Science.gov

Sample records for inland saline waters

  1. Rotifers from selected inland saline waters in the Chihuahuan Desert of México

    PubMed Central

    Walsh, Elizabeth J; Schröder, Thomas; Wallace, Robert L; Ríos-Arana, Judith V; Rico-Martínez, Roberto

    2008-01-01

    Background In spite of considerable efforts over past decades we still know relatively little regarding the biogeography of rotifers of inland waters in México. To help rectify this we undertook an extensive survey of the rotifer fauna of 48 water bodies in the Chihuahuan Desert of México. Results Of the sites surveyed, 21 had salinities ≥ 2000 μS cm-1 and in these we found 57 species of monogonont rotifers and several bdelloids. Species richness in the saline sites varied widely, with a range in species richness of 1 to 27 and a mean (± 1SD) = 8.8 (± 6.2). Collectively all sites possess relatively high percent single- and doubletons, 33.3 and 21.7%, respectively. Simpson's Asymmetric Index indicated that similarity in rotifer species composition varied widely among a set of 10 sites. These were selected because they were sampled more frequently or represent unusual habitats. These SAI values ranged from 0.00 (complete dissimilarity) to 1.00 (complete similarity). The Jaccard Index varied between 0.00 and 0.35. This observation probably reflects similarities and differences in water chemistry among these sites. Inland saline systems differed in their chemical composition by region. Conductivity was related to hardness and alkalinity. In addition, hardness was positively associated with chloride and sulfate. RDA showed that several species were positively associated with chloride concentration. Other factors that were significantly associated with rotifer species included the presence of macrophytes, nitrate content, oxygen concentration, TDS, latitude and whether the habitat was a large lake or reservoir. Conclusion This study illustrates the diversity of the rotiferan fauna of inland saline systems and the uniqueness among waterbodies. Conservation of these systems is needed to preserve these unique sources of biodiversity that include rotifers and the other endemic species found in association with them. PMID:18533042

  2. Inland and coastal waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouw, Colleen; Greb, Steven

    2012-09-01

    Workshop for Remote Sensing of Coastal and Inland Waters;Madison, Wisconsin, 20-22 June 2012 Coastal and inland water bodies, which have great value for recreation, food supply, commerce, transportation, and human health, have been experiencing external pressure from direct human activities and climate change. Given their societal and economic value, understanding issues of water quality, water quantity, and the impact of environmental change on the ecological and biogeochemical functioning of these water bodies is of interest to a broad range of communities. Remote sensing offers one of the most spatially and temporally comprehensive tools for observing these waters. While there has been some success with remotely observing these water bodies, many challenges still remain, including algorithm performance, atmospheric correction, the relationships between optical properties and biogeochemical parameters, sufficient spatial and spectral resolution, and a lack of uncertainty estimates over the wide range of environmental conditions encountered across these coastal and inland water bodies.

  3. Inland water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The work is reported of the panel concerning the application of space technology to the improved management of the nation's inland resources. The progress since the 1967-68 study is briefly reviewed. The data needed for the management of inlet water ways, and the potential benefits of better management are discussed along with 16 proposed demonstration projects.

  4. Recent Inland Water Temperature Trends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, Simon; Healey, Nathan; Lenters, John; O'Reilly, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America and the rest of the world for potential use as climate indicator. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our work we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 169 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades, approximately 268 lakes. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes. We will discuss the available datasets and processing methodologies together with the patterns they reveal based on recent changes in the global warming, with a particular focus on the inland waters of the southwestern USA.

  5. Atmospheric correction for inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidot, Jerome; Santer, Richard P.

    2004-02-01

    Inland waters are an increasingly valuable natural resource with major impacts and benefits for population and environment. As the spatial resolution is improved for "ocean color" satellite sensors, such observations become relevant to monitor water quality for lakes. We first demonstrated that the required atmospheric correction cannot be conducted using the standard algorithms developed for ocean. The ocean color sensors have spectral bands that allow characterization of aerosol over dark land pixels (vegetation in the blue and in the red spectral bands). It is possible to use a representative aerosol model in the atmospheric correction over inland waters after validating the spatial homogeneity of the aerosol model in the lake vicinity. The performance of this new algorithm is illustrated on SeaWiFS scenes of the Balaton (Hungary; the Constance, Germany) lakes. We illustrated the good spatial homogeneity of the aerosols and the meaningfulness of the water leaving radiances derived over these two lakes. We also addressed the specificity of the computation of the Fresnel reflection. The direct to diffuse term of this Fresnel contribution is reduced because of the limited size of the lake. Based on the primary scattering approximation, we propose a simple formulation of this component.

  6. Global carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Raymond, Peter A.; Hartmann, Jens; Lauerwald, Ronny; Sobek, Sebastian; McDonald, Cory P.; Hoover, Mark; Butman, David; Striegl, Rob; Mayorga, Emilio; Humborg, Christoph; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Durr, Hans H.; Meybeck, Michel; Ciais, Philippe; Guth, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) transfer from inland waters to the atmosphere, known as CO2 evasion, is a component of the global carbon cycle. Global estimates of CO2 evasion have been hampered, however, by the lack of a framework for estimating the inland water surface area and gas transfer velocity and by the absence of a global CO2 database. Here we report regional variations in global inland water surface area, dissolved CO2 and gas transfer velocity. We obtain global CO2 evasion rates of 1.8   petagrams of carbon (Pg C) per year from streams and rivers and 0.32  Pg C yr−1 from lakes and reservoirs, where the upper and lower limits are respectively the 5th and 95th confidence interval percentiles. The resulting global evasion rate of 2.1 Pg C yr−1 is higher than previous estimates owing to a larger stream and river evasion rate. Our analysis predicts global hotspots in stream and river evasion, with about 70 per cent of the flux occurring over just 20 per cent of the land surface. The source of inland water CO2 is still not known with certainty and new studies are needed to research the mechanisms controlling CO2 evasion globally.

  7. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  8. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  9. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  10. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  11. 33 CFR 62.32 - Inland waters obstruction mark.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Inland waters obstruction mark. 62.32 Section 62.32 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY AIDS TO NAVIGATION UNITED STATES AIDS TO NAVIGATION SYSTEM The U.S. Aids to Navigation System §...

  12. Database for Hydrological Time Series of Inland Waters (DAHITI)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, Christian; Dettmering, Denise

    2016-04-01

    Satellite altimetry was designed for ocean applications. However, since some years, satellite altimetry is also used over inland water to estimate water level time series of lakes, rivers and wetlands. The resulting water level time series can help to understand the water cycle of system earth and makes altimetry to a very useful instrument for hydrological applications. In this poster, we introduce the "Database for Hydrological Time Series of Inland Waters" (DAHITI). Currently, the database contains about 350 water level time series of lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and wetlands which are freely available after a short registration process via http://dahiti.dgfi.tum.de. In this poster, we introduce the product of DAHITI and the functionality of the DAHITI web service. Furthermore, selected examples of inland water targets are presented in detail. DAHITI provides time series of water level heights of inland water bodies and their formal errors . These time series are available within the period of 1992-2015 and have varying temporal resolutions depending on the data coverage of the investigated water body. The accuracies of the water level time series depend mainly on the extent of the investigated water body and the quality of the altimeter measurements. Hereby, an external validation with in-situ data reveals RMS differences between 5 cm and 40 cm for lakes and 10 cm and 140 cm for rivers, respectively.

  13. Integrated geophysical and chemical study of saline water intrusion.

    PubMed

    Choudhury, Kalpan; Saha, D K

    2004-01-01

    Surface geophysical surveys provide an effective way to image the subsurface and the ground water zone without a large number of observation wells. DC resistivity sounding generally identifies the subsurface formations-the aquifer zone as well as the formations saturated with saline/brackish water. However, the method has serious ambiguities in distinguishing the geological formations of similar resistivities such as saline sand and saline clay, or water quality such as fresh or saline, in a low resistivity formation. In order to minimize the ambiguity and ascertain the efficacy of data integration techniques in ground water and saline contamination studies, a combined geophysical survey and periodic chemical analysis of ground water were carried out employing DC resistivity profiling, resistivity sounding, and shallow seismic refraction methods. By constraining resistivity interpretation with inputs from seismic refraction and chemical analysis, the data integration study proved to be a powerful method for identification of the subsurface formations, ground water zones, the subsurface saline/brackish water zones, and the probable mode and cause of saline water intrusion in an inland aquifer. A case study presented here illustrates these principles. Resistivity sounding alone had earlier failed to identify the different formations in the saline environment. Data integration and resistivity interpretation constrained by water quality analysis led to a new concept of minimum resistivity for ground water-bearing zones, which is the optimum value of resistivity of a subsurface formation in an area below which ground water contained in it is saline/brackish and unsuitable for drinking. PMID:15457790

  14. Wetlands as a large carbon source for inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abril, Gwenaël; Martinez, Jean-Michel; Artigas, L. Felipe; Moreira-Turcq, Patricia; Benedetti, Marc F.; Vidal, Luciana; Meziane, Tarik; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Bernardes, Marcelo C.; Deborde, Jonathan; Lima Souza, Edivaldo; Albéric, Patrick; Landim de Souza, Marcelo F.; Roland, Fabio

    2014-05-01

    Recent estimates suggests that up to 3 PgC y-1 could be emitted as CO2 from global inland waters, offsetting the carbon uptake by terrestrial ecosystems. It is generally assumed that inland waters emit carbon previously fixed upstream by land plant photosynthesis and subsequently transported downstream with runoff. But the observed carbon fluxes from first-order streams do not account for all of the CO2 outgassing at the scale of entire watersheds. Three-quarters of the world's flooded land are temporary wetlands. However, the contribution of these productive ecosystems to the inland water carbon budget has been largely overlooked. Based on observations in rivers and floodplains of the central Amazon, we suggest that wetlands pump large amounts of atmospheric CO2 into river waters. Indeed, the magnitude of CO2 outgassing in Amazonian waters is spatially and temporally related to their connection with the semi-aquatic vegetation that performs aerial photosynthesis (Flooded forests and floating macrophytes). These wetlands export half of their gross primary production to waters as dissolved CO2 and organic carbon, compared to only a few percent of gross primary production in upland ecosystems. Global carbon budgets should explicitly address temporary or vegetated flooded areas, as these ecosystems combine high aerial primary production with a large and fast carbon export capacity, potentially supporting a significant fraction of CO2 evasion from inland waters.

  15. Acute toxicity of saline produced waters to marine organisms

    SciTech Connect

    Pillard, D.A.; Evans, J.M.; DuFresne, D.L.

    1996-11-01

    Produced waters from oil and gas drilling operations are typically very saline, and may cause acute toxicity to marine organisms due imbalances as well as to an excess or deficiency of to osmotic specific common ions. In order to better understand the relationship between toxicity and ion concentration, laboratory toxicity tests were conducted using mysid shrimp (Mysidopsis bahia), sheepshead minnow, (Cyprinodon variegatus), and inland silvemide (Menidia beryllina). For each species the ionic concentration of standard laboratory water was proportionally increased or decreased to produce test solutions with a range of salinities. Individual ions (sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, strontium, chloride, bromide, sulfate, bicarbonate, and borate) were also manipulated to examine individual ion toxicity. Organisms were exposed for 48 hours. The three test species differ in their tolerance of salinity. Mysid shrimp show a marked decrease in survival at salinities less than approximately 5 ppt. Both fish species tolerated low salinity water, however, silversides were less tolerant of saline waters (salinity greater than 40 ppt). There were also significant differences in the responses of the organisms to different ions. The results show that salinity of the test solution may play an important role in the responses of the organisms to produced water effluent. Predictable toxicity/ion relationships developed in this study can be used to estimate whether toxicity in produced water is a result of common ions, salinity, or some other unknown toxicant.

  16. Remote estimation of cyanobacteria-dominance in inland waters.

    PubMed

    Shi, Kun; Zhang, Yunlin; Li, Yunmei; Li, Lin; Lv, Heng; Liu, Xiaohan

    2015-01-01

    Remote sensing of the concentration ratio of phycocyanin (PC) to chlorophyll a (Chl-a) is important for water management, as it provides critical knowledge regarding the phytoplankton community. Using the observed in situ datasets, a simple empirical model was developed to estimate PC:Chl-a based on the band ratio index of R(rs)(550R(rs(620) (R(rs-): remote sensing reflectance) (R(2) = 0.84; RMSE = 1.01). This simple model exhibited relatively high validation accuracy using the independent validation dataset. In addition, the model can be successfully applied to AISA (Airborne Imaging Spectrometer for Application) image data, indicating the practicality of the developed model for determining the dominance of cyanobacteria among the total phytoplankton from airborne image data in inland waters. However, the present model cannot be used directly to estimate PC:Chl-a in extremely turbid waters with total suspended matter (TSM) concentrations higher than 25 mg/l. For these waters, the model parameters may require local optimization according to the conditions of the water under analysis. The findings of this study indicate that our proposed model is able to detect the dominance of cyanobacteria among the phytoplankton in inland waters, where the turbidity is not too much high. This study improves our understanding of the species composition of phytoplankton biomass in optically complex inland bodies of water. PMID:25462730

  17. Characterization of SAR Mode Altimetry over Inland Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fabry, Pierre; Bercher, Nicolas

    2015-12-01

    Radar altimetry over the inland water domain is a difficult topic that still requires a lot of human expertise as well as manual editing and verifications. This is mainly due to the fact that inland water scenes are highly variable, both in space and time, which leads to a much broader range of radar signatures than in oceanography. The remark is particularly true for LRM altimetry and remains valid in many cases in SAR mode (SARM). In preparation for the operational Sentinel-3 mission and to better benefit from the improved SARM along-track resolution it is required to: 1. better characterize the SARM Individual Echoes, Multi-Look Stacks, 20Hz waveforms as well as the Range Integrated Power (RIP) over the inland water domain, 2. step toward processing schemes that account for the actual content of the illuminated scene. In this work, we introduce an automated technique to assess the water fraction within the Beam-limited Doppler footprint through its intersection area of with a water mask. This framework opens up new ways toward the automated characterization and processing of altimetry data based on regularly updated water masks.

  18. "ITM" (INLAND WATERS SEDIMENT TESTING MANUAL)

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA public web site providing the national sediment testing manual for dredged material proposed for discharge in waters of the U.S. Description from site: "The "Evaluation of Dredged Material Proposed for Dischage in Waters of the U.S. - Testing Manual", commonly referred to as...

  19. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lathrop, Richard G., Jr.

    1992-01-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions.

  20. Landsat Thematic Mapper monitoring of turbid inland water quality

    SciTech Connect

    Lathrop, R.G., JR. )

    1992-04-01

    This study reports on an investigation of water quality calibration algorithms under turbid inland water conditions using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) multispectral digital data. TM data and water quality observations (total suspended solids and Secchi disk depth) were obtained near-simultaneously and related using linear regression techniques. The relationships between reflectance and water quality for Green Bay and Lake Michigan were compared with results for Yellowstone and Jackson Lakes, Wyoming. Results show similarities in the water quality-reflectance relationships, however, the algorithms derived for Green Bay - Lake Michigan cannot be extrapolated to Yellowstone and Jackson Lake conditions. 17 refs.

  1. Globally significant greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borges, Alberto V.; Darchambeau, François; Teodoru, Cristian R.; Marwick, Trent R.; Tamooh, Fredrick; Geeraert, Naomi; Omengo, Fredrick O.; Guérin, Frédéric; Lambert, Thibault; Morana, Cédric; Okuku, Eric; Bouillon, Steven

    2015-08-01

    Carbon dioxide emissions to the atmosphere from inland waters--streams, rivers, lakes and reservoirs--are nearly equivalent to ocean and land sinks globally. Inland waters can be an important source of methane and nitrous oxide emissions as well, but emissions are poorly quantified, especially in Africa. Here we report dissolved carbon dioxide, methane and nitrous oxide concentrations from 12 rivers in sub-Saharan Africa, including seasonally resolved sampling at 39 sites, acquired between 2006 and 2014. Fluxes were calculated from published gas transfer velocities, and upscaled to the area of all sub-Saharan African rivers using available spatial data sets. Carbon dioxide-equivalent emissions from river channels alone were about 0.4 Pg carbon per year, equivalent to two-thirds of the overall net carbon land sink previously reported for Africa. Including emissions from wetlands of the Congo river increases the total carbon dioxide-equivalent greenhouse-gas emissions to about 0.9 Pg carbon per year, equivalent to about one quarter of the global ocean and terrestrial combined carbon sink. Riverine carbon dioxide and methane emissions increase with wetland extent and upland biomass. We therefore suggest that future changes in wetland and upland cover could strongly affect greenhouse-gas emissions from African inland waters.

  2. Water Quality Monitoring of Inland Waters using Meris data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Potes, M.; Costa, M. J.; Salgado, R.; Le Moigne, P.

    2012-04-01

    The successful launch of ENVISAT in March 2002 has given a great opportunity to understand the optical changes of water surfaces, including inland waters such as lakes and reservoirs, through the use of the Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS). The potential of this instrument to describe variations of optically active substances has been examined in the Alqueva reservoir, located in the south of Portugal, where satellite spectral radiances are corrected for the atmospheric effects to obtain the surface spectral reflectance. In order to validate this spectral reflectance, several field campaigns were carried out, with a portable spectroradiometer, during the satellite overpass. The retrieved lake surface spectral reflectance was combined with limnological laboratory data and with the resulting algorithms, spatial maps of biological quantities and turbidity were obtained, allowing for the monitoring of these water quality indicators. In the framework of the recent THAUMEX 2011 field campaign performed in Thau lagoon (southeast of France) in-water radiation, surface irradiation and reflectance measurements were taken with a portable spectrometer in order to test the methodology described above. At the same time, water samples were collected for laboratory analysis. The two cases present different results related to the geographic position, water composition, environment, resources exploration, etc. Acknowledgements This work is financed through FCT grant SFRH/BD/45577/2008 and through FEDER (Programa Operacional Factores de Competitividade - COMPETE) and National funding through FCT - Fundação para a Ciência e a Tecnologia in the framework of projects FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-007122 (PTDC / CTE-ATM / 65307 / 2006) and FCOMP-01-0124-FEDER-009303 (PTDC/CTE-ATM/102142/2008). Image data has been provided by ESA in the frame of ENVISAT projects AOPT-2423 and AOPT-2357. We thank AERONET investigators for their effort in establishing and maintaining Évora AERONET

  3. ICESat-derived inland water surface spot heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Loughlin, Fiachra E.; Neal, Jeffrey; Yamazaki, Dai; Bates, Paul D.

    2016-04-01

    Accurate measurement of water surface height is key to many fields in hydrology and limnology. Satellite radar and laser altimetry have been shown to be useful means of obtaining such data where no ground gauging stations exist, and the accuracy of different satellite instruments is now reasonably well understood. Past validation studies have shown water surface height data from the ICESat instrument to have the highest vertical accuracy (mean absolute errors of ˜10 cm for ICESat, compared, for example, with ˜28 cm from Envisat), yet no freely available source of processed ICESat data currently exists for inland water bodies. Here we present a database of processed and quality checked ICESat-derived inland water surface heights (IWSH) for water bodies greater than 3 arc sec (˜92 m at the equator) in width. Four automated methods for removing spurious observations or outliers were investigated, along with the impact of using different water masks. We find that the best performing method ensures that observations used are completely surrounded by water in the SRTM Water Body data. Using this method for removing spurious observations, we estimate transect-averaged water surface heights at 587,292 unique locations from 2003 to 2009, with the number of locations proportional to the size of the river.

  4. Alfalfa production using saline drainage water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A three year study investigated the use of saline (< 6 dS/m) drainage water for irrigation of salt tolerant alfalfa in the presence of shallow saline groundwater. The irrigation treatments included; irrigating twice between cuttings with non-saline water, 2) irrigating with moderately saline water...

  5. Radar Altimetry for Inland Water: Current and Potential Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; da Silva, Joecila Santos; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-12-01

    Apart from oceans and ice-sheets, radar altimeters are shown by a plethora of works to be of considerable interest in monitoring inland water bodies such as rivers, lakes, wetlands and floodplains. More than a decade of research on the application in the field of continental hydrology has demonstrated the advantages of providing global coverage, regular temporal sampling and short delivery delays, especially via the acquisition of numerous useful measurements over ungauged areas. With the aim to investigate the benefits that can be achieved by Sentinel-3 mission, two applications are here shown for selected pilot rivers and the results on discharge estimation are analyzed and discussed in terms of performance measures.

  6. 33 CFR 163.05 - Tows of seagoing barges within inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Tows of seagoing barges within... SECURITY (CONTINUED) PORTS AND WATERWAYS SAFETY TOWING OF BARGES § 163.05 Tows of seagoing barges within inland waters. (a) The tows of seagoing barges when navigating the inland waters of the United...

  7. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... line as defined in 33 CFR part 80, the applicant must complete an examination on the COLREGS or the... 46 Shipping 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on...

  8. 46 CFR 11.430 - Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... line as defined in 33 CFR part 80, the applicant must complete an examination on the COLREGS or the... 46 Shipping 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. 11... Endorsements for the Great Lakes and inland waters. Any license or MMC endorsement issued for service on...

  9. The Comparative Osmoregulatory Ability of Two Water Beetle Genera Whose Species Span the Fresh-Hypersaline Gradient in Inland Waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae)

    PubMed Central

    Pallarés, Susana; Arribas, Paula; Bilton, David T.; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh—hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae). Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation) was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal’s haemolymph and the external medium) was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg-1). In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg-1) across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm-1, respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg-1, comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels occupied by

  10. The comparative osmoregulatory ability of two water beetle genera whose species span the fresh-hypersaline gradient in inland waters (Coleoptera: Dytiscidae, Hydrophilidae).

    PubMed

    Pallarés, Susana; Arribas, Paula; Bilton, David T; Millán, Andrés; Velasco, Josefa

    2015-01-01

    A better knowledge of the physiological basis of salinity tolerance is essential to understanding the ecology and evolutionary history of organisms that have colonized inland saline waters. Coleoptera are amongst the most diverse macroinvertebrates in inland waters, including saline habitats; however, the osmoregulatory strategies they employ to deal with osmotic stress remain unexplored. Survival and haemolymph osmotic concentration at different salinities were examined in adults of eight aquatic beetle species which inhabit different parts of the fresh-hypersaline gradient. Studied species belong to two unrelated genera which have invaded saline waters independently from freshwater ancestors; Nebrioporus (Dytiscidae) and Enochrus (Hydrophilidae). Their osmoregulatory strategy (osmoconformity or osmoregulation) was identified and osmotic capacity (the osmotic gradient between the animal's haemolymph and the external medium) was compared between species pairs co-habiting similar salinities in nature. We show that osmoregulatory capacity, rather than osmoconformity, has evolved independently in these different lineages. All species hyperegulated their haemolymph osmotic concentration in diluted waters; those living in fresh or low-salinity waters were unable to hyporegulate and survive in hyperosmotic media (> 340 mosmol kg(-1)). In contrast, the species which inhabit the hypo-hypersaline habitats were effective hyporegulators, maintaining their haemolymph osmolality within narrow limits (ca. 300 mosmol kg(-1)) across a wide range of external concentrations. The hypersaline species N. ceresyi and E. jesusarribasi tolerated conductivities up to 140 and 180 mS cm(-1), respectively, and maintained osmotic gradients over 3500 mosmol kg(-1), comparable to those of the most effective insect osmoregulators known to date. Syntopic species of both genera showed similar osmotic capacities and in general, osmotic responses correlated well with upper salinity levels occupied by

  11. Improved Atmospheric Correction for AVIRIS Spectra from Inland Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gastil, Mary; Melack, John M.

    1998-01-01

    Remote sensing reflectance (Rrs) cannot be measured directly. Comparison of Rrs calculated from field measurements to Rrs calculated from AVIRIS spectra and the atmospheric radiative transfer model modtran provides a measure of the accuracy of our method. That and other comparisons are presented here as a validation of a method of retrieving Rrs from inland waters from AVIRIS radiance. The method of collecting field measurements for Rrs is described in Hamilton, 1993. Retrieval of Rrs from AVIRIS using modtran was developed from Carder, 1993. AVIRIS radiance is reduced by the path radiance modeled by modtran and divided by one-way transmission. Skylight, modeled by modtran, specularly reflected from the lake surface, is then subtracted from this radiance, leaving only that radiance which has come from under water. This water-leaving radiance is then normalized by the downwelling irradiance incident at the surface as modeled by modtran. Our improved retrieval of Rrs has allowed us to fit a single curve to a set of 134 pairs of AVIRIS Rrs and measured chlorophyll gathered on eight experiments at Mono Lake. Previously, spectra from different surveys varied more due to lingering atmospheric effects and/or radiometric calibration imprecision than they varied due to chlorophyll.

  12. Tempo and mode of the multiple origins of salinity tolerance in a water beetle lineage.

    PubMed

    Arribas, Paula; Andújar, Carmelo; Abellán, Pedro; Velasco, Josefa; Millán, Andrés; Ribera, Ignacio

    2014-02-01

    Salinity is one of the most important drivers of the distribution, abundance and diversity of organisms. Previous studies on the evolution of saline tolerance have been mainly centred on marine and terrestrial organisms, while lineages inhabiting inland waters remain largely unexplored. This is despite the fact that these systems include a much broader range of salinities, going from freshwater to more than six times the salinity of the sea (i.e. >200 g/L). Here, we study the pattern and timing of the evolution of the tolerance to salinity in an inland aquatic lineage of water beetles (Enochrus species of the subgenus Lumetus, family Hydrophilidae), with the general aim of understanding the mechanisms by which it was achieved. Using a time-calibrated phylogeny built from five mitochondrial and two nuclear genes and information about the salinity tolerance and geographical distribution of the species, we found that salinity tolerance appeared multiple times associated with periods of global aridification. We found evidence of some accelerated transitions from freshwater directly to high salinities, as reconstructed with extant lineages. This, together with the strong positive correlation found between salinity tolerance and aridity of the habitats in which species are found, suggests that tolerance to salinity may be based on a co-opted mechanism developed originally for drought resistance. PMID:24372998

  13. Sunlight-induced carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koehler, Birgit; Landelius, Tomas; Weyhenmeyer, Gesa A.; Machida, Nanako; Tranvik, Lars J.

    2014-07-01

    The emissions of carbon dioxide (CO2) from inland waters are substantial on a global scale. Yet the fundamental question remains open which proportion of these CO2 emissions is induced by sunlight via photochemical mineralization of dissolved organic carbon (DOC), rather than by microbial respiration during DOC decomposition. Also, it is unknown on larger spatial and temporal scales how photochemical mineralization compares to other C fluxes in the inland water C cycle. We combined field and laboratory data with atmospheric radiative transfer modeling to parameterize a photochemical rate model for each day of the year 2009, for 1086 lakes situated between latitudes from 55°N to 69°N in Sweden. The sunlight-induced production of dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) averaged 3.8 ± 0.04 g C m-2 yr-1, which is a flux comparable in size to the organic carbon burial in the lake sediments. Countrywide, 151 ± 1 kt C yr-1 was produced by photochemical mineralization, corresponding to about 12% of total annual mean CO2 emissions from Swedish lakes. With a median depth of 3.2 m, the lakes were generally deep enough that incoming, photochemically active photons were absorbed in the water column. This resulted in a linear positive relationship between DIC photoproduction and the incoming photon flux, which corresponds to the absorbed photons. Therefore, the slope of the regression line represents the wavelength- and depth-integrated apparent quantum yield of DIC photoproduction. We used this relationship to obtain a first estimate of DIC photoproduction in lakes and reservoirs worldwide. Global DIC photoproduction amounted to 13 and 35 Mt C yr-1 under overcast and clear sky, respectively. Consequently, these directly sunlight-induced CO2 emissions contribute up to about one tenth to the global CO2 emissions from lakes and reservoirs, corroborating that microbial respiration contributes a substantially larger share than formerly thought, and generate annual C fluxes similar in

  14. Pacific white shrimp culture in inland ponds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei), a tropical species grown throughout Latin America and now introduced into Asia, adapts to and grows well in low-salinity water. Pond culture of L. vannamei has expanded to inland regions across the southern US where low-salinity ground water is availa...

  15. Distribution and altitude of the top of saline ground water in the southeastern coastal plain

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lee, Roger W.; DeJarnette, Sydney S.; Barker, Rene A.

    1986-01-01

    A map prepared by the U.S. Geological Survey shows the approximate distribution of saline water (greater than 10,000 mg/L as NaCl) in the Southeastern Coastal Plain. The primary distribution of saline water is in Cretaceous sediments and may be characterized as an extensive body of fluid whose upper surface generally slopes upward from inland toward coastal areas. Some freshwater appears to occupy parts of the deeper water-bearing zones in Georgia. A small amount of saline water appears to occupy a narrow upper zone of limited extent in lower Tertiary sediments in Georgia and parts of South Carolina. The freshwater-saline water interface for the lower zone lies offshore, east of the South Carolina coast. Consequently, the saline water distribution is inferred offshore. (USGS)

  16. SARAL/Altika for inland water: current and potential applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarpanelli, Angelica; Brocca, Luca; Barbetta, Silvia; Moramarco, Tommaso; Santos da Silva, Joécila; Calmant, Stephane

    2015-04-01

    Although representing less than 1% of the total amount of water on Earth the freshwater is essential for terrestrial life and human needs. Over one third of the world's population is not served by adequate supplies of clean water and for this reason freshwater wars are becoming one of the most pressing environmental issues exacerbating the already difficult tensions between the riparian nations. Notwithstanding the foregoing, we have surprisingly poor knowledge of the spatial and temporal dynamics of surface discharge. In-situ gauging networks quantify the instantaneous water volume in the main river channels but provide few information about the spatial dynamics of surface water extent, such as floodplain flows and the dynamics of wetlands. The growing reduction of hydrometric monitoring networks over the world, along with the inaccessibility of many remote areas and the difficulties for data sharing among developing countries feed the need to develop new procedures for river discharge estimation based on remote sensing technology. The major challenge in this case is the possibility of using Earth Observation data without ground measurements. Radar altimeters are a valuable tool to retrieve hydrological information from space such as water level of inland water. More than a decade of research on the application of radar altimetry has demonstrated its advantages also for monitoring continental water, providing global coverage and regular temporal sampling. The high accuracy of altimetry data provided by the latest spatial missions and the convincing results obtained in the previous applications suggest that these data may be employed for hydraulic/hydrological applications as well. If used in synergy with the modeling, the potential benefits of the altimetry measurements can grow significantly. The new SARAL French-Indian mission, providing improvements in terms of vertical accuracy and spatial resolution of the onboard altimeter Altika, can offer a great

  17. Organic carbon decomposition rates controlled by water retention time across inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Catalán, Núria; Marcé, Rafael; Kothawala, Dolly N.; Tranvik, Lars. J.

    2016-07-01

    The loss of organic carbon during passage through the continuum of inland waters from soils to the sea is a critical component of the global carbon cycle. Yet, the amount of organic carbon mineralized and released to the atmosphere during its transport remains an open question, hampered by the absence of a common predictor of organic carbon decay rates. Here we analyse a compilation of existing field and laboratory measurements of organic carbon decay rates and water residence times across a wide range of aquatic ecosystems and climates. We find a negative relationship between the rate of organic carbon decay and water retention time across systems, entailing a decrease in organic carbon reactivity along the continuum of inland waters. We find that the half-life of organic carbon is short in inland waters (2.5 +/- 4.7 yr) compared to terrestrial soils and marine ecosystems, highlighting that freshwaters are hotspots of organic carbon degradation. Finally, we evaluate the response of organic carbon decay rates to projected changes in runoff. We calculate that regions projected to become drier or wetter as the global climate warms will experience changes in organic carbon decay rates of up to about 10%, which illustrates the influence of hydrological variability on the inland waters carbon cycle.

  18. Occurrence, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of Aeromonas spp. in marine species of shrimps cultured at inland low salinity ponds.

    PubMed

    Yano, Yutaka; Hamano, Kaoru; Tsutsui, Isao; Aue-Umneoy, Dusit; Ban, Masatoshi; Satomi, Masataka

    2015-05-01

    We aimed to document the risk of Aeromonas spp. in marine shrimp species cultured in inland low salinity ponds in Thailand. In 14 of 18 shrimp samples retrieved from inland grow-up ponds, Aeromonas spp. were detected at ranges from 4667 to 1,500,000 CFU/g body weight. The phylogenetic tree constructed with the gyrB and cpn60 concatenated sequences indicated that the 87 isolates consisted of Aeromonas veronii (70%), Aeromonas aquariorum (18%), Aeromonas caviae (7%), Aeromonas jandaei (2%), and Aeromonas schubertii (2%). The potential virulence of the isolates was examined by phenotypic and PCR assays. Hemolytic activity and the extracellular activity of lipase, DNase, and gelatinase were observed in most isolates (94-99%). PCR revealed the presence of 9 genes related to virulence in the 87 isolates: act (75%), aer (74%), alt (30%), ast (1%), ascV (34%), aexT (24%), fla (92%), ela (34%), and lip (24%). The susceptibility profiles to 14 antimicrobial agents of isolates were typical for the genus, but resistance to cefotaxime, a third-generation cephalosporin, and imipenem were found in two A. aquariorum and in three A. veronii isolates, respectively. These resistances were confirmed by determining minimum inhibitory concentrations. Our results indicate that the microbiological risk posed by Aeromonas should be considered for marine shrimp species that are cultured in low-salinity ponds. These shrimps may also be a vehicle for the transfer of different genotypes of Aeromonas and antibiotic-resistant determinants to regions worldwide through trade. PMID:25583334

  19. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring.

    PubMed

    Davis, J Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half. PMID:24138490

  20. Groundwater flow cycling between a submarine spring and an inland fresh water spring

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Davis, J. Hal; Verdi, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Spring Creek Springs and Wakulla Springs are large first magnitude springs that derive water from the Upper Floridan Aquifer. The submarine Spring Creek Springs are located in a marine estuary and Wakulla Springs are located 18 km inland. Wakulla Springs has had a consistent increase in flow from the 1930s to the present. This increase is probably due to the rising sea level, which puts additional pressure head on the submarine Spring Creek Springs, reducing its fresh water flow and increasing flows in Wakulla Springs. To improve understanding of the complex relations between these springs, flow and salinity data were collected from June 25, 2007 to June 30, 2010. The flow in Spring Creek Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and salt water intrusion, and the flow in Wakulla Springs was most sensitive to rainfall and the flow in Spring Creek Springs. Flows from the springs were found to be connected, and composed of three repeating phases in a karst spring flow cycle: Phase 1 occurred during low rainfall periods and was characterized by salt water backflow into the Spring Creek Springs caves. The higher density salt water blocked fresh water flow and resulted in a higher equivalent fresh water head in Spring Creek Springs than in Wakulla Springs. The blocked fresh water was diverted to Wakulla Springs, approximately doubling its flow. Phase 2 occurred when heavy rainfall resulted in temporarily high creek flows to nearby sinkholes that purged the salt water from the Spring Creek Springs caves. Phase 3 occurred after streams returned to base flow. The Spring Creek Springs caves retained a lower equivalent fresh water head than Wakulla Springs, causing them to flow large amounts of fresh water while Wakulla Springs flow was reduced by about half.

