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Sample records for injection nebulizer din

  1. Measurement of elemental speciation by liquid chromatography -- inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LC-ICP-MS) with the direct injection nebulizer (DIN)

    SciTech Connect

    Shum, S.

    1993-05-01

    This thesis is divided into 4 parts: elemental speciation, speciation of mercury and lead compounds by microbore column LC-ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization, spatially resolved measurements of size and velocity distributions of aerosol droplets from a direct injection nebulizer, and elemental speciation by anion exchange and size exclusion chromatography with detection by ICP-MS with direct injection nebulization. Tabs, figs, refs.

  2. THE DEVELOPMENT OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION - INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP/MS) with direct injection nebulization (DIN) was used to evaluate novel impinger solution compositions capable of capturing elemental mercury (Hgo) in EPA Method 5 type sampling. An iodine based impinger solutoin proved to be ver...

  3. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-06-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed, and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methylisobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organometallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts, and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered. 227 refs., 44 figs., 15 tabs.

  4. Evaluation of a direct injection nebulizer interface for flow injection analysis and high performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, K.E.

    1986-01-01

    A direct injection nebulizer (DIN) was designed, developed and evaluated to determine its potential utilization as an effective interface for flow injection analysis (FIA) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopic detection. The analytical figures of merit for the DIN when used as an interface for FIA-ICP-AES were found to be comparable to or better than those obtained with conventional pneumatic nebulization in terms of limits of detection (LODs), reproducibility, linearity, and interelement effects. In the HPLC mode, the LODDs were found to be comparable to those obtained by continuous-flow sample introduction into the ICP, or inferior by up to only a factor of four. Stable plasma operation was maintained for the DIN sample introduction of a variety of pure organic solvents, including acetonitrile, methanol, methyl-isobutylketone, and pyridine. The HPLC-DIN-ICP-AES facility was specifically applied for the speciation of inorganic and organo-metallic species contained in synthetic mixtures, vanilla extracts and a variety of energy-related materials, such as shale oil process water, coal extracts, shale oil, crude oil, and an SRC II. Suggestions for future research are also considered.

  5. MICROSCALE FLOW INJECTION AND MICROBORE HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID CHROMATORGRAPHY COUPLED WITH INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY VIA A HIGH-EFFICIENCY NEBULIZER

    EPA Science Inventory

    A high-effeciency nebulizer has been used for coupling microscale flow injection and microbore high-performance liquid chromatography with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The microscale flow injection system was configured to minimize band broadening between...

  6. Demountable direct injection high efficiency nebulizer for inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    DOEpatents

    Montaser, Akbar; Westphal, Craig S.; Kahen, Kaveh; Rutkowski, William F.; Acon, Billy W.

    2006-12-05

    A nebulizer adapted for adjusting a position of a capillary tube contained within the nebulizer is provided. The nebulizer includes an elongated tubular shell having a gas input port and a gas output port, a capillary adjustment adapter for displacing the capillary tube in a lateral direction via a rotational force, and a connector for connecting the elongated tubular shell, the capillary adjustment adapter and the capillary tube.

  7. Determination of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg in urine using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry with the direct injection high efficiency nebulizer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minnich, Michael G.; Miller, Derek C.; Parsons, Patrick J.

    2008-03-01

    The application of the large-bore direct injection high efficiency nebulizer (LB-DIHEN) for the determination of arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and mercury (Hg) in urine by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is described. The LB-DIHEN is compared with the standard method using a concentric pneumatic nebulizer and cyclonic spray chamber. In addition to the toxicological significance of As, Cd, Pb, and Hg, these elements represent a cross-section of analytical issues including spectral interferences (e.g., 40Ar 35Cl + on 75As + and 98Mo 16O + on 114Cd +) and memory effects (Hg). In this study, the low sample consumption of the LB-DIHEN is used to reduce the volume of urine needed for analysis, and to reduce the volume of final diluted sample required for analysis. Eliminating the spray chamber and reducing the dead volume of the nebulizer reduces memory effects, especially for analytes such as Hg. The Dynamic Reaction Cell (DRC) is used in this study to attenuate the background level of ArCl + in spite of the increase in the solvent load and, in turn, the urine matrix (chloride) delivered to the plasma by the LB-DIHEN. This is the first report on coupling the LB-DIHEN to a standard autosampler for unattended sample analysis. The robustness of direct injection nebulization for routine analysis and the issues associated with automation of the sample introduction process are discussed. Although the figures of merit (sensitivity, limit of detection, and precision) determined for both nebulizers are slightly poorer for the LB-DIHEN than for the concentric pneumatic nebulizer, there is not a clinically significant difference between the results for both sample introduction systems. The accuracy of results is assessed using archived urine materials that are circulated by several different proficiency testing (PT) programs and external quality assessment schemes (EQAS). Results obtained using the LB-DIHEN were within the acceptable range

  8. Nebulizer device

    DOEpatents

    Greenspan, Bernard J.; Moss, Owen R.; Schleiffer, Keith E.; Eick, James L.

    1996-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a portable nebulizer capable of producing a finely divided aerosol having uniformly sized droplets. The nebulizer includes a source of fluid such as a capillary tube coupled to a fluid reservoir to which a high voltage is applied in order to generate the aerosol by electrical atomization. The nebulizer further includes a piezoelectric crystal and a mechanism for deforming the crystal so as to generate the required voltage. The nebulizer further includes a means for mechanical positive displacement fluid control for controlling the amount of fluid atomized. By using electrical atomization to generate the aerosol and by piezoelectrically generating the voltage required for atomization, a nebulizer is provided which may be of small size so as to be suitable for hand-held operations, yet is capable of producing measured amounts of finely divided aerosols which are substantially monodispersed.

  9. Original use of a direct injection high efficiency nebulizer for the standardization of liquid fuels spray flames

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemaire, R.; Maugendre, M.; Schuller, T.; Therssen, E.; Yon, J.

    2009-10-01

    It is of practical importance to lead laboratory-scale experiments allowing a better understanding of the impact of commercial fuels composition on the formation of combustion residues such as soot particles. To this end, a hybrid burner has been designed recently to burn high-speed sprays of small liquid fuel droplets. It consists of a Holthuis (previously McKenna) burner originally equipped with a direct injection high efficiency nebulizer for the atomization of liquid hydrocarbons. A detailed description of this original setup is given in this paper. A priori estimations of atomization and evaporation times and length scales are then proposed and compared with experimental data. Droplet-size distribution measurements obtained in nonreacting conditions using a Malvern Spraytec particle sizer are presented and compared with values estimated by calculation. Cold sprays contours and liquid jet lengths in flames determined by Mie scattering at 532 and 1064 nm, respectively, are also presented. The results discussed in this work indicate that the hydrodynamic characteristics of the sprays generated with our system are relatively independent of the physical properties of fuels leading to comparable flames with identical liquid jet lengths, dimensions, and global structure. This feature facilitates an accurate comparison of flames burning various liquid hydrocarbons, which is of interest to emphasize differences in pollutants emissions and to highlight chemical effects for soot formation analysis.

  10. Nebulizer device

    DOEpatents

    Greenspan, Bernard J.; Moss, Owen R.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention constitutes a portable neubulizer capable of producing a finely divided aerosol having uniformly sized droplets. The nebulizer includes a source of fluid such as a capillary tube coupled to a fluid reservoir to which a high voltage is applied in order to generate the aerosol by electrical atomization. The nebulizer further includes a piezoelectric crystal and a mechanism for deforming the crystal so as to generate the required voltage. By using electrical atomization to generate the aerosol and by piezoelectrically generating the voltage required for atomization, a nebulizer is provided which may be of small size so as to be suitable for hand held operations yet is capable of producing measured amounts of finely divided aerosols which are substantially monodispersed.

  11. Apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization

    DOEpatents

    Olson, Kenneth W.; Haas, Jr., William J.; Fassel, Velmer A.

    1978-08-29

    An improved apparatus for ultrasonic nebulization of liquid samples or suspensions in which the piezoelectric transducer is protected from chemical attack and erosion. The transducer is protected by being bonded to the inner surface of a glass plate which forms one end wall of a first hollow body provided with apparatus for circulating a fluid for cooling and stabilizing the transducer. The glass plate, which is one-half wavelength in thickness to provide an acoustically coupled outer nebulizing surface, seals an opening in a second hollow body which encloses an aerosol mixing chamber. The second body includes apparatus for delivering the sample solution to the nebulizing surface, a gas inlet for providing a flow of carrier gas for transporting the aerosol of the nebulized sample and an aerosol outlet.

  12. EVALUATION OF IODINE BASED IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF HG USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling methods that have been promulgated for measuring stack emissions of Hg from coal combustion sources, however, EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The draft ASTM Ontario Hydro Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-b...

  13. IMPINGER SOLUTIONS FOR THE EFFICIENT CAPTURE OF GASEOUS MERCURY SPECIES USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS) ANALYSIS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently there are no EPA reference sampling mehtods that have been promulgated for measuring Hg from coal combustion sources. EPA Method 29 is most commonly applied. The ASTM Ontario Hydro Draft Method for measuring oxidized, elemental, particulate-bound and total Hg is now und...

  14. THE DETERMINATION OF MERCURY AND MULTIPLE METALS IN DIETARY MATRICES USING DIRECT INJECTION NEBULIZATION INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY (DIN-ICP/MS)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) is a Persistent Bioaccumulative Toxin. Currently, low-level mercury (Hg) and low-level multiple-metals analyses require separate methods. Due to the high costs of performing both types of analyses, research planners often have to choose one or the other. For examp...

  15. How to use a nebulizer

    MedlinePlus

    ... transport. Most nebulizers also work by using air compressors. A different kind, called an ultrasonic nebulizer, uses ... as follows: Connect the hose to an air compressor. Fill the medicine cup with your prescription. To ...

  16. The conventional ultrasonic nebulizer proved inefficient in nebulizing a suspension.

    PubMed

    Nikander, K; Turpeinen, M; Wollmer, P

    1999-01-01

    A study was undertaken to compare the amount of nebulized budesonide suspension and nebulized terbutaline sulphate solution inhaled by healthy adult subjects when conventional jet and ultrasonic nebulizers were used. Ten healthy subjects (5 male; age range, 16-52 years) used two conventional nebulizers: the Spira Elektro 4 jet nebulizer (Respiratory Care Center, Hämeenlinna, Finland) and the Spira Ultra ultrasonic nebulizer (Respiratory Care Center) in a breath-synchronized mode with each drug. The amount of drug inhaled, the inhaled mass, was defined as the amount of drug deposited on a filter between the inspiratory port of the nebulizer and the mouthpiece. The amount of budesonide and terbutaline sulphate was determined by reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. Single-dose respules were used (0.5 mg of budesonide and 5.0 mg of terbutaline sulphate), and nebulization time up to the defined gravimetric output was recorded. The inhaled mass of budesonide varied depending on the nebulizer used, whereas the inhaled mass of terbutaline was unaffected by the choice of nebulizer. The median inhaled mass of budesonide was 31.4% of the nominal dose (i.e., dose of drug in the respule per label claim) with the Spira Elektro 4 and 9.9% with the Spira Ultra, whereas the median inhaled mass of terbutaline was 50% with the Spira Elektro 4 and 52% with the Spira Ultra. It appears that a suspension is generally more difficult to nebulize than a solution and that the budesonide suspension should not be used in conventional ultrasonic nebulizers. PMID:10539706

  17. COPD - how to use a nebulizer

    MedlinePlus

    Most nebulizers use air compressors. Some use sound vibrations. These are called "ultrasonic nebulizers." They are quieter, ... mouthpiece and medicine cup. Turn on the nebulizer machine. Place the mouthpiece in your mouth. Keep your ...

  18. Simultaneous determination of arsenic(III) and arsenic(V) by flow injection-inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with ultrasonic nebulization.

    PubMed

    Karthikeyan, Sathrugnan; Hirata, Shizuko

    2003-01-01

    A dual-column protocol for the sequential determination of As(III) and As(V) is described using inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) with ultrasonic nebulization (USN). This procedure employed a 16-way valve containing two different homemade mini columns for selective preconcentration of As(III) and As(V). One column was filled with Muromac A-1, which selectively preconcentrated As(III) at pH 3 after complexation with ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate (APDC, 0.05%). The effluent of the first column was then passed through the second column, which was filled with an anion-exchange resin to collect As(V). By using 0.6 M sodium hydroxide, both species were eluted sequentially and measured by ICP-AES. Enrichment factors of 136 (17 for micro column x8 for USN) for As(V) and 160 (20 for micro column x8 for USN) for As(III) were achieved with 4 min preconcentration. With the proposed procedure, the detection limits were calculated to be 0.7 micro g L(-1) for As(V) and 0.8 micro g L(-1) for As(III) based on (3 sigma) blank determination ( N=10). The relative standard deviations for 20 micro g L(-1) of As(V) and As(III) were 5.8% and 6.5%, respectively. The recovery for spiked water samples was in the range of 85-112%. PMID:12520450

  19. Nebulization reflux concentrator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, V. G.; Cofer, W. R., III

    1986-01-01

    A nebulization reflux concentrator for removing trace gas contaminants from a sample gas is described. Sample gas from a gas supply is drawn by a suction source into a vessel. The gas enters the vessel through an atomizing nozzle, thereby atomizing and entraining a scrubbing liquid solvent drawn through a siphon tube from a scrubbing liquid reservoir. The gas and entrained liquid rise through a concentrator and impinge upon a solvent phobic filter, whereby purified gas exits through the filter housing and contaminated liquid coalesces on the solvent phobic filter and falls into the reservoir.

  20. Design principles of liquid nebulization devices currently in use.

    PubMed

    Rau, Joseph L

    2002-11-01

    Liquid nebulization is a common method of medical aerosol generation. Nebulizers are of 2 types: jet (or pneumatic) small-volume nebulizer, and ultrasonic nebulizer. Jet nebulizers are based on the venturi principle, whereas ultrasonic nebulizers use the converse piezoelectric effect to convert alternating current to high-frequency acoustic energy. Important variables for both types of nebulizer are treatment time required, particle size produced, and aerosol drug output. There are several advantages to jet nebulization, including that effective use requires only simple, tidal breathing, and that dose modification and dose compounding are possible. Disadvantages include the length of treatment time and equipment size. Design modifications to the constant-output nebulizer have resulted in breath-enhanced, open-vent nebulizers such as the Pari LC Plus and the dosimetric AeroEclipse. Ultrasonic nebulizers generally have a higher output rate than jet nebulizers, but a larger average particle size. Ultrasonic nebulizers can also substantially increase reservoir solution temperature, the opposite of jet nebulizer cooling. Drug concentration in the reservoir does not increase with ultrasonic nebulization, as it does with jet nebulization. Ultrasonic nebulizers have the same advantages as jet nebulizers. Ultrasonic nebulizers are more expensive and fragile than jet nebulizers, may cause drug degradation, and do not nebulize suspensions well. Neither type of nebulizer meets the criteria for an ideal inhaler: efficient and quick dose delivery with reproducibility, cost-effectiveness, and no ambient contamination by lost aerosol. PMID:12425742

  1. 21 CFR 868.5630 - Nebulizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Nebulizer. 868.5630 Section 868.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... breathing. Heated, ultrasonic, gas, venturi, and refillable nebulizers are included in this generic type...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5630 - Nebulizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Nebulizer. 868.5630 Section 868.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... breathing. Heated, ultrasonic, gas, venturi, and refillable nebulizers are included in this generic type...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5630 - Nebulizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Nebulizer. 868.5630 Section 868.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... breathing. Heated, ultrasonic, gas, venturi, and refillable nebulizers are included in this generic type...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5630 - Nebulizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Nebulizer. 868.5630 Section 868.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... breathing. Heated, ultrasonic, gas, venturi, and refillable nebulizers are included in this generic type...

  5. 21 CFR 868.5630 - Nebulizer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Nebulizer. 868.5630 Section 868.5630 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... breathing. Heated, ultrasonic, gas, venturi, and refillable nebulizers are included in this generic type...

  6. Home nebulizer therapy in asthmatics in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Osundwa, V M; Dawod, S T; Ehlayel, M S

    1994-01-01

    We reviewed charts of 50 asthmatic children who were on home nebulizer therapy for treatment of their asthma over a 1-year period. Patients served as their own controls for comparison of the asthma-related variables between periods of 6 months before and 6 months after the initiation of home nebulizer treatment. There was a 74% and 70% reduction in the emergency room visits and hospitalizations, respectively, during the period when the patients were on home nebulizer therapy. We suggest that this form of therapy, if properly used in appropriately selected asthmatic children, will reduce the need for hospital care. PMID:8175625

  7. Chemical breakdown of radioaerosols during nebulization

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.L.; Weber, D.A.; Oberdrster, G.; Drago, S.R.; Utell, M.S.; Hyde, R.W.; Morrow, P.E.

    1985-05-01

    The diagnostic utility of radioaerosols for lung ventilation and lung permeability procedures requires a strong, stable coordinate covalent bond between a radionuclide and a ligand. The stability of the radiopharmaceutical before and after nebulization and hence its molecular size, are an absolute prerequisite for the method to be reproducible. To examine the possible effects of aerosolization on radiopharmaceuticals used for pulmonary imaging, the authors examined the radiochemical purity of Tc-99m DTPA following ultrasonic nebulization, jet nebulization (Dautrebande D-31), and inhalation with subsequent appearance in plasma and urine of dogs. Paper and liquid chromatographic methods were applied to determine radiochemical purity. Chromatographic assays showed a binding efficiency of less than 50% for ultrasonicly aerosolized Tc-99m DTPA. Cooling of the ultrasonic coupling fluid increased the binding efficiency to greater than 95% following nebulization and inhalation. Jet nebulization did not affect the radiochemical purity of the radiopharmaceutical. Ultrasonic nebulization will partially destroy the Tc-99m DTPA complex; cooling the ultrasonic connecting fluid and constant aerosol monitoring are required for consistent, reproducible results.

  8. Glass frit nebulizer for atomic spectrometry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Layman, L.R.

    1982-01-01

    The nebuilizatlon of sample solutions Is a critical step In most flame or plasma atomic spectrometrlc methods. A novel nebulzatlon technique, based on a porous glass frit, has been Investigated. Basic operating parameters and characteristics have been studied to determine how thte new nebulizer may be applied to atomic spectrometrlc methods. The results of preliminary comparisons with pneumatic nebulizers Indicate several notable differences. The frit nebulizer produces a smaller droplet size distribution and has a higher sample transport efficiency. The mean droplet size te approximately 0.1 ??m, and up to 94% of the sample te converted to usable aerosol. The most significant limitations In the performance of the frit nebulizer are the stow sample equMbratton time and the requirement for wash cycles between samples. Loss of solute by surface adsorption and contamination of samples by leaching from the glass were both found to be limitations only In unusual cases. This nebulizer shows great promise where sample volume te limited or where measurements require long nebullzatlon times.

  9. 21 CFR 868.5640 - Medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer). 868.5640 Section 868.5640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer). (a) Identification. A medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer) is...

  10. 21 CFR 868.5640 - Medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer). 868.5640 Section 868.5640 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer). (a) Identification. A medicinal nonventilatory nebulizer (atomizer) is...

  11. Nebulized morphine in the palliation of dyspnoea.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, G

    1997-07-01

    Seventeen terminally ill cancer patients with primary or secondary intrathoracic malignancy complaining of breathlessness were treated with nebulized morphine in doses of 20 mg 4-hourly for 48 h. The effect on dyspnoea was evaluated using the Dyspnoea Assessment Questionnaire. Most patients felt less dyspnoeic after 24 h; the effect was maintained, but not improved upon, after 48 h. PMID:9373577

  12. Feedback mechanism for smart nozzles and nebulizers

    DOEpatents

    Montaser, Akbar [Potomac, MD; Jorabchi, Kaveh [Arlington, VA; Kahen, Kaveh [Kleinburg, CA

    2009-01-27

    Nozzles and nebulizers able to produce aerosol with optimum and reproducible quality based on feedback information obtained using laser imaging techniques. Two laser-based imaging techniques based on particle image velocimetry (PTV) and optical patternation map and contrast size and velocity distributions for indirect and direct pneumatic nebulizations in plasma spectrometry. Two pulses from thin laser sheet with known time difference illuminate droplets flow field. Charge coupled device (CCL)) captures scattering of laser light from droplets, providing two instantaneous particle images. Pointwise cross-correlation of corresponding images yields two-dimensional velocity map of aerosol velocity field. For droplet size distribution studies, solution is doped with fluorescent dye and both laser induced florescence (LIF) and Mie scattering images are captured simultaneously by two CCDs with the same field of view. Ratio of LIF/Mie images provides relative droplet size information, then scaled by point calibration method via phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  13. Reduction of Matrix-Induced Oxide Interferences on Rare Earth Elements and Platinum Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System with Quadrupole Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.

    2013-12-01

    This paper will examine the use of a specialized low-flow desolvating nebulizer system for reduction of oxide mass spectral interferences that can occur in quadrupole inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (Q-ICP-MS). This nebulizer system uses an inert low-flow nebulizer (100 microliters/min) coupled to an inert, heated membrane desolvator for efficient water vapor removal before sample aerosol injection to the Q-ICP-MS instrument. Water vapor from conventional nebulizer / spray chamber systems used with Q-ICP-MS can cause numerous mass spectral interferences. One general example is metal oxides formed from the combination of oxygen (from injected water) with sample matrix components. Two specific examples of metal oxide interferences will be investigated with and without membrane desolvation: Ba and Ce oxides on several low-mass rare earth elements (Sm, Eu, and Gd) and Hf oxides on platinum. Rare earth elements are critically important components of modern electronics (ex. magnets, lasers, cell phones, computers) and platinum is a widely used catalyst. Figures of merit for both a conventional nebulizer/spray chamber and the desolvating nebulizer systems will include operating conditions, interference intensities and reduction factors, background equivalent concentrations (BECs), and instrument detection limits (IDLs).

  14. Reconciliation of Cascade Impaction during Wet Nebulization.

    PubMed

    Solomita, Mario; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2009-03-01

    Cascade impaction is an important tool for measuring aerosol distributions from wet nebulizers; however, results vary depending on laboratory and technique. The focus of this study was to reconcile the contribution of particle evaporation to these reported differences. To measure the effect of evaporation, we compared aerosol distributions from circuits ventilated with humidified air, ambient air, and a nonventilated, standing cloud circuit using low-flow cascade impaction (1.0 L/min). Aerosol distributions were similar for the humidified/ventilated and standing cloud models [mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) 3.4 microm, and 3.6 microm Aero-Eclipse, 5.8 and 5.1 microm Misty-Neb, 3.8 and 3.2 microm Pari LC Plus]. In the ventilated/ambient air model, smaller particle sizes were measured (2.2 microm AeroEclipse, 2.4 microm Misty-Neb, 2.1 microm Pari LC Plus). Techniques of cascade impaction significantly affected measured aerosol distributions. MMAD were defined by nebulizer type and conditions of particle evaporation not by impactor. Aerosol mixing with ambient air caused evaporation and shrinkage of particles, and accounts for differences between laboratories. Patients breathing from nebulizers may entrain ambient air possibly affecting deposition. PMID:19392585

  15. Numerical analysis for the optimum condition of ultrasonic nebulizing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoon; Kim, Jihyang; Ha, Kanglyeol; Kim, Moojoon

    2016-07-01

    To obtain the optimal driving conditions for ultrasonic nebulizing, the capillary wave caused by ultrasound on the water surface was analyzed theoretically. From the possible solutions of Mathieu’s equation, the condition for amplitude diverging with time changes was investigated. The possible ranges of the driving frequency and the vibration displacement for nebulizing were obtained numerically, and the droplet size distribution was obtained in these ranges. The results of this study could be applied to design the desirable ultrasonic nebulizer.

  16. Chemical breakdown of technetium-99m DTPA during nebulization

    SciTech Connect

    Waldman, D.L.; Weber, D.A.; Oberdoerster, G.D.; Drago, S.R.; Utell, M.J.; Hyde, R.W.; Morrow, P.E.

    1987-03-01

    Aerosols of /sup 99m/Tc diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid ((/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA) used for measuring lung permeability and lung ventilation require a radioaerosol delivery system to produce an aerosol with reproducible size and radiochemical purity. To test how well nebulizers meet this requirement, radiochemical purity of aerosols produced with a jet and an ultrasonic nebulizer was evaluated. The activity median aerodynamic diameter (AMAD) and geometric standard deviation (sigma g) of radioaerosols were 0.46 micron (sigma g = 1.6) for the jet nebulizer and 0.70 micron (sigma g = 1.7) for the ultrasonic nebulizer. Paper and liquid chromatographic assays were obtained on the (/sup 99m/Tc)DTPA aerosol solute produced with each nebulizer. The results of these tests showed major differences in radiochemical purity. Aerosols produced in the jet nebulizer consistently showed greater than 90% of the radioactivity bound to the DTPA ligand whereas aerosols produced in the ultrasonic nebulizer showed less than 10% of the radioactivity bound to DTPA. The results support the need to test radiochemical purity of aerosols before using an aerosol nebulizer for pulmonary imaging and clearance studies.

  17. Influence of realistic airflow rate on aerosol generation by nebulizers.

    PubMed

    Vecellio, Laurent; Kippax, Paul; Rouquette, Stephane; Diot, Patrice

    2009-04-17

    Mathematical models are available which predict aerosol deposition in the respiratory system assuming that the aerosol concentration and size are constant during inhalation. In this study, we constructed a sinusoidal breathing model to calculate the aerosol concentration produced by a nebulizer as a function of inhalation time. The laser diffraction technique (Spraytec, Malvern Instruments Ltd., Malvern, UK) was used to validate this model as it allows the aerosol concentration and particle size to be measured in real time. Each nebulizer was attached to a special glass measurement cell and a sine-wave pump. Two standard jet nebulizers (Mistyneb and Microneb), two breath-enhanced jet nebulizers (Pari LC+ and Atomisor NL9M) and three mesh nebulizers (Eflow, Aeroneb Go and Aeroneb Pro with Idehaler) were characterized. Results obtained were consistent in terms of curve profile between the proposed model and the laser diffraction measurements. The standard jet and mesh nebulizers produced significant variations in aerosol concentration during inhalation, whereas the breath-enhanced jet nebulizers produced a constant aerosol concentration. All of the nebulizers produced a relatively constant particle size distribution. Our findings confirm that the concentration observed during inhalation is often not constant over time. The laser diffraction method allows the concentration and size of particles for each unit volume of air inhaled to be measured and could therefore be used to predict the aerosol deposition pattern more precisely. PMID:19150494

  18. Pharmacokinetics of nebulized terbinafine in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots (Amazona ventralis).

