloys is compatible with the recently published decomposition sequence of the Al-Sc-Zr system and also with the formation of Mn,Fe-containing particles. It seems very probable that the addition of Mn does not influence the decomposition of solid solution of the ternary Al-Sc-Zr system. - Research Highlights: {yields} Al{sub 3}Sc particles are responsible for the peak microhardness in all the studied alloys. {yields} The microhardness decrease is delayed in the alloy with the higher Zr-content. {yields} The peak hardening of the heat-treated alloys is shifted to higher temperatures. {yields} Mn does not influence the decomposition sequence of the Al-Sc-Zr system.

  17. A feasibility study for using ABS plastic and a low-cost 3D printer for patient-specific brachytherapy mould design.

    PubMed

    Harris, Benjamin D; Nilsson, Sanna; Poole, Christopher M

    2015-09-01

    This feasibility study aims to determine if a low-cost 3D printer (BitsFromBytes 3D Touch) with ABS plastic can print custom mould structures and catheter channels defined in a brachytherapy treatment planning system (Nucletron Oncentra) for patient-specific treatment. Printer accuracy was evaluated through physical measurement, and print quality was investigated by adjusting print parameters (print speed, layer thickness, percentage infill). Catheter positioning and reproducibility were measured over repeated insertions. ABS plastic water equivalency was investigated by comparing Ir-192 HDR source dose distributions, measured with radiochromic film, in ABS plastic and in water. Structures and catheter channels were printed accurately to within 0.5 mm laterally and 1 mm in the vertical print direction. Adjusting print parameters could reduce print time, albeit with reduced print quality. 3.5 mm channel diameters allowed for easy catheter insertion. Catheter positioning was reproducible to within 0.5 mm but, because of catheter flex within the channel, was on average 1 mm offset from defined TPS positions. This offset could be accounted for by repeating the treatment planning CT scan with the printed mould positioned on the patient. Dose attenuation in ABS plastic and in water was equivalent to within the measurement limitations. While clinical uses for this particular low-cost printer and ABS plastic are limited by print size restrictions and non-certification for biocompatibility, it has been demonstrated that a low-cost 3D printer set-up can accurately create custom moulds and catheter channels potentially acceptable for clinical use. PMID:26108891

  18. Influence of post-harvest application rates of cyprodinil, treatment time and temperature on residue levels and efficacy in controlling green mould on 'Valencia' oranges.

    PubMed

    Schirra, Mario; D'Aquino, Salvatore; Cabras, Paolo; Angioni, Alberto

    2009-07-01

    The effectiveness of heat treatments with water and cyprodinil in controlling post-harvest green mould caused by Penicillium digitatum was investigated on artificially inoculated 'Valencia' oranges. Residue levels of cyprodinil were determined in the oranges as a function of active ingredient concentration, temperature and treatment time. Cyprodinil residues were significantly dependent on treatment time when applied at 600 mg l(-1) and 20 degrees C, but not when fruit were treated at 150-300 mg l(-1). The application of cyprodinil at 50 or 100 mg l(-1) at 55 degrees C for 30 s produced similar residue levels, while residues increased when the application rate was 150 mg l(-1). Cyprodinil at 100 mg l(-1) and 60 degrees C produced a significant increase in residues compared to treatment at 50 mg l(-1); no significant increase in residues was found when the application rate was raised from 100 to 150 mg l(-1). In comparison to treatments performed at 20 degrees C, the application of a heated cyprodinil mixture resulted in significantly higher residues in fruit. All treatments with cyprodinil at 20 degrees C similarly reduced green mould after 7 days of storage at 20 degrees C. After 18 days, treatment with cyprodinil at 600 mg l(-1) for 30 s was more effective than at 150-300 mg l(-1). When dip time was extended to 90 or 180 s, treatment efficacy was positively related to fungicide concentration. Treatments with water at 55 degrees C for 30 s were as effective as cyprodinil at 50-100 mg l(-1), but less effective than cyprodinil at 150 mg l(-1). After 7 days, treatment with water or cyprodinil at 50-150 mg l(-1) and 60 degrees C were equally effective in controlling green mould; while, after 18 days, treatment with cyprodinil at 150 mg l(-1) was consistently more effective than at 50-100 mg l(-1) or hot water alone. PMID:19680978

  19. Use of NH4Cl-H2O Analogue Castings to Model Aspects of Continuous Casting. Part 1; Asymmetry in Inclined Moulds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jang, J.; Hellawell, A.

    1991-01-01

    Crystallisation of NH4Cl from aqueous solutions has been used to examine grain formation in a configuration similar to that existing in the curved mould of a continuous, steel casting machine. The observations show how falling equiaxed crystals accumulate at the lower (outer) columnar front earlier than at the upper (inner) front and, thus, lead to an asymmetric grain structure. The usefulness of the aqueous system as a realistic model for steel casting is discussed in terms of relative temperature profiles, materials properties, and observed columnar and eutectic growth rates.

  20. Mapping the structural requirements of inducers and substrates for decarboxylation of weak acid preservatives by the food spoilage mould Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Malcolm; Plumridge, Andrew; Pleasants, Mike W; Novodvorska, Michaela; Baker-Glenn, Charles A G; Pattenden, Gerald; Archer, David B

    2012-07-16

    Moulds are able to cause spoilage in preserved foods through degradation of the preservatives using the Pad-decarboxylation system. This causes, for example, decarboxylation of the preservative sorbic acid to 1,3-pentadiene, a volatile compound with a kerosene-like odour. Neither the natural role of this system nor the range of potential substrates has yet been reported. The Pad-decarboxylation system, encoded by a gene cluster in germinating spores of the mould Aspergillus niger, involves activity by two decarboxylases, PadA1 and OhbA1, and a regulator, SdrA, acting pleiotropically on sorbic acid and cinnamic acid. The structural features of compounds important for the induction of Pad-decarboxylation at both transcriptional and functionality levels were investigated by rtPCR and GCMS. Sorbic and cinnamic acids served as transcriptional inducers but ferulic, coumaric and hexanoic acids did not. 2,3,4,5,6-Pentafluorocinnamic acid was a substrate for the enzyme but had no inducer function; it was used to distinguish induction and competence for decarboxylation in combination with the analogue chemicals. The structural requirements for the substrates of the Pad-decarboxylation system were probed using a variety of sorbic and cinnamic acid analogues. High decarboxylation activity, ~100% conversion of 1mM substrates, required a mono-carboxylic acid with an alkenyl double bond in the trans (E)-configuration at position C2, further unsaturation at C4, and an overall molecular length between 6.5Å and 9Å. Polar groups on the phenyl ring of cinnamic acid abolished activity (no conversion). Furthermore, several compounds were shown to block Pad-decarboxylation. These compounds, primarily aldehyde analogues of active substrates, may serve to reduce food spoilage by moulds such as A. niger. The possible ecological role of Pad-decarboxylation of spore self-inhibitors is unlikely and the most probable role for Pad-decarboxylation is to remove cinnamic acid-type inhibitors from