  1. DNA Barcoding Green Microalgae Isolated from Neotropical Inland Waters

    PubMed Central

    Hadi, Sámed I. I. A.; Santana, Hugo; Brunale, Patrícia P. M.; Gomes, Taísa G.; Oliveira, Márcia D.; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Oliveira, Marcos E. C.; Silva, Flávia C. P.; Brasil, Bruno S. A. F.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Large subunit gene (rbcL) and the Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the nuclear rDNA (nuITS1 and nuITS2) markers for identifying a very diverse, albeit poorly known group, of green microalgae from neotropical inland waters. Fifty-one freshwater green microalgae strains isolated from Brazil, the largest biodiversity reservoir in the neotropics, were submitted to DNA barcoding. Currently available universal primers for ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplification were sufficient to successfully amplify and sequence 47 (92%) of the samples. On the other hand, new sets of primers had to be designed for rbcL, which allowed 96% of the samples to be sequenced. Thirty-five percent of the strains could be unambiguously identified to the species level based either on nuITS1 or nuITS2 sequences’ using barcode gap calculations. nuITS2 Compensatory Base Change (CBC) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region phylogenetic analysis, together with morphological inspection, confirmed the identification accuracy. In contrast, only 6% of the strains could be assigned to the correct species based solely on rbcL sequences. In conclusion, the data presented here indicates that either nuITS1 or nuITS2 are useful markers for DNA barcoding of freshwater green microalgae, with advantage for nuITS2 due to the larger availability of analytical tools and reference barcodes deposited at databases for this marker. PMID:26900844

  2. DNA Barcoding Green Microalgae Isolated from Neotropical Inland Waters.

    PubMed

    Hadi, Sámed I I A; Santana, Hugo; Brunale, Patrícia P M; Gomes, Taísa G; Oliveira, Márcia D; Matthiensen, Alexandre; Oliveira, Marcos E C; Silva, Flávia C P; Brasil, Bruno S A F

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the feasibility of using the Ribulose Bisphosphate Carboxylase Large subunit gene (rbcL) and the Internal Transcribed Spacers 1 and 2 of the nuclear rDNA (nuITS1 and nuITS2) markers for identifying a very diverse, albeit poorly known group, of green microalgae from neotropical inland waters. Fifty-one freshwater green microalgae strains isolated from Brazil, the largest biodiversity reservoir in the neotropics, were submitted to DNA barcoding. Currently available universal primers for ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region amplification were sufficient to successfully amplify and sequence 47 (92%) of the samples. On the other hand, new sets of primers had to be designed for rbcL, which allowed 96% of the samples to be sequenced. Thirty-five percent of the strains could be unambiguously identified to the species level based either on nuITS1 or nuITS2 sequences' using barcode gap calculations. nuITS2 Compensatory Base Change (CBC) and ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 region phylogenetic analysis, together with morphological inspection, confirmed the identification accuracy. In contrast, only 6% of the strains could be assigned to the correct species based solely on rbcL sequences. In conclusion, the data presented here indicates that either nuITS1 or nuITS2 are useful markers for DNA barcoding of freshwater green microalgae, with advantage for nuITS2 due to the larger availability of analytical tools and reference barcodes deposited at databases for this marker. PMID:26900844

  3. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-11-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to -25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 104 to 8.5 × 109 copies g-1), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments.

  4. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to −25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 104 to 8.5 × 109 copies g−1), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments. PMID:26522086

  5. Species, Abundance and Function of Ammonia-oxidizing Archaea in Inland Waters across China.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Shanyun; Zou, Yuxuan; Xia, Chao; Zhu, Guibing

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia oxidation is the first step in nitrification and was thought to be performed solely by specialized bacteria. The discovery of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) changed this view. We examined the large scale and spatio-temporal occurrence, abundance and role of AOA throughout Chinese inland waters (n = 28). Molecular survey showed that AOA was ubiquitous in inland waters. The existence of AOA in extreme acidic, alkaline, hot, cold, eutrophic and oligotrophic environments expanded the tolerance limits of AOA, especially their known temperature tolerance to -25 °C, and substrate load to 42.04 mM. There were spatio-temporal divergences of AOA community structure in inland waters, and the diversity of AOA in inland water ecosystems was high with 34 observed species-level operational taxonomic units (OTUs; based on a 15% cutoff) distributed widely in group I.1b, I.1a, and I.1a-associated. The abundance of AOA was quite high (8.5 × 10(4) to 8.5 × 10(9) copies g(-1)), and AOA outnumbered ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) in the inland waters where little human activities were involved. On the whole AOB predominate the ammonia oxidation rate over AOA in inland water ecosystems, and AOA play an indispensable role in global nitrogen cycle considering that AOA occupy a broader habitat range than AOB, especially in extreme environments. PMID:26522086

  6. Absorption characteristics of optically complex inland waters: Implications for water optical classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Kun; Li, Yunmei; Li, Lin; Lu, Heng

    2013-06-01

    Multiple bio-optical measurements were conducted in inland waters of China, including Lake Taihu [spring and autumn], Lake Chaohu, Lake Dianchi, and Three Gorges Reservoirs. The variations in the absorption characteristics of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), phytoplankton, and non-algal particles (NAP) and their relative contributions to total absorption among these waters were analyzed. The obtained results indicated that these areas are representative of the optically complex inland waters characterized by strong regional variations of their absorption properties. By means of the relative contributions of NAP and phytoplankton to the total water absorption at 550 and 675 nm, these waters were classified into three optical water types, each one having specific biogeochemical and optical properties. Two of the types were distinct and corresponded to waters that are optically controlled by NAP (Type I) and dominated by phytoplankton (Type III). Type II was related to relatively optically mixed waters where the absorption properties are controlled by NAP and phytoplankton. Additionally, the differences in remote-sensing reflectance (Rrs) spectra among the three classified water types were clarified to establish optical criteria for identifying these water types. On this basis, the classification criteria for MERIS images were developed, which allowed one to cluster every Rrs spectrum into one of the three water types by comparing the values from band 6, band 8, and band 9 of MERIS images. The proposed criteria were subsequently conducted to map the water types of Lake Taihu using MERIS images.

  7. Wet Tropospheric Corrections over Inland Water- Getting Ready for Sentinel-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandes, M. Joana; Lazaro, Clara

    2015-12-01

    This study addresses the problems associated to the retrieval of the wet tropospheric correction (WTC) for Sentinel-3 over inland water regions. Based on the experience acquired with the development of algorithms to improve the WTC retrieval over the open and coastal ocean, applied to the main altimetric missions, techniques for the estimation of improved WTC for Sentinel-3 over inland waters are being developed at the University of Porto (U.Porto). The potential of these techniques to generate continuous altimeter profiles over inland waters are illustrated with Envisat data over Lake Victoria (Africa). First results show that improved continuous WTC can be obtained, preserving the good MWR values, leading to a decrease in the water surface anomaly variance both with respect to the baseline MWR-derived WTC and ERA Interim model.

  8. The spectral signature analysis of inland and coastal water bodies acquired from field spectroradiometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papoutsa, Christiana; Akylas, Evangelos; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos

    2013-08-01

    The main goal of this research is to examine the optical properties of different water bodies such as coastal water; oligotrophic and eutrophic inland water by observing their spectral signatures. Spectral profiles of sampling points, which correspond to water bodies with different water quality characteristics, are extracted and analyzed. Field spectroscopy is a very important tool giving critical information for the comprehension of spectral signatures of different water bodies. Field spectroradiometric measurements can assist to improve or develop new algorithms and methodology enables to classify several water bodies according to their water quality characteristics using remotely sensed data. Field spectroradiometric data presented at this study were obtained for inland water in Asprokremmos Dam, Paphos District/Cyprus; in Larnaca's Salt Lake, Larnaca District/Cyprus; and in Karla Lake, Volos District/Greece and for coastal water in Zugi-Vasilikos-Old Harbour, Limassol District/Cyprus.

  9. Soil and Water Conservation Challenges for Agriculture in the Inland Pacific Northwest

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Soil and water conservation has been a major concern in the Inland Pacific Northwest since the onset of farming 125 years ago. Some of the highest historic water erosion rates in the USA have occurred on steep slopes in the Palouse region where soil loss averaged 45 Mg ha-1 yr-1 and could reach 450...

  10. Climate change in Brazil: perspective on the biogeochemistry of inland waters.

    PubMed

    Roland, F; Huszar, V L M; Farjalla, Vf; Enrich-Prast, A; Amado, A M; Ometto, J P H B

    2012-08-01

    Although only a small amount of the Earth's water exists as continental surface water bodies, this compartment plays an important role in the biogeochemical cycles connecting the land to the atmosphere. The territory of Brazil encompasses a dense river net and enormous number of shallow lakes. Human actions have been heavily influenced by the inland waters across the country. Both biodiversity and processes in the water are strongly driven by seasonal fluvial forces and/or precipitation. These macro drivers are sensitive to climate changes. In addition to their crucial importance to humans, inland waters are extremely rich ecosystems, harboring high biodiversity, promoting landscape equilibrium (connecting ecosystems, maintaining animal and plant flows in the landscape, and transferring mass, nutrients and inocula), and controlling regional climates through hydrological-cycle feedback. In this contribution, we describe the aquatic ecological responses to climate change in a conceptual perspective, and we then analyze the possible climate-change scenarios in different regions in Brazil. We also indentify some potential biogeochemical signals in running waters, natural lakes and man-made impoundments. The possible future changes in climate and aquatic ecosystems in Brazil are highly uncertain. Inland waters are pressured by local environmental changes because of land uses, landscape fragmentation, damming and diversion of water bodies, urbanization, wastewater load, and level of pollutants can alter biogeochemical patterns in inland waters over a shorter term than can climate changes. In fact, many intense environmental changes may enhance the effects of changes in climate. Therefore, the maintenance of key elements within the landscape and avoiding extreme perturbation in the systems are urgent to maintain the sustainability of Brazilian inland waters, in order to prevent more catastrophic future events. PMID:23011300

  11. Plumbing the global carbon cycle: Integrating inland waters into the terrestrial carbon budget

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cole, J.J.; Prairie, Y.T.; Caraco, N.F.; McDowell, W.H.; Tranvik, L.J.; Striegl, R.G.; Duarte, C.M.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Downing, J.A.; Middelburg, J.J.; Melack, J.

    2007-01-01

    Because freshwater covers such a small fraction of the Earth's surface area, inland freshwater ecosystems (particularly lakes, rivers, and reservoirs) have rarely been considered as potentially important quantitative components of the carbon cycle at either global or regional scales. By taking published estimates of gas exchange, sediment accumulation, and carbon transport for a variety of aquatic systems, we have constructed a budget for the role of inland water ecosystems in the global carbon cycle. Our analysis conservatively estimates that inland waters annually receive, from a combination of background and anthropogenically altered sources, on the order of 1.9 Pg C y-1 from the terrestrial landscape, of which about 0.2 is buried in aquatic sediments, at least 0.8 (possibly much more) is returned to the atmosphere as gas exchange while the remaining 0.9 Pg y-1 is delivered to the oceans, roughly equally as inorganic and organic carbon. Thus, roughly twice as much C enters inland aquatic systems from land as is exported from land to the sea. Over prolonged time net carbon fluxes in aquatic systems tend to be greater per unit area than in much of the surrounding land. Although their area is small, these freshwater aquatic systems can affect regional C balances. Further, the inclusion of inland, freshwater ecosystems provides useful insight about the storage, oxidation and transport of terrestrial C, and may warrant a revision of how the modern net C sink on land is described. ?? 2007 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  12. Inland marine fish culture in low-salinity recirculating aquaculture systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Expansion of marine aquaculture is challenged by the high cost and limited availability of coastal land and water resources, effluent concerns, high production costs, restricted growing seasons, lack of quality seedstock, and inadequate regulatory and permitting processes. Many of these constraints...

  13. Relationships between groundwater, surface water, and soil salinity in Polder 32, Southwest Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fry, D. C.; Ayers, J. C.

    2014-12-01

    In the coastal areas of Southwest Bangladesh polders are surrounded by tidal channels filled with brackish water. In the wet season, farmers create openings in the embankments to irrigate rice paddies. In the dry season, farmers do the same to create saline shrimp ponds. Residents on Polder 32, located within the Ganges-Brahmaputra-Meghna delta system, practice these seasonal farming techniques. Soils in the area are entisols, being sediment recently deposited, and contain mostly silt-sized particles. Brackish water in brine shrimp ponds may deposit salt in the soil, causing soil salinization. However, saline connate groundwater could also be contributing to soil salinization. Groundwater, surface water (fresh water pond, rice paddy and tidal channel water) and soil samples have been analyzed via inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy, inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy and ion chromatography in an attempt to correlate salinity measurements with each other in order to determine major sources of soil salinity. Multiple parameters, including distances of samples from tidal channels, inland streams, shrimp ponds and tube wells were measured to see if spatial correlations exist. Similarly, values from wet and dry seasons were compared to quantify temporal variations. Salt content in many soil samples were found to be high enough to significantly decrease rice yields. Continued soil salinization can decrease these yields even more, leading to farmers not producing enough food to sustain their families.

  14. Sensitivity of a GCM simulation to inclusion of inland water surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Bonan, G.B.

    1995-11-01

    A land surface model that includes a subgrid parameterization for inland water (lake, swamp, marsh) was coupled to a modified version of the NCAR CCM2. The coupled model was run for 5 yr with and without inland water subgrid points to determine the importance of inland water for global climate simulation. In July, the inclusion of these water bodies resulted in a spatially consistent signal in which high inland water regions were 2{degrees}-3{degrees}C cooler, had increased latent heat flux (10-45 W m{sup -2}), and decreased sensible heat flux (5-30 W m{sup -2}) compared to the simulation without these water bodies. These changes were statistically significant in the lake region of northwest Canada, the Great Lakes region of North America, the swamp and marsh region of the Siberian lowlands, and the lake region of East Africa, but were not significantly different in the swamp and marsh region of Finland and northwest Russia. The effect on Northern Hemisphere January air temperature was difficult to interpret due to large interannual variability. In tropical lake regions (East Africa), the response to lakes was less in the rainy season (January) than in the dry season (July). Precipitation was unchanged in both months except for the Great Lakes region where precipitation increased in January. These changes in temperature, precipitation, and surface fluxes were consistent with mesoscale modeling studies of the effects of lakes on climate and tended to bring the model closer to observations. In particular, the summer cooling in North America helped reduce a large warm temperature bias in the model, but did not eliminate the bias. The lakes had little effect on atmospheric moisture, radiation, or zonal circulation. These results show that subgrid-scale inland water bodies can be successfully added to global land surface models for use with GCMs. 35 refs., 7 figs., 7 tabs.

  15. Inland Waters Night Lighting Configurations: A Navigation Rules Course for Coast Guard Auxiliarists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Griffiths, Gregory Peter

    A project developed a training program to teach boaters to recognize and interpret properly the lights of other vessels in nighttime or other reduced visibility conditions in the inland waters of the United States. The project followed the Instructional Systems Design model in the development of the course. The target population were members of…

  16. Incorporation of salinity in Water Availability Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wurbs, Ralph A.; Lee, Chihun

    2011-10-01

    SummaryNatural salt pollution from geologic formations in the upper watersheds of several large river basins in the Southwestern United States severely constrains the use of otherwise available major water supply sources. The Water Rights Analysis Package modeling system has been routinely applied in Texas since the late 1990s in regional and statewide planning studies and administration of the state's water rights permit system, but without consideration of water quality. The modeling system was recently expanded to incorporate salinity considerations in assessments of river/reservoir system capabilities for supplying water for environmental, municipal, agricultural, and industrial needs. Salinity loads and concentrations are tracked through systems of river reaches and reservoirs to develop concentration frequency statistics that augment flow frequency and water supply reliability metrics at pertinent locations for alternative water management strategies. Flexible generalized capabilities are developed for using limited observed salinity data to model highly variable concentrations imposed upon complex river regulation infrastructure and institutional water allocation/management practices.

  17. Inland Water Temperature: An Ideal Indicator for the National Climate Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hook, S. J.; Lenters, J. D.; O'Reilly, C.; Healey, N. C.

    2014-12-01

    NASA is a significant contributor to the U.S. National Climate Assessment (NCA), which is a central component of the 2012-2022 U.S. Global Change Research Program Strategic Plan. The NCA has identified the need for indicators that provide a clear, concise way of communicating to NCA audiences about not only the status and trends of physical drivers of the climate system, but also the ecological and socioeconomic impacts, vulnerabilities, and responses to those drivers. We are using thermal infrared satellite data in conjunction with in situ measurements to produce water temperatures for all the large inland water bodies in North America for potential use as an indicator for the NCA. Recent studies have revealed significant warming of inland waters throughout the world. The observed rate of warming is - in many cases - greater than that of the ambient air temperature. These rapid, unprecedented changes in inland water temperatures have profound implications for lake hydrodynamics, productivity, and biotic communities. Scientists are just beginning to understand the global extent, regional patterns, physical mechanisms, and ecological consequences of lake warming. As part of our earlier studies we have collected thermal infrared satellite data from those satellite sensors that provide long-term and frequent spaceborne thermal infrared measurements of inland waters including ATSR, AVHRR, and MODIS and used these to examine trends in water surface temperature for approximately 100 of the largest inland water bodies in the world. We are now extending this work to generate temperature time-series of all North American inland water bodies that are sufficiently large to be studied using 1km resolution satellite data for the last 3 decades. These data are then being related to changes in the surface air temperature and compared with regional trends in water surface temperature derived from CMIP5/IPCC model simulations/projections to better predict future temperature changes

  18. Evaluating Radiometric Sensitivity of LandSat 8 Over Coastal-Inland Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pahlevan, Nima; Wei, Jian-Wei; Shaaf, Crystal B.; Schott, John R.

    2014-01-01

    The operational Land Imager (OLI) aboard Landsat 8 was launched in February 2013 to continue the Landsat's mission of monitoring earth resources at relatively high spatial resolution. Compared to Landsat heritage sensors, OLI has an additional 443-nm band (termed coastal/aerosol (CA) band), which extends its potential for mapping/monitoring water quality in coastal/inland waters. In addition, OLI's pushbroom design allows for longer integration time and, as a result, higher signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). Using a series of radiative transfer simulations, we provide insights into the radiometric sensitivity of OLI when studying coastal/inland waters. This will address how the changes in water constituents manifest at top-of-atmosphere (TOA) and whether the changes are resolvable at TOA (focal plane) relative to OLI's overall noise.

  19. Large contribution to inland water CO2 and CH4 emissions from very small ponds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holgerson, Meredith A.; Raymond, Peter A.

    2016-03-01

    Inland waters are an important component of the global carbon cycle. Although they contribute to greenhouse gas emissions, estimates of carbon processing in these waters are uncertain. The global extent of very small ponds, with surface areas of less than 0.001 km2, is particularly difficult to map, resulting in their exclusion from greenhouse gas budget estimates. Here we combine estimates of the lake and pond global size distribution, gas exchange rates, and measurements of carbon dioxide and methane concentrations from 427 lakes and ponds ranging in surface area from 2.5 m2 to 674 km2. We estimate that non-running inland waters release 0.583 Pg C yr-1. Very small ponds comprise 8.6% of lakes and ponds by area globally, but account for 15.1% of CO2 emissions and 40.6% of diffusive CH4 emissions. In terms of CO2 equivalence, the ratio of CO2 to CH4 flux increases with surface area, from about 1.5 in very small ponds to about 19 in large lakes. The high fluxes from very small ponds probably result from shallow waters, high sediment and edge to water volume ratios, and frequent mixing. These attributes increase CO2 and CH4 supersaturation in the water and limit efficient methane oxidation. We conclude that very small ponds represent an important inland water carbon flux.

  20. An Investigation of Summertime Inland Water Body Temperatures in California and Nevada (USA): Recent Trends and Future Projections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, Nathan; Hook, Simon; Piccolroaz, Sebastiano; Toffolon, Marco; Radocinski, Robert

    2016-04-01

    Inland water body temperature has been identified as an ideal indicator of potential climate change. Understanding inland water body temperature trends is important for forecasting impacts to limnological, biological, and hydrological resources. Many inland water bodies are situated in remote locations with incomplete data records of in-situ monitoring or lack in-situ observations altogether. Thus, the utilization of satellite data is essential for understanding the behavior of global inland water body temperatures. Part of this research provides an analysis of summertime (July-September) temperature trends in the largest California/Nevada (USA) inland water bodies between 1991 and 2015. We examine satellite temperature retrievals from ATSR (ATSR-1, ATSR-2, AATSR), MODIS (Terra and Aqua), and VIIRS sensors. Our findings indicate that inland water body temperatures in the western United States were rapidly warming between 1991 and 2009, but since then trends have been decreasing. This research also includes implementation of a model called air2water to predict future inland water body surface temperature through the sole input of air temperature. Using projections from CMIP5-CCSM4 output, our model indicates that Lake Tahoe (USA) is expected to experience an increase of roughly 3 °C by 2100.

  1. Provenance of Corexit-related chemical constituents found in nearshore and inland Gulf Coast waters.

    PubMed

    Hayworth, Joel S; Clement, T Prabakhar

    2012-10-01

    The dispersants Corexit 9527 and Corexit 9500 were extensively used during the response to the Deepwater Horizon accident in 2010. In addition to the monitoring programs established by federal and state governments, local communities also conducted studies to determine if chemical constituents from these dispersants impacted nearshore and inland waters. One community (the City of Orange Beach, Alabama) collected water samples between September, 2010 and January, 2011, and found the dispersant-related chemicals propylene glycol, 2-butoxyethanol, and dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate at nearshore and inland water sampling sites. In this paper, we examine their dataset in an attempt to discern the origin of these chemicals. Our assessment indicates that these compounds are unlikely to be present as a result of the use of Corexit dispersants; rather, they are likely related to point and non-point source stormwater discharge. PMID:22959174

  2. Remote measurement and monitoring of inland water heights using multi-mission satellite radar altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jerome

    The effective management of the Earth's inland water is a major challenge facing scientists and governments worldwide. However, whilst demand for this often scarce resource continues to grow, the number and distribution of in-situ hydrological gauge stations is steadily falling and many catchments basins in the developing world are now entirely ungauged. Over the past few years research has been undertaken into a spacebased technique which can remotely measure river and lake heights using data from the series of satellite radar altimeters, originally designed to measure the height of the Earth's oceans. Results over inland water were initially confined to a handful of very large lakes, where the water surface resembled the ocean sufficiently well to allow existing processing techniques to retrieve meaningful measurements. This capability has now been transformed by the development of echo processing techniques which allow that part of the returned signal originating from inland water to be separated from the return from the surrounding terrain. This has extended the scope of this technique to monitoring thousands of river and lake heights worldwide, with the access to more than a decade of historical data now permitting analysis of trends and identification of climate signatures. This paper presents analyses of 15 years of altimeter data using results from hundreds of time series from ERS-2, EnviSat, TOPEX and Jason-1 to demonstrate the effectiveness of this technique in monitoring river and lake heights on a continental scale. The extension of this technique to near real time monitoring using data from the Envisat RA-2 is also presented. The results illustrate the current capability and future potential of this approach to derive a global picture of the Earth's inland water resources and to identify both climate signatures and regions where human usage is depleting the resource beyond its capacity to recharge.

  3. Carbon dioxide fluxes associated with synoptic weather events over a southern inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, H.; Zhang, Q.; Gao, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Evidence indicates that inland waters play an important role in regional and global carbon budget through releasing a substantial carbon into the atmosphere. To better quantify how environmental variables affect CO2 exchange between inland waters and the atmosphere and its temporal variations, we have conducted direct, long-term measurements of CO2 fluxes across the water-atmosphere interface over a large southern open water of Ross Barnett Reservoir in central Mississippi. Our data indicate that large CO2 flux pulses occurred occasionally throughout the course of a year with the duration of a few days for each pulse. Here we analyzed and demonstrated that these CO2 flux pulses were associated with the passages of synoptic weather events. Our preliminary results indicated that these synoptic weather events (e.g., extratropical clones and cold air bursts) led to the enhanced mechanical mixing due to increasing wind speeds and the instability of the atmospheric surface layer due to the decreasing air temperature. As a consequence, in-water processes were also substantially altered accordingly. Due to the dramatic decrease in air temperature caused by the events, the temperature in the water surface layer was largely reduced, generating in-water convection conditions and thus leading to the increased depths of the mixing layer in the water, as reflected by the water temperature profiles. The enhanced mechanical mixing in the atmospheric surface layer may have further contributed to the deepened mixing layer in the water. Our suggestions suggest that high CO2 effluxes during the pulse events were largely attributed to changes in the water-side physical processes that are directly linked to rapid changes in atmospheric processes associated with synoptic weather events. Given its substantial contribution of CO2 flux pulses to carbon emission, such physical processes should be taken into account when carbon emissions from inland waters are quantified.

  4. Inland Water Quality Assessment--A Joint European Masters Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waara, K. -O.; Petersen, A.; Lanaras, T.; Paulauskas, V.; Kleiven, S.; Crosa, G.; Penttinen, O. -P.; Quesada, A.; Kovats, N.; Galinou-Mitsoudi, S.; Lapinska, M.; Newton, A.; Balode, M.; Hindak, F.; Marsalek, B.

    2006-01-01

    At present, there is a European shortage of personnel qualified to adequately address the comprehensive scientific and regulatory requirements of the Water Framework Directive (WFD). The joint Masters programme described in this paper will provide students with the requisite expert knowledge and skills to progress the implementation of the WFD.…

  5. [Ecophysiological adaptability of tropical water organisms to salinity changes].

    PubMed

    Chung, K S

    2001-03-01

    Physiological response of tropical organisms to salinity changes was studied for some marine, estuarine and freshwater fishes (Astyanax bimaculatus, Petenia karussii, Cyprinodon dearborni, and Oreochromis mossambicus), marine and freshwater crustaceans (Penaeus brasiliensis, Penaeus schmitti and Macrobrachium carcinus), and marine bivalves (Perna perna, Crassostrea rhizophorae, and Arca zebra) collected from Northeast Venezuela. They were acclimated for four weeks at various salinities, and (1) placed at high salinities to determine mean lethal salinity, (2) tested by increasing salinity 5@1000 per day to define upper lethal salinity tolerance limit, or (3) observed in a saline gradient tank to determine salinity preference. Acclimation level was the most significant factor. This phenomenon is important for tropical aquatic organisms in shallow waters, where they can adapt to high salinity during the dry season and cannot lose their acclimation level at low salinity during abrupt rain. For saline adaptation of tropical organisms, this behavior will contribute to their proliferation and distribution in fluctuating salinity environments. PMID:11795174

  6. Water table salinization due to seawater intrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badaruddin, Sugiarto; Werner, Adrian D.; Morgan, Leanne K.

    2015-10-01

    Seawater intrusion (SWI) is a significant threat to freshwater resources in coastal aquifers around the world. Previous studies have focused on SWI impacts involving salinization of the lower domain of coastal aquifers. However, under certain conditions, SWI may cause salinization of the entire saturated zone of the aquifer, leading to water table salinization (WTS) in unconfined aquifers by replacing freshwater within the upper region of the saturated zone with seawater, thereby posing a salinity threat to the overlying soil zone. There is presently limited guidance on the extent to which WTS may occur as a secondary impact of SWI. In this study, physical experiments and numerical modeling were used to explore WTS associated with SWI in various nontidal, unconfined coastal aquifer settings. Laboratory experiments and corresponding numerical simulations show that significant WTS can occur under active SWI (i.e., the freshwater hydraulic gradient slopes toward the land) because the cessation of freshwater discharge to the sea and the subsequent landward flow across the entire sea boundary eventually lead to water table salinities approaching seawater concentration. WTS during active SWI is larger under conditions of high hydraulic conductivity, rapid SWI, high dispersivity and for deeper aquifers. Numerical modeling of four published field cases demonstrates that rates of WTS of up to 60 m/yr are plausible. Under passive SWI (i.e., the hydraulic gradient slopes toward the sea), minor WTS may arise as a result of dispersive processes under certain conditions (i.e., high dispersivity and hydraulic conductivity, and low freshwater discharge). Our results show that WTS is probably widespread in coastal aquifers experiencing considerable groundwater decline sustained over several years, although further evidence is needed to identify WTS under field settings.

  7. DAHITI - An Innovative Approach for Estimating Water Level Time Series over Inland Water using Multi-Mission Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, Christian; Dettmering, Denise

    2016-04-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, for some years, this technology has also been used to retrieve water levels from lakes, reservoirs, rivers, wetlands and in general any inland water body. In this contribution, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is presented. The method is the basis for the computation of time series of rivers and lakes available through the web service 'Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Water' (DAHITI). It is based on an extended outlier rejection and a Kalman filter approach incorporating cross-calibrated multi-mission altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, Topex/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa, including their uncertainties. The new approach yields RMS differences with respect to in situ data between 4 cm and 36 cm for lakes and 8 cm and 114 cm for rivers, respectively. Within this presentation, the new approach will be introduced and examples for water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers will be shown featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparisons with in situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases.

  8. DAHITI - an innovative approach for estimating water level time series over inland waters using multi-mission satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, C.; Dettmering, D.; Bosch, W.; Seitz, F.

    2015-10-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, for some years, this technology has also been used to retrieve water levels from reservoirs, wetlands and in general any inland water body, although the radar altimetry technique has been especially applied to rivers and lakes. In this paper, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is described. It is used for the computation of time series of rivers and lakes available through the web service "Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Waters" (DAHITI). The new method is based on an extended outlier rejection and a Kalman filter approach incorporating cross-calibrated multi-mission altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, TOPEX/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa, including their uncertainties. The paper presents water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers in North and South America featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparisons with in situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases. The new approach yields rms differences with respect to in situ data between 4 and 36 cm for lakes and 8 and 114 cm for rivers. For most study cases, more accurate height information than from other available altimeter databases can be achieved.

  9. An improved atmospheric correction algorithm for applying MERIS data to very turbid inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaelani, Lalu Muhamad; Matsushita, Bunkei; Yang, Wei; Fukushima, Takehiko

    2015-07-01

    Atmospheric correction (AC) is a necessary process when quantitatively monitoring water quality parameters from satellite data. However, it is still a major challenge to carry out AC for turbid coastal and inland waters. In this study, we propose an improved AC algorithm named N-GWI (new standard Gordon and Wang's algorithms with an iterative process and a bio-optical model) for applying MERIS data to very turbid inland waters (i.e., waters with a water-leaving reflectance at 864.8 nm between 0.001 and 0.01). The N-GWI algorithm incorporates three improvements to avoid certain invalid assumptions that limit the applicability of the existing algorithms in very turbid inland waters. First, the N-GWI uses a fixed aerosol type (coastal aerosol) but permits aerosol concentration to vary at each pixel; this improvement omits a complicated requirement for aerosol model selection based only on satellite data. Second, it shifts the reference band from 670 nm to 754 nm to validate the assumption that the total absorption coefficient at the reference band can be replaced by that of pure water, and thus can avoid the uncorrected estimation of the total absorption coefficient at the reference band in very turbid waters. Third, the N-GWI generates a semi-analytical relationship instead of an empirical one for estimation of the spectral slope of particle backscattering. Our analysis showed that the N-GWI improved the accuracy of atmospheric correction in two very turbid Asian lakes (Lake Kasumigaura, Japan and Lake Dianchi, China), with a normalized mean absolute error (NMAE) of less than 22% for wavelengths longer than 620 nm. However, the N-GWI exhibited poor performance in moderately turbid waters (the NMAE values were larger than 83.6% in the four American coastal waters). The applicability of the N-GWI, which includes both advantages and limitations, was discussed.

  10. Ubiquitous anaerobic ammonium oxidation in inland waters of China: an overlooked nitrous oxide mitigation process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Guibing; Wang, Shanyun; Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Siyan; Xia, Chao; Wang, Weidong; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Chaoxu; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Yin, Chengqing; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-11-01

    Denitrification has long been regarded as the only pathway for terrestrial nitrogen (N) loss to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that large-scale anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), an overlooked N loss process alternative to denitrification which bypasses nitrous oxide (N2O), is ubiquitous in inland waters of China and contributes significantly to N loss. Anammox rates in aquatic systems show different levels (1.0-975.9 μmol N m-2 h-1, n = 256) with hotspots occurring at oxic-anoxic interfaces and harboring distinct biogeochemical and biogeographical features. Extrapolation of these results to the China-national level shows that anammox could contribute about 2.0 Tg N yr-1, which equals averagely 11.4% of the total N loss from China’s inland waters. Our results indicate that a significant amount of the nitrogen lost from inland waters bypasses denitrification, which is important for constructing more accurate climate models and may significantly reduce potential N2O emission risk at a large scale.

  11. Representation of global inland water heights within the forthcoming ACE2 GDEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benveniste, Jerome; Smith, Richard G.; Berry, Philippa A. M.

    The SRTM dataset provides the first near-global elevation model of the earth's continental land surface at 3" resolution. This unique dataset is currently used for a range of applications. However, there are a number of known quirks and omissions in these data, for example voids over large inland water extents and errors in height attributed to river locations, for example where surrounding tree canopy has been measured. Accordingly, an enhanced full global elevation dataset, ACE2, is currently being developed as an ESA initiative, a follow-on to the highly successful ACE GDEM. This development is utilising over 67 million height measurements (derived from multi-mission satellite radar altimetry using an expert system approach) to validate, error correct and augment the SRTM dataset to derive a full global GDEM at 3 arc second resolution. This paper presents results obtained from a global investigation into the representation of inland water heights within current GDEMs, and demonstrates the potential to include not only accurate mean heights for inland water targets, but also to characterise the temporal variation utilising decadal timeseries obtained from multimission satellite radar altimetry. The first full release of the ACE2 GDEM is scheduled for later this year.