    PubMed

    Emery, Lee C; Cox, Sherry K; Souza, Marcy J

    2012-09-01

    Aspergillosis is one of the most difficult diseases to treat successfully in avian species. Terbinafine hydrochloride offers numerous potential benefits over traditionally used antifungals for treatment of this disease. Adding nebulized antifungals to treatment strategies is thought to improve clinical outcomes in lung diseases. To determine plasma concentrations of terbinafine after nebulization, 6 adult Hispaniolan Amazon parrots were randomly divided into 2 groups of 3. Each bird was nebulized for 15 minutes with 1 of 2 terbinafine solutions, one made with a crushed tablet and the second with raw drug powder. Blood samples were collected at baseline and at multiple time points up to 720 minutes after completing nebulization. Plasma and nebulization solutions were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The terbinafine concentration of the solution made with a crushed tablet (0.87 +/- 0.05 mg/mL) was significantly lower than was that made with raw powder (1.02 +/- 0.09 mg/mL). Plasma concentrations of terbinafine did not differ significantly between birds in the 2 groups. Plasma terbinafine concentrations in birds were maintained above in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations for approximately 1 hour in birds nebulized with the crushed tablet solution and 4 hours in birds nebulized with the raw powder solution. Higher concentrations of solution, longer nebulization periods, or more frequent administration are likely needed to reach therapeutic plasma concentrations of terbinafine for clinically relevant periods in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots. PMID:23156978

  19. A facile method of delivery of liposomes by nebulization.

    PubMed

    Desai, Tejas R; Hancock, Robert E W; Finlay, Warren H

    2002-11-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated a facile approach to the aerosol delivery of liposomes by nebulization. The approach involves mere dispersion of the physical mixture of phospholipid(s) and drug in saline, which results in spontaneous formation of liposomes thereby creating reservoirs for the encapsulation of drugs. Various phospholipids exhibiting different physico-chemical properties were investigated here. Two antimicrobial agents (ciprofloxacin and CM3, a novel peptide) and a bronchodilator, salbutamol sulfate, were used as model drugs to examine the nebulization properties. Nebulization properties were found to be dependent upon the nature of the phospholipids and drug. Among various phospholipids investigated, dimyristoyl phosphatidyl glycerol (DMPG), a combination of egg phosphatidylcholine (EPC) plus DMPG (i.e., EPC+DMPG) and dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC) plus DMPG (DMPC+DMPG) (molar ratios 1:1) showed encouraging results in terms of higher nebulization efficiency and lower leakage of drug after nebulization. The generated aerosols were characterized by an Andersen cascade impactor operated at 28.3 l/min. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) values of the aerosol droplets obtained by nebulization of all the preparations containing DMPG reveal that these preparations are suitable for aerosol delivery by nebulization. This facile approach is expected to overcome problems associated with stability upon storage and high production costs. PMID:12399169

  20. Identification and validation of nebulized aerosol devices for sputum induction

    PubMed Central

    Davidson, Warren J; Dennis, John; The, Stephanie; Litoski, Belinda; Pieron, Cora; Leigh, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Induced sputum cell count measurement has proven reliability for evaluating airway inflammation in patients with asthma and other airway diseases. Although the use of nebulizer devices for sputum induction is commonplace, they are generally labelled as single-patient devices by the manufacturer and, therefore, cannot be used for multiple patients in large clinical sputum induction programs due to infect ion-control requirements. Accordingly, this study investigated the aerosol characteristics of alternative devices that could be used in such programs. BACKGROUND: Induced sputum cell counts are a noninvasive and reliable method for evaluating the presence, type and degree of airway inflammation in patients with asthma. Currently, standard nebulizer devices used for sputum induction in multiple patients are labelled as single-patient devices by the manufacturer, which conflicts with infection prevention and control requirements. As such, these devices cannot feasibly be used in a clinical sputum induction program. Therefore, there is a need to identify alternative nebulizer devices that are either disposable or labelled for multi-patient use. OBJECTIVE: To apply validated rigorous, scientific testing methods to identify and validate commercially available nebulizer devices appropriate for use in a clinical sputum induction program. METHODS: Measurement of nebulized aerosol output and size for the selected nebulizer designs followed robust International Organization for Standardization methods. Sputum induction using two of these nebulizers was successfully performed on 10 healthy adult subjects. The cytotechnologist performing sputum cell counts was blinded to the type of nebulizer used. RESULTS: The studied nebulizers had variable aerosol outputs. The AeroNeb Solo (Aerogen, Ireland), Omron NE-U17 (Omron, Japan) and EASYneb II (Flaem Nuova, Italy) systems were found to have similar measurements of aerosol size. There was no significant difference in induced sputum

  1. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats. 4. Aztreonam.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Sandrine; Grégoire, Nicolas; Brillault, Julien; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Couet, William

    2016-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine aztreonam (ATM) membrane permeability using Calu-3 cells and its plasma and pulmonary epithelial lining fluid (ELF) pharmacokinetics in rats after intratracheal nebulization and intravenous administration (15 mg · kg(-1)). ATM exhibits low Calu-3 permeability (0.07 ± 0.02 × 10(-6) cm · s(-1)), and a high area under the ELF/unbound plasma concentration time curve between 0 and infinity (AUCELF/AUCu,plasma) ratio of 1,069 was observed after nebulization in rats. These results confirm that ATM is a low-permeability molecule and a good candidate for nebulization. PMID:26926626

  2. Concentric micro-nebulizer for direct sample insertion

    DOEpatents

    Fassel, V.A.; Rice, G.W.; Lawrence, K.E.

    1984-03-06

    A concentric micro-nebulizer and method for introducing liquid samples into a plasma established in a plasma torch including a first tube connected to a source of plasma gas. The concentric micro-nebulizer has inner and outer concentric tubes extending upwardly within the torch for connection to a source of nebulizer gas and to a source of liquid solvent and to a source of sample liquid. The inner tube is connected to the source of liquid solvent and to the source of sample liquid and the outer tube is connected to the source of nebulizer gas. The outer tube has an orifice positioned slightly below the plasma when it is established, with the inner and outer tubes forming an annulus therebetween with the annular spacing between the tubes at said orifice being less than about 0.05mm. The dead volume of the inner tube is less than about 5 microliters.

  3. Concentric micro-nebulizer for direct sample insertion

    DOEpatents

    Fassel, Velmer A.; Rice, Gary W.; Lawrence, Kimberly E.

    1986-03-11

    A concentric micro-nebulizer and method for introducing liquid samples into a plasma established in a plasma torch including a first tube connected to a source of plasma gas. The concentric micro-nebulizer has inner and outer concentric tubes extending upwardly within the torch for connection to a source of nebulizer gas and to a source of liquid solvent and to a source of sample liquid. The inner tube is connected to the source of liquid solvent and to the source of sample liquid and the outer tube is connected to the source of nebulizer gas. The outer tube has an orifice positioned slightly below the plasma when it is established, with the inner and outer tubes forming an annulus therebetween with the annular spacing between the tubes at said orifice being less than about 0.05 mm. The dead volume of the inner tube is less than about 5 microliters.

  4. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 2. Colistin

    PubMed Central

    Gontijo, Aline Vidal Lacerda; Grégoire, Nicolas; Lamarche, Isabelle; Gobin, Patrice; Marchand, Sandrine

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of colistin following intrapulmonary administration of colistin sulfate in rats. Colistin was infused or delivered in nebulized form at a dose of 0.35 mg/kg of body weight in rats, and plasma drug concentrations were measured for 4 h after administration. Bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) were also conducted at 0.5, 2, and 4 h after intravenous (i.v.) administration and administration via nebulized drug to estimate epithelial lining fluid (ELF) drug concentrations. Unbound colistin plasma concentrations at distribution equilibrium (2 h postdosing) were almost identical after i.v. infusion and nebulized drug inhalation. ELF drug concentrations were undetectable in BAL samples after i.v. administration, but they were about 1,800 times higher than unbound plasma drug levels at 2 h and 4 h after administration of the nebulized drug. Simultaneous pharmacokinetic modeling of plasma and ELF drug concentrations was performed with a model characterized by a fixed physiological volume of ELF (VELF), a passive diffusion clearance (QELF) between plasma and ELF, and a nonlinear influx transfer from ELF to the central compartment, which was assessed by reducing the nebulized dose of colistin by 10-fold (0.035 mg kg−1). The km was estimated to be 133 μg ml−1, and the Vmax, in-to-Km ratio was equal to 2.5 × 10−3 liter h−1 kg−1, which was 37 times higher than the QELF (6.7 × 10−5 liter h−1 kg−1). This study showed that with the higher ELF drug concentrations after administration via nebulized aerosol than after intravenous administration, for antibiotics with low permeability such as colistin, nebulization offers a real potential over intravenous administration for the treatment of pulmonary infections. PMID:24798284

  5. Physicochemical Characterization of Nebulized Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (SPIONs)

    PubMed Central

    Graczyk, Halshka; Bryan, Louise C.; Lewinski, Nastassja; Suarez, Guillaume; Coullerez, Geraldine; Bowen, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Background: Aerosol-mediated delivery of nano-based therapeutics to the lung has emerged as a promising alternative for treatment and prevention of lung diseases. Superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) have attracted significant attention for such applications due to their biocompatibility and magnetic properties. However, information is lacking about the characteristics of nebulized SPIONs for use as a therapeutic aerosol. To address this need, we conducted a physicochemical characterization of nebulized Rienso, a SPION-based formulation for intravenous treatment of anemia. Methods: Four different concentrations of SPION suspensions were nebulized with a one-jet nebulizer. Particle size was measured in suspension by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and nanoparticle tracking analysis (NTA), and in the aerosol by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS). Results: The average particle size in suspension as measured by TEM, PCS, and NTA was 9±2 nm, 27±7 nm, and 56±10 nm, respectively. The particle size in suspension remained the same before and after the nebulization process. However, after aerosol collection in an impinger, the suspended particle size increased to 159±46 nm as measured by NTA. The aerosol particle concentration increased linearly with increasing suspension concentration, and the aerodynamic diameter remained relatively stable at around 75 nm as measured by SMPS. Conclusions: We demonstrated that the total number and particle size in the aerosol were modulated as a function of the initial concentration in the nebulizer. The data obtained mark the first known independent characterization of nebulized Rienso and, as such, provide critical information on the behavior of Rienso nanoparticles in an aerosol. The data obtained in this study add new knowledge to the existing body of literature on potential applications of SPION suspensions as inhaled aerosol therapeutics. PMID

  6. Nebulized lidocaine in the treatment of intractable cough.

    PubMed

    Truesdale, Kelly; Jurdi, Adham

    2013-09-01

    Cough is one of the most common symptoms prompting patients to be seen by health care providers in the United States. Persistent cough can disrupt daily activities such as conversation, eating, breathing, and sleeping, and it can become extremely debilitating both physically and mentally. Pharmacological treatments include dextramethorphan, opioid cough suppressants, benzonatate, inhaled ipratropium, and guaifenesin. Successful cough suppression has also been demonstrated in several studies with the use of nebulized lidocaine. Nebulized lidocaine also appears to be well tolerated by patients with minimal side effects including dysphonia, oropharyngeal numbness, and bitter taste. Studies conducted thus far have been small, so larger randomized control trials comparing nebulized lidocaine to placebo need to be conducted in the future. PMID:22964341

  7. Baby bottle steam sterilizers for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with non-tuberculous mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Towle, D; Callan, D A; Lamprea, C; Murray, T S

    2016-03-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTMb), present in environmental water sources, can contribute to respiratory infection in patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Contaminated nebulizers are a potential source of respiratory infection. Treatment with baby bottle steam sterilizers disinfects home nebulizers inoculated with bacterial pathogens but whether this method works for disinfection of NTMb is unclear. Baby bottle steam sterilization was compared with vigorous water washing for disinfecting home nebulizers inoculated with NTMb mixed with cystic fibrosis sputum. No NTMb was recovered from any nebulizers after steam treatment whereas viable NTMb grew after water washing, demonstrating that steam sterilization effectively disinfects NTMb-inoculated nebulizers. PMID:26810616

  8. Characterization of sprays for thermo-stabilized pneumatic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Ochowiak, M; Doligalski, M; Broniarz-Press, L; Matuszak, M; Gościniak, A

    2016-03-31

    The research presents the nebulizer spray chamber temperature controller responsible for controlling temperature of aerosol produced as a result of nebulizing process. The motivation to make an attempt to improve modern pneumatic devices was the shortage of this kind of apparatuses on the market allowing the production of thermos aerosol. A designed temperature controlling system for pneumatic nebulizers aims at increasing and stabilizing temperature of produced aerosols and increasing aerosol therapy safety. The system is intended for producing aerosol in the process of pneumatic nebulization with the temperature similar to that of the human body. Experiments that were carried out confirmed good performance of the device. It was proved that with the increase of temperature the amount of big droplets fall and the entire spectrum of the droplet diameter moves towards smaller droplet diameter values. Reduction of liquid viscosity related to the increase of temperature leads to the reduction of droplet diameter and, as a result, the reduction of the Sauter mean diameter value. PMID:26825254

  9. Formulation and nebulization of fluticasone propionate-loaded lipid nanocarriers.

    PubMed

    Umerska, Anita; Mouzouvi, Celia R A; Bigot, André; Saulnier, Patrick

    2015-09-30

    Inhaled fluticasone propionate (FP) is often prescribed as a first-line therapy for the effective management of pulmonary diseases such as asthma. As nanocarriers offer many advantages over other drug delivery systems, this study investigated the suitability of lipid nanocapsules (LNCs) as a carrier for fluticasone propionate, examining the drug-related factors that should be considered in the formulation design and the behaviour of LNCs with different compositions and properties suspended within aerosol droplets under the relatively hostile conditions of nebulization. By adjusting the formulation conditions, particularly the nanocarrier composition, FP was efficiently encapsulated within the LNCs with a yield of up to 97%, and a concentration comparable to commercially available preparations was achieved. Moreover, testing the solubility of the drug in oil and water and determining the oil/water partition coefficient proved to be useful when assessing the encapsulation of the FP in the LNC formulation. Nebulization did not cause the FP to leak from the formulation, and no phase separation was observed after nebulization. LNCs with a diameter of 100 nm containing a smaller amount of surfactant and a larger amount of oil provided a better FP-loading capacity and better stability during nebulization than 30 or 60 nm LNCs. PMID:26183331

  10. Nebulized milrinone use in a pulmonary hypertensive crisis.

    PubMed

    Buckley, Mitchell S; Feldman, Jeremy P

    2007-12-01

    Significant advances have been achieved over the past few decades regarding comprehension of the pathogenesis of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). The development of new agents and use of existing drug therapies have targeted the underlying abnormalities and pathways leading to progression of PAH. Milrinone, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, remains a therapeutic option. Unfortunately, intravenous administration of the drug in patients with PAH may be limited by systemic hypotension, especially in those already receiving prostanoid treatment. We describe a 42-year-old woman with acute decompensated idiopathic PAH who was given nebulized milrinone as a novel adjunctive therapy. She was acutely treated with intravenous treprostinil 2 ng/kg/minute and inhaled nitric oxide 20 ppm. However, increasing the treprostinil infusion rate or adding other therapies such as intravenous milrinone for acute symptomatic relief was limited by her hemodynamic instability, which required treatment with dobutamine, vasopressin, and epinephrine. Nebulized milrinone was added as salvage therapy for her acute PAH crisis. After 8 days of therapy, the patient's PAH symptoms improved without compromising her mean arterial pressure and heart rate. Nebulized milrinone in addition to inhaled nitric oxide and low-dose intravenous treprostinil may have played a major role in the acute management of her PAH crisis. Further studies are needed to assess the role of nebulized milrinone in patients with PAH. PMID:18041894

  11. Lung deposition and respirable mass during wet nebulization.

    PubMed

    Sangwan, Sanjay; Condos, Rany; Smaldone, Gerald C

    2003-01-01

    For metered dose inhalers (MDIs), high-flow cascade impaction with a United States Pharmacopia (USP) throat provides a useful prediction of in vivo lung and oropharyngeal aerosol deposition. Particles expected to deposit in the lung are included in the "fine particle fraction" measured on the bench. Comparable in vitro standards are not available for nebulizers. The present study compared aerosol deposition in an in vitro model using low-flow cascade impaction with deposition in vivo in human subjects. A low-flow (1 Lmin), 10-stage cascade impactor measured aerodynamic distributions of aerosolized interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) from two nebulizers (Misty-Neb and AeroEclipse). (99m)Technetium diethylene triaminepenta-acetic acid ((99m)Tc-DTPA) was used as the radiolabel. Two bench conditions were specified: no breathing (standing cloud) and simulated ventilation with a piston pump (tidal volume 750 mL frequency 25 per minute and duty cycle 0.5). Mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) for both nebulizers was affected by ventilation (Misty-Neb vs. AeroEclipse: 5.2 vs. 4.6 microm for standing cloud and 3.1 vs. 2.2 microm during ventilation). In three subjects, measured values of oropharyngeal deposition averaged 68.1 +/- 0.08% for Misty-Neb and 30.9 +/- 0.03% for AeroEclipse. In vivo deposition patterns compared to aerosol distributions from both nebulizers indicated that, for wet nebulization, penetration of aerosol beyond the upper airways (fine particle fraction) will occur only for aerosol particles below 2.5 microm. This assessment requires that the bench aerosol distribution be measured under conditions of clinical use (i.e., during tidal breathing). PMID:14977428

  12. Does nebulized fentanyl relieve dyspnea during exercise in healthy man?

    PubMed Central

    Kotrach, Houssam G.; Bourbeau, Jean

    2015-01-01

    Few therapies exist for the relief of dyspnea in restrictive lung disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that nebulized opioids selective for the mu-receptor subtype may relieve dyspnea by modulating intrapulmonary opioid receptor activity. Our respective primary and secondary objectives were to test the hypothesis that nebulized fentanyl (a mu-opioid receptor agonist) relieves dyspnea during exercise in the presence of abnormal restrictive ventilatory constraints and to identify the physiological mechanisms of this improvement. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of 250 μg nebulized fentanyl, chest wall strapping (CWS), and their interaction on detailed physiological and perceptual responses to constant work rate cycle exercise (85% of maximum incremental work rate) in 14 healthy, fit young men. By design, CWS decreased vital capacity by ∼20% and mimicked the negative consequences of a mild restrictive lung disorder on exercise endurance time and on dyspnea, breathing pattern, dynamic operating lung volumes, and diaphragmatic electromyographic and respiratory muscle function during exercise. Compared with placebo under both unrestricted control and CWS conditions, nebulized fentanyl had no effect on exercise endurance time, integrated physiological response to exercise, sensory intensity, unpleasantness ratings of exertional dyspnea. Our results do not support a role for intrapulmonary opioids in the neuromodulation of exertional dyspnea in health nor do they provide a physiological rationale for the use of nebulized fentanyl in the management of dyspnea due to mild restrictive lung disorders, specifically those arising from abnormalities of the chest wall and not affiliated with airway inflammation. PMID:26031762

  13. Does nebulized fentanyl relieve dyspnea during exercise in healthy man?

    PubMed

    Kotrach, Houssam G; Bourbeau, Jean; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-06-01

    Few therapies exist for the relief of dyspnea in restrictive lung disorders. Accumulating evidence suggests that nebulized opioids selective for the mu-receptor subtype may relieve dyspnea by modulating intrapulmonary opioid receptor activity. Our respective primary and secondary objectives were to test the hypothesis that nebulized fentanyl (a mu-opioid receptor agonist) relieves dyspnea during exercise in the presence of abnormal restrictive ventilatory constraints and to identify the physiological mechanisms of this improvement. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study, we examined the effect of 250 μg nebulized fentanyl, chest wall strapping (CWS), and their interaction on detailed physiological and perceptual responses to constant work rate cycle exercise (85% of maximum incremental work rate) in 14 healthy, fit young men. By design, CWS decreased vital capacity by ∼20% and mimicked the negative consequences of a mild restrictive lung disorder on exercise endurance time and on dyspnea, breathing pattern, dynamic operating lung volumes, and diaphragmatic electromyographic and respiratory muscle function during exercise. Compared with placebo under both unrestricted control and CWS conditions, nebulized fentanyl had no effect on exercise endurance time, integrated physiological response to exercise, sensory intensity, unpleasantness ratings of exertional dyspnea. Our results do not support a role for intrapulmonary opioids in the neuromodulation of exertional dyspnea in health nor do they provide a physiological rationale for the use of nebulized fentanyl in the management of dyspnea due to mild restrictive lung disorders, specifically those arising from abnormalities of the chest wall and not affiliated with airway inflammation. PMID:26031762

  14. Red and nebulous objects in dark clouds - A survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, M.

    1980-01-01

    A search on the NGS-PO Sky Survey photographs has revealed 150 interesting nebulous and/or red objects, mostly lying in dark clouds and not previously catalogued. Spectral classifications are presented for 55 objects. These indicate a small number of new members of the class of Herbig-Haro objects, a significant number of new T Tauri stars, and a few emission-line hot stars. It is argued that hot, high-mass stars form preferentially in the dense cores of dark clouds. The possible symbiosis of high and low mass stars is considered. A new morphology class is defined for cometary nebulae, in which a star lies on the periphery of a nebulous ring.

  15. Efficient management and maintenance of ultrasonic nebulizers to prevent microbial contamination

    PubMed Central

    Ida, Yoko; Ohnishi, Hiroaki; Araki, Kouji; Saito, Ryoichi; Kawai, Shin; Watanabe, Takashi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To seek the cause of Burkholderia cepacia complex (Bcc) infection outbreak and evaluate the efficacy of new methods for nebulizer maintenance. METHODS: We investigated the annual number of Bcc isolates recovered from clinical samples in our hospital between 1999 and 2013. Swab samples were randomly collected for bacterial culture before patient use from 10 each of the two machine types in August 2001; these included 20 samples from each of the following: Drain tubes, operating water chambers, oscillators, and nebulizing chambers. In addition, 10 samples each of nebulizer solutions before and after use were cultured. For environmental investigation, 10 samples were collected from sinks in the nurse stations of the wards where patients positive for Bcc were hospitalized. Numbers of Bcc isolates were compared before and after introduction of new methods for nebulizer maintenance in October 2001. In addition, randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) assay was applied to find the genetic divergence of the Bcc isolates obtained from clinical samples and nebulizers. RESULTS: From January 1999 to December 2013, a total of 487 Bcc isolates were obtained from clinical specimens from 181 patients. Notably, 322 (66.1%) Bcc isolates were obtained from clinical specimens from 1999 to 2001, including 244 (115 patients) from sputum and 34 (11 patients) from blood. During this period, 14 isolates were obtained from nebulizer components. Among these, six were derived from nebulizer drain tubes, five from operating water chambers, and one from the oscillator before patient use, and two from nebulizer solutions after patient use. When Bcc was isolated from the nebulizer solution after patient use, Bcc was simultaneously detected in other parts of the nebulizer. Bcc was not isolated from any nebulizer solution before use. RAPD assays revealed similar DNA profiles in isolates obtained from patients and nebulizers. Investigation revealed damaged diaphragms in many nebulizers. The

  16. Optimization of nebulized delivery of linezolid, daptomycin, and vancomycin aerosol

    PubMed Central

    Zarogoulidis, Paul; Kioumis, Ioannis; Lampaki, Sofia; Organtzis, John; Porpodis, Konstantinos; Spyratos, Dionysios; Pitsiou, Georgia; Petridis, Dimitris; Pataka, Athanasia; Huang, Haidong; Li, Qiang; Yarmus, Lonny; Hohenforst-Schmidt, Wolfgang; Pezirkianidis, Nikolaos; Zarogoulidis, Konstantinos

    2014-01-01

    Background At this time, several antibiotics have been investigated as possibilities for aerosol administration, but local therapy has been found to be more efficient in several diseases. Materials and methods The drugs linezolid (Zyvox), vancomycin (Voncon), and daptomycin (Cubicin) were tested with three jet nebulizers with seven different residual cups and different loadings. Moreover, three ultrasound nebulizers were again tested with these drugs, with different loadings and mouthpiece attachments. Results When drugs are combined with particular cup designs, they significantly lower the droplet size to 1.60 and 1.80 μm, which represents the best combination of Zyvox and cup G and Cubicin and cup D, respectively. Cup design D is suggested as the most effective cup for lowering the droplet size (2.30 μm) when considering a higher loading level (8 mL). Conclusion Modification of current drugs from dry powder to solution is possible, and the residual cup design plays the most important role in droplet size production when the nebulization systems have the same properties. PMID:25143711

  17. Physical properties of antibiotic aerosols produced by jet and ultrasonic nebulizers.

    PubMed

    Takanami, C; Goto, Y

    1990-01-01

    The drug stability and the physical properties of aerosol of five different antibiotics were compared for ultrasonic and jet-type nebulization. These antibiotics were used alone, as well as combined with betamethasone sodium phosphate and/or tyloxapol glycerol sodium bicarbonate. The parameters investigated were changes in appearance, pH, temperature, viscosity, specific gravity and the residual potency of the antibiotics. No significant change was shown in appearance, viscosity and specific gravity. Temperatures of the solutions in the ultrasonic nebulizer cup increased with time, though almost no change after 10 minutes in the jet nebulizer. For pH, with antibiotics alone in the ultrasonic nebulizer, some drugs showed an increase, and other drugs showed a decrease, while generally a little change in the jet nebulizer. For residual potency, one drug showed decreased potency in the aerosol, though it was increased in the remnant solution, in contrast, another drug showed a tendency to increased potency in the aerosol and decreased potency in the remnant solution in the ultrasonic nebulizer. In the jet nebulizer, drugs showed generally slight increased potency and no difference among drugs. It was suggested that, with ultrasonic nebulization, in some drugs the solvents were nebulized and the principal ingredient tended to remain behind, while in other drugs the opposite occurred so that the effects were not uniform. PMID:10147674

  18. Safety assessment of nebulized xylitol in beagle dogs.

    PubMed

    Reed, Matthew D; McCombie, Barbara E; Sivillo, Aimee E; Thorne, Peter S; Welsh, Michael J; March, Thomas H; McDonald, Jacob D; Seilkop, Steven K; Zabner, Joseph; Durairaj, Lakshmi

    2012-05-01

    Xylitol, a potential cystic fibrosis treatment, lowers the salt concentration of airway surface liquid and enhances innate immunity of human airways. The study objective was to evaluate the potential toxicity/recovery from a 14-consecutive day (7 days/week), facemask inhalation administration of nebulized xylitol solution in Beagle dogs. Aerosolized xylitol was generated through three Aerotech II nebulizers operating at approximately 40 psi driving pressure. Test article groups were exposed to the same concentration of aerosolized xylitol for 1, 0.5, or 0.25 h for the high, mid, and low exposures, respectively. A control group was exposed for 1 h to a nebulized normal saline solution. Animals were sacrificed the day following the last exposure or subsequently after 14 non-exposure days. Study endpoints included clinical observations, body weights, ophthalmology, and physical examinations, food consumption, clinical pathology, urinalyses, organ weights, and histopathology. Mean xylitol aerosol concentrations for all groups were approximately 3.5 mg/l. Mean total deposited doses to the pulmonary region were estimated as 21, 11, and 5 mg/kg, for the high-, mid-, and low-exposure groups, respectively. All dogs survived to the scheduled necropsy. No treatment-related findings were observed due to xylitol exposure in any end point examined. Lung findings (mild interstitial infiltration, macrophage hyperplasia, alveolitis, and bronchitis) were consistent among exposed and control groups. No exposure-related effect of xylitol in any parameter assessed was seen during or after the 14-day exposure in Beagle dogs. The No Observed Effect Level was the high-exposure level and suggests that inhaled xylitol is safe for clinical administration. PMID:22564094

  19. Magnetic core-shell nanoparticles for drug delivery by nebulization

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Aerosolized therapeutics hold great potential for effective treatment of various diseases including lung cancer. In this context, there is an urgent need to develop novel nanocarriers suitable for drug delivery by nebulization. To address this need, we synthesized and characterized a biocompatible drug delivery vehicle following surface coating of Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) with a polymer poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA). The polymeric shell of these engineered nanoparticles was loaded with a potential anti-cancer drug quercetin and their suitability for targeting lung cancer cells via nebulization was evaluated. Results Average particle size of the developed MNPs and PLGA-MNPs as measured by electron microscopy was 9.6 and 53.2 nm, whereas their hydrodynamic swelling as determined using dynamic light scattering was 54.3 nm and 293.4 nm respectively. Utilizing a series of standardized biological tests incorporating a cell-based automated image acquisition and analysis procedure in combination with real-time impedance sensing, we confirmed that the developed MNP-based nanocarrier system was biocompatible, as no cytotoxicity was observed when up to 100 μg/ml PLGA-MNP was applied to the cultured human lung epithelial cells. Moreover, the PLGA-MNP preparation was well-tolerated in vivo in mice when applied intranasally as measured by glutathione and IL-6 secretion assays after 1, 4, or 7 days post-treatment. To imitate aerosol formation for drug delivery to the lungs, we applied quercitin loaded PLGA-MNPs to the human lung carcinoma cell line A549 following a single round of nebulization. The drug-loaded PLGA-MNPs significantly reduced the number of viable A549 cells, which was comparable when applied either by nebulization or by direct pipetting. Conclusion We have developed a magnetic core-shell nanoparticle-based nanocarrier system and evaluated the feasibility of its drug delivery capability via aerosol administration. This study has

  20. INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA-ATOMIC EMISSION SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS OF ENVIRONMENTAL SAMPLES USING ULTRASONIC NEBULIZATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ultrasonic and pneumatic nebulizers used in inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES) are compared in the analysis of standard materials and environmental samples. Results verify that ICP-AES with ultrasonic nebulization is capable of lower detection limit...