  12. CRUCIAL: Cryosat-2 Success over Inland Water and Land: Full Bit Rate Altimetric Heights and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Philip; Berry, Philippa; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Balmbra, Robert; Dinardo, Salvatore; Lucas, Bruno; Benveniste, Jerome

    2015-04-01

    CRUCIAL is an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from Cryosat-2 with a forward-look component to the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions. The high along-track sampling and resolution of Cryosat-2 altimeter in SAR mode (18 KHz) offers the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over much of the Earth's land surface, enhancing the inland water height retrieval capability. To perform this study we use the samples of SAR Full Bit Rate (FBR) data from Cryosat-2 acquired over a few of these land surfaces; however, for Sentinel-3 the SAR mode will be deployed widely over land. This paper will summarise the CRUCIAL aims and objectives and present the theoretical approach to analysis of the FBR L1A Doppler beams to form a product using ground cell gridding, beam steering and beam stacking from which inland water heights are derivable from the retracked Cryosat-2 altimetric waveforms. Results over the Amazon will use the along-track rms as a measure of consistency across the river with further validation against in situ and other satellite data where possible.

  13. Copepod reproductive strategies: life-history theory, phylogenetic pattern and invasion of inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hairston, Nelson G.; Bohonak, Andrew J.

    1998-06-01

    Life-history theory predicts that different reproductive strategies should evolve in environments that differ in resource availability, mortality, seasonality, and in spatial or temporal variation. Within a population, the predicted optimal strategy is driven by tradeoffs that are mediated by the environment in which the organisms live. At the same time, phylogenetic history may circumscribe natural selection by dictating the range of phenotypes upon which selection can act, or by limiting the range of environments encountered. Comparisons of life-history patterns in related organisms provide a powerful tool for understanding both the nature of selection on life-history characters and the diversity of life-history patterns observed in nature. Here, we explore reproductive strategies of the Copepoda, a well defined group with many phylogenetically independent transitions from free-living to parasitic life styles, from marine to inland waters, and from active development to diapause. Most species are iteroparous annuals, and most (with the exception of some parasitic taxa) develop through a relatively restricted range of life-history stages (nauplii and copepodids, or some modification thereof). Within these bounds, we suggest that there may be a causal relationship between the success of numerous copepod taxa in inland waters and the prevalence of either diapause or parasitism within these groups. We hypothesize that inland waters are more variable spatially and temporally than marine habitats, and accordingly, we interpret diapause and parasitism as mechanisms for coping with environmental variance.

  14. Ubiquitous anaerobic ammonium oxidation in inland waters of China: an overlooked nitrous oxide mitigation process.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guibing; Wang, Shanyun; Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Siyan; Xia, Chao; Wang, Weidong; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Chaoxu; Jetten, Mike S M; Hefting, Mariet M; Yin, Chengqing; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification has long been regarded as the only pathway for terrestrial nitrogen (N) loss to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that large-scale anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), an overlooked N loss process alternative to denitrification which bypasses nitrous oxide (N2O), is ubiquitous in inland waters of China and contributes significantly to N loss. Anammox rates in aquatic systems show different levels (1.0-975.9 μmol N m(-2) h(-1), n = 256) with hotspots occurring at oxic-anoxic interfaces and harboring distinct biogeochemical and biogeographical features. Extrapolation of these results to the China-national level shows that anammox could contribute about 2.0 Tg N yr(-1), which equals averagely 11.4% of the total N loss from China's inland waters. Our results indicate that a significant amount of the nitrogen lost from inland waters bypasses denitrification, which is important for constructing more accurate climate models and may significantly reduce potential N2O emission risk at a large scale. PMID:26610807

  15. Ubiquitous anaerobic ammonium oxidation in inland waters of China: an overlooked nitrous oxide mitigation process

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Guibing; Wang, Shanyun; Zhou, Leiliu; Wang, Yu; Zhao, Siyan; Xia, Chao; Wang, Weidong; Zhou, Rong; Wang, Chaoxu; Jetten, Mike S. M.; Hefting, Mariet M.; Yin, Chengqing; Qu, Jiuhui

    2015-01-01

    Denitrification has long been regarded as the only pathway for terrestrial nitrogen (N) loss to the atmosphere. Here we demonstrate that large-scale anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox), an overlooked N loss process alternative to denitrification which bypasses nitrous oxide (N2O), is ubiquitous in inland waters of China and contributes significantly to N loss. Anammox rates in aquatic systems show different levels (1.0–975.9 μmol N m−2 h−1, n = 256) with hotspots occurring at oxic-anoxic interfaces and harboring distinct biogeochemical and biogeographical features. Extrapolation of these results to the China-national level shows that anammox could contribute about 2.0 Tg N yr−1, which equals averagely 11.4% of the total N loss from China’s inland waters. Our results indicate that a significant amount of the nitrogen lost from inland waters bypasses denitrification, which is important for constructing more accurate climate models and may significantly reduce potential N2O emission risk at a large scale. PMID:26610807

  16. Waveform retracking for improving inland water heights from altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uebbing, Bernd; Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen

    2015-04-01

    For more than two decades, satellite radar altimeters have been providing valuable information on level changes of seas and oceans. In recent years, the usage of satellite altimetry to monitor the water level changes of lakes and rivers, as well as in hydrology applications, has become a topic of rising interest. The altimeter emits a radar pulse, which is reflected at the nadir-surface and measures the two-way travel time, as well as the returned energy as a function of time, resulting in a return waveform. Over the open ocean the waveform shape corresponds to a theoretical model which can be used to infer information on range corrections, significant wave height or wind speed. However, the waveforms over lakes and rivers show patterns which are significantly influenced by signals reflected from land present in the altimeter footprint. This results in a variety of different waveforms shapes ranging from waveforms similar to the theoretical ocean case to completely different ones such as those including only small leading edges and large peaks on the trailing edge. These peaks considerably influence the estimation of the parameters of interest, such as the time origin, connected to the range information, particularly if they are located very close to the leading edge. To mitigate this problem, we present a retracking approach, which combines the advantages of sub-waveform retracking with a flexible waveform model, that allows to model symmetric and asymmetric Gaussian peaks. Based on a preliminary waveform analysis step, a defined window is applied to the total waveform and the parameters are estimated by a flexible fitting procedure. We retracked Topex/Poseidon, Jason-1 and Jason-2 data over several lakes, including the African lakes Volta and Victoria. The inferred lake level heights are evaluated by comparisons to water heights from in situ gauge observations, the Global Reservoir and Lake Monitoring database, as well as those derived from applying conventional

  17. INLAND DISSOLVED SALT CHEMISTRY: STATISTICAL EVALUATION OF BIVARIATE AND TERNARY DIAGRAM MODELS FOR SURFACE AND SUBSURFACE WATERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    We compared the use of ternary and bivariate diagrams to distinguish the effects of atmospheric precipitation, rock weathering, and evaporation on inland surface and subsurface water chemistry. The three processes could not be statistically differentiated using bivariate models e...

  18. Kalman filter approach for estimating water level time series over inland water using multi-mission satellite altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, C.; Dettmering, D.; Bosch, W.; Seitz, F.

    2015-05-01

    Satellite altimetry has been designed for sea level monitoring over open ocean areas. However, since some years, this technology is also used for observing inland water levels of lakes and rivers. In this paper, a new approach for the estimation of inland water level time series is described. It is used for the computation of time series available through the web service "Database for Hydrological Time Series over Inland Water" (DAHITI). The method is based on a Kalman filter approach incorporating multi-mission altimeter observations and their uncertainties. As input data, cross-calibrated altimeter data from Envisat, ERS-2, Jason-1, Jason-2, Topex/Poseidon, and SARAL/AltiKa are used. The paper presents water level time series for a variety of lakes and rivers in North and South America featuring different characteristics such as shape, lake extent, river width, and data coverage. A comprehensive validation is performed by comparison with in-situ gauge data and results from external inland altimeter databases. The new approach yields RMS differences with respect to in-situ data between 4 and 38 cm for lakes and 12 and 139 cm for rivers, respectively. For most study cases, more accurate height information than from available other altimeter data bases can be achieved.

  19. Current-use pesticides in inland lake waters, precipitation, and air from Ontario, Canada.

    PubMed

    Kurt-Karakus, Perihan Binnur; Teixeira, Camilla; Small, Jeff; Muir, Derek; Bidleman, Terry F

    2011-07-01

    Concentrations of current-use pesticides (CUPs) in water, zooplankton, precipitation, and air samples as well as stereoisomer fractions (SF; herbicidally active/total stereoisomers) of metolachlor were determined in water samples collected from 10 remote inland lakes in Ontario, Canada, between 2003 and 2005. The most frequently detected chemicals in lake water, precipitation, and air were α-endosulfan, atrazine, metolachlor, chlorpyrifos, chlorothalonil, and trifluralin, and α-endosulfan and chlorpyrifos were the chemicals detected frequently in zooplankton. Air concentrations of these CUPs were within the range of previously reported values for background sites in the Great Lakes basin. High detection frequency of CUPs in lake water and precipitation was attributed to high usage amounts, but some CUPs such as ametryn and disulfoton that were not used in Ontario were also detected. Mean bioaccumulation factors (wet wt) in zooplankton for endosulfan ranged from 160 to 590 and from 20 to 60 for chlorpyrifos. The overall median SF of metolachlor in precipitation samples (0.846) was similar to that of the commercial S-metolachlor (0.882). However, the median SF of metolachlor in water from all sampled inland lakes (0.806) was significantly lower compared with Ontario rivers (0.873) but higher compared with previous measurements in the Great Lakes (0.710). Lakes with smaller watershed areas showed higher SFs, supporting the hypothesis of stereoselective processing of deposited metolachlor within the watersheds, followed by transport to the lakes. PMID:21472774

  20. ICESat Observations of Inland Surface Water Stage, Slope, and Extent: a New Method for Hydrologic Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, David J.; Jasinski, Michael F.

    2004-01-01

    River discharge and changes in lake, reservoir and wetland water storage are critical terms in the global surface water balance, yet they are poorly observed globally and the prospects for adequate observations from in-situ networks are poor (Alsdorf et al., 2003). The NASA-sponsored Surface Water Working Group has established a framework for advancing satellite observations of river discharge and water storage changes which focuses on obtaining measurements of water surface height (stage), slope, and extent. Satellite laser altimetry, which can achieve centimeter-level elevation precision for single, small laser footprints, provides a method to obtain these inland water parameters and contribute to global water balance monitoring. Since its launch in January, 2003 the Ice, Cloud, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat), a NASA Earth Observing System mission, has achieved over 540 million laser pulse observations of ice sheet, ocean surface, land topography, and inland water elevations and cloud and aerosol height distributions. By recording the laser backscatter from 80 m diameter footprints spaced 175 m along track, ICESat acquires globally-distributed elevation profiles, using a 1064 nm laser altimeter channel, and cloud and aerosol profiles, using a 532 nm atmospheric lidar channel. The ICESat mission has demonstrated the following laser altimeter capabilities relevant to observations of inland water: (1) elevation measurements with a precision of 2 to 3 cm for flat surfaces, suitable for detecting river surface slopes along long river reaches or between multiple crossings of a meandering river channel, (2) from the laser backscatter waveform, detection of water surface elevations beneath vegetation canopies, suitable for measuring water stage in flooded forests, (3) single pulse absolute elevation accuracy of about 50 cm (1 sigma) for 1 degree sloped surfaces, with calibration work in progress indicating that a final accuracy of about 12 cm (1 sigma) will be

  1. Chemistry of saline-water chlorination

    SciTech Connect

    Haag, W.R.

    1981-06-01

    Vast quantities of natural waters are used by power plants for cooling purposes. This water is chlorinated to prevent slime build-up inside the cooling pipes, is circulated through the cooling system, and eventually discharged back into the water body. In order to assess the environmental impact of water chlorination, it is necessary to know what chemical compounds are produced and discharged into the receiving waters. To attack this problem, a review of the present state of knowledge of natural water chlorination chemistry was performed, and some experimental work explained the results of previous workers by showing that chlorine losses at very high doses in seawater are simply the result of chlorate and bromate formation which, however, is negligible at normal doses. The most important chlorine-produced oxidants, along with the relevant chemical reactions, were chosen as a basis for a kinetic model of saline water chlorination chemistry. Kinetic data were compiled in a computer program which simultaneously solves 24 differential equations, one for each species modelled. Estimates were made for the unknown rate constants. A purely predictive model was not possible due to the great variability in the organic demand; however, the model is applicable under a broad variety of conditions (except sunlight), and it provides a reasonably good description of a halamine chemistry under environmental conditions.

  2. Are harmful algal blooms becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems?

    PubMed

    Brooks, Bryan W; Lazorchak, James M; Howard, Meredith D A; Johnson, Mari-Vaughn V; Morton, Steve L; Perkins, Dawn A K; Reavie, Euan D; Scott, Geoffrey I; Smith, Stephanie A; Steevens, Jeffery A

    2016-01-01

    In this Focus article, the authors ask a seemingly simple question: Are harmful algal blooms (HABs) becoming the greatest inland water quality threat to public health and aquatic ecosystems? When HAB events require restrictions on fisheries, recreation, and drinking water uses of inland water bodies significant economic consequences result. Unfortunately, the magnitude, frequency, and duration of HABs in inland waters are poorly understood across spatiotemporal scales and differentially engaged among states, tribes, and territories. Harmful algal bloom impacts are not as predictable as those from conventional chemical contaminants, for which water quality assessment and management programs were primarily developed, because interactions among multiple natural and anthropogenic factors determine the likelihood and severity to which a HAB will occur in a specific water body. These forcing factors can also affect toxin production. Beyond site-specific water quality degradation caused directly by HABs, the presence of HAB toxins can negatively influence routine surface water quality monitoring, assessment, and management practices. Harmful algal blooms present significant challenges for achieving water quality protection and restoration goals when these toxins confound interpretation of monitoring results and environmental quality standards implementation efforts for other chemicals and stressors. Whether HABs presently represent the greatest threat to inland water quality is debatable, though in inland waters of developed countries they typically cause more severe acute impacts to environmental quality than conventional chemical contamination events. The authors identify several timely research needs. Environmental toxicology, environmental chemistry, and risk-assessment expertise must interface with ecologists, engineers, and public health practitioners to engage the complexities of HAB assessment and management, to address the forcing factors for HAB formation, and

  3. Biomass production from inland brines

    SciTech Connect

    Reach, C.D. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    The feasibility of utilizing inland saline waters to produce biomass through the application of marine aquaculture was investigated. From available data, the diatom Phaeodactylum tricornutum and the crustacea Artemia salina were selected as the experimental marine organisms. The proposed diatom served to establish primary productivity and concurrently provide a food source for the herbivorus crustacea. The objective of the first phase research was to investigate the ability of P. tricornutum and A. salina to survive in the inland saline environment. Clarified activated sludge and anaerobic digester effluents were evaluated as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Experimental results indicated that diatom and crustacea growth in the inland brine was equivalent to control cultures utilizing seawater. Wastewater effluents were successful as nutrient sources for the diatom cultures. Bioassay experiments conducted with petroleum related brines yielded mixed results respect to the survival and growth of the P. tricornutum and A. salina organisms. A second series of experiments involved cholornaphthalene, chlorophenanthene, and chlorophenanthrene, and chloroanthracene as the experimental hydrocarbons. Results of the diatom studies show chloroanthracene to induce toxic effects at a concentration of 500 ug/L. Artemia studies showed no acutely toxic effects relative to the test hydrocarbons at 50 and 100 ug/L.

  4. Assessment of surface water quality of inland valleys for cropping in SW Nigeria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aboyeji, O. S.; Ogunkoya, O. O.

    2015-07-01

    Inland valley agro-ecosystems which are a category of wetlands have potential for sustainable crop production relative to uplands. A major challenge to their utilisation in the study area is their heterogeneity in hydrology, morphology, soil types and agro-economy. The study assessed the surface water quality of three typologies of the agro-ecosystems—amphitheatre-like valley-heads (Am), valley-side (VS), and low depression (LD)—for cropping. Surface water of six sites were sampled during the wet and dry seasons. The physicochemical properties and metal concentrations of the samples were analysed. Descriptive statistics and water quality indices were used to assess the suitability of the waters of the agro-ecosystems for cropping. Results showed that the valleys have neutral to slightly alkaline waters. Values of physicochemical parameters are generally within the acceptable range for cropping. The concentration of major cations varied across the inland valley types, but exhibited similar characteristics within each valley. The dominance of the major cations is in the order of Na > Ca > K > Mg. ANOVA results indicated that there is no significant difference in the concentration of heavy metals across the valleys (F = 2.044, p = 0.138, α = 0.05). Generally, most of the physicochemical parameters and trace metals have low concentrations and are non-toxic to plants. Values of water quality indices (sodium adsorption ratio, soluble sodium percentage, total dissolved solids and permeability index) indicated that the concentrations of minerals in waters across the valley typologies are generally within permissible limits for cropping.

  5. Analysis of Production-Water-Salinity of Index Crops in

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharifan, H.; Ghahreman, B.

    2009-04-01

    One method to investigate the advantages of irrigation in cultivation is to evaluate the amount of increase in productions as a result of irrigation. Such relations which usually characterized by mathematics formulas or curves are called production to water function. In the agricultural analysis like pattern optimization and culture accumulation, we need some function like agricultural crops production, water and salinity. The amount of water used and salinity has influence on crops function, so that by increase in both components in various stages of plant growth, crop function decreases. Many researches have been performed on production-water and production-salinity function, therefore less researches on production-water-salinity components. The equation provided by Letey and Dinar (1986) is a sample of these researches. Their model is a quadratics equation from independent variables of water salinity in irrigation (ECi) and dimensionless proportion of the amount of water used to evaporation in class A (AW/EP) in plant growth stage. Therefore, by using this model and parameters like evaporation, rainfall and also quantity and quality water potential in Golestan farmlands, we obtained production-water-salinity components for each product in three different areas across Golestan province (moisture to dry areas). These products include sunflower, cotton, wheat, barely, potato, tomato, corn, sorgom, water melon, soybean and rice. Finally, these equations were compared by results of previous experiments, some results correspond and others were different. Key Word: production-water, production-salinity and production-water-salinity function, Letey and Dinar, Golestan.

  6. Inland water microcrustacean assemblages in an altitudinal gradient in Aysen region (46° S, Patagonia Chile).

    PubMed

    De los Ríos-Escalante, Patricio; Quinán, Esteban; Acevedo, Patricio

    2014-02-01

    The Chilean Patagonia has numerous kinds of inland water ecosystems such as lakes, ponds, wetlands and rivers that have been poorly studied due to access difficulties. This study was carried out in Aysen region, in southern Chile, and it included different kinds of water bodies such as rivers, streams, ponds, lagoons and lakes distributed along an altitudinal gradient at 46° S. It was found a low species number, essentially cladocerans, copepods and amphipods. A null model was applied in order to determine the existence of regulator factors of species associations, and the results revealed that they are not random. The patterns would be influenced by geographical and limnological characteristics of the studied sites. Our results would agree with regional studies on habitat heterogeneity such as in Torres del Paine National Park and other zones in Tierra del Fuego island. PMID:25055081

  7. River Systems Classification- Towards Inland Water Height Retrieval from Sentinel3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berry, P. A. M.; Smith, R. G.; Salloway, M. K.

    2015-12-01

    The advent of SAR altimeters presents both opportunities and challenges for retrieval of river surface heights. While lake levels have been well monitored by prior altimeter missions, these missions had varying success at capturing the more challenging river targets. This paper examines the global capability of prior altimeters over rivers and presents statistics showing that Envisat was the most successful altimeter to date for river monitoring. The requirement for one ‘clean’ echo is found to be the fundamental constraint on river height retrieval. A detailed Cryosat2 data analysis is performed over three river systems to provide a forward look towards Sentinel3 performance over inland water. Both SAR and LRM echoes are analysed. More than 70% of echoes are found to be complex multi-target responses, a far higher proportion than in previous missions; however, ‘clean’ water echoes are found throughout all three river systems and in both SAR and LRM modes.

  8. Microbial Quality of Tropical Inland Waters and Effects of Rainfall Events

    PubMed Central

    Tremblay, Raymond L.; Toledo-Hernandez, Carlos; Gonzalez-Nieves, Joel E.; Ryu, Hodon; Santo Domingo, Jorge W.; Toranzos, Gary A.

    2012-01-01

    Novel markers of fecal pollution in tropical waters are needed since conventional methods recommended for other geographical regions may not apply. To address this, the prevalence of thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, coliphages, and enterophages was determined by culture methods across a watershed. Additionally, human-, chicken-, and cattle-specific PCR assays were used to identify potential fecal pollution sources in this watershed. An enterococcus quantitative PCR (qPCR) assay was tested and correlated with culture methods at three sites since water quality guidelines could incorporate this technique as a rapid detection method. Various rainfall events reported before sample collection at three sites were considered in the data analyses. Thermotolerant coliforms, enterococci, coliphages, and enterophages were detected across the watershed. Human-specific Bacteroides bacteria, unlike the cattle- and chicken-specific bacteria, were detected mostly at sites with the corresponding fecal impact. Enterococci were detected by qPCR as well, but positive correlations with the culture method were noted at two sites, suggesting that either technique could be used. However, no positive correlations were noted for an inland lake tested, suggesting that qPCR may not be suitable for all water bodies. Concentrations of thermotolerant coliforms and bacteriophages were consistently lower after rainfall events, pointing to a possible dilution effect. Rainfall positively correlated with enterococci detected by culturing and qPCR, but this was not the case for the inland lake. The toolbox of methods and correlations presented here could be potentially applied to assess the microbial quality of various water types. PMID:22610428

  9. Root water uptake under water and salinity stresses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A. B.; Bauser, H.; Ngo, A.; Kamai, T.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2013-12-01

    Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by root-zone complex and dynamic processes such as soil water status, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants' response to water- or salinity-stress ranges from full compensation to severe reduction in

  10. Assessing the value of the ATL13 inland water level product for the Global Flood Partnership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumann, G.; Pappenberger, F.; Bates, P. D.; Neal, J. C.; Jasinski, M. F.

    2015-12-01

    This paper reports on the activities and first results of an our ICESat-2 Early Adopter (EA) project for inland water observations. Our team will assess the value of the ICESat-2 water level product using two flood model use cases, one over the California Bay Delta and one over the Niger Inland Delta. Application of the ALT13 product into routine operations will be ensured via an ALT13 database integrated into the pillar "Global Flood Service and Toolbox" (GFST) of the Global Flood Partnership (GFP). GFP is a cooperation framework between scientific organizations and flood disaster managers worldwide to develop flood observational and modelling infrastructure, leveraging on existing initiatives for better predicting and managing flood disaster impacts and flood risk globally. GFP is hosted as an Expert Working Group by the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS). The objective of this EA project is to make the ICESat-2 water level data available to the international GFP community. The EA team believes that the ALT13 product, after successful demonstration of its value in model calibration/validation and monitoring of large floodplain inundation dynamics, should be made easily accessible to the GFP. The GFST will host data outputs and tools from different flood models and for different applications and regions. All these models can benefit from ALT13 if made available to GFP through GFST. Here, we will introduce both test cases and their model setups and report on first preliminary "capabilities" test runs with the Niger model and ICESat-1 as well as radar altimeter data. Based on our results, we will also reflect on expected capabilities and potential of the ICESat-2 mission for river observations.

  11. Improved inland water levels from SAR altimetry using novel empirical and physical retrackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villadsen, Heidi; Deng, Xiaoli; Andersen, Ole B.; Stenseng, Lars; Nielsen, Karina; Knudsen, Per

    2016-06-01

    Satellite altimetry has proven a valuable resource of information on river and lake levels where in situ data are sparse or non-existent. In this study several new methods for obtaining stable inland water levels from CryoSat-2 Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) altimetry are presented and evaluated. In addition, the possible benefits from combining physical and empirical retrackers are investigated. The retracking methods evaluated in this paper include the physical SAR Altimetry MOde Studies and Applications (SAMOSA3) model, a traditional subwaveform threshold retracker, the proposed Multiple Waveform Persistent Peak (MWaPP) retracker, and a method combining the physical and empirical retrackers. Using a physical SAR waveform retracker over inland water has not been attempted before but shows great promise in this study. The evaluation is performed for two medium-sized lakes (Lake Vänern in Sweden and Lake Okeechobee in Florida), and in the Amazon River in Brazil. Comparing with in situ data shows that using the SAMOSA3 retracker generally provides the lowest root-mean-squared-errors (RMSE), closely followed by the MWaPP retracker. For the empirical retrackers, the RMSE values obtained when comparing with in situ data in Lake Vänern and Lake Okeechobee are in the order of 2-5 cm for well-behaved waveforms. Combining the physical and empirical retrackers did not offer significantly improved mean track standard deviations or RMSEs. Based on these studies, it is suggested that future SAR derived water levels are obtained using the SAMOSA3 retracker whenever information about other physical properties apart from range is desired. Otherwise we suggest using the empirical MWaPP retracker described in this paper, which is both easy to implement, computationally efficient, and gives a height estimate for even the most contaminated waveforms.

  12. Meeting report: knowledge and gaps in developing microbial criteria for inland recreational waters

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorevitch, Samuel; Ashbolt, Nicholas J.; Ferguson, Christobel M.; Fujioka, Roger; McGee, Charles D.; Soller, Jeffrey A.; Whitman, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has committed to issuing in 2012 new or revised criteria designed to protect the health of those who use surface waters for recreation. For this purpose, the U.S. EPA has been conducting epidemiologic studies to establish relationships between microbial measures of water quality and adverse health outcomes among swimmers. New methods for testing water quality that would provide same-day results will likely be elements of the new criteria. Although the epidemiologic studies upon which the criteria will be based were conducted at Great Lakes and marine beaches, the new water quality criteria may be extended to inland waters (IWs). Similarities and important differences between coastal waters (CWs) and IWs that should be considered when developing criteria for IWs were the focus of an expert workshop. Here, we summarize the state of knowledge and research needed to base IWs microbial criteria on sound science. Two key differences between CWs and IWs are the sources of indicator bacteria, which may modify the relationship between indicator microbes and health risk, and the relationship between indicators and pathogens, which also may vary within IWs. Monitoring using rapid molecular methods will require the standardization and simplification of analytical methods, as well as greater clarity about their interpretation. Research needs for the short term and longer term are described.

  13. Assigning Boundary Conditions to the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) Model Using Results from the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; Swain, Eric D.

    2004-01-01

    The Comprehensive Everglades Restoration Plan (CERP) requires the testing and evaluation of different water-management scenarios for southern Florida. As part of CERP, the South Florida Water Management District is using its regional hydrologic model, the South Florida Water Management Model (SFWMM), to evaluate different hydrologic scenarios. The SFWMM was designed specifically for the inland freshwater areas in southern Florida, and extends only slightly into Florida Bay. Thus, the U.S. Geological Survey developed the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) model, which is an integrated surface-water and ground-water model designed to simulate flows, stages, and salinities in the southern Everglades and Florida Bay. Modifications to the SICS boundary conditions allow the local-scale SICS model to be linked to the regional-scale SFWMM. The linked model will be used to quantify the effects of restoration alternatives on flows, stages, and salinities in the SICS area. This report describes the procedure for linking the SICS model with the SFWMM. The linkage is shown to work by comparing the results of a linked 5-year simulation with the results from a simulation in which the model boundaries are assigned using field data. The surface-water module of the SICS model is driven by areal influences and lateral boundaries. The areal influences (wind, rainfall, and evapotranspiration) remain the same when the SICS model is modified to link to the SFWMM. Four types of lateral boundaries (discharge, water level, no flow, and salinity) are used in the SICS model. Two of three discharge boundaries (at Taylor Slough Bridge and C-111 Canal) in the current SICS model domain are converted to water-level boundaries to increase accuracy. The only change to the third discharge boundary (at Levee 31W) is that the flow data are derived from SFWMM model output instead of using measured field data flows. Three water-level boundaries are modified only by receiving their data from SFWMM

  14. NIDWat: A Water Balance Model for the Niger Inland Delta (NID) Floodplain in Mali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, I.; Wisser, D.; Ali, A.; Seidou, O.; Mariko, A.; Afouda, A.

    2015-12-01

    The Niger river basin is characterized by hydro-climatic changes induced by land use and climate change that have significant impacts on local populations. The Niger Inland Delta (NID) is the single most important wetland conditioning the water availability downstream. A significant fraction of the river flow is lost through evaporation and water use in the NID and the conditions are likely to change with increasing population and changing inflow conditions. A comprehensive understanding of the NID's hydro-climatological functioning is therefore crucial for assessing the water resources in the basin under changing conditions in the future. Despite this significance, the components of the water balance in the NID are poorly quantified. We use optical and microwave remote sensing data to characterize the temporal flooding, and observations of river flow and spatially explicit information on water abstractions to develop NIDWat, a water balance model for the NID. Simulated evapotranspiration losses varied by ~ 50%, depending on flooded area map or climatic data. The combined effect of irrigation abstraction and climatic data generated a global water losses range of 16 to 33.04 km3 a-1. The model was validated against observed river discharge and water abstractions and shows a good performance. We then implemented the model as a module in a hydrological model to assess the water balance in the NID and the downstream water availability under changing conditions. We use a multi model approach using regional climate data from the CORDEX initiative. Results suggest, despite increasing runoff an increase in ET losses and changes in the temporal dynamics of flooding that impact water resources availability downstream.

  15. Methane and carbon dioxide emissions from inland waters in India - implications for large scale greenhouse gas balances.

    PubMed

    Panneer Selvam, Balathandayuthabani; Natchimuthu, Sivakiruthika; Arunachalam, Lakshmanan; Bastviken, David

    2014-11-01

    Inland waters were recently recognized to be important sources of methane (CH4 ) and carbon dioxide (CO2 ) to the atmosphere, and including inland water emissions in large scale greenhouse gas (GHG) budgets may potentially offset the estimated carbon sink in many areas. However, the lack of GHG flux measurements and well-defined inland water areas for extrapolation, make the magnitude of the potential offset unclear. This study presents coordinated flux measurements of CH4 and CO2 in multiple lakes, ponds, rivers, open wells, reservoirs, springs, and canals in India. All these inland water types, representative of common aquatic ecosystems in India, emitted substantial amounts of CH4 and a major fraction also emitted CO2 . The total CH4 flux (including ebullition and diffusion) from all the 45 systems ranged from 0.01 to 52.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) , with a mean of 7.8 ± 12.7 (mean ± 1 SD) mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean surface water CH4 concentration was 3.8 ± 14.5 μm (range 0.03-92.1 μm). The CO2 fluxes ranged from -28.2 to 262.4 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) and the mean flux was 51.9 ± 71.1 mmol m(-2)  d(-1) . The mean partial pressure of CO2 was 2927 ± 3269 μatm (range: 400-11 467 μatm). Conservative extrapolation to whole India, considering the specific area of the different water types studied, yielded average emissions of 2.1 Tg CH4  yr(-1) and 22.0 Tg CO2  yr(-1) from India's inland waters. When expressed as CO2 equivalents, this amounts to 75 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) (53-98 Tg CO2 equivalents yr(-1) ; ± 1 SD), with CH4 contributing 71%. Hence, average inland water GHG emissions, which were not previously considered, correspond to 42% (30-55%) of the estimated land carbon sink of India. Thereby this study illustrates the importance of considering inland water GHG exchange in large scale assessments. PMID:24623552

  16. Effects of cold front passage on turbulent fluxes over a large inland water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Liu, H.

    2011-12-01

    Turbulent fluxes of sensible and latent heat over a large inland water in southern USA were measured using the eddy covariance method through the year of 2008. In addition, net radiation, air temperatures and relative humidity, and water temperature in different depths were also measured. The specific objective of this study is to examine effects of a cold front passage on the surface energy fluxes. For the typical cold front event selected from April 11 to 14, air temperature decreased by 16°C, while surface temperature only dropped 6°C. Atmospheric vapor pressure decreased by 1.6 kPa, while that in the water-air interface dropped 0.7 kPa. The behavior difference in the water-air interface was caused by the passage of cold, dry air masses immediately behind the cold front. During the cold front event, sensible heat and latent heat flux increased by 171 W m-2 and 284 W m-2, respectively. Linear aggression analysis showed that the sensible heat flux was proportional to the product of wind speed and the temperature gradient of water-air interface, with a correlation coefficient of 0.95. Latent heat flux was proportional to the product of wind speed and vapor pressure difference between the water surface and overlaying atmosphere, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81. Also, the correlations between both fluxes and the wind speed were weak. This result indicated that the strong wind associated with the cold front event contributed to the turbulent mixing, which indirectly enhanced surface energy exchange between the water surface and the atmosphere. The relationship between the water heat storage energy and turbulent fluxes was also examined.

  17. Tracking evolution of urban biogeochemical cycles: salinization of fresh water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaushal, S.; McDowell, W. H.; Wollheim, W. M.; Duan, S.; Gorman, J. K.; Haq, S.; Hohman, S.; Smith, R. M.; Mayer, P. M.

    2014-12-01

    The built environment often changes quickly in response to human activities, thus contributing to an evolution of stream chemistry over time. Depending upon development and management strategies, these changes can result in pulses and/or long-term trends. Here, we explore patterns of evolving salinization of fresh water over time, and we evaluate the potential water quality implications of fresh water salinization. We show that there has been global salinization of freshwater across urbanizing landscapes over a century. We also show that human-accelerated weathering in watersheds and river alkalinization can further influence regional rates of salinization (in addition to anthropogenic sources such as road salts, sewage leaks, etc.). Finally, we investigate how salinization of fresh water can impact stream sediment fluxes of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in watersheds across a land use gradient at the Baltimore Long-Term Ecological Research (LTER) site. The impacts of salinization on mobilization and uptake of carbon, nutrients, and sulfate in streams warrant further consideration in water quality management strategies. Overall, we propose that salinization can be a "universal tracer" of watershed urbanization globally with major regional consequences for drinking water and evolution of biogeochemical cycles in freshwater ecosystems.

  18. Scenario analysis for nutrient emission reduction in the European inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouraoui, F.; Thieu, V.; Grizzetti, B.; Britz, W.; Bidoglio, G.

    2014-12-01

    Despite a large body of legislation, high nutrient loads are still emitted in European inland waters. In the present study we evaluate a set of alternative scenarios aiming at reducing nitrogen and phosphorus emissions from anthropogenic activities to all European Seas. In particular, we tested the full implementation of the European Urban Waste Water Directive, which controls emissions from point source. In addition, we associated the full implementation of this Directive with a ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents. Then we tested two human diet scenarios and their impacts on nutrient emissions. We also developed a scenario based on an optimal use of organic manure. The impacts of all our scenarios were evaluated using a statistical model of nitrogen and phosphorus fate (GREEN) linked to an agro-economic model (CAPRI). We show that the ban of phosphorus-based laundry detergents coupled with the full implementation of the Urban Waste Water Directive is the most effective approach for reducing phosphorus emissions from human based activities. Concerning nitrogen, the highest reductions are obtained with the optimized use of organic manure.

  19. Integrating tunable anion exchange with reverse osmosis for enhanced recovery during inland brackish water desalination.