  1. In vitro estimations of in vivo jet nebulizer efficiency using actual and simulated tidal breathing patterns.

    PubMed

    Bosco, Andrew P; Rhem, Rod G; Dolovich, Myrna B

    2005-01-01

    In vivo aerosol delivery efficiency was estimated in vitro for two jet nebulizers using a breath monitor (Breathe!; Pari GmbH, Germany) and breath simulator (COMPAS; Pari GmbH) to reproduce subject tidal breathing patterns. The AeroEclipse (Trudell Medical International, Canada), a breath-actuated nebulizer, and the LC Star (Pari GmbH), a breath-enhanced nebulizer, were filled with levalbuterol HCl solution (Sepracor, USA) and operated with compressed O(2) at 8 lpm. Tidal breathing patterns of 20 adult subjects were digitally recorded with the Breathe! Breath Monitor. Subjects then breathed tidally from each nebulizer separately for 1 minute and to nebulizer dryness. Levalbuterol aerosol collected on filters placed between the nebulizer and mouth was chemically assayed to determine the inspired mass (IM), wasted mass (WM) and total emitted mass (TM). Measurements were repeated using the COMPAS Breath Simulator to simulate each subject's tidal breathing pattern. IM, WM, and TM measurements using actual versus simulated tidal breathing were highly comparable for each nebulizer, except the IM (p < 0.05) from LC Star measured at nebulizer dryness. Breath simulation was an inaccurate tool for estimating the time to nebulizer dryness as simulated measurements to nebulizer dryness took significantly longer than measurements preformed with actual tidal breathing (p < 0.001). While breath simulation provides an accurate in vitro tool for estimating in vivo aerosol delivery, it should not completely replace in vivo measurements until inherent limitations in simulator operation can be overcome to provide a more clinically realistic simulation. PMID:16379618

  2. Bronchoconstrictive effect of ultrasonic nebulized distilled water on asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Baba, Y; Hayashida, M; Yasunami, J; Takamatsu, I; Adachi, K; Toyoshima, K

    1989-01-01

    We studied the airway responsiveness of asthmatic and normal children to ultrasonic nebulized distilled water (UNDW inhalation test). It was found that this stimulus induced a fall in FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 s) in asthmatic children, but little fall in normal children. This airway response was shown to be reproducible at about 2-week intervals. The more severe the asthma, the higher the percentage of the responders to the UNDW inhalation test, and the greater the fall in FEV1. The results of the UNDW inhalation test did not correlate with that of acetylcholine inhalation test or of exercise-induced asthma (EIA). UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction was inhibited by premedication with disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) (20 mg) or inhaled ipratropium bromide (40 micrograms). Jet-nebulized distilled water induced little fall in FEV1 in asthmatic children. These data suggest that UNDW-induced bronchoconstriction may involve the release of chemical mediators from the mast cells and cholinergic pathways. We conclude that UNDW inhalation test is a safe, less burdensome, and rather convenient method to evaluate clinically nonspecific airway hyperresponsiveness in asthmatic children. PMID:2534983

  3. Ultrasonic nebulization atmospheric pressure glow discharge - Preliminary study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greda, Krzysztof; Jamroz, Piotr; Pohl, Pawel

    2016-07-01

    Atmospheric pressure glow microdischarge (μAPGD) generated between a small-sized He nozzle jet anode and a flowing liquid cathode was coupled with ultrasonic nebulization (USN) for analytical optical emission spectrometry (OES). The spatial distributions of the emitted spectra from the novel coupled USN-μAPGD system and the conventional μAPGD system were compared. In the μAPGD, the maxima of the intensity distribution profiles of the atomic emission lines Ca, Cd, In, K, Li, Mg, Mn, Na and Sr were observed in the near cathode region, whereas, in the case of the USN-μAPGD, they were shifted towards the anode. In the novel system, the intensities of the analytical lines of the studied metals were boosted from several to 35 times. As compared to the conventional μAPGD-OES with the introduction of analytes through the sputtering and/or the electrospray-like nebulization of the flowing liquid cathode solution, the proposed method with the USN introduction of analytes in the form of a dry aerosol provides improved detectability of the studied metals. The detection limits of metals achieved with the USN-μAPGD-OES method were in the range from 0.08 μg L- 1 for Li to 52 μg L- 1 for Mn.

  4. Stability of recombinant consensus interferon to air-jet and ultrasonic nebulization.

    PubMed

    Ip, A Y; Arakawa, T; Silvers, H; Ransone, C M; Niven, R W

    1995-10-01

    The stability of recombinant consensus alpha-interferon (rConIFN) to air-jet and ultrasonic nebulization was evaluated. Volumes of 10 mL of 0.5 mg/mL rConIFN in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) at pH 6.3 were nebulized with a Collison three-jet nebulizer at 40 psig (10 L/min) for up to 25 min. The effects of pH (3.0, 6.3, and 9.0), additive (0.1% w/v Tween 80, 0.1% w/v Tween 20, and 1% w/v PEG 8000), and ionic strength (0, 0.25, and 1.0) were examined. The effects of ultrasonic nebulization were studied using three devices (DeVilbiss "Aerosonic"; Mountain Medical "Microstat", and Medix "Easimist"). Stability of rConIFN was assessed by size exclusion chromatography and native and sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE). Structural effects were examined by circular dichroism spectroscopy and bioactivity was assessed by an in vitro mitogenic inhibition bioassay. rConIFN is destabilized by air-jet nebulization. Insoluble noncovalent aggregates are produced rapidly, and only approximately 25% of the initial monomeric protein remains after 25 min of nebulization. This correlates with a decrease in in vitro bioactivity. Aggregation during nebulization is influenced by pH (9.0 < 6.3 < 3.0) but even at the highest pH, > 25% aggregation is observed. Ionic strength does not appear to influence aggregation. rConIFN is also seen to adhere to glass after nebulization. Samples from a rinse of the emptied reservoir with 0.1% w/v SDS, after thorough rinsing with water (three times), show a strong rConIFN band on SDS-PAGE gels. The use of PEG 8000 and Tween mitigate aggregate formation and adhesion (< 20%). The cumulative output collected as a wet or dry aerosol is not aggregated to the same extent as the residual protein remaining in the nebulizer. Ultrasonic nebulization also results in aggregation, but the extent of denaturation is dependent upon the nebulizer used and is related to the heating of nebulizer solutions. Cooling of the nebulizer

  5. Diné (Navajo) Ethno- and Archaeoastronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamberlain, Von Del

    The Navajo (Diné) are an Athabascan-speaking people who migrated from the far northwest of America into the desert southwest where they became the largest surviving Native American culture. Three words portray Diné philosophy - beauty, harmony, and balance. Their traditions are rich with astronomical symbolism found in literature, ceremony, iconography, artifacts, rock art, and the sacred landscape. This chapter summarizes Diné astronomical traditions, identification of stars known to be important to the Diné, and how these are depicted on artifacts and rock art.

  6. Effect that an educational program for cystic fibrosis patients and caregivers has on the contamination of home nebulizers*

    PubMed Central

    Zuana, Adriana Della; Garcia, Doroti de Oliveira; Juliani, Regina Célia Turola Passos; da Silva, Luiz Vicente Ribeiro Ferreira

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe the pathogens found in home nebulizers and in respiratory samples of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients, and to evaluate the effect that a standardized instruction regarding cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers has on the frequency of nebulizer contamination. METHODS: We included 40 CF patients (22 males), all of whom used the same model of nebulizer. The median patient age was 11.2 ± 3.74 years. We collected samples from the nebulizer mouthpiece and cup, using a sterile swab moistened with sterile saline. Respiratory samples were collected by asking patients to expectorate into a sterile container or with oropharyngeal swabs after cough stimulation. Cultures were performed on selective media, and bacteria were identified by classical biochemical tests. Patients received oral and written instructions regarding the cleaning and disinfection of nebulizers. All determinations were repeated an average of two months later. RESULTS: Contamination of the nebulizer (any part) was detected in 23 cases (57.5%). The nebulizer mouthpiece and cup were found to be contaminated in 16 (40.0%) and 19 (47.5%), respectively. After the standardized instruction had been given, there was a significant decrease in the proportion of contaminated nebulizers (43.5%). CONCLUSIONS: In our sample of CF patients, nebulizer contamination was common, indicating the need for improvement in patient practices regarding the cleaning and disinfection of their nebulizers. A one-time educational intervention could have a significant positive impact. PMID:24831395

  7. Stability and efficacy of synthetic cationic antimicrobial peptides nebulized using high frequency acoustic waves.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Rezk, Amgad R; Khara, Jasmeet Singh; Yeo, Leslie Y; Ee, Pui Lai Rachel

    2016-05-01

    Surface acoustic wave (SAW), a nanometer amplitude electroelastic wave generated and propagated on low-loss piezoelectric substrates (such as LiNbO3), is an extremely efficient solid-fluid energy transfer mechanism. The present study explores the use of SAW nebulization as a solution for effective pulmonary peptide delivery. In vitro deposition characteristics of the nebulized peptides were determined using a Next Generation Cascade Impactor. 70% of the peptide-laden aerosols generated were within a size distribution favorable for deep lung distribution. The integrity of the nebulized peptides was found to be retained, as shown via mass spectrometry. The anti-mycobacterial activity of the nebulized peptides was found to be uncompromised compared with their non-nebulized counterparts, as demonstrated by the minimum inhibition concentration and the colony forming inhibition activity. The peptide concentration and volume recoveries for the SAW nebulizer were significantly higher than 90% and found to be insensitive to variation in the peptide sequences. These results demonstrate the potential of the SAW nebulization platform as an effective delivery system of therapeutic peptides through the respiratory tract to the deep lung. PMID:27375820

  8. Vibrating-mesh nebulization of liposomes generated using an ethanol-based proliposome technology.

    PubMed

    Elhissi, Abdelbary; Gill, Hardyal; Ahmed, Waqar; Taylor, Kevin

    2011-06-01

    This is the first study that evaluates the influence of the compartmental design of the micropump Aeroneb Go nebulizer and the viscosity of a proliposome hydration medium on vibrating-mesh aerosolization of liposomes. Ethanol-based proliposomes comprising soya phosphatidylcholine and cholesterol (1:1 mole ratio) were hydrated by using isotonic NaCl (0.9%) or sucrose (9.25%) solutions to generate liposomes that entrapped approximately 61% of the hydrophilic drug, salbutamol sulphate. Liposomes were aerosolized by the nebulizer to a two-stage impinger. For both formulations, the aerosol mass output was higher than the phospholipid output, indicating some accumulation of large liposomes or liposome aggregate within the nebulizer. Using NaCl (0.9%) solution as the dispersion medium, aerosol droplet size was much smaller and aerosol mass and phospholipid outputs were higher. This was attributed to the lower viscosity of the NaCl solution, resulting in a reduced retention of the aerosols in the "trap" of the nebulizer. For the entrapped salbutamol sulphate, although the "fine particle fraction" was relatively high (57.44%), size reduction of the liposomes during nebulization caused marked losses of the drug originally entrapped. Overall, liposomes generated from proliposomes when using this nebulizer showed high nebulization output and small droplet size. However, further work is required to reduce the losses of the originally entrapped drug from liposomes. PMID:20684671

  9. Effective pulmonary delivery of an aerosolized plasmid DNA vaccine via surface acoustic wave nebulization

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary-delivered gene therapy promises to mitigate vaccine safety issues and reduce the need for needles and skilled personnel to use them. While plasmid DNA (pDNA) offers a rapid route to vaccine production without side effects or reliance on cold chain storage, its delivery to the lung has proved challenging. Conventional methods, including jet and ultrasonic nebulizers, fail to deliver large biomolecules like pDNA intact due to the shear and cavitational stresses present during nebulization. Methods In vitro structural analysis followed by in vivo protein expression studies served in assessing the integrity of the pDNA subjected to surface acoustic wave (SAW) nebulisation. In vivo immunization trials were then carried out in rats using SAW nebulized pDNA (influenza A, human hemagglutinin H1N1) condensate delivered via intratracheal instillation. Finally, in vivo pulmonary vaccinations using pDNA for influenza was nebulized and delivered via a respirator to sheep. Results The SAW nebulizer was effective at generating pDNA aerosols with sizes optimal for deep lung delivery. Successful gene expression was observed in mouse lung epithelial cells, when SAW-nebulized pDNA was delivered to male Swiss mice via intratracheal instillation. Effective systemic and mucosal antibody responses were found in rats via post-nebulized, condensed fluid instillation. Significantly, we demonstrated the suitability of the SAW nebulizer to administer unprotected pDNA encoding an influenza A virus surface glycoprotein to respirated sheep via aerosolized inhalation. Conclusion Given the difficulty of inducing functional antibody responses for DNA vaccination in large animals, we report here the first instance of successful aerosolized inhalation delivery of a pDNA vaccine in a large animal model relevant to human lung development, structure, physiology, and disease, using a novel, low-power (<1 W) surface acoustic wave (SAW) hand-held nebulizer to produce droplets of p

  10. Nebulizer delivery of tobramycin to the lower respiratory tract.

    PubMed

    Weber, A; Smith, A; Williams-Warren, J; Ramsey, B; Covert, D S

    1994-05-01

    We characterized a tobramycin aerosol generated by five nebulizers: Micron One, Pulmosonic, Pulmo-Aide, DeVilbiss Model 65, and UltraNeb 100 by particle size and drug concentration. The Micron One nebulizer did not produce a recoverable aerosol, while the Pulmosonic had a minimal output; therefore three machines were examined for their ability to deliver tobramycin to the lower respiratory tract of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF). The DeVilbiss 65 had the greatest output: with air as the carrier gas it produced an aerosol with > 60% of the particles having a mean mass aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) of > 5.5 microns. Using helox shifted the MMAD so that > 65% of the particles were < 5.5 microns. Increasing the power in the DeVilbiss 65 increased the output of particles > 9.2 microns, without a change in the particles < 3.3 microns. With air as the carrier gas the Pulmo-Aide and the UltraNeb 100 produced an aerosol with > 60% particles, < 3.3 microns MMAD. Using helox the UltraNeb 100 increased the amount of aerosol with a < 3.3 microns MMAD to 98%. Tobramycin delivery to the lower respiratory tract with the Pulmo-Aide and UltraNeb 100 was compared using air or helox by measuring sputum drug concentration. Pulmo-Aide failed to produce detectable tobramycin in sputum in 2 out of 9 patients with CF. With the UltraNeb 100, all patients had measurable sputum tobramycin immediately after administration (range, 16.2-3385 micrograms/g), but no statistically significant difference was found when using either compressed air, helox, or ambient air.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8058428

  11. The efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma

    PubMed Central

    Sarhan, Hatem A; EL-Garhy, Omar H; Ali, Mohamed A; Youssef, Nouran A

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evaluation of the efficacy of nebulized magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) alone and in combination with salbutamol in acute asthma. Methods A double-blind randomized controlled study was conducted in Chest and Emergency Departments. Thirty patients of acute attack of bronchial asthma were randomized into three groups: MgSO4 nebulization (group A), salbutamol nebulization (group B), and their combination (group C). All patients were monitored before and after nebulization (each 20 minutes) for peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR), respiratory rate (RR), heart rate (HR), blood pressure, pulsus paradoxus, oxygen saturation, clinical examination, and Fischl index. Results A highly significant improvement in PEFR, PEFR percentage, and Fischl index and significant decrease in RR and HR was observed in all groups. A similar improvement in PEFR was observed in group A and group B (P=0.389). The difference in peak expiratory flow (PEF) improvement was insignificant between group B and group C (P=0.101), while there was a significant difference between group A and group C (P=0.014) in favor of group C. Conclusion Nebulized MgSO4 alone or combined with salbutamol has a clinically significant bronchodilator effect in acute asthma and leads to clinical improvement, increase in PEFR, reduction in HR, and reduction in RR. The response to nebulized MgSO4 alone (PEFR improvement 54±35.6 L/min, P=0.001) is comparable (P=0.389) to that of nebulized salbutamol (PEFR improvement 67.0±41.9 L/min, P=0.001) and is significantly less than (P=0.014) that of nebulized combination (PEFR improvement 92.0±26.9 L/min, P=0.000). PMID:27354766

  12. Nebulized voriconazole in infections with Scedosporium apiospermum--case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Holle, J; Leichsenring, M; Meissner, P E

    2014-07-01

    Scedosporium infections are rare complications in immunocompromised patients or patients with chronic pulmonary disease. While Scedosporium prolificans is resistant to most antimycotics, Scedosporium apiospermum is usually sensitive to voriconazole and posaconazole. Pharmacokinetics and efficacy of nebulized voriconazole have been described in a murine model previously. We report for the first time the safe and effective use of nebulized voriconazole for the treatment of severe pulmonary infection with Scedosporium apiospermum in an adolescent with cystic fibrosis. PMID:24263169

  13. Lactic acidosis and diastolic hypotension after intermittent albuterol nebulization in a pediatric patient

    PubMed Central

    Saadia, Tehila A.; George, Mathew; Lee, Haesoon

    2015-01-01

    We describe a case of 13-year-old female with intermittent asthma who developed lactic acidosis and diastolic hypotension after receiving intermittent albuterol nebulizer treatment. She presented to the emergency department (ED) with sudden onset of shortness of breath and chest pain. She received two albuterol nebulizer treatments at home without symptomatic relief. She was treated in the ED with intermittent albuterol nebulization for a total of 22.5 mg over the next 5 hours. A decrease in diastolic blood pressure from 60 mmHg to 40 mmHg was noted after the treatment. Blood lactate level was 5.9 mmol/L. She recovered from it and was discharged to home but she had recurrence of shortness of breath and presented to the ED two days later. She was treated with albuterol nebulization for a total of 17.5 mg over the next two and half hours and developed diastolic hypotension again, as low as 30 mm Hg. After discontinuation of albuterol nebulization, her BP normalized. Cardiopulmonary and metabolic side effects of continuous albuterol therapy have been reported in the recent medical literature. Our patient, however, developed these adverse effects on intermittent albuterol nebulizer treatment. It is important for the pediatrician to recognize the adverse effects of β2-agonist therapy to avoid carrying out extensive workup for hypotension and hyperlactatemia prolonging hospital stay. PMID:26744665

  14. Nebulization of ultradeformable liposomes: the influence of aerosolization mechanism and formulation excipients.

    PubMed

    Elhissi, Abdelbary M A; Giebultowicz, Joanna; Stec, Anna A; Wroczynski, Piotr; Ahmed, Waqar; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Phoenix, David; Taylor, Kevin M G

    2012-10-15

    Ultradeformable liposomes are stress-responsive phospholipid vesicles that have been investigated extensively in transdermal delivery. In this study, the suitability of ultradeformable liposomes for pulmonary delivery was investigated. Aerosols of ultradeformable liposomes were generated using air-jet, ultrasonic or vibrating-mesh nebulizers and their stability during aerosol generation was evaluated using salbutamol sulphate as a model hydrophilic drug. Although delivery of ultradeformable liposome aerosols in high fine particle fraction was achievable, the vesicles were very unstable to nebulization so that up to 98% drug losses were demonstrated. Conventional liposomes were relatively less unstable to nebulization. Moreover, ultradeformable liposomes tended to aggregate during nebulization whilst conventional vesicles demonstrated a "size fractionation" behaviour, with smaller liposomes delivered to the lower stage of the impinger and larger vesicles to the upper stage. A release study conducted for 2 h showed that ultradeformable liposomes retained only 30% of the originally entrapped drug, which was increased to 53% by inclusion of cholesterol within the formulations. By contrast, conventional liposomes retained 60-70% of the originally entrapped drug. The differences between ultradeformable liposomes and liposomes were attributed to the presence of ethanol or Tween 80 within the elastic vesicle formulations. Overall, this study demonstrated, contrary to our expectation, that materials included with the aim of making the liposomes more elastic and ultradeformable to enhance delivery from nebulizers were in fact responsible for vesicle instability during nebulization and high leakage rates of the drug. PMID:22796173

  15. Global survey on nebulization of antimicrobial agents in mechanically ventilated patients: a call for international guidelines.

    PubMed

    Solé-Lleonart, C; Roberts, J A; Chastre, J; Poulakou, G; Palmer, L B; Blot, S; Felton, T; Bassetti, M; Luyt, C-E; Pereira, J M; Riera, J; Welte, T; Qiu, H; Rouby, J-J; Rello, J

    2016-04-01

    Nebulized antimicrobial agents are increasingly administered for treatment of respiratory infections in mechanically ventilated (MV) patients. A structured online questionnaire assessing the indications, dosages and recent patterns of use for nebulized antimicrobial agents in MV patients was developed. The questionnaire was distributed worldwide and completed by 192 intensive care units. The most common indications for using nebulized antimicrobial agent were ventilator-associated tracheobronchitis (VAT; 58/87), ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP; 56/87) and management of multidrug-resistant, Gram-negative (67/87) bacilli in the respiratory tract. The most common prescribed nebulized agents were colistin methanesulfonate and sulfate (36/87, 41.3% and 24/87, 27.5%), tobramycin (32/87, 36.7%) and amikacin (23/87, 26.4%). Colistin methanesulfonate, amikacin and tobramycin daily doses for VAP were significantly higher than for VAT (p < 0.05). Combination of parenteral and nebulized antibiotics occurred in 50 (86%) of 58 prescriptions for VAP and 36 (64.2%) of 56 of prescriptions for VAT. The use of nebulized antimicrobial agents in MV patients is common. There is marked heterogeneity in clinical practice, with significantly different in use between patients with VAP and VAT. Randomized controlled clinical trials and international guidance on indications, dosing and antibiotic combinations to improve clinical outcomes are urgently required. PMID:26723563

  16. Short torch design for direct liquid sample introduction using conventional and micro-nebulizers for plasma spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Montaser, Akbar; Westphal, Craig S.; Kahen, Kaveh; Rutkowski, William F.

    2008-01-08

    An apparatus and method for providing direct liquid sample introduction using a nebulizer are provided. The apparatus and method include a short torch having an inner tube and an outer tube, and an elongated adapter having a cavity for receiving the nebulizer and positioning a nozzle tip of the nebulizer a predetermined distance from a tip of the outer tube of the short torch. The predetermined distance is preferably about 2-5 mm.

  17. Intravitreal injection

    MedlinePlus

    Retinal vein occlusion-intravitreal injection; Triamcinolone-intravitreal injection; Dexamethasone-intravitreal injection; Lucentis-intravitreal injection; Avastin-intravitreal injection; Bevacizumab-intravitreal injection; Ranibizumab- ...