    PubMed

    Smith, Ryan C; SenGupta, Arup K

    2015-05-01

    For inland brackish water desalination by reverse osmosis or RO, concentrate or reject disposal poses a major challenge. However, enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume using RO processes is limited by the solubility of ions present in the feedwater. One of the most common and stubborn precipitate formed during desalination is calcium sulfate. Reducing or eliminating the presence of sulfate would allow the process to operate at higher recoveries without threat to membrane scaling. In this research, this goal is accomplished by using an appropriate mixture of self-regenerating anion exchange resins that selectively remove and replace sulfate by chloride prior to the RO unit. Most importantly, the mixed bed of anion exchange resins is self-regenerated with the reject brine from the RO process, thus requiring no addition of external chemicals. The current work demonstrates the reversibility of the hybrid ion exchange and RO (HIX-RO) process with 80% recovery for a brackish water composition representative of groundwater in San Joaquin Valley in California containing approximately 5200 mg/L of total dissolved solids or TDS. Consequently, the reject volume can be reduced by 50% without the threat of sulfate scaling and use of antiscaling chemicals can be eliminated altogether. By appropriately designing or tuning the mixed bed of anion exchange resins, the process can be extended to nearly any composition of brackish water for enhanced recovery and consequent reduction in the reject volume. PMID:25839209

  20. Evaluating abiotic influences on soil salinity of inland managed wetlands and agricultural croplands in a semi-arid environment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fowler, D.; King, Sammy L.; Weindorf, David C.

    2014-01-01

    Agriculture and moist-soil management are important management techniques used on wildlife refuges to provide adequate energy for migrant waterbirds. In semi-arid systems, the accumulation of soluble salts throughout the soil profile can limit total production of wetland plants and agronomic crops and thus jeopardize meeting waterbird energy needs. This study evaluates the effect of distinct hydrologic regimes associated with moist-soil management and agricultural production on salt accumulation in a semi-arid floodplain. We hypothesized that the frequency of flooding and quantity of floodwater in a moist-soil management hydroperiod results in a less saline soil profile compared to profiles under traditional agricultural management. Findings showed that agricultural croplands differed (p-value < 0.001, df = 9) in quantities of total soluble salts (TSS) compared to moist-soil impoundments and contained greater concentrations (TSS range = 1,160-1,750 (mg kg-1)) at depth greater than 55 cm below the surface of the profile, while moist-soil impoundments contained lower concentrations (TSS range = 307-531 (mg kg-1)) at the same depths. Increased salts in agricultural may be attributed to the lack of leaching afforded by smaller summer irrigations while larger periodic flooding events in winter and summer flood irrigations in moist-soil impoundments may serve as leaching events.

  1. Inland capture fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Welcomme, Robin L.; Cowx, Ian G.; Coates, David; Béné, Christophe; Funge-Smith, Simon; Halls, Ashley; Lorenzen, Kai

    2010-01-01

    The reported annual yield from inland capture fisheries in 2008 was over 10 million tonnes, although real catches are probably considerably higher than this. Inland fisheries are extremely complex, and in many cases poorly understood. The numerous water bodies and small rivers are inhabited by a wide range of species and several types of fisher community with diversified livelihood strategies for whom inland fisheries are extremely important. Many drivers affect the fisheries, including internal fisheries management practices. There are also many drivers from outside the fishery that influence the state and functioning of the environment as well as the social and economic framework within which the fishery is pursued. The drivers affecting the various types of inland water, rivers, lakes, reservoirs and wetlands may differ, particularly with regard to ecosystem function. Many of these depend on land-use practices and demand for water which conflict with the sustainability of the fishery. Climate change is also exacerbating many of these factors. The future of inland fisheries varies between continents. In Asia and Africa the resources are very intensely exploited and there is probably little room for expansion; it is here that resources are most at risk. Inland fisheries are less heavily exploited in South and Central America, and in the North and South temperate zones inland fisheries are mostly oriented to recreation rather than food production. PMID:20713391

  2. VIS – A database on the distribution of fishes in inland and estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium

    PubMed Central

    Brosens, Dimitri; Breine, Jan; Van Thuyne, Gerlinde; Belpaire, Claude; Desmet, Peter; Verreycken, Hugo

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The Research Institute for Nature and Forest (INBO) has been performing standardized fish stock assessments in Flanders, Belgium. This Flemish Fish Monitoring Network aims to assess fish populations in public waters at regular time intervals in both inland waters and estuaries. This monitoring was set up in support of the Water Framework Directive, the Habitat Directive, the Eel Regulation, the Red List of fishes, fish stock management, biodiversity research, and to assess the colonization and spreading of non-native fish species. The collected data are consolidated in the Fish Information System or VIS. From VIS, the occurrence data are now published at the INBO IPT as two datasets: ‘VIS - Fishes in inland waters in Flanders, Belgium’ and ‘VIS - Fishes in estuarine waters in Flanders, Belgium’. Together these datasets represent a complete overview of the distribution and abundance of fish species pertaining in Flanders from late 1992 to the end of 2012. This data paper discusses both datasets together, as both have a similar methodology and structure. The inland waters dataset contains over 350,000 fish observations, sampled between 1992 and 2012 from over 2,000 locations in inland rivers, streams, canals, and enclosed waters in Flanders. The dataset includes 64 fish species, as well as a number of non-target species (mainly crustaceans). The estuarine waters dataset contains over 44,000 fish observations, sampled between 1995 and 2012 from almost 50 locations in the estuaries of the rivers Yser and Scheldt (“Zeeschelde”), including two sampling sites in the Netherlands. The dataset includes 69 fish species and a number of non-target crustacean species. To foster broad and collaborative use, the data are dedicated to the public domain under a Creative Commons Zero waiver and reference the INBO norms for data use. PMID:25685001

  3. Water level variation of Inland lakes on the southeasten of Tibetan Plateau in 1972-2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Y.; Lei, L.

    2014-12-01

    Lake water level variation directly records the process of water storage balance in the basin, which is a quite sensitive response to the climate change. We obtained the long-time lake area and level series of the five typical lakes from 1972 to 2012 in the Tibetan Plateau, and analyzed the variation of lake levels in recent 40 years, using the multi-source remote sensing data. The results show that the lake level of three inland lakes ( Pumo Yumco , Taro Co, Zhari Namco)have rose 0.89m, 0.70m,0.40m respectively ,while the two lakes (Peiku Co, Mapang Yumco) showed decreasing tendency, the changes is -1.696m,-0,153m. On the whole, the five lakes have experienced more remarkable changes in 2000-2012 than 1976-1999. In terms of spatial variations, the three lakes which located in south Tibetan Plateau, Peiku Co and Mapang Yumco, have show the consistent variation trend, as well as the other two lakes, Taro Co and Zhari Namco.

  4. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, Piers; *Morse, John W.

    2010-11-15

    1. Objective The general objective of this research was to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, carbon dioxide partial pressure (pCO2), and modest ranges of T and P. This would be done by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry. Also, nanoscale observations of calcite surface morphology and composition would be made to provide an understanding of rate controlling mechanisms.

  5. Inland fisheries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cable, Louella E.

    1971-01-01

    Today's inland commercial fisheries are small independent operational units widely dispersed on lakes, impoundments, and streams throughout the vast central plains. The problems of the fisheries are diverse and unique to local conditions. Inland fisheries are particularly important to the Nation in times of international conflict because they are distributed throughout the area and the fish can be easily harvested.

  6. Sentinel 3 for Inland Water Quality Monitoring- Advanced in Earth Observation Based Technologies to Assist Algal Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malthus, Tim J.; Anstee, Janet; Botha, Hannelie; Hestir, Erin; Dekker, Arnold

    2015-12-01

    Using both modeled and real measurements of spectral reflectance over Australian inland water bodies of varying water quality the potential of the Sentinel 3 OLCI sensor for monitoring inland optical water quality dynamics, notably algal greening, was investigated. Established semi-empirical water quality algorithms for chlorophyll were tested for their potential to form the basis of an algal alerting system for water managers. Given the possession of the additional spectral band at ~705-710 nm both Sentinels 3 and 2 will be better able to resolve chlorophyll and NAP than conventional MS sensors lacking this spectral band. Such algorithms will have an accuracy sufficient for alerting algal blooms/green-up with semi-empirical algorithms displaying RMSEs of ~4 - 9 mg m-3 Chl and RMSEs for semi-analytical inversion approaches within a similar range (~7- 8 mg m-3 Chl). Whilst the results bode well for S3, the potential for S2 for accurate retrieval of chlorophyll estimates will be highly dependent on its SNR. We further report on some other challenges before such sensors can be used as an inland water quality monitoring tool.

  7. The Impact of Water Diversion on Groundwater Resources in an Inland River Basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, L.; Zheng, C.

    2012-12-01

    The Heihe River Basin (HRB) is one of the most intensely exploited and ecologically stressed inland river basins in the world. The HRB is characterized by three distinct ecohydrological systems: the mountainous upper reach where most of the water resources for the HRB originate from the rainfall, snow and permafrost; the middle reach with an arid climate and irrigated agriculture; and the lower reach dominated by wide stretches of Gobi desert. The study site, Zhangye Basin, is situated in the middle reach. It contains 92% population of the HRB and consumes about 80% of water resources as a regional agricultural and industrial center. To improve the deteriorating health of the ecosystems in the lower HRB, the Chinese government initiated the Heihe Water Diversion Project (HWDP) in 2000, which stipulated that at least 0.95 billion cubic meters of surface water must be delivered from the middle reach to the lower reach annually. A three-dimensional groundwater flow model has been developed for the Zhangye Basin to understand groundwater-surface water interactions in the Zhangye Basin and assess how the HWDP project has impacted the groundwater availability and water budgets in the region. The flow model has been reasonably calibrated using multiple sources of field data. The output of the groundwater model provided estimates of head differences before and after the HWDP project between 1999 and 2010. The results show that the groundwater level has declined widely, except in the Zhangye urban area where the groundwater level has increased by 0.5 to 7m and a few other localized spots. The calculated water budgets indicate that the spring discharge to the Heihe River has been continuously decreasing, and the total river leakage to the aquifer has been increasing. These results are in reasonable agreement with those from previous studies based on independent water balance calculation. The groundwater model is being integrated with surface water and land use data to

  8. Simulating root water uptake from a shallow saline groundwater resource

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water is a significant problem for irrigated agriculture. One proposal to deal with this problem is sequential biological concentration (SBC), which is the process of recycling drainage water on increasingly more salt tolerant crops until the volume of drainage water has ...

  9. Mortality of harbor seal pups at different sites in the inland waters of Washington.

    PubMed

    Steiger, G H; Calambokidis, J; Cubbage, J C; Skilling, D E; Smith, A W; Gribble, D H

    1989-07-01

    We examined the mortality rates and causes of death of harbor seal (Phoca vitulina) pups in three regions of the inland waters of Washington (USA) in 1984. One hundred eight pups were collected during 239 searches of the shoreline areas near harbor seal haulout sites or through public reports. Minimum neonatal (up to 1 mo after birth) mortality rates at these regions ranged from 12% to 26% of the pups born. Neonatal mortality was highest in the Strait of Juan de Fuca; 33 of the estimated 105 (31%) pups born at the primary site died. Causes of death varied by location. In southern Puget Sound predation by coyotes (Canis latrans) was the primary cause of death, accounting for eight of 43 (19%) of the dead pups examined; starvation was the next most common cause of death. Mortality at study sites in the Strait of Juan de Fuca was related to premature parturition; 19 of 49 (39%) of the pups found dead were born prematurely. Nine species of bacteria were identified in samples taken from 42 pups; Proteus sp. and Escherichia coli were the most common. PMID:2761005

  10. Environmental impacts caused by the uncontrolled human activities on water resources availability in the Niger Inland Delta

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Ibrahim; Oyerinde, Ganiyu; Some, Corentin; Abdou, Ali; Mariko, Adama; Wisser, Dominik

    2014-05-01

    The Niger River basin is a significant source of water and food for West Africa. As an agricultural region, the basin is highly dependent on the water availability that is currently under pressure from increased demand with rising populations and climate variability and change. The Niger Inland Delta is one of the largest flood plains (about 40.000skm) in Africa and serves a number of interlinked human activities, such as irrigation, fishing, livestock, and reservoirs. Future changes in the dynamics of river flow may change the inundation dynamics of the delta and impact these activities. At the same time, the population in the basin is likely to double in the next 30 years, putting additional pressure on the Delta's water resources and land use. Most hydrological models do not adequately represent these dynamics of the Inland Delta. Here we present an overview of the hydrological processes that occur over the Niger inland delta. We used digital elevation model and satellite images to analyze the spatio-temporal variations in relation to observed river flow. Based on this analysis, we have developed a representation of these processes fore hydrological models for the basin. The basic analysis of in situ discharges confirms the impact of the inner delta area on the discharge of the main river, characterized by a strong reduction of about 15% to 50% as a result of evaporation and water abstractions for irrigation.

  11. The economic value of remote sensing of earth resources from space: An ERTS overview and the value of continuity of service. Volume 5: Inland water resources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetzler, E.; Peterson, W.; Putnam, M.

    1974-01-01

    The economic value of an ERTS system in the area of inland water resources management is investigated. Benefits are attributed to new capabilities for managing inland water resources in the field of power generation, agriculture, and urban water supply. These benefits are obtained in the area of equal capability (cost savings) and increased capability (equal budget), and are estimated by applying conservative assumptions to Federal budgeting information, Congressional appropriation hearings, and ERTS technical capabilities.

  12. Remote Sensing of Salinity: The Dielectric Constant of Sea Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    LeVine, David M.; Lang, R.; Utku, C.; Tarkocin, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Global monitoring of sea surface salinity from space requires an accurate model for the dielectric constant of sea water as a function of salinity and temperature to characterize the emissivity of the surface. Measurements are being made at 1.413 GHz, the center frequency of the Aquarius radiometers, using a resonant cavity and the perturbation method. The cavity is operated in a transmission mode and immersed in a liquid bath to control temperature. Multiple measurements are made at each temperature and salinity. Error budgets indicate a relative accuracy for both real and imaginary parts of the dielectric constant of about 1%.

  13. CRUCIAL: Cryosat-2 Success over Inland Water and Land: SAR and SARin Full Bit Rate Altimetric Heights and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Philip; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Restano, Marco; Ambrozio, Americo; Benveniste, Jerome

    2016-04-01

    CRUCIAL is an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from Cryosat-2 with a forward-look component to the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions. The high along-track sampling and resolution of Cryosat-2 altimeter in SAR and SARin modes offer the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over inland waters. This paper will present the theoretical approach to analysis of the FBR L1A Doppler beams to form a product using ground cell gridding, beam steering and beam stacking from which inland water heights are derivable from the retracked Cryosat-2 altimetric waveforms. Details of the processing strategy will include a comparison of waveforms and heights from the burst echoes (~80 m along-track) and from multi-look waveforms (~320 m along-track). SAR and SARin FBR data are available for the Amazon, Brahmaputra and Mekong. The Mekong and Amazon FBR SAR data has been processed for 2011-2015 and results will be compared against stage data from the nearest gauge. Similarly, heights from Tonle Sap will be compared against Jason-2 data from the United States Department of Agriculture web site. A strategy to select the number of multi-looks over rivers will also be presented. Results of FBR SARin processing will be presented including comparison of heights from the two antennae and the extraction of slope of the ground surface.

  14. Remote estimation of phycocyanin (PC) for inland waters coupled with YSI PC fluorescence probe.

    PubMed

    Song, Kaishan; Li, Lin; Tedesco, Lenore; Clercin, Nicole; Hall, Bob; Li, Shuai; Shi, Kun; Liu, Dawei; Sun, Ying

    2013-08-01

    information from both relatively static and flowing inland waters. Hence, it has promising implications for water resource managers to obtain information for early warning detection of cyanobacterial blooms through the close association between probe measured PC values and cyanobacterial biovolume via remote sensing modeling. PMID:23397212

  15. Effects of saline drinking water on early gosling development

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stolley, D.S.; Bissonette, J.A.; Kadlec, J.A.; Coster, D.

    1999-01-01

    Relatively high levels of saline drinking water may adversely affect the growth, development, and survival of young waterfowl. Saline drinking water was suspect in the low survival rate of Canada goose (Branta canadensis) goslings at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge (FSNWR) in western Utah. Hence, we investigated the effects of saline drinking water on the survival and growth of captive, wild-strain goslings from day 1-28 following hatch. We compared survival and growth (as measured by body mass, wing length, and culmen length) between a control group on tap water with a mean specific conductivity of 650 ??S/cm, and 2 saline water treatments: (1) intermediate level (12,000 ??S/cm), and (2) high level (18,000 ??S/cm). Gosling mortality occurred only in the 18,000 ??S/cm treatment group (33%; n = 9). Slopes of regressions of mean body mass, wing length, and culmen length on age were different from each other (P < 0.05), except for culmen length for the intermediate and high treatment levels. We predict that free-ranging wild goslings will experience mortality at even lower salinity levels than captive goslings because of the combined effects of depressed growth and environmental stresses, including hot desert temperatures and variable food quality over summer.

  16. ON-FARM DISPOSAL OF SALINE DRAINAGE WATER

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disposal of saline drainage water from irrigated agriculture is a significant world-wide problem. Researchers in the San Joaquin Valley (SJV) of California developed an integrated on farm drainage water management system (IFDM) that can be used to solve this problem in an environmentally sound metho...

  17. Technical note: Assessing gas equilibration systems for continuous pCO2 measurements in inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Tae Kyung; Jin, Hyojin; Oh, Neung-Hwan; Park, Ji-Hyung

    2016-07-01

    High-frequency continuous measurements of the partial pressure of CO2 (pCO2) are crucial for constraining the spatiotemporal dynamics of CO2 emissions from inland water systems. However, direct measurements of pCO2 are scarce, and no systematic comparisons have been conducted on the suitability of the widely used measurement systems for continuous underway or long-term deployment in various field conditions. We compared spray- and marble-type equilibrators and a membrane-enclosed CO2 sensor to assess their suitability for continuous long-term or underway pCO2 measurements in an urbanized river system in Korea. Both equilibrators had a shorter response time compared with the membrane-enclosed sensor, and could capture large spatial variations of pCO2 during a transect study along a highly urbanized river reach. The membrane-enclosed sensor based on passive equilibration provided comparable underway measurements along the river sections where pCO2 varied within the sensor detection range. When deployed in a eutrophic river site, the membrane-enclosed sensor was able to detect large diel variations in pCO2. However, biofouling on the membrane could reduce the accuracy of the measurement during long deployments exceeding several days. The overall results suggest that the fast response of the equilibrator systems facilitates capturing large spatial variations in pCO2 during short underway measurements. However, the attendant technical challenges of these systems, such as clogging and desiccant maintenance, have to be addressed carefully to enable their long-term deployment. The membrane-enclosed sensor would be suitable as an alternative tool for long-term continuous measurements if membrane biofouling could be overcome by appropriate antifouling measures such as copper mesh coverings.

  18. Modeling as a tool for management of saline soils and irrigation waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Optimal management of saline soils and irrigation waters requires consideration of many interrelated factors including, climate, water applications and timing, water flow, plant water uptake, soil chemical reactions, plant response to salinity and solution composition, soil hydraulic properties and ...

  19. Extending electromagnetic methods to map coastal pore water salinities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Greenwood, Wm. J.; Kruse, S.; Swarzenski, P.

    2006-01-01

    The feasibility of mapping pore water salinity based on surface electromagnetic (EM) methods over land and shallow marine water is examined in a coastal wetland on Tampa Bay, Florida. Forward models predict that useful information on seabed conductivity can be obtained through <1.5 m of saline water, using floating EM-31 and EM-34 instruments from Geonics Ltd. The EM-31 functioned as predicted when compared against resistivity soundings and pore water samples and proved valuable for profiling in otherwise inaccessible terrain due to its relatively small size. Experiments with the EM-34 in marine water, however, did not reproduce the theoretical instrument response. The most effective technique for predicting pore water conductivities based on EM data entailed (1) computing formation factors from resistivity surveys and pore water samples at representative sites and (2) combining these formation factors with onshore and offshore EM-31 readings for broader spatial coverage. This method proved successful for imaging zones of elevated pore water conductivities/ salinities associated with mangrove forests, presumably caused by salt water exclusion by mangrove roots. These zones extend 5 to 10 m seaward from mangrove trunks fringing Tampa Bay. Modeling indicates that EM-31 measurements lack the resolution necessary to image the subtle pore water conductivity variations expected in association with diffuse submarine ground water discharge of fresher water in the marine water of Tampa Bay. The technique has potential for locating high-contrast zones and other pore water salinity anomalies in areas not accessible to conventional marine- or land-based resistivity arrays and hence may be useful for studies of coastal-wetland ecosystems. Copyright ?? 2005 National Ground Water Association.

  20. Saline solutions: the quest for fresh water.

    PubMed Central

    Reuther, C G

    2000-01-01

    Despite steady advances in the technology, desalination remains one of the most expensive ways to produce potable water. But as water scarcity forces communities to find new sources of drinking water, scientists are developing innovations that may soon make desalination a reasonable option for many more communities. The newest approach to desalination is membrane systems, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis systems. Current research seeks to make these systems more effective and less likely to produce environmentally hazardous by-products. Many facilities use traditional distillation to desalinate water, and efforts are being made to combine membranes and distillation for more efficient systems. PMID:10656867

  1. Saline solutions: the quest for fresh water.

    PubMed

    Reuther, C G

    2000-02-01

    Despite steady advances in the technology, desalination remains one of the most expensive ways to produce potable water. But as water scarcity forces communities to find new sources of drinking water, scientists are developing innovations that may soon make desalination a reasonable option for many more communities. The newest approach to desalination is membrane systems, which include reverse osmosis and electrodialysis systems. Current research seeks to make these systems more effective and less likely to produce environmentally hazardous by-products. Many facilities use traditional distillation to desalinate water, and efforts are being made to combine membranes and distillation for more efficient systems. PMID:10656867

  2. Utilization of Landsat Data for Water Quality Observation in Small Inland Water Bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásler, M.; Komárková, J.

    2016-06-01

    Many studies deal with water quality evaluation using remotely sensed data. In the field of remote sensing, there have been proposed several procedures how to observe selected parameters of water quality and conditions. The majority of works use methods and procedures based on satellite data but they usually do not deal with suitability and practicability of the satellite data. This paper provides summary of determinants and limitations of satellite data utilization for water quality evaluation. Cloud cover and its influence on size of visible water surfaces is the most deeply evaluated determinants. Temporal resolution, spatial resolution and some other technical factors are discussed as next determinants. The case study demonstrates evaluation of the determinants for Landsat 7 and Landsat 8 data (level 1) and for area of small ponds in part of Pardubice region in the Czech Republic. It clearly demonstrates several limitations of Landsat data for evaluation of selected parameters of water quality and changes of small water bodies.

  3. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows in inland river basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

    2012-03-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management in these has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.09 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and large areas of glaciers in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 88.0% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 95% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficient in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficient were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. glaciers in upstream and desert in downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation in upstream and low precipitation in downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments for the entire Heihe river basin at sub-basin level. The results are helpful for formulating reasonable water policies to improve water resources management in the inland river basins of China.

  4. An integrated toolbox for processing and analysis of remote sensing data of inland and coastal waters - atmospheric correction

    SciTech Connect

    Haan, J.F. de; Kokke, J.M.M.; Hoogenboom, H.J.; Dekker, A.G.

    1997-06-01

    Deriving thematic maps of water quality parameters from a remote sensing image requires a number of processing steps, such as calibration, atmospheric correction, air-water interface correction, and application of water quality algorithms. A prototype version of an integrated software environment has recently been developed that enables the user to perform and control these processing steps. Major parts of this environment are: (i) access to the MODTRAN 3 radiative transfer code, (ii) a database of water quality algorithms, and (iii) a spectral library of Dutch coastal and inland waters, containing subsurface irradiance reflectance spectra and associated water quality parameters. The atmospheric correction part of this environment is discussed here. It is shown that this part can be used to accurately retrieve spectral signatures of inland water for wavelengths between 450 and 750 nm, provided in situ measurements are used to determine atmospheric model parameters. Assessment of the usefulness of the completely integrated software system in an operational environment requires a revised version that is presently being developed.

  5. Runoff quality impacts of dust suppression using saline water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loch, Rob J.; Squires, Helen

    2010-05-01

    In mining and gas operations, dust generation from unsealed roads is a major problem. Commonly, road watering is used to suppress dust, with the lowest water quality available generally being selected for that purpose. Whilst minimising water usage for the site, that practice does create concerns with respect to potential environmental impacts if runoff from the treated roads has significantly elevated salinity. For coal seam gas operations, the water extracted concurrently with the gas contains predominantly sodium bicarbonate. Therefore, where coal seam gas water is sprayed onto roads, there is potential for elevated sodium in runoff to impact on soil adjoining the roads, but there is no information on the rates of dissolution and mobilisation of soluble salt from the surface of roads that have been sprayed with low quality water to reduce dust. Therefore a rainfall simulator study was carried out to investigate rates of mobilisation of sodium bicarbonate from compacted soil surfaces simulating an unsealed road. The study considered effects of the amount of precipitated sodium bicarbonate on the soil surface and variations in rainfall intensity. Because the soil surfaces were compacted, runoff commenced almost immediately following application of rain. For all treatments with applied surface salt, runoff quality data showed a peak in salt concentration in the first flush of runoff, and relatively rapid reduction through time in those initial concentrations. The magnitude and duration of peak concentrations depended on both rainfall rate and the quantity of salt present on the soil surface. The flush of salts in run-off from the roads occurred very early in the run-off event, when none of the surrounding area would have commenced to run off. Consequently, the relatively small volume of run-off produced directly by the road could be expected to predominantly infiltrate in the table drain adjoining the road. The initial flush of saline water would then be leached to

  6. Predicting Water Quality by Relating Secchi-Disk Transparency and Chlorophyll a Measurements to Landsat Satellite Imagery for Michigan Inland Lakes, 2001-2006

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The State of Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes; approximately 3,500 of these lakes are greater than 25 acres. The USGS, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), has been monitoring the quality of inland lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment monitoring program. Approximately 100 inland lakes will be sampled per year from 2001 to 2015. Volunteers coordinated by MDEQ started sampling lakes in 1974, and continue to sample to date approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program (CLMP), Michigan's volunteer lakes monitoring program. Despite this sampling effort, it is still impossible to physically collect the necessary water-quality measurements for all 3,500 Michigan inland lakes. Therefore, a technique was used by USGS, modeled after Olmanson and others (2001), in cooperation with MDEQ that uses satellite remote sensing to predict water quality in unsampled inland lakes greater than 25 acres. Water-quality characteristics that are associated with water clarity can be predicted for Michigan inland lakes by relating sampled measurements of secchi-disk transparency (SDT) and chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl-a), to satellite imagery. The trophic state index (TSI) which is an indicator of the biological productivity can be calculated based on SDT measurements, Chl-a concentrations, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations measured near the lake's surface. Through this process, unsampled inland lakes within the fourteen Landsat satellite scenes encompassing Michigan can be translated into estimated TSI from either predicted SDT or Chl-a (fig. 1).

  7. Using density difference to store fresh water in saline subsurface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ginkel, M.; Olsthoorn, Th. N.; des Tombe, B.

    2012-04-01

    The storage of fresh water in the subsurface for later recovery and use (Aquifer Storage and Recovery) is becoming more and more important in the coming decades for seasonal or emergency storage, especially in the light of climate change and increasing population. However, fresh water storage in a saline subsurface poses a challenge: the initially vertical interface between injected fresh and native salt water is unstable and tends to rotate. The injected fresh water tends to float upward on top of native salt water, where it becomes hard or impossible to recover at a later stage. A wide body of literature exists about this buoyancy effect that is caused by the density difference between fresh and salt water. Yet, very few papers focus on solutions to this problem. In this paper we propose a storage principle to overcome this buoyancy problem by actually using the density difference to keep the fresh water in place, by combining salt water extraction and impermeable barriers. This technique seems promising and could solve many local fresh water storage problems. It is especially applicable in shallow water table aquifers for the storage of fresh water below parks and arable land or for seasonal storage of desalinated water. We performed laboratory-scale experiments and numerical modelling to study the dynamic behaviour of a fresh water bubble stored in saline subsurface using the technique of salt water extraction and impermeable barriers; including effects of operation dynamics, groundwater flow, and diffusion, dispersion and density differences.

  8. Diagenetic saline formation waters: Their role in crustal processes

    SciTech Connect

    Land, L.S. . Dept. Geology)

    1992-01-01

    Formation waters typical of most sedimentary basins are Bi-rich, Na-Ca-Cl brines. High Cl content is due to halite dissolution and high Ca content to albitization of metastable detrital plagioclase deposited in both sands and shales. High Br content is due to halite recrystallization, especially during deformation, and to the conversion of carnallite to sylvite. Minor elements and isotopes are all controlled by mineral/water reactions. Saline formation waters are thus a normal diagenetic product formed during burial. Diagenetic formation waters constitute a previously unrecognized loop in crustal cycling. Transfer of Li, B, S, Cl, Ca, and Br from sediments to brines, and then discharge of brines back to the ocean, explains why these six elements are depleted in the average igneous crust relative to the average sedimentary crust. Diagenetic saline formation waters are limited in volume only by the availability of sedimentary halite and detrital plagioclase. Thus, the volume of fluids available for MVT-type mineralization and late stage sediment diagenesis is much larger than would be true if formation waters were modified surficial brines. Discharge of saline formation waters from sedimentary basins accounts for efficient chloride cycling (225 Ma residence time in the ocean), and for most of the chloride content of the world's rivers not due to aerosols. Expulsion of large volumes of diagenetic formation waters during tectonism can account for rapid excursions in oceanic chemistry, as in the case of [sup 87]Sr/[sup 86]Sr.

  9. Identifying the Cause of Toxicity of a Saline Mine Water

    PubMed Central

    van Dam, Rick A.; Harford, Andrew J.; Lunn, Simon A.; Gagnon, Marthe M.

    2014-01-01

    Elevated major ions (or salinity) are recognised as being a key contributor to the toxicity of many mine waste waters but the complex interactions between the major ions and large inter-species variability in response to salinity, make it difficult to relate toxicity to causal factors. This study aimed to determine if the toxicity of a typical saline seepage water was solely due to its major ion constituents; and determine which major ions were the leading contributors to the toxicity. Standardised toxicity tests using two tropical freshwater species Chlorella sp. (alga) and Moinodaphnia macleayi (cladoceran) were used to compare the toxicity of 1) mine and synthetic seepage water; 2) key major ions (e.g. Na, Cl, SO4 and HCO3); 3) synthetic seepage water that were modified by excluding key major ions. For Chlorella sp., the toxicity of the seepage water was not solely due to its major ion concentrations because there were differences in effects caused by the mine seepage and synthetic seepage. However, for M. macleayi this hypothesis was supported because similar effects caused by mine seepage and synthetic seepage. Sulfate was identified as a major ion that could predict the toxicity of the synthetic waters, which might be expected as it was the dominant major ion in the seepage water. However, sulfate was not the primary cause of toxicity in the seepage water and electrical conductivity was a better predictor of effects. Ultimately, the results show that specific major ions do not clearly drive the toxicity of saline seepage waters and the effects are probably due to the electrical conductivity of the mine waste waters. PMID:25180579

  10. Modelling Regional Hotspots of Water Pollution Induced by Salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malsy, M.; Floerke, M.

    2014-12-01

    Insufficient water quality is one of the main global topics causing risk to human health, biodiversity, and food security. At this, salinization of water and land resources is widely spread especially in arid to semi-arid climates, where salinization, often induced by irrigation agriculture, is a fundamental aspect of land degradation. High salinity is crucial to water use for drinking, irrigation, and industrial purposes, and therefore poses a risk to human health and ecosystem status. However, salinization is also an economic problem, in particular in those regions where agriculture makes a significant contribution to the economy and/or where agriculture is mainly based on irrigation. Agricultural production is exposed to high salinity of irrigation water resulting in lower yields. Hence, not only the quantity of irrigation water is of importance for growing cops but also its quality, which may further reduce the available resources. Thereby a major concern for food production and security persists, as irrigated agriculture accounts for over 30% of the total agricultural production. In this study, the large scale water quality model WorldQual was applied to simulate recent total dissolved solids (TDS) loadings and in-stream concentrations from point and diffuse sources to get an insight on potential environmental impacts as well as risks to food security. Regional focus in this study is on developing countries, as these are most threatened by water pollution. Furthermore, insufficient water quality for irrigation and therefore restrictions in irrigation water use were examined, indicating limitations to crop production. For this purpose, model simulations were conducted for the year 2010 to show the recent status of surface water quality and to identify hotspots and main causes of pollution. Our results show that salinity hotspots mainly occur in peak irrigation regions as irrigated agriculture is by far the dominant sector contributing to water abstractions as

  11. FIELD CROP PRODUCTION IN AREAS WITH SALINE SOILS AND SHALLOW SALINE GROUND WATER IN THE SAN JOAQUIN VALLEY OF CALIFORNIA.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Salinity in soil and water is irrevocably associated with irrigated agriculture throughout the world and as a result requires that salt management becomes an integral part of the production system. With careful water management it is possible to sustain irrigated agriculture in areas with saline so...

  12. A preliminary study of the distribution of saline water in the bedrock aquifers of eastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ryling, Roy W.

    1961-01-01

    The occurrence of saline water in the bedrock aquifers of eastern Wisconsin has been known for many years. Because of the ready availability of fresh water from other sources, little has been known of the extent of the saline-water area. Saline ground water is a potential source of contamination to wells if it moves into fresh-water zones.

  13. Detection of water bodies in Saline County, Kansas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barr, B. G. (Principal Investigator)

    1973-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. A total of 2,272 water bodies were mapped in Saline County, Kansas in 1972 using ERTS-1 imagery. A topographic map of 1955 shows 1,056 water bodies in the county. The major increase took place in farm ponds. Preliminary comparison of image and maps indicates that water bodies larger than ten acres in area proved consistently detectable. Most water areas between four and ten acres are also detectable, although occasionally image context prevents detection. Water areas less than four acres in extent are sometimes detected, but the number varies greatly depending on image context and the individual interpretor.