  18. Results of a multicenter study of nebulized inhalant bronchodilator solutions.

    PubMed

    Tashkin, D P; Bleecker, E; Braun, S; Campbell, S; DeGraff, A C; Hudgel, D W; Boyars, M C; Sahn, S

    1996-01-29

    The efficacy, persistence of bronchodilator action, and safety of the quaternary ammonium anticholinergic agent, ipratropium bromide (500 microgram), and placebo were compared when each was added in solution form to the beta-adrenergic agonist solution, metaproterenol sulfate (15 mg), and administered three times daily for 12 weeks to a total of 213 patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Subjects had a mean forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1) of approximately 1 liter (37% of predicted) and were permitted to use nonanticholinergic therapy for COPD throughout the trial. The study was a randomized, double-blind, 85-day, parallel-group, eight-center study. On a 3 test days, 1, 43, and 85, mean peak responses for FEV1 and forced vital capacity and mean area under the curve were significantly higher for the iprathropium bromide-metaproterenol combination than for metaproterenol only. Duration of action was also significantly longer for the combination therapy than for the beta-agonist alone on test days 1 and 43. Neither treatment regimen produced an demonstrable effect on daily morning peak expiratory flow rates, reported respiratory symptoms, or quality of life. Both treatment regimens were similarly well tolerated with a comparable frequency of adverse events. These results suggest that the combination of iprathropium bromide and metaproterenol inhalation solutions offers a potential therapeutic advantage to patients with symptomatic COPD over nebulized metaproterenol alone without the risk of increased side effects. PMID:8610720

  19. Integrated liquid chromatography-heated nebulizer microchip for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Haapala, Markus; Saarela, Ville; Pól, Jaroslav; Kolari, Kai; Kotiaho, Tapio; Franssila, Sami; Kostiainen, Risto

    2010-03-10

    A new integrated microchip for liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) is presented. The chip is made from bonded silicon and glass wafers with structures for a packed LC column channel, a micropillar frit, a channel for optional optical detection, and a heated vaporizer section etched in silicon and platinum heater elements on the glass cover. LC eluent is vaporized and mixed with nebulizer gas in the vaporizer section and the vapor is sprayed out from the chip. Nonpolar and polar analytes can be efficiently ionized in the gas phase by atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) as demonstrated with polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs). This is not achievable with present LC-MS chips, since they are based on electrospray ionization, which is not able to ionize nonpolar compounds efficiently. The preliminary quantitative performance of the new chip was evaluated in terms of limit of detection (down to 5 ng mL(-1)), linearity (r>0.999), and repeatability of signal response (RSD=2.6-4.0%) and retention time (RSD=0.3-0.5%) using APPI for ionization and PAHs as standard compounds. Determination of fluorescent compounds is demonstrated by using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for detection in the optical detection channel before the vaporizer section. PMID:20171315

  20. Surface acoustic wave nebulization facilitating lipid mass spectrometric analysis.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Sung Hwan; Huang, Yue; Edgar, J Scott; Ting, Ying S; Heron, Scott R; Kao, Yuchieh; Li, Yanyan; Masselon, Christophe D; Ernst, Robert K; Goodlett, David R

    2012-08-01

    Surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) is a novel method to transfer nonvolatile analytes directly from the aqueous phase to the gas phase for mass spectrometric analysis. The lower ion energetics of SAWN and its planar nature make it appealing for analytically challenging lipid samples. This challenge is a result of their amphipathic nature, labile nature, and tendency to form aggregates, which readily precipitate clogging capillaries used for electrospray ionization (ESI). Here, we report the use of SAWN to characterize the complex glycolipid, lipid A, which serves as the membrane anchor component of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and has a pronounced tendency to clog nano-ESI capillaries. We also show that unlike ESI SAWN is capable of ionizing labile phospholipids without fragmentation. Lastly, we compare the ease of use of SAWN to the more conventional infusion-based ESI methods and demonstrate the ability to generate higher order tandem mass spectral data of lipid A for automated structure assignment using our previously reported hierarchical tandem mass spectrometry (HiTMS) algorithm. The ease of generating SAWN-MS(n) data combined with HiTMS interpretation offers the potential for high throughput lipid A structure analysis. PMID:22742654

  1. A reappraisal of the clinical efficacy of nebulized flunisolide in pediatric asthma: the Italian experience.

    PubMed

    Kantar, Ahmad; Mroueh, Salman; Fiocchi, Alessandro

    2007-01-01

    Flunisolide (FLU) is a synthetic corticosteroid with potent topical anti-inflammatory activity. Its oral bioavailability is poor (6.7%). After gastrointestinal and lung absorption, the drug undergoes rapid and extensive first-pass metabolism by the liver to an inactive 6beta-hydroxylated metabolite. Plasma half-life is estimated to be 3.9 to 4.6 hours. FLU has a low volume of distribution at steady state and a short terminal half-life after inhalation (96 L and 1.6 hour, respectively). FLU, like budesonide, has a short pulmonary residence time and it is hypothesized that it may undergo esterification in the cell due to the presence of a free hydroxyl group at C21. Nebulization may offer important advantages over other inhalation methods. Nebulizers allow drug delivery in very young children through passive inhalation, depending less on patient coordination and cooperation. Comparative studies indicate that FLU is nebulized to a better advantage than beclomethasone dipropionate and budesonide. This is attributed to its elevated water solubility. The aim of this article is to outline the factors that influence drug nebulization and the pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of FLU compared to other inhaled corticosteroids. In addition, we report a series of clinical data regarding the efficacy of nebulized FLU with focus on the Italian experience. Overall, the physicochemical characteristics and pharmacokinetic profile of FLU favor its use for nebulization. Clinical data indicate that nebulized FLU is effective in asthma treatment in infants and children. Side effects were not reported at the commonly used doses. PMID:17883883

  2. Effects of nebulized terbutaline on oxygen saturation in acute asthmatic children.

    PubMed

    Lin, Y Z; Hsieh, K H; Shih, T Y; Chen, W; Wu, K W

    1994-01-01

    To evaluate the paradoxical effect of oxygen desaturation following beta-2 bronchodilator nebulization treatment in acute asthmatic children, a total of 47 patients, aged between 1.8 and 14 years, 27 males and 20 females, were studied. Twenty ml of nebulized normal saline (NS), followed by 10 mg (4 ml) of terbutaline sulphate solution (TSS) in 20 ml NS, were delivered by an ultrasonic nebulizer in 10 min to each patient through a connecting air tube placed in front of the nose and mouth. Oxygen saturation (SaO2) and pulse rate were monitored, using a pulse oximeter, before study and every two minutes until the end of the study. The clinical severity score and peak expiratory flow rate (PEFR) were checked before the study, at the end of inhalation of NS, and at the end of inhalation of TSS. SaO2 was increased both after nebulized NS and TSS when compared with the pre-study data (p < 0.05 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Twenty two cases (47%) during NS and 12 cases (25%) during TSS nebulization had SaO2 below the pre-study level. The mean decrease of SaO2 for the former was 1.62 +/- 0.95% (range: 1.00% to 4.26%), and 1.64 +/- 0.83% (range: 1.02% to 3.13%) for the latter (p > 0.9). No SaO2 decrease after nebulized TSS was observed in any of the seven severe asthmatic children with a prestudy SaO2 < or = 90%. The clinical severity score and PEFR were also significantly improved both after nebulized NS and TSS (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.001, respectively for NS, and both p < 0.0001 for TSS).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7942023

  3. Effects of Anatomy and Particle Size on Nasal Sprays and Nebulizers

    PubMed Central

    Frank, Dennis O.; Kimbell, Julia S.; Pawar, Sachin; Rhee, John S.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of nasal deformity on aerosol penetration past the nasal valve (NV) for varying particle sizes using sprays or nebulizers. Study Design Computed mathematical nasal airway model. Setting Department computer lab Subjects and Methods Particle deposition was analyzed using a computational fluid dynamics model of the human nose with leftward septal deviation and compensatory right inferior turbinate hypertrophy. Sprays were simulated for 10µm, 20µm, 50µm, or particle sizes following a Rosin Rammler Particle Size Distribution (10–110µm), at speeds of 1m/s, 3m/s, or 10m/s. Nebulization was simulated for 1µm, 3.2µm, 6.42µm, or 10µm particles. Steady state inspiratory airflow was simulated at 15.7L/min. Results Sprays predicted higher NV penetration on the right side for particle sizes >10µm, with comparable penetration on both sides at 10µm. Nearly 100% deposited in the nasal passages for all spray characteristics. Nebulizer predictions showed nearly 100% of particles <6.42µm and over 50% of 6.42µm bypassing both sides of the nose without depositing. Of the nebulized particles that deposited, penetration was higher on the right at 10µm, with comparable penetration on both sides at 6.42µm. Spray penetration was highest at 10µm, with over 96% penetrating on both sides at 1 and 3m/s. Nebulization penetration was also highest at 10µm (40% on the left, >90% on the right). Conclusion In the presence of a septal deviation, sprays or nebulizers containing 10µm particles may have good penetration beyond the NV. Nebulized particles <10µm are likely to be respirable. Additionally, spray speeds above 3m/s may limit penetration. PMID:22049020

  4. Hospital readmissions following initiation of nebulized arformoterol tartrate or nebulized short-acting beta-agonists among inpatients treated for COPD

    PubMed Central

    Bollu, Vamsi; Ernst, Frank R; Karafilidis, John; Rajagopalan, Krithika; Robinson, Scott B; Braman, Sidney S

    2013-01-01

    Background Inpatient admissions for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) represent a significant economic burden, accounting for over half of direct medical costs. Reducing 30-day readmissions could save health care resources while improving patient care. Recently, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act authorized reduced Medicare payments to hospitals with excess readmissions for acute myocardial infarction, heart failure, and pneumonia. Starting in October 2014, hospitals will also be penalized for excess COPD readmissions. This retrospective database study investigated whether use of arformoterol, a nebulized long-acting beta agonist, during an inpatient admission, had different 30-day all-cause readmission rates compared with treatment using nebulized short-acting beta agonists (SABAs, albuterol, or levalbuterol). Methods A US nationally representative hospital database was used to study adults aged ≥40 years, discharged between January, 2006 and March, 2010, and with a diagnosis of COPD. Patients receiving arformoterol on ≥80% of days following treatment initiation were compared with patients receiving a nebulized SABA during hospitalization. Arformoterol and nebulized SABA patients were matched (1:2) for age, sex, severity of inpatient admission, and primary/secondary COPD diagnosis. Logistic regression compared the odds of readmission while adjusting for age, sex, race, admission type, severity, primary/secondary diagnosis, other respiratory medication use, respiratory therapy use, oxygen use, hospital size, and teaching status. Results This retrospective study compared 812 arformoterol patients and 1,651 nebulized SABA patients who were discharged from their initial COPD hospital admission. An intensive care unit stay was more common among arformoterol patients (32.1% versus 18.4%, P<0.001), suggesting more severe symptoms during the initial admission. The observed readmission rate was significantly lower for arformoterol patients than

  5. Testing and Results of Human Metabolic Simulation Utilizing Ultrasonic Nebulizer Technology for Water Vapor Generation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stubbe, Matthew; Curley, Su

    2010-01-01

    Life support technology must be evaluated thoroughly before ever being implemented into a functioning design. A major concern during that evaluation is safety. The ability to mimic human metabolic loads allows test engineers to evaluate the effectiveness of new technologies without risking injury to any actual humans. The main function of most life support technologies is the removal of carbon dioxide (CO2) and water (H2O) vapor. As such any good human metabolic simulator (HMS) will mimic the human body s ability to produce these items. Introducing CO2 into a test chamber is a very straightforward process with few unknowns so the focus of this particular new HMS design was on the much more complicated process of introducing known quantities of H2O vapor on command. Past iterations of the HMS have utilized steam which is very hard to keep in vapor phase while transporting and injecting into a test chamber. Also steam adds large quantities of heat to any test chamber, well beyond what an actual human does. For the new HMS an alternative approach to water vapor generation was designed utilizing ultrasonic nebulizers as a method for creating water vapor. Ultrasonic technology allows water to be vibrated into extremely tiny pieces (2-5 microns) and evaporate without requiring additional heating. Doing this process inside the test chamber itself allows H2O vapor generation without the unwanted heat and the challenging process of transporting water vapor. This paper presents the design details as well as results of all initial and final acceptance system testing. Testing of the system was performed at a range of known human metabolic rates in both sea-level and reduced pressure environments. This multitude of test points fully defines the systems capabilities as they relate to actual environmental systems testing.

  6. Aerodynamic characteristics of nebulized terbutaline sulphate using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) and CEN method.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E; Chrystyn, Henry

    2009-03-01

    Characterization of the aerosolized dose emitted from a nebulized system can be determined using CEN (prEN13544-1) methodology and more recently with a Next Generation Impactor (NGI), but evaporative effects can influence the results. We have investigated these characteristics using different flows and cooling with the NGI and compared the results to the standard CEN method using two different nebulizer systems. The NGI was operated using flows of 15 and 30 L min(-1) at room (ROOM) temperature and immediately after cooling at 5 degrees C for 90 min (COLD). Two nebulizer systems, the Sidestream jet nebulizer (SIDE) and the Aeroneb Pro (AERO), were used to nebulize terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution. The CEN method was also used to provide the aerodynamic characteristics of the aerosolized dose from these two nebulizer systems. The mean (SD) mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) using 15COLD, 15ROOM, 30COLD, 30ROOM, and CEN for AERO was 5.0(0.1), 4.1(0.3), 4.4(0.2), 2.0(0.3), and 3.0(1.1) microm, respectively, and 4.2(0.4), 2.6(0.4), 3.5(0.1), 1.7(0.1), and 3.2(0.3) microm for SIDE. The fine particle fraction (FPF), using the NGI, followed the expected trend associated with the corresponding MMAD values, ranging from 48.1 to 70.5% from AERO and 57.3 to 87.8% for SIDE. The mean FPF for AERO and SIDE using the CEN methodology was 72.5 and 63.6%. Overall there was a highly significant difference (p < 0.001) between the different operating conditions for the FPF and MMAD of both nebulizer systems. All methods revealed a significant difference between AERO and SIDE except CEN. Both nebulizer systems were prone to evaporation effects during in vitro testing. Cooling and using a slow flow minimizes evaporation effects with the NGI and should be adopted as the recommended compendial method. The CEN method provides different values to those of the NGI operating conditions and could not differentiate between the two nebulizers. PMID:19392586

  7. Nebulized heparin for patients under mechanical ventilation: an individual patient data meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Glas, Gerie J; Serpa Neto, Ary; Horn, Janneke; Cochran, Amalia; Dixon, Barry; Elamin, Elamin M; Faraklas, Iris; Dissanaike, Sharmila; Miller, Andrew C; Schultz, Marcus J

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary coagulopathy is a characteristic feature of lung injury including ventilator-induced lung injury. The aim of this individual patient data meta-analysis is to assess the effects of nebulized anticoagulants on outcome of ventilated intensive care unit (ICU) patients. A systematic search of PubMed (1966-2014), Scopus, EMBASE, and Web of Science was conducted to identify relevant publications. Studies evaluating nebulization of anticoagulants in ventilated patients were screened for inclusion, and corresponding authors of included studies were contacted to provide individual patient data. The primary endpoint was the number of ventilator-free days and alive at day 28. Secondary endpoints included hospital mortality, ICU- and hospital-free days at day 28, and lung injury scores at day seven. We constructed a propensity score-matched cohort for comparisons between patients treated with nebulized anticoagulants and controls. Data from five studies (one randomized controlled trial, one open label study, and three studies using historical controls) were included in the meta-analysis, compassing 286 patients. In all studies unfractionated heparin was used as anticoagulant. The number of ventilator-free days and alive at day 28 was higher in patients treated with nebulized heparin compared to patients in the control group (14 [IQR 0-23] vs. 6 [IQR 0-22]), though the difference did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.459). The number of ICU-free days and alive at day 28 was significantly higher, and the lung injury scores at day seven were significantly lower in patients treated with nebulized heparin. In the propensity score-matched analysis, there were no differences in any of the endpoints. This individual patient data meta-analysis provides no convincing evidence for benefit of heparin nebulization in intubated and ventilated ICU patients. The small patient numbers and methodological shortcomings of included studies underline the need for high

  8. Comparison of numerical simulations to experiments for atomization in a jet nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and

  9. Influence of impactor operating flow rate on particle size distribution of four jet nebulizers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yue; Brasel, Trevor L; Kracko, Dean; Cheng, Yung-Sung; Ahuja, Amitkumar; Norenberg, Jeffrey P; Kelly, H William

    2007-01-01

    When a nebulizer is evaluated by the Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI), the flow rate is generally maintained at 28.3 L/min, as recommended by the manufacturer. However, the nebulizer flow rate that a patient inhales is only around 18 L/min. Because the drive flow of a nebulizer is approximately 6-8 L/min, the nebulized drug is mixed with outside air when delivered. Evaluating impactor performance at the 28.3 L/min flow rate is less than ideal because an additional 10 L/min of outside air is mixed with the drug, thereby affecting the drug size distribution and dose before inhalation and deposition in the human lung. In this study we operated the ACI at an 18.0 L/min flow rate to test whether the effect of the changing ambient humidity was being exaggerated by the 28.3 L/min flow rate. The study was carried out at three different relative humidity levels and two different impactor flow rates with four commercially available nebulizers. The mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD) and the geometric standard deviation (GSD) of the droplets were found to increase when the impactor was operated at a flow rate of 18 L/min compared to that of 28.3 L/min. The higher MMAD and GSD could cause the patient to inhale less of the drug than expected if the nebulizer was evaluated by the ACI at the operating flow rate of 28.3 L/min. PMID:17763140

  10. Comparison of Numerical Simulations to Experiments for Atomization in a Jet Nebulizer

    PubMed Central

    Lelong, Nicolas; Vecellio, Laurent; Sommer de Gélicourt, Yann; Tanguy, Christian; Diot, Patrice; Junqua-Moullet, Alexandra

    2013-01-01

    The development of jet nebulizers for medical purposes is an important challenge of aerosol therapy. The performance of a nebulizer is characterized by its output rate of droplets with a diameter under 5 µm. However the optimization of this parameter through experiments has reached a plateau. The purpose of this study is to design a numerical model simulating the nebulization process and to compare it with experimental data. Such a model could provide a better understanding of the atomization process and the parameters influencing the nebulizer output. A model based on the Updraft nebulizer (Hudson) was designed with ANSYS Workbench. Boundary conditions were set with experimental data then transient 3D calculations were run on a 4 µm mesh with ANSYS Fluent. Two air flow rate (2 L/min and 8 L/min, limits of the operating range) were considered to account for different turbulence regimes. Numerical and experimental results were compared according to phenomenology and droplet size. The behavior of the liquid was compared to images acquired through shadowgraphy with a CCD Camera. Three experimental methods, laser diffractometry, phase Doppler anemometry (PDA) and shadowgraphy were used to characterize the droplet size distributions. Camera images showed similar patterns as numerical results. Droplet sizes obtained numerically are overestimated in relation to PDA and diffractometry, which only consider spherical droplets. However, at both flow rates, size distributions extracted from numerical image processing were similar to distributions obtained from shadowgraphy image processing. The simulation then provides a good understanding and prediction of the phenomena involved in the fragmentation of droplets over 10 µm. The laws of dynamics apply to droplets down to 1 µm, so we can assume the continuity of the distribution and extrapolate the results for droplets between 1 and 10 µm. So, this model could help predicting nebulizer output with defined geometrical and

  11. Inhalation solutions--which ones may be mixed? Physico-chemical compatibility of drug solutions in nebulizers--update 2013.

    PubMed

    Kamin, Wolfgang; Erdnüss, Frank; Krämer, Irene

    2014-05-01

    Many patients suffering from chronic respiratory diseases rely on inhalation therapy with nebulizers. About 25% of patients who need to inhale several different drugs per day save time by mixing them for simultaneous inhalation. This review presents a comprehensive overview of the available data concerning physico-chemical compatibility of commonly mixed nebulizer solutions and suspensions. Information is based on our in vitro studies and a thorough literature search. Results indicate that many nebulizer solutions/suspensions are mixable without provoking incompatibilities. However, certain excipients contained in some of the tested drug products could be identified as a reason for incompatibilities, e.g. impaired activity of dornase alfa. Studies assessing the aerosol characteristics of compatible mixtures nebulized with commonly used nebulizers are limited and should be encouraged. The clinical efficacy of simultaneous inhalation of duplicate, tripartite or quadripartite mixtures must be evaluated in clinical studies before final recommendations for the inhalation regimens can be made. PMID:24172851

  12. Nebulized Live-Attenuated Influenza Vaccine Provides Protection in Ferrets at a Reduced Dose

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Jennifer Humberd; Papania, Mark; Knaus, Darin; Brooks, Paula; Haas, Debra L.; Mair, Raydel; Barry, James; Tompkins, S. Mark; Tripp, Ralph A.

    2011-01-01

    Live-attenuated influenza vaccine (LAIV) is delivered to vaccine recipients using a nasal spray syringe. LAIV delivered by this method is immunogenic at current doses; however, improvements in nasal delivery might allow for significant dose reduction. We investigated LAIV vaccination in ferrets using a high efficiency nebulizer designed for nasal delivery. LAIV nasal aerosol elicited high levels of serum neutralizing antibodies and protected ferrets from homologous virus challenge at conventional (107 TCID50) and significantly reduced (103 TCID50) doses. Aerosol LAIV also provided a significant level of subtype-specific cross protection. These results demonstrate the dose-sparing potential of nebulizer-based nasal aerosol LAIV delivery. PMID:22075083

  13. Characterization of a human powered nebulizer compressor for resource poor settings

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Respiratory disease accounts for three of the ten leading causes of death worldwide. Many of these diseases can be treated and diagnosed using a nebulizer. Nebulizers can also be used to safely and efficiently deliver vaccines. Unfortunately, commercially available nebulizers are not designed for use in regions of the world where lung disease is most prevalent: they are electricity-dependent, cost-prohibitive, and not built to be reliable in harsh operating conditions or under frequent use. To overcome these limitations, the Human Powered Nebulizer compressor (HPN) was developed. The HPN does not require electricity; instead airflow is generated manually through a hand-crank or bicycle-style pedal system. A health care worker or other trained individual operates the device while the patient receives treatment. This study demonstrates functional specifications of the HPN in comparison with a standard commercially available electric jet nebulizer compressor, the DeVilbiss Pulmo-Aide 5650D (Pulmo-Aide). Methods Pressure and flow characteristics were measured with a rotameter and pressure transducer, respectively. Volume nebulized by each compressor was determined by mass, and particle size distribution was determined via laser diffraction. The Hudson RCI Micro Mist nebulizer mouthpiece was used with both compressors. Results The pressure and flow generated by the HPN and Pulmo-Aide were: 15.17 psi and 10.5 L/min; and 14.65 psi and 11.2 L/min, respectively. The volume of liquid delivered by each was equivalent, 1.097 ± 0.107 mL (mean ± s.e.m., n = 13) for the HPN and 1.092 ± 0.116 mL for the Pulmo-Aide. The average particle size was also equivalent, 5.38 ± 0.040 micrometers (mean ± s.e.m., n = 7) and 5.40 ± 0.025 micrometers, respectively. Conclusions Based on these characteristics, the HPN’s performance is equivalent to a popular commercially available electric nebulizer compressor. The findings presented in

  14. Biopharmaceutical Characterization of Nebulized Antimicrobial Agents in Rats: 5. Oseltamivir Carboxylate.

    PubMed

    Galindo Bedor, Danilo Cesar; Marchand, Sandrine; Lamarche, Isabelle; Laroche, Julian; Pereira de Santana, Davi; Couet, William

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the biopharmaceutical characteristics of oseltamivir carboxylate (OC) after pulmonary delivery. After OC bolus and intratracheal nebulization (NEB) in rats, blood was collected and bronchoalveolar lavages (BALs) were performed. Epithelial lining fluid (ELF) concentrations were estimated from BAL fluid. The area under the curve (AUC) ratio for ELF to plasma was 842 times higher after NEB than after intravenous (i.v.) administration, indicating that OC nebulization offers a biopharmaceutical advantage over i.v. administration. PMID:27297482

  15. Nebuhaler or nebulizer for high dose bronchodilator therapy in chronic bronchitis: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Allen, M B; Pugh, J; Wilson, R S

    1988-10-01

    We have compared the clinical efficacy of high dose terbutaline sulphate (10 mg four times daily) delivered by either a Nebuhaler or jet nebulizer in 13 patients with chronic bronchitis in a 2-week, open, crossover study. Both treatment regimens improved run-in symptom scores but no significant changes were recorded in peak flow and spirometry. Side-effects were more common with the Nebuhaler and more patients preferred the nebulizer. However, the Nebuhaler is an alternative therapeutic option for delivery of high doses of bronchodilators in patients with chronic bronchitis. PMID:3076792

  16. The Effects of Three Nebulized Osmotic Agents in the Dry Larynx

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Elstad, Mark

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: This investigation examined the effects of nebulized hypertonic saline, isotonic saline (IS), and sterile (hypotonic) water on phonation threshold pressure (PTP) and self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge. Method: In a double-blind, randomized experimental trial, 60 vocally healthy women…

  17. Nebulized Isotonic Saline versus Water following a Laryngeal Desiccation Challenge in Classically Trained Sopranos

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Kristine; Roy, Nelson; Merrill, Ray M.; Muntz, Faye; Houtz, Daniel R.; Sauder, Cara; Elstad, Mark; Wright-Costa, Julie

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the effects of nebulized isotonic saline (IS) versus sterile water (SW) on self-perceived phonatory effort (PPE) and phonation threshold pressure (PTP) following a surface laryngeal dehydration challenge in classically trained sopranos. Method: In a double-blind, within-subject crossover design, 34 sopranos breathed dry air…

  18. Efficacy of Nebulized Liposomal Amphotericin B in Treatment of Experimental Pulmonary Aspergillosis

    PubMed Central

    Gavaldà, Joan; Martín, María-Teresa; López, Pedro; Gomis, Xavier; Ramírez, José-Luís; Rodríguez, Dolors; Len, Oscar; Puigfel, Yolanda; Ruíz, Isabel; Pahissa, Albert

    2005-01-01

    The efficacy of therapeutic aerosolized amphotericin B (AMB) was studied in a steroid-immunosuppressed murine model of invasive pulmonary aspergillosis. Nebulized liposomal AMB can be a valid approach to the treatment of this infection, with subjects showing significantly improved survival relative to that of subjects given intravenous deoxycholate AMB, as well as lower lung weights and pulmonary glucosamine levels. PMID:15980392

  19. Promoting adherence to nebulized therapy in cystic fibrosis: poster development and a qualitative exploration of adherence

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Stephen; Babiker, Nathan; Gardner, Emma; Royle, Jane; Curley, Rachael; Hoo, Zhe Hui; Wildman, Martin J

    2015-01-01

    Background Cystic fibrosis (CF) health care professionals recognize the need to motivate people with CF to adhere to nebulizer treatments, yet little is known about how best to achieve this. We aimed to produce motivational posters to support nebulizer adherence by using social marketing involving people with CF in the development of those posters. Methods The Sheffield CF multidisciplinary team produced preliminary ideas that were elaborated upon with semi-structured interviews among people with CF to explore barriers and facilitators to the use of nebulized therapy. Initial themes and poster designs were refined using an online focus group to finalize the poster designs. Results People with CF preferred aspirational posters describing what could be achieved through adherence in contrast to posters that highlighted the adverse consequences of nonadherence. A total of 14 posters were produced through this process. Conclusion People with CF can be engaged to develop promotional material to support adherence, providing a unique perspective differing from that of the CF multidisciplinary team. Further research is needed to evaluate the effectiveness of these posters to support nebulizer adherence. PMID:26346635

  20. Nebulized scopolamine in the management of oral dribbling: three case reports.

    PubMed

    Zeppetella, G

    1999-04-01

    Difficulty swallowing saliva or its excessive production may be problematic for some patients. The resulting oral dribbling is often embarrassing. Three patients were admitted for hospice care complaining of oral dribbling. Each patient was given nebulized scopolamine hydrobromide which helped lessen the dribbling. PMID:10203882

  1. ULTRASONIC NEBULIZATION AND ARSENIC VALENCE STATE CONSIDERATIONS PRIOR TO DETERMINATION VIA INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    An ultrasonic nebulizer (USN) was utilized as a sample introduction device for an inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer in an attempt to increase the sensitivity for As. The USN produced a valence state response difference for As. The As response was suppressed approximate...

  2. Ovine progressive pneumonia virus is transmitted more effectively via aerosol nebulization than oral administration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A new method of experimental infection of ovine progressive pneumonia virus (OPPV), aerosol nebulization (Nb), was compared to intravenous (IV) and oral (PO) methods of experimental infection. Seven month old lambs were given 3.5 × 107 TCID50 of Dubois OPPV LMH19 isolate using IV, PO, or Nb methods ...

  3. Controlling the droplet size of formulations nebulized by vibrating-membrane technology.

    PubMed

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Knuedeler, Marie-Christine; Seeger, Werner; Schmehl, Thomas

    2014-08-01

    Manipulation of aerosol characteristics is of special interest for pulmonary therapy, as a suitable particle size optimizes pulmonary deposition. The present study investigated the impact of formulation variables on the aerodynamic particle diameter (d(a)) when nebulized by vibrating-membrane technology. Membranes implemented in the Aeroneb® Pro and eFlow®rapid nebulizer revealed difference in metal composition and nozzle morphology as determined by energy dispersive X-ray measurements and scanning electron microscopy. Laser diffraction analysis of generated aerosol droplets identified the conductivity and dynamic viscosity of formulations as parameters with significant influence on the d(a) for both nebulizers. Accordingly, sample supplementation with particular excipients (conductivity: >50 μS/cm, dynamic viscosity: >1.5 mPa s) facilitated a reduction of the d(a) from ⩾8 μm, which is clearly in conflict with inhalative drug delivery, to respirable d(a) as small as ~3 μm. Overall, controlling the d(a) of formulations nebulized by vibrating-membrane technology seems to be technical feasible by an adequate adaption of samples' physicochemical properties. The Aeroneb® Pro and eFlow®rapid device are both qualified for the production of respirable aerosol clouds from specified formulations. PMID:24657823

  4. Introduction of organic solvents into inductively coupled plasmas by ultrasonic nebulization with cryogenic desolvation

    SciTech Connect

    Wiederin, D.R.; Houk, R.S.; Winge, R.K.; D'Silva, A.P. )

    1990-06-01

    A two-step desolvation system for a continuous-flow ultrasonic nebulizer reduced the solvent load on an argon inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The aerosol was first heated above the boiling point of the solvent. Subsequently, solvent vapor was removed in two condensers kept at {minus}10{degree}C and {approx equal}{minus}80{degree}C. No special plasma ignition procedures were required; a change of solvent did not cause plasma instability. The plasma was stable to a forward power as low as 0.5 kW when methanol, acetone, acetonitrile, or ethanol was nebulized. The plasma could not be sustained while organic solvents were ultrasonically nebulized without at least partial desolvation. Detection limits for metals ranged from 0.2 {mu}g L{sup {minus}1} for Fe to 5 {mu}g L{sup {minus}1} for Pb. The detection limits for each element were approximately the same regardless of the organic solvent used and were comparable to those obtained during ultrasonic nebulization of aqueous solutions. With a forward power of 1.0 kW, molecular band emission from C{sub 2} was about 25 times less than when the aerosol was partially desolvated using a condensation temperature of {minus}10{degree}C.

  5. Advanced nebulizer designs employing vibrating mesh/aperture plate technologies for aerosol generation.

    PubMed

    Waldrep, J C; Dhand, R

    2008-04-01

    Recent technological advances and improved nebulizer designs have overcome many limitations of jet nebulizers. Newer devices employ a vibrating mesh or aperture plate (VM/AP) for the generation of therapeutic aerosols with consistent, increased efficiency, predominant aerosol fine particle fractions, low residuals, and the ability to nebulize even microliter volumes. These enhancements are achieved through several different design features and include improvements that promote patient compliance, such as compact design, portability, shorter treatment durations, and quiet operation. Current VM/AP devices in clinical use are the Omron MicroAir, the Nektar Aeroneb, and the Pari eFlow. However, some devices are only approved for use with specific medications. Development of "smart nebulizers" such as the Respironics I-neb couple VM technologies with coordinated delivery and optimized inhalation patterns to enhance inhaled drug delivery of specialized, expensive formulations. Ongoing development of advanced aerosol technologies should improve clinical outcomes and continue to expand therapeutic options as newer inhaled drugs become available. PMID:18393813

  6. A prospective comparison of Porta-sonic and Fisoneb ultrasonic nebulizers for administering aerosol pentamidine

    PubMed Central

    McIvor, Andrew; Flood, Diane; Lee-Pack, Leslie; Rachlis, Anita; Berger, Philip; Chan, Charles K

    1994-01-01

    Objective: To report patient acceptability and overall therapeutic effectiveness of two different ultrasonic nebulizers, Fisoneb and Porta-sonic, for the administration of aerosol pentamidine for Pneumocysitis carinii prophylaxis in human immunodeficiency virus (hiv)-infected individuals. Design: Prospective assessment of a random subgroup of 174 individuals from an inception cohort of 1093 patients attending a central aerosol pentamidine treatment centre in Toronto, Ontario. Methods: One hundred and seventy-four patients who had been receiving aerosolized pentamidine for more than 10 weeks using Fisoneb at 60 mg every two weeks were switched to Porta-sonic. Subjective evaluation included three standard 10 cm visual analogue scales rating cough/wheeze, aftertaste and overall preference. The individuals were also asked to compare the duration of time spent on the aerosol treatments. Objective evaluation included spirometry performed immediately before and 15 mins after pentamidine administration. Prospective surveillance of the entire cohort was preformed to record and document episodes of breakthrough P carinii pneumonia. Results: Porta-sonic was the overall preferred nebulizer in 82% of patients. Less time was spent on aerosol treatment using the Porta-sonic nebulizer compared with the Fisoneb in 66% of patients. The Porta-sonic nebulizer system produced less aftertaste compared with Fisoneb. Both nebulizers produced significant but modest reduction in flow rates. During the study period there was no statistically significant difference in the rates of breakthrough P carinii pneumonia between the two groups. A total of 91 episodes occurred, at a rate of 0.5 episodes per patient-month on Porta-sonic compared with 0.7 episodes per patient-month on Fisoneb (P=0.2536). Discussion: Aerosol pentamidine remains the proven second-line prophylaxis against P carinii pneumonia in hiv/aids for those intolerant to trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole. Cough, bronchospasm and poor

  7. Decontamination of room air and adjoining wall surfaces by nebulizing hydrogen peroxide

    PubMed Central

    Koburger, Torsten; Below, Harald; Dornquast, Tina; Kramer, Axel

    2011-01-01

    Aim: In 2010, the ASP GLOSAIRTM 400 was introduced in Germany for nebulizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). Since there were no results of practical experience, the new method was to be checked under practical conditions for its effectiveness in decontaminating air in rooms, infested with mold after water damage and, at the same time, under experimentally controlled conditions, test surfaces, contaminated with Aspergillus brasiliensis. Method: After the nebulizer was used in two rooms with a massive mold infestation, the air colony count was determined (MAS-100® Zinsser Analytik) and, at the same time, the mold infestation in samples of wall plaster. As part of this controlled study, test surfaces contaminated with Aspergillus brasiliensis were positioned vertically and horizontally in a test room. The effectiveness of the nebulization (5–6% H2O2 for 2 hours) was tested on these surfaces according to EN 13697. Results: In a massive mold infestation resulting from water damage (worst case), an approximately 9-fold decrease in the mold content and an approximately 13-fold decrease in the number of colony-forming units (sum of the bacteria + fungi) could be detected in the room air immediately after the nebulizing was finished. Even in samples of wall and joint plaster, the molds were reduced, although to a distinctly lesser extent. By indoor nebulization of 5–6% H2O2, A. brasiliensis was reduced >4 log on vertical and horizontal surfaces. Discussion: In rooms with a massive mold infestation, the ASP GLOSAIRTM 400 system is suitable for attaining a clear reduction in the fungal and bacterial room air load, lasting for a week. On vertical and horizontal surfaces, contaminated experimentally with A. brasiliensis, a reduction of >4 lg is achieved. As a load of 104 to 105 fungal spores is unlikely to occur on pre-cleaned surfaces, the GLOSAIRTM 400 can be considered a suitable complementary process for the substantial reduction of fungal contamination. PMID:22242090

  8. Production of Inhalable Submicrometer Aerosols from Conventional Mesh Nebulizers for Improved Respiratory Drug Delivery

    PubMed Central

    Longest, P. Worth; Spence, Benjamin M.; Holbrook, Landon T.; Mossi, Karla M.; Son, Yoen-Ju; Hindle, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Submicrometer and nanoparticle aerosols may significantly improve the delivery efficiency, dissolution characteristics, and bioavailability of inhaled pharmaceuticals. The objective of this study was to explore the formation of submicrometer and nanometer aerosols from mesh nebulizers suitable for respiratory drug delivery using experiments and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling. Mesh nebulizers were coupled with add-on devices to promote aerosol drying and the formation of submicrometer particles, as well as to control the inhaled aerosol temperature and relative humidity. Cascade impaction experiments were used to determine the initial mass median aerodynamic diameters of 0.1% albuterol aerosols produced by the AeroNeb commercial (4.69 μm) and lab (3.90 μm) nebulizers and to validate the CFD model in terms of droplet evaporation. Through an appropriate selection of flow rates, nebulizers, and model drug concentrations, submicrometer and nanometer aerosols could be formed with the three devices considered. Based on CFD simulations, a wire heated design was shown to overheat the airstream producing unsafe conditions for inhalation if the aerosol was not uniformly distributed in the tube cross-section or if the nebulizer stopped producing droplets. In comparison, a counter-flow heated design provided sufficient thermal energy to produce submicrometer particles, but also automatically limited the maximum aerosol outlet temperature based on the physics of heat transfer. With the counter-flow design, submicrometer aerosols were produced at flow rates of 5, 15, and 30 LPM, which may be suitable for various forms of oral and nasal aerosol delivery. Thermodynamic conditions of the aerosol stream exiting the counter-flow design were found be in a range of 21-45 °C with relative humidity greater than 40% in some cases, which was considered safe for direct inhalation and advantageous for condensational growth delivery. PMID:22707794

  9. Chromosomal locations of three Bacillus subtilis din genes

    SciTech Connect

    Gillespie, K.; Yasbin, R.E.

    1987-07-01

    Previously isolated DNA damage-inducible (din) genes of Bacillus subtilis have been mapped on the bacterial chromosome by bacteriophage PBS1-mediated transduction. The din genes have been localized to three positions on the B. subtilis map. dinA cotransduction with the hisA locus was 80%, while dinC cotransduction with this marker was about 56%. dinB is unlinked to hisA, but its cotransduction with the dal-1 and purB loci was 84 and 22%, respectively.

  10. Strategy of DIN-PACS benchmark testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Gary S.; Lyche, David K.; Richardson, Nancy E.; Thomas, Jerry A.; Romlein, John R.; Cawthon, Michael A.; Lawrence, David P.; Shelton, Philip D.; Parr, Laurence F.; Richardson, Ronald R., Jr.; Johnson, Steven L.

    1998-07-01

    The Digital Imaging Network -- Picture Archive and Communication System (DIN-PACS) procurement is the Department of Defense's (DoD) effort to bring military medical treatment facilities into the twenty-first century with nearly filmless digital radiology departments. The DIN-PACS procurement is unique from most of the previous PACS acquisitions in that the Request for Proposals (RFP) required extensive benchmark testing prior to contract award. The strategy for benchmark testing was a reflection of the DoD's previous PACS and teleradiology experiences. The DIN-PACS Technical Evaluation Panel (TEP) consisted of DoD and civilian radiology professionals with unique clinical and technical PACS expertise. The TEP considered nine items, key functional requirements to the DIN-PACS acquisition: (1) DICOM Conformance, (2) System Storage and Archive, (3) Workstation Performance, (4) Network Performance, (5) Radiology Information System (RIS) functionality, (6) Hospital Information System (HIS)/RIS Interface, (7) Teleradiology, (8) Quality Control, and (9) System Reliability. The development of a benchmark test to properly evaluate these key requirements would require the TEP to make technical, operational, and functional decisions that had not been part of a previous PACS acquisition. Developing test procedures and scenarios that simulated inputs from radiology modalities and outputs to soft copy workstations, film processors, and film printers would be a major undertaking. The goals of the TEP were to fairly assess each vendor's proposed system and to provide an accurate evaluation of each system's capabilities to the source selection authority, so the DoD could purchase a PACS that met the requirements in the RFP.

  11. gamma-Tocopherol nebulization by a lipid aerosolization device improves pulmonary function in sheep with burn and smoke inhalation injury.

    PubMed

    Hamahata, Atsumori; Enkhbaatar, Perenlei; Kraft, Edward R; Lange, Matthias; Leonard, Scott W; Traber, Maret G; Cox, Robert A; Schmalstieg, Frank C; Hawkins, Hal K; Whorton, Elbert B; Horvath, Eszter M; Szabo, Csaba; Traber, Lillian D; Herndon, David N; Traber, Daniel L

    2008-08-15

    Fire accident victims who sustain both thermal injury to skin and smoke inhalation have gross evidence of systemic and pulmonary oxidant damage and acute lung injury. We hypothesized that gamma-tocopherol (gT), a reactive O(2) and N(2) scavenger, when delivered into the airway, would attenuate lung injury induced by burn and smoke inhalation. Acute lung injury was induced in chronically prepared, anesthetized sheep by 40% total burn surface area, third-degree skin burn and smoke insufflation (48 breaths of cotton smoke, <40 degrees C). The study groups were: (1) Sham (not injured, flaxseed oil (FO)-nebulized, n=6); (2) SA-neb (injured, saline-nebulized, n=6); (3) FO-neb (injured, FO-nebulized, n=6); and (4) gT+FO-neb (injured, gT and FO-nebulized, n=6). Nebulization was started 1 h postinjury, and 24 ml of FO with or without gT (51 mg/ml) was delivered into airways over 47 h using our newly developed lipid aerosolization device (droplet size: 2.5-5 microm). The burn- and smoke inhalation-induced pathological changes seen in the saline group were attenuated by FO nebulization; gT addition further improved pulmonary function. Pulmonary gT delivery along with a FO source may be a novel effective treatment strategy in management of patients with acute lung injury. PMID:18503777

  12. NANOPARTICLES. Production of amorphous nanoparticles by supersonic spray-drying with a microfluidic nebulator.

    PubMed

    Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O; Brenner, Michael P; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A

    2015-08-28

    Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules. PMID:26315432

  13. Improvement on droplet production rate of ultrasonic - nebulizer in spray pyrolysis process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panatarani, Camellia; Demen, Tuti Aryati; Men, Liu Kin; Maulana, Dwindra Wilham; Hidayat, Darmawan; Joni, I. Made

    2013-09-01

    Atomization is an important part in Spray Pyrolysis (SP) process which is applied to synthesize submicron or nano sized particles or to deposit thin film. Ultrasonic Nebulizer (UN) is usually use in SP due to its homogeneous droplets production with size between 1-5 μm. The drawback of the UN is low droplets production rate. In this research, we successfully developed a Digital Ultrasonic Nebulizer (DUN) with high droplets production rate using two ultrasonic traducers with applied frequency of 2.4 MHz. The result of DUN atomization was improved 4-6 fold compare to the conventional UN. The DUN also has an additional digital features such as pushbutton, LCD and microcontroller which is allow to set duration and applied voltage.

  14. Comparative efficacy of terbutaline administered by Nebuhaler and by nebulizer in young children with acute asthma.

    PubMed

    Pendergast, J; Hopkins, J; Timms, B; Van Asperen, P P

    1989-10-01

    We compared the use of terbutaline sulphate that was delivered by a nebulizer with its delivery by a Nebuhaler at two dose levels in 27 children (nine children per group) of between three and six years of age with acute asthma. No significant difference was found in the mean baseline clinical score among the three groups, and a significant decline occurred in the mean clinical scores in all groups by 15 minutes which was maintained to 60 minutes after the dose was administered. The decline that was achieved with delivery of the drug by way of a Nebuhaler (at either dose level) was not significantly different from that with a nebulizer, although cooperation with Nebuhaler usage was not universal in the age-group. PMID:2677624

  15. Production of amorphous nanoparticles by supersonic spray-drying with a microfluidic nebulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amstad, Esther; Gopinadhan, Manesh; Holtze, Christian; Osuji, Chinedum O.; Brenner, Michael P.; Spaepen, Frans; Weitz, David A.

    2015-08-01

    Amorphous nanoparticles (a-NPs) have physicochemical properties distinctly different from those of the corresponding bulk crystals; for example, their solubility is much higher. However, many materials have a high propensity to crystallize and are difficult to formulate in an amorphous structure without stabilizers. We fabricated a microfluidic nebulator that can produce amorphous NPs from a wide range of materials, even including pure table salt (NaCl). By using supersonic air flow, the nebulator produces drops that are so small that they dry before crystal nuclei can form. The small size of the resulting spray-dried a-NPs limits the probability of crystal nucleation in any given particle during storage. The kinetic stability of the a-NPs—on the order of months—is advantageous for hydrophobic drug molecules.

  16. Viscous topical is more effective than nebulized steroid therapy for patients with eosinophilic esophagitis.

    PubMed

    Dellon, Evan S; Sheikh, Arif; Speck, Olga; Woodward, Kimberly; Whitlow, Ann B; Hores, Jessica M; Ivanovic, Marija; Chau, Allen; Woosley, John T; Madanick, Ryan D; Orlando, Roy C; Shaheen, Nicholas J

    2012-08-01

    We performed a randomized trial to compare nebulized and viscous topical corticosteroid treatments for eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE). Subjects with incident EoE (n = 25) received budesonide 1 mg twice daily, either nebulized and then swallowed (NEB) or as an oral viscous slurry (OVB), for 8 weeks. Baseline eosinophil counts for the NEB and OVB groups were 101 and 83 (P = .62). Posttreatment counts were 89 and 11 (P = .02). The mucosal medication contact time, measured by scintigraphy, was higher for the OVB group than the NEB group (P < .005) and was inversely correlated with eosinophil count (R = -0.67; P = .001). OVB was more effective than NEB in reducing numbers of esophageal eosinophils in patients with EoE. OVB provided a significantly higher level of esophageal exposure to the therapeutic agent, which correlated with lower eosinophil counts. PMID:22561055

  17. Ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low pressure photoionization mass spectrometry for direct analysis of chemicals in matrices.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chengyuan; Zhu, Yanan; Zhou, Zhongyue; Yang, Jiuzhong; Qi, Fei; Pan, Yang

    2015-09-01

    A novel ultrasonic nebulization extraction/low-pressure photoionization (UNE-LPPI) system has been designed and employed for the rapid mass spectrometric analysis of chemicals in matrices. An ultrasonic nebulizer was used to extract the chemicals in solid sample and nebulize the solvent in the nebulization cell. Aerosols formed by ultrasonic were evaporated by passing through a transferring tube, and desolvated chemicals were ionized by the emitted light (10.6 eV) from a Krypton discharge lamp at low pressure (∼68 Pa). First, a series of semi/non-volatile compounds with different polarities, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), amino acids, dipeptides, drugs, nucleic acids, alkaloids, and steroids were used to test the system. Then, the quantification capability of UNE-LPPI was checked with: 1) pure chemicals, such as 9,10-phenanthrenequinone and 1,4-naphthoquinone dissolved in solvent; 2) soil powder spiked with different amounts of phenanthrene and pyrene. For pure chemicals, the correlation coefficient (R(2)) for the standard curve of 9,10-phenanthrenequinone in the range of 3 ng-20 μg mL(-1) was 0.9922, and the measured limits of detection (LOD) was 1 ng ml(-1). In the case of soil powder, linear relationships for phenanthrene and pyrene from 10 to 400 ng mg(-1) were obtained with correlation coefficients of 0.9889 and 0.9893, respectively. At last, the feasibility of UNE-LPPI for the detection of chemicals in real matrices such as tablets and biological tissues (tea, Citrus aurantium peel and sage (Salvia officinalis) leaf) were successfully demonstrated. PMID:26388379

  18. Development of a liposome-based formulation for vitamin K1 nebulization on the skin.

    PubMed

    Campani, Virginia; Marchese, Dario; Pitaro, Maria Teresa; Pitaro, Michele; Grieco, Paolo; De Rosa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin K1 (VK1) is a very lipophilic and photosensitive molecule contained in some vegetables. Recently, the use of VK1 on the skin has been proposed for different pharmaceutical or cosmeceutical applications. In this study, an innovative strategy for the administration of VK1 on the skin was proposed. In particular, to overcome the drawbacks associated with a VK1-containing fatty ointment available on the market, an aqueous formulation suitable to be administered by nebulization was developed. The use of liposomes encapsulating VK1 enabled issues due to the lipophilicity of VK1 to be overcome. Thus, different liposomal formulations, with different VK1 concentrations, were prepared and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, VK1 encapsulation into liposomes, and stability of the formulations during storage. After a first phase of screening, the selected formulation was tested by a portable device for nebulization. No alteration of the vesicle characteristics following the liposome supply through the nebulizer was found. Finally, permeation studies were carried out on pig-excised skin in Franz cells and the newly developed formulation was compared to a marketed VK1-containing ointment. In this test, an enhanced VK1 accumulation into the skin was found when using nebulized liposomes. In conclusion, in order to administer VK1 on the skin, the newly developed formulation could be a valid alternative to the products available on the market today. In particular, the use of liposomes could facilitate the multiple administrations per day by aerosol, but also increase, compared to a semi-solid preparation, the accumulation of VK1 into the epidermis and dermis. PMID:24748792

  19. Effect of magnesium sulfate nebulization on the incidence of postoperative sore throat

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Monu; Chalumuru, Nitish; Gopinath, Ramachandran

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims: Postoperative sore throat (POST) is a well-recognized complication after general anesthesia (GA). Numerous nonpharmacological and pharmacological measures have been used for attenuating POST with variable success. The present study was conducted to compare the efficiency of preoperative nebulization of normal saline and magnesium sulfate in reducing the incidence of POST following GA. Materials and Methods: Following institutional ethical committee approval and written informed consent, a prospective randomized double-blinded study was conducted in 100 cases divided into two equal groups. Patients included in the study were of either gender belonging to American Society of Anesthesiologist (ASA) status 1 or 2 undergoing elective surgery of approximately 2 h or more duration requiring tracheal intubation. Patients in Group A are nebulized with 3 ml of normal saline and the patients in Group B are nebulized with 3 ml of 225 mg isotonic nebulized magnesium sulfate for 15 min, 5 min before induction of anesthesia. The incidence of POST at rest and on swallowing and any undue complaints at 0, 2, 4, and 24 h in the postoperative period are evaluated. Results: There is no significant difference in POST at rest during 0th, 2nd and 4th h between normal saline and MgSO4. Significant difference is seen at 24th h, where MgSO4 lessens POST. There is no significant difference in POST on swallowing during 0th and 2nd h between normal saline and MgSO4. Significant difference is seen at 4th h, where MgSO4 has been shown to lessen POST. Conclusions: MgSO4 significantly reduces the incidence of POST compared to normal saline. PMID:27275043

  20. Development of a liposome-based formulation for vitamin K1 nebulization on the skin

    PubMed Central

    Campani, Virginia; Marchese, Dario; Pitaro, Maria Teresa; Pitaro, Michele; Grieco, Paolo; De Rosa, Giuseppe

    2014-01-01

    Vitamin K1 (VK1) is a very lipophilic and photosensitive molecule contained in some vegetables. Recently, the use of VK1 on the skin has been proposed for different pharmaceutical or cosmeceutical applications. In this study, an innovative strategy for the administration of VK1 on the skin was proposed. In particular, to overcome the drawbacks associated with a VK1-containing fatty ointment available on the market, an aqueous formulation suitable to be administered by nebulization was developed. The use of liposomes encapsulating VK1 enabled issues due to the lipophilicity of VK1 to be overcome. Thus, different liposomal formulations, with different VK1 concentrations, were prepared and characterized in terms of size, zeta potential, VK1 encapsulation into liposomes, and stability of the formulations during storage. After a first phase of screening, the selected formulation was tested by a portable device for nebulization. No alteration of the vesicle characteristics following the liposome supply through the nebulizer was found. Finally, permeation studies were carried out on pig-excised skin in Franz cells and the newly developed formulation was compared to a marketed VK1-containing ointment. In this test, an enhanced VK1 accumulation into the skin was found when using nebulized liposomes. In conclusion, in order to administer VK1 on the skin, the newly developed formulation could be a valid alternative to the products available on the market today. In particular, the use of liposomes could facilitate the multiple administrations per day by aerosol, but also increase, compared to a semi-solid preparation, the accumulation of VK1 into the epidermis and dermis. PMID:24748792

  1. Nebulizer calibration using lithium chloride: an accurate, reproducible and user-friendly method.

    PubMed

    Ward, R J; Reid, D W; Leonard, R F; Johns, D P; Walters, E H

    1998-04-01

    Conventional gravimetric (weight loss) calibration of jet nebulizers overestimates their aerosol output by up to 80% due to unaccounted evaporative loss. We examined two methods of measuring true aerosol output from jet nebulizers. A new adaptation of a widely available clinical assay for lithium (determined by flame photometry, LiCl method) was compared to an existing electrochemical method based on fluoride detection (NaF method). The agreement between the two methods and the repeatability of each method were examined. Ten Mefar jet nebulizers were studied using a Mefar MK3 inhalation dosimeter. There was no significant difference between the two methods (p=0.76) with mean aerosol output of the 10 nebulizers being 7.40 mg x s(-1) (SD 1.06; range 5.86-9.36 mg x s(-1)) for the NaF method and 7.27 mg x s(-1) (SD 0.82; range 5.52-8.26 mg x s(-1)) for the LiCl method. The LiCl method had a coefficient of repeatability of 13 mg x s(-1) compared with 3.7 mg x s(-1) for the NaF method. The LiCl method accurately measured true aerosol output and was considerably easier to use. It was also more repeatable, and hence more precise, than the NaF method. Because the LiCl method uses an assay that is routinely available from hospital biochemistry laboratories, it is easy to use and, thus, can readily be adopted by busy respiratory function departments. PMID:9623700

  2. Online Standard Additions Technique for La-ICP-MS Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, J.; Asogan, D.; Moody, S.; Clarke, D.