  14. Hydrological Cycle in the Heihe River Basin and Its Implication for Water Resource Management in Inland River Basins (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Cheng, G.; Tian, W.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, J.; Pan, X.; Ge, Y.; Hu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Inland river basins take about 11.4% of the land area of the world and most of them are distributed over arid regions. Understanding the hydrological cycle of inland river basin is important for water resource management in water scarcity regions. This paper illustrated hydrological cycle of a typical inland river basin in China, the Heihe River Basin (HRB). First, water balance in upper, middle and lower reaches of the HRB was conceptualized by analyzing dominant hydrological processes in different parts of the river basin. Then, we used a modeling approach to study the water cycle in the HRB. In the upper reaches, we used the GBHM-SHAW, a distributed hydrological model with a new frozen soil parameterization. In the middle and lower reaches, we used the GWSiB, a three-dimensionally coupled land surface-groundwater model. Modeling results were compared with water balance observations in different landscapes and cross-validated with other results to ensure the reliability. The results show that the hydrological cycle in HRB has some distinctive characteristics. Mountainous area generates almost all of the runoff for the whole river basin. High-elevation zones have much larger runoff/precipitation ratio. Cryospheric hydrology plays an important role. Although snow melting and glacier runoff take less than 25% of total runoff, these processes regulate inter-annual variation of runoff and thus provide stable water resource for oases downstream. Forest area contributes almost no runoff but it smoothes runoff and reduces floods by storing water in soil and releasing it out slowly. In the middle reaches, artificial hydrological cycle is much more dominated than natural one. River water and groundwater, recharged by runoff from mountainous area, is the water resource to support the agriculture and nurture the riparian ecosystem. Precipitation, approximately 150 mm in average, is only a supplement to agriculture use but sufficient to sustain desert vegetation. Water

  15. 77 FR 69447 - Inland Waterways Users Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-19

    ... investment recommendations, along with updates of the Inland Marine Transportation System (IMTS) Levels of Service and the Impacts of Low Water on the Inland Waterways System. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT:...

  16. Inland Wetlands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Area Cooperative Educational Services, New Haven, CT. Environmental Education Center.

    This material includes student guide sheets, reference materials, and tape script for the audio-tutorial unit on Inland Wetlands. A set of 35mm slides and an audio tape are used with the material. The material is designed for use with Connecticut schools, but it can be adapted to other localities. The materials emphasize characteristics of inland…

  17. Development, calibration, and analysis of a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica L.; Raffensperger, Jeffrey Peter

    2003-01-01

    Excessive nutrients and sediment are among the most significant environmental stressors in the Delaware Inland Bays (Rehoboth, Indian River, and Little Assawoman Bays). Sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants within the Inland Bays watershed include point-source discharges from industries and wastewater-treatment plants, runoff and infiltration to ground water from agricultural fields and poultry operations, effluent from on-site wastewater disposal systems, and atmospheric deposition. To determine the most effective restoration methods for the Inland Bays, it is necessary to understand the relative distribution and contribution of each of the possible sources of nutrients, sediment, and other contaminants. A cooperative study involving the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the Delaware Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey was initiated in 2000 to develop a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed that can be used as a water-resources planning and management tool. The model code Hydrological Simulation Program - FORTRAN (HSPF) was used. The 719-square-kilometer watershed was divided into 45 model segments, and the model was calibrated using streamflow and water-quality data for January 1999 through April 2000 from six U.S. Geological Survey stream-gaging stations within the watershed. Calibration for some parameters was accomplished using PEST, a model-independent parameter estimator. Model parameters were adjusted systematically so that the discrepancies between the simulated values and the corresponding observations were minimized. Modeling results indicate that soil and aquifer permeability, ditching, dominant land-use class, and land-use practices affect the amount of runoff, the mechanism or flow path (surface flow, interflow, or base flow), and the loads of sediment and nutrients. In general, the edge-of-stream total suspended solids yields in the Inland Bays

  18. MACROSCOPIC APPROACHES TO ROOT WATER UPTAKE AS A FUNCTION OF WATER AND SALINITY STRESS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Computer simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing site-specific irrigation, soil salinization, or crop production problems. For many of these problems, computer analyses require simulations of root water uptake as a function of water and salinity stress. We give an over...

  19. Saline water irrigation effects on soil salinity distribution and some physiological responses of field grown Chemlali olive.

    PubMed

    Ben Ahmed, Chedlia; Magdich, Salwa; Ben Rouina, Bechir; Boukhris, Makki; Ben Abdullah, Ferjani

    2012-12-30

    The shortage of water resources of good quality is becoming an issue in arid and semi arid regions. Per consequent, the use of water resources of marginal quality is becoming an important consideration, particularly in arid regions in Tunisia, where large quantities of saline water are used for irrigation. Nevertheless, the use of these waters in irrigated lands requires the control of soil salinity and a comprehensive analysis even beyond the area where water is applied. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of saline water irrigation on soil salinity distribution and some physiological traits of field-grown adult olive trees (Olea europaea L. cv. Chemlali) under contrasting environmental conditions of the arid region in the south of Tunisia. The plants were subjected, over two growing seasons, to two drip irrigated treatments: fresh water (ECe=1.2 dS m(-1), FW) and saline water (ECe=7.5 dS m(-1), SW). Saline water irrigation (SW) has led to a significant increase in soil salinity. Furthermore, these results showed that soil salinity and soil moisture variations are not only dependent on water salinity level but are also controlled by a multitude of factors particularly the soil texture, the distance from the irrigation source and climatic conditions (rainfall pattern, temperature average, …). On the other hand, salt treatment reduced leaf midday water potential (LMWP), relative water content and photosynthetic activity and increased the leaf proline content, and this increase was season-dependent. Indeed, LMWP in SW plants decreased to -3.71 MPa. Furthermore, the highest level of proline in SW plants was registered during summer period (2.19 μmol/mg Fw). The proline accumulation recorded in stressed plants has allowed them to preserve appropriate leaf water status and photosynthetic activity. More to the point, this olive cultivar seems to be more sensible to soil salinity during the intense growth phase. Such tendencies would help to better

  20. Flooded area characterization and losses estimation for water balance and hydrological functioning over the Niger inland delta, Mali

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moussa, Ibrahim; Dominik, Wisser; Abdou, Ali; Ousmane, Seidou; Adama, Mariko; Abel, Afouda

    2015-04-01

    Water availability is an ongoing challenge for West African countries in general and Niger River basin in particular. Niger Inland Delta undergone an annual flood events from the Niger and Bani Rivers. During such events the flooded area can overs a surface of about 40,000 km2 and extends around 350 km in length and 100 km width in Mali. The processes that occur in NID are not fully incorporated in the conceptual development of many hydrological models under Niger Basin runoff. While these processes in NID can have considerable influence on downstream flow regimes due water losses impacting significantly the water availability. Although several studies in this region developed conceptual models to represent hydrological processes in that system. But the models have been criticized for their limitation and simplicity in conception for representing explicitly all the hydrological processes. This paper presents an attempt to assess the hydrological processes by taking into account more physical knowledge of the NID system. This is in view of incorporating wetland processes into an existing hydrological model to improve model simulations on the basin. The approach is mainly water balance based on large units that account for the system over the NID. Digital elevation model (DEM), satellite data, observed climate and hydrological parameters allowed the assessment of spatiotemporal variations of the flooded area, and then the quantification of evaporative and infiltration fluxes. Characterization of the extent of the flooded area is obtained from monthly-scale inflow data and remote sensing derived flood maps within a non-linear regression Model based. The modelization of the spatiotemporal extension of the flooding of the NID show that the flooded areas vary between 25 000 km2 in wet period and 2 000 km2 in dry period. Time series of input water volumes in the Niger Inland delta and of the water losses through the NID show that the percentage of volume of annual water

  1. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    Current control of dissolved organic matter in natural and waste waters is the definition traditionally of chemical oxygen demand (COD) -- one of the basic parameters of quality of water. According to the International Standard (ISO 6060), it requires not less than one hour, while in many cases the operative information about amount of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments have importance for prevention of an emergency. The standard method is applicable to waters with meaning of COD above 30 mg O2/l and, as the chloride ion prevents, it could be difficult for assessment of organic matter in sea water. Besides it is based on dichromate oxidation of the sum of organic substances in strong acid conditions at the presence of silver and mercury, that resulted in formation toxic pollutants. Till now attempts of automation of the COD definition in aquatic system were limited, basically, to duplication of the technology submitted the above standard (automatic COD analyzers "SERES Co."-- France, or "Tsvet Co." - Russia). The system of ozone-chemiluminescence automatic control of organic matter in water (CS COD) is offered and designed. Its based on the ozone oxidation of these substances in flowing water system and measurement arising from luminescent effects. CS COD works in real time. An instrument uses for reaction the atmospheric air, doesn't require fill of reagents and doesn't make new toxic pollutants. The system was tested in laboratory, and biochemical control of organic matter in water samples gathered from the river Neva and other polluted inland water areas and basins in St. Petersburg region was fulfilled (distilled water was used as "zero" media). The results of systematization of these measurements are presented. The new special ozone generator and flowing reactor for real-time running control of different waters in natural conditions were developed, and several series of large - scale field experiments onboard research ship were provided

  2. Plant Response to Differential Soil Water Content and Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moradi, A. B.; Dara, A.; Kamai, T.; Ngo, A.; Walker, R.; Hopmans, J. W.

    2011-12-01

    Root-zone soil water content is extremely dynamic, governed by complex and coupled processes such as root uptake, irrigation, evaporation, and leaching. Root uptake of water and nutrients is influenced by these conditions and the processes involved. Plant roots are living and functioning in a dynamic environment that is subjected to extreme changes over relatively short time and small distances. In order to better manage our agricultural resources and cope with increasing constraints of water limitation, environmental concerns and climate change, it is vital to understand plants responses to these changes in their environment. We grew chick pea (Cicer arietinum) plants, in boxes of 30 x 25 x 1 cm dimensions filled with fine sand. Layers of coarse sand (1.5 cm thick) were embedded in the fine-sand media to divide the root growth environment into sections that were hydraulically disconnected from each other. This way, each section could be independently treated with differential levels of water and salinity. The root growth and distribution in the soil was monitored on daily bases using neutron radiography. Daily water uptake was measured by weighing the containers. Changes of soil water content in each section of the containers were calculated from the neutron radiographs. Plants that part of their root system was stressed with drought or salinity showed no change in their daily water uptake rate. The roots in the stressed sections stayed turgid during the stress period and looked healthy in the neutron images. However the uptake rate was severely affected when the soil in the non-stressed section started to dry. The plants were then fully irrigated with water and the water uptake rate recovered to its initial rate shortly after irrigation. The neutron radiographs clearly illustrated the shrinkage and recovery of the roots under stress and the subsequent relief. This cycle was repeated a few times and the same trend could be reproduced. Our results show that plants

  3. Hydrogeology, Water Quality, and Distribution and Sources of Salinity in the Floridan Aquifer System, Martin and St. Lucie Counties, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reese, Ronald S.

    2004-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system is considered to be a valuable source for agricultural and municipal water supply in Martin and St. Lucie Counties, despite its brackish water. Increased withdrawals, however, could increase salinity and threaten the quality of withdrawn water. The Floridan aquifer system consists of limestone, dolomitic limestone, and dolomite and is divided into three hydrogeologic units: the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. An informal geologic unit at the top of the Upper Floridan aquifer, referred to as the basal Hawthorn/Suwannee unit, is bound above by a marker unit in the Hawthorn Group and at its base by the Ocala Limestone; a map of this unit shows an area where substantial eastward thickening begins near the coast. This change in thickness is used to divide the study area into inland and coastal areas. In the Upper Floridan aquifer, an area of elevated chloride concentration greater than 1,000 milligrams per liter and water temperature greater than 28 degrees Celsius exists in the inland area and trends northwest through north-central Martin County and western St. Lucie County. A structural feature coincides with this area of greater salinity and water temperature; this feature is marked by a previously mapped northwest-trending basement fault and, based on detailed mapping in this study of the structure at the top of the basal Hawthorn/Suwannee unit, an apparent southeast-trending trough. Higher hydraulic head also has been mapped in this northwest-trending area. Another area of high chloride concentration in the Upper Floridan aquifer occurs in the southern part of the coastal area (in eastern Martin County and northeastern Palm Beach County); chloride concentration in this area is more than 2,000 milligrams per liter and is as great as 8,000 milligrams per liter. A dissolved-solids concentration of less than 10,000 milligrams per liter defines the brackish-water zone in the Floridan aquifer

  4. Research Needs and Opportunities in Management of Saline Soils and Waters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current research programs on irrigation with saline waters and management of saline soils at the U.S. Salinity Laboratory are reviewed. The research program includes: 1) Remote sensing of electrical conductivity (EC) for rapid assessment of salinity at the field scale; 2) EC-directed soil sampling f...

  5. Contributions of groundwater conditions to soil and water salinization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, Ramsis B.; Otto, Claus J.; Fitzpatrick, Robert W.

    Salinization is the process whereby the concentration of dissolved salts in water and soil is increased due to natural or human-induced processes. Water is lost through one or any combination of four main mechanisms: evaporation, evapotranspiration, hydrolysis, and leakage between aquifers. Salinity increases from catchment divides to the valley floors and in the direction of groundwater flow. Salinization is explained by two main chemical models developed by the authors: weathering and deposition. These models are in agreement with the weathering and depositional geological processes that have formed soils and overburden in the catchments. Five soil-change processes in arid and semi-arid climates are associated with waterlogging and water. In all represented cases, groundwater is the main geological agent for transmitting, accumulating, and discharging salt. At a small catchment scale in South and Western Australia, water is lost through evapotranspiration and hydrolysis. Saline groundwater flows along the beds of the streams and is accumulated in paleochannels, which act as a salt repository, and finally discharges in lakes, where most of the saline groundwater is concentrated. In the hummocky terrains of the Northern Great Plains Region, Canada and USA, the localized recharge and discharge scenarios cause salinization to occur mainly in depressions, in conjunction with the formation of saline soils and seepages. On a regional scale within closed basins, this process can create playas or saline lakes. In the continental aquifers of the rift basins of Sudan, salinity increases along the groundwater flow path and forms a saline zone at the distal end. The saline zone in each rift forms a closed ridge, which coincides with the closed trough of the groundwater-level map. The saline body or bodies were formed by evaporation coupled with alkaline-earth carbonate precipitation and dissolution of capillary salts. Résumé La salinisation est le processus par lequel la

  6. Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) salinity data validation over Malaysia coastal water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reba, M. N. M.; Rosli, A. Z.; Rahim, N. A.

    2014-02-01

    The study of sea surface salinity (SSS) plays an important role in the marine ecosystem, estimation of global ocean circulation and observation of fisheries, aquaculture, coral reef and sea grass habitats. The new challenge of SSS estimation is to exploit the ocean surface brightness temperature (Tb) observed by the Microwave Imaging Radiometer with Aperture Synthesis (MIRAS) onboard the Soil Moisture Ocean Salinity (SMOS) satellite that is specifically designed to provide the best retrieval of ocean salinity and soil moisture using the L band of 1.4 GHz radiometer. Tb observed by radiometer is basically a function of the dielectric constant, sea surface temperature (SST), wind speed (U), incidence angle, polarization and SSS. Though, the SSS estimation is an ill-posed inversion problem as the relationship between the Tb and SSS is non-linear function. Objective of this study is to validate the SMOS SSS estimates with the ground-truth over the Malaysia coastal water. The LM iteratively determines the SSS of SMOS by the reduction of the sum of squared errors between Tb SMOS and Tb simulation (using in-situ) based on the updated geophysical triplet in the direction of the minimum of the cost function. The minimum cost function is compared to the desired threshold at each iteration and this recursive least square process updates the SST, U and SSS until the cost function converged. The designed LM's non-linear inversion algorithm simultaneously estimates SST, U and SSS and thus, map of SSS over Malaysia coastal water is produced from the regression model and accuracy assessment between the SMOS and in-situ retrieved SSS. This study found a good agreement in the validation with R square of 0.9 and the RMSE of 0.4. It is concluded that the non-linear inversion method is effective and practical to extract SMOS SSS, U and SST simultaneously.

  7. Review of Methods and Approaches for Deriving Numeric Criteria for Nitrogen/ Phosphorus Pollution in Florida's Estuaries, Coastal, and Soutnern Inland Flowing Waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA will propose numeric criteria for nitrogen/phosphorus pollution to protect estuaries, coastal areas and South Florida inland flowing waters that have been designated Class I, II and III , as well as downstream protective values (DPVs) to protect estuarine and marine waters. ...

  8. Estimation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in Inland, Estuarine, and Coastal Waters using Aircraft and Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moses, W. J.; Gitelson, A. A.; Berdnikov, S.; Povazhnyy, V.

    2009-12-01

    A three-band model and a two-band model, which use reflectances in the red and near Infrared (NIR) wavebands that match the spectral channels of MODIS and MERIS, were tested for estimating chl-a concentration in turbid and productive inland, estuarine, and coastal waters using remotely sensed aircraft and satellite data. The NIR-red models were first tested with data collected by field spectrometers from inland, estuarine, and coastal water bodies with widely varying biophysical characteristics, from different geographic locations. The models showed a very close and steady relationship with chl-a concentration (r2 > 0.9), effectively accounting for variations in other constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter. The high accuracy and stability obtained with the field spectrometer data lent to the development of algorithms that can be applied to aircraft and satellite data. When applied to multi-temporal data from the aircraft sensor, AISA, the output from the two-band NIR-red model, with wavebands that match the MERIS spectral channels at 665 nm and 708 nm, had very close relationships with chl-a concentration (r2 > 0.87) for each image. But the slope and offset of the linear relationship varied between the images due to non-uniform atmospheric effects. A relative atmospheric correction of the AISA images resulted in conformity of the slopes and offset. The two-band MODIS NIR-red model and the two-band and three-band MERIS NIR-red models were applied to MODIS and MERIS images. Four different atmospheric correction schemes were tried for MODIS data and two schemes for MERIS data. The two-band and three-band MERIS NIR-red model values, when applied to MERIS images, had a very close and steady relationship with chl-a concentration (r2 > 0.95). Data collected in four different campaigns on Azov Sea and Taganrog Bay in 2008 were used to calibrate and develop MERIS NIR-red algorithms that were validated with data collected in 2009. The two

  9. Inverse modeling of surface-water discharge to achieve restoration salinity performance measures in Florida Bay, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, E.D.; James, D.E.

    2008-01-01

    The use of numerical modeling to evaluate regional water-management practices involves the simulation of various alternative water-delivery scenarios, which typically are designed intuitively rather than analytically. These scenario simulations are used to analyze how specific water-management practices affect factors such as water levels, flows, and salinities. In lieu of testing a variety of scenario simulations in a trial-and-error manner, an optimization technique may be used to more precisely and directly define good water-management alternatives. A numerical model application in the coastal regions of Florida Bay and Everglades National Park (ENP), representing the surface- and ground-water hydrology for the region, is a good example of a tool used to evaluate restoration scenarios. The Southern Inland and Coastal System (SICS) model simulates this area with a two-dimensional hydrodynamic surface-water model and a three-dimensional ground-water model, linked to represent the interaction of the two systems with salinity transport. This coastal wetland environment is of great interest in restoration efforts, and the SICS model is used to analyze the effects of alternative water-management scenarios. The SICS model is run within an inverse modeling program called UCODE. In this application, UCODE adjusts the regulated inflows to ENP while SICS is run iteratively. UCODE creates parameters that define inflow within an allowable range for the SICS model based on SICS model output statistics, with the objective of matching user-defined target salinities that meet ecosystem restoration criteria. Preliminary results obtained using two different parameterization methods illustrate the ability of the model to achieve the goals of adjusting the range and reducing the variance of salinity values in the target area. The salinity variance in the primary zone of interest was reduced from an original value of 0.509 psu2 to values 0.418 psu2 and 0.342 psu2 using different

  10. Very high spatial resolution optical and radar imagery in tracking water level fluctuations of a small inland reservoir

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, R. N.; Tormos, T.; Danis, P.-A.

    2015-06-01

    Tracking water level fluctuations in small lakes and reservoirs is important in order to better understand and manage these ecosystems. A geographic object-based image analysis (GEOBIA) method using very high spatial and temporal resolution optical (Pléiades) and radar (COSMO-SkyMed and TerraSAR-X) remote sensing imagery is presented here which (1) tracks water level fluctuations via variations in water surface area and (2) avoids common difficulties found in using single-band radar images for water-land image classification. Results are robust, with over 98% of image surface area correctly classified into land or water, R2 = 0.963 and RMSE = 0.42 m for a total water level fluctuation range of 5.94 m. Multispectral optical imagery is found to be more straightforward in producing results than single-band radar imagery, but the latter crucially increase temporal resolution to the point where fluctuations can be satisfactorily tracked in time. Moreover, an analysis suggests that high and medium spatial resolution imagery is sufficient, in at least some cases, in tracking the water level fluctuations of small inland reservoirs. Finally, limitations of the methodology presented here are briefly discussed along with potential solutions to overcome them.

  11. Fern Spore Longevity in Saline Water: Can Sea Bottom Sediments Maintain a Viable Spore Bank?

    PubMed Central

    de Groot, G. Arjen; During, Heinjo

    2013-01-01

    Freshwater and marine sediments often harbor reservoirs of plant diaspores, from which germination and establishment may occur whenever the sediment falls dry. Therewith, they form valuable records of historical inter- and intraspecific diversity, and are increasingly exploited to facilitate diversity establishment in new or restored nature areas. Yet, while ferns may constitute a considerable part of a vegetation’s diversity and sediments are known to contain fern spores, little is known about their longevity, which may suffer from inundation and - in sea bottoms - salt stress. We tested the potential of ferns to establish from a sea or lake bottom, using experimental studies on spore survival and gametophyte formation, as well as a spore bank analysis on sediments from a former Dutch inland sea. Our experimental results revealed clear differences among species. For Asplenium scolopendrium and Gymnocarpium dryopteris, spore germination was not affected by inundated storage alone, but decreased with rising salt concentrations. In contrast, for Asplenium trichomanes subsp. quadrivalens germination decreased following inundation, but not in response to salt. Germination rates decreased with time of storage in saline water. Smaller and less viable gametophytes were produced when saline storage lasted for a year. Effects on germination and gametophyte development clearly differed among genotypes of A. scolopendrium. Spore bank analyses detected no viable spores in marine sediment layers. Only two very small gametophytes (identified as Thelypteris palustris via DNA barcoding) emerged from freshwater sediments. Both died before maturation. We conclude that marine, and likely even freshwater sediments, will generally be of little value for long-term storage of fern diversity. The development of any fern vegetation on a former sea floor will depend heavily on the deposition of spores onto the drained land by natural or artificial means of dispersal. PMID:24223951

  12. Increased salinization of fresh water in the Northeastern United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaushal, S.S.; Groffman, P.M.; Likens, G.E.; Belt, K.T.; Stack, W.P.; Kelly, V.R.; Band, L.E.; Fisher, G.T.

    2005-01-01

    Chloride concentrations are increasing at a rate that threatens the availability of fresh water in the northeastern United States. Increases in roadways and deicer use are now salinizing fresh waters, degrading habitat for aquatic organisms, and impacting large supplies of drinking water for humans throughout the region. We observed chloride concentrations of up to 25% of the concentration of seawater in streams of Maryland, New York, and New Hampshire during winters, and chloride concentrations remaining up to 100 times greater than unimpacted forest streams during summers. Mean annual chloride concentration increased as a function of impervious surface and exceeded tolerance for freshwater life in suburban and urban watersheds. Our analysis shows that if salinity were to continue to increase at its present rate due to changes in impervious surface coverage and current management practices, many surface waters in the northeastern United States would not be potable for human consumption and would become toxic to freshwater life within the next century. ?? 2005 by The National Academy of Sciences of the USA.

  13. Industry use of saline water not expected in tar sand triangle

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-09-01

    An environmental assessment of the Dirty Devil River Salinity Control Unit resulted in a finding of no significant impact. The purpose of the unit is to reduce salinity in the Colorado River by collecting flows below two saline springs and disposing of them by deep-well injection into the Coconino Sandstone. During formulation of the salinity control plan, the potential use of saline water in the development of tar sand resources was considered, but it was concluded that saline water would not be needed for this purpose in the foreseeable future, because of the currently depressed world oil market and the development status of tar sand extraction technologies.

  14. How is water availability related to the land use and morphology of an inland valley wetland in Kenya?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Böhme, Beate; Becker, Mathias; Diekkrüger, Bernd; Förch, Gerd

    2016-06-01

    Small inland valley wetlands contribute substantially to the livelihoods of rural communities in East Africa. Their conversion into farmland is driven by water availability. We quantified spatial-temporal dynamics of water availability in a headwater wetland in the humid zone of Kenya. Climatic conditions, soil moisture contents, groundwater levels and discharge data were monitored. A land-use map and a digital elevation model of the valley bottom were created to relate variations in soil moisture to dominant land uses and valley morphology. Upland crops occupied about a third of the wetland area, while approximately a quarter of the wet, central part of the valley bottom was designated for flood-tolerant taro, grown either by itself or in association or in rotation with upland crops. Finally, natural vegetation was found in 3% of the mapped area, mainly in sections with nearpermanent soil saturation. The HBV rainfall-runoff model's overestimation of stream discharge during the long dry season of the hydrological year 2010/2011 can be explained by the strong seasonal impact of water abstraction on the wetland's water balance. Our study vividly demonstrates the necessity of multi-method approaches for assessing the impact of management practices on water availability in valley bottom wetlands in East Africa.

  15. Two-Dimensional Hydrodynamic Simulation of Surface-Water Flow and Transport to Florida Bay through the Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Bales, Jerad D.; Goodwin, Carl R.

    2004-01-01

    Successful restoration of the southern Florida ecosystem requires extensive knowledge of the physical characteristics and hydrologic processes controlling water flow and transport of constituents through extremely low-gradient freshwater marshes, shallow mangrove-fringed coastal creeks and tidal embayments, and near-shore marine waters. A sound, physically based numerical model can provide simulations of the differing hydrologic conditions that might result from various ecosystem restoration scenarios. Because hydrology and ecology are closely linked in southern Florida, hydrologic model results also can be used by ecologists to evaluate the degree of ecosystem restoration that could be achieved for various hydrologic conditions. A robust proven model, SWIFT2D, (Surface-Water Integrated Flow and Transport in Two Dimensions), was modified to simulate Southern Inland and Coastal Systems (SICS) hydrodynamics and transport conditions. Modifications include improvements to evapotranspiration and rainfall calculation and to the algorithms that describe flow through coastal creeks. Techniques used in this model should be applicable to other similar low-gradient marsh settings in southern Florida and elsewhere. Numerous investigations were conducted within the SICS area of southeastern Everglades National Park and northeastern Florida Bay to provide data and parameter values for model development and testing. The U.S. Geological Survey and the National Park Service supported investigations for quantification of evapotranspiration, vegetative resistance to flow, wind-induced flow, land elevations, vegetation classifications, salinity conditions, exchange of ground and surface waters, and flow and transport in coastal creeks and embayments. The good agreement that was achieved between measured and simulated water levels, flows, and salinities through minimal adjustment of empirical coefficients indicates that hydrologic processes within the SICS area are represented properly

  16. General pattern of the turbid water in the Seto-inland sea extracted from multispectral imageries by the LANDSAT-1 and 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maruyasu, T. (Principal Investigator); Watanabe, K.

    1976-01-01

    The author has identified the following significant results. Each distribution pattern of turbid water changes with the time in accordance with daily tides, seasonal variation of tides, and occasional rainfall. Two cases of successfully repeated LANDSAT observations for the same sea regions suggested a general pattern of turbid water could be extracted for each region. Photographic and digital processes were used to extract patterns of turbid water separately from the cloud and smog-layer in MSS 4, 5, and 7 imageries. A mosaic of image-masked imageries displays a general pattern of turbid water for almost the entire Seto Inland Sea. No such pattern was extracted for the Aki-Nada south of Hiroshima City where the water is fairly polluted, nor for the Iyo-Nada where the water is generally clearer than in other regions of the Seto Inland Sea.

  17. Effects of shallow water table, salinity and frequency of irrigation water on the date palm water use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Askri, Brahim; Ahmed, Abdelkader T.; Abichou, Tarek; Bouhlila, Rachida

    2014-05-01

    In southern Tunisia oases, waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage represent serious threats to the sustainability of irrigated agriculture. Understanding the interaction between these problems and their effects on root water uptake is fundamental for suggesting possible options of improving land and water productivity. In this study, HYDRUS-1D model was used in a plot of farmland located in the Fatnassa oasis to investigate the effects of waterlogging, salinity, and water shortage on the date palm water use. The model was calibrated and validated using experimental data of sap flow density of a date palm, soil hydraulic properties, water table depth, and amount of irrigation water. The comparison between predicted and observed data for date palm transpiration rates was acceptable indicating that the model could well estimate water consumption of this tree crop. Scenario simulations were performed with different water table depths, and salinities and frequencies of irrigation water. The results show that the impacts of water table depth and irrigation frequency vary according to the season. In summer, high irrigation frequency and shallow groundwater are needed to maintain high water content and low salinity of the root-zone and therefore to increase the date palm transpiration rates. However, these factors have no significant effect in winter. The results also reveal that irrigation water salinity has no significant effect under shallow saline groundwater.

  18. Air-water partitioning of 222Rn and its dependence on water temperature and salinity.

    PubMed

    Schubert, Michael; Paschke, Albrecht; Lieberman, Eric; Burnett, William C

    2012-04-01

    Radon is useful as a tracer of certain geophysical processes in marine and aquatic environments. Recent applications include detection of groundwater discharges into surface waters and assessment of air/sea gas piston velocities. Much of the research performed in the past decade has relied on continuous measurements made in the field using a radon stripping unit connected to a radon-in-air detection system. This approach assumes that chemical equilibrium is attained between the water and gas phases and that the resulting air activity can be multiplied by a partition coefficient to obtain the corresponding radon-in-water activity. We report here the results of a series of laboratory experiments that describes the dependence of the partition coefficient upon both water temperature and salinity. Our results show that the temperature dependence for freshwater closely matches results that were previously available. The salinity effect, however, has largely been ignored and our results show that this can result in an overestimation of radon concentrations, especially in cooler, more saline waters. Related overestimates in typical situations range between 10 (warmer less saline waters) and 20% (cooler, more saline waters). PMID:22385122

  19. Reverse osmosis desalting of inland brackish water of high gypsum scaling propensity: kinetics and mitigation of membrane mineral scaling.

    PubMed

    Rahardianto, Anditya; McCool, Brian C; Cohen, Yoram

    2008-06-15

    The potential for mineral scaling that may limit the generation of new potable water resources by reverse osmosis (RO), from inland brackish water of high gypsum scaling propensity, was experimentally explored via flux decline measurements and real-time RO membrane surface imaging. Antagonistic gypsum and calcium carbonate scaling kinetics were demonstrated for high-sulfate brackish water desalting. RO scaling studies with brackish water from the California San Joaquin Valley (approximately 10 000 mg/L total dissolved solids) revealed that membrane gypsum scaling was increasingly retarded with rising bicarbonate concentrations. Crystal growth rate, fractional membrane scale coverage, and flux decline decreased by up to about 63, 78, and 73%, respectively, as the bicarbonate concentration increased, at the membrane surface, from < 0.01 to 7.81 mM, for a gypsum saturation index of 2. Inhibition of gypsum crystal growth was attributed to bicarbonate adsorption onto the crystal surfaces, and CaCO3 scaling was undetected even up to a calcite saturation index of approximately 16. Given the suppression of gypsum scaling by bicarbonate, it is essential to considerthis effect in the conventional practice of pH adjustment to suppress CaCO3 scaling. The present results suggest that antagonistic and synergistic mineral crystallization kinetics effects are important for optimizing scale-control strategies (e.g., acid and antiscalants addition to the RO feed). PMID:18605546

  20. RESPONSES OF EMBRYONIC AND LARVAL INLAND SILVERSIDE, MENIDIA BERYLLINA TO NO. 2 FUEL OIL AND OIL DISPERSANTS IN SEA WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, is a numerically abundant component of Gulf of Mexico estuaries and bays and serves as a forage fish formany commercially valuable species such as the Striped bass, Morone saxatilis. ecause the inland silverside spawns in shallow nearshor...

  1. Adaptive re-tracking algorithm for retrieval of water level variations and wave heights from satellite altimetry data for middle-sized inland water bodies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troitskaya, Yuliya; Lebedev, Sergey; Soustova, Irina; Rybushkina, Galina; Papko, Vladislav; Baidakov, Georgy; Panyutin, Andrey

    One of the recent applications of satellite altimetry originally designed for measurements of the sea level [1] is associated with remote investigation of the water level of inland waters: lakes, rivers, reservoirs [2-7]. The altimetry data re-tracking algorithms developed for open ocean conditions (e.g. Ocean-1,2) [1] often cannot be used in these cases, since the radar return is significantly contaminated by reflection from the land. The problem of minimization of errors in the water level retrieval for inland waters from altimetry measurements can be resolved by re-tracking satellite altimetry data. Recently, special re-tracking algorithms have been actively developed for re-processing altimetry data in the coastal zone when reflection from land strongly affects echo shapes: threshold re-tracking, The other methods of re-tracking (threshold re-tracking, beta-re-tracking, improved threshold re-tracking) were developed in [9-11]. The latest development in this field is PISTACH product [12], in which retracking bases on the classification of typical forms of telemetric waveforms in the coastal zones and inland water bodies. In this paper a novel method of regional adaptive re-tracking based on constructing a theoretical model describing the formation of telemetric waveforms by reflection from the piecewise constant model surface corresponding to the geography of the region is considered. It was proposed in [13, 14], where the algorithm for assessing water level in inland water bodies and in the coastal zone of the ocean with an error of about 10-15 cm was constructed. The algorithm includes four consecutive steps: - constructing a local piecewise model of a reflecting surface in the neighbourhood of the reservoir; - solving a direct problem by calculating the reflected waveforms within the framework of the model; - imposing restrictions and validity criteria for the algorithm based on waveform modelling; - solving the inverse problem by retrieving a tracking point

  2. Water recovery from saline streams produced by electrodialysis.

    PubMed

    Andrade Becheleni, Emily Mayer; Borba, Ricardo Perobelli; Seckler, Marcelo Martins; Ferreira Rocha, Sônia Denise

    2015-01-01

    Advances in technologies to enable water reuse in industry have been the objective of many research efforts, mainly due to the need to reduce the use of natural resources and due to factors related to their availability. This paper evaluates the crystallization of salts from petrochemical saline waste to achieve zero water discharge by the recovery of water and dissolved salts as a solid mixture. In line with process symbiosis, the recovered water should be suitable for use as cooling water in heat exchangers. Vacuum evaporative crystallization, at the batch scale, was used to remove the salts present in the concentrated stream from reverse electrodialysis of pretreated wastewater by a biological process. The partition of organic compounds in the feed solution between the condensate and the mother liquor was obtained from measurements of the total organic carbon and total nitrogen in the solutions. The solid phases formed experimentally are compared with those predicted by chemical modelling by PHREEQC. The recovered water presented almost 50 times less total dissolved solids than the feed stream (from 2100 to 44 mg/L). Calcium sulphate hydrate, calcium sulphate and sodium chloride were the majority crystalline phases formed, in accordance with the modelling by PHREEQC. PMID:25338133

  3. RESPONSE OF MYSID SHRIMP (MYSIDOPSIS BAHIA), SHEEPSHEAD MINNOW (CYPRINODON VARIEGATUS), AND INLAND SILVERSIDE MINNOW (MENIDIA BERYLLINA) TO CHANGES IN ARTIFICIAL SEAWATER SALINITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    Although marine organisms are adapted to naturally high concentrations of total dissolved solids (salinity) in their environment, abnormally high or low concentrations of ions can be toxic. Toxicity can result from aberrant levels of a single ion or from shifts of the entire spec...

  4. Addressing Emergency Flood Mapping And Monitoring Of Inland Water Bodies With Sentinel 1-2. Expectative And Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yesou, Herve; Sarti, Francesco; Tholey, Nadine; Mouratidis, Antonios; Cladillon, Stephen; Huber, Claire; Studer, Mathias; de Fraipont, Paul

    2013-12-01

    The importance of water resources and the escalating frequency and intensity of flood events around the world during the last decades, emphasize the necessity of their timely and cost-effective monitoring by Remote Sensing techniques. The purpose of this paper is to present the current capacity of Earth Observation in detecting and monitoring flooded areas and inland water bodies, by means of different sensors (SAR, optical/IR). This is achieved by using results and experience gained within the International Charter and SAFER GMESS, ... , as well as from other relevant case studies such as ESA MOST Dragon project during the last decade and Take Five Experiment conducted by CNES-CESBIO. Based on this experience, the foreseen improvements that the Sentinel-1 and -2 missions will bring are presented, in the direction of meeting this new set of refined requirements, but also in the context of COPERNICUS. The user requirements for water resource and especially for flood monitoring are very high, with flash-floods being the most demanding case in terms of timely acquisitions of EO data. The Sentinels will be a milestone of the spatial and temporal improvements in Earth observation dedicated to risk management. While Sentinels will insure an efficient routine surveillance mission, VHR satellites like Pleiades will be tasked on demand over smaller high- risk areas.

  5. Effects of Basin Flux on Regional Interactions between Fresh Water and Saline Groundwater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, S.; Murdoch, L. C.; Falta, R. W.

    2013-12-01

    Saline groundwater underlies fresh water aquifers at depths of 100 m or less in the midwestern U.S. to one to several kilometers in coastal areas. The upward migration of the interface between fresh and saline water can degrade freshwater aquifers and threaten aquatic ecosystems if the saline water discharges to surface water. Storage of CO2 in deep saline aquifers is being considered to reduce greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and this process is expected to increase the pressure in these deep aquifers. One potential consequence of pressurization is an increase in the upward flux of saline water. This research aims to evaluate the risks associated with increasing the flux from saline to fresh water aquifers as a result of CO2 storage. The research approach is to develop and evaluate simulations of fresh water aquifers overlying saline groundwater that is subjected to changes in flux. Computational codes COMSOL, SEAWAT, and TOUGH2 were verified by solving classic benchmark problems of density-dependent flow. The models were then used to analyze idealized 2D and 3D geometries representing the essential details of a shallow, fresh water aquifer underlain by a saline ground water in a sedimentary basin. The effects of saline encroachment are evaluated using a sensitivity analysis of key parameters, and the results are formulated in both dimensioned and dimensionless form. Results indicate that the depth of the saline water-freshwater interface is closely related to the surface water circulation pattern as well as the magnitude and duration of basin encroachment. Increased upward flux of saline water will raise the interface between salt and fresh water, and it will increase the salinity of water discharging to streams. However, the expected magnitudes of these effects appear to be small when the expected changes in flux caused by CO2 storage are considered. Ongoing work is refining these analyses and verify them using field observations to further constrain risks

  6. Geohydrology and potential for upward movement of saline water in the Cocoa well field, East Orange County, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Phelps, G.G.; Schiffer, D.M.

    1996-01-01

    The Floridan aquifer system, an approximately 2,000-foot thick sequence of Eocene-age limestone and dolomite, is the main source of water supply in central Florida. Hydraulic conductivity is different in strata of different lithology and is the basis for separating the aquifer system into the Upper Floridan aquifer, a middle semi- confining unit, and the Lower Floridan aquifer. The coastal city of Cocoa withdraws about 26 million gallons of water per day from the Upper Floridan aquifer from a well field in east Orange County, about 25 miles inland. About 60 million gallons per day are withdrawn from the Upper Floridan aquifer and 56 million gallons per day from the Lower Floridan aquifer in the Orlando area, about 15 miles west of the Cocoa well field. Wells drilled in the Cocoa well field from 1955-61 yielded water with chloride concentrations ranging from 25-55 milligrams per liter. Soon after the wells were put in service, chloride concentrations increased; therefore, new wells were drilled further inland. Chloride concen- trations in water from many of the new wells also have increased. Possible sources of saline water are lateral movement of relict seawater in the Upper Floridan aquifer from the east, regional upconing of saline water from the Lower Floridan aquifer or underlying older rocks, or localized upward movement of saline water through fractures. Several test wells were drilled to provide information about chloride concentration changes with depth and to monitor changes with time, including a multi-zone well drilled in 1965 (well C) and two wells drilled in the 1990's (wells R and S). Chloride concentrations have increased in the zone pumped by the supply wells (the upper 500 feet of the aquifer) and in the 1,351-1,357-foot deep zone of well C, but not in the two intervening zones. This indicates that the source of saline water is located laterally, rather than vertically, from the pumped zone in the area of well C. The potential for upward movement

  7. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems mod...

  8. Use of saline and recycled water as an alternative irrigation water supply: Chemical and agronomic considerations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Predictions of increased occurrences of drought in the SW U.S. coupled with increasing urban demands for fresh water have resulted in projections of decreased irrigated acreage. However, agriculture can utilize saline, drainage and treated municipal and industrial waste waters for irrigation of many...

  9. Kinetics and Mechanisms of Calcite Reactions with Saline Waters

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, Brian P

    2015-09-02

    Project Description: The general objective of the proposed research is to determine the kinetics and mechanisms of calcite reactions with saline waters over a wide range of saline water composition, pCO2, and modest ranges in T and P. This will be accomplished by studying both reaction rates and solubility from changes in solution chemistry, and making nanoscale observations of calcite precipitate surface morphology and composition at the micro-to-nano-scale to provide an understanding of controlling reaction mechanisms and pathways. The specific objectives necessary to reach the general objective are: a) determination of how pCO2, Ca2+, ionic strength and “foreign” ions influence reaction rates; and b) investigate the influence of these parameters on apparent kinetic solubility from dissolution and precipitation reactions. This information will clearly be central to the construction of reliable reaction-transport models to predict reservoir and formation response to increased CO2 in saline waters. This program was initially collaborative with John Morse at Texas A&M, however his passing shortly after the beginning of this program resulted in abbreviated research time and effort. Summary of Results: Early studies using electron microscopy and spectroscopy indicated that carbonate precipitation from natural seawater (NSW) conditions onto aragonite substrates was mediated by a surface amorphous calcium carbonate layer. It was hypothesized that this ACC layer (observed after < 5days reaction time) was responsible for the abnormal reaction kinetics and also served as a metastable seed layer for growth of epitaxial aragonite. Further studies of the ACC formation mechanism indicated a strong dependence on the Mg concentration in solution. Subsequent studies at shorter times (10 hrs) on calcite substrates and in a wide range of supersaturation conditions did not indicate any ACC layer. Instead, an epitaxial layer by layer

  10. Regional blending of fresh and saline irrigation water: Is it efficient?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kan, Iddo; Rapaport-Rom, Mickey

    2012-07-01

    Blending fresh and saline irrigation waters is implemented in many countries facing water scarcity. However, when analyzed at the field level, previous economic studies have indicated that blending fresh and saline water is suboptimal. This paper examines the blending issue on a regional scale, where both water sources and land are concurrently allocated to crops. Regional water distribution networks that enable salinity adjustment at the field level are compared to networks that allow controlling water salinity on a regional scale only, such that salt concentrations cannot differ by crop. We characterize the conditions for blending to be an optimal strategy under regional salinity control networks, and show that these conditions can be met by an empirical water production model commonly used in the literature. Empirical analysis of 16 regions in Israel revealed optimal blending in six of them. However, regardless of whether blending is optimal or not, the optimal fresh-water application is higher under regional salinity control networks, implying that blending does not support freshwater conservation. The paper analyzes the relationship between water and land constraints' shadow values, and the properties of the two water distribution networks. We show that although farming revenues are higher under networks that allow assignment of specific water salinities to crops, regional salinity control networks can become more profitable to farmers who face prices set endogenously so as to be the binding factor on the use of constrained water and land. The implications of the network selection on intraregional water supply costs are discussed.

  11. Case study on combined CO₂ sequestration and low-salinity water production potential in a shallow saline aquifer in Qatar.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Tausif Khizar; Nasrabadi, Hadi

    2012-10-30

    CO₂ is one of the byproducts of natural gas production in Qatar. The high rate of natural gas production from Qatar's North Field (world's largest non-associated gas field) has led to the production of significant amounts of CO₂. The release of CO₂ into the atmosphere may be harmful from the perspective of global warming. In this work, we study the CO₂ sequestration potential in Qatar's Aruma aquifer. The Aruma aquifer is a saline aquifer in the southwest of Qatar. It occupies an area of approximately 1985 km₂ on land (16% of Qatar's total area). We have developed a compositional model for CO₂ sequestration in the Aruma aquifer on the basis of available log and flow test data. We suggest water production at some distance from the CO₂ injection wells as a possible way to control the pore pressure. This method increases the potential for safe sequestration of CO₂ in the aquifer without losing integrity of the caprock and without any CO₂ leakage. The water produced from this aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and could be a good water source for the desalination process, which is currently the main source of water in Qatar. The outcome of the desalination process is water with higher salinity than the seawater that is currently discharged into the sea. This discharge can have negative long-term environmental effects. The water produced from the Aruma aquifer is considerably less saline than seawater and can be a partial solution to this problem. PMID:22672956

  12. Sprectroradiometric characteristics of inland water bodies infestated by Oscillatoria rubescens algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciraolo, Giuseppe; La Loggia, Goffredo; Maltese, Antonino

    2010-10-01

    In December 2006 blooms of Oscillatoria rubescens were found in the reservoir Prizzi in Sicily. Oscillatoria is a genus of filamentous alga comprising approximately 6 species, between these the O. rubescens is sadly famous since this organism produces microcystins which are powerful hepatotoxins. Firstly found in Europe in 1825 on Geneva lake, recently (2006) those algae has been find out in Pozzillo, Nicoletti e Ancipa reservoirs (Enna Province), as well as in Prizzi (Palermo Province) and Garcia reservoirs (Trapani Province). Toxins produced by those bacteria (usually called microcystine LR-1 and LR-2) are highly toxic since they can activate oncogenes cells causing cancer pathologies on liver and gastrointestinal tract. Even if water treatment plants should ensure the provision of safe drinking water from surface waters contaminated with those toxic algae blooms, the contamination of reservoirs used for civil and agricultural supply highlights human health risks. International literature suggests a threshold value of 0.01 μgl-1 to avoid liver cancer using water coming from contaminated water bodies for a long period. Since O. rubescens activities is strongly related to phosphate and nitrogen compounds as well as to temperature and light transmission within water, the paper presents the comparison between optical properties of the water of an infested reservoir and those of a reservoir characterized by clear water. Field campaigns were carried out in February-March 2008 in order to quantify the spectral transparencies of two water bodies through the calculation of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, measuring underwater downwelling irradiance at different depths as well as water spectral reflectance. Results show that diffuse attenuation coefficient is reduced by approximately 15% reducing light penetration in the water column; coherently reflectance spectral signature generally decreases, exhibiting a characteristic peak around 703 nm not present in

  13. Analytical steady-state solutions for water-limited cropping systems using saline irrigation water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skaggs, T. H.; Anderson, R. G.; Corwin, D. L.; Suarez, D. L.

    2014-12-01

    Due to the diminishing availability of good quality water for irrigation, it is increasingly important that irrigation and salinity management tools be able to target submaximal crop yields and support the use of marginal quality waters. In this work, we present a steady-state irrigated systems modeling framework that accounts for reduced plant water uptake due to root zone salinity. Two explicit, closed-form analytical solutions for the root zone solute concentration profile are obtained, corresponding to two alternative functional forms of the uptake reduction function. The solutions express a general relationship between irrigation water salinity, irrigation rate, crop salt tolerance, crop transpiration, and (using standard approximations) crop yield. Example applications are illustrated, including the calculation of irrigation requirements for obtaining targeted submaximal yields, and the generation of crop-water production functions for varying irrigation waters, irrigation rates, and crops. Model predictions are shown to be mostly consistent with existing models and available experimental data. Yet the new solutions possess advantages over available alternatives, including: (i) the solutions were derived from a complete physical-mathematical description of the system, rather than based on an ad hoc formulation; (ii) the analytical solutions are explicit and can be evaluated without iterative techniques; (iii) the solutions permit consideration of two common functional forms of salinity induced reductions in crop water uptake, rather than being tied to one particular representation; and (iv) the utilized modeling framework is compatible with leading transient-state numerical models.

  14. Saline Drainage and Waste Water Use and its Effects on Forages and Livestock

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Shallow saline water tables in the western San Joaquin Valley result from regional water management and irrigation. Since 1999, saline-sodic drainage and other waste waters (range: ECiw: 2-10 dS m-1) have been used to irrigate Bermuda grass (Cyanodon dactylon) grazed rotationally by cattle at a 30 ...

  15. Dissolved Organic In Natural and Polluted Waters: Methodology and Results of Running Control of Chemical Oxygen Demand (cod) For The Inland and Marine Aquatic System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melentyev, K. V.; Worontsov, A. M.

    Current control of dissolved organic matter in natural and waste waters is the definition traditionally of chemical oxygen demand (COD) -- one of the basic parameters of quality of water. According to the International Standard (ISO 6060), it requires not less than one hour, while in many cases the operative information about amount of dissolved organic matter in aquatic environments have importance for prevention of an emergency. The standard method is applicable to waters with meaning of COD above 30 mg O2/l and, as the chloride ion prevents, it could be difficult for assessment of organic matter in sea water. Besides it is based on dichromate oxidation of the sum of organic substances in strong acid conditions at the presence of silver and mercury, that resulted in formation toxic pollutants. Till now attempts of automation of the COD definition in aquatic system were limited, basically, to duplication of the technology submitted the above standard (automatic COD analyzers "SERES Co."-- France, or "Tsvet Co." - Russia). The system of ozone-chemiluminescence automatic control of organic matter in water (CS COD) is offered and designed. Its based on the ozone oxidation of these substances in flowing water system and measurement arising from luminescent effects. CS COD works in real time. An instrument uses for reaction the atmospheric air, doesn't require fill of reagents and doesn't make new toxic pollutants. The system was tested in laboratory, and biochemical control of organic matter in water samples gathered from the river Neva and other polluted inland water areas and basins in St. Petersburg region was fulfilled (distilled water was used as "zero" media). The results of systematization of these measurements are presented. The new special ozone generator and flowing reactor for real-time running control of different waters in natural conditions were developed, and several series of large - scale field experiments onboard research ship were provided

  16. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China’s developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer. PMID:23301152

  17. Water pollutant fingerprinting tracks recent industrial transfer from coastal to inland China: A case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Weiwei; Wang, Xia; Tian, Dajun; Jiang, Songhui; Andersen, Melvin E.; He, Genhsjeng; Crabbe, M. James C.; Zheng, Yuxin; Zhong, Yang; Qu, Weidong

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, China's developed regions have transferred industries to undeveloped regions. Large numbers of unlicensed or unregistered enterprises are widespread in these undeveloped regions and they are subject to minimal regulation. Current methods for tracing industrial transfers in these areas, based on enterprise registration information or economic surveys, do not work. We have developed an analytical framework combining water fingerprinting and evolutionary analysis to trace the pollution transfer features between water sources. We collected samples in Eastern China (industrial export) and Central China (industrial acceptance) separately from two water systems. Based on the water pollutant fingerprints and evolutionary trees, we traced the pollution transfer associated with industrial transfer between the two areas. The results are consistent with four episodes of industrial transfers over the past decade. Our results also show likely types of the transferred industries - electronics, plastics, and biomedicines - that contribute to the water pollution transfer.

  18. Assessment of the role of remote sensing in the study of inland and coastal waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curfman, H. J.; Oberholtzer, J. D.; Schertler, R. J.

    1980-01-01

    Several problems within Great Lakes, coastal, and continental shelf water were selected and organized under the topical headings of Productivity, Sedimentation, Water Dynamics, Eutrophication, and Hazardous Substances. The measurements required in the study of each of the problems were identified. An assessment was made of the present capability and the potential of remote sensing to make these measurements. The relevant remote-sensing technology for each of these classifications was discussed and needed advancements indicated.

  19. Earth resources technology satellite /ERTS/ data collection and transmission buoys for inland, neritic and oceanic waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chapman, W. S.; Yen, H. H.

    1974-01-01

    As a result of a consortium of several industries and organizations, an economical, versatile, and stable data collection and transmission buoy has been designed, developed, and deployed to gather and transmit water quality data to a ground receiving station at three-minute intervals and to the earth resources technology satellite (ERTS) as it passes over the deployed buoy every 12 hours. The buoy system, designed for both fresh and salt water application, gathers data inclusive of temperature measurement, conductivity, relative acidity, dissolved oxygen, current speed, and direction. The mechanical design philosophy used to determine and satisfy boundary conditions involving stability, ease of deployment, servicing and maintenance, minimal manufacturing costs, and fresh and salt water installation capability is discussed. The development of peripheral handling equipment and anchoring systems is described.

  20. Estuarine, Inland and Coastal Water Quality Monitoring Using Earth Observation Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Delu

    2013-01-01

    The quality of water is one of the top issues worldwide. The objective of this project (ID. 5351) is to adapt or develop available algorithms to the high turbid water (extremely high concentration of suspended particulate matter and plankton blooms), and to monitor the suspended matter and associated turbidity/light attenuation and plankton blooms in particular of cyanobacteria and red tides in coastal and lake waters. In this final report, we give the executive status and the achievements of our project. First, we introduce the project objectives, research methods, partners and roles in brief. Second, we give the in-situ data measurements during the period of our project. Third, we present the details of the achievements and final results of our project. Finally, the recommendations and the publications are present in the last sections.

  1. Measuring the Particulate Backscattering of Inland Waters: a Comparison of Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, G.; Phinn, S. R.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this work was to examine whether the standard particulate backscattering IOP (Inherent Optical Properties) measurement method could be simplified. IOP measurements are essential for parameterising several forms of algorithms used to estimate water quality parameters from airborne and satellite images. Field measurements of the backscattering IOPs are more difficult to make than absorption measurements as correction of the raw Hydroscat-6 backscattering sensor observations is required to allow for the systematic errors associated with the water and water quality parameter absorption. The standard approach involves making simultaneous measurement of the absorption and attenuation of the water with an absorption and attenuation meter (ac-9) or making assumptions about the particulate backscattering probability. Recently, a number of papers have been published that use an alternative method to retrieve the particulate backscattering spectrum by using laboratory measured absorption values and in situ spectroradiometric observations. The alternative method inverts a model of reflectance iteratively using non-linear least squares fitting to solve for the particulate backscattering at 532 nm (bbp0(532)) and the particulate backscattering spectral slope (γ). In this paper, eleven observations made at Burdekin Falls Dam, Australia are used to compare the alternative reflectance method to the conventional corrected Hydroscat-6 observations. Assessment of the alternative reflectance method showed that the result of the inversions were highly dependent on the starting conditions. To overcome this limitation, Particle Swarm Optimisation, a stochastic search technique which includes a random element in the search approach, was used. It was found that when compared to the conventionally corrected Hydroscat-6 observations, the alternative reflectance method underestimated bbp0(532) by approximately 50% and overestimated γ by approximately 40%. Differences of this

  2. Predicting water quality by relating Secchi-Disk transparency and chlorophyll a measurements to satellite imagery for Michigan Inland Lakes, August 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fuller, L.M.; Aichele, S.S.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2004-01-01

    Inland lakes are an important economic and environmental resource for Michigan. The U.S. Geological Survey and the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality have been cooperatively monitoring the quality of selected lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment program. Through this program, approximately 730 of Michigan's 11,000 inland lakes will be monitored once during this 15-year study. Targeted lakes will be sampled during spring turnover and again in late summer to characterize water quality. Because more extensive and more frequent sampling is not economically feasible in the Lake Water Quality Assessment program, the U.S. Geological Survey and Michigan Department of Environmental Quality investigate the use of satellite imagery as a means of estimating water quality in unsampled lakes. Satellite imagery has been successfully used in Minnesota, Wisconsin, and elsewhere to compute the trophic state of inland lakes from predicted secchi-disk measurements. Previous attempts of this kind in Michigan resulted in a poorer fit between observed and predicted data than was found for Minnesota or Wisconsin. This study tested whether estimates could be improved by using atmospherically corrected satellite imagery, whether a more appropriate regression model could be obtained for Michigan, and whether chlorophyll a concentrations could be reliably predicted from satellite imagery in order to compute trophic state of inland lakes. Although the atmospheric-correction did not significantly improve estimates of lake-water quality, a new regression equation was identified that consistently yielded better results than an equation obtained from the literature. A stepwise regression was used to determine an equation that accurately predicts chlorophyll a concentrations in northern Lower Michigan.

  3. COUPLING HYPERSPECTRAL REMOTE SENSING WITH FIELD SPECTROMETRY TO MONITOR INLAND WATER QUALITY PARAMETERS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Visible to near-infrared, airborne hyperspectral data were successfully used to estimate water quality parameters such as chlorophyll a, turbidity and total phosphorus from the Great Miami River, Ohio. During the summer of 1999, spectral data were collected with a hand-held fiel...

  4. Comparison of satellite and Airborne Thematic Mapper data for estimating inland water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giardino, Claudia; Brivio, Pietro A.; Zilioli, Eugenio

    1997-12-01

    The aim of this study was to compare satellite Landsat-5 Thematic Mapper (TM) data with Airborne Thematic Mapper (ATM) data, for the detection of the trophic status of water masses. Study area is the Lake Iseo, one of the most important freshwater basin in northern Italy, located in the sub-alpine ecoregion. In accordance with the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) the Iseo waters are defined as meso-eutrophic. Airborne Daedalus ATM AADS-1268 data were acquired on 14th July 1992 and Landsat-5 TM data on 1st September 1992. Multi-temporal comparison required adjustment of scene radiance due to atmospheric variations. To achieve this an integrally image-based method was employed. Airborne and satellite data were used to estimate turbidity, chlorophyll and suspended sediment load, by means of chromaticity analysis. Processing of thermal images for lake surface temperature determination was also addressed. The results confirmed previous knowledge on the trophic state of Lake Iseo, in agreement with traditional investigations. Remotely data were able to separate chromaticity of the waters, discriminating different turbidity patterns distribution and emphasizing the behavior of shallower waters infected by macrophytes.

  5. Estimation of water quality parameters of inland and coastal waters with the use of a toolkit for processing of remote sensing data

    SciTech Connect

    Dekker, A.G.; Hoogenboom, H.J.; Rijkeboer, M.

    1997-06-01

    Deriving thematic maps of water quality parameters from a remote sensing image requires a number of processing steps, such as calibration, atmospheric correction, air/water interface correction, and application of water quality algorithms. A prototype software environment has recently been developed that enables the user to perform and control these processing steps. Main parts of this environment are: (i) access to the MODTRAN 3 radiative transfer code for removing atmospheric and air-water interface influences, (ii) a tool for analyzing of algorithms for estimating water quality and (iii) a spectral database, containing apparent and inherent optical properties and associated water quality parameters. The use of the software is illustrated by applying implemented algorithms for estimating chlorophyll to data from a spectral library of Dutch inland waters with CHL ranging from 1 to 500 pg 1{sup -1}. The algorithms currently implemented in the Toolkit software are recommended for optically simple waters, but for optically complex waters development of more advanced retrieval methods is required.

  6. Radium Adsorption to Iron Bearing Minerals in Variable Salinity Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, M.; Kocar, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Radium is a common, naturally occurring radioactive metal found in many subsurface environments. Radium isotopes are a product of natural uranium and thorium decay, and are particularly abundant within groundwaters where minimal flux leads to accumulation within porewaters. Radium has been used as a natural tracer to estimate submarine groundwater discharge (SGD) [1], where the ratios of various radium isotopes are used to estimate total groundwater flux to and from the ocean [2]. Further, it represents a substantial hazard in waste water produced after hydraulic fracturing for natural gas extraction [3], resulting in a significant risk of environmental release and increased cost for water treatment or disposal. Adsorption to mineral surfaces represents a primary pathway of radium retention within subsurface environments. For SGD studies, it is important to understand adsorption processes to correctly estimate GW fluxes, while in hydraulic fracturing, radium adsorption to aquifer solids will mediate the activities of radium within produced water. While some studies of radium adsorption to various minerals have been performed [4], there is a limited understanding of the surface chemistry of radium adsorption, particularly to iron-bearing minerals such as pyrite, goethite and ferrihydrite. Accordingly, we present the results of sorption experiments of radium to a suite of iron-bearing minerals representative of those found within deep saline and near-surface (freshwater) aquifers, and evaluate impacts of varying salinity solutions through the use of artificial groundwater, seawater, and shale formation brine. Further, we explore the impacts of pyrite oxidation and ferrihydrite transformation to other iron-bearing secondary minerals on the retention of radium. This work lays the groundwork for further study of radium use as a tracer for SGD, as well as understanding mechanisms of radium retention and release from deep aquifer materials following hydraulic fracturing

  7. Deriving inherent optical properties and associated uncertainties for the Dutch inland waters during the Eagle Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salama, M. S.; Su, Z.; Mannaerts, C. M.; Verhoef, W.

    2009-03-01

    During the Eagle 2006 campaign intensive in-situ and air/space borne measurements were carried out over the Wolderwijd and Veluwemeer natural waters in the Netherlands. In this paper, we modify the GSM semi-analytical inversion model for these lakes to derive inherent optical properties (IOPs) and their spectral dependencies from air and space borne data. Uncertainties of the derived IOPs are estimated using a nonlinear regression technique. The modified model succeeded in deriving accurate estimates of IOPs with R2 higher than 0.9 and RMSE values equal to 0.12 and 0.05 for absorption and scattering coefficients, respectively. Finally, we show that the uncertainty of derived absorption coefficients is slightly independent of absorption's magnitude. While the uncertainty of all derived IOPs increases with water turbidity.

  8. Ground truth methods as a part of space mapping of inland water phytopigment dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shevyrnogov, A. P.; Sid'Ko, A. F.

    Spectral radiance and reflectance of the Krasnoyarsk reservoir water surface were studied from 1974 until 1989. Spectral brightness coefficient (SBC) curves have been found to record chlorophyll absorption band in the red part of the spectrum lambda = 680 nm and spectral indices of ``yellow matter'' absorption in the short-wave part lambda = 400-500 nm. Blue-green algae SBC curves record phycocyanine absorption peak at lambda_max = 630 mm. The peak is inherent in this type of algae only.

  9. Using a partial least squares (PLS) method for estimating cyanobacterial pigments in eutrophic inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robertson, A. L.; Li, L.; Tedesco, L.; Wilson, J.; Soyeux, E.

    2009-08-01

    Midwestern lakes and reservoirs are commonly exposed to anthropogenic eutrophication. Cyanobacteria thrive in these nutrient rich-waters and some species pose three threats: 1) taste & odor (drinking), 2) toxins (drinking + recreational) and 3) water treatment process disturbance. Managers for drinking water production are interested in the rapid identification of cyanobacterial blooms to minimize effects caused by harmful cyanobacteria. There is potential to monitor cyanobacteria through the remote sensing of two algal pigments: chlorophyll a (CHL) and phycocyanin (PC). Several empirical methods that develop spectral parameters (e.g., simple band ratio) sensitive to these two pigments and map reflectance to the pigment concentration have been used in a number of investigations using field-based spectroradiometers. This study tests a multivariate analysis approach, partial least squares (PLS) regression, for the estimation of CHL and PC. PLS models were trained with 35 spectra collected from three central Indiana reservoirs during a 2007 field campaign with dual-headed Ocean Optics USB4000 field spectroradiometers (355 - 802 nm, nominal 1.0 nm intervals), and CHL and PC concentrations of the corresponding water samples analyzed at Indiana University-Purdue University at Indianapolis. Validation of these models with 19 remaining spectra show that PLS (CHL R2=0.90, slope=0.91, RMSE=20.61 μg/L PC R2=0.65, slope=1.15, RMSE=23.04. μg/L) performed equally well to the band tuning model based on Gitelson et al. 2005 (CHL: R2=0.75, slope=0.84, RMSE=40.16 μg/L PC: R2=0.59, slope=1.14, RMSE=20.24 μg/L).

  10. Carbon Speciation and Anthropogenic Influences in Haitian Rivers and Inland Waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Markowitz, M.; Paine, J.; McGillis, W. R.; Hsueh, D. Y.

    2014-12-01

    Climate, geography, and land use patterns all contribute to the social, economic, and environmental challenges in Haiti. Water quality remains a predominant issue, and the health of freshwater systems has been linked to the cycling and transformation of carbon. A speciation dominated by carbonates and bicarbonates is conducive to higher alkalinity waters, which is part of an environmental signature in which cholera and other bacteria thrive. Numerous human activities such as deforestation, biomass burning, and agricultural practices have radically changed the abundances of carbon on land and rivers in Haiti. In Haitian small mountainous rivers, carbon speciation is also influenced by the weathering of limestone and other carbonate rocks. Additionally, rain events and natural disturbances such as earthquakes have shown to drastically increase the amount of carbon in rivers and coastal waters. Since 2010, a network of both satellite and autonomous hydrometeorological stations has been deployed to monitor the climate in southwestern Haiti. Additionally, various hydrological parameters from river, reservoir, and coastal sites have been measured during field visits. Research will be continued into the wet season, providing temporal analysis needed for quantifying the abundances and transformations of carbon. Together, data from weather stations and field sites can be contextualized with local land use patterns and other human activities to offer unique insights on the carbon system. Findings may offer new perspectives on the relationships between hydrologic cycles, human health, and environmental sustainability in Haiti.

  11. Laboratory Experiments on Convective Entrainment Using a Saline Water Tank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jonker, Harmen J. J.; Jiménez, Maria A.

    2014-06-01

    Entrainment fluxes in a shear-free convective boundary layer have been measured with a saline water tank set-up. The experiments were targeted towards measuring the entrainment behaviour for medium to high Richardson numbers and use a two-layer design, i.e. two stacked non-stratified (neutral) layers with different densities. With laser induced fluorescence (LIF), the entrainment flux of a fluorescent dye is measured for bulk Richardson numbers in the range 30-260. It is proposed that a carefully chosen combination of top-down and bottom-up processes improves the accuracy of LIF-based entrainment observations. The observed entrainment fluxes are about an order of magnitude lower than reported for thermal water tanks: the derived buoyancy entrainment ratio, , is found to be , which is to be compared with for a thermal convection tank (Deardorff et al., J Fluid Mech 100:41-64, 1980). An extensive discussion is devoted to the influence of the Reynolds and Prandtl numbers in laboratory experiments on entrainment.

  12. The effect of drinking water salinity on blood pressure in young adults of coastal Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Talukder, Mohammad Radwanur Rahman; Rutherford, Shannon; Phung, Dung; Islam, Mohammad Zahirul; Chu, Cordia

    2016-07-01

    More than 35 million people in coastal Bangladesh are vulnerable to increasing freshwater salinization. This will continue to affect more people and to a greater extent as climate change projections are realised in this area in the future. However the evidence for health effects of consuming high salinity water is limited. This research examined the association between drinking water salinity and blood pressure in young adults in coastal Bangladesh. We conducted a cross-sectional study during May-June 2014 in a rural coastal sub-district of Bangladesh. Data on blood pressure (BP) and salinity of potable water sources was collected from 253 participants aged 19-25 years. A linear regression method was used to examine the association between water salinity exposure categories and systolic BP (SBP) and diastolic BP (DBP) level. Sixty five percent of the study population were exposed to highly saline drinking water above the Bangladesh standard (600 mg/L and above). Multivariable linear regression analyses identified that compared to the low water salinity exposure category (<600 mg/L), those in the high water salinity category (>600 mg/L), had statistically significantly higher SBP (B 3.46, 95% CI 0.75, 6.17; p = 0.01) and DBP (B 2.77, 95% CI 0.31, 5.24; p = 0.03). Our research shows that elevated salinity in drinking water is associated with higher BP in young coastal populations. Blood pressure is an important risk factor of hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. Given the extent of salinization of freshwater in many low-lying countries including in Bangladesh, and the likely exacerbation related to climate change-induced sea level rise, implementation of preventative strategies through dietary interventions along with promotion of low saline drinking water must be a priority in these settings. PMID:27089422

  13. Measured and Modeled Water Balances For Three Snow Dominated Forested Catchments With Different Canopy Cover In The Inland Pacific Northwest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubbart, J. A.; Link, T.; Du, E.

    2007-12-01

    There is a need to better understand the dominant components of the catchment water balance in complex vegetated terrain to advance our understanding of basic hydrological processes and develop effective land management practices. A lack of paired or other detailed watershed studies in the inland Pacific Northwest has limited our understanding of this hydroclimatically, biophysically, and topographically complex region. Empirical analyses of long term data sets, and results from detailed investigations were used to assess impacts of contemporary timber harvest practices on the water balance components of the Mica Creek Experimental Watershed (MCEW). Measurements at the MCEW include precipitation, rainfall interception, snow water equivalent, sap flux, soil moisture, and streamflow. Results were applied to annual averages for the 2002 through 2005 water years directly following canopy removal. Of total precipitation (1401 mm/wy), 755 mm, 628 mm, and 475 mm/yr resulted in streamflow from clearcut, partial cut, and fully forested catchments respectively. Study results showed that canopy interception of rain was 17.2 % of rainfall for a full canopy, and 13.3 % for a partial cut (i.e. 50 % harvest) canopy. Canopy interception of snow was calculated as 43 % and 60 % for partial cut and full forest respectively. Based on sap flow measurements, transpiration was calculated to be 1.5 mm/day for approximately 200 days per year, or 300 mm/year. Based on these findings, estimates of evaporation (including sublimation) were 161 mm, 361 mm, and 470 mm/yr, and estimates of transpiration were 148 mm, 221 mm, and 296 mm/yr, for clearcut, partial cut, and fully forested catchments respectively. This suggests that water yield increased 30 % following clearcut harvest, and 20 % following partial cut harvest, and evaporation dropped to nearly 30 % of pre-harvest evaporation following clearcut, and nearly 60 % of pre-harvest evaporation following partial cut harvest. Soil evaporation

  14. Monitoring and predicting eutrophication of Sri Lankan inland waters using ASTER satellite data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahanayaka, D. D. G. L.; Wijeyaratne, M. J. S.; Tonooka, H.; Minato, A.; Ozawa, S.; Perera, B. D. C.

    2014-10-01

    This study focused on determining the past changes and predicting the future trends in eutrophication of the Bolgoda North lake, Sri Lanka using in situ Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) measurements and Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflectance Radiometer (ASTER) satellite data. This Lake is located in a mixed land use area with industries, some agricultural lands, middle income and high income housing, tourist hotels and low income housing. From March to October 2013, water samples from five sampling sites were collected once a month parallel to ASTER overpass and Chl-a, nitrate and phosphate contents of each sample were measured using standard laboratory methods. Cloud-free ASTER scenes over the lake during the 2000-2013 periods were acquired for Chl-a estimation and trend analysis. All ASTER images were atmospherically corrected using FLAASH software and in-situ Chl-a data were regressed with atmospherically corrected three ASTER VNIR band ratios of the same date. The regression equation of the band ratio and Chl-a content with the highest correlation, which was the green/red band ratio was used to develop algorithm for generation of 15-m resolution Chl-a distribution maps. According to the ASTER based Chl-a distribution maps it was evident that eutrophication of this lake has gradually increased from 2008-2011. Results also indicated that there had been significantly high eutrophic conditions throughout the year 2013 in several regions, especially in water stagnant areas and adjacent to freshwater outlets. Field observations showed that this lake is receiving various discharges from factories. Unplanned urbanization and inadequacy of proper facilities in the nearby industries for waste management have resulted in the eutrophication of the water body. If the present trends of waste disposal and unplanned urbanization continue, enormous environmental problems would be resulted in future. Results of the present study showed that information from satellite remote

  15. CRUCIAL: Cryosat-2 Success over Inland Water and Land: Analyses and Validation of SAR and SARin Full Bit Rate Altimetric Heights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Philip; Benveniste, Jérôme; Birkinshaw, Stephen; Ambrózio, Américo; Restano, Marco

    2016-07-01

    CRUCIAL is an ESA/STSE funded project investigating innovative land and inland water applications from Cryosat-2 with a forward-look component to the future Sentinel-3 and Jason-CS/Sentinel-6 missions. The high along-track sampling of Cryosat-2 in its SAR and SARin modes offer the opportunity to recover high frequency signals over inland waters. A theoretical approach has been developed to process the FBR L1A Doppler beams to form a product using ground cell gridding, beam steering and beam stacking from which inland water heights are derivable from the retracked Cryosat-2 altimetric waveforms. Results of the processing strategy will include a comparison of waveforms and heights from the burst echoes (˜80 m along-track) and from multi-look waveforms (˜320 m along-track). SAR and SARin FBR data are available for the Amazon, Brahmaputra and Mekong for 2011-2015. FBR SAR results will be compared against stage data from the nearest gauge where applicable with heights from Tonle Sap compared against Jason-2 data from the United States Department of Agriculture. A strategy to select the number of multi-looks over rivers will also be presented. Results of FBR SARin processing for the Amazon and Brahmaputra will be presented including comparison of heights from the two antennae, extraction of slope of the ground surface and validation against ground data where appropriate.

  16. Understanding the Basin-Wide Impact of Agricultural Irrigation on the Water Cycle in Dry Inland Areas: An Integrated Modeling Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Y.; Tian, Y.; Wu, B.; Wu, X.; Li, J.; Zheng, C.; Liu, J.

    2014-12-01

    Irrigation is indispensable to the agriculture in dry inland river basins, and may significantly alter the regional water cycle which is often featured by complicated surface water-groundwater (SW-GW) interaction. Although field-scale processes of irrigation water are clearly understood, the hydrological impact of irrigation at a large basin scale has not well examined. It poses a challenge to the water resources management. Our studies presented a modeling approach to address this challenge. GSFLOW, an integrated SW-GW model, was improved to represent irrigation practices in the model simulation, and applied to the HeiHe River Basin (HRB), the second largest inland river basin in China. The mid-stream area of HRB is a semi-arid region with extensive oasis agriculture, typical of western China. A series of studies have been conducted. First, the model was applied to fuse the limited hydrological observations in the area and generate a coherent understanding of the regional water cycle. Spatially and temporally detailed information on the impact of irrigation was then achieved. Second, an innovative optimization approach, coupling the Support Vector Machine (SVM) and SCE-UA algorithms, was proposed for the complex model. Allocation of surface water and groundwater for the irrigation was optimized under different management scenarios. The optimization results not only helped understand the hydrological processes, but provided insights into the water resources management. Third, the Probabilistic Collocation Method (PCM) was implemented to systematically address the modeling uncertainty. Spatial variation and temporal dynamics of the uncertainty associated with the irrigation practice in this area were revealed. The uncertainty results shed light on further data collection and model improvement. Overall, our study demonstrated the applicability and significant value of the integrated modeling approach in understanding the basin-wide impact of irrigation on the water

  17. Mesoporous Carbon for Capacitive Deionization of Saline Water

    SciTech Connect

    Tsouris, Costas; Mayes, Richard T; Kiggans, Jim; Sharma, Ms. Ketki; Yiacoumi, Sotira; DePaoli, David W; Dai, Sheng

    2011-01-01

    Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration.

  18. Mesoporous carbon for capacitive deionization of saline water.

    PubMed

    Tsouris, C; Mayes, R; Kiggans, J; Sharma, K; Yiacoumi, S; DePaoli, D; Dai, S

    2011-12-01

    Self-assembled mesoporous carbon (MC) materials have been synthesized and tested for application in capacitive deionization (CDI) of saline water. MC was prepared by self-assembly of a triblock copolymer with hydrogen-bonded chains via a phenolic resin, such as resorcinol or phloroglucinol in acidic conditions, followed by carbonization and, in some cases, activation by KOH. Carbon synthesized in this way was ground into powder, from which activated MC sheets were produced. In a variation of this process, after the reaction of triblock copolymer with resorcinol or phloroglucinol, the gel that was formed was used to coat a graphite plate and then carbonized. The coated graphite plate in this case was not activated and was tested to serve as current collector during the CDI process. The performance of these MC materials was compared to that of carbon aerogel for salt concentrations ranging between 1000 ppm and 35,000 ppm. Resorcinol-based MC removed up to 15.2 mg salt per gram of carbon, while carbon aerogel removed 5.8 mg salt per gram of carbon. Phloroglucinol-based MC-coated graphite exhibited the highest ion removal capacity at 21 mg of salt per gram of carbon for 35,000 ppm salt concentration. PMID:22032802

  19. Will enhanced turbulence in inland waters result in elevated production of autochthonous dissolved organic matter?

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jian; Jeppesen, Erik; Zhang, Yunlin; Qin, Boqiang; Shi, Kun; Tang, Xiangming; Han, Xiaoxia

    2016-02-01

    Biological activity in lakes is strongly influenced by hydrodynamic conditions, not least turbulence intensity; which increases the encounter rate between plankter and nutrient patches. To investigate whether enhanced turbulence in shallow and eutrophic lakes may result in elevated biological production of autochthonous chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), a combination of field campaigns and mesocosm experiments was used. Parallel factor analysis identified seven components: four protein-like, one microbial humic-like and two terrestrial humic-like components. During our field campaigns, elevated production of autochthonous CDOM was recorded in open water with higher wind speed and wave height than in inner bays, implying that elevated turbulence resulted in increased production of autochthonous CDOM. Confirming the field campaign results, in the mesocosm experiment enhanced turbulence resulted in a remarkably higher microbial humic-like C1 and tryptophan-like C3 (p<0.01), indicating that higher turbulence may have elevated the production of autochthonous CDOM. This is consistent with the significantly higher mean concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the enhanced phytoplanktonic alkaline phosphatase activity (PAPA) recorded in the experimental turbulence groups than in the control group (p<0.05). The C:N ratio (from 3.34 to 25.72 with a mean of 13.13±4.08) for the mesocosm CDOM samples further suggested their probable autochthonous origin. Our results have implications for the understanding of CDOM cycling in shallow aquatic ecosystems influenced by wind-induced waves, in which the enhanced turbulence associated with extreme weather conditions may be further stimulated by the predicted global climate change. PMID:26599140

  20. Intrusion of low-salinity water into the Yellow Sea Interior in 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oh, Kyung-Hee; Lee, Joon-Ho; Lee, Seok; Pang, Ig-Chan

    2014-12-01

    Abnormally low-salinity water was detected in the surface layer of the central region of the Yellow Sea in August 2012. The presence of such low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior has never been reported previously. To understand the origin of this low-salinity water, oceanographic and wind data were analyzed, and the circulation of the surface layer was also examined in the Yellow and East China Seas using a numerical ocean model. The results confirmed that typhoons caused the low-salinity water. Two consecutive typhoons passed from east to west across the East China Sea, around the Changjiang Bank in early August 2012. Strong easterly and southeasterly winds created by the typhoons in the Yellow and East China Seas drove the low-salinity water to the north along the coast of China and northeastward toward the central region of the Yellow Sea, respectively. Usually, the northward drifting of Changjiang Diluted Water along the coast of China ends around the Jiangsu coast, where the drifting is blocked and is turned by the offshore Eulerian residual current. Therefore, the Changjiang Diluted Water does not intrude more into the Yellow Sea interior. However, in 2012, the low-salinity water drifted up to the Shandong Peninsula along the coast of China, and formed massive low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior combining with the other low-salinity water extended toward the central region of the Yellow Sea directly from the Changjiang Bank. Thus, the typhoons play a key role in the appearance of abnormally low-salinity water in the Yellow Sea interior and it means that the Yellow Sea ecosystem could be significantly influenced by the Changjiang Diluted Water.

  1. Saline waters in New York State, Long Island, Staten Island and Manhattan, and upstate New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lusczynski, N.J.; Geraghty, J.J.; Asselstine, E.S.; Grossman, I.G.

    1956-01-01

    In connection with studies of the practicability of conversion of saline water to fresh water, the U. S. Geological Survey assembled data on the occurrence, distribution, quantity, and chemical quality of saline waters as of 1955 for a report entitled, "Preliminary survey of the saline water resources of the United States" to be released when completed as a U. S. Geological Survey Water Supply Paper 1374. This report comprises data for New York State. Saline water is defined herein as any mixture of fresh and salt water having more than 1,000 parts per million (ppm) of dissolved solids. In the Nation as a whole there are, of course, all gradations of salinity from 1,000 ppm up to the 30,000 to 35,000 ppm characteristic of sea water, and the even higher salinities of certain natural brines. Sea water, and other water of comparable salinity, will be referred to here as "sea water" or "high-chloride water". This report contains two parts: one for Long Island, Staten Island, and Manhattan, N. Y., and the other for Upstate New York. Figure 1 shows the locations of the places named and important occurrences of saline water in and near Long Island. Tables 1 and 2 list, respectively, well data and chemical analyses for selected wells in Long Island, Staten Island, and Manhattan, N. Y.; tables 3 and 4 list, respectively, well data and chemical analyses for selected wells in Upstate New York. For many samples, only the chloride concentration and not the total dissolved solids has been determined. However, it is safe to assume that the total dissolved solids in natural water are substantially in excess of 1,000 ppm where the chloride is at or nearly at this concentration.

  2. Preliminary data on use of the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, to control mosquito larvae.

    PubMed

    Middaugh, D P; Hester, P G; Meisch, M V; Stark, P M

    1985-12-01

    A study of procedures for spawning and culture of the inland silverside, Menidia beryllina, was conducted. The efficacy of young Menidia, 20 to 22 and 31 to 33 days old, to control mosquito larvae was determined in the laboratory with first and second larval instars of the saltmarsh mosquito Aedes taeniorhynchus. Feeding trials were run at salinities of 1, 5, 15 and 25%. Field trials were also conducted to determine if Menidia would effectively control Culex quinquefasciatus in brackish water impoundments. PMID:3880260

  3. Height Estimation and Error Assessment of Inland Water Level Time Series calculated by a Kalman Filter Approach using Multi-Mission Satellite Altimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwatke, Christian; Dettmering, Denise; Boergens, Eva

    2015-04-01

    Originally designed for open ocean applications, satellite radar altimetry can also contribute promising results over inland waters. Its measurements help to understand the water cycle of the system earth and makes altimetry to a very useful instrument for hydrology. In this paper, we present our methodology for estimating water level time series over lakes, rivers, reservoirs, and wetlands. Furthermore, the error estimation of the resulting water level time series is demonstrated. For computing the water level time series multi-mission satellite altimetry data is used. The estimation is based on altimeter data from Topex, Jason-1, Jason-2, Geosat, IceSAT, GFO, ERS-2, Envisat, Cryosat, HY-2A, and Saral/Altika - depending on the location of the water body. According to the extent of the investigated water body 1Hz, high-frequent or retracked altimeter measurements can be used. Classification methods such as Support Vector Machine (SVM) and Support Vector Regression (SVR) are applied for the classification of altimeter waveforms and for rejecting outliers. For estimating the water levels we use a Kalman filter approach applied to the grid nodes of a hexagonal grid covering the water body of interest. After applying an error limit on the resulting water level heights of each grid node, a weighted average water level per point of time is derived referring to one reference location. For the estimation of water level height accuracies, at first, the formal errors are computed applying a full error propagation within Kalman filtering. Hereby, the precision of the input measurements are introduced by using the standard deviation of the water level height along the altimeter track. In addition to the resulting formal errors of water level heights, uncertainties of the applied geophysical correction (e.g. wet troposphere, ionosphere, etc.) and systematic error effects are taken into account to achieve more realistic error estimates. For validation of the time series, we

  4. Dryland salinity in Western Australia: managing a changing water cycle.

    PubMed

    Taylor, R J; Hoxley, G

    2003-01-01

    Clearing of agricultural land has resulted in significant changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology. Currently about 10% of agricultural land in Western Australia is affected by dryland salinity and between a quarter and a third of the area is predicted to be lost to salinity before a new hydrological equilibrium is reached. This paper develops a general statement describing the changes to the surface and groundwater hydrology of the wheatbelt of Western Australia between preclearing, the year 2000 and into the future. For typical catchments in the wheatbelt it is estimated that average groundwater recharge and surface runoff have increased about tenfold when comparing the current hydrology to that preclearing. Saline groundwater discharge and flood volumes have also increased significantly. Saline groundwater discharge and associated salt load will probably double in the future in line with the predicted increase in the area of dryland salinity. In addition, future increases in the area of dryland salinity/permanent waterlogging will probably double the volumes in flood events and further increase surface runoff in average years. The outcomes of surface and groundwater management trials have been briefly described to estimate how the hydrology would be modified if the trials were implemented at a catchment scale. These results have been used to formulate possible integrated revegetation and drainage management strategies. The future hydrology and impacts with and without integrated management strategies have been compared. PMID:12793681

  5. Inland surface waters

    EPA Science Inventory

    A critical load is a “quantitative estimate of the exposure to one or more pollutants below which significant harmful effects on specified sensitive elements of the environment do not occur according to present knowledge”. Critical loads can be either modeled, or calculated empi...

  6. Interactive effects of salinity and N on pepper yield, water use efficiency and root zone and drainage salinity: Experimental data and UNSATCHEM predictions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The aim of this study is to examine the effects of optimal and suboptimal N fertilizer levels in saline conditions on pepper plant and to predict the yield, soil water and drainage water EC and ETa using UNSATCHEM. The salinity effect on pepper plant biomass was statistically significant. Increasing...

  7. Improved capabilities of the Chinese high-resolution remote sensing satellite GF-1 for monitoring suspended particulate matter (SPM) in inland waters: Radiometric and spatial considerations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jian; Chen, Xiaoling; Tian, Liqiao; Huang, Jue; Feng, Lian

    2015-08-01

    Dominated by high dynamic and small-scale variability, remote sensing of inland or coastal waters is frequently impended by insufficient spatial resolutions from conventional ocean color sensors. With the urgent need and the rapid progress in high-resolution earth observation systems (HR), it is critical to assess the capabilities of HR in inland water monitoring. In this study, the radiometric and spatial performance of the Chinese high-resolution GF-1 Wide Field Imager (WFI) data for water quality monitoring were evaluated in term of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), sensitivity to suspended particulate matter (SPM) variations and spatial depiction ability. The SNR was statistically estimated from variable moving window method, and the radiometric sensitivity was simulated using the Moderate Resolution Atmospheric Transmission (MODTRAN) under varied surface and atmospheric conditions. Results indicated that both the SNR and the radiometric sensitivity of the GF-1 WFI were enhanced by 3-5 times than its predecessor (Chinese HJ-1 CCD) or Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+), and were comparable to Landsat 8 Operational Land Imager (OLI) and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) medium-resolution bands (250 and 500 m), which have been extensively applied in inland water environment monitoring. Cross comparisons demonstrated high consistency of the spatial distribution and concentration of SPM maps between GF-1 WFI and Landsat 8 OLI. Furthermore, more than 75% of the spatial variations in high turbid waters were resolved from GF-1 WFI data, whereas the ability dropped to 40% when the spatial resolution was degraded to 250 m (MODIS-like sensors). Overall, GF-1 WFI is extraordinarily promising with an enhanced SNR, an increased spectral sensitivity to SPM variations and an advanced spatial resolution. With the ongoing plans of the successive GF series (2-7), the findings would serve as a reference for forthcoming applications, and are critical

  8. Evaluation of available saline water resources in New Mexico for the production of microalgae

    SciTech Connect

    Lansford, R.; Hernandez, J.; Enis, P.; Truby, D.; Mapel, C.

    1990-08-01

    Researchers evaluated saline water resources in New Mexico for their suitability as sites for large-scale microalgae production facilities. Production of microalgae could provide a renewable source of fuel, chemicals, and food. In addition, making use of the unused saline water resources would increase the economic activity in the state. After analyzing the 15 billion acre-ft of unused saline water resources in the state, scientists narrowed the locations down to six sites with the most potential. With further analysis, they chose the Tularosa Basin in southern New Mexico as the best-suited area for 100-hectare microalgae production facility. 34 refs., 38 figs., 14 tabs.

  9. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  10. Monitoring Inland Storm Surge and Flooding from Hurricane Rita

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McGee, Benton D.; Tollett, Roland W.; Mason, Jr., Robert R.

    2006-01-01

    Pressure transducers (sensors) and high-water marks were used to document the inland water levels related to storm surge generated by Hurricane Rita in southwestern Louisiana and southeastern Texas. On September 22-23, 2005, an experimental monitoring network of sensors was deployed at 33 sites over an area of about 4,000 square miles to record the timing, extent, and magnitude of inland hurricane storm surge and coastal flooding. Sensors were programmed to record date and time, temperature, and barometric or water pressure. Water pressure was corrected for changes in barometric pressure and salinity. Elevation surveys using global-positioning systems and differential levels were used to relate all storm-surge water-level data, reference marks, benchmarks, sensor measuring points, and high-water marks to the North American Vertical Datum of 1988 (NAVD 88). The resulting data indicated that storm-surge water levels over 14 feet above NAVD 88 occurred at three locations, and rates of water-level rise greater than 5 feet per hour occurred at three locations near the Louisiana coast.

  11. Novel water filtration of saline water in the outermost layer of mangrove roots.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kiwoong; Seo, Eunseok; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water is a global challenge faced at present. Several desalination methods have been suggested to secure fresh water from sea water. However, conventional methods suffer from technical limitations, such as high power consumption, expensive operating costs, and limited system durability. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using halophytes as a novel technology of desalinating high-concentration saline water for long periods. This study investigated the biophysical characteristics of sea water filtration in the roots of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa from a plant hydrodynamic point of view. R. stylosa can grow even in saline water, and the salt level in its roots is regulated within a certain threshold value through filtration. The root possesses a hierarchical, triple layered pore structure in the epidermis, and most Na(+) ions are filtered at the first sublayer of the outermost layer. The high blockage of Na(+) ions is attributed to the high surface zeta potential of the first layer. The second layer, which is composed of macroporous structures, also facilitates Na(+) ion filtration. This study provides insights into the mechanism underlying water filtration through halophyte roots and serves as a basis for the development of a novel bio-inspired desalination method. PMID:26846878

  12. Novel water filtration of saline water in the outermost layer of mangrove roots

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kiwoong; Seo, Eunseok; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-01-01

    The scarcity of fresh water is a global challenge faced at present. Several desalination methods have been suggested to secure fresh water from sea water. However, conventional methods suffer from technical limitations, such as high power consumption, expensive operating costs, and limited system durability. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using halophytes as a novel technology of desalinating high-concentration saline water for long periods. This study investigated the biophysical characteristics of sea water filtration in the roots of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa from a plant hydrodynamic point of view. R. stylosa can grow even in saline water, and the salt level in its roots is regulated within a certain threshold value through filtration. The root possesses a hierarchical, triple layered pore structure in the epidermis, and most Na+ ions are filtered at the first sublayer of the outermost layer. The high blockage of Na+ ions is attributed to the high surface zeta potential of the first layer. The second layer, which is composed of macroporous structures, also facilitates Na+ ion filtration. This study provides insights into the mechanism underlying water filtration through halophyte roots and serves as a basis for the development of a novel bio-inspired desalination method. PMID:26846878

  13. Novel water filtration of saline water in the outermost layer of mangrove roots

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Kiwoong; Seo, Eunseok; Chang, Suk-Kyu; Park, Tae Jung; Lee, Sang Joon

    2016-02-01

    The scarcity of fresh water is a global challenge faced at present. Several desalination methods have been suggested to secure fresh water from sea water. However, conventional methods suffer from technical limitations, such as high power consumption, expensive operating costs, and limited system durability. In this study, we examined the feasibility of using halophytes as a novel technology of desalinating high-concentration saline water for long periods. This study investigated the biophysical characteristics of sea water filtration in the roots of the mangrove Rhizophora stylosa from a plant hydrodynamic point of view. R. stylosa can grow even in saline water, and the salt level in its roots is regulated within a certain threshold value through filtration. The root possesses a hierarchical, triple layered pore structure in the epidermis, and most Na+ ions are filtered at the first sublayer of the outermost layer. The high blockage of Na+ ions is attributed to the high surface zeta potential of the first layer. The second layer, which is composed of macroporous structures, also facilitates Na+ ion filtration. This study provides insights into the mechanism underlying water filtration through halophyte roots and serves as a basis for the development of a novel bio-inspired desalination method.

  14. IMPACTS ON QUALITY OF INLAND WETLANDS OF THE UNITED STATES: A SURVEY OF INDICATORS, TECHNIQUES, AND APPLICATIONS OF COMMUNITY-LEVEL BIOMONITORING DATA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report focuses on inland wetlands of the conterminous United States. xcept for those bordering the Great Lakes, these are not subject to significant tidal fluctuations. hey are generally fresh water wetlands, except for saline wetlands in some mid-continent and western regio...

  15. Regional ground-water mixing and the origin of saline fluids: Midcontinent, United States

    SciTech Connect

    Musgrove, M.; Banner, J.L. )

    1993-03-26

    Ground waters in three adjacent regional flow systems in the midcontinent exhibit extreme chemical and isotopic variations that delineate large-scale fluid flow and mixing processes and two distinct mechanisms for the generation of saline fluids. Systematic spatial variations of major ion concentrations, H, O, and Sr isotopic compositions, and ground-water migration pathways indicate that each flow system contains water of markedly different origin. Mixing of the three separate ground waters exerts a fundamental control on ground-water composition. The three ground waters are: (i) dilute meteoric water recharged in southern Missouri; (ii) saline Na-Ca-Cl water in southeastern Kansas of far-traveled meteoric origin that acquired its salinity by halite dissolution; and (iii) Na-Ca-Cl brines in north-central Oklahoma that may have originated as Paleozoic seawater. 45 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Sorghum response to foliar application of phosphorus and potassium with saline water irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing demand for fresh water resources for urban and industrial uses is leading to limited availability of better quality water for crop irrigation. Therefore, crop response to poor quality irrigation water (ex: saline water), and strategies to mitigate the negative effects of poor quality irri...

  17. Origin of water salinity in a lake and coastal aquifer system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djabri, L.; Rouabhia, A.; Hani, A.; Lamouroux, Ch.; Pulido-Bosch, A.

    2008-04-01

    The studied area is in the Algerian Northeast. A number of interacting factors at the site are able to modify salinity. The main influences are: (1) The lithology, (2) Fedzara Lake, (3) marine waters, and (4) a prolonged drought. (1) The lithology is very clearly delineated by the outcrop of metamorphic formations (gneiss, marbles, micaschists, and quartzites) and sedimentary formations (limestones, clay, sandstones, and sands). All these formations can influence the chemical composition of waters. (2) Fedzara Lake evacuates its salted waters via the Wadi Meboudja, which connects with the Wadi Seybouse and the phreatic surface. These lake waters might induce changes in salinity. (3) The marine waters represent the third source of salinity change. Over-pumping of water from wells and drillings can cause an imbalance to the fresh salted water interface. (4) The effects of a local prolonged drought of more than 10 years may increase water salinity. Over-pumping to augment water supply generates a fall in water levels and the drier atmosphere increases evapotranspiration. Both may contribute to increased salinity. Results of water analysis were used to observe the evolution of these various factors.

  18. Application of FTLOADDS to Simulate Flow, Salinity, and Surface-Water Stage in the Southern Everglades, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wang, John D.; Swain, Eric D.; Wolfert, Melinda A.; Langevin, Christian D.; James, Dawn E.; Telis, Pamela A.

    2007-01-01

    representation of coastal flows. This improvement most likely is due to a more stable numerical representation of the coastal creek outlets. Sensitivity analyses were performed by varying frictional resistance, leakage, barriers to flow, and topography. Changing frictional resistance values in inland areas was shown to improve water-level representation locally, but to have a negligible effect on area-wide values. These changes have only local effects and are not physically based (as are the unchanged values), and thus have limited validity. Sensitivity tests indicate that the overall accuracy of the simulation is diminished if leakage between surface water and ground water is not simulated. The inclusion of a major road as a complete barrier to surface-water flow influenced the local distribution and timing of flow; however, the changes in total flow and individual creekflows were negligible. The model land-surface altitude was lowered by 0.1 meter to determine the sensitivity to topographic variation. This topographic sensitivity test produced mixed results in matching field data. Overall, the representation of stage did not improve definitively. A final calibration utilized the results of the sensitivity analysis to refine the TIME application. To accomplish this calibration, the friction coefficient was reduced at the northern boundary inflow and increased in the southwestern corner of the model, the evapotranspiration function was varied, additional data were used for the ground-water head boundary along the southeast, and the frictional resistance of the primary coastal creek outlet was increased. The calibration improved the match between measured and simulated total flows to Florida Bay and coastal salinities. Agreement also was improved at most of the water-level sites throughout the model domain.

  19. Estimation of the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance in inland and coastal waters from hyperspectral remote sensing data: Validation with experimental data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simon, Arthi; Shanmugam, Palanisamy

    2016-07-01

    A semi-analytical model is developed for estimating the spectral diffuse attenuation coefficient of downwelling irradiance (Kd(λ)) in inland and coastal waters. The model works as a function of the inherent optical properties (absorption and backscattering), depth, and solar zenith angle. Results of this model are validated using a large number of in-situ measurements of Kd(λ) in clear oceanic, turbid coastal and productive lagoon waters. To further evaluate its relative performance, Kd(λ) values obtained from this model are compared with results from three existing models. Validation results show that the present model is a better descriptor of Kd(λ) and shows an overall better performance compared to the existing models. The applicability of the present model is further tested on two Hyperspectral Imager for the Coastal Ocean (HICO) remote sensing images acquired simultaneously with our field measurements. The Kd(λ) spectra derived from HICO imageries have good agreement with measured data with the mean relative percent error of less than 12% which are well within the benchmark for a validated uncertainty of ±35% endorsed for the remote sensing products in oceanic waters. The model offers potential advantages for predicting changes in spectral and vertical Kd values in a wide variety of waters within inland and coastal environments.

  20. Deep Water Compositions From the Los Angeles Basin and the Origin of Formation Water Salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boles, J.; Giles, G.; Lockman, D.

    2005-12-01

    Deep basin formation waters represent original depositional waters that have been modified by diagenetic processes at elevated temperatures and pressures. In addition, they may be diluted by meteoric incursion from elevated structural blocks along basin flanks. It has long been thought that deep basin formation waters have salinities greater than sea water due to various processes like clay membrane filtration or other types of water-rock interaction. However, our work and similar studies in the San Joaquin basin show that formation waters in deep basins are more likely to become diluted rather than concentrated in the absence of soluble evaporite deposits that might underlie the basin. The idea of increased salinity with depth arose from studies in which the underpinning of the basin consisted of soluble evaporate deposits such as the Texas Gulf Coast, Illinois, Michigan, and some North Sea areas. There are very few deep formation water analyses from the Los Angeles Basin. Furthermore, very few of the current produced waters from any depth can be considered pristine because of the widespread formation water injection programs and commingling of fluids from different levels. Here, we describe the first analyses from a deep, previously untouched part of the basin that is currently being developed in the Inglewood Oil Field. We have analyzed a suite of formation waters from the mid-Miocene marine Sentous sandstone from sub-sea level depths of 2250 m to 2625 m at temperatures of about 110 to 126°C and pressures of about 27 MPa. The original depositional waters in the Sentous Formation were sea water whereas the sampled waters are diluted by about 20% from sea water and some show as much as 50% dilution. Based on comparison of oxygen and deuterium isotopes between the meteoric water trend and these waters, we conclude that the smectite to illite dehydration reaction is the major cause of dilution to the original formation water. Other notable differences include

  1. Water sources accessed by arid zone riparian trees in highly saline environments, Australia.

    PubMed

    Costelloe, Justin F; Payne, Emily; Woodrow, Ian E; Irvine, Elizabeth C; Western, Andrew W; Leaney, Fred W

    2008-05-01

    The flow regimes of arid zone rivers are often highly variable, and shallow groundwater in the alluvial aquifers can be very saline, thus constraining the availability and quality of the major water sources available to riparian trees-soil water, shallow groundwater and stream water. We have identified water sources and strategies used by riparian trees in more highly saline and arid conditions than previously studied for riparian trees of arid zone rivers. Our research focused on the riparian species Eucalyptus coolabah, one of the major riparian trees of ephemeral arid zone rivers in Australia. The water sources available to this riparian tree were examined using delta(18)O isotope data from xylem, soil water, groundwater and surface water. Additionally, soil chloride and matric potential data were used to infer zones of water availability for root uptake. Despite the saline conditions, the trees used a mixture of soil water and groundwater sources, but they did not use surface water directly. The study identified three strategies used to cope with typically high groundwater and soil water salinities. Firstly, the trees preferentially grow in zones of most frequent flushing by infiltrating streamflow, such as the bank-tops of channels. Secondly, the trees limit water use by having low transpiration rates. Thirdly, the trees are able to extract water at very low osmotic potentials, with water uptake continuing at chloride concentrations of at least 20,000-30,000 mg L(-1). PMID:18270743

  2. Interaction of a river with an alluvial basin aquifer: Stable isotopes, salinity and water budgets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eastoe, Christopher J.; Hutchison, William R.; Hibbs, Barry J.; Hawley, John; Hogan, James F.

    2010-12-01

    SummaryDetailed sets of tracer data (isotopes, salinity) and the results of MODFLOW modeling of water budgets provide an unprecedented opportunity for comparing modeling with field data in the area where the Rio Grande enters the Hueco Bolson basin of Texas and Chihuahua. Water from the Rio Grande has recharged the Hueco Bolson aquifer to a depth of 300 m below the surface in the El Paso-Ciudad Juárez area, the depth of infiltration corresponding to the depth of ancestral Rio Grande fluvial sediments. Groundwater beneath the river exhibits complex isotope and salinity stratification. Post-dam (post -1916, type A) river water has infiltrated to depths up to 80 m. Pre-dam (type B) river water has infiltrated to 300 m depth near downtown El Paso, and has mixed with, or been displaced further downstream by high-salinity native Hueco Bolson groundwater (type C, present in the basin north of the river). Salinity and isotope boundaries do not correspond precisely. Isotope stratification corresponds to water residence time and (for type C) to degree of evaporation; the highest salinities are associated with the most evaporated water. Modeling of water budgets in the basin fill beneath the river predicts present-day mixing of water types B and C where changing rates of pumping have caused a reversal of groundwater flow direction between El Paso and Ciudad Juárez, and deep recharge of type B water under conditions prevailing in the 1960s.

  3. Stable isotope and salinity systematics in estuarine waters and carbonates - San Francisco Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Ingram, B.L.; Conrad, M.E.; Ingle, J.C.

    1995-01-31

    Salinities, {delta}D and {delta}{sup 18}O values of water samples collected bimonthly from two stations in San Francisco Bay estuary during 1991-1993, and along a salinity transect in March of 1992, indicate a linear mixing relation between the isotopic compositions of the waters and their salinities. The salinities and stable isotope compositions of samples from two locations in San Francisco Bay vary in response to changes in freshwater inflow. The data from these locations indicate simple mixtures of Pacific Ocean water (salinity approximate to 33, {delta}{sup 18}O approximate to 0 to -1 parts per thousand, {delta}D approximate 0 to -10 parts per thousand) and Sacramento-San Joaquin River water (salinity approximate to 0, {delta}{sup 18}O = -10 to -12 parts per thousand, {delta}D = -75 to -85 parts per thousand). Preliminary water balance estimates, using isotopic differences between local and upland runoff, suggest that local runoff (including waste water) comprises less than 20 percent of total freshwater entering the bay. The average {delta}{sup 18}O values of mussel shells (Mytilus edulis) collected live from eight locations in San Francisco Bay primarily reflect the {delta}{sup 18}O of the water in which they grew. Shells subsampled along growth bands show that seasonal shifts in salinity and delta(18)O are recorded in the shells. Therefore, the use of stable isotope measurements should be useful in reconstructing pre-instrumental bay salinity and associated freshwater inflow (both annual average values and seasonal variations) to the San Francisco Bay, as well as potentially other estuarine systems.

  4. Salinity control on irrigated land and use of saline water for irrigation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Current irrigation practices in arid and semi-arid regions throughout the world are not sustainable. These regions are experiencing increasing population and development with increasing demands for limited fresh water for municipal and industrial use. In arid areas fresh water use is currently alrea...