    2014-12-01

    Historically, quantification with laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been limited to the ability to matrix match both standards and samples. This can prove problematic when a particular matrix matched standard is not readily available. Liquid standard addition has been shown1-4 as an alternative technique for quantification that does not require matrix matching; however, further fundamental study is needed especially considering the different mass flow rates delivered to the plasma from traditional pneumatic nebulizers and laser ablation itself. In this work, the authors combine a specialized low-flow desolvating nebulizer system with LA-ICP-MS. This nebulizer system efficiently removes water vapour, thereby significantly reducing oxide based mass spectral interferences. For the instrument setup, the output from the laser is combined with the dried aerosol from the nebulizer system prior to entering the ICP-MS source. By using two sources of dry aerosol, mixing efficiency is improved whilst minimising plasma power lost to solvent (water vapour) processing. The method was applied to both USGS Green River Shale and an Arkansas Womble Shale. The results showed a number of elements that were correctly quantified using the technique as compared to reference values. References Gunther, D., Cousin, H., Magyar, B., Leopold, I., J. Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 1997, 12, 165 - 170. Leach, J.J., Allen, L. A., Aeschliman, D.B., Houk, R.S., Anal. Chem., 1999, 71, 440 - 445. O'Conner, C.J.P., Sharp, B.L, Evans, P.J., Anal. Atom. Spectrom., 2006, 21, 556. Yang, C.K., Chi, P.H., Lin, Y.C., Sun, Y.C., Yang, M.H., Talanta, 2010, 80, 1222 - 1227.

  3. Epinephrine Improves the Efficacy of Nebulized Hypertonic Saline in Moderate Bronchiolitis: A Randomised Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Comino-Vazquez, Paloma; Palma-Zambrano, Encarnación; Bulo-Concellón, Rocio; Santos-Sánchez, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is no evidence that the epinephrine-3% hypertonic saline combination is more effective than 3% hypertonic saline alone for treating infants hospitalized with acute bronchiolitis. We evaluated the efficacy of nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline. Patients and Methods We performed a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial in 208 infants hospitalized with acute moderate bronchiolitis. Infants were randomly assigned to receive nebulized 3% hypertonic saline with either 3 mL of epinephrine or 3 mL of placebo, administered every four hours. The primary outcome measure was the length of hospital stay. Results A total of 185 infants were analyzed: 94 in the epinephrine plus 3% hypertonic saline group and 91 in the placebo plus 3% hypertonic saline group. Baseline demographic and clinical characteristics were similar in both groups. Length of hospital stay was significantly reduced in the epinephrine group as compared with the placebo group (3.94 ±1.88 days vs. 4.82 ±2.30 days, P = 0.011). Disease severity also decreased significantly earlier in the epinephrine group (P = 0.029 and P = 0.036 on days 3 and 5, respectively). Conclusions In our setting, nebulized epinephrine in 3% hypertonic saline significantly shortens hospital stay in hospitalized infants with acute moderate bronchiolitis compared to 3% hypertonic saline alone, and improves the clinical scores of severity from the third day of treatment, but not before. Trial Registration EudraCT 2009-016042-57 PMID:26575036

  4. Nebulized gadolinium-based nanoparticles: a theranostic approach for lung tumor imaging and radiosensitization.

    PubMed

    Dufort, Sandrine; Bianchi, Andrea; Henry, Maxime; Lux, François; Le Duc, Géraldine; Josserand, Véronique; Louis, Cédric; Perriat, Pascal; Crémillieux, Yannick; Tillement, Olivier; Coll, Jean-Luc

    2015-01-14

    Lung cancer is the most common and most fatal cancer worldwide. Thus, improving early diagnosis and therapy is necessary. Previously, gadolinium-based ultra-small rigid platforms (USRPs) were developed to serve as multimodal imaging probes and as radiosensitizing agents. In addition, it was demonstrated that USRPs can be detected in the lungs using ultrashort echo-time magnetic resonance imaging (UTE-MRI) and fluorescence imaging after intrapulmonary administration in healthy animals. The goal of the present study is to evaluate their theranostic properties in mice with bioluminescent orthotopic lung cancer, after intrapulmonary nebulization or conventional intravenous administration. It is found that lung tumors can be detected non-invasively using fluorescence tomography or UTE-MRI after nebulization of USRPs, and this is confirmed by histological analysis of the lung sections. The deposition of USRPs around the tumor nodules is sufficient to generate a radiosensitizing effect when the mice are subjected to a single dose of 10 Gy conventional radiation one day after inhalation (mean survival time of 112 days versus 77 days for irradiated mice without USRPs treatment). No apparent systemic toxicity or induction of inflammation is observed. These results demonstrate the theranostic properties of USRPs for the multimodal detection of lung tumors and improved radiotherapy after nebulization. PMID:25201285

  5. A case of severe acute exacerbation of Yokkaichi asthma treated with a vibrating mesh nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Yano, Takeshi; Yonaha, Tetsu; Hidaka, Koutaro; Nagahama, Masumi; Koshida, Tomohiro; Matsuoka, Hiroshi; Taniguchi, Masahiko; Tsuneyoshi, Isao

    2016-01-01

    Yokkaichi asthma was one of the most common environmental pollution diseases in Japan in the 1960s and 1970s. The problem of air pollution in Yokkaichi was solved in the 1970s. However, mortality and life expectancy were still affected by the late effects of air pollution in patients with Yokkaichi asthma even in the 2000s. In this case report, we described the experience of successful treatment of a patient with severe asthmatic status due to Yokkaichi asthma. A 40s-year-old man, who was officially certified as a patient with Yokkaichi asthma from his infancy, was admitted to hospital due to acute exacerbation of asthma. Mechanical ventilation, intravenous administration of aminophylline and dexamethasone, enteral administration of montelukast, and a transdermal patch of tulobuterol were started. However, because of the lack of improvement in clinical status, inhalation of procaterol using vibrating mesh nebulizer systems was started. Inhalation of procaterol was used three times a day. After using the vibrating mesh nebulizer, respiratory system compliance and hypercapnia rapidly improved. Bilateral expiratory wheezing was diminished. Weaning from mechanical ventilation was initiated, and on the eighth day of mechanical ventilation, the patient was extubated. Although intractable respiratory failure with decreased respiratory system compliance resulting from the late effects of air pollution and a long-time asthmatic inflammatory condition was observed, the use of a vibrating mesh nebulizer for the inhaled administration of procaterol was useful to relieve severe bronchospasm due to Yokkaichi asthma. PMID:27547723

  6. Nebulization of niosomal all-trans-retinoic acid: an inexpensive alternative to conventional liposomes.

    PubMed

    Desai, Tejas R; Finlay, Warren H

    2002-07-25

    In this study we have demonstrated the potential of encapsulating all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) in niosomes and delivering it as an inhaled aerosol. Niosomes may provide a means to reduce the toxicity of ATRA and alter the pharmacokinetics in a manner similar to liposomes. In addition, the low cost of the surfactants used for preparing niosomes and their greater stability compared with liposomes makes them an attractive alternative. Various nonionic surfactants were used to achieve optimum encapsulation and nebulization efficiencies, and the best formulations were obtained with combinations of (Span 20 + Tween 80) and (Span 60 + Tween 80) using an ATRA concentration of 1 mg/ml. The aerosol produced with the selected niosomal formulations upon nebulization in PARI LC STAR nebulizers driven by a Pulmo-Aide compressor was subsequently analyzed for the determination of size distribution and entrapment efficiencies on each stage of an Anderson cascade impactor operated in a manner that avoids spurious sizing due to droplet evaporation. Mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) of 3.7+/-0.3 and 3.58+/-0.03 microm, geometric standard deviation (GSD) values of 1.59+/-0.17 and 1.51+/-0.01 and entrapment efficiencies well above 50% were obtained for the optimized formulations. The results are very encouraging and offer an alternative approach to the respiratory delivery of ATRA by aerosolization. PMID:12100858

  7. Chronic inhalation of nebulized levalbuterol does not increase mucociliary clearance in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Cleary, Jeffrey C; Karmazyn, Yauel; Mogayzel, Peter J; Laube, Beth L

    2008-01-01

    Acute inhalations of beta 2-adrenergic receptor agonists increase mucociliary clearance (MCC). Less is known about the effect of long-term inhalations of these agents on MCC, or cough clearance (CC). We hypothesized that chronic inhalations of nebulized levalbuterol, the R-isomer of albuterol, would enhance MCC and/or CC in healthy subjects, compared to albuterol or placebo. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial in ten healthy, adult subjects who inhaled nebulized levalbuterol (1.25mg), albuterol (2.5mg), or placebo for 7 days, three times daily. MCC and CC were measured 6-7h after the last dose of drug on the 7th day of treatment. These were quantified from gamma camera images of the lungs following inhalation of an aerosol containing the isotope (99m)technetium. Levalbuterol did not improve MCC or CC. MCC averaged (+/-SD) 12.3+/-8.3%, 9.2+/-4.7% and 10.0+/-9.6% with placebo, albuterol and levalbuterol, respectively. CC averaged 3.9+/-6.8%, 4.9+/-4.3% and 3.8+/-6.4% with placebo, albuterol and levalbuterol, respectively. These results indicate that chronic inhalations of nebulized levalbuterol for 1 week do not increase MCC or CC in healthy subjects, compared to albuterol or placebo. PMID:17360209

  8. Usefulness of a handheld nebulizer in cough test to screen for silent aspiration.

    PubMed

    Wakasugi, Yoko; Tohara, Haruka; Nakane, Ayako; Murata, Shino; Mikushi, Shinya; Susa, Chiaki; Takashima, Maho; Umeda, Yoshiko; Suzuki, Ruriko; Uematsu, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Cough test to screen for silent aspiration (SA) was reported, and the effectiveness was excellent. However, the device was rather large so that the portability was poor. So, the purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of a handheld nebulizer for the test and verify the reproducibility of the method. The subjects were 160 patients who were suspected of having dysphagia and underwent videofluorography (VF) or videoendoscopy (VE). They inhaled 1.0 % citric acid-physiologic saline orally for 1 min using a handheld nebulizer, and the examiner observed the number of coughs: more than five coughs was considered as negative (normal), while less than four coughs was regarded as positive. Among the subjects, 70 patients administered the cough test and VF or VE twice or more at some intervals. The k coefficient was calculated in reproducibility. Using the results of the VF or VE examination as the standards, for SA detection, the sensitivity was 0.86, specificity was 0.71, positive predictive value was 0.53, and negative predictive value was 0.93. The k coefficient was 0.79. In conclusion, the handheld nebulizer was useful in the cough test to screen for SA. Furthermore, satisfactory reproducibility was shown. PMID:23053789

  9. Efficiency of a New Mesh-Type Nebulizer (NE-SM1 NEPLUS) for Intrapulmonary Delivery of Ipratropium Bromide in Surgical Patients.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yong-Hun; Kwon, Gu-Youn; Park, Do-Yang; Bang, Ji-Yeon; Jang, Dong-Min; Lee, Soo-Han; Lee, Eun-Kyung; Choi, Byung-Moon; Noh, Gyu-Jeong

    2016-04-01

    This study was aimed to evaluate the efficiency of a new mesh-type nebulizer for the intrapulmonary delivery of ipratropium bromide in surgical patients under mechanical ventilation. A total of 20 patients were randomly allocated to receive 0.5 mg ipratropium bromide using either a control (Pariboy SX, Pari, Co., Starnberg, Germany, n = 10) or test (NE-SM1 NEPLUS, KTMED INC., Seoul, Korea, n = 10) nebulizer during general anaesthesia. Ipratropium bromide was nebulized continuously for 20 min. in each group. Plasma concentrations of ipratropium bromide were obtained from blood samples at preset intervals. Non-compartmental analysis of ipratropium bromide was performed to compare the efficiency of pulmonary drug delivery in both nebulizers. Population pharmacokinetic analysis of ipratropium bromide was performed. Additionally, the noise level during the nebulizer operation and the aerosol particle size for each device were measured. The dose-normalized AUC(last) was 0.10 min/L for both nebulizers. The pharmacokinetics of nebulized ipratropium bromide can be described best by a one-compartment model with first-order absorption. The apparent volume of distribution and metabolic clearance were 1340 L and 6.78 L/min, respectively. Type of nebulizer was a significant covariate for absorption rate constant. The equivalent sound level and median aerosol particle diameter were 35.0 dB and 4.52 μm for the test nebulizer, and 60.2 dB and 3.85 μm for the control nebulizer, respectively. From the standpoint of the dose-normalized AUC(last) , a new vibrating mesh-type nebulizer shows similar performance in the intrapulmonary delivery of ipratropium bromide to that of a jet-type nebulizer in surgical patients. PMID:26440415

  10. Selection of dinB Alleles Suppressing Survival Loss upon dinB Overexpression in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Benson, Ryan W.; Cafarelli, Tiziana M.; Rands, Thomas J.; Lin, Ida

    2014-01-01

    Escherichia coli strains overproducing DinB undergo survival loss; however, the mechanisms regulating this phenotype are poorly understood. Here we report a genetic selection revealing DinB residues essential to effect this loss-of-survival phenotype. The selection uses strains carrying both an antimutator allele of DNA polymerase III (Pol III) α-subunit (dnaE915) and either chromosomal or plasmid-borne dinB alleles. We hypothesized that dnaE915 cells would respond to DinB overproduction differently from dnaE+ cells because the dnaE915 allele is known to have an altered genetic interaction with dinB+ compared to its interaction with dnaE+. Notably, we observe a loss-of-survival phenotype in dnaE915 strains with either a chromosomal catalytically inactive dinB(D103N) allele or a low-copy-number plasmid-borne dinB+ upon DNA damage treatment. Furthermore, we find that the loss-of-survival phenotype occurs independently of DNA damage treatment in a dnaE915 strain expressing the catalytically inactive dinB(D103N) allele from a low-copy-number plasmid. The selective pressure imposed resulted in suppressor mutations that eliminated growth defects. The dinB intragenic mutations examined were either base pair substitutions or those that we inferred to be loss of function (i.e., deletions and insertions). Further analyses of selected novel dinB alleles, generated by single-base-pair substitutions in the dnaE915 strain, indicated that these no longer effect loss of survival upon overproduction in dnaE+ strains. These mutations are mapped to specific areas of DinB; this permits us to gain insights into the mechanisms underlying the DinB-mediated overproduction loss-of-survival phenotype. PMID:24914188

  11. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... it.Golimumab injection comes in prefilled syringes and auto-injection devices for subcutaneous injection. Use each syringe ... method.Do not remove the cap from the auto-injection device or the cover from the prefilled ...

  12. Experience with gasket testing according to new DIN standards

    SciTech Connect

    Kockelmann, H.; Bartonicek, J.; Hirschvogel, A.

    1996-12-01

    In 1995 new DIN standards were published containing gasket factor definitions, gasket testing procedures and requirements as a basis for technical delivery conditions. The gasket factors in DIN 28090 are consistent with those in the design rules for bolted flanged connections laid down in DIN EN 1591. Both standards together are an advanced and reliable tool for strength analysis and tightness assessment for bolted flanged connections. The new DIN standards contain new features in detail: gasket factors are related to tightness classes allowing tightness classification of flanged joints; time and temperature effects are regarded by means of high temperature longterm aging leakage tests; and gasket material degradation due to chemical attack is covered by means of chemical resistance tests. Verification of gasket testing according to the new DIN standards by means of tests on real flanged joints is under way.

  13. The effect of nebulized NaHCO3 treatment on "RADS" due to chlorine gas inhalation.

    PubMed

    Aslan, Sahin; Kandiş, Hayati; Akgun, Metin; Cakir, Zeynep; Inandi, Tacettin; Görgüner, Metin

    2006-10-01

    Chlorine is one of the most common substances involved in toxic inhalation. As with all irritant gases, the airway injuries caused by chlorine gas may result in clinical manifestations similar to those of asthma. In this study, we investigated the effect of nebulized sodium bicarbonate (NSB) on the treatment and quality of life (QoL) of victims exposed to chlorine gas. Forty-four consecutive patients with reactive airways dysfunction syndrome (RADS) due to chlorine inhalation (40 females and 4 males, age range 17-56 yr) were included in this study. Patients were placed in control and treatment groups in a sequential odd-even fashion based on their order of presentation. Treatment of all patients included corticosteroids and nebulized short-acting beta2-agonists. Then the control group (n = 22) received nebulized placebo (NP), and the NSB group (n = 22) received NSB treatment (4 cm3 of 4.20% sodium bicarbonate solution). A quality of life (QoL) questionnaire and pulmonary function tests (PFTs) were performed before and after treatments in both groups. The most common symptoms were dyspnea (82%) and chest tightness (82%). Baseline characteristics of both groups were similar. Compared to the placebo group, the NSB group had significantly higher FEV1 values at 120 and 240 min (p < .05). Significantly more improvement in QoL questionnaire scores occurred in the NSB group compared to the NP group (p < .001). Thus, NSB is a clinically useful treatment, as tested by PFTs and QoL questionnaire, for patients with RADS caused by exposure to chlorine gas. PMID:16864407

  14. Concentration of liquid sample for gamma-ray spectroscopy with ultrasonic nebulization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Jungsoon; Kim, Jihyang; Jung, Jihee; Kim, Moojoon; Ha, Kanglyeol

    2015-07-01

    Radionuclide analysis of sea water is necessary to monitor environmental contamination due to the radioactive substances from nuclear facilities. However, it is difficult to analyze the nuclides promptly with the conventional method of coprecipitation during emergencies because the method requires long precipitation times. In this study, an effective concentration method with ultrasonic nebulization was suggested for sea water samples. When a sea water sample of 40 L was concentrated, 30 h was required with the conventional method, whereas it took less than 11 h with the suggested method. The validity of the suggested method was verified by gamma-ray spectroscopy.

  15. Determination of the relative bioavailability of salbutamol to the lungs and systemic circulation following nebulization

    PubMed Central

    Silkstone, V L; Corlett, S A; Chrystyn, H

    2002-01-01

    Aims Clinical studies comparing nebulized drug delivery systems could be flawed because of the high doses used. We have compared lung and total systemic delivery of salbutamol from a nebuliser with that from a metered dose inhaler by measuring urinary recovery of drug and its sulphate metabolite. Methods Twelve healthy volunteers provided urine samples at 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12 and 24 h after the start of dosing. Formulations and doses were 5 × 100 µg oral solution (ORAL), 5 × 100 µg from a metered dose inhaler (MDI), 2.5 mg using a nebuliser (NEB) and NEB with 25 g oral charcoal (NEBC). Each study phase was separated by 7 days and the order of dosing was randomized. Results Mean (s.d.) 30 min urinary salbutamol excretion after ORAL, MDI, NEB and NEBC was 0.4 (0.7), 12.1 (3.7), 15.0 (3.9) and 18.2 (5.7) µg, respectively (all P<0.001 compared with ORAL). When normalized for the dose available for inhalation from MDI, NEB and NEBC, the mean (s.d.) 30 min urinary excretion of salbutamol was 2.4 (0.7), 2.9 (0.6) and 2.7 (0.6)%, respectively, with a mean ratio (90% confidence interval) between NEB and NEBC, of 95.3 (91.1, 99.5)%. The mean (s.d.) excretion of salbutamol plus its metabolite over 24 h post ORAL, MDI, NEB and NEBC dosing was 297.9 (38.3), 290.3 (41.4), 266.5 (44.6) and 151.7 (40.9) µg, respectively. The mean ratio (90% confidence interval) between MDI and ORAL, and NEB and ORAL were 97.5 (94.1, 101.0) and 90.7 (81.2, 100.2)%, respectively. The NEBC data indicate that 6.07 (1.04)% of the nominal nebulized dose was delivered to the lungs. Conclusions The 30 min urinary recovery of salbutamol, an index of the relative systemic bioavailability of salbutamol following inhalation, can be used to compare the lung deposition of nebulized systems. Similarly, the urinary 24 h recovery of salbutamol plus its metabolite, an index of the relative systemic bioavailability of salbutamol following inhalation, can be used to compare the delivery of nebulized drug to

  16. Determination of Rare Earth Elements in Green River Shale By Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Using a Desolvating Nebulizer System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, F.; Clarke, D.; Moody, S.

    2014-12-01

    In this work, inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) is applied to a geological sample for the determination of rare earth elements (REEs) using a specialized nebulizer system. The low flow desolvating nebulizer has been shown to decrease metal oxide formation which leads to a reduction in mass spectral interferences. Traditional nebulizers and spray chambers may be suitable for similar sample types, but reduction of water vapor loading to the plasma can improve REE detection limits for quadrupole-based ICP-MS. The Green River formation holds the largest oil shale deposits in the world and understanding the elemental composition of these samples is important in its study. A certified reference material, USGS Green River Shale (SGR-1), was microwave digested prior to analysis, and recoveries of REEs compared to historical values are discussed.

  17. Parallel path nebulizer: Critical parameters for use with microseparation techniques combined with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yanes, Enrique G.; Miller-Ihli, Nancy J.

    2005-04-01

    Four different, low flow parallel path Mira Mist CE nebulizers were evaluated and compared in support of an ongoing project related to the use of microseparation techniques interfaced to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry for the quantification of cobalamin species (Vitamin B12). For the characterization of the different Mira Mist CE nebulizers, the nebulizer orientation as well as the effect of methanol on analytical response was the focus of the study. The position of the gas outlet on the nebulizer which consistently provided the maximum signal was when it was rotated to the 11 o'clock position when the nebulizer is viewed end-on. With this orientation the increased signal may be explained by the fact that the cone angle of the aerosol is such that the largest percentage of the aerosol is directed to the center of the spray chamber and consequently into the plasma. To characterize the nebulizer's performance, the signal response of a multielement solution containing elements with a variety of ionization potentials was used. The selection of elements with varying ionization energies and degrees of ionization was essential for a better understanding of observed increases in signal enhancement when methanol was used. Two different phenomena contribute to signal enhancement when using methanol: the first is improved transport efficiency and the second is the "carbon enhancement effect". The net result was that as much as a 30-fold increase in signal was observed for As and Mg when using a make-up solution of 20% methanol at a 15 μL/min flow rate which is equivalent to a net volume of 3 μL/min of pure methanol.

  18. Development of a direct hydride generation nebulizer for the determination of selenium by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrión, Nereida; Murillo, Miguel; Montiel, Edie; Díaz, Dorfe

    2003-08-01

    A study was conducted to evaluate the performance of a new direct hydride generation nebulizer system for determination of hydride forming elements by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy. This system was designed and optimized to obtain the highest sensitivity. Several experimental designs were used for these purposes. To optimize the individual parameters of the system, and to study the interaction between these parameters for both direct hydride generation nebulizers, a central composite orthogonal design with eight factors was set up. Significant behavioral differences were observed in the two direct hydride generation nebulizers studied. Finally, a 70 μm gas orifice nebulizer exhibits a better detection limit than the 120 μm nebulizer. Generally, for determination of selenium, this new direct hydride generation nebulizer system exhibits a linear dynamic range and detection limit (3 σb) of 3 orders of magnitude and 0.2 μg l -1 for selenium, respectively. This new hydride generator is much simpler system that conventional hydride generation systems, which does not need to be changed to work in normal mode with the inductively coupled plasma, since this system may be used for hydride forming elements and those that do not form them. It produces a rapid response with low memory effect. It reduces the interference level of Ni, Co and Cu to 600, 500 and 5 mg l -1, respectively. The accuracy of the system was verified by the determination of selenium in several standard reference materials of ambient, food and clinical sample matrices. No statistically significant differences (95 confidence level) were obtained between our method and the reference values.

  19. Aerodynamic characteristics of nebulized terbutaline sulphate using the Andersen Cascade Impactor compared to the Next Generation Impactor.

    PubMed

    Abdelrahim, Mohamed E

    2011-04-01

    Characterization of the aerosol emitted from nebulizers is determined using the Next Generation Impactor (NGI). The Andersen Cascade Impactor (ACI) was previously used but the limitation of high flow rate used decreased its uses. We have investigated the use of ACI with different operational conditions compared to the NGI methodology. NGI was operated at a flow rate of 15 L min⁻¹ after cooling at 5°C for 90 min. ACI was operated using flow rates 15 and 28.3 L min⁻¹ at room (ROOM) temperature and after cooling at 5 °C for 60 min (COLD). ACI was also operated using a flow rate 15 L min⁻¹ through the nebulizer T-piece with a flow rate 28.3 L min⁻¹ through ACI (15 Mix) using the mixing valve at ROOM and COLD. Two nebulizer systems, the Sidestream (SIDE) and the Aeroneb Pro (AERO) were used to nebulize terbutaline sulphate respiratory solution. Overall there was a highly significant difference (P < 0.001) between different ACI operating conditions for FPF and MMAD of both nebulizer systems. The ACI at higher flow rate increased the evaporation effect whilst cooling minimized evaporation of both nebulizer systems. Hence cooling and using slow flow rate minimizes evaporation effects with ACI. The ACI 15COLD results were similar to that of NGI. That supports the use of ACI at inhalation flow rate 15 L min⁻¹ without fear of domination of gravity on ACI stages. PMID:20100034

  20. Golimumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... at golimumab injection before injecting it. Check the expiration date printed on the auto-injection device or carton and do not use the medication if the expiration date has passed. Do not use a prefilled syringe ...