  5. Environmental controls of energy and trace gas exchanges at the water-air interface: Global synthesis of eddy fluxes over inland waters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golub, M.; Desai, A. R.; Bohrer, G.; Blanken, P.; Deshmukh, C. S.; Franz, D.; Guérin, F.; Heiskanen, J. J.; Jammet, M.; Jonsson, A.; Karlsson, J.; Koebsch, F.; Liu, H.; Lohila, A.; Lundin, E.; Mammarella, I.; Rutgersson, A.; Sachs, T.; Serça, D.; Spence, C.; Strachan, I. B.; Vesala, T.; Weyhenmeyer, G. A.; Xiao, W.; Glatzel, S.

    2015-12-01

    Current estimates of energy and trace gases from inland waters often rely on limited point in time measurements, therefore, short time variation of fluxes and mechanism controlling the fluxes are particularly understudied. Here we present the results of a global synthesis of eddy fluxes from 29 globally distributed aquatic sites. The objective of this study was to quantify the magnitudes and variation of energy and CO2 fluxes and investigate their responses to environmental controls across half-hourly to monthly time scales. The coupled observations of in-lake physical and biogeochemical parameters with meteorology and eddy covariance fluxes were analyzed using decomposed correlation and wavelength coherence analysis to quantify the critical time scales that are associated with variation of energy and CO2 fluxes, and related drivers. The rates of fluxes were synthesized according to time scale, climate, and water body type. The diurnal cycles of both energy and CO2 fluxes variation were attributed to wind speed, solar radiation cycle, vapor pressure deficit, temperature gradients at water-air interface, and metabolism. Weekly time scales of variations were correlated with synoptic weather patterns. The monthly sums of energy fluxes showed a latitudinal gradient with the maxima observed in mid-latitude waterbodies. We found an inconsistent latitudinal pattern of monthly CO2 fluxes. Instead, we found correlation with proxies of lake productivity suggesting lake-specific characteristics play an important role in controlling flux magnitudes and variation. The results presented here highlight the importance of quantifying short-term variation of energy and trace gases fluxes towards improving the understanding of the water and carbon cycles and linked ecological processes.

  6. Sources of salinity in ground water from Jericho area, Jordan Valley.

    PubMed

    Marie, A; Vengosh, A

    2001-01-01

    One of the major problems in the lower Jordan Valley is the increasing salinization (i.e., chloride content) of local ground water. The high levels of salinity limit the utilization of ground water for both domestic and agriculture applications. This joint collaborative study evaluates the sources and mechanisms for salinization in the Jericho area. We employ diagnostic geochemical fingerprinting methods to trace the potential sources of the salinity in (1) the deep confined subaquifer system (K2) of Lower Cenomanian age; (2) the upper subaquifer system (K1) of Upper Cenomanian and Turonian ages; and (3) the shallow aquifer system (Q) of Plio-Pleistocene ages. The chemical composition of the saline ground water from the two Cenomanian subaquifers (K1 and K2) point to a single saline source with Na/Cl approximately 0.5 and Br/Cl approximately 7 x 10(-3). This composition is similar to that of thermal hypersaline spring that are found along the western shore of the Dead Sea (e.g., En Gedi thermal spring). We suggest that the increasing salinity in both K1 and K2 subaquifers is derived from mixing with deep-seated brines that flow through the Rift fault system. The salinization rate depends on the discharge volume of the fresh meteoric water in the Cenomanian Aquifer. In contrast, the chemical composition of ground water from the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer shows a wide range of Cl- (100-2000 mg/L), Na/Cl (0.4-1.0), Br/Cl (2-6 x 10(-3)), and SO4/Cl (0.01-0.4) ratios. These variations, together with the high SO4(2-), K+, and NO3- concentrations, suggest that the salinity in the shallow aquifer is derived from the combination of (1) upconing of deep brines as reflected by low Na/Cl and high Br/Cl ratios; (2) leaching of salts from the Lisan Formation within the Plio-Pleistocene Aquifer, as suggested by the high SO4(2-) concentrations; and (3) anthropogenic contamination of agriculture return flow and sewage effluents with distinctive high K+ (80 mg/L) and NO3- (80 mg

  7. Contribution of water chemistry and fish condition to otolith chemistry: comparisons across salinity environments.

    PubMed

    Izzo, C; Doubleday, Z A; Schultz, A G; Woodcock, S H; Gillanders, B M

    2015-06-01

    This study quantified the per cent contribution of water chemistry to otolith chemistry using enriched stable isotopes of strontium ((86) Sr) and barium ((137) Ba). Euryhaline barramundi Lates calcarifer, were reared in marine (salinity 40), estuarine (salinity 20) and freshwater (salinity 0) under different temperature treatments. To calculate the contribution of water to Sr and Ba in otoliths, enriched isotopes in the tank water and otoliths were quantified and fitted to isotope mixing models. Fulton's K and RNA:DNA were also measured to explore the influence of fish condition on sources of element uptake. Water was the predominant source of otolith Sr (between 65 and 99%) and Ba (between 64 and 89%) in all treatments, but contributions varied with temperature (for Ba), or interactively with temperature and salinity (for Sr). Fish condition indices were affected independently by the experimental rearing conditions, as RNA:DNA differed significantly among salinity treatments and Fulton's K was significantly different between temperature treatments. Regression analyses did not detect relations between fish condition and per cent contribution values. General linear models indicated that contributions from water chemistry to otolith chemistry were primarily influenced by temperature and secondly by fish condition, with a relatively minor influence of salinity. These results further the understanding of factors that affect otolith element uptake, highlighting the necessity to consider the influence of environment and fish condition when interpreting otolith element data to reconstruct the environmental histories of fish. PMID:26033292

  8. Modeling the effects of different irrigation water salinity on soil water movement, uptake and multicomponent solute transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lekakis, E. H.; Antonopoulos, V. Z.

    2015-11-01

    Simulation models can be important tools for analyzing and managing irrigation, soil salinization or crop production problems. In this study a mathematical model that describes the water movement and mass transport of individual ions (Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+) and overall soil salinity by means of the soil solution electrical conductivity, is used. The mass transport equations of Ca2+, Mg2+ and Na+ have been incorporated as part of the integrated model WANISIM and the soil salinity was computed as the sum of individual ions. The model was calibrated and validated against field data, collected during a three year experiment in plots of maize, irrigated with three different irrigation water qualities, at Thessaloniki area in Northern Greece. The model was also used to evaluate salinization and sodification hazards by the use of irrigation water with increasing electrical conductivity of 0.8, 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1, while maintaining a ratio of Ca2+:Mg2+:Na+ equal to 3:3:2. The qualitative and quantitative procedures for results evaluation showed that there was good agreement between the simulated and measured values of the water content, overall salinity and the concentration of individual soluble cations, at two soil layers (0-35 and 35-75 cm). Nutrient uptake was also taken into account. Locally available irrigation water (ECiw = 0.8 dS m-1) did not cause soil salinization or sodification. On the other hand, irrigation water with ECiw equal to 3.2 and 6.4 dS m-1 caused severe soil salinization, but not sodification. The rainfall water during the winter seasons was not sufficient to leach salts below the soil profile of 110 cm. The modified version of model WANISIM is able to predict the effects of irrigation with saline waters on soil and plant growth and it is suitable for irrigation management in areas with scarce and low quality water resources.

  9. Assessment of spatial and temporal patterns of green and blue water flows under natural conditions in inland river basins in Northwest China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zang, C. F.; Liu, J.; van der Velde, M.; Kraxner, F.

    2012-08-01

    In arid and semi-arid regions freshwater resources have become scarcer with increasing demands from socio-economic development and population growth. Until recently, water research and management has mainly focused on blue water but ignored green water. Furthermore, in data poor regions hydrological flows under natural conditions are poorly characterised but are a prerequisite to inform future water resources management. Here we report on spatial and temporal patterns of both blue and green water flows that can be expected under natural conditions as simulated by the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for the Heihe river basin, the second largest inland river basin in Northwest China. Calibration and validation at two hydrological stations show good performance of the SWAT model in modelling hydrological processes. The total green and blue water flows were 22.05-25.51 billion m3 in the 2000s for the Heihe river basin. Blue water flows are larger in upstream sub-basins than in downstream sub-basins mainly due to high precipitation and a large amount of snow and melting water in upstream. Green water flows are distributed more homogeneously among different sub-basins. The green water coefficient was 87%-89% in the 2000s for the entire river basin, varying from around 80%-90% in up- and mid-stream sub-basins to above 90% in downstream sub-basins. This is much higher than reported green water coefficients in many other river basins. The spatial patterns of green water coefficients were closely linked to dominant land covers (e.g. snow cover upstream and desert downstream) and climate conditions (e.g. high precipitation upstream and low precipitation downstream). There are no clear consistent historical trends of change in green and blue water flows and the green water coefficient at both the river basin and sub-basin levels. This study provides insights into green and blue water endowments under natural conditions for the entire Heihe river basin at the sub

  10. Mass exchange between mobile fresh water and immobile saline water in the unsaturated zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gvirtzman, Haim; Paldor, Nathan; Magaritz, Mordeckai; Bachmat, Yehuda

    1988-10-01

    A profile of tritium concentrations measured in the unsaturated zone in loessial sediments in a semiarid area is interpreted in terms of mobile and immobile water domains, according to a nonequilibrium transport model. The mobile domain is represented by percolating freshwater from both rain and irrigation, and the immobile one is represented by isolated fossil saline water pockets. The two domains are connected by partially saturated narrow passages within dispersed clay minerals. The transport of the mobile water is described by convective-dispersive flow and by mass exchange between the two water domains. The relevant equations with the given initial and boundary conditions are solved numerically, and the simulated profile is adjusted to fit the measured one. In this study we concentrate on examination of the mass exchange law between the two domains. It was assumed that matrix characteristics vary in time due to the dispersion of clays at the interface between fresh and saline waters. Accordingly, a time-dependent mass exchange was adopted, which made it possible to obtain an adequate reconstruction of the measured tritium profile. By using a least squares optimization procedure it was found that the best fit between the simulated and measured profiles is attained when the fraction of mobile water is 30%, and the rate of mass exchange decreases from 0.60 to 0.01 year-1 in 26 years. The proposed model implies is that it is the immobile water domain which contains the memory of the "high tritium period" (thermonuclear tests period) of the 1960s.

  11. Salinization and Saline Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vengosh, A.

    2003-12-01

    One of the most conspicuous phenomena of water-quality degradation, particularly in arid and semi-arid zones, is salinization of water and soil resources. Salinization is a long-term phenomenon, and during the last century many aquifers and river basins have become unsuitable for human consumption owing to high levels of salinity. Future exploitation of thousands of wells in the Middle East and in many other water-scarce regions in the world depends, to a large extent, on the degree and rate of salinization. Moreover, every year a large fraction of agricultural land is salinized and becomes unusable.Salinization is a global environmental phenomenon that affects many different aspects of our life (Williams, 2001a, b): changing the chemical composition of natural water resources (lakes, rivers, and groundwater), degrading the quality of water supply to the domestic and agriculture sectors, contribution to loss of biodiversity, taxonomic replacement by halotolerant species ( Williams, 2001a, b), loss of fertile soil, collapse of agricultural and fishery industries, changing of local climatic conditions, and creating severe health problems (e.g., the Aral Basin). The damage due to salinity in the Colorado River Basin alone, for example, ranges between 500 and 750 million per year and could exceed 1 billion per year if the salinity in the Imperial Dam increases from 700 mg L-1 to 900 mg L-1 (Bureau of Reclamation, 2003, USA). In Australia, accelerating soil salinization has become a massive environmental and economic disaster. Western Australia is "losing an area equal to one football oval an hour" due to spreading salinity ( Murphy, 1999). The annual cost for dryland salinity in Australia is estimated as AU700 million for lost land and AU$130 million for lost production ( Williams et al., 2002). In short, the salinization process has become pervasive.Salinity in water is usually defined by the chloride content (mg L-1) or total dissolved solids content (TDS, mg L-1or g

  12. Salinity Effects on Water Potential Components and Bulk Elastic Modulus of Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. 1

    PubMed Central

    Bolaños, Jorge A.; Longstreth, David J.

    1984-01-01

    Pressure volume curves for Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart.) Griseb. (alligator weed) grown in 0 to 400 millimolar NaCl were used to determine water potential (Ψ), osmotic potential (ψs), turgor potential (ψp) and the bulk elastic modulus (ε) of shoots at different tissue water contents. Values of ψs decreased with increasing salinity and tissue Ψ was always lower than rhizosphere Ψ. The relationship between ψp and tissue water content changed because ε increased with salinity. As a result, salt-stressed plants had larger ranges of positive turgor but smaller ranges of tissue water content over which ψp was positive. To our knowledge, this is the first report of such a salinity effect on ε in higher plants. These increases in ε with salinity provided a mechanism by which a large difference between plant Ψ and rhizosphere Ψ, the driving force for water uptake, could be produced with relatively little water loss by the plant. A time-course study of response after salinization to 400 millimolar NaCl showed Ψ was constant within 1 day, ψs and ψp continued to change for 2 to 4 days, and ε continued to change for 4 to 12 days. Changes in ε modified the capacity of alligator weed to maintain a positive water balance and consideration of such changes in other species of higher plants should improve our understanding of salt stress. PMID:16663611

  13. Calibration and validation of a modified steady-state model of crop response to saline water irrigation under conditions of transient root zone salinity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinten, A. J. A.; Frenkel, H.; Shalhevet, J.; Elston, D. A.

    1991-01-01

    In many situations where annual crops are irrigated with saline water, root zone salinity does not reach a steady state. Use of a steady-state description of root zone salinity may then seriously overestimate the calculated leaching requirements of the crop. A steady-state semi-emphirical model of crop response to irrigation with saline water has been calibrated using data from a number of field experiments. Predictions of yield deficit resulting from irrigation with saline water have been made for each of these experiments, using both the original model and a modified version which allows for the non-steady-state salinity conditions occurring in the experiments. Comparison with experimental data shows a clear superiority of the modified version in most cases studied. Where the original model is superior or equally good, it is likely that steady-state conditions are being approached. Where root zone salinity data were available and applicable, the modified model predicted root zone salinity much better. Approaches for distinguishing errors in calibration from intrinsic errors in the model assumptions are discussed.

  14. Localized hyper saline waters in Arabian Gulf from desalination activity--an example from South Kuwait.

    PubMed

    Uddin, Saif; Al Ghadban, Abdul Nabi; Khabbaz, Ahmed

    2011-10-01

    Desalination is the only means of reliable water supply in most of the Arabian Gulf States including Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Bahrain, Qatar, and United Arab Emirates. Huge desalination capacities are installed on the western margin of the Arabian Gulf contributing to increased salinity off the coast. This paper presents long term salinity observation made near outfall of Az Zour Power and Desalination Plant in South Kuwait. The salinity values peak at around 50 ppt at observation station located in open gulf around 5 km from the outfall of the power and desalination plant. The observation highlights the stress on the local marine environment continued incremental salinity can impair the marine biodiversity in the area. The study suggests that a stringent post construction and operational offshore water quality assessment can help in early detection of potentially complex environmental issues. PMID:21213041

  15. Interannual salinity variability of the Northern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ang; Yu, Fei; Diao, Xinyuan

    2015-05-01

    This paper discusses the interannual variability of the Northern Yellow Sea Cold Water Mass (NYSCWM) and the factors that influence it, based on survey data from the 1976-2006 national standard section and the Korea Oceanographic Data Center, monthly E-P flux data from the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, and meridional wind speed data from the International Comprehensive Ocean-Atmosphere Data Set. The results show that: 1) the mean salinity of the NYSCWM center has a slightly decreasing trend, which is not consistent with the high salinity center; 2) both the southern salinity front and the halocline of the NYSCWM display a weakening trend, which indicates that the difference between the NYSCWM and coastal water decreases; 3) the Yellow Sea Warm Current intrusion, the E-P flux of the northern Yellow Sea, and the strength of the winter monsoon will affect the NYSCWM salinity during the following summer.

  16. Effect of Salinity on Leaf Gas Exchange in Two Populations of a C4 Nonhalophyte 1

    PubMed Central

    Bowman, William D.

    1987-01-01

    Gas exchange measurements were made on plants from two natural populations differing in salt tolerance of Andropogon glomeratus, a C4 nonhalophyte, to examine the effect of salinity on components responsible for differences in photosynthetic capacity. Net CO2 uptake and stomatal conductance decreased with increasing salinity in both populations, but to a greater extent in the inland (nontolerant) population. The intercellular CO2 concentrations increased with increasing salinity in the inland population, but decreased in the marsh (tolerant) population. Water use efficiency decreased as salinity increased in the inland population, and remained unchanged in the marsh population. Carboxylation efficiency decreased and CO2 compensation points increased with increasing salinity in both populations, but to a lesser extent in the marsh population. Carboxylation efficiencies were higher with 2% relative to 21% atmospheric O2 in salt stressed plants, suggesting that a decrease in the carboxylation:oxygenation ratio of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase was partly responsible for the decrease in photosynthetic capacity. Populational differences in photosynthetic capacity were the result of greater salinity-induced changes in carboxylation efficiency in the inland population, and not due to differences in the stomatal limitation to CO2 diffusion. PMID:16665802

  17. Where the waters meet: sharing ideas and experiences between inland and marine realms to promote sustainable fisheries management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cooke, Steven J.; Arlinghaus, Robert; Bartley, Devin M.; Beard, T. Douglas, Jr.; Cowx, Ian G.; Essington, Timothy E.; Jensen, Olaf P.; Lynch, Abigail J.; Taylor, William W.; Watson, Reg

    2014-01-01

    Although inland and marine environments, their fisheries, fishery managers, and the realm-specific management approaches are often different, there are a surprising number of similarities that frequently go unrecognized. We contend that there is much to be gained by greater cross-fertilization and exchange of ideas and strategies between realms and the people who manage them. The purpose of this paper is to provide examples of the potential or demonstrated benefits of working across aquatic boundaries for enhanced sustainable management of the world’s fisheries resources. Examples include the need to (1) engage in habitat management and protection as the foundation for fisheries, (2) rethink institutional arrangements and management for open-access fisheries systems, (3) establish “reference points” and harvest control rules, (4) engage in integrated management approaches, (5) reap conservation benefits from the link to fish as food, and (6) reframe conservation and management of fish to better engage the public and industry. Cross-fertilization and knowledge transfer between realms could be realized using environment-independent curricula and symposia, joint scientific advisory councils for management, integrated development projects, and cross-realm policy dialogue. Given the interdependence of marine and inland fisheries, promoting discussion between the realms has the potential to promote meaningful advances in managing global fisheries.

  18. Simulation of nutrient and sediment concentrations and loads in the Delaware inland bays watershed: Extension of the hydrologic and water-quality model to ungaged segments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gutierrez-Magness, Angelica L.

    2006-01-01

    Rapid population increases, agriculture, and industrial practices have been identified as important sources of excessive nutrients and sediments in the Delaware Inland Bays watershed. The amount and effect of excessive nutrients and sediments in the Inland Bays watershed have been well documented by the Delaware Geological Survey, the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Estuary Program, the Delaware Center for Inland Bays, the University of Delaware, and other agencies. This documentation and data previously were used to develop a hydrologic and water-quality model of the Delaware Inland Bays watershed to simulate nutrients and sediment concentrations and loads, and to calibrate the model by comparing concentrations and streamflow data at six stations in the watershed over a limited period of time (October 1998 through April 2000). Although the model predictions of nutrient and sediment concentrations for the calibrated segments were fairly accurate, the predictions for the 28 ungaged segments located near tidal areas, where stream data were not available, were above the range of values measured in the area. The cooperative study established in 2000 by the Delaware Department of Natural Resources and Environmental Control, the Delaware Geological Survey, and the U.S. Geological Survey was extended to evaluate the model predictions in ungaged segments and to ensure that the model, developed as a planning and management tool, could accurately predict nutrient and sediment concentrations within the measured range of values in the area. The evaluation of the predictions was limited to the period of calibration (1999) of the 2003 model. To develop estimates on ungaged watersheds, parameter values from calibrated segments are transferred to the ungaged segments; however, accurate predictions are unlikely where parameter transference is subject to error. The unexpected nutrient and

  19. The effect of water salinity on wood breakdown in semiarid Mediterranean streams.

    PubMed

    Gómez, Rosa; Asencio, Antonia Dolores; Picón, José María; Del Campo, Rubén; Arce, María Isabel; del Mar Sánchez-Montoya, María; Suárez, María Luisa; Vidal-Abarca, María Rosario

    2016-01-15

    Saline streams occur naturally and they are distributed worldwide, particularly in arid and semiarid regions, but human activities have also increased their number in many parts of the world. Little attention has been paid to assess increasing salt effects on organic matter decomposition. The objectives of this study were to analyse wood breakdown rates and how salinity affects them in 14 streams that exemplify a natural salinity gradient. We also analysed the effect of this gradient on changes in wood chemical composition, fungal biomass and microbial activity. Our results showed low breakdown rates (0.0010-0.0032 d(-1)), but they fell within the same range as those reported in freshwater streams when a similar woody substrate was used. However, salinity had a negative effect on the breakdown rates and fungal biomass along the salinity gradient, and led to noticeable changes in wood composition. Water salinity did not affect microbial activity estimated using hydrolysis of fluorescein diacetate. Variation in breakdown rates and fungal biomass across streams was mediated mainly by salinity, and later by stream discharge. Despite the role of fungi in stick breakdown, the potential wood abrasion by salts must be analysed in detail to accurately understand the effect of increasing salinity on organic matter breakdown. Finally, our results indicate that increased salinity worldwide by human activities or by the global warming would imply organic matter breakdown and mineralisation slowing down, even in natural saline streams. However, because many variables are implicated, the final effect of climatic change on organic matter decomposition in streams is difficult to predict. PMID:26410723

  20. Biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England: Implications for saline lagoons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joyce, Chris B.; Vina-Herbon, Cristina; Metcalfe, Daniel J.

    2005-12-01

    Coastal water bodies are a heterogeneous resource typified by high spatial and temporal variability and threatened by anthropogenic impacts. This includes saline lagoons, which support a specialist biota and are a priority habitat for nature conservation. This paper describes the biotic variation in coastal water bodies in Sussex, England, in order to characterise the distinctiveness of the saline lagoon community and elucidate environmental factors that determine its distribution. Twenty-eight coastal water bodies were surveyed for their aquatic flora and invertebrate fauna and a suite of exploratory environmental variables compiled. Ordination and cluster analyses were used to examine patterns in community composition and relate these to environmental parameters. Biotic variation in the coastal water body resource was high. Salinity was the main environmental parameter explaining the regional distribution of taxa; freshwater and saline assemblages were evident and related to sea water ingress. Freshwater sites were indicated by the plant Myriophyllum spicatum and gastropod mollusc Lymnaea peregra, while more saline communities supported marine and brackish water taxa, notably a range of chlorophytic algae and the bivalve mollusc Cerastoderma glaucum. Site community differences were also related to bank slope and parameters describing habitat heterogeneity. A saline lagoon community was discerned within the matrix of biotic variation consisting of specialist lagoonal species with associated typically euryhaline taxa. For fauna, the latter were the molluscs Abra tenuis and Hydrobia ulvae, and the crustaceans Corophium volutator and Palaemonetes varians, and for flora they were the algae Ulva lactuca, Chaetomorpha mediterranea, Cladophora spp. and Enteromorpha intestinalis. One non-native polychaete species, Ficopomatus enigmaticus, also strongly influenced community structure within the lagoonal resource. The community was not well defined as specialist and

  1. Brazilian inland water bio-optical dataset to support carbon budget studies in reservoirs as well as anthropogenic impacts in Amazon floodplain lakes: Preliminary results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barbosa, C.; Novo, E.; Ferreira, R.; Carvalho, L.; Cairo, C.; Lopes, F.; Stech, J.; Alcantara, E.

    2015-04-01

    This work presents ongoing efforts and preliminary results for building a dataset that represents the first and most comprehensive bio-optical information available on Brazilian inland waters to support the development of remote sensing algorithms for monitoring aquatic systems. From 2012 to 2014 optical and limnological data was gathered along thirteen field campaigns in five Brazilian reservoirs, in an irrigation and domestic water supply reservoir located in semi-arid northeast of the country and in Amazonian floodplain lakes, thus covering the diversity of Brazilian inland waters. At each site 20 stations, on average, were sampled to acquire profiles of the following optical variables: absorption, attenuation, scattering, and backscattering coefficients and radiances/irradiances spectra above and in-water. Alongside these measurements, water samples were collected for determining concentrations of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), Total Suspended Solid (TSS), Total Dissolved Carbon (TDC) and its organic/inorganic fractions, CDOM absorption, phytoplankton specific absorption [aph*] and Non-Algal Particles absorption [aNAP*]. Preliminary results show that Chl-a concentrations ranged from 0.6 to 243μg/L in reservoirs and 0.90 to 92μg/L in Amazonian lakes, while TSS concentrations ranged from 0.3 to 31mg/L in reservoirs and 0.5 to 162mg/L in Amazonian lakes. In situ beam attenuation coefficients ranged from 1.4 to 16m-1 in reservoirs and 12.5 to 38m-1 in Amazonian lakes, while diffuse attenuation coefficients of downwelling irradiance over the Photosynthetically Active Radiation (Kd(PAR)) extended from 0.35 to 4.5m-1 in reservoirs and 1.69 to 13.30m-1 in Amazonian lakes. Our research group is building this dataset anticipating future demands for algorithm validation regarding OLI/Landsat8 data and ESA Sentinel missions to be launched as of 2015.

  2. An overview of soil water sensors for salinity & irrigation management

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irrigation water management has to do with the appropriate application of water to soils, in terms of amounts, rates, and timing to satisfy crop water demands while protecting the soil and water resources from degradation. Accurate irrigation management is even more important in salt affected soils ...

  3. Evidence for high salinity of Early Cretaceous sea water from the Chesapeake Bay crater

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanford, Ward E.; Doughten, Michael W.; Coplen, Tyler B.; Hunt, Andrew G.; Bullen, Thomas D.

    2013-11-01

    High-salinity groundwater more than 1,000 metres deep in the Atlantic coastal plain of the USA has been documented in several locations, most recently within the 35-million-year-old Chesapeake Bay impact crater. Suggestions for the origin of increased salinity in the crater have included evaporite dissolution, osmosis and evaporation from heating associated with the bolide impact. Here we present chemical, isotopic and physical evidence that together indicate that groundwater in the Chesapeake crater is remnant Early Cretaceous North Atlantic (ECNA) sea water. We find that the sea water is probably 100-145 million years old and that it has an average salinity of about 70 per mil, which is twice that of modern sea water and consistent with the nearly closed ECNA basin. Previous evidence for temperature and salinity levels of ancient oceans have been estimated indirectly from geochemical, isotopic and palaeontological analyses of solid materials in deep sediment cores. In contrast, our study identifies ancient sea water in situ and provides a direct estimate of its age and salinity. Moreover, we suggest that it is likely that remnants of ECNA sea water persist in deep sediments at many locations along the Atlantic margin.

  4. Retrieval of Wet-Tropospheric Path Delay over Coastal and Inland Water Regions using Wide-band Millimeter-Wave Radiometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bosch-Lluis, Xavier; Gilliam, Kyle L.; Reising, Steven C.; Tanner, Alan B.; Brown, Shannon T.; Kangaslahti, Pekka

    2013-04-01

    Currently, wet-tropospheric path delay measurements over inland water and coastal areas are extremely sparse. They are generally limited to twice-per-day radiosonde launches and a small number of ground-based GPS or radiometer path delay measurements, as well as radar measurements of phase delay to a small number of fixed targets on the ground. Knowledge of the wet-tropospheric path delay is necessary for next-generation high-resolution altimeters, such as the Surface Water and Ocean Topography (SWOT) mission, in formulation and planned for launch in 2020. SWOT has two major science objectives. First, the oceanographic objective is to characterize ocean mesoscale and sub-mesoscale circulation with horizontal resolution of 10 km and order of 1 cm height precision. Second, the hydrological objective is to provide global height measurements of inland surface water bodies with area of greater than 250 square meters and flow rate of rivers with width greater than 100 m. Wet-tropospheric path delay retrieval over coastal and inland-water areas is needed to achieve both of these objectives with sufficient height accuracy. In addition, information on total precipitable water vapor under nearly all weather conditions is needed to improve initialization of numerical weather prediction models. Currently, 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers provide wet-path delay corrections for the Jason series of nadir-viewing altimeters. However, these retrievals are limited to open ocean, and land incursion is unacceptable within 40 km of coastlines. The addition of millimeter-wave radiometers (70-170 GHz) is needed to address this problem by providing smaller surface footprint dimensions proportional to wavelength. In this work, we present a prototype algorithm to demonstrate the potential to retrieve wet-tropospheric path delay from brightness temperatures measured by millimeter-wave radiometers using the Brightness Temperature Deflection Ratio (BTDR) method. The BTDR algorithm retrieves wet

  5. Salinity and Alkaline pH in Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: II. Mineral Ion Relations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Scarcity of water of good quality for landscape irrigation is of outmost importance in arid and semiarid regions due to the competition with urban population. This is forcing the use of degraded waters with high levels of salinity and high pH, which may affect plant establishment and growth. The o...

  6. Inland Flood Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen E.

    2000-07-01

    A comprehensive, interdisciplinary review of issues related to inland flood hazards, this important work addresses physical controls on flooding, flood processes and effects, and responses to flooding, from the perspectives of human, aquatic, and riparian communities. The contributors, recognized experts in their fields, draw on examples and case studies of inland flood hazards from around the world. The volume is unique in that it addresses how the nonoccurrence of floods, in association with flow regulation and other human manipulation of river systems, may create hazards for aquatic and riparian communities. This book will be a valuable resource for all professionals concerned with inland flood hazards.

  7. A new algorithm for retrieval of tropospheric wet path delay over inland water bodies and coastal zones using Brightness Temperature Deflection Ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilliam, Kyle L.

    As part of former and current sea-surface altimetry missions, brightness temperatures measured by nadir-viewing 18-34 GHz microwave radiometers are used to determine apparent path delay due to variations in index of refraction caused by changes in the humidity of the troposphere. This tropospheric wet-path delay can be retrieved from these measurements with sufficient accuracy over open oceans. However, in coastal zones and over inland water the highly variable radiometric emission from land surfaces at microwave frequencies has prevented accurate retrieval of wet-path delay using conventional algorithms. To extend wet path delay corrections into the coastal zone (within 25 km of land) and to inland water bodies, a new method is proposed to correct for tropospheric wet-path delay by using higher-frequency radiometer channels from approximately 50-170 GHz to provide sufficiently small fields of view on the surface. A new approach is introduced based on the variability of observations in several millimeter-wave radiometer channels on small spatial scales due to surface emissivity in contrast to the larger-scale variability in atmospheric absorption. The new technique is based on the measurement of deflection ratios among several radiometric bands to estimate the transmissivity of the atmosphere due to water vapor. To this end, the Brightness Temperature Deflection Ratio (BTDR) method is developed starting from a radiative transfer model for a downward-looking microwave radiometer, and is extended to pairs of frequency channels to retrieve the wet path delay. Then a mapping between the wet transmissivity and wet-path delay is performed using atmospheric absorption models. A frequency selection study is presented to determine the suitability of frequency sets for accurate retrieval of tropospheric wet-path delay, and comparisons are made to frequency sets based on currently-available microwave radiometers. Statistical noise analysis results are presented for a number

  8. Extreme saline water advection into the Don River delta and ice advections into Kerch Strait

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matishov, G. G.

    2015-11-01

    Analysis of such extreme natural phenomena as inflow of saline transformed waters from the Black Sea into the Don River delta, ice drift, and some others, which have been observed in the Sea of Azov in the recent years, is performed. The process and consequences of the ice movement from the Sea of Azov into Kerch Strait under the effect of hurricane-force NE winds is characterized. Data on the salinity and water level changes during the intensive westerly winds are given. The relationship between salinity and water level during episodes of the surges and downsurges is found. Recommendations for organizing the monitoring measures, intended to increase the accuracy of forecasting emergency situations in the Gulf of Taganrog, Sea of Azov, are presented.

  9. Combined effect of boron and salinity on water transport: The role of aquaporins.

    PubMed

    Del Carmen Martínez-Ballesta, Maria; Bastías, Elizabeth; Carvajal, Micaela

    2008-10-01

    Boron toxicity is an important disorder that can limit plant growth on soils of arid and semi arid environments throughout the world. Although there are several reports about the combined effect of salinity and boron toxicity on plant growth and yield, there is no consensus about the experimental results. A general antagonistic relationship between boron excess and salinity has been observed, however the mechanisms for this interaction is not clear and several options can be discussed. In addition, there is no information, concerning the interaction between boron toxicity and salinity with respect to water transport and aquaporins function in the plants. We recently documented in the highly boron- and salt-tolerant the ecotype of Zea mays L. amylacea from Lluta valley in Northern Chile that under salt stress, the activity of specific membrane components can be influenced directly by boron, regulating the water uptake and water transport through the functions of certain aquaporin isoforms. PMID:19704850

  10. Impact of saline water sources on hypertension and cardiovascular disease risk in coastal Bangladesh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butler, Adrian; Hoque, Mohammad; Mathewson, Eleanor; Ahmed, Kazi; Rahman, Moshuir; Vineis, Paolo; Scheelbeek, Pauline

    2016-04-01

    Southern Bangladesh is periodically affected by tropical cyclone induced storm surges. Such events can result in the inundation of large areas of the coastal plain by sea water. Over time these episodic influxes of saline water have led to the build-up of a high of salinities (e.g. > 1,000 mg/l) in the shallow (up to ca. 150 m depth) groundwater. Owing to the highly saline groundwater, local communities have developed alternative surface water sources by constructing artificial drinking water ponds, which collect monsoonal rainwater. These have far greater storage than traditional rainwater harvesting systems, which typically use 40 litre storage containers that are quickly depleted during the dry season. Unfortunately, the ponds can also become salinised during storm surge events, the impacts of which can last for a number of years. A combined hydrological and epidemiological research programme over the past two years has been undertaken to understand the potential health risks associated with these saline water sources, as excessive intake of sodium can lead to hypertension and an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (such as stroke and heart attack). An important aspect of the selected research sites was the variety of drinking water sources available. These included the presence of managed aquifer recharge sites where monsoonal rainwater is stored in near-surface (semi-)confined aquifers for abstraction during the dry season. This provided an opportunity for the effects of interventions with lower salinity sources to be assessed. Adjusting for confounding factors such as age, gender and diet, the results show a significant association between salinity and blood pressure. Furthermore, the results also showed such impacts are reversible. In order to evaluate the costs and benefits of such interventions, a water salinity - dose impact model is being developed to assess the effectiveness of alternative drinking water sources, such as enhanced rainwater