  1. Ernst Rüdin: Hitler's Racial Hygiene Mastermind.

    PubMed

    Joseph, Jay; Wetzel, Norbert A

    2013-01-01

    Ernst Rüdin (1874-1952) was the founder of psychiatric genetics and was also a founder of the German racial hygiene movement. Throughout his long career he played a major role in promoting eugenic ideas and policies in Germany, including helping formulate the 1933 Nazi eugenic sterilization law and other governmental policies directed against the alleged carriers of genetic defects. In the 1940s Rüdin supported the killing of children and mental patients under a Nazi program euphemistically called "Euthanasia." The authors document these crimes and discuss their implications, and also present translations of two publications Rüdin co-authored in 1938 showing his strong support for Hitler and his policies. The authors also document what they see as revisionist historical accounts by leading psychiatric genetic authors. They outline three categories of contemporary psychiatric genetic accounts of Rüdin and his work: (A) those who write about German psychiatric genetics in the Nazi period, but either fail to mention Rüdin at all, or cast him in a favorable light; (B) those who acknowledge that Rüdin helped promote eugenic sterilization and/or may have worked with the Nazis, but generally paint a positive picture of Rüdin's research and fail to mention his participation in the "euthanasia" killing program; and (C) those who have written that Rüdin committed and supported unspeakable atrocities. The authors conclude by calling on the leaders of psychiatric genetics to produce a detailed and complete account of their field's history, including all of the documented crimes committed by Rüdin and his associates. PMID:23180223

  2. Ultrasonic Nebulizer Assisted LIBS: a Promising Metal Elements Detection Method for Aqueous Sample Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shilei; Zheng, Ronger; Lu, Yuan; Cheng, Kai; Xiu, Junshan

    2015-11-01

    A newly developed approach for trace metal elements detection for aqueous samples analysis is presented in this paper. The idea of this approach is to improve ablation efficiency by transforming the liquid sample into a dense cloud of droplets using an ultrasonic nebulizer. The resulting droplets are then subjected to analysis by laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). A purpose-built ultrasonic nebulizer assisted LIBS (UN-LIBS) system has been applied to the analysis of aqueous samples at trace levels of concentration. Experimental investigations of solution samples were carried out with various dissolved trace metal elements (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Fe, Mg and Na) using this approach. The characteristics of UN-LIBS signal of the elements were investigated regarding the lifetime and S/B ratio and the calibration curves for trace metal elements analyses. The obtained LODs are comparable or much better than the LODS of the reported signal enhancement approaches when the laser pulse energy was as low as 30 mJ. The good linearity of calibration curves and the low LODs shows the potential ability of this method for metal elements analysis application. The density of the electrons was calculated by measuring the Stark width of the line of Hα. The possible mechanism of the LIBS signal enhancement of this approach was briefly discussed. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 11104153)

  3. Changes in heart rate associated with nebulized racemic albuterol and levalbuterol in intensive care patients.

    PubMed

    Lam, Sum; Chen, Julie

    2003-10-01

    The effects of equipotent doses of racemic albuterol and levalbuterol on heart rate (HR) in intensive care patients with and without baseline tachycardia were studied. Patients were included if they were hemodynamically stable and required bronchodilator therapy every four hours; patients were excluded if they were maintained on a beta-blocker. Four hours after the most recent bronchodilator treatment, each patient was randomized to receive at least two consecutive doses of albuterol 2.5 mg or levalbuterol 1.25 mg four hours apart via nebulization. HR was recorded at the end of the second dose and 5, 10, 15, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180, and 240 minutes after treatment. Twenty intensive care patients, including 10 with baseline tachycardia and 10 without baseline tachycardia, were enrolled. In patients with baseline tachycardia, the mean largest HR increase was 1.4 beats/min (1.3%) with albuterol and 2.0 beats/min (2.1%) with levalbuterol (both increases were not significant). In patients without baseline tachycardia, the mean largest HR increase was 4.4 beats/min (6.7%) with albuterol (p = 0.04) and 3.6 beats/min (5.0%) with levalbuterol (p = 0.03). Short-term use of nebulized albuterol and levalbuterol was associated with similar changes in HR in intensive care patients with or without baseline tachycardia. PMID:14531242

  4. Safety and Tolerability of Nebulized Amoxicillin-Clavulanic Acid in Patients with COPD (STONAC 1 and STONAC 2).

    PubMed

    Nijdam, L C; Assink, M D M; Kuijvenhoven, J C; de Saegher, M E A; van der Valk, P D L P M; van der Palen, J; Brusse-Keizer, M G J; Movig, K L L

    2016-08-01

    The safety and tolerability of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid were determined in patients with stable COPD and during severe exacerbations of COPD. Nine stable COPD patients received doses ranging from 50:10 mg up to 300:60 mg amoxicillin clavulanic acid and eight patients hospitalised for a COPD exacerbation received fixed doses 200/40 mg twice daily. Safety was evaluated by spirometry before and after inhalation. Tolerability was evaluated by questionnaire. Plasma and expectorated sputum samples were assayed for amoxicillin content. Seventeen patients underwent in total 100 nebulizations with amoxicillin clavulanic acid. In this safety and tolerability study no clinically relevant deteriorations in FEV1 were observed. Nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid produces sputum concentrations well above the Minimal Inhibiting Concentration of 90% for potential pathogenic micro-organisms, with low concentrations in the central compartment (low systemic exposure). Based on spirometry and reported side effects, inhalation of nebulized amoxicillin clavulanic acid seems to be safe and well tolerated, both in stable patients with COPD as in those experiencing a severe exacerbation. Levels of amoxicillin were adequate. PMID:26744171

  5. SOLUTION NEBULIZATION OF AQUEOUS SAMPLES INTO THE TUBULAR-ELECTRODE TORCH CAPACITATIVELY-COUPLED MICROWAVE PLASMA (JOURNAL VERSION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The work shows the feasibility of using nebulization for introduction of aqueous samples into the tubular-torch capacitatively-coupled microwave plasma (CMP). Previously, solid electrodes were used with this type of plasma, in which analyte carrier and plasma support gases are pr...

  6. Behaviour of the thermospray nebulizer as a system for the introduction of organic solutions in flame atomic absorption spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mora, Juan; Canals, Antonio; Hernandis, Vicente

    1996-10-01

    The results obtained in the evaluation of the thermospray nebulizer for the introduction of organic solutions in atomic spectrometry are described. To this end, the influence of the nebulization variables (i.e., liquid flow, control temperature and inner diameter of the capillary) and of the nature of the solvent on the fraction of solvent vaporized, on the drop size distribution of the primary aerosol, on the rates of analyte and solvent transport to the atomization cell and on the analytical signal has been studied. Experimental fraction of solvent vaporized values obtained under different nebulization conditions are reported for the first time. The results show that the characteristics of the aerosol generated strongly depend on the nebulization variables since they determine the amount of energy available for surface generation. The median of the volume drop size distribution of the primary aerosol decreases when the control temperature or the liquid flow is increased or when the inner diameter of the capillary is decreased. As regards the physical properties of the solvent, the so-called expansion factor (i.e., the volume of vapour produced per unit volume of liquid solvent) is the most influential. Surface tension and viscosity are much less significant here than in ordinary pneumatic nebulization. The volatility of the solvent and the characteristics of the primary aerosol determine the solvent transport efficiency which reaches values close to 100% in many cases. The analytical signal is mainly determined by the analyte transport rate, although a severe negative effect appears which is related to the high solvent load to the flame. Due to this fact, the use of organic solvents instead of water in thermospray nebulization for Flame Atomic Absorption Spectrometry does not provide clear advantages, at least without desolvation. A new modified Nukiyama-Tanasawa equation has been presented and evaluated in order to predict the Sauter mean diameter of the thermal

  7. A simple approach to predict the stability of phospholipid vesicles to nebulization without performing aerosolization studies.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, Sneha; Khan, Iftikhar; Korale, Oshadie; Alhnan, Mohamed Albed; Ahmed, Waqar; Najlah, Mohammad; Taylor, Kevin M G; Elhissi, Abdelbary

    2016-04-11

    Membrane extrusion was investigated for predicting the stability of soya phosphatidylcholine liposomes and surfactosomes (Tween 80-enriched liposomes) to nebulization. Formulations were prepared with or without cholesterol, and salbutamol sulfate (SBS) or beclometasone dipropionate (BDP) were incorporated as model hydrophilic or hydrophobic drugs respectively. Formulations were extruded through 5, 2, 1 and 0.4μm polycarbonate membrane filters to study the influence of membrane pore size on drug retention by the vesicles. Surfactosomes were found to be very leaky to SBS, such that even without extrusion greater than 50% of the originally entrapped drug was lost; these losses were minimized by the inclusion of cholesterol. The smaller the membrane pore size, the greater the leakage of SBS; hence only around 10% were retained in cholesterol-free surfactosomes extruded through 0.4μm filters. To study the influence of vesicle size on SBS retained entrapment, an excessive extrusion protocol was proposed (51 extrusion cycles through 1μm filters) to compare the stability of freshly prepared vesicles (i.e. unextruded; median size approx. 4.5-6.5μm) with those previously extruded through 1μm pores. Cholesterol was essential for minimizing losses from liposomes, whilst for surfactosomes size reduction prior to extrusion was the only way to minimize SBS losses which reached up to 93.40% of the originally entrapped drug when no cholesterol was included. When extrusion was applied to BDP-loaded vesicles, greater proportions of the drug were retained in the vesicles compared to SBS. Even with extrusion through 0.4μm, BDP retention was around 50-60% with little effect of formulation. Excessive extrusion showed BDP retention using small liposomes (1μm) to be as high as 71-87%, compared to 50-66% for freshly prepared vesicles. The findings, based on extrusion, were compared to studies of vesicle stability to nebulization, published by a range of investigators. It was

  8. DNA acts as a nucleation site for transient cavitation in the ultrasonic nebulizer.

    PubMed

    Lentz, Y K; Anchordoquy, T J; Lengsfeld, C S

    2006-03-01

    Several new technologies based upon ultrasound technology have been proposed as a method to enhance the delivery of genetic therapeutics. Using ultrasonic nebulization and a well-established method to quantitatively monitor transient cavitation, this study investigates the extent and factors influencing the degradation of DNA. Results from our studies show that the presence of DNA greatly enhances cavitation, and that the number of transient cavitation events also increases with the hydrodynamic diameter and number of DNA molecules in solution. More importantly, removing saturated gases from the plasmid DNA solutions resulted in a decrease in transient cavitation events but not degradation rate, suggesting that the cavitation event responsible for degradation occurs locally at the DNA molecule. Finally, complexing plasmid DNA with the cationic polymer polyethylenimine protected the native structure by reducing the molecule's potential to act as a heterogeneous nucleation site for transient cavitation. PMID:16432878

  9. Preliminary characterization of a low-powered microwave induced flame plasma for direct organic solvent nebulization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ng, Kin C.; Bucay, Phil

    2011-12-01

    A low powered (<90 W) microwave-induced plasma has been generated at atmospheric pressure by using a Beenakker cavity, a laboratory constructed torch, and a gas mixture of argon (400 ml/min), hydrogen (100 ml/min), and air (130 ml/min). This plasma has an excitation temperature of 3300-3500 K, electron number density of 7 × 1014 cm-3, and easily accepts direct methanol and ethanol introduction with a 1 ml/min solution nebulization rate. Detection limits (3σ) obtained from the atomic emission signals of Li, Sr, and Cr in water are 15, 120, and 290 ng/ml, respectively. Similarly, detection limits for the metals in methanol are 15, 120, and 260 ng/ml, respectively, and in ethanol they are 25, 360, and 330 ng/ml, respectively. The linear dynamic range is greater than three orders of magnitude.

  10. Combining nebulization-mediated transfection and polymer microarrays for the rapid determination of optimal transfection substrates.

    PubMed

    Unciti-Broceta, Asier; Díaz-Mochón, Juan J; Mizomoto, Hitoshi; Bradley, Mark

    2008-01-01

    In this manuscript, we report how transfection efficiencies vary as a function of the substrate upon which cells adhere using a polymer microarray platform to allow rapid analysis of a large number of substrates. During these studies, traditional transfection protocols were nonsatisfactory, and thus we developed an approach in which an ultrasonic nebulizer was used to dispense lipoplexes onto cell-based microarrays in the absence of liquid. Under these conditions, droplets were directly deposited onto the cells thereby enhancing transfection. This approach was successfully applied to the transfection of various cell lines immobilized on a library of polyacrylates and permitted the identification of highly efficient transfection/polymer combinations, while showing that specific polymer-cell interactions may promote the efficacy of chemical transfection. PMID:18247582

  11. Preliminary characterization of a low-powered microwave induced flame plasma for direct organic solvent nebulization

    SciTech Connect

    Ng, Kin C.; Bucay, Phil

    2011-12-15

    A low powered (<90 W) microwave-induced plasma has been generated at atmospheric pressure by using a Beenakker cavity, a laboratory constructed torch, and a gas mixture of argon (400 ml/min), hydrogen (100 ml/min), and air (130 ml/min). This plasma has an excitation temperature of 3300-3500 K, electron number density of 7 x 10{sup 14} cm{sup -3}, and easily accepts direct methanol and ethanol introduction with a 1 ml/min solution nebulization rate. Detection limits (3{sigma}) obtained from the atomic emission signals of Li, Sr, and Cr in water are 15, 120, and 290 ng/ml, respectively. Similarly, detection limits for the metals in methanol are 15, 120, and 260 ng/ml, respectively, and in ethanol they are 25, 360, and 330 ng/ml, respectively. The linear dynamic range is greater than three orders of magnitude.

  12. Surface acoustic wave nebulization of peptides as a microfluidic interface for mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Heron, Scott R; Wilson, Rab; Shaffer, Scott A; Goodlett, David R; Cooper, Jonathan M

    2010-05-15

    We describe the fabrication of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device on a LiNbO(3) piezoelectric transducer for the transfer of nonvolatile analytes to the gas phase at atmospheric pressure (a process referred to as nebulization or atomization). We subsequently show how such a device can be used in the field of mass spectrometry (MS) detection, demonstrating that SAW nebulization (SAWN) can be performed either in a discontinuous or pulsed mode, similar to that for matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) or in a continuous mode like electrospray ionization (ESI). We present data showing the transfer of peptides to the gas phase, where ions are detected by MS. These peptide ions were subsequently fragmented by collision-induced dissociation, from which the sequence was assigned. Unlike MALDI mass spectra, which are typically contaminated with matrix ions at low m/z, the SAWN generated spectra had no such interference. In continuous mode, the SAWN plume was sampled on a microsecond time scale by a linear ion trap mass spectrometer and produced multiply charged peptide precursor ions with a charge state distribution shifted to higher m/z compared to an identical sample analyzed by ESI. The SAWN technology also provides the opportunity to re-examine a sample from a flat surface, repeatedly. The process can be performed without the need for capillaries, which can clog, reservoirs, which dilute the sample, and electrodes, which when in direct contact with sample, cause unwanted electrochemical oxidation. In both continuous and pulsed sampling modes, the quality of precursor ion scans and tandem mass spectra of peptides was consistent across the plume's lifetime. PMID:20364823

  13. Retrospective comparison of nebulized levalbuterol and albuterol for adverse events in patients with acute airflow obstruction.

    PubMed

    Scott, Vanessa L; Frazee, Lawrence A

    2003-01-01

    The objective of this study was to retrospectively compare the mean change in heart rate (HR) of patients with acute airflow obstruction treated with nebulized levalbuterol vs. albuterol. The study was conducted at the Akron General Medical Center, a 537-bed adult tertiary care teaching and research medical center. The participants were patients (> or = 18 years old) presenting to the emergency department with acute airflow obstruction. This was a retrospective chart review. Treatment groups received either levalbuterol (0.63 mg) or albuterol (2.5 mg). Respiratory care notes record HRs before and after nebulization of levalbuterol or albuterol. Primary analysis was conducted on days 1 and 3 of therapy to determine whether there is a difference between levalbuterol and albuterol with regard to mean change in HR with each treatment. In the primary analysis data, 35 subjects in each treatment group were compared. The mean age (+/- SD) was 65 +/- 16.4 and 68 +/- 16.5 for levalbuterol and albuterol, respectively. On day 1 of therapy, the difference in the mean change in HR with albuterol compared with levalbuterol was 1.0 bpm (95% CI, -1.6 to 3.7). On day 3, a statistically significant difference occurred in mean change in HR between treatment groups at 2.7 bpm (95% CI, 0.02 to 5.4). An increase in HR of 2.7 bpm by albuterol compared with levalbuterol on day 3 of therapy was the only significant finding among the analyses. However, this finding did not demonstrate dangerous elevations in HR following treatment with albuterol. Even the upper end of the confidence interval range at 5.4 bpm does not support a clinically significant difference in tachycardia with the pure isomer compared with the racemic mixture during acute airway obstruction. PMID:12975718

  14. Nanomaterial size distribution analysis via liquid nebulization coupled with ion mobility spectrometry (LN-IMS).

    PubMed

    Jeon, Seongho; Oberreit, Derek R; Van Schooneveld, Gary; Hogan, Christopher J

    2016-02-21

    We apply liquid nebulization (LN) in series with ion mobility spectrometry (IMS, using a differential mobility analyzer coupled to a condensation particle counter) to measure the size distribution functions (the number concentration per unit log diameter) of gold nanospheres in the 5-30 nm range, 70 nm × 11.7 nm gold nanorods, and albumin proteins originally in aqueous suspensions. In prior studies, IMS measurements have only been carried out for colloidal nanoparticles in this size range using electrosprays for aerosolization, as traditional nebulizers produce supermicrometer droplets which leave residue particles from non-volatile species. Residue particles mask the size distribution of the particles of interest. Uniquely, the LN employed in this study uses both online dilution (with dilution factors of up to 10(4)) with ultra-high purity water and a ball-impactor to remove droplets larger than 500 nm in diameter. This combination enables hydrosol-to-aerosol conversion preserving the size and morphology of particles, and also enables higher non-volatile residue tolerance than electrospray based aerosolization. Through LN-IMS measurements we show that the size distribution functions of narrowly distributed but similarly sized particles can be distinguished from one another, which is not possible with Nanoparticle Tracking Analysis in the sub-30 nm size range. Through comparison to electron microscopy measurements, we find that the size distribution functions inferred via LN-IMS measurements correspond to the particle sizes coated by surfactants, i.e. as they persist in colloidal suspensions. Finally, we show that the gas phase particle concentrations inferred from IMS size distribution functions are functions of only of the liquid phase particle concentration, and are independent of particle size, shape, and chemical composition. Therefore LN-IMS enables characterization of the size, yield, and polydispersity of sub-30 nm particles. PMID:26750519

  15. Surface Acoustic Wave Nebulization of Peptides as a Microfluidic Interface for Mass Spectrometry

    PubMed Central

    Heron, Scott R.; Wilson, Rab; Shaffer, Scott A.; Goodlett, David R.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the fabrication of a surface acoustic wave (SAW) device on a LiNbO3 piezoelectric transducer for the transfer of non-volatile analytes to the gas-phase at atmospheric pressure (a process referred to as nebulization or atomization). We subsequently show how such a device can be used in the field of mass spectrometry (MS) detection, demonstrating that SAW nebulization (SAWN) can be performed either in a discontinuous or pulsed mode, similar to that for matrix assisted laser desorption ionization (MALDI) or in a continuous mode like electrospray ionization (ESI). We present data showing the transfer of peptides to the gas-phase, where ions are detected by MS. These peptide ions were subsequently fragmented by collision-induced dissociation, from which the sequence was assigned. Unlike MALDI mass spectra, which are typically contaminated with matrix ions at low m/z, the SAWN generated spectra had no such interference. In continuous mode, the SAWN plume was sampled on a microsecond time scale by a linear ion trap mass spectrometer, and produced multiply charged peptide precursor ions with a charge state distribution shifted to higher m/z compared to an identical sample analyzed by ESI. The SAWN technology also provides the opportunity to re-examine a sample from a flat surface, repeatedly. The process can be performed without the need for capillaries, which can clog, reservoirs, which dilute sample, and electrodes which, when in direct contact with sample, cause unwanted electrochemical oxidation. In both continuous and pulsed sampling modes, the quality of precursor ion scans and tandem mass spectra of peptides was consistent across the plume’s lifetime. PMID:20364823

  16. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone subcutaneous injection is also used to treat endometriosis (a condition in which the type of tissue ... parts of the body in women who have endometriosis. Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of ...

  17. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Chloramphenicol injection is used to treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  18. Levoleucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to prevent harmful effects of methotrexate (Rheumatrex, Trexall) when methotrexate is used to to treat certain types of ... people who have accidentally received an overdose of methotrexate or similar medications. Levoleucovorin injection is in a ...

  19. Estrogen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... forms of estrogen injection are used to treat hot flushes (hot flashes; sudden strong feelings of heat and sweating) ... If you are using estrogen injection to treat hot flushes, your symptoms should improve within 1 to ...

  20. Palonosetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Palonosetron injection is used to prevent nausea and vomiting that may occur within 24 hours after receiving ... occur several days after receiving certain chemotherapy medications. Palonosetron injection is in a class of medications called ...

  1. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... normal number of red blood cells) caused by uterine fibroids (noncancerous growths in the uterus). Leuprolide injection is ... Your doctor will tell you how long your treatment with leuprolide injection will last. When used in ...

  2. Naltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Naltrexone injection is used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped drinking large ... injection is also used along with counseling and social support to help people who have stopped abusing opiate ...

  3. Posaconazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Posaconazole injection is used to prevent fungal infections in people with a weakened ability to fight infection. Posaconazole injection is in a class of medications called azole antifungals. It works ...

  4. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... cancer, and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  5. Mipomersen Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... become pregnant during your treatment, stop using mipomersen injection and call your doctor immediately. ... Mipomersen injection may cause side effects. Tell your doctor if any of these ... and tiredness that are most likely to occur during the first 2 days ...

  6. Levofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections. Levofloxacin injection is also used to prevent anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Levofloxacin injection is in ...

  7. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is also used to prevent or treat anthrax (a serious infection that may be spread on ... in people who may have been exposed to anthrax germs in the air. Ciprofloxacin injection is in ...

  8. Romidepsin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... with at least one other medication given by mouth or by injection. Romidepsin injection is in a ... antifungals such as itraconazole (Sporanox), ketoconazole (Nizoral), and voriconazole (Vfend); cisapride (Propulsid) (not available in the U.S.); ...

  9. Degarelix Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Degarelix injection is used to treat advanced prostate cancer (cancer that begins in the prostate [a male reproductive gland]). Degarelix injection is in a class of medications called gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) ...

  10. Paclitaxel Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... other medications. Paclitaxel injection manufactured with polyoxyethylated castor oil is used to treat ovarian cancer (cancer that ... and lung cancer. Paclitaxel injection with polyoxyethylated castor oil is also used to treat Kaposi's sarcoma (a ...

  11. Glatiramer Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... to inject glatiramer, inject it around the same time every day. Follow the directions on your prescription ...

  12. Daratumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... any laboratory test, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ... a blood transfusion, tell your doctor and the laboratory personnel that you are receiving or received daratumumab injection. ...

  13. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... will need to take folic acid and vitamin B12 during your treatment with pralatrexate injection to help ... that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your ...

  14. Cefoxitin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia and other lower respiratory tract (lung) ... medications called cephamycin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefoxitin injection will not work ...

  15. Chloramphenicol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain types of serious infections caused by bacteria when other antibiotics cannot be used. Chloramphenicol injection ... antibiotics. It works by stopping the growth of bacteria..Antibiotics such as chloramphenicol injection will not work ...

  16. Oxacillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat infections caused by certain bacteria. Oxacillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as oxacillin injection will not work ...

  17. Nafcillin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... to treat infections caused by certain types of bacteria. Nafcillin injection is in a class of medications called penicillins. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as nafcillin injection will not work ...

  18. Doripenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... tract, kidney, and abdomen that are caused by bacteria. Doripenem injection is not approved by the Food ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as doripenem injection will not work ...

  19. Medroxyprogesterone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Medroxyprogesterone injection is a very effective method of birth control but does not prevent the spread of human ... you have been using a different method of birth control and are switching to medroxyprogesterone injection, your doctor ...

  20. Doxycycline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Doxycycline injection is used to treat or prevent bacterial infections, including pneumonia and other respiratory tract infections. ... certain skin, genital, intestine, and urinary system infections. Doxycycline injection may be used to treat or prevent ...

  1. Ferumoxytol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ferumoxytol injection is used to treat iron-deficiency anemia (a lower than normal number of red blood ... and may cause the kidneys to stop working). Ferumoxytol injection is in a class of medications called ...

  2. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... using fondaparinux injection while you are in the hospital at least 6 to 8 hours after your ... you will continue to use fondaparinux after your hospital stay, you can inject fondaparinux yourself or have ...

  3. Epinephrine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Adrenalin® Chloride Solution ... a pre-filled automatic injection device containing a solution (liquid) to inject under the skin or into ... device when this date passes. Look at the solution in the device from time to time. If ...

  4. Trastuzumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Trastuzumab injection is used along with other medications or after other medications have been used to treat ... has spread to other parts of the body. Trastuzumab injection is also used during and after treatment ...

  5. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... aripiprazole injection and aripiprazole extended-release injection developed gambling problems or other intense urges or behaviors that ... even if you do not realize that your gambling or any other intense urges or unusual behaviors ...

  6. Mycobacterium vaccae Nebulization Can Protect against Asthma in Balb/c Mice by Regulating Th9 Expression

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Mingjie; Feng, Guangyi; Sun, Qixiang; Chen, Yiping

    2016-01-01

    Asthma is a heterogeneous disease characterized by chronic airway inflammation. CD4(+) T-helper 9 (Th9) cells are closely linked to asthma, helping to regulate inflammation and immunity. Epidemiological studies showed that mycobacteria infections are negatively associated with asthma. Our previous research showed that inactivated Mycobacterium phlei nebulization alleviated the airway hyperresponsiveness and inflammation of asthma. However, the relationship between Th9 cells and mycobacteria remains unknown. Here, we evaluated the relationship between Mycobacterium vaccae nebulization and Th9 cells in asthmatic mice. Eighteen Balb/c mice were randomized into 3 groups of 6 mice each (normal control group, asthma control group, and nebulization asthma group [Neb. group]). The Neb. group was nebulized with M. vaccae one month before establishment of the asthmatic model with ovalbumin (OVA) sensitization, and the normal and asthma control groups were nebulized with phosphate-buffered saline. The hyperresponsiveness of the mouse airways was assessed using a non-invasive lung function machine. Lung airway inflammation was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin and periodic acid-Schiff staining. Cytokine interlukin-9 (IL-9) concentration and OVA-specific IgE in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The percentages of γδTCR+ CD3+, IL-9+CD3+, IL-10+CD3+ lymphocytes, and IL9+γδT and IL-10+γδT cells were detected by flow cytometry. The airway inflammation and concentration of IL-9 and OVA-specific IgE were significantly reduced in the Neb. group compared to the asthma control group. The Neb. group had lower airway hyperresponsiveness, percentages of γδTCR+CD3+ and IL-9+CD3+ lymphocytes, and IL9+γδT cells, and higher percentages of IL-10+CD3+ lymphocytes and IL-10+γδT cells compared to the asthma control group. Thus, mouse bronchial asthma could be prevented by M. vaccae nebulization. The mechanism could involve M. vaccae

  7. A COMPARISON OF URINARY ARSENIC SPECIATION VIA DIRECT NEBULIZATION AND ON-LINE PHOTOOXIDATION-HYDRIDE GENERATION WITH DETECTION BY INDUCTIVELY COUPLED PLASMA MASS SPECTROMETRY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arsenic speciation continues to be important in assessing human and environmental exposure risk. Urinary arsenic analysis provides information on recent arsenic exposure. In this study, two sample introduction pathways: direct nebulization (DN) and hydride generation (HG) were ut...

  8. Inhalation solutions: which one are allowed to be mixed? Physico-chemical compatibility of drug solutions in nebulizers.

    PubMed

    Kamin, Wolfgang; Schwabe, Astrid; Krämer, Irene

    2006-12-01

    Therapy of chronic respiratory diseases often involves inhalation therapy with nebulizers. Patients often attempt to shorten the time consuming administration procedure by mixing drug solutions/suspensions for simultaneous inhalation. This article considers the issue of physico-chemical compatibility of admixtures of drug solutions/suspensions in nebulizers. A search of databases, prescribing information and primary literature was conducted to locate literature concerning the physico-chemical compatibility of inhalation solutions/suspensions. This was supplemented by telephone interviews. Admixtures of albuterol with ipratropium and/or cromolyn, of albuterol and budesonide, or tobramycin, or colistin are physico-chemically compatible. Physico-chemical compatibility has been demonstrated for admixtures of cromolyn with albuterol and/or ipratropium and for admixtures of cromolyn and budesonide. Admixtures of budesonide with ipratropium and/or fenoterol, and admixtures of budesonide and albuterol, or cromolyn are physico-chemically compatible. Both cromolyn and colistin are incompatible with benzalkonium chloride. Admixtures should be prepared from inhalation solutions/suspensions formulated without preservatives. Besides studies of the physico-chemical compatibility, the aerodynamic behaviour of physico-chemical mixtures needs to be studied before a final recommendation of simultaneous nebulization of compatible admixtures can be made. PMID:16678502

  9. High-performance liquid chromatographic assay for the simultaneous determination of ipratropium bromide, fenoterol, salbutamol and terbutaline in nebulizer solution.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, G A; Peterson, G M

    1994-06-01

    A reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography assay was developed for the simultaneous determination of ipratropium bromide, fenoterol hydrobromide, salbutamol sulphate and terbutaline sulphate in nebulizer solution. Chromatographic separation was achieved with a Nova-Pak C18 4 microns 10 cm x 8 mm i.d. Radial-pak cartridge inside a Waters RCM 8 x 10 compression module using ternary gradient analysis. Detection was performed using UV detection at 220 nm. The standard curves were linear over the following ranges: ipratropium bromide 20.8-250.0 micrograms ml-1, fenoterol hydrobromide 27.8-500.0 micrograms ml-1, salbutamol sulphate 34.7-2500.0 micrograms ml-1 and terbutaline sulphate 69.5-2500 micrograms ml-1. Inter-day and intra-day relative standard deviations for each compound ranged from 4.5-5.2% and 3.5-3.9%, respectively. The assay procedure was developed to allow the accurate determination of constituents in various combinations of nebulizer solution, as well as for stability indicating purposes. This provides a convenient means of testing long-term compatibility and stability following the post-manufacture mixing of commonly used nebulized preparations. PMID:7918785

  10. Lacosamide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be prescribed for other uses; ask your doctor or pharmacist for more information. ... Before using lacosamide injection,tell your doctor and pharmacist if you are allergic to lacosamide, any other medications, or any of the ingredients in lacosamide injection. Ask your pharmacist for a ...

  11. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lines under the skin skin depressions at the injection site increased body fat or movement to different areas of your body inappropriate happiness difficulty falling asleep or staying asleep extreme ... increased appetite injection site pain or redness Some side effects can ...

  12. Etanercept Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... and colorless. The liquid may contain small white particles, but should not contain large or colored particles. Do not use a syringe or dosing pen ... liquid is cloudy or contains large or colored particles.The best place to inject etanercept injection is ...

  13. Pralatrexate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... you that you will need to receive a vitamin B12 injection no more than 10 weeks before your first ... tests to check your body's response to pralatrexate injection.Ask your ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  14. Leucovorin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... lack of vitamin B12 or inability to absorb vitamin B12. Your doctor will not prescribe leucovorin injection to treat this type of anemia.tell your ... tests to check your body's response to leucovorin injection.It is ... such as vitamins, minerals, or other dietary supplements. You should bring ...

  15. Musculoskeletal Injection

    PubMed Central

    Wittich, Christopher M.; Ficalora, Robert D.; Mason, Thomas G.; Beckman, Thomas J.

    2009-01-01

    Patients commonly present to primary care physicians with musculoskeletal symptoms. Clinicians certified in internal medicine must be knowledgeable about the diagnosis and management of musculoskeletal diseases, yet they often receive inadequate postgraduate training on this topic. The musculoskeletal problems most frequently encountered in our busy injection practice involve, in decreasing order, the knees, trochanteric bursae, and glenohumeral joints. This article reviews the clinical presentations of these problems. It also discusses musculoskeletal injections for these problems in terms of medications, indications, injection technique, and supporting evidence from the literature. Experience with joint injection and the pharmacological principles described in this article should allow primary care physicians to become comfortable and proficient with musculoskeletal injections. PMID:19720781

  16. Imaging MALDI mass spectrometry of sphingolipids using an oscillating capillary nebulizer matrix application system.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yanfeng; Liu, Ying; Allegood, Jeremy; Wang, Elaine; Cachón-González, Begoña; Cox, Timothy M; Merrill, Alfred H; Sullards, M Cameron

    2010-01-01

    Matrix deposition is a critical step in tissue imaging by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS). It greatly affects the quality of MALDI imaging, especially for the analytes (such as lipids) that may easily dissolve in the solvent used for the matrix application. This chapter describes the use of an oscillating capillary nebulizer (OCN) to spray small droplets of matrix aerosol onto the sample surface for improved matrix homogeneity, reduced crystal size, and controlled solvent effects. This protocol allows visualization of many different lipid species and, of particular interest, sphingolipids in tissue slices of Tay-Sachs/Sandhoff disease by imaging MALDI-MS. The structures of these lipids were identified by analysis of tissue extracts using electrospray ionization in conjunction with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS and MS(3)). These results illustrate the usefulness of tissue imaging MALDI-MS with matrix deposition by OCN for the molecular analysis in normal physiology and pathology. In addition, the observation of numerous lipid subclasses with distinct localizations in the brain slices demonstrates that imaging MALDI-MS could be effectively used for "lipidomic" studies. PMID:20680588

  17. Effect of nebulized eucalyptus on contamination of microbial plaque of endotracheal tube in ventilated patients

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Nazanin; Rezaei, Korosh; Yazdannik, Ahmadreza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Formation of biofilm and bacterial colonization within the endotracheal tube (ETT) are significant sources of airway contamination and play a role in the development of ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP). This study was conducted to examine the effect of nebulized eucalyptus (NE) on bacterial colonization of ETT biofilm. Materials and Methods: We performed a randomized clinical trial in three intensive care units (ICUs) of an educational hospital. Seventy intubated patients were selected and randomly divided into intervention (n = 35) and control (n = 35) groups. The intervention group received 4 ml (5%) of eucalyptus in 6 ml normal saline every 8 h. The placebo group received only 10 ml of normal saline in the same way. On extubation, the interior of the tube was immediately sampled using a sterile swab for standard microbiological analysis. Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests were used for statistical analysis in SPSS. P values less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: In both samples, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Acinetobacter baumannii were the most frequently isolated bacteria. In the control group, heavy colonization was greater than in the intervention group (P = 0.002). The frequency of isolation of K. pneumoniae in the intervention group was lower than in the control group (P < 0.001). However, there was no difference between the two groups in other isolated bacteria. Conclusions: NE can reduce microbial contamination of the endotracheal tube biofilm in ventilated patients. Moreover, K. pneumoniae was the most sensitive to NE. PMID:27095990

  18. The cough response to ultrasonically nebulized distilled water in heart-lung transplantation patients

    SciTech Connect

    Higenbottam, T.; Jackson, M.; Woolman, P.; Lowry, R.; Wallwork, J.

    1989-07-01

    As a result of clinical heart-lung transplantation, the lungs are denervated below the level of the tracheal anastomosis. It has been questioned whether afferent vagal reinnervation occurs after surgery. Here we report the cough frequency, during inhalation of ultrasonically nebulized distilled water, of 15 heart-lung transplant patients studied 6 wk to 36 months after surgery. They were compared with 15 normal subjects of a similar age and sex. The distribution of the aerosol was studied in five normal subjects using /sup 99m/technetium diethylene triamine pentaacetate (/sup 99m/Tc-DTPA) in saline. In seven patients, the sensitivity of the laryngeal mucosa to instilled distilled water (0.2 ml) was tested at the time of fiberoptic bronchoscopy by recording the cough response. Ten percent of the aerosol was deposited onto the larynx and trachea, 56% on the central airways, and 34% in the periphery of the lung. The cough response to the aerosol was strikingly diminished in the patients compared with normal subjects (p less than 0.001), but all seven patients coughed when distilled water was instilled onto the larynx. As expected, the laryngeal mucosa of heart-lung transplant patients remains sensitive to distilled water. However, the diminished coughing when the distilled water is distributed by aerosol to the central airways supports the view that vagal afferent nerves do not reinnervate the lungs after heart-lung transplantation, up to 36 months after surgery.

  19. Nebulization of nanoparticulate amorphous or crystalline tacrolimus--single-dose pharmacokinetics study in mice.

    PubMed

    Sinswat, Prapasri; Overhoff, Kirk A; McConville, Jason T; Johnston, Keith P; Williams, Robert O

    2008-08-01

    Developing a pulmonary composition of tacrolimus (TAC) provides direct access to the graft in lung transplant offering the possibility of high drug levels. The objective of this study was to investigate the physicochemical and pharmacokinetic characteristics of the nanostructured aggregates containing amorphous or crystalline nanoparticles of TAC produced by ultra-rapid freezing (URF). TAC and lactose (1:1 ratio; URF-TAC:LAC) and TAC alone (URF-TAC) were investigated for pulmonary delivery and compared to unprocessed TAC. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results indicated that URF-TAC was crystalline, whereas URF-TAC:LAC was amorphous. In vitro results revealed the superior physiochemical characteristics of both URF formulations compared to unprocessed TAC. The surface area of URF processed TAC was higher (25-29 m2/g) than that of the unprocessed TAC (0.53 m2/g) and subsequently enhanced dissolution rates. In addition, URF-TAC:LAC displayed the ability to supersaturate in the dissolution media to about 11 times the crystalline equilibrium solubility. Similar aerodynamic particle sizes of 2-3 microm, and fine particle fraction between 70% and 75% were found in both formulations. The local and systemic pharmacokinetic studies in mice showed similar AUC(0-24), higher Cmax, and lower Tmax for the URF-TAC:LAC compared to the URF-TAC. Nanostructured aggregates containing amorphous or crystalline nanoparticles of TAC were demonstrated to be effectively delivered via nebulization, with similar in vitro and in vivo performances. PMID:18406587

  20. Synthesis of kerosene based nanocarbons by a nebulized spray pyrolysis method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widjaja, Ongky; Arie, Arenst Andreas; Halim, Martin; Lee, Joong Kee

    2016-04-01

    In this work, kerosene oil based nanocarbons were synthesized by a nebulized spray pyrolysis method. This method was conducted at temperature of 700°C under a nitrogen inert atmospheric condition. Activated carbon and ferrocene were used as substrate and catalyst, respectively. Initially, ferrocene was dissolved in the oil with fixed concentration of 0.02 g/ml. The pyrolysis reaction was carried out by varying the operating time of 15, 30 and 45 minutes. The main aim of this work was to investigate the effect of varying the operation time on the morphology and structural characteristics of as-prepared carbon products. The morphology and structural characteristics of synthesized nanocarbons were examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM), and Raman Spectroscopy, respectively. SEM and TEM observations showed that nano carbons were formed as agglomerated carbon nanospheres (CNSs) and graphene for all variation of operating time. Furthermore, it was observed that the size of agglomerated CNSs was proportional with the operating time from 15 to 45 minutes. Raman analysis showed that the ratio between graphite like and disorder carbon structure (IG/ID)of carbon samples increased from operating time of 15 to 30 minutes, however the ratio decreased from 30 minutes to 45 minutes.

  1. [Effect of inhaled terbutaline sulphate (dry powder, Turbuhaler and nebulizer solution) in children with acute asthma].

    PubMed

    Solé, D; Rizzo, M C; Pimentel, A F; Sano, F; Barreto, B A; Wandalsen, N F; Naspitz, C K

    1995-01-01

    Forty seven children (6-14 years), with an acute mild or moderate attack of asthma (clinical score 3 or FEV1 > 50% of the predicted), were treated with terbutaline sulphate, by inhalation route with a dry powder inhaler (Turbuhaler - 0,5 mg - group T; N=27, or by a nebulizer 1% solution-in saline-compressed air (6 l/min.) group S; N=20. The children were evaluated at 5, 15, 25 and 30 minutes after the initial treatment. In both groups a significant fall of the clinical score (starting at 15 minutes) (p < 0.05) and a significant improvement of the FEV(1), VC and FEF25-75% (starting at 5 minutes), were observed (p < 0.05). There were no significant changes in heart rates, respiratory rates and blood pressure (p > 0.05). At the end of the first treatment, the number of patients with a FEV(1) < 80% was similar in both groups (T = 13/27 and S = 10/20). The same treatment was repeated, and all the children showed a marked improvement, except for one boy of the group T was hospitalized. In conclusion, children with mild or moderate acute attacks of asthma can be treated up to a week with an inhalation of dry powder, resulting in adequate bronchodilatation without important side effects. PMID:14689023

  2. Quantitative analysis of lead in aqueous solutions by ultrasonic nebulizer assisted laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Shi-Lei; Lu, Yuan; Kong, Wei-Jin; Cheng, Kai; Zheng, Ronger

    2016-08-01

    In this study, an ultrasonic nebulizer unit was established to improve the quantitative analysis ability of laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) for liquid samples detection, using solutions of the heavy metal element Pb as an example. An analytical procedure was designed to guarantee the stability and repeatability of the LIBS signal. A series of experiments were carried out strictly according to the procedure. The experimental parameters were optimized based on studies of the pulse energy influence and temporal evolution of the emission features. The plasma temperature and electron density were calculated to confirm the LTE state of the plasma. Normalizing the intensities by background was demonstrated to be an appropriate method in this work. The linear range of this system for Pb analysis was confirmed over a concentration range of 0-4,150ppm by measuring 12 samples with different concentrations. The correlation coefficient of the fitted calibration curve was as high as 99.94% in the linear range, and the LOD of Pb was confirmed as 2.93ppm. Concentration prediction experiments were performed on a further six samples. The excellent quantitative ability of the system was demonstrated by comparison of the real and predicted concentrations of the samples. The lowest relative error was 0.043% and the highest was no more than 7.1%.

  3. Characteristics of an ideal nebulized antibiotic for the treatment of pneumonia in the intubated patient.

    PubMed

    Bassetti, Matteo; Luyt, Charles-Edouard; Nicolau, David P; Pugin, Jérôme

    2016-12-01

    Gram-negative pneumonia in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated is associated with increased morbidity and mortality as well as higher healthcare costs compared with those who do not have the disease. Intravenous antibiotics are currently the standard of care for pneumonia; however, increasing rates of multidrug resistance and limited penetration of some classes of antimicrobials into the lungs reduce the effectiveness of this treatment option, and current clinical cure rates are variable, while recurrence rates remain high. Inhaled antibiotics may have the potential to improve outcomes in this patient population, but their use is currently restricted by a lack of specifically formulated solutions for inhalation and a limited number of devices designed for the nebulization of antibiotics. In this article, we review the challenges clinicians face in the treatment of pneumonia and discuss the characteristics that would constitute an ideal inhaled drug/device combination. We also review inhaled antibiotic options currently in development for the treatment of pneumonia in patients who are intubated and mechanically ventilated. PMID:27090532

  4. Surface acoustic wave nebulization device with dual interdigitated transducers improves SAWN-MS performance.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yue; Heron, Scott R; Clark, Alicia M; Edgar, J Scott; Yoon, Sung Hwan; Kilgour, David P A; Turecek, Frantisek; Aliseda, Alberto; Goodlett, David R

    2016-06-01

    We compared mass spectrometric (MS) performance of surface acoustic wave nebulization (SAWN) generated by a single interdigitated transducer (IDT) designed to produce a progressive wave (PW) to one with a dual IDT that can in theory generate standing waves (SW). Given that devices using dual IDTs had been shown to produce fewer large size droplets on average, we hypothesized they would improve MS performance by improving the efficiency of desolvation. Indeed, the SW-SAWN chip provided an improved limit of detection of 1 femtomole of peptide placed on chip making it 100× more sensitive than the PW design. However, as measured by high-speed image recording and phase Doppler particle analyzer measurements, there was only a 26% increase in the small diameter (1-10 µm) droplets produced from the new device, precluding a conclusion that the decrease in droplet size was solely responsible for the improvement in MS signal/noise. Given that the dual IDT design produced a more instantaneous plume than the PW design, the more likely contributor to improved MS signal/noise was concluded to be a higher ion flux entering the mass spectrometer for the dual IDT designs. Notably, the dual IDT device allowed production of much higher quality protein mass spectra up to about 20 kDa, compared with the single IDT device. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27270865

  5. Fuel injection

    SciTech Connect

    Iiyoshi, A.; Vogoshi, S.

    1983-12-01

    The Plasma Physics Laboratory and the Dept. of Electrical Engineering report on three types of pellet injectors which have different applications: injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle for magnetic confinement; injection of a pellet into a vacuum chamber for an inertial confinement experiment; and injection of a pellet into a magnetic bottle where the pellet is ionized by high-power laser irradiation for target plasma production. The requirements of pellet injectors are summarized in a table. Theoretical studies on pellet ablation in hot plasma and ablated particle diffusion are underway.

  6. Ganciclovir Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is for intravenous (into a vein) use only. Giving ganciclovir through intramuscular (into a muscle) or ... the storage of ganciclovir solution. Store your medication only as directed. Make sure you understand what you ...

  7. Methylnaltrexone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection is used to treat constipation caused by opioid (narcotic) pain medications in patients with advanced illnesses ... a class of medications called peripherally acting mu-opioid receptor antagonists. It works by protecting the bowel ...

  8. Dexamethasone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... severe allergic reactions. It is used in the management of certain types of edema (fluid retention and ... needed for normal body functioning) and in the management of certain types of shock. Dexamethasone injection is ...

  9. Pembrolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat a certain type of non-small-cell lung cancer that has spread to nearby tissues or to ... successfully with other medications for non-small-cell lung cancer. Pembrolizumab injection is in a class of medications ...

  10. Ibandronate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... Ibandronate is in a class of medications called bisphosphonates. It works by preventing bone breakdown and increasing ... while receiving this medication.Being treated with a bisphosphonate medication such as ibandronate injection for osteoporosis may ...

  11. Omalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... asthma attacks (sudden episodes of wheezing, shortness of breath, and trouble breathing) in people with allergic asthma ( ... receiving a dose of omalizumab injection shortness of breath coughing up blood skin sores severe pain, numbness ...

  12. Necitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... chest pain; shortness of breath; dizziness; loss of consciousness; or fast, irregular, or pounding heartbeat.Keep all appointments with your doctor and the laboratory.Talk to your doctor about the risks of receiving necitumumab injection.

  13. Dolasetron Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... receiving cancer chemotherapy medications. Dolasetron is in a class of medications called serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonists. ... stiff or twitching muscles seizures coma (loss of consciousness) Dolasetron injection may cause other side effects. Call ...

  14. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... also used together with other medications to treat cervical cancer (cancer that begins in the opening of the ... days. When topotecan injection is used to treat cervical cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  15. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Ertapenem injection is used to treat certain serious infections, including pneumonia and urinary tract, skin, diabetic foot, ... for the prevention of infections following colorectal surgery. Ertapenem is in a class of medications called carbapenem ...

  16. Octreotide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... immediate-release injection is also used to control diarrhea and flushing caused by carcinoid tumors (slow-growing ... symptoms are severe or do not go away: diarrhea constipation pale, bulky, foul-smelling stools constantly feeling ...

  17. Infliximab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for 2 hours afterward. A doctor or ... the following symptoms during or shortly after your infusion: hives; rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, ...

  18. Vedolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injection may cause serious allergic reactions during an infusion and for several hours afterward. A doctor or ... of the following symptoms during or after your infusion: rash; itching; swelling of the face, eyes, mouth, ...

  19. Panitumumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... as a solution (liquid) to be given by infusion (injected into a vein). It is usually given ... doctor or nurse in a doctor's office or infusion center. Panitumumab is usually given once every 2 ...

  20. Tositumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive tositumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  1. Ibritumomab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is in a class of medications called monoclonal antibodies with radioisotopes. It works by attaching to cancer ... you receive ibritumomab injection, your body may develop antibodies (substances in the blood that help the immune ...

  2. Temozolomide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Temozolomide is used to treat certain types of brain tumors. Temozolomide is in a class of medications called ... injected once a day. For some types of brain tumors, temozolomide is given daily for 42 to 49 ...

  3. Teduglutide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... syndrome in people who need additional nutrition or fluids from intravenous (IV) therapy. Teduglutide injection is in ... analogs. It works by improving the absorption of fluids and nutrients in the intestines.

  4. Olanzapine Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Olanzapine extended-release injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  5. Risperidone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... release (long-acting) injection is used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... do not already have diabetes. If you have schizophrenia, you are more likely to develop diabetes than ...

  6. Aripiprazole Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... injections (Abilify Maintena, Aristada) are used to treat schizophrenia (a mental illness that causes disturbed or unusual ... treat episodes of agitation in people who have schizophrenia or in people who have bipolar I disorder ( ...

  7. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... has not improved when treated with other medications, rheumatoid arthritis (a condition in which the body attacks its ... continues. When certolizumab injection is used to treat rheumatoid arthritis, it is usually given every other week and ...

  8. Ramucirumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... dose of ramucirumab injection. Tell your doctor or nurse if you experience any of the following while you receive ramucirumab: uncontrollable shaking of a part of the body; back pain or spasms; chest pain and tightness; chills; flushing; ...

  9. Topotecan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... organs where eggs are formed) and small cell lung cancer (a type of cancer that begins in the ... topotecan injection is used to treat ovarian or lung cancer, it is usually given once a day for ...

  10. Colistimethate Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... antibiotic, to help treat your infection. The drug will be either injected directly into a vein through ... catheter or added to an intravenous fluid that will drip through a needle or catheter into a ...

  11. Mitoxantrone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... medications to relieve pain in people with advanced prostate cancer who did not respond to other medications. Mitoxantrone ... doses). When mitoxantrone injection is used to treat prostate cancer, it is usually given once every 21 days. ...

  12. Palivizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... this medicine each month during RSV season. Your health care provider will let you know when the monthly injections are no longer needed.Your child's health care provider (doctor, nurse, or pharmacist) may measure ...

  13. Terbutaline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    Terbutaline injection is used to treat wheezing, shortness of breath, coughing, and chest tightness caused by asthma, chronic bronchitis, and emphysema. Terbutaline is in a class of medications called beta ...

  14. Leuprolide Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... of the body and causes pain, heavy or irregular menstruation [periods], and other symptoms). Leuprolide injection (Lupron ... mention any of the following: certain medications for irregular heartbeat such as amiodarone (Cordarone), disopyramide (Norpace), procainamide ( ...

  15. Sumatriptan Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... accompanied by nausea and sensitivity to sound and light). Sumatriptan injection is also used to treat the ... children. Store it at room temperature, away from light, excess heat, and moisture (not in the bathroom). ...

  16. Insulin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... contraceptives (birth control pills, patches, rings, injections, or implants); niacin (Niacor, Niaspan, Slo-Niacin); octreotide (Sandostatin);oral ... cramps abnormal heartbeat large weight gain in a short period of time swelling of the arms, hands, ...

  17. Fondaparinux Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... had a serious allergic reaction (difficulty breathing or swallowing or swelling of the face, throat, tongue, lips, ... the face, throat, tongue, lips, or eyes difficulty swallowing or breathing Fondaparinux injection may cause other side ...

  18. Daclizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... course of disease where symptoms flare up from time to time) of multiple sclerosis (MS; a disease in which ... injections. Before you use daclizumab yourself the first time, read the written instructions that come with it. ...

  19. Haloperidol Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... emotions). Haloperidol injection is also used to control motor tics (uncontrollable need to repeat certain body movements) ... people who have Tourette's disorder (condition characterized by motor or verbal tics). Haloperidol is in a class ...

  20. Certolizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... causes pain, swelling, and damage) including the following: Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... home. When certolizumab injection is used to treat Crohn's disease, it is usually given every two weeks for ...

  1. Natalizumab Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... prevent episodes of symptoms in people who have Crohn's disease (a condition in which the body attacks the ... If you are receiving natalizumab injection to treat Crohn's disease, your symptoms should improve during the first few ...

  2. Daptomycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... blood infections or serious skin infections caused by bacteria. Daptomycin injection is in a class of medications called cyclic lipopeptide antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria. Antibiotics will not work for treating colds, flu, ...

  3. Ciprofloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria. Ciprofloxacin injection is also used to prevent or ... of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work for ...

  4. Gentamicin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as gentamicin injection will not work ...

  5. Ertapenem Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... abdominal (stomach area) infections, that are caused by bacteria. It is also used for the prevention of ... medications called carbapenem antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ertapenem injection will not work ...

  6. Cefepime Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria including pneumonia, and skin, urinary tract, and kidney ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as cefepime injection will not work ...

  7. Ceftriaxone Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... is used to treat certain infections caused by bacteria such as gonorrhea (a sexually transmitted disease), pelvic ... medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftriaxone injection will not work ...

  8. Moxifloxacin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... skin, and abdominal (stomach area) infections caused by bacteria. Moxifloxacin injection is in a class of antibiotics called fluoroquinolones. It works by killing the bacteria that cause infections. Antibiotics will not work against ...

  9. Ceftaroline Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... infections and pneumonia (lung infection) caused by certain bacteria. Ceftaroline is in a class of medications called cephalosporin antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as ceftaroline injection will not work ...

  10. Tobramycin Injection

    MedlinePlus

    ... treat certain serious infections that are caused by bacteria such as meningitis (infection of the membranes that ... medications called aminoglycoside antibiotics. It works by killing bacteria.Antibiotics such as tobramycin injection will not work